WorldWideScience

Sample records for swiss 3t3 cells

  1. Characterization of a bombesin receptor on Swiss mouse 3T3 cells by affinity cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnett-Smith, J.; Zachary, I.; Rozengurt, E.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously identified by chemical cross-linking a cell surface protein in Swiss 3T3 cells of apparent Mr 75,000-85,000, which may represent a major component of the receptor for peptides of the bombesin family in these cells. Because bombesin-like peptides may interact with other cell surface molecules, it was important to establish the correlation between receptor binding and functions of this complex and further characterize the Mr 75,000-85,000 cross-linked protein. Detailed time courses carried out at different temperatures demonstrated that the Mr 75,000-85,000 affinity-labelled band was the earliest cross-linked complex detected in Swiss 3T3 cells incubated with 125I-labelled gastrin-releasing peptide (125I-GRP). Furthermore, the ability of various nonradioactive bombesin agonists and antagonists to block the formation of the Mr 75,000-85,000 cross-linked complex correlated extremely well (r = 0.994) with the relative capacity of these peptides to inhibit 125I-GRP specific binding. Pretreatment with unlabelled GRP for up to 6 h caused only a slight decrease in both specific 125I-GRP binding and the affinity labelling of the Mr 75,000-85,000 protein. We also show that the cross-linked complex is a glycoprotein. First, solubilized affinity labelled Mr 75,000-85,000 complex applied to wheat germ lectin-sepharose columns was eluted by addition of 0.3 M N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Second, treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase F reduced the apparent molecular weight of the affinity-labelled band from 75,000-85,000 to 43,000, indicating the presence of N-linked oligosaccharide groups

  2. Modification of heterotrimeric G-proteins in Swiss 3T3 cells stimulated with Pasteurella multocida toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Babb

    Full Text Available Many bacterial toxins covalently modify components of eukaryotic signalling pathways in a highly specific manner, and can be used as powerful tools to decipher the function of their molecular target(s. The Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT mediates its cellular effects through the activation of members of three of the four heterotrimeric G-protein families, G(q, G(12 and G(i. PMT has been shown by others to lead to the deamidation of recombinant Gα(i at Gln-205 to inhibit its intrinsic GTPase activity. We have investigated modification of native Gα subunits mediated by PMT in Swiss 3T3 cells using 2-D gel electrophoresis and antibody detection. An acidic change in the isoelectric point was observed for the Gα subunit of the G(q and G(i families following PMT treatment of Swiss 3T3 cells, which is consistent with the deamidation of these Gα subunits. Surprisingly, PMT also induced a similar modification of Gα(11, a member of the G(q family of G-proteins that is not activated by PMT. Furthermore, an alkaline change in the isoelectric point of Gα(13 was observed following PMT treatment of cells, suggesting differential modification of this Gα subunit by PMT. G(s was not affected by PMT treatment. Prolonged treatment with PMT led to a reduction in membrane-associated Gα(i, but not Gα(q. We also show that PMT inhibits the GTPase activity of G(q.

  3. 31P NMR analysis of intracellular pH of Swiss Mouse 3T3 cells: effects of extracellular Na+ and K+ and mitogenic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civan, M M; Williams, S R; Gadian, D G; Rozengurt, E

    1986-01-01

    Swiss mouse 3T3 cells grown on microcarrier beads were superfused with electrolyte solution during continuous NMR analysis. Conventional 31P and 19F probes of intracellular pH (pHc) were found to be impracticable. Cells were therefore superfused with 1 to 4 mM 2-deoxyglucose, producing a large intracellular, pH-sensitive signal of 2-deoxyglucose phosphate (2DGP). The intracellular incorporation of 2DGP inhibited the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. However, intracellular ATP was at least in part retained and the cellular responsivity to changes in extracellular ionic composition and to the application of growth factors proved intact. Transient replacement of external Na+ with choline or K+ reversibly acidified the intracellular fluids. Quiescent cells and mitogenically stimulated cells displayed the same dependence of shifts in pHc on external Na+ concentration (CoNa). PHc also depended on intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa). Increasing ccNa by withdrawing external K+ (thereby inhibiting the Na,K-pump) caused reversible intracellular acidification; subsequently reducing CoNa produced a larger acid shift in pHc than with external K+ present. Comparison of separate preparations indicated that pHc was higher in stimulated than in quiescent cells. Transient administration of mitogens also reversibly alkalinized quiescent cells studied continuously. This study documents the feasibility of monitoring pHc of Swiss mouse 3T3 cells using 31P NMR analysis of 2DGP. The results support the concept of a Na/H antiport operative in these cells, both in quiescence and after mitogenic stimulation. The data document by an independent technique that cytoplasmic alkalinization is an early event in mitogenesis, and that full activity of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway is not required for the expression of this event.

  4. Early events elicited by Bombesin and structurally related peptides in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. I. Activation of protein kinase C and inhibition of epidermal growth factor binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachary, I.; Sinnett-Smith, J.W.; Rozengurt, E.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of bombesin to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells caused a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of an M/sub r/ 80,000 cellular protein (designated 80k). The effect was both concentration and time dependent. The 80k phosphoproteins generated in response to bombesin and to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate were identical as judged by one- and two-dimensional PAGE and by peptide mapping after partial proteolysis with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. In addition, prolonged pretreatment of 3T3 cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, which leads to the disappearance of protein kinase C activity, blocked the ability of bombesin to stimulate 80k. Bombesin also caused a rapid (1 min) inhibition of 125 I-labeled epidermal growth factor ( 125 I-EGF) binding to Swiss 3T3 cells. The inhibition was both concentration and temperature dependent and resulted from a marked decrease in the affinity of the EGF receptor for its ligand. These results strongly suggest that these responses are mediated by specific high-affinity receptors that recognize the peptides of the bombesin family in Swiss 3T3 cells. While an increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration does not mediate the bombesin inhibition of 125 I-EGF binding, the activation of protein kinase C in intact Swiss 3T3 cells by peptides of the bombesin family may lead to rapid inhibition of the binding of 125 I-EGF to its cellular receptor

  5. Insulin-like synergistic stimulation of DNA synthesis in Swiss 3T3 cells by the BSC-1 cell-derived growth inhibitor related to transforming growth factor type β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.D.; Holley, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A cell growth inhibitor (GI), purified from BSC-1 cell-conditioned medium, has little if any effect on DNA synthesis when added alone to monolayer cultures of quiescent Swiss mouse 3T3 cells in serum-free medium. However, the inhibitor, which is closely related to transforming growth factor type β (TGF-β), exhibits a pronounced synergistic stimulation of DNA synthesis in combination with certain peptide (bombesin, vasopressin) or polypeptide (platelet-derived growth factor) mitogens. 125 I-EGF binding was measured and the efflux of 45 Ca 2+ was measured in response to mitogen stimulation. A similar synergistic response has been demonstrated for TGF-β purified from human platelets. In the presence of 3 nM bombesin, a half-maximal stimulation of DNA synthesis was obtained at a GI concentration of approximately 60 pg/ml, with a maximal response at approximately 600 pg/ml. The synergistic interactions demonstrated by GI or TGF-β in stimulating Swiss 3T3 cells closely resemble those previously shown for insulin, and the authors have observed that GI does not synergize with insulin to stimulate DNA synthesis in these cells. Like insulin, and in contrast to bombesin, vasopressin, and platelet-derived growth factor, GI does not activate cellular inositolphospholipid hydrolysis, calcium mobilization, or cross-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor affinity. These results raise the possibility that the biochemical pathways activated by GI/TGF-β and insulin converge at a post-receptor stage

  6. Early events elicited by bombesin and structurally related peptides in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. I. Activation of protein kinase C and inhibition of epidermal growth factor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, I; Sinnett-Smith, J W; Rozengurt, E

    1986-06-01

    Addition of bombesin to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells caused a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of an Mr 80,000 cellular protein (designated 80k). The effect was both concentration and time dependent; enhancement in 80k phosphorylation could be detected as early as 10 s after the addition of peptide. Recently, a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of an 80k cellular protein after treatment with phorbol esters or diacylglycerol has been shown to reflect the activation of protein kinase C in intact fibroblasts (Rozengurt, E., A. Rodriguez-Pena, and K. A. Smith, 1983, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 80:7244-7248; Rozengurt, E., A. Rodriguez-Pena, M. Coombs, and J. Sinnett-Smith, 1984, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 81:5748-5752). The 80k phosphoproteins generated in response to bombesin and to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate were identical as judged by one- and two-dimensional PAGE and by peptide mapping after partial proteolysis with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. In addition, prolonged pretreatment of 3T3 cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, which leads to the disappearance of protein kinase C activity, blocked the ability of bombesin to stimulate 80k. Bombesin also caused a rapid (1 min) inhibition of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor (125I-EGF) binding to Swiss 3T3 cells. The inhibition was both concentration and temperature dependent and resulted from a marked decrease in the affinity of the EGF receptor for its ligand. Peptides structurally related to bombesin, including gastrin-releasing peptide, also stimulated 80k phosphorylation and inhibited 125I-EGF binding; both effects were selectively blocked by a novel bombesin antagonist. These results strongly suggest that these responses are mediated by specific high-affinity receptors that recognize the peptides of the bombesin family in Swiss 3T3 cells. While an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration does not mediate the bombesin inhibition of 125I-EGF binding, the activation of protein kinase C in

  7. Early events elicited by bombesin and structurally related peptides in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. II. Changes in Na+ and Ca2+ fluxes, Na+/K+ pump activity, and intracellular pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, S.A.; Schneider, J.A.; Lopez-Rivas, A.; Sinnett-Smith, J.W.; Rozengurt, E.

    1986-01-01

    The amphibian tetradecapeptide, bombesin, and structurally related peptides caused a marked increase in ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake (a measure of Na + /K + pump activity) in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. This effect occurred within seconds after the addition of the peptide and appeared to be mediated by an increase in Na + entry into the cells. The effect of bombesin on Na + entry and Na + /K + pump activity was concentration dependent with half-maximal stimulation occurring at 0.3-0.4 nM. The structurally related peptides litorin, gastrin-releasing peptide, and neuromedin B also stimulated ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake; the relative potencies of these peptides in stimulating the Na + /K + pump were comparable to their potencies in increasing DNA synthesis. Bombesin increased Na + influx, at least in part, through an Na + /H + antiport. The peptide augmented intracellular pH and this effect was abolished in the absence of extracellular Na + . In addition to monovalent ion transport, bombesin and the structurally related peptides rapidly increased the efflux of 45 Ca 2+ from quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. This Ca 2+ came from an intracellular pool and the efflux was associated with a 50% decrease in total intracellular Ca 2+ . The peptides also caused a rapid increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration. Prolonged pretreatment of Swiss 3T3 cells with phorbol dibutyrate, which causes a loss of protein kinase C activity, greatly decreased the stimulation of 86 Rb + uptake and Na + entry by bombesin implicating this phosphotransferase system in the mediation of part of these responses to bombesin. Since some activation of monovalent ion transport by bombesin was seen in phorbol dibutyrate-pretreated cells, it is likely that the peptide also stimulates monovalent ion transport by a second mechanism

  8. Isolation of 1-monomethylphosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [a product of methanolysis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate] from Swiss mouse 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, D.L.; Bross, T.E.; Majerus, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    We have noted two previously undescribed inositol polyphosphates in neutral methanol extracts from Swiss mouse 3T3 cells that were grown in [ 3 H]inositol and stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor. They have been identified as 1-monomethylphosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and 1-monomethylphosphoinositol 4-phosphate by comparison to a synthesized standard using HPLC chromatography, paper electrophoresis, and enzymatic dephosphorylation with inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphomonoesterase and intestinal alkaline phosphatase. We propose that these compounds are formed by methanolysis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4-bisphosphate present in the cells. Inositol cyclic phosphates did not react with neutral methanol in the absence of the cells, which are required for the methanolysis reaction. These findings suggest a role for inositol cyclic phosphates as reactive compounds that are added to as yet unidentified cellular acceptors

  9. Inhibitory effect of juniperonic acid (Delta-5c,11c,14c,17c-20:4, omega-3) on bombesin-induced proliferation of Swiss 3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishige, Jun-ichi; Amano, Naoki; Hirano, Kaoru; Nishio, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Satouchi, Kiyoshi

    2008-09-01

    Juniperonic acid (Delta-5c,11c,14c,17c-20:4, JA) is a polymethylene-interrupted (PMI) fatty acid that occurs in Biota orientalis. In this study, we found that JA has an antiproliferative activity. Swiss 3T3 cells were preloaded with fatty acids before stimulation with bombesin, a mitogenic neuropeptide, and proliferation of the cells was assessed by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. Preloading of linoleic acid (Delta-9c,12c-18:2) significantly enhanced bombesin-induced proliferation. In contrast, preloading of eicosapentaenoic acid (Delta-5c,8c,11c,14c,17c-20:5, EPA) suppressed proliferation. Likewise, cells preloaded with JA showed a significantly curtailed response to bombesin. The antiproliferative potency of JA was equivalent to that of EPA. Sciadonic acid (Delta-5c,11c,14c-20:3), an omega-6 analogue of JA did not show antiproliferative activity, suggesting the importance of the omega-3 double bond rather than the PMI structure. The EPA-like activity of JA may be involved in the pharmaceutical activity of biota seeds, a psychoactive Chinese traditional medicine.

  10. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Fukushima, Nobuyuki [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • LPA{sub 5} inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA{sub 5} suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA{sub 5} on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA{sub 1} in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA{sub 5} in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA{sub 5} acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA{sub 1}–LPA{sub 6}) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA{sub 1} inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA{sub 5} in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 5} on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA{sub 5} may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA{sub 1}.

  11. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • LPA 5 inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA 5 suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA 5 on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA 1 in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA 5 in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA 5 acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA 1 –LPA 6 ) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA 1 inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA 5 in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA 1 and LPA 5 on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA 5 may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA 1

  12. Stimulation of protein phosphatase activity by insulin and growth factors in 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.P.; McNall, S.J.; Krebs, E.G.; Fischer, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    Incubation of Swiss mouse 3T3-D1 cells with physiological concentrations of insulin resulted in a rapid and transient activation of protein phosphatase activity as measure by using [ 32 P]phosphorylase α as substrate. Activation reached a maximum level (140% of control value) within 5 min of addition and returned to control levels within 20 min. The effect of insulin was dose-dependent with half-maximal activation occurring at ∼5 nM insulin. This activity could be completely inhibited by addition of the heat-stable protein inhibitor 2, which suggests the presence of an activated type-1 phosphatase. Similar effects on phosphatase activity were seen when epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor were tested. These results suggest that some of the intracellular effects caused by insulin and growth factors are mediated through the activation of a protein phosphatase

  13. Mechanisms of vitamin K transport and metabolism in Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfield, L.M.; Townsend, A.F.; Hibbs, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    Transport of vitamin K into isolated fibroblasts was followed using 3 H vitamin K 1 . The initial rate is saturable by 5 min. at 25μM vitamin K with a Km(app) of 10μM and V/sub max/ of 50 pmols/min/10 6 cells. Kinetics of uptake are biphasic with a second slower rate ensuing after 10 minutes. Insensitivity of the initial rate of uptake to FCCP or ouabain indicates an ATP-independent transport mechanism. Specificity of transport is shown by competition of uptake of 3 H vitamin K by unlabelled vitamin and strong (>90%) inhibition of the initial rate by equimolar concentrations of the vitamin K analog, Chloro-K. In addition, following uptake, both vitamins K 1 and K 2 are metabolized to their respective epoxides. Vitamin K 1 epoxide is also transported into fibroblasts and metabolized to the parent quinone in a Warfarin-sensitive reaction. Following alkaline hydrolysis of isolated intracellular protein, the vitamin K-dependent amino acid, gamma carboxyglutamic acid (gla) was detected. It is concluded that vitamin K is specifically transported into fibroblasts and metabolized via the classical pathway described in liver with the concomitant production of vitamin K-dependent proteins

  14. Cardamom extract induces cell proliferation by increasing potassium currents in NIH3T3 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Sonia; Hassan, Sohail; Imran, Sumaira; Khan, Faisal; Ahmed, Faheem; Dar, Asim

    2017-11-01

    Amommum subulatum (Roxb.) or Cardamom extract is known to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects towards many gastrointestinal related problems. However, uptill now different fractions of cardamom extract on fibroblasts with respect to potassium channel activity have not been investigated. Therefore, present study investigated the effects of different fractions of cardamom extract on potassium channels in non-tumor NIH3T3 cell line. Phytochemical analysis of hydroalcoholic, n-hexane, butane and ethyl acetate fractions of cardamom extracts were purified and isolated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). 3T3 cells were cultured and incubated with hydroalcohol (1-2 μ/ml), n-hexane (1 μ/ml), butane (2 μ/ml) and ethyl acetate (1-2 μ/ml) for 5 hrs at 37°C. Modulation in potassium currents were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp method. The data showed two constituents Cineol (C 10 H 18 O) and Terpinyl acetate (C10H17OOCCH3) by TLC method. The present study shows that the constituents in n-hexane, hydro alcohol (1 μ/ml) and ethyl acetate (2 μ/ml) significantly increased (p<0.01) the potassium outward rectifying currents from NIH3T3 cells when compared to untreated controls cells. Whereas, butanol fraction (2 μ/ml) significantly decreased (p<0.01) the inward rectifying currents when compared to controls. Moreover hydroalcoholic and n-hexane fractions have increased the proliferation in 3T3 cell line. On the other hand butanol and ethyl acetate did not induce proliferation in 3T3 cells. Taken together, our data suggested that cardamom extract contains constituents that increased K+ currents, cell migration and proliferation and are involved in wound healing.

  15. Protein turnover and cellular autophagy in growing and growth-inhibited 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, T.; Pfeifer, U. (Univ. of Wuerzburg (West Germany))

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between growth, protein degradation, and cellular autophagy was tested in growing and in growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers. For the biochemical evaluation of DNA and protein metabolism, growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers with high cell density and growing 3T3 cell monolayers with low cell density were labeled simultaneously with ({sup 14}C)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)leucine. The evaluation of the DNA turnover and additional ({sup 3}H)thymidine autoradiography showed that 24 to 5% of 3T3 cells continue to replicate even in the growth-inhibited state, where no accumulation of protein and DNA can be observed. Cell loss, therefore, has to be assumed to compensate for the ongoing cell proliferation. When the data of protein turnover were corrected for cell loss, it was found that the rate constant of protein synthesis in nongrowing monolayers was reduced to half the value found in growing monolayers. Simultaneously, the rate constant of protein degradation in nongrowing monolayers was increased to about 1.5-fold the value of growing monolayers. These data are in agreement with the assumption that cellular autophagy represents a major pathway of regulating protein degradation in 3T3 cells and that the regulation of autophagic protein degradation is of relevance for the transition from a growing to a nongrowing state.

  16. WEHI-3 cells inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jing [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Liu, Gexiu [Institute of Hematology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Yan, Guoyao [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); He, Dongmei [Institute of Hematology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhou, Ying [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Chen, Shengting, E-mail: shengtingchen@sina.cn [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-26

    By investigating the anti-adipogenic effects of WEHI-3 cells – a murine acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line – we sought to improve the efficiency of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Analysis of Oil Red O staining and the expression of adipogenic genes, including PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS and LPL, indicated that WEHI-3 cells significantly inhibited 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocyte cells from differentiating into adipocytes. In vivo, fat vacuoles in mice injected with WEHI-3 cells were also remarkably reduced in the murine bone marrow pimelosis model. Moreover, the key gene in the Rho signaling pathway, ROCKII, and the key gene in the Wnt signaling pathway, β-catenin, were both upregulated compared with the control group. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ROCKII and β-catenin reversed these WEHI-3-mediated anti-adipogenic effects. Taken together, these data suggest that WEHI-3 cells exert anti-adipogenic effects and that both ROCKII and β-catenin are involved in this process. - Highlights: • WEHI-3, an acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line, inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte from differentiating into adipocyte. • WEHI-3 cells can arrest 3T3-L1 cells in G0/G1 phase by secreting soluble factors and thus inhibit their proliferation. • WEHI-3 cells reduced bone marrow pimelosis in the murine model. • Both ROCKII and β-catenin were involved in the WEHI-3-mediated anti-adipogenic effects.

  17. Cytotoxicity of Alpinia galanga Rhizome Crude Extract on NIH-3T3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Sandra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alpinia galanga (A. galanga was reported as a potential medicinal source due to its wide effect. A. galanga rhizome crude extract (ARCE was reported to have high cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but low in normal cells. However half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of ARCE is not clearly known yet. Hence, current study was conducted to investigate the IC50 of ARCE in normal standard fibroblast cell line, NIH-3T3 cells. METHODS: Rhizomes of A. galanga were collected, peeled, dried, milled and weighed. Extraction was performed using maceration method, then filtered and evaporated. ARCE with various concentrations were applied in NIH-3T3 cells for 24 or 48 hours. Cells were documented and counted with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: Five hundreds grams of simplicia were macerated with ethanol and evaporated, 1 mg/mL crude extract with total volume of 114 mL was obtained. By addition of ARCE in NIH-3T3 cell culture, number of NIH-3T3 cells were shown less when treated with higher concentration of ARCE. Cell numbers of 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50% ARCE treatment for 24 hours are 11,531, 11,352, 10,920, 10,365, 9,471, 8,360, respectively, meanwhile for 48 hours are 13,219, 12,686, 12,278, 11,390, 10,279, 8,390, respectively. CONCLUSION: IC50 of ARCE in 24 hours treatment was 620.5 mg/mL, while in 48 hours treatment was 666.6 mg/mL. Hence, ARCE is suggested to have low cytotoxic effect in NIH-3T3 cells. KEYWORDS: Alpinia galanga, ginger, extract, cytotoxic, MTT, NIH-3T3

  18. Autophagy Protects MC3T3-E1 Cells upon Aluminum-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Jian; Ji, Qiang; Wang, Fan; Song, Miao; Li, Yanfei

    2018-03-08

    Aluminum (Al) exposure has adverse effects on osteoblasts, and the effect might be through autophagy-associated apoptosis. In this study, we showed that aluminum trichloride (AlCl 3 ) could induce autophagy in MC3T3-E1 cells, as demonstrated by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and the expressions of the ATG3, ATG5, and ATG9 genes. We found AlCl 3 inhibited MC3T3-E1 cell survival rate and caused apoptosis, as evidenced by CCK-8 assay, Annexin V/PI double staining, and increased expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3 genes. In addition, increased autophagy induced by rapamycin further attenuated the MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis rate after AlCl 3 exposure. These results support the hypothesis that autophagy plays a protective role in impeding apoptosis caused by AlCl 3 . Activating autophagy may be a strategy for treatment of Al-induced bone disease.

  19. Isolation and characterization of NIH 3T3 cells expressing polyomavirus small T antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T.; Satake, M.; Robins, T.; Ito, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The polyomavirus small T-antigen gene, together with the polyomavirus promoter, was inserted into retrovirus vector pGV16 which contains the Moloney sarcoma virus long terminal repeat and neomycin resistance gene driven by the simian virus 40 promoter. This expression vector, pGVST, was packaged into retrovirus particles by transfection of PSI2 cells which harbor packaging-defective murine retrovirus genome. NIH 3T3 cells were infected by this replication-defective retrovirus containing pGVST. Of the 15 G418-resistant cell clones, 8 express small T antigen at various levels as revealed by immunoprecipitation. A cellular protein with an apparent molecular weight of about 32,000 coprecipitates with small T antigen. Immunofluorescent staining shows that small T antigen is mainly present in the nuclei. Morphologically, cells expressing small T antigen are indistinguishable from parental NIH 3T3 cells and have a microfilament pattern similar to that in parental NIH 3T3 cells. Cells expressing small T antigen form a flat monolayer but continue to grow beyond the saturation density observed for parental NIH 3T3 cells and eventually come off the culture plate as a result of overconfluency. There is some correlation between the level of expression of small T antigen and the growth rate of the cells. Small T-antigen-expressing cells form small colonies in soft agar. However, the proportion of cells which form these small colonies is rather small. A clone of these cells tested did not form tumors in nude mice within 3 months after inoculation of 10/sup 6/ cells per animal. Thus, present studies establish that the small T antigen of polyomavirus is a second nucleus-localized transforming gene product of the virus (the first one being large T antigen) and by itself has a function which is to stimulate the growth of NIH 3T3 cells beyond their saturation density in monolayer culture.

  20. Expression of Nanog gene promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingyu; Wang Xia; Chen Bing; Suo Guangli; Zhao Yanhong; Duan Ziyuan; Dai Jianwu

    2005-01-01

    Cells are the functional elements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A large number of cells are usually needed for these purposes. However, there are numbers of limitations for in vitro cell proliferation. Nanog is an important self-renewal determinant in embryonic stem cells. However, it remains unknown whether Nanog will influence the cell cycle and cell proliferation of mature cells. In this study, we expressed Nanog in NIH3T3 cells and showed that expression of Nanog in NIH3T3 promoted cells to enter into S phase and enhanced cell proliferation. This suggests that Nanog gene might function in a similar fashion in mature cells as in ES cells. In addition, it may provide an approach for in vitro cell expansion

  1. Osteogenic gene expression of murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells under cyclic tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C. T.; Chen, C. C.; Cheong, U.-I.; Liu, S. L.; Huang, T. H.

    2014-08-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can promote cell proliferation. The remodeling ability of the tension side of orthodontic teeth affects post-orthodontic stability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the osteogenic effects of LLLT on osteoblast-like cells treated with a simulated tension system that provides a mechanical tension regimen. Murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured in a Flexcell strain unit with programmed loads of 12% elongation at a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 24 and 48 h. The cultured cells were treated with a low-level diode laser using powers of 5 J and 10 J. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The expression of osteogenic genes (type I collagen (Col-1), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), bone morphologic protein (BMP-2), and bone morphologic protein (BMP-4)) in MC3T3-E1 cells was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The proliferation rate of tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells under 5 J and 10 J LLLT increased compared with that of the control group (p orthodontics.

  2. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of lipids during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Sik; Won, Young Jae; Lee, Sang-Hak; Kim, Dug Young

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is becoming a big health problem in these days. Since increased body weight is due to increased number and size of the triglyceride-storing adipocytes, many researchers are working on differentiation conditions and processes of adipocytes. Adipocytes also work as regulators of whole-body energy homeostasis by secreting several proteins that regulate processes as diverse as haemostasis, blood pressure, immune function, angiogenesis and energy balance. 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype under appropriate conditions. In this paper, we propose an effective fluorescence lifetime imaging technique which can easily distinguish lipids in membrane and those in lipid droplets. Nile red dyes are attached to lipids in 3T3-L1 cells. Fluorescence lifetime images were taken for 2 week during differentiation procedure of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. We used 488 nm pulsed laser with 5MHz repetition rate and emission wavelength is 520 nm of Nile Red fluorescent dye. Results clearly show that the lifetime of Nile red in lipid droplets are smaller than those in cell membrane. Our results suggest that fluorescence lifetime imaging can be a very powerful tool to monitor lipid droplet formation in adipocytes from 3T3-L1 cells.

  3. Osteogenic gene expression of murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells under cyclic tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C T; Chen, C C; Cheong, U-I; Liu, S L; Huang, T H

    2014-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can promote cell proliferation. The remodeling ability of the tension side of orthodontic teeth affects post-orthodontic stability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the osteogenic effects of LLLT on osteoblast-like cells treated with a simulated tension system that provides a mechanical tension regimen. Murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured in a Flexcell strain unit with programmed loads of 12% elongation at a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 24 and 48 h. The cultured cells were treated with a low-level diode laser using powers of 5 J and 10 J. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The expression of osteogenic genes (type I collagen (Col-1), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), bone morphologic protein (BMP-2), and bone morphologic protein (BMP-4)) in MC3T3-E1 cells was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The proliferation rate of tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells under 5 J and 10 J LLLT increased compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Prominent mineralization of the MC3T3-E1 cells was visible using a von Kossa stain in the 5 J LLLT group. Osteogenic genes (Col-1, OC, OPG and BMP-2) were significantly expressed in the MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 5 J and 10 J LLLT (p < 0.05). LLLT in tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells showed synergistic osteogenic effects, including increases in cell proliferation and Col-1, OPN, OC, OPG and BMP-2 gene expression. LLLT might be beneficial for bone remodeling on the tension side of orthodontics. (paper)

  4. Stimulative effects of Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) on osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Seok-Jong; Yun, Woo-Sik; Kim, Kap-Sung; Jin, Un-Ho; Kim, June-Ki; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2007-02-12

    Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) has long been known to have anti-inflammatory and protective effects on damaged tissue, inflammation and bone among other functions. To treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a herbal medicine, Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) extract (UD) is being used in traditional oriental medicine. The effect of UD on the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in non-transformed osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) was studied. UD dose-dependently increased DNA synthesis (significant at 5-20 microg/ml). UD increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and prolyl hydroxylase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells (5-20 microg/ml). Antiestrogen tamoxifen eliminated the stimulation of proliferation and ALP activity of MC3T3-E1, which was induced by UD. UD at concentrations ranged from 30 to 100 microg/ml inhibited prostaglandin E2 production in MC3T3-E1. These results indicate that UD directly stimulates cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. These results also suggest and UD is effective for bone anti-resorptive action in bone cells.

  5. Ultrasound associated uptake of chitosan nanoparticles in MC3T3-E1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junyi

    Chitosan is a natural linear polysaccharide that has been well known for its applications in drug delivery system due to its unique physicochemical and biological properties. However, challenges still remain for it to become a fully realized therapeutic agent. In this study, we investigated the uptake of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) under the ultrasound stimulation, using a model cell culture system (MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts). The CNP were fabricated by an ionic gelation method and were lyophilized prior to characterization and delivery to cells. Particle size and zeta potential were measured using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS); the efficiency of chitosan complexation was measured using the ninhydrin assay. Cytotoxicity was examined by neutral red assay within 48 hours after delivery. The effect of ultrasound (US) on the efficiency of nanoparticle delivery to the MC3T3-E1 cells was examined at 1MHz and at either 1 or 2 W/cm2. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated-CNP were used to visualize the internalized particles within the cytosol. The uptake of FITC-CNP exhibits a dose and time dependent effect, a strong FITC fluorescence was detected at the concentration of 500microg/mL under fluorescence microscope. Ultrasound assisted uptake of FITC-CNP performed a significant positive effect at 2W/cm2 with 60s of ultrasound exposure time. CNP displayed a slightly decrease in cell viability from 25microg/mL to 100microg/mL, while higher concentration of CNP facilitates the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Less than 10% of reduction in cell viability was observed for US at 1W/cm2 and 2W/cm2 with 30s and 60s of exposure time, which suggest a mild effect of US to MC3T3-E1 cell line.

  6. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and gelatinases activity in 3T3 fibroblast cell by root repair materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varol Basak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium silicate-based products on cytotoxicity in the 3T3 fibroblast and gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. 3T3 fibroblasts were incubated directly with Ortho Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, BioAggregate, Biodentine, MTA Plus, MTA Angelus and MTA Cerkamed for 24 hours and seven days. The cytotoxicity was determined using an MTT assay. Supernatants were collected to determine MMP-2 and MMP-9. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS 22. Seventh day extracts of Ortho MTA and Biodentine showed reduced cell viability. Specific characterization of MMPs in cell culture demonstrated that MMP-2 (62 kPa in the cell culture supernatants by gelatin zymography showed induced expression in four out of seven groups by 3T3 cells. No MMP-9 expression was observed. The cytotoxicity of materials revealed a significant difference in cell viability between the groups on the first and seventh days. The results of this study revealed minor cytotoxic effects for Ortho MTA and Biodentine. This study suggests that endodontic sealers induced production of MMP-2. MMP-9 might be expressed in small amounts when compared with MMP-2.

  7. The lipid fraction of human milk initiates adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Yasuko; Yamaguchi, Rie; Nagata, Eiko; Satake, Eiichiro; Sano, Shinichiro; Matsushita, Rie; Kitsuta, Kazunobu; Nakashima, Shinichi; Nakanishi, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Yuichi; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased worldwide over the past decade. Despite evidence that human milk lowers the risk of childhood obesity, the mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated the direct effect of human milk on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with donated human milk only or the combination of the standard hormone mixture; insulin, dexamethasone (DEX), and 3-isobututyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Furthermore, the induction of preadipocyte differentiation by extracted lipids from human milk was tested in comparison to the cells treated with lipid extracts from infant formula. Adipocyte differentiation, specific genes as well as formation of lipid droplets were examined. We clearly show that lipids present in human milk initiate 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In contrast, this effect was not observed in response to lipids present in infant formula. The initiation of preadipocyte differentiation by human milk was enhanced by adding the adipogenic hormone, DEX or insulin. The expression of late adipocyte markers in Day 7 adipocytes that have been induced into differentiation with human milk lipid extracts was comparable to those in control cells initiated by a standard adipogenic hormone cocktail. These results demonstrate that human milk contains bioactive lipids that can initiate preadipocyte differentiation in the absence of the standard adipogenic compounds via a unique pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, Lisa M.; Fotos, Joseph S.; Galileo, Deni S.; Karin, Norm J.

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewer stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1 > LPA4 > LPA2 >> LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G protein-coupled receptor LPA1.

  9. Cell shrinkage as a signal to apoptosis in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin B; Friborg, Christel R; Schneider, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Cell shrinkage is a hallmark of the apoptotic mode of programmed cell death, but it is as yet unclear whether a reduction in cell volume is a primary activation signal of apoptosis. Here we studied the effect of an acute elevation of osmolarity (NaCl or sucrose additions, final osmolarity 687...... mosmol l(-1)) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to identify components involved in the signal transduction from shrinkage to apoptosis. After 1.5 h the activity of caspase-3 started to increase followed after 3 h by the appearance of many apoptotic-like bodies. The caspase-3 activity increase was greatly enhanced...

  10. The depletion of nuclear glutathione impairs cell proliferation in 3t3 fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Markovic

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is considered essential for survival in mammalian cells and yeast but not in prokaryotic cells. The presence of a nuclear pool of glutathione has been demonstrated but its role in cellular proliferation and differentiation is still a matter of debate.We have studied proliferation of 3T3 fibroblasts for a period of 5 days. Cells were treated with two well known depleting agents, diethyl maleate (DEM and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, and the cellular and nuclear glutathione levels were assessed by analytical and confocal microscopic techniques, respectively. Both agents decreased total cellular glutathione although depletion by BSO was more sustained. However, the nuclear glutathione pool resisted depletion by BSO but not with DEM. Interestingly, cell proliferation was impaired by DEM, but not by BSO. Treating the cells simultaneously with DEM and with glutathione ethyl ester to restore intracellular GSH levels completely prevented the effects of DEM on cell proliferation.Our results demonstrate the importance of nuclear glutathione in the control of cell proliferation in 3T3 fibroblasts and suggest that a reduced nuclear environment is necessary for cells to progress in the cell cycle.

  11. Dissociation of bradykinin-induced prostaglandin formation from phosphatidylinositol turnover in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts: evidence for G protein regulation of phospholipase A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, R.M.; Axelrod, J.

    1987-01-01

    In Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts bradykinin stimulated inositol phosphate (InsP) formation and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) synthesis. The EC 50 values for stimulation of PGE 2 synthesis and InsP formation by bradykinin were similar, 200 pM and 275 pM, respectively. Guanosine-5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate stimulated PGE 2 synthesis and InsP formation, and guanosine-5'-[β-thio]diphosphate inhibited both PGE 2 synthesis and InsP formation stimulated by bradykinin. Neither bradykinin-stimulated PGE 2 synthesis nor InsP formation was sensitive to pertussis toxin. Phorbol ester, dexamethasone, and cycloheximide distinguished between bradykinin-stimulated PGE 2 synthesis and InsP formation. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate enhanced bradykinin-stimulated PGE 2 synthesis but inhibited bradykinin-stimulated InsP formation. Pretreatment of cells with dexamethasone for 24 hr inhibited bradykinin-stimulated PGE 2 synthesis but was without effect on bradykinin-stimulated InsP formation. Cycloheximide inhibited on bradykinin-stimulated InsP formation. When bradykinin was added to cells prelabeled with [ 3 H] choline, the phospholipase A 2 products lysophosphatidylcholine and glycerophosphocholine were generated. The data suggest that bradykinin receptors are coupled by GTP-binding proteins to both phospholipase C and phospholipase A 2 and that phospholipase A 2 is the enzyme that catalyzes release of arachidonate for prostaglandin synthesis

  12. Cell Volume Regulation and Signaling in 3T3-L1 Pre-adipocytes and Adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardsen, Kathrine; Larsen, Susanne; Novak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    no detectable effect on InsR, yet increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes exhibit greatly accelerated RVD and RVI responses and increased swelling-activated taurine efflux compared to pre-adipocytes. Furthermore, in pre-adipocytes, Cav-1/caveolae integrity......) and osmotic cell shrinkage (RVI), accompanied by increased swelling-activated taurine efflux. However, caveolin-1 distribution was not detectably altered after osmotic swelling or shrinkage, and caveolae integrity, as studied by cholesterol depletion or expression of dominant negative Cav-1, was not required...

  13. Coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Park, Sahng Wook; Kim, Hojeong; Park, Sang-Kyu; Yoon, Dojun

    2010-01-01

    Mouse or human fibroblasts are commonly used as feeder cells to prevent differentiation in stem or primary cell culture. In the present study, we addressed whether fibroblasts can affect the differentiation of adipocytes. We found that the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was strongly suppressed when the cells were cocultured with human fibroblast (BJ) cells. BrdU incorporation analysis indicated that mitotic clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis, was not affected by BJ cells. The 3T3-L1 cell expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and Krueppel-like factor 15, but not those of C/EBPβ or C/EBPδ, were decreased by coculture with BJ cells. When mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cocultured with BJ cells, their lipid contents were significantly reduced, with decreased fatty acid synthase expression and increased phosphorylated form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1. Our data indicate that coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the lipogenesis of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  14. Different sensitivity of BALB/c 3T3 cell clones in the response to carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacci, Annamaria; Mascolo, Maria Grazia; Perdichizzi, Stefania; Quercioli, Daniele; Gazzilli, Antonio; Rotondo, Francesca; Morandi, Elena; Guerrini, Angela; Silingardi, Paola; Grilli, Sandro; Vaccari, Monica

    2011-09-01

    Cell transformation assays (CTAs) are currently regarded as the only possible in vitro alternative to animal testing for carcinogenesis studies. CTAs have been proposed as screening tests for the carcinogenic potential of compounds that have no evidence of genotoxicity but present structural alerts for carcinogenicity. We have extensively used the BALB/c 3T3 model based on the A31 cell clone to test single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. In the prevalidation study carried out by ECVAM, the improved protocol is based on BALB/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells, a clone derived by A31 cells, that is very sensitive to PAH-induced transformation. The present study was performed in the aim to compare the results obtained with the two different clones exposed to different classes of carcinogens. Cells were treated with PAHs (3-methylcholanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene), alkylating agents (melphalan) and aloethanes (1,2-dibromoethane). The induction of cytotoxicity and the onset of chemically transformed foci were evaluated by two experimental protocols, differing for cell seeding density and chemical treatment duration. The A31-1-1 cells showed higher inherent transformation rate after PAHs treatment, but they were insensitive to 1,2-dibromoethane at concentrations that usually induced transformation in A31 cells. As 1,2-dibromoethane is bioactivated to reactive forms able to bind DNA mainly through the conjugation with intracellular glutathione, these results suggested a reduced activity of phase-2 enzymes involved in glutathione conjugation in A31-1-1 cells. Our results give evidence that inherent metabolic capacity of cells may play a critical role in in vitro cell transformation, cautioning against possible misclassification of chemicals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide promotes adipogenesis in 3T3L1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Tsai

    Full Text Available The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S on differentiation of 3T3L1-derived adipocytes was examined. Endogenous H2S was increased after 3T3L1 differentiation. The expression of the H2S-synthesising enzymes, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST, was increased in a time-dependent manner during 3T3L1 differentiation. Expression of genes associated with adipogenesis related genes including fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4/aP2, a key regulator of this process, was increased by GYY4137 (a slow-releasing H2S donor compound and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a classical H2S donor but not by ZYJ1122 or time-expired NaHS. Furthermore expression of these genes were reduced by aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, CBS inhibitor, DL-propargylglycine (PAG, CSE inhibitor as well as by CSE small interference RNA (siCSE and siCBS. The size and number of lipid droplets in mature adipocytes was significantly increased by both GYY4137 and NaHS, which also impaired the ability of CL316,243 (β3-agonist to promote lipolysis in these cells. In contrast, AOAA and PAG had the opposite effect. Taken together, we show that the H2S-synthesising enzymes CBS, CSE and 3-MST are endogenously expressed during adipogenesis and that both endogenous and exogenous H2S modulate adipogenesis and adipocyte maturation.

  16. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingxia; Wang, Minglian; Wu, Shuicai; Ma, Xuemei; An, Guangzhou; Liu, Huan; Xie, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5 min on/10 min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8 h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect γH2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1 h (p < 0.05) followed by a slight decrease when the exposure continued for as long as 8 h. No significant effect on the number of γH2AX was detected after EMR exposure. The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05). These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells.

  17. Mobile phone base station radiation does not affect neoplastic transformation in BALB/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, H; Suhara, T; Kaji, N; Sakuma, N; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale in vitro study focusing on low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields affect malignant transformation or other cellular stress responses. Our group previously reported that DNA strand breaks were not induced in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) radiation up to 800 mW/kg from mobile radio base stations employing the IMT-2000 cellular system. In the current study, BALB/3T3 cells were continuously exposed to 2.1425 GHz W-CDMA RF fields at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 6 weeks and malignant cell transformation was assessed. In addition, 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-treated cells were exposed to RF fields in a similar fashion, to assess for effects on tumor promotion. Finally, the effect of RF fields on tumor co-promotion was assessed in BALB/3T3 cells initiated with MCA and co-exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). At the end of the incubation period, transformation dishes were fixed, stained with Giemsa, and scored for morphologically transformed foci. No significant differences in transformation frequency were observed between the test groups exposed to RF signals and the sham-exposed negative controls in the non-, MCA-, or MCA plus TPA-treated cells. Our studies found no evidence to support the hypothesis that RF fields may affect malignant transformation. Our results suggest that exposure to low-level RF radiation of up to 800 mW/kg does not induce cell transformation, which causes tumor formation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Exogenous lactate interferes with cell-cycle control in BALB/3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutz, H. Peter; Little, John B.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that exogenous lactate may influence proliferation rates, radiation sensitivity, and postirradiation repair capacity of mammalian cells. In the present study, we addressed the question of potential underlying mechanisms and, therefore, examined effects of exogenous lactate on proliferation rates and cell-cycle distribution in immortal but nontumorigenic mammalian cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were grown at 37 deg. C in an incubator with 5% CO 2 and 95% air, in a culture medium supplemented or not with lactate at a 10 mM concentration. Daily, we changed the culture medium and counted cells per dish. On selected days, cell-cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts were used. Results: During the exponential phase of cell proliferation, mean population doubling time was significantly increased from 17.7 to 19.9 h, due to selective prolongation of G 2 /M. However, in density-inhibited cultures, exogenous lactate stimulated entry into S and proliferation to a significantly higher saturation density. Conclusions: These findings indicate that exogenous lactate interferes with mechanisms of cell-cycle control at two different points in the cell-cycle, depending on cell density and the resulting absence or presence of inhibition of cell proliferation. Interference with cell-cycle control may underlay the modification by exogenous lactate of radiosensitivity and postirradiation repair capacity in mammalian cells

  19. Attachment and spreadout study of 3T3 cells onto PP track etched films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolko, Eduardo; Mazzei, Ruben; Tadey, Daniel; Lombardo, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Polymer surface modifications are obtained by the application of radiation treatments and other physico-chemical methods: fission fragment (ff) irradiation and etching. The biocompatibility of the surface is then observed by cell seeding and cell adhesion experiments. Approaches to improvement of the cell adhesion are obtained by different methods: for example, in PS, cell adhesion is improved after ion implantation; in PMMA, after bombarding the polymer, the surface is reconditioned with surfactants and proteins and in PVDF, cell adhesion is assayed on nuclear tracks membranes. In this work, we obtained important cell adhesion improvements in PP films by irradiation with swift heavy ions and subsequent etching of the nuclear tracks. We use BOPP (isotactic -25 μm thickness). Irrradiations were performed with a Cf-252 californium ff source. The source has a heavy ff and a light one, with 160-200 MeV energy divided among them corresponding to ff energies between 1 and 2 MeV/amu. A chemical etching procedure consisting of a solution of sulphuric acid and chromium three oxide at 85 deg. C was used. The 3T3 NIH fibroblast cell line was used for the cell adhesion experiment. Here we report for the first time, the results of a series of experiments by varying the ff fluence and the etching time showing that attachment and spreadout of cells are very much improved in this cell line according to the number of pores and the pore size

  20. ATF3 inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Min Kyung; Kim, Cho Hee; Seong, Je Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Overexpression of ATF3 inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. ► Overexpression of ATF3 represses C/EBPα expression. ► ATF3 directly binds to mouse C/EBPα promoter spanning from −1928 to −1907. ► ATF3 may play a role in hypoxia-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: ATF3 is a stress-adaptive gene that regulates proliferation or apoptosis under stress conditions. However, the role of ATF3 is unknown in adipocyte cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the functional role of ATF3 in adipocytes. Both lentivirus-mediated overexpression of ATF3 and stably-overexpressed ATF3 inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, as revealed by decreased lipid staining with oil red staining and reduction in adipogenic genes. Thapsigargin treatment and overexpression of ATF3 decreased C/EBPα transcript and repressed the activity of the 3.6-kb mouse C/EBPα promoter, demonstrating that ATF3 downregulates C/EBPα expression. Transfection studies using mutant constructs containing 5′-deletions in the C/EBPα promoter revealed that a putative ATF/CRE element, GGATGTCA, is located between −1921 and −1914. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 directly binds to mouse C/EBPα promoter spanning from −1928 to −1907. Both chemical hypoxia-mimetics or physical hypoxia led to reduce the C/EBPα mRNA and repress the promoter activity of the C/EBPα gene, whereas increase ATF3 mRNA, suggesting that ATF3 may contribute to the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in hypoxia through downregulation of C/EBPα expression. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ATF3 represses the C/EBPα gene, resulting in inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and thus plays a role in hypoxia-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation.

  1. Serum-induced G0/G1 transition in chemically transformed 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.E.; Buchou, T.; Mester, J.

    1987-01-01

    Quiescent, chemically transformed (benzo-a-pyrene) BALB/c 3T3 cells (BP A31) enter the cell division cycle when exposed to complete medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS); the number of cells recruited is a function of the duration of serum exposure. The recruitment of cells by short (<4 h) serum pulses is not inhibited by simultaneous exposure to cycloheximide (CH), and therefore the initial commitment does not require protein synthesis. The cells enter S phase with a constant delay following the removal of CH, even if CH exposure has been continued for as long as 20 h after the end of the serum pulse. The cell recruitment by serum pulses was inhibited by 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), an inhibitor of cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation. These data suggest that serum exposure produces a stable memory that is necessary and sufficient for the eventual progression through G1 to S phase that occurs when protein synthesis is resumed after the removal of CH; this memory probably consists of mRNA species that are induced by serum and that are stable in the absence of protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, pretreatment of quiescent BP A31 cells with CH (8-24 h) dramatically increased the fraction of the total cell population that is recruited by a serum pulse of fixed duration

  2. Adhesion, Proliferation and Migration of NIH/3T3 Cells on Modified Polyaniline Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmontová, Petra; Capáková, Zdenka; Mikušová, Nikola; Maráková, Nela; Kašpárková, Věra; Lehocký, Marián; Humpolíček, Petr

    2016-09-15

    Polyaniline shows great potential and promises wide application in the biomedical field thanks to its intrinsic conductivity and material properties, which closely resemble natural tissues. Surface properties are crucial, as these predetermine any interaction with biological fluids, proteins and cells. An advantage of polyaniline is the simple modification of its surface, e.g., by using various dopant acids. An investigation was made into the adhesion, proliferation and migration of mouse embryonic fibroblasts on pristine polyaniline films and films doped with sulfamic and phosphotungstic acids. In addition, polyaniline films supplemented with poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic) acid at various ratios were tested. Results showed that the NIH/3T3 cell line was able to adhere, proliferate and migrate on the pristine polyaniline films as well as those films doped with sulfamic and phosphotungstic acids; thus, utilization of said forms in biomedicine appears promising. Nevertheless, incorporating poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic) acid altered the surface properties of the polyaniline films and significantly affected cell behavior. In order to reveal the crucial factor influencing the surface/cell interaction, cell behavior is discussed in the context of the surface energy of individual samples. It was clearly demonstrated that the lesser the difference between the surface energy of the sample and cell, the more cyto-compatible the surface is.

  3. Quantification of Electroporation-Mediated Propidium Iodide Delivery into 3T3 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, Mohamed M.; Li, Jianbo; Shan, Jerry W.; Shreiber, David I.; Lin, Hao

    2010-11-01

    Electroporation is an effective means to deliver exogenous molecules into the cellular cytoplasm, while simultaneously maintaining cell viability and functionality. In this technique, an applied electric field transiently permeabilizes the cellular membrane to enable molecular exchange. The main objective of the current work is to identify the transport mechanisms involved during electroporation, and to quantify the amount of molecules delivered into the cellular cytoplasm. An optical diagnostic system is developed to examine the transport of Propidium Iodide (PI) into 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. Upon entering the permeabilized cell, PI binds to DNA/RNA within the cytoplasm to emit fluorescence, which is measured to track the dynamic accumulation of the dye within the cell. The results show that the total fluorescence intensity increases with a decreasing buffer electrical conductivity. The data are compared with numerical simulations, which reveals good agreement. The experimental observations and numerical analysis demonstrate that: 1) Electrophoresis plays a dominant role in mediating the transport. 2) An electrokinetic mechanism, field-amplified sample stacking, controls the achievable delivery efficiency. The study in this work is an important step toward the quantification as well as the eventual improvement of this useful technique.

  4. ATF3 inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Min Kyung; Kim, Cho Hee [School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, 30 Beom-eo ri, Mulguem-eup, Yangsan-si, Gyeongnam 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Je Kyung [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myeong Ho, E-mail: jung0603@pusan.ac.kr [School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, 30 Beom-eo ri, Mulguem-eup, Yangsan-si, Gyeongnam 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of ATF3 inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of ATF3 represses C/EBP{alpha} expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATF3 directly binds to mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter spanning from -1928 to -1907. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATF3 may play a role in hypoxia-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: ATF3 is a stress-adaptive gene that regulates proliferation or apoptosis under stress conditions. However, the role of ATF3 is unknown in adipocyte cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the functional role of ATF3 in adipocytes. Both lentivirus-mediated overexpression of ATF3 and stably-overexpressed ATF3 inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, as revealed by decreased lipid staining with oil red staining and reduction in adipogenic genes. Thapsigargin treatment and overexpression of ATF3 decreased C/EBP{alpha} transcript and repressed the activity of the 3.6-kb mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter, demonstrating that ATF3 downregulates C/EBP{alpha} expression. Transfection studies using mutant constructs containing 5 Prime -deletions in the C/EBP{alpha} promoter revealed that a putative ATF/CRE element, GGATGTCA, is located between -1921 and -1914. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 directly binds to mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter spanning from -1928 to -1907. Both chemical hypoxia-mimetics or physical hypoxia led to reduce the C/EBP{alpha} mRNA and repress the promoter activity of the C/EBP{alpha} gene, whereas increase ATF3 mRNA, suggesting that ATF3 may contribute to the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in hypoxia through downregulation of C/EBP{alpha} expression. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ATF3 represses the C/EBP{alpha} gene, resulting in inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and thus plays a role in hypoxia-mediated inhibition

  5. Response of MC3T3-E1cells on microroughen bioactive glass coated zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Laxmi Tuladhar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives:The objective of this study was to determine the cellular response of micro-roughened bioactive glass coated zirconia substrate (ZBR and non roughen bioactive glass coated zirconia substrate (ZB, and compare them with uncoated zirconia substrate (Z.  Materials & Methods:Surface micro-roughening was obtained using an Al2O3 sandblasting method. Abrasive blasting of zirconia coated bioactive glass produced an irregular finish with surface roughness average Ra 0.85 µm as determined by profilometer and scan electron microscope. Surface roughness of the samples in ascending order was ZBR>ZB>Z. Murine derived preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the samples, and the cell morphology, growth, differentiation, were observed. Cell morphology was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM, while cell proliferation and differentiation using MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test and alkaline phosphates activity respectively. Results:The cell growth on all the samples continual increase with culturing up to 5days, showing good cell viability. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 with respect to the Z, ZB, and ZBR at day 5 at MTT assay. In particular, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity of the cells was significantly higher on the ZB and ZBR than Z samples at both 7 and 14 days.   Conclusion:Our findings demonstrate that bioactive glass coated surface was found to have better surface conditions to regulate bone cell differentiation 

  6. Effect of acetaminophen on osteoblastic differentiation and migration of MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Fumio; Higashi, Sen; Ohsumi, Tomoko; Shiiba, Shunji; Watanabe, Seiji; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP, acetaminophen, paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic/antipyretic with weak inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase (COX) compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The mechanism of action of APAP is mediated by its metabolite that activates transient receptor potential channels, including transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) or the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). However, the exact molecular mechanism and target underlying the cellular actions of APAP remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of APAP on osteoblastic differentiation and cell migration, with a particular focus on TRP channels and CB1. Effects of APAP on osteoblastic differentiation and cell migration of MC3T3-E1, a mouse pre-osteoblast cell line, were assessed by the increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and both wound-healing and transwell-migration assays, respectively. APAP dose-dependently inhibited osteoblastic differentiation, which was well correlated with the effects on COX activity compared with other NSAIDs. In contrast, cell migration was promoted by APAP, and this effect was not correlated with COX inhibition. None of the agonists or antagonists of TRP channels and the CB receptor affected the APAP-induced cell migration, while the effect of APAP on cell migration was abolished by down-regulating TRPV4 gene expression. APAP inhibited osteoblastic differentiation via COX inactivation while it promoted cell migration independently of previously known targets such as COX, TRPV1, TRPA1 channels, and CB receptors, but through the mechanism involving TRPV4. APAP may have still unidentified molecular targets that modify cellular functions. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. T24 HRAS transformed NIH/3T3 mouse cells (GhrasT-NIH/3T3) in serial tumorigenic in vitro/in vivo passages give rise to increasingly aggressive tumorigenic cell lines T1-A and T2-A and metastatic cell lines T3-HA and T4-PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Durwood B; Merrill, Gerald A; Brenner, Frederic J; Lytle, Laurie S; Lam, Tan; McElhinney, Aaron; Anders, Joel; Rock, Tara Tauber; Lyker, Jennifer Kier; Barcus, Scott; Leslie, Kara Hust; Kramer, Jill M; Rubenstein, Eric M; Pryor Schanz, Karen; Parkhurst, Amy J; Peck, Michelle; Good, Kimberly; Granath, Kristi Lemke; Cifra, Nicole; Detweiler, Jessalee Wantz; Stevens, Laura; Albertson, Richard; Deir, Rachael; Stewart, Elisabeth; Wingard, Katherine; Richardson, Micah Rose; Blizard, Sarah B; Gillespie, Lauren E; Kriley, Charles E; Rzewnicki, Daniel I; Jones, David H

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells often arise progressively from "normal" to "pre-cancer" to "transformed" to "local metastasis" to "metastatic disease" to "aggressive metastatic disease". Recent whole genome sequencing (WGS) and spectral karyotyping (SKY) of cancer cells and tumorigenic models have shown this progression involves three major types of genome rearrangements: ordered small step-wise changes, more dramatic "punctuated evolution" (chromoplexy), and large catastrophic steps (chromothripsis) which all occur in random combinations to generate near infinite numbers of stochastically rearranged metastatic cancer cell genomes. This paper describes a series of mouse cell lines developed sequentially to mimic this type of progression. This starts with the new GhrasT-NIH/Swiss cell line that was produced from the NIH/3T3 cell line that had been transformed by transfection with HRAS oncogene DNA from the T24 human bladder carcinoma. These GhrasT-NIH/Swiss cells were injected s.c. into NIH/Swiss mice to produce primary tumors from which one was used to establish the T1-A cell line. T1-A cells injected i.v. into the tail vein of a NIH/Swiss mouse produced a local metastatic tumor near the base of the tail from which the T2-A cell line was established. T2-A cells injected i.v. into the tail vein of a nude NIH/Swiss mouse produced metastases in the liver and one lung from which the T3-HA (H=hepatic) and T3-PA (P=pulmonary) cell lines were developed, respectively. T3-HA cells injected i.v. into a nude mouse produced a metastasis in the lung from which the T4-PA cell line was established. PCR analysis indicated the human T24 HRAS oncogene was carried along with each in vitro/in vivo transfer step and found in the T2-A and T4-PA cell lines. Light photomicrographs indicate that all transformed cells are morphologically similar. GhrasT-NIH/Swiss cells injected s.c. produced tumors in 4% of NIH/Swiss mice in 6-10 weeks; T1-A cells injected s.c. produced tumors in 100% of NIH/Swiss mice in 7

  8. Large-Scale Automated Analysis of Location Patterns in Randomly-Tagged 3T3 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Elvira García; Hua, Juchang; Bateman, Nicholas W.; Zhao, Ting; Berget, Peter B.; Murphy, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Location proteomics is concerned with the systematic analysis of the subcellular location of proteins. In order to perform high-resolution, high-throughput analysis of all protein location patterns, automated methods are needed. Here we describe the use of such methods on a large collection of images obtained by automated microscopy to perform high-throughput analysis of endogenous proteins randomly-tagged with a fluorescent protein in NIH 3T3 cells. Cluster analysis was performed to identify the statistically significant location patterns in these images. This allowed us to assign a location pattern to each tagged protein without specifying what patterns are possible. To choose the best feature set for this clustering, we have used a novel method that determines which features do not artificially discriminate between control wells on different plates and uses Stepwise Discriminant Analysis (SDA) to determine which features do discriminate as much as possible among the randomly-tagged wells. Combining this feature set with consensus clustering methods resulted in 35 clusters among the first 188 clones we obtained. This approach represents a powerful automated solution to the problem of identifying subcellular locations on a proteome-wide basis for many different cell types. PMID:17285363

  9. Mango fruit peel and flesh extracts affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hoang, Van L T; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. There is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride, were assessed for their effects on a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line model of adipogenesis. High content imaging was used to assess: lipid droplets per cell, lipid droplet area per cell, lipid droplet integrated intensity, nuclei count and nuclear area per cell. Mango flesh extracts from the three cultivars did not inhibit adipogenesis; peel extracts from both Irwin and Nam Doc Mai, however, did so with the Nam Doc Mai extract most potent at inhibiting adipogenesis. Peel extract from Kensington Pride promoted adipogenesis. The inhibition of adipogenesis by Irwin (100 μg mL(-1)) and Nam Doc Mai peel extracts (50 and 100 μg mL(-1)) was associated with an increase in the average nuclear area per cell; similar effects were seen with resveratrol, suggesting that these extracts may act through pathways similar to resveratrol. These results suggest that differences in the phytochemical composition between mango cultivars may influence their effectiveness in inhibiting adipogenesis, and points to mango fruit peel as a potential source of nutraceuticals.

  10. Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis induced by benzyl butyl phthalate in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Satoru; Sumida, Maki; Endoh, Yukiko; Kurita, Ayaka; Yamaguchi, Ayana; Watanabe, Tomoki; Kohda, Tetsuya; Tsukiyama, Yui; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2017-08-15

    Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals and may have contributed to the recent global obesity health crisis. Increased adipogenesis via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-CCAAT-enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) pathway could be one critical mechanism responsible for phthalate-induced weight gain. On the other hand, curcumin has been shown to inhibit adipogenesis in cells and animal models. The present study was undertaken to evaluate, for the first time, whether curcumin could reduce adipogenesis induced by benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) via downregulation of the PPARγ-C/EBPα pathway. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated by treating them with insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine in the presence of BBP, with or without curcumin. Cells that were grown in the presence of BBP alone showed a significant increase in triacylglycerol (TG) levels. In addition, the number of Oil Red O-stained cells and the mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) were significantly increased. However, treatment with BBP in combination with curcumin resulted in major reductions in TG levels, the numbers of Oil Red O-stained cells, and the mRNA expression levels of the four proteins. These results suggest that curcumin might be an inhibitor of BBP-induced weight gain and inflammation via stimulation of adipocyte differentiation and TNFα generation. Curcumin may, therefore, be a potential medication for preventing the harmful effects of phthalates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential expression of fatty acid uptake in 3T3-L1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, D.; Bernlohr, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cultured 3T3-L1 cells have been used as a model system to investigate the mechanism of fatty acid uptake by adipose tissue. Using a 1:1 molar ratio of 14 C-oleate and defatted bovine serum albumin (BSA), fatty acid (FA) uptake was quantitated at 4 0 and 37 0 as cell associated radioactivity. The profile of FA uptake in preadipocytes and adipocytes was biphasic; an initial rapid phase (1-20s) followed by a second slower phase (60-480s). At 37 0 the initial rate of FA accumulation in preadipocytes was identical to that in adipocytes, whereas the rate of accumulation during the second phase increased 7-fold (100 μM total FA) as a consequence of adipose conversion. When uptake measurements were made at 4 0 in adipocytes, the initial rate was identical to that at 37 0 , however the rate of second phase decreased 5-fold. Incubation of 14 C-BSA and nonradiolabeled FA with adipocyte monolayers (100 μM total FA) resulted in the rapid association (t/sub 1/2/ = 20s) of the BSA-FA complex with the cell surface. Incubation of 100, 10, and 1 μM total FA with adipocytes resulted in a 50-fold change in FA accumulation during the second phase. These results suggest that (1) FA uptake is significantly increased after differentiation, suggesting the participation of specialized proteins, (2) the temperature-insensitive initial FA accumulation can be attributed to rapid association of the BSA-FA complex to the cell surface, (3) the second phase of FA accumulation represents uptake

  12. [Importance of 3T3 feeder layer to establish epithelial cultures from cell suspension obtained from corneo-scleral rims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristovam, Priscila Cardoso; Glória, Maria Aparecida da; Melo, Gustavo Barreto; Gomes, José Alvaro Pereira

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of the presence of 3T3 fibroblasts for establishing limbal epithelial cultures from cell suspension obtained from corneo-scleral rims (CSR). Corneo-scleral rims from different donors (n=6) had their posterior stroma and endothelium stripped away. Each corneo-scleral rim was divided into three equal segments that were set up in tissue culture in three different conditions: one of the segments was placed with the epithelial side up on the bottom of a 6-well culture plate (Group A). The other two fragments were trypsinized and the obtained cell suspension was cultured with (Group B) or without (Group C) irradiaded 3T3 cells. The cells were cultured in supplemental hormonal epithelial medium (SHEM), the epithelial migration and clone formation in groups A, B and C were evaluated with phase contrast microscopy and rodamine B staining. Epithelial cell growth was observed in 4/6 rims (Group A). All epithelial cell suspensions that were cultured with 3T3 cells (Group B) formed clones. No adhesion or true clone formation (holo- or meroclones) was observed in the cell suspensions that were cultivated without 3T3 (Group C) (p=0.009). Epithelial cell suspension obtained from corneo-scleral rims in this model needs to be cultivated with 3T3 cells in order to form clones and establish limbal epithelial cell colonies with the potential to be used for ocular surface reconstruction.

  13. Mouse osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) expresses extracellular calcium (Ca2+o)-sensing receptor and its agonists stimulate chemotaxis and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Kifor, O.; Butters, R. R. Jr; Sugimoto, T.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays key roles in extracellular calcium ion (Ca2+o) homeostasis in parathyroid gland and kidney. Osteoblasts appear at sites of osteoclastic bone resorption during bone remodeling in the "reversal" phase following osteoclastic resorption and preceding bone formation. Bone resorption produces substantial local increases in Ca2+o that could provide a signal for osteoblasts in the vicinity, leading us to determine whether such osteoblasts express the CaR. In this study, we used the mouse osteoblastic, clonal cell line MC3T3-E1. Both immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, using an antiserum specific for the CaR, detected CaR protein in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also identified CaR transcripts in MC3T3-E1 cells by Northern analysis using a CaR-specific riboprobe and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with CaR-specific primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified products. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to high Ca2+o (up to 4.8 mM) or the polycationic CaR agonists, neomycin and gadolinium (Gd3+), stimulated both chemotaxis and DNA synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Therefore, taken together, our data strongly suggest that the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 possesses both CaR protein and mRNA very similar, if not identical, to those in parathyroid and kidney. Furthermore, the CaR in these osteoblasts could play a key role in regulating bone turnover by stimulating the proliferation and migration of such cells to sites of bone resorption as a result of local release of Ca2+o.

  14. Lipid droplets fusion in adipocyte differentiated 3T3-L1 cells: A Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi, Federico; Rizzatti, Vanni; Zamboni, Mauro; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Several human worldwide diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, atherosclerosis and other metabolic pathologies are related to the excessive accumulation of lipids in cells. Lipids accumulate in spherical cellular inclusions called lipid droplets (LDs) whose sizes range from fraction to one hundred of micrometers in adipocytes. It has been suggested that LDs can grow in size due to a fusion process by which a larger LD is obtained with spherical shape and volume equal to the sum of the progenitors’ ones. In this study, the size distribution of two populations of LDs was analyzed in immature and mature (5-days differentiated) 3T3-L1 adipocytes (first and second populations, respectively) after Oil Red O staining. A Monte Carlo simulation of interaction between LDs has been developed in order to quantify the size distribution and the number of fusion events needed to obtain the distribution of the second population size starting from the first one. Four models are presented here based on different kinds of interaction: a surface weighted interaction (R2 Model), a volume weighted interaction (R3 Model), a random interaction (Random model) and an interaction related to the place where the LDs are born (Nearest Model). The last two models mimic quite well the behavior found in the experimental data. This work represents a first step in developing numerical simulations of the LDs growth process. Due to the complex phenomena involving LDs (absorption, growth through additional neutral lipid deposition in existing droplets, de novo formation and catabolism) the study focuses on the fusion process. The results suggest that, to obtain the observed size distribution, a number of fusion events comparable with the number of LDs themselves is needed. Moreover the MC approach results a powerful tool for investigating the LDs growth process. Highlights: • We evaluated the role of the fusion process in the synthesis of the lipid droplets. • We compared the

  15. Rubi Fructus (Rubus coreanus Inhibits Differentiation to Adipocytes in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubi Fructus (RF is known to exert several pharmacological effects including antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its antiobesity effect has not been reported yet. This study was focused on the antidifferentiation effect of RF extract on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiating into adipocytes, 10–100 μg/mL of RF was added. Next, the lipid contents were quantified by Oil Red O staining. RF significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, CCAAT0-enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBPα, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2, resistin, and adiponectin in ways that were concentration dependent. Moreover, RF markedly upregulated liver kinase B1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Interestingly, pretreatment with AMPKα siRNA and RF downregulated the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα protein as well as the adipocyte differentiation. Our study shows that RF is capable of inhibiting the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the modulation of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and AMPK, suggesting that it has a potential for therapeutic application in the treatment or prevention of obesity.

  16. [The effect of microencapsulated NGF-expressing NIH-3T3 cells on bioengineered dermis function in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaohua; Chen, Shaozong; Jin, Yan; Xiong, Ying; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiaojun; Zhao, Yu; Li, Wangzhou; Lei, Zhanjun

    2007-02-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) can promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve as well as contraction and reepithelization of wound. We constructed a bioengineered dermis containing microencapsulated NGF-expressing NIH-3T3 cells and study the effect of the microencapsule to the bioengineered dermis and seed cells. NGF gene was transfected into NIH-3T3 cells and enclosed into alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microencapsulation and cultivated in vitro. Content of NGF in microencapsules culturing supernatant was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. These microencapsules were co-cultured with epidermic cells and fibroblast cells. Bioengineered dermis was constructed with NGF-expressing micorencapsules as seed cells using tissue engineering method. NIH-3T3 microencapsules, empty microencapsules, normal culture media were control groups. After one week culture, the characteristics of the dermis were described by MTT test, the content of hydroxyproline (HP), HE staining and ultrastructure photograph. We found the NGF-expressing microencapsulates can secret NGF steadly after cultured 8w in vitro, promot the proliferation of epidermic cells and secret collagen of fibroblast cells. These functions can maintaine in bioengineered dermis. So NGF-expressing NIH-3T3 microencapsulates can promote the quality of bioengineered dermis.

  17. Effect of tumor-conditioned medium on intercellular communication and proliferation of Balb/c 3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, L; Pásti, G; Sárváry, A; Balázs, M; Adány, R

    2000-04-03

    The possible role of tumor cell-derived factors in the regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication and proliferation of fibroblasts was studied in a model system of Balb/c 3T3 cells growing in tumor conditioned medium by Lucifer Yellow CH dye-transfer and BrdU incorporation assays. Six to 24 h incubation of Balb/c 3T3 cells in a medium conditioned by WiDr adenocarcinoma cells enhanced the gap junctional communication between the cells by 25-40% as revealed by intercellular transfer of a fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow CH. Simultaneously the cell proliferation rates were examined and found to be reduced by 23% at 24 h treatment. Since adenocarcinoma cells are known to secrete different growth factor-like polypeptides into their conditioned medium, we suppose that tumors that produce these molecules might alter their host environment through the enhancement of cell-cell communication thereby facilitating the exchange of modulatory factors.

  18. Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Cui, Rong-Rong; Yuan, Ling-Qing; Liao, Er-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Previous studies have identified the important physiological effects of ghrelin on bone metabolism, such as regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. However, research on effects and mechanisms of ghrelin on osteoblast apoptosis is still rare. In this study, we identified expression of GHSR in MC3T3-E1 cells and determined the effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism involved. Our data demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and ELISA assays. Moreover, ghrelin upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed decreased activated caspase-3 activity under the treatment of ghrelin. Further study suggested that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Pretreatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and GHSR-siRNA blocked the ghrelin-induced activation of ERK and AKT, respectively; however, ghrelin did not stimulate the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. PD90859, LY294002 and GHSR-siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of ghrelin on serum deprivation-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis. • Both ELISA and TUNEL were used to detect the apoptosis. • The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1

  19. Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Cui, Rong-Rong; Yuan, Ling-Qing, E-mail: allenylq@hotmail.com; Liao, Er-Yuan, E-mail: eyliao@21cn.com

    2013-11-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Previous studies have identified the important physiological effects of ghrelin on bone metabolism, such as regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. However, research on effects and mechanisms of ghrelin on osteoblast apoptosis is still rare. In this study, we identified expression of GHSR in MC3T3-E1 cells and determined the effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism involved. Our data demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and ELISA assays. Moreover, ghrelin upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed decreased activated caspase-3 activity under the treatment of ghrelin. Further study suggested that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Pretreatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and GHSR-siRNA blocked the ghrelin-induced activation of ERK and AKT, respectively; however, ghrelin did not stimulate the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. PD90859, LY294002 and GHSR-siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of ghrelin on serum deprivation-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis. • Both ELISA and TUNEL were used to detect the apoptosis. • The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1

  20. A Nanodot Array Modulates Cell Adhesion and Induces an Apoptosis-Like Abnormality in NIH-3T3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Yao-Ching

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Micro-structures that mimic the extracellular substratum promote cell growth and differentiation, while the cellular reaction to a nanostructure is poorly defined. To evaluate the cellular response to a nanoscaled surface, NIH 3T3 cells were grown on nanodot arrays with dot diameters ranging from 10 to 200 nm. The nanodot arrays were fabricated by AAO processing on TaN-coated wafers. A thin layer of platinum, 5 nm in thickness, was sputtered onto the structure to improve biocompatibility. The cells grew normally on the 10-nm array and on flat surfaces. However, 50-nm, 100-nm, and 200-nm nanodot arrays induced apoptosis-like events. Abnormality was triggered after as few as 24 h of incubation on a 200-nm dot array. For cells grown on the 50-nm array, the abnormality started after 72 h of incubation. The number of filopodia extended from the cell bodies was lower for the abnormal cells. Immunostaining using antibodies against vinculin and actin filament was performed. Both the number of focal adhesions and the amount of cytoskeleton were decreased in cells grown on the 100-nm and 200-nm arrays. Pre-coatings of fibronectin (FN or type I collagen promoted cellular anchorage and prevented the nanotopography-induced programed cell death. In summary, nanotopography, in the form of nanodot arrays, induced an apoptosis-like abnormality for cultured NIH 3T3 cells. The occurrence of the abnormality was mediated by the formation of focal adhesions.

  1. Enhancing osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells by immobilizing RGD onto liquid crystal substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shaopeng; Yang, Xiaohui; Li, Wenqiang; Du, Lin; Zeng, Rong; Tu, Mei

    2017-01-01

    To understand the effects of GRGDF modification on MC3T3-E1 cell behavior, we cultured these cells onto a biomimetic liquid crystalline matrix modified with GRGDF peptide (OPC-GA-RGD). Successful immobilization of GRGDF on the liquid crystalline surface was verified by fluorescent labeling, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). OPC-GA-RGDs retained its liquid crystalline feature after surface modification. The RGD-immobilized OPC substrate was hardly beneficial to initial cell adhesion but could support long-term cell survival. The enhancement in cell proliferation did not correlate with RGD density. The lower GRGDF density immobilized on the liquid crystalline OPC matrix (OPC-GA-RGD3) promoted cell adhesion, proliferation, ALP expression level and mineralization, suggesting that both the viscoelasticity-based mechanical stimuli and receptor/ligand-based biochemical cue synergistically modulate MC3T3-E1 cell behavior. - Highlight: • A novel type of GRGDF-immobilized liquid crystalline matrices was fabricated and served as a substrate for the in vitro culture of MC3T3-E1 cells. • The lower RGD density might provide a better condition for initial cell adhesion and proliferation, up-regulation of ALP expression levels, and mineralization. • The intrinsic liquid crystalline feature of OPC matrix, instead of RGD efficiency, promoted initial cell adhesion. • Properties of the liquid crystalline OPC matrix together with the stable receptor-ligand binging synergistically modulated MC3T3-E1 cell behavior.

  2. Functional expression of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Takao; Kaneshige, Kota; Kurosaki, Teruko [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, 1 Gakuen-cho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima 729-0292 (Japan); Nishio, Hiroaki, E-mail: nishio@fupharm.fukuyama-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, 1 Gakuen-cho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima 729-0292 (Japan)

    2010-05-28

    In the previous study, we reported the gene expression for proteins related to the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and elucidated the expression patterns of 5-HT{sub 2} receptor subtypes in mouse osteoblasts. In the present study, we evaluated the possible involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes and its inactivation system in MC3T3-E1 cells, an osteoblast cell line. DOI, a 5-HT{sub 2A} and 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor selective agonist, as well as 5-HT concentration-dependently increased proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in their premature period. This effect of 5-HT on cell proliferation were inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor specific antagonist. Moreover, both DOI-induced cell proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1 and 2 proteins were inhibited by PD98059 and U0126, selective inhibitors of MEK in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with fluoxetine, a 5-HT specific re-uptake inhibitor which inactivate the function of extracellular 5-HT, significantly increased the proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data indicate that 5-HT fill the role for proliferation of osteoblast cells in their premature period. Notably, 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor may be functionally expressed to regulate mechanisms underlying osteoblast cell proliferation, at least in part, through activation of ERK/MAPK pathways in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  3. DNA from radiation resistant human tumor cells transfers resistance to NIH/3T3 cells with varying degrees of penetrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasid, U.; Dritschilo, A.; Weichselbaum, R.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that clinical radiation resistance may correlate with in vitro radiation survival parameters. Specifically, they isolated several cell lines from radioresistant head and neck carcinomas with D/sub 0/ values greater than 2 Gy. The authors co-transfected DNA from cell line SQ2OB (D/sub 0/ = 2.4 Gy) with the rhoSVNeO plasmid into NIH/3T3 cells (D/sub 0/ = 1.7 Gy). Antibiotic G418 resistant, transformed clones were isolated and confirmed by Southern blotting to contain human alu, as well as rhoSVNeO sequences. Screening for radiation resistance with 8Gy (Cs-137) revealed that 3 of 4 tested hybrid clones show a radiation survival intermediate between NIH/3T3 and SQ2OB. This suggests that radiation resistance is a dominant, transfectable phenotype of mammalian cells and can be expressed in more sensitive cells. Karyotyping of resistant hybrid clones shows the presence of double minute chromosomes. Secondary transfection results and experiments to clone the genetic factors responsible for radiation resistance are in progress and results will be reported

  4. Plasticizers used in food-contact materials affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomatto, Valentina; Cottone, Erika; Cocci, Paolo; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Mosconi, Gilberto; Nelson, Erik Russel; Palermo, Francesco Alessandro; Bovolin, Patrizia

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that exposure to some plasticizers, such as Bisphenol A (BPA), play a role in endocrine/metabolic dispruption and can affect lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Here, we investigated the adipogenic activity and nuclear receptor interactions of four plasticizers approved for the manufacturing of food-contact materials (FCMs) and currently considered safer alternatives. Differentiating 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes were exposed to scalar concentrations (0.01-25 μM) of DiNP (Di-iso-nonyl-phthalate), DiDP (Di-iso-decyl-phthalate), DEGDB (Diethylene glycol dibenzoate), or TMCP (Tri-m-cresyl phosphate). Rosiglitazone, a well-known pro-adipogenic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist, and the plasticizer BPA were included as reference compounds. All concentrations of plasticizers were able to enhance lipid accumulation, with TMCP being the most effective one. Accordingly, when comparing in silico the ligand binding efficiencies to the nuclear receptors PPARγ and retinoid-X-receptor-alpha (RXRα), TMPC displayed the highest affinity to both receptors. Differently from BPA, the four plasticizers were most effective in enhancing lipid accumulation when added in the mid-late phase of differentiation, thus suggesting the involvement of different intracellular signalling pathways. In line with this, TMCP, DiDP, DiNP and DEGDB were able to activate PPARγ in transient transfection assays, while previous studies demonstrated that BPA acts mainly through other nuclear receptors. qRT-PCR studies showed that all plasticizers were able to increase the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (Cebpβ) in the early steps of adipogenesis, and the adipogenesis master gene Pparγ2 in the middle phase, with very similar efficacy to that of Rosiglitazone. In addition, TMCP was able to modulate the expression of both Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4/Adipocyte Protein 2 (Fabp4/Ap2) and Lipoprotein Lipase (Lpl) transcripts in the late phase

  5. Anti-osteoporosis activity of Sanguinarine in preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and an ovariectomized rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuzhan; Xie, Jile; Wang, Genlin; Zhang, Ge; Yang, Huilin

    2018-06-01

    Sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid, has been previously demonstrated to exert antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. A previous study has identified Sanguinarine as a potential drug candidate for osteoporosis treatment by computational bioinformatics analysis. This study further evaluated the effects of Sanguinarine on the differentiation of murine preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and its anti-osteoporosis activity in an ovarietomized rat model. Sanguinarine treatment (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 µm) of MC3T3-E1 cells significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the phoshporalyation of AMP-activated protein kinase α subunit (AMPKα), but did not affect cell proliferation. The induction effects of Sanguinarine treatment (2 µm) on ALP activity, AMPKα phosphorylation, Smad1 phosphorylation, and the expression of three osteoblast differentiation-regulators (bone morphogenetic protein 2 [BMP2], osterix [OSX], and osteoprotegerin [OPG]) were partially reversed by Compound C treatment. More importantly, Sanguinarine treatment promoted bone tissue growth in an ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis rat model as evaluated by histological examination, micro-CT analysis, and serum parameter detection. In conclusion, these results indicate that Sanguinarine induces the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells through the activation of the AMPK/Smad1 signaling pathway. Sanguinarine can stimulate bone growth in vivo and may be an effective drug for osteoporosis treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of PEMF exposure at different pulses on osteogenesis of MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangchu; Ma, Shirong; Li, Yurong; Ding, Guirong; Teng, Zenghui; Liu, Junye; Ren, Dongqing; Guo, Yao; Ma, Lei; Guo, Guozhen

    2014-09-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) were considered to be a factor which may affect osteogenesis of osteoblasts, but the effects were diverse with different PEMF parameters. The aim of the current study is to explore the effects of exposure to PEMFs at different pulse number on osteogenesis of osteoblasts. The mouse osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to 0, 400 or 2800 pulses 400kV/m PEMF and the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of cells were observed after PEMF exposure by the methods of MTT, biochemical measurement, real-time PCR and Alizarin Red assay. Compared with 0 pulses groups, the growth curve, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mRNA level of osteocalcin (OCN) and mineralized nodule formation of MC3T3-E1 cells did not change after 400 pulses PEMF exposure, but decreased after 2800 pulses PEMF exposure. It suggested that under our experimental conditions, only 2800 pulses 400kV/m PEMF exposure can suppress the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells, but 400 pulses 400kV/m PEMF exposure cannot. Pulse number is another involved parameter which may influence the effects of PEMF on osteogenesis of osteoblasts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory potential of rambutan seeds extract and fractions on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Soeng; Endang Evacuasiany; Wahyu Widowati; Nurul Fauziah; Visi Tinta Manik; Maesaroh Maesaroh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Type 2 diabetes is a global health problem with increasing prevalence related to several conditions; one of these is due to obesity. Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L) seeds contain various phenolic compounds. The present study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical content and the inhibitory potential of rambutan seeds extract and fractions on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and #945;-glucosidase, and triglyceride activities ex vivo in 3T3-L1 cell line (pre-adipocyte...

  8. Citrus aurantium flavonoids inhibit adipogenesis through the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Gon-Sup

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a health hazard that is associated with a number of diseases and metabolic abnormalities, such as type-2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease. In the current study, we investigated the effects of Citrus aurantium flavonoids (CAF on the inhibition of adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods During adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 0, 10, and 50 μg/ml CAF, and then the mRNA and protein expression of adipogenesis-related genes was assayed. We examined the effect of CAF on level of phosphorylated Akt in 3T3-L1 cells treated with CAF at various concentrations during adipocyte differentiation. Results The insulin-induced expression of C/EBPβ and PPARγ mRNA and protein were significantly down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner following CAF treatment. CAF also dramatically decreased the expression of C/EBPα, which is essential for the acquisition of insulin sensitivity by adipocytes. Moreover, the expression of the aP2 and FAS genes, which are involved in lipid metabolism, decreased dramatically upon treatment with CAF. Interestingly, CAF diminished the insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473 and GSK3β (Ser9, which may reduce glucose uptake in response to insulin and lipid accumulation. Furthermore, CAF not only inhibited triglyceride accumulation during adipogenesis but also contributed to the lipolysis of adipocytes. Conclusions In the present study, we demonstrate that CAF suppressed adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results indicated that CAF down-regulates the expression of C/EBPβ and subsequently inhibits the activation of PPARγ and C/EBPα. The anti-adipogenic activity of CAF was mediated by the inhibition of Akt activation and GSK3β phosphorylation, which induced the down-regulation of lipid accumulation and lipid metabolizing genes, ultimately inhibiting adipocyte differentiation.

  9. Citrus aurantium flavonoids inhibit adipogenesis through the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gon-Sup; Park, Hyoung Joon; Woo, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Koh, Phil-Ok; Min, Wongi; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Chung-Hei; Won, Chung-Kil; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

    2012-04-03

    Obesity is a health hazard that is associated with a number of diseases and metabolic abnormalities, such as type-2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease. In the current study, we investigated the effects of Citrus aurantium flavonoids (CAF) on the inhibition of adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. During adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 0, 10, and 50 μg/ml CAF, and then the mRNA and protein expression of adipogenesis-related genes was assayed. We examined the effect of CAF on level of phosphorylated Akt in 3T3-L1 cells treated with CAF at various concentrations during adipocyte differentiation. The insulin-induced expression of C/EBPβ and PPARγ mRNA and protein were significantly down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner following CAF treatment. CAF also dramatically decreased the expression of C/EBPα, which is essential for the acquisition of insulin sensitivity by adipocytes. Moreover, the expression of the aP2 and FAS genes, which are involved in lipid metabolism, decreased dramatically upon treatment with CAF. Interestingly, CAF diminished the insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and GSK3β (Ser9), which may reduce glucose uptake in response to insulin and lipid accumulation. Furthermore, CAF not only inhibited triglyceride accumulation during adipogenesis but also contributed to the lipolysis of adipocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that CAF suppressed adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results indicated that CAF down-regulates the expression of C/EBPβ and subsequently inhibits the activation of PPARγ and C/EBPα. The anti-adipogenic activity of CAF was mediated by the inhibition of Akt activation and GSK3β phosphorylation, which induced the down-regulation of lipid accumulation and lipid metabolizing genes, ultimately inhibiting adipocyte differentiation.

  10. High-level expression of human insulin receptor cDNA in mouse NIH 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, J.; Okamoto, A.K.; Thys, R.; Bell, G.I.; Steiner, D.F.; Hofmann, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    In order to develop a simple, efficient system for the high-level expression of human insulin receptors in eukaryotic cells, a full-length human kidney insulin receptor cDNA was inserted into a bovine papilloma virus vector under the control of the mouse metallothionein promoter. After transfection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells with this construct, seven cell lines expressing insulin receptors were isolated; two cell lines had more than 10/sup 6/ receptors per cell. The cell line with the highest /sup 125/I-insulin binding (NIH 3T3 HIR3.5) had 6 x 10/sup 6/ receptors with a K/sub d/ of 10/sup -9/ M. This level was not dependent on exposure to metals but could be increased further to 2 x 10/sup 7/ receptors per cell by addition of sodium butyrate to the culture medium. The ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits had apparent molecular weights of 147,000 and 105,000, respectively (compared to 135,000 and 95,000 in IM-9 human lymphocytes), values identical to those of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of the insulin receptors of nontransformed NIH 3T3 cells. This size difference was due to altered carbohydrate composition, as N-glycanase digestion reduced the apparent receptor subunit size of the transfected cells and IM-9 lymphocytes to identical values. The alteration in N-linked oligosaccharide composition could not be ascribed to differences in the kinetics of posttranslational processing of the insulin receptors, which was comparable to that of other cells studied. The basal rate of glycogen synthesis in the cells overexpressing insulin receptors was increased 4- to 5-fold compared with controls. Low levels of added insulin (0.1 nM) caused a 50% increase in the rate of glycogen synthesis

  11. High-level expression of human insulin receptor cDNA in mouse NIH 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, J.; Okamoto, A.K.; Thys, R.; Bell, G.I.; Steiner, D.F.; Hofmann, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to develop a simple, efficient system for the high-level expression of human insulin receptors in eukaryotic cells, a full-length human kidney insulin receptor cDNA was inserted into a bovine papilloma virus vector under the control of the mouse metallothionein promoter. After transfection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells with this construct, seven cell lines expressing insulin receptors were isolated; two cell lines had more than 10 6 receptors per cell. The cell line with the highest 125 I-insulin binding (NIH 3T3 HIR3.5) had 6 x 10 6 receptors with a K/sub d/ of 10 -9 M. This level was not dependent on exposure to metals but could be increased further to 2 x 10 7 receptors per cell by addition of sodium butyrate to the culture medium. The α and β subunits had apparent molecular weights of 147,000 and 105,000, respectively (compared to 135,000 and 95,000 in IM-9 human lymphocytes), values identical to those of the α and β subunits of the insulin receptors of nontransformed NIH 3T3 cells. This size difference was due to altered carbohydrate composition, as N-glycanase digestion reduced the apparent receptor subunit size of the transfected cells and IM-9 lymphocytes to identical values. The alteration in N-linked oligosaccharide composition could not be ascribed to differences in the kinetics of posttranslational processing of the insulin receptors, which was comparable to that of other cells studied. The basal rate of glycogen synthesis in the cells overexpressing insulin receptors was increased 4- to 5-fold compared with controls. Low levels of added insulin (0.1 nM) caused a 50% increase in the rate of glycogen synthesis

  12. Effects of phytoestrogens and environmental estrogens on osteoblastic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Sanae; Hirano, Seishiro; Kayama, Fujio

    2004-01-01

    Phytoestrogens and environmental estrogens, which have in part some structural similarity to 17β-estradiol, are reported to act as agonists/antagonists of estrogen in animals and humans. Estrogen is known to play an important role in maintaining bone mass, since the concentration of serum estrogen decreases after menopause and the estrogen deficiency results in bone loss. In this study, we report the effects of phytoestrogens (genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol) and environmental estrogens (bisphenol A (BPA), p-n-nonylphenol (NP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)) on osteoblast differentiation using MC3T3-E1 cells, a mouse calvaria osteoblast-like cell line. Coumestrol (10 -10 to 10 -6 M) slightly enhanced cell proliferation, while neither the other phytoestrogens (daidzein, genistein) nor environmental estrogens increased cell proliferation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and cellular calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents were increased by phytoestrogens and BPA; however, neither NP nor DEHP affected those osteoblastic indicators. The effects of estrogenic potency, using the cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells, an estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer cell line, indicate that coumestrol has the highest estrogenic potency among those phytoestrogens and environmental estrogens. The estrogenic potency of NP and DEHP were lower than the others. In conclusion, phytoestrogens, such as coumestrol, genistein and daidzein, and BPA increased ALP activity and enhanced bone mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells, suggesting that not only phytoestrogen but also BPA, an environmental estrogen, is implicated in bone metabolism

  13. ClC-3 Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation in MC3T3-E1 Cell After Dynamic Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Wang, Hao; Gao, Feng; Wang, Kun; Dong, Fusheng

    2017-06-01

    ClC-3 chloride channel has been proved to have a relationship with the expression of osteogenic markers during osteogenesis, persistent static compression can upregulate the expression of ClC-3 and regulate osteodifferentiation in osteoblasts. However, there was no study about the relationship between the expression of ClC-3 and osteodifferentiation after dynamic compression. In this study, we applied dynamic compression on MC3T3-E1 cells to detect the expression of ClC-3, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), osteopontin (OPN), nuclear-associated antigen Ki67 (Ki67), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in biopress system, then we investigated the expression of these genes after dynamic compression with Chlorotoxin (specific ClC-3 chloride channel inhibitor) added. Under transmission electron microscopy, there were more cell surface protrusions, rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, abundant glycogen, and lysosomes scattered in the cytoplasm in MC3T3-E1 cells after dynamic compression. The nucleolus was more obvious. We found that ClC-3 was significantly up-regulated after dynamic compression. The compressive force also up-regulated Runx2, BMP-2, and OPN after dynamic compression for 2, 4 and 8 h. The proliferation gene Ki67 and PCNA did not show significantly change after dynamic compression for 8 h. Chlorotoxin did not change the expression of ClC-3 but reduced the expression of Runx2, BMP-2, and OPN after dynamic compression compared with the group without Cltx added. The data from the current study suggested that ClC-3 may promotes osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cell after dynamic compression. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1606-1613, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Compressive force induces osteoclast differentiation via prostaglandin E(2) production in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Rina; Shionome, Chieko; Kuwabara, Akiko; Mitsui, Narihiro; Koyama, Yuki; Suzuki, Naoto; Zhang, Fan; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Maeno, Masao

    2010-04-01

    In orthodontic tooth movement, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) released from osteoblasts can alter the normal process of bone remodeling. We previously showed that compressive force (CF) controls bone formation by stimulating the production of PGE(2) and Ep2 and/or Ep4 receptors in osteoblasts. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of CF on the production of PGE(2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) using osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and to examine the indirect effect of CF on osteoclast differentiation using RAW264.7 cells as osteoclast precursors. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with or without continuous CF (1.0 or 3.0 g/cm(2)) for 24 hr, and PGE(2) production was determined using ELISA. The expression of COX-2, M-CSF, RANKL, and OPG genes and proteins was determined using real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Osteoclast differentiation was estimated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining of RAW 264.7 cells cultured for 10 days with conditioned medium from CF-treated MC3T3-E1 cells and soluble RANKL. As CF increased, PGE(2) production and the expression of COX-2, M-CSF, and RANKL increased, whereas OPG expression decreased. The number of TRAP-positive cells increased as CF increased. Celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, blocked the stimulatory effect of CF on TRAP staining and the production of PGE(2), M-CSF, RANKL, and OPG. These results suggest that CF induces osteoclast differentiation by increasing M-CSF production and decreasing OPG production via PGE(2) in osteoblasts.

  15. Surface modifications by gas plasma control osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas, A.M.C.; Lachmann, K.; Hlawacek, G.; Frielink, C.; Truckenmüller, R.K.; Boerman, O.C.; van Gastel, Raoul; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Thomas, M.; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the physicochemical properties of biomaterials can control cell activity. Cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation as well as tissue formation in vivo can be tuned by properties such as the porosity, surface micro- and nanoscale topography and chemical

  16. Surface modifications by gas plasma control osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas, A.M.; Lachmann, K.; Hlawacek, G.; Frielink, C.; Truckenmoller, R.; Boerman, O.C.; Gastel, R. van; Garritsen, H.; Thomas, M.; Moroni, L.; Blitterswijk, C. Van; Boer, J. den

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the physicochemical properties of biomaterials can control cell activity. Cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation as well as tissue formation in vivo can be tuned by properties such as the porosity, surface micro- and nanoscale topography and chemical

  17. Cell-Cell Communication Between Fibroblast and 3T3-L1 Cells Under Co-culturing in Oxidative Stress Condition Induced by H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyan, Sivakumar Allur; Kim, Sidong; Hwang, Inho

    2016-10-01

    The present study was carried out to understand the interaction between fibroblast and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells under H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress condition. H 2 O 2 (40 μM) was added in co-culture and monoculture of fibroblast and 3T3-L1 cell. The cells in the lower well were harvested for analysis and the process was carried out for both cells. The cell growth, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant enzymes were analyzed. Additionally, the mRNA expressions of caspase-3 and caspase-7 were selected for analysis of apoptotic pathways and TNF-α and NF-κB were analyzed for inflammatory pathways. The adipogenic marker such as adiponectin and PPAR-γ and collagen synthesis markers such as LOX and BMP-1 were analyzed in the co-culture of fibroblast and 3T3-L1 cells. Cell viability and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the co-culture compared to the monoculture under stress condition. The apoptotic, inflammatory, adipogenic, and collagen-synthesized markers were significantly altered in H 2 O 2 -induced co-culture of fibroblast and 3T3-L1 cells when compared with the monoculture of H 2 O 2 -induced fibroblast and 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, the confocal microscopical investigation indicated that the co-culture of H 2 O 2 -induced 3T3-L1 and fibroblast cells increases collagen type I and type III expression. From our results, we suggested that co-culture of fat cell (3T3-L1) and fibroblast cells may influence/regulate each other and made the cells able to withstand against oxidative stress and aging. It is conceivable that the same mechanism might have been occurring from cell to cell while animals are stressed by various environmental conditions.

  18. α-Tocopherol protected against cobalt nanoparticles and cocl2induced cytotoxicity and inflammation in Balb/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Liu, Yake; Xie, Tian; Liu, Fan

    2018-04-01

    Currently, tissue damage induced by cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) and cobalt ions (Co 2+ ) are the most serious adverse effect in the patients with metal-on-metal hip prostheses. Therefore, an urgent need exists for the identification of the mechanisms and the development of therapeutic strategies to limit it. We aimed to explore the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of CoNPs and Co 2+ and developed strategies to reduce this cytotoxicity with α-tocopherol treatment. To evaluate the protective effect of α-tocopherol, Balb/3T3 cells were pretreated with 10 μM α-tocopherol for 24 h. The cells were then exposed to different concentrations of CoNPs and Co 2+ for 12 h, 24 h and 48 h. The cell viabilities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines and MAP kinase (MAPK) levels were measured. CoNPs and Co 2+ can induce the increase of ROS and inflammatory cytokines in Balb/3T3 cells, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, α-tocopherol pretreatment can significantly prevent cytotoxicity induced by CoNPs and Co 2+ , decrease ROS production and decrease levels of inflammatory cytokines in Balb/3T3 cells. Additionally, MAPK pathway may be involved in the protection of α-tocopherol against cytotoxicity induced by CoNPs and Co 2+ in vitro. Our results provide new insights into the potential therapeutic use of α-tocopherol in the prevention and treatment of various oxidative- or inflammatory stress-related inflammation and injuries.

  19. Molecular characterisation of group IVA (cytosolic) phospholipase A2 in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Hans Jörg; Windischhofer, Werner

    2015-02-01

    Formation of the powerful osteogenic prostaglandin E2 by osteoblasts, a key modulatory event in the paracrine and autocrine regulation of bone cell activity, is preceded by release of the precursor arachidonic acid from phospholipid stores. The main routes of arachidonate liberation may involve phospholipase enzymes such as group IVA phospholipase A2 which is believed to be the main effector in many cell system due to its preference for arachidonate-containing lipids. MC3T3-E1 cells are non-transformed osteoblasts and are widely used as an in vitro model of osteoblast function. In these cells there is still no clarity about the main release pathway of arachidonic acid. Besides cytosolic phospholipase A2, phospholipase C and D pathways may play a key role in arachidonate release. Despite the crucial role of osteoblastic prostgalandin synthesis information on the occurrence of involved enzymes at the molecular level is scarse in MC3T3-E1 cells. We have characterised group IVA phospholipase A2 at the mRNA in these cells as a constitutively expressed enzyme which is cytosolic and translocates to the membrane upon endothelin-1 stimulation. Using immunopurification combined with Western blotting and high-resolution mass spectrometry, the enzyme was also identified at the protein level. Using specific gene silencing we were able to show that osteoblastic cytosolic phospholipase A2 is crucially involved in ET-1-induced prostaglandin formation.

  20. Spindlin1, a novel nuclear protein with a role in the transformation of NIH3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yanhong; Yue Wen; Zhang Peng; Li Li; Xie Xiaoyan; Yuan Hongfeng; Chen Lin; Liu Daqing; Yan Fang; Pei Xuetao

    2005-01-01

    spindlin1, a novel human gene recently isolated by our laboratory, is highly homologous to mouse spindlin gene. In this study, we cloned cDNA full-length of this novel gene and send it to GenBank database as spindlin1 (Homo sapiens spindlin1) with Accession No. AF317228. In order to investigate the function of spindlin1, we studied further the subcellular localization of Spindlin1 protein and the effects of spindlin1 overexpression in NIH3T3 cells. The results showed that the fusion protein pEGFP-N1-spindlin1 was located in the nucleus and the C-terminal is correlated with nuclear localization of Spindlin1 protein. NIH3T3 cells which could stably express spindlin1 as a result of RT-PCR analysis compared with the control cells displayed a complete morphological change; made cell growth faster; and increased the percentage of cells in G 2 /M and S phase. Furthermore, overexpressed spindlin1 cells formed colonies in soft agar in vitro and formed tumors in nude mice. Our findings provide direct evidence that spindlin1 gene may contribute to tumorigenesis

  1. Potential role of marine algae extract on 3T3-L1 cell proliferation and differentiation: an in vitro approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundharrajan Ilavenil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From ancient times, marine algae have emerged as alternative medicine and foods, contains the rich source of natural products like proteins, vitamins, and secondary metabolites, especially Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris contains numerous anti-inflammatory, antioxidants and wound healing substances. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is closely associated with adipogenesis and their factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the chemical constituents and adipo-genic modulatory properties of C. vulgaris in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. RESULTS: We analysed chemical constituents in ethanolic extract of C. vulgaris (EECV by LC-MS. Results revealed that the EECV contains few triterpenoids and saponin compounds. Further, the effect of EECV on lipid accumulation along with genes and proteins expressions which are associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis were evaluated using oil red O staining, qPCR and western blot techniques. The data indicated that that EECV treatment increased differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, which indicates positive regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic activity. These increases were associated with up-regulation of PPAR-γ2, C/EBP-α, adiponectin, FAS, and leptin mRNA and protein expressions. Also, EECV treatments increased the concentration of glycerol releases as compared with control cells. Troglitazone is a PPAR-γ agonist that stimulates the PPAR-y2, adiponectin, and GLUT-4 expressions. Similarly, EECV treatments significantly upregulated PPAR-γ2, adiponectin, GLUT-4 expressions and glucose utilization. Further, EECV treatment decreased AMPK-α expression as compared with control and metformin treated cells. CONCLUSION: The present research findings confirmed that the EECV effectively modulates the lipid accumulation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells through AMPK-α mediated signalling pathway.

  2. Insulin-IGF signaling affects cell transformation in the BALB/c 3T3 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poburski, Doerte; Leovsky, Christiane; Boerner, Josefine Barbara; Szimmtenings, Luisa; Ristow, Michael; Glei, Michael; Thierbach, René

    2016-11-16

    The increased cancer mortality of diabetes type 2 patients is most likely an evidence of the tight connection between tumor development and energy metabolism. A major focus of today's research is still the identification of key proteins of both diseases and the development of corresponding inhibitors. In this study we combined the two-stage BALB/c-3T3 cell transformation assay (BALB-CTA) with the IR/IGF-1R inhibitor OSI-906 (linsitinib) and analyzed alterations in protein activity and energy parameters in non-transformed as well as transformed cells. OSI-906 successfully inhibited the phosphorylation of IR/IGF-1R and decreased cell growth in non-transformed cells. In the BALB-CTA, a permanent treatment with OSI-906 reduced cellular transformation dose-dependently, whereas a temporary treatment gave evidence for a preventive effect in the promotion phase. Furthermore, even though several key proteins were affected, it was possible to show that the phosphorylation of GSK3, Erk 1/2 and the S6 protein are not crucial for the cell foci reducing effect of OSI-906. Taken together, the BALB-CTA confirmed results of OSI-906 from animal studies and enhanced the knowledge of its mode of action. Therefore, the BALB-CTA offers the opportunity to analyze alterations in the transformation process more precisely and will be helpful to identify effective cancer treatments.

  3. Deoxyactein Isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa protects osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells against antimycin A-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Mi

    2013-06-01

    Deoxyactein is one of the major constituents isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of deoxyactein on antimycin A (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor)-induced toxicity in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to antimycin A caused significant cell viability loss, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, complex IV inactivation, ATP loss, intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) elevation and oxidative stress. Pretreatment with deoxyactein prior to antimycin A exposure significantly reduced antimycin A-induced cell damage by preventing mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, complex IV inactivation, ATP loss, [Ca(2+) ]i elevation and oxidative stress. Moreover, deoxyactein increased the activation of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), Akt (protein kinase B) and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) inhibited by antimycin A. All these data indicate that deoxyactein may reduce or prevent osteoblasts degeneration in osteoporosis or other degenerative disorders. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and peritoneal mast cells as targets of a growth activity secreted by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozaki, K.; Kuriu, A.; Hirota, S.; Onoue, H.; Ebi, Y.; Adachi, S.; Ma, J.Y.; Tarui, S.; Kitamura, Y.

    1991-01-01

    When fibroblast cell lines were cultured in contact with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (CMC), both NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cell lines supported the proliferation of CMC. In contrast, when contact between fibroblasts and CMC was prohibited by Biopore membranes or soft agar, only BALB/3T3 fibroblasts supported CMC proliferation, suggesting that BALB/3T3 but not NIH/3T3 cells secreted a significant amount of a mast cell growth activity. Moreover, the BALB/3T3-derived growth activity induced the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by CMC and the clonal growth of peritoneal mast cells in methylcellulose. The mast cell growth activity appeared to be different from interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), because mRNAs for these interleukins were not detectable in BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Although mast cells are genetically deficient in tissues of W/Wv mice, CMC did develop when bone marrow cells of W/Wv mice were cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium. Because BALB/3T3 fibroblast-conditioned medium (BALB-FCM) did not induce the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by W/Wv CMC, the growth activity in BALB-FCM appeared to be a ligand for the receptor encoded by the W (c-kit) locus. Because CMC and peritoneal mast cells are obtained as homogeneous suspensions rather easily, these cells may be potentially useful as targets for the fibroblast-derived mast cell growth activity

  5. Estradiol determines the effects of PTH on ERα-dependent transcription in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Monika H E; Fenne, Ingvild S; Flågeng, Marianne H; Almås, Bjørg; Lien, Ernst A; Mellgren, Gunnar

    2014-07-18

    Bone remodeling is a continuous process regulated by several hormones such as estrogens and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Here we investigated the influence of PTH on estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-dependent transcriptional activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Cells that were transfected with an ER-responsive reporter plasmid and treated with PTH showed increased luciferase activity. However, in the presence of 17β-estradiol, we observed that PTH inhibited ERα-mediated transcription. cAMP mimicked the effects by PTH, and the findings were confirmed in COS-1 cells transfected with expression vector encoding the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Furthermore, PTH exhibited specific effects on the mRNA expression of the decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the receptor activator of NF kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In the absence of 17β-estradiol, PTH and cAMP enhanced the OPG/RANKL ratio, whereas, OPG/RANKL was suppressed when estradiol was present. In conclusion, our results indicate that the presence of estradiol determines whether PTH and cAMP stimulates or inhibits ERα-dependent activity and the OPG/RANKL mRNA expression in an osteoblastic cell line. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Linarin isolated from Buddleja officinalis prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced dysfunction in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Young Soon; Choi, Eun Mi

    2011-01-01

    The flowers and leaves buds of Buddleja officinalis MAXIM (Buddlejaceae) are used to treat eye troubles, hernia, gonorrhea and liver troubles in Asia. To elucidate the protective effects of linarin isolated from B. officinalis on the response of osteoblast to oxidative stress, osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were pre-incubated with linarin for 1h before treatment with 0.3mM H(2)O(2) for 48h, and markers of osteoblast function and oxidative damage were examined. Linarin significantly (P<0.05) increased cell survival, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen content, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin secretion and decreased the production of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL), protein carbonyl (PCO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These results demonstrate that linarin can protect osteoblasts against hydrogen peroxide-induced osteoblastic dysfunction and may exert anti-resorptive actions, at least in part, via the reduction of RANKL and oxidative damage. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Andrographolide inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by suppressing C/EBPβ expression and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ching-Chu; Chuang, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Chen, Yun-Ting; Chen, Haw-Wen; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide, a diterpenoid, is the most abundant terpenoid in Andrographis paniculata, a popular Chinese herbal medicine. Andrographolide displays diverse biological activities including hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia, anti-inflammation, and anti-tumorigenesis. Recent evidence indicates that andrographolide displays anti-obesity property by inhibiting lipogenic gene expression, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, the effects of andrographolide on transcription factor cascade and mitotic clonal expansion in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation into adipocyte were determined. Andrographolide dose-dependently (0–15 μM) inhibited CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and C/EBPβ mRNA and protein expression as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein level during the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. Concomitantly, fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression and lipid accumulation were attenuated by andrographolide. Oil-red O staining further showed that the first 48 h after the initiation of differentiation was critical for andrographolide inhibition of adipocyte formation. Andrographolide inhibited the phosphorylation of PKA and the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in response to a differentiation cocktail, which led to attenuated C/EBPβ expression. In addition, ERK and GSK3β-dependent C/EBPβ phosphorylation was attenuated by andrographolide. Moreover, andrographolide suppressed cyclin A, cyclin E, and CDK2 expression and impaired the progression of mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) by arresting the cell cycle at the Go/G1 phase. Taken together, these results indicate that andrographolide has a potent anti-obesity action by inhibiting PKA-CREB-mediated C/EBPβ expression as well as C/EBPβ transcriptional activity, which halts MCE progression and attenuates C/EBPα and PPARγ expression. - Highlights: • Andrographolide is a diterpenoid phytochemical.

  8. Effect of injection molded micro-structured polystyrene surfaces on proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lucchetta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, osteoinductive micro-pillared polystyrene surfaces were mass-produced for bone replacement applications, by means of the micro injection molding process. Firstly, the molding process parameters were optimized with a two-level, three-factor central composite face-centered plan to increase the quality of polystyrene micro pillars replication and to maximize the pillars height uniformity over the molded part. Secondly, osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion and proliferation on the replicated substrates were assessed as a function of micro topography parameters, such as pillars diameter, aspect ratio and spacing. Cell morphology and proliferation were evaluated through MTS test after 1, 3 and 7 days from seeding. The experimental results showed that cells adhesion and proliferation is more positively promoted on micro-pillared surfaces compared to flat surfaces, but no correlations were observed between cell proliferation and pillar diameter and spacing.

  9. The molecular mechanism regulating the autonomous circadian expression of Topoisomerase I in NIH3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Kumagai, Megumi; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Masaaki

    2009-02-27

    To identify whether Topoisomerase I (TopoI) has autonomous circadian rhythms regulated by clock genes, we tested mouse TopoI (mTopoI) promoter oscillation in NIH3T3 cells using a real-time monitoring assay and TopoI mRNA oscillations using real-time RT-PCR. Analysis of the mTopoI promoter region with Matlnspector software revealed two putative E-box (E1 and E2) and one DBP/E4BP4-binding element (D-box). Luciferase assays indicated that mTopoI gene expression was directly regulated by clock genes. The real-time monitoring assay showed that E-box and D-box response elements participate in the regulation of the circadian expression of mTopoI. Furthermore, a gel-shift assay showed that E2 is a direct target of the BMAL1/CLOCK heterodimer and DBP binds to the putative D-site. These results indicate that TopoI is expressed in an autonomous circadian rhythm in NIH3T3 cells.

  10. Reactive oxygen species regulatory mechanisms associated with rapid response of MC3T3-E1 cells for vibration stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Gan, Xueqi; Zhu, Zhuoli; Yang, Yang; He, Yuting; Yu, Haiyang, E-mail: yhyang6812@scu.edu.cn

    2016-02-12

    Although many previous studies have shown that refractory period-dependent memory effect of vibration stress is anabolic for skeletal homeostasis, little is known about the rapid response of osteoblasts simply derived from vibration itself. In view of the potential role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating differentiated activity of osteoblasts, whether and how ROS regulates the rapid effect of vibration deserve to be demonstrated. Our findings indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells underwent decreased gene expression of Runx2, Col-I and ALP and impaired ALP activity accompanied by increased mitochondrial fission immediately after vibration loading. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of ERK-Drp1 signal transduction in ROS regulatory mechanisms responsible for the rapid effect of vibration stress. - Highlights: • ROS contributed to the rapid response of MC3T3-E1 cells for vibration stress. • Imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics were linked to the LMHFV-derived rapid response. • The role of ERK-Drp1 signal pathway in the LMHFV-derived osteoblast rapid response.

  11. Co-ordinate regulation of the cytoskeleton in 3T3 cells overexpressing thymosin-beta4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, R; Philp, N; Safer, D; Chintapalli, J; Hoffman, R; Collins, L; Nachmias, V T

    1997-01-01

    In several cell types, short-term increases in the concentration of the G-actin-sequestering peptide thymosin-beta4 (Tbeta4) cause the disassembly of F-actin bundles. To determine the extent of cell adaptability to these reductions in F-actin, we overexpressed Tbeta4 in NIH 3T3 cells. In cell lines with Tbeta4 levels twice those of vector controls, G-actin increased approximately twofold as expected. However, F-actin did not decrease as in short-term experiments but rather also increased approximately twofold so that the G-F ratio remained constant. Surprisingly, the cytoskeletal proteins myosin IIA, alpha-actinin, and tropomyosin also increased nearly twofold. These increases were specific; DNA, total protein, lactic dehydrogenase, profilin, and actin depolymerizing factor levels were unchanged in the overexpressing cells. The Tbeta4 lines spread more fully and adhered to the dish more strongly than vector controls; this altered phenotype correlated with a twofold increase in talin and alpha5-integrin and a nearly threefold increase in vinculin. Focal adhesions, detected by indirect immunofluorescence with antivinculin, were increased in size over the controls. Northern blotting showed that mRNAs for both beta-actin and vinculin were increased twofold in the overexpressing lines. We conclude that 1) NIH 3T3 cells adapt to increased levels of G-actin sequestered by increased Tbeta4 by increasing their total actin so that the F-actin/G-actin ratio remains constant; 2) these cells coordinately increase several cytoskeletal and adhesion plaque proteins; and 3) at least for actin and vinculin, this regulation is at the transcriptional level. We therefore propose that the proteins of this multimember interacting complex making up the actin-based cytoskeleton, are coordinately regulated by factors that control the expression of several proteins. The mechanism may bear similarities to the control of synthesis of another multimember interacting complex, the myofibril of

  12. Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Promote Adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 Cell Line through Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargis, Robert M.; Johnson, Daniel N.; Choudhury, Rashikh A.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning obesity and diabetes epidemics threaten health worldwide, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are incompletely understood. Recently, attention has focused on the potential contributions of environmental pollutants that act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Because glucocorticoid signaling is central to adipocyte differentiation, the ability of EDCs to stimulate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and drive adipogenesis was assessed in the 3T3-L1 cell line. Various EDCs were screened for glucocorticoid-like activity using a luciferase reporter construct, and four (bisphenol A (BPA), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), endrin, and tolylfluanid (TF)) were shown to significantly stimulate GR without significant activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were then treated with EDCs and a weak differentiation cocktail containing dehydrocorticosterone (DHC) in place of the synthetic dexamethasone. The capacity of these compounds to promote adipogenesis was assessed by quantitative oil red O staining and immunoblotting for adipocyte-specific proteins. The four EDCs increased lipid accumulation in the differentiating adipocytes and also upregulated the expression of adipocytic proteins. Interestingly, proadipogenic effects were observed at picomolar concentrations for several of the EDCs. Because there was no detectable adipogenesis when the preadipocytes were treated with compounds alone, the EDCs are likely promoting adipocyte differentiation by synergizing with agents present in the differentiation cocktail. Thus, EDCs are able to promote adipogenesis through the activation of the GR, further implicating these compounds in the rising rates of obesity and diabetes. PMID:19927138

  13. Graphene Oxide Hybridized nHAC/PLGA Scaffolds Facilitate the Proliferation of MC3T3-E1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunyong; Luo, Yongchao; Yang, Guodong; Xia, Dan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Hongshui

    2018-01-01

    Biodegradable porous biomaterial scaffolds play a critical role in bone regeneration. In this study, the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/graphene oxide (nHAC/PLGA/GO) composite scaffolds containing different amount of GO were fabricated by freeze-drying method. The results show that the synthesized scaffolds possess a three-dimensional porous structure. GO slightly improves the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds and reinforces their mechanical strength. Young's modulus of the 1.5 wt% GO incorporated scaffold is greatly increased compared to the control sample. The in vitro experiments show that the nHAC/PLGA/GO (1.5 wt%) scaffolds significantly cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1). This present study indicates that the nHAC/PLGA/GO scaffolds have excellent cytocompatibility and bone regeneration ability, thus it has high potential to be used as scaffolds in the field of bone tissue engineering.

  14. Effect of oxygen on formation of micronuclei and binucleated cells and cell survival in γ-irradiated 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng; Zheng Xiulong

    1991-01-01

    Formation of micronuclei and binucleate cells and their relationships with cell survival were studied in the aerobically- and anaerobically-irradiated 3T3 cells. The results showed taht frequency of micronuclei, percentage of micronucleus cells and percentage of binucleate cells increased linearly with the radiation dose in certain range. Oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) of micronucleus frequency, percentage of micronucleus cells, percentage of binucleate cells and cell survival were 2.02, 1.96, 1.87 and 1.83 respectively. The percentage of micronucleus cells or the percentage of micronucleus cells plus binucleate cells correlated negatively well with cell survival. The mechanism of oxygen effect in the radiation response of 3T3 cells and the significance of formation of micronuclei and binucleate cells were discussed

  15. Insulin induces an increase in cytosolic glucose levels in 3T3-L1 cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Helena H; Kreft, Marko; Jensen, Jørgen; Zorec, Robert

    2014-10-02

    Glucose is an important source of energy for mammalian cells and enters the cytosol via glucose transporters. It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the levels of free glucose are very low, beyond the detection level. However, the introduction of new fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based glucose nanosensors has made it possible to measure intracellular glucose more accurately. Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ) to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation, insulin induced a robust increase in cytosolic free glucose. The insulin-induced increase in cytosolic glucose in these cells is due to an imbalance between the glucose transported into the cytosol and the use of glucose in the cytosol. In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic glucose level. This is the first report of dynamic measurements of cytosolic glucose levels in cells devoid of the glycogen synthesis pathway.

  16. Andrographolide inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by suppressing C/EBPβ expression and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Chu; Chuang, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Chen, Yun-Ting; Chen, Haw-Wen; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2016-09-15

    Andrographolide, a diterpenoid, is the most abundant terpenoid in Andrographis paniculata, a popular Chinese herbal medicine. Andrographolide displays diverse biological activities including hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia, anti-inflammation, and anti-tumorigenesis. Recent evidence indicates that andrographolide displays anti-obesity property by inhibiting lipogenic gene expression, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, the effects of andrographolide on transcription factor cascade and mitotic clonal expansion in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation into adipocyte were determined. Andrographolide dose-dependently (0-15μM) inhibited CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and C/EBPβ mRNA and protein expression as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein level during the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. Concomitantly, fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression and lipid accumulation were attenuated by andrographolide. Oil-red O staining further showed that the first 48h after the initiation of differentiation was critical for andrographolide inhibition of adipocyte formation. Andrographolide inhibited the phosphorylation of PKA and the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in response to a differentiation cocktail, which led to attenuated C/EBPβ expression. In addition, ERK and GSK3β-dependent C/EBPβ phosphorylation was attenuated by andrographolide. Moreover, andrographolide suppressed cyclin A, cyclin E, and CDK2 expression and impaired the progression of mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) by arresting the cell cycle at the Go/G1 phase. Taken together, these results indicate that andrographolide has a potent anti-obesity action by inhibiting PKA-CREB-mediated C/EBPβ expression as well as C/EBPβ transcriptional activity, which halts MCE progression and attenuates C/EBPα and PPARγ expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer of human phenylalanine hydroxylase into NIH 3T3 and hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledley, F.D.; Grenett, H.E.; McGinnis-Shelnutt, M.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1986-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). A full-length human PAH cDNA sequence has been inserted into pzip-neoSV(X), which is a retroviral vector containing the bacterial neo gene. The recombinant has been transfected into Psi2 cells, which provide synthesis of the retroviral capsid. Recombinant virus was detected in the culture medium of the transfected Psi2 cells, which is capable of transmitting the human PAH gene into mouse NIH 3T3 cells by infection leading to stable incorporation of the recombinant provirus. Infected cells express PAH mRNA, immunoreactive PAH protein, and exhibit pterin-dependent phenylaline hydroxylase activity. The recombinant virus is also capable of infecting a mouse hepatoma cell line that does not normal synthesize PAH. PAH activity is present in the cellular extracts and the entire hydroxylation system is reconstituted in the hepatoma cells infected with the recombinant viruses. Thus, recombinant viruses containing human PAH cDNA provide a means for introducing functional PAH into mammalian cells of hepatic origin and can potentially be introduced into whole animals as a model for somatic gene therapy for PKU.

  18. Cloning and Stable Expression of cDNA Coding For Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule -1 (PECAM-1, CD31 in NIH-3T3 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Salehi-Lalemarzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: PECAM-1 (CD31 is a glycoprotein expressed on endothelial and bone marrow precursor cells. It plays important roles in angiogenesis, maintenance and integration of the cytoskeleton and direction of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. We aimed to clone the cDNA coding for human CD31 from KG1a for further subcloning and expression in NIH- 3T3 mouse cell line. Methods: CD31 cDNA was cloned from KG1a cell line after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase-amplified specific band was ligated to pGEMT-easy vector and sub-cloned in pCMV6-Neo expression vector. After transfection of NIH-3T3 cells using 3 μg of recombinant construct and 6 μl of JetPEI transfection reagent, stable expression was obtained by selection of cells by G418 antibiotic and confirmed by surface flow cytometry. Results: 2235 bp specific band was aligned completely to human CD31 reference sequence in NCBI database. Transient and stable expression of human CD31 on transfected NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was achieved (23% and 96%, respectively as shown by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Due to murine origin of NIH-3T3 cell line, CD31-expressing NIH-3T3 cells could be useful as immunogen in production of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against human CD31, with no need for purification of recombinant proteins.

  19. Enhancement of BALB/c 3T3 cells transformation by 1,2-dibromoethane promoting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacci, A; Vaccari, M; Perocco, P; Da Vià, C; Silingardi, P; Manzini, E; Horn, W; Grilli, S

    1996-02-01

    Two of the most representative halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, were tested in the two-stage cell transformation model for analysing the promoting ability. Both of these compounds had previously been found to exert genotoxic effects, probably acting as moderate initiators. BALB/c 3T3 cells were initiated with subtransforming doses of N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or 3-methylcholanthrene and then exposed to a chronic treatment with different non-transforming dosages of the two haloalkanes. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane did not exert any promoting activity in that system. By contrast, significant promoting effects by 1,2-dibromoethane were observed both in cells treated with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and in cells treated with 3-methylcholanthrene. Promotion of the transformation process initiated with 3-methylcholanthrene was detectable when confluent cells in the chemical-treated plates were replated in the level-II amplification test. This experimental procedure allowed cells to perform further rounds of replications and transformed foci to became detectable. Results gave evidence for a promoting role of 1,2-dibromoethane in multistep carcinogenesis, probably responsible for the higher oncogenic ability of this compound with respect to 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane.

  20. Genes Responsive to Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound in MC3T3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Tabuchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been shown to enhance bone fracture healing, the underlying mechanism of LIPUS remains to be fully elucidated. Here, to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying cellular responses to LIPUS, we investigated gene expression profiles in mouse MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells exposed to LIPUS using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and computational gene expression analysis tools. Although treatment of the cells with a single 20-min LIPUS (1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm2 did not affect the cell growth or alkaline phosphatase activity, the treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of Bglap. Microarray analysis demonstrated that 38 genes were upregulated and 37 genes were downregulated by 1.5-fold or more in the cells at 24-h post-treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that the gene network U (up contained many upregulated genes that were mainly associated with bone morphology in the category of biological functions of skeletal and muscular system development and function. Moreover, the biological function of the gene network D (down, which contained downregulated genes, was associated with gene expression, the cell cycle and connective tissue development and function. These results should help to further clarify the molecular basis of the mechanisms of the LIPUS response in osteoblast cells.

  1. Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Knowlton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV. We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

  2. MC3T3-E1 cell response to stainless steel 316L with different surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Han, Jianmin, E-mail: siyanghan@163.com [Dental Materials Laboratory, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081 (China); Sun, Yulong [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Yongling [Jinghang Biomedicine Engineering Division, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Material, Beijing 100095 (China); Zhou, Ming [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, stainless steel 316L samples with polishing, aluminum oxide blasting, and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating were prepared and characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical interferometer (surface roughness, Sq), contact angle, surface composition and phase composition analyses. Osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion on the samples was investigated by cell morphology using a SEM (4 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d), and cell proliferation was assessed by MTT method at 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d. In addition, adsorption of bovine serum albumin on the samples was evaluated at 1 h. The polished sample was smooth (Sq: 1.8 nm), and the blasted and HA coated samples were much rougher (Sq: 3.2 μm and 7.8 μm). Within 1 d of incubation, the HA coated samples showed the best cell morphology (e.g., flattened shape and complete spread), but there was no significant difference after 3 d and 7 d of incubation for all the samples. The absorbance value for the HA coated samples was the highest after 1 d and 3 d of incubation, indicating better cell viability. However, it reduced to the lowest value at 7 d. Protein adsorption on the HA coated samples was the highest at 1 h. The results indicate that rough stainless steel surface improves cell adhesion and morphology, and HA coating contributes to superior cell adhesion, but inhibits cell proliferation. - Highlights: • Rough stainless steel surface improves cell adhesion and proliferation. • HA coating results in superior cell morphology and cell attachment. • HA coating inhibits osteoblast cell proliferation after 7 d of incubation.

  3. Panax ginseng total protein promotes proliferation and secretion of collagen in NIH/3T3 cells by activating extracellular signal-related kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuenan Chen

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Our studies suggest that GTP promoted proliferation and secretion of collagen in NIH/3T3 cells by activating the ERK signal pathway, which shed light on a potential function of GTP in promoting wound healing.

  4. Effect of hierarchical pore structure on ALP expression of MC3T3-E1 cells on bioglass films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuixia; Zhuang, Junjun; Dong, Lingqing; Cheng, Kui; Weng, Wenjian

    2017-08-01

    Hierarchical porous bioglass films on the tantalum were designed to enhance osteointegration of metallic implants. The films were prepared by a sol-gel method using P123 as the mesopore template and polystyrene microsphere as the nanopore template. The films with 5.4nm mesopores and 100nm nanopores (MBG-100) elicited an obviously elongated morphology of the cultured MC3T3-E1 cells, as a result, a higher alkaline phosphatase level was expressed. It is suggested that the nanopores play an important role in regulating cellular behavior by initial protein adsorption through nanopore curvatures. The mesopores were proven very effective for loading rhBMP-2, and the rhBMP-2 loaded on MBG-100 films showed a better function of enhancing osteogenic differentiation, which is attributed to that the nanopore structure could expedite rhBMP-2 release and provide a microenvironment for intensifying the interaction of rhBMP-2 with the cells. Hence, the cell osteogenic differentiation can be enhanced by hierarchical porous bioglass films through both the porous structure and rhBMP-2 induction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phytic acid and myo-inositol support adipocyte differentiation and improve insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid, also known as myo-inositol hexaphosphate, has been shown to lower blood glucose levels and to improve insulin sensitivity in rodents. We investigated the effects of phytic acid and myo-inositol on differentiation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipolysis of adipocytes to test the hypothesis that the antidiabetic properties of phytic acid and myo-inositol are mediated directly through adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 10, 50, or 200 μmol/L of phytic acid or myo-inositol. Oil Red O staining and an intracellular triacylglycerol assay were used to determine lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to evaluate expression of transcription factors, a target protein, and insulin signaling molecules. Phytic acid and myo-inositol exposures increased lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner (P inositol (P inositol treatments (P inositol treatments. In fully differentiated adipocytes, phytic acid and myo-inositol reduced basal lipolysis dose dependently (P inositol increase insulin sensitivity in adipocytes by increasing lipid storage capacity, improving glucose uptake, and inhibiting lipolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary Analysis of MicroRNAs Expression Profiling in MC3T3-E1 Cells Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xiuyun; Zhao, Zhitao; Xu, Hui

    2017-04-01

    Overexposure to fluoride from environmental sources can cause serious public health problems. Disrupted osteoblast function and impaired bone formation were found to be associated with excessive fluoride exposure. A massive analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) was used to figure out the possible pathways in which fluoride affects osteoblast function. MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with 8 mg/L of fluorine for 7 days. Total RNA of cells was extracted, and their integrity and purity were tested. RNA samples were analyzed by using miRNA array, including miRNA labeling, hybridization, scanning, and expression data analysis to compare the profiling of miRNA expression between control and fluoride-treated group. Transcriptome analysis console and enrichment analysis calculated by miRSystem were used to predict target genes and collect miRNAs pathway maps. Forty-five upregulated and 31 downregulated miRNAs expression were found in the fluoride-treated group, and most of the verified miRNAs were mature. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis searched out 36 pathways that scored more than 0.1. These pathways mainly included intracellular signaling, cytokines, metabolism, and cytoskeleton-related pathways. Among them, the Wnt, insulin, TGF-beta, hedgehog, VEGF, and notch pathways in osteoblasts were those mainly affected by fluoride treatment. These results have shown a number of higher level systemic pathways activated by overexposure of fluoride in osteoblastic cells and verified that fluoride affected the molecular crosstalk in the osteoblasts.

  7. Morphological changes of nuclear and chromatin architecture after microwave electromagnetic field exposure in 3T3 fibroblast cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mircea, D.; Chirila, Lavinia; Ciurea, A. V.; Helm, G.; Hankins, G.; Redrick, Jan; Gavrila, L.; Sheppard, B.; Bloodgoog, R.; Pallin, I.; Nitu, Rozalia; Rusu, I.

    2001-01-01

    It is already demonstrated in the literature that electromagnetic fields, particularly the microwave irradiation could be a powerful weapon against human tumors , but also against human body itself, depending on the wave parameters and irradiation time. The effects of microwave electromagnetic fields on living systems were studied in detail all over the world and, furthermore, the potential of intracellular damages by cytoskeleton, nuclear, chromatin and DNA alterations were carefully evaluated. In this study, the authors emphasize the morphological changes of nucleus and chromatin in fibroblast cell line 3T3 after microwave exposure with progressive increasing powers and times of irradiation. It was used a pulsed wave with 915 MHz frequency, with forward power ranging between 3 - 10 W, emitted by a helical microwave antenna placed into the cell culture medium, close to the cell monolayer. The authors tried to define certain severity stages of nuclear material alterations following different wave intensities and to compare these effects with other cytoplasmic organelle alterations. It was found that the nuclear material is the most sensitive intracellular structure in microwave electromagnetic field exposure. Also the authors tried to establish a well-defined protocol of irradiation with microwave electromagnetic fields in order to destroy the microtubule system of cytoskeleton in different types of cellular lines, in vitro. The cytoskeleton structure was evaluated by immunofluorescence methods. In non-muscle cells the cytoskeleton stability is achieved by interaction between microtubule system and actin filaments. Microtubule depolymerization by microwave exposure produces a secondary instability of cytoskeleton, the actin filaments coupling and cell contractility. The increasing of fibroblast contractility allows a more efficient treatment of the wounds with low spontaneous healing. Electromagnetic therapy could be an alternative therapy in plastic surgery

  8. PTH regulates β2-adrenergic receptor expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Shuichi; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Notomi, Takuya; Aryal, Smriti; Nakamaoto, Testuya; Izu, Yayoi; Kawasaki, Makiri; Yamada, Takayuki; Shirakawa, Jumpei; Kaneko, Kazuo; Ezura, Yoichi; Noda, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    As the aged population is soaring, prevalence of osteoporosis is increasing. However, the molecular basis underlying the regulation of bone mass is still incompletely understood. Sympathetic tone acts via beta2 adrenergic receptors in bone and regulates the mass of bone which is the target organ of parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, whether beta2 adrenergic receptor is regulated by PTH in bone cells is not known. We therefore investigated the effects of PTH on beta2 adrenergic receptor gene expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. PTH treatment immediately suppressed the expression levels of beta2 adrenergic receptor mRNA. This PTH effect was dose-dependent starting as low as 1 nM. PTH action on beta2 adrenergic receptor gene expression was inhibited by a transcriptional inhibitor, DRB, but not by a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide suggesting direct transcription control. Knockdown of beta2 adrenergic receptor promoted PTH-induced expression of c-fos, an immediate early response gene. With respect to molecular basis for this phenomenon, knockdown of beta2 adrenergic receptor enhanced PTH-induced transcriptional activity of cyclic AMP response element-luciferase construct in osteoblasts. Knockdown of beta2 adrenergic receptors also enhanced forskolin-induced luciferase expression, revealing that adenylate cyclase activity is influenced by beta2 adrenergic receptor. As for phosphorylation of transcription factor, knockdown of beta2 adrenergic receptor enhanced PTH-induced phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). These data reveal that beta2 adrenergic receptor is one of the targets of PTH and acts as a suppressor of PTH action in osteoblasts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Overexpressed pp60c-src can induce focus formation without complete transformation of NIH 3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P J; Coussens, P M; Danko, A V; Shalloway, D

    1985-05-01

    NIH 3T3 cells were transfected with plasmids containing Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeats and either chicken c-src or v-src genes. In contrast with the effects observed after transfection with plasmids containing c-src and avian retrovirus or simian virus 40 promoter-enhancers (H. Hanafusa, H. Iba, T. Takeya, and F. R. Cross, p. 1-8, in G. F. Vande Woude, A. J. Levine, W. C. Topp, and J. D. Watson, ed., Cancer Cells, vol. 2, 1984; H. Iba, T. Takeya, F. R. Cross, T. Hanafusa, and H. Hanafusa, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:4424-4428, 1984; R. C. Parker, R. Swanstrom, H. E. Varmus, and J. M. Bishop, p. 19-26, in G. F. Vande Woude et al., ed., Cancer Cells, vol. 2, 1984; R. C. Parker, H. E. Varmus, and J. M. Bishop, Cell 37:131-139, 1984; D. Shalloway, P. M. Coussens, and P. Yaciuk, p. 9-17, in G. F. Vande Woude et al., ed., Cancer Cells, vol. 2, 1984; D. Shalloway, P. M. Coussens, and P. Yaciuk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:7071-7075; and K. C. Wilhelmsen, W. G. Tarpley, and H. M. Temin, p. 303-308, in G. F. Vande Woude et al., ed., Cancer Cells, vol. 2, 1984), we found that both types of Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat-src expression plasmids induced focus formation, although c-src induced only 1% as many foci as v-src. The focus-selected c-src overexpressed cells had altered morphology and limited growth in soft agarose but were not tumorigenic in vivo. Cleveland digests, comparative in vitro kinase assays, secondary transfections, and immunoprecipitations indicated that focus formation was caused by rare transfection events that resulted in very high-level pp60c-src expression rather than by mutations of the transfected c-src genes. These results suggest that pp60v-src induced transformation is not a completely spurious activity which is unrelated to the function of pp60c-src but that it represents a perturbation of already existent molecular control processes involving pp60c-src.

  10. Expression of the invertebrate sea urchin P16 protein into mammalian MC3T3 osteoblasts transforms and reprograms them into "osteocyte-like" cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Keith; Ren, Yinshi; Feng, Jian Q; Veis, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    P16 is an acidic phosphoprotein important in both sea urchin embryonic spicule development and transient mineralization during embryogenesis, syncytium formation, and mineralization in mature urchin tooth. Anti-P16 has been used to localize P16 to the syncytial membranes and the calcite mineral. Specific amino acid sequence motifs in P16 are similar to sequences in DSPP, a protein common to all vertebrate teeth, and crucial for their mineralization. Here, we examine the effect of P16 on vertebrate fibroblastic NIH3T3 cells and osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. Transfection of NIH3T3 cells with P16 cDNA resulted in profound changes in the morphology of the cells. In culture, the transfected cells sent out long processes that contacted processes from neighboring cells forming networks or syncytia. There was a similar change in morphology in cultured osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. In addition, the MC3T3 developed numerous dendrites as found in osteocytes. Importantly, there was also a change in the expression of the osteoblast and osteocyte specific genes. MC3T3 cells transfected with P16 showed an 18-fold increase in expression of the osteocyte specific Dentin matrix protein (DMP1) gene, accompanied by decreased expression of osteoblast specific genes: Bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), and β-catenin decreased by 70%, 64%, and 68 %, respectively. Thus, invertebrate urchin P16 with no previously known analog in vertebrates was able to induce changes in both cell morphology and gene expression, converting vertebrate-derived osteoblast-like precursor cells to an "osteocyte-like" phenotype, an important process in bone biology. The mechanisms involved are presently under study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Antibody against the insulin receptor causes disappearance of insulin receptors in 3T3-L1 cells: a possible explanation of antibody-induced insulin resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Grunfeld, C

    1984-01-01

    The effect of a rabbit antibody induced against the rat insulin receptor (RAR) was tested using cultured 3T3-L1 fat cells. As previously seen with antibodies against the insulin receptor from patients with the type B syndrome of insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans, RAR acutely mimicked the action of insulin by stimulating deoxyglucose uptake. After prolonged exposure of 3T3-L1 cells to RAR, insulinomimetic activity was lost and the cells became resistant to the action of insulin. This...

  12. Chemopreventive effect of punicalagin, a novel tannin component isolated from Terminalia catappa, on H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Shern; Li, Jih-Heng

    2006-05-05

    Terminalia catappa and its major tannin component, punicalagin, have been characterized to possess antioxidative and anti-genotoxic activities. However, their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated carcinogenesis are still unclear. In the present study, H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells were used to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of T. catappa water extract (TCE) and punicalagin. In the cell proliferation assay, TCE and punicalagin suppressed the proliferation of H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells with a dose-dependent manner but only partially affected non-transformed NIH3T3 cells proliferation. The differential cytotoxicity of TCE/punicalagin on the H-ras-transformed and non-transformed NIH3T3 cells indicated the selectivity of TCE/punicalagin against H-ras induced transformation. TCE or punicalagin treatment reduced anchorage-independent growth that could be due to a cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. The intracellular superoxide level, known to modulate downstream signaling of Ras protein, was decreased by punicalagin treatments. The levels of phosphorylated JNK-1 and p38 were also decreased with punicalagin treatments. Thus, the chemopreventive effect of punicalagin against H-ras induced transformation could result from inhibition of the intracellular redox status and JNK-1/p38 activation.

  13. Effect of polysaccharides of ganoderma lucidum (PGL) on cell cycle and proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblast exposed to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiuqing; Wu Shiling; Zhou Yinghui; Xu Lan

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of γ-irradiation on cell cycle and proliferation of fibroblasts and the radioprotective effect of PGL in term of cellular level. Methods: The cells in the control group and PGL (50 mg/L. 100 mg/L. 150 mg/L) groups were irradiated with 15 Gy γ-rays. The cell cycle and proliferation of NIH3T3 cells were determined by flow cytometry after irradiation within 12 h. Results: The percentage of G 0 -G 1 phase was 52.76% in the positive control group. Compared with the negative control group (90.9%), the proliferation of NIH3T3 was promoted significantly (P 0 -G 1 phases in the GPL (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L) groups were 66.17%, 71.73%, 76.10% respectively, the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells was inhibited by adding GPL. compared with the positive control group, in the 50 mg/L group P < 0.05, in the 100 mg/L and 150 mg/L groups P < 0.01. It was found that the apoptosis of NIH3T3 cells had little change after comparing non-irradiated group with the irradiated groups. Conclusion: Radiation with γ-rays at a dose of 15 Gy, can significantly stimulate proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, but no induced apoptosis can not be achieve within 12 h after irradiation. PGL can inhibit cell proliferation, so PGL has radioprotective activity on cell levels

  14. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  15. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Lei; Pang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hong-Mei; Tao, Li; Miao, Kai; Wu, Zhong-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. ► fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. ► fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  16. Cell-cycle deregulation in BALB/c 3T3 cells transformed by 1,2-dibromoethane and folpet pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Maria Alessandra; Mercatali, Laura; Brusa, Gianluca; Pattacini, Laura; Barbieri, Enza; Perocco, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    The cell-transforming potential of 1,2-dibromoethane and folpet, two widely used agricultural pesticides that are potential sources of environmental pollution, has been previously ascribed to their promoting activity. In this study, we investigated whether BALB/c 3T3 transformation by these chemicals was associated with the deregulation of signals involved in cell-cycle progression and in cell-cycle checkpoint induction. We found that two BALB/c 3T3 cell clones transformed by in vitro medium-term (8-week) exposure to the carcinogens had a constitutive acceleration of cell transition from G(1) to S phase and an abrogation of the radiation-induced G(1)/S checkpoint. These events involved multiple signals; in particular, the inhibitors of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes p21 and p27 were significantly down-modulated and the positive regulators of cell-cycle progression cyclin D(3) and E were up-modulated. As anticipated for cells where the G(1)/S checkpoint was abrogated, the transformed cells exhibited a significant reinforcement of the radiation-induced G(2)/M checkpoint, the only checkpoint remaining to protect genomic integrity. However, cyclin A(1) and B(1) coexpression and cyclin A(1) overexpression were found despite the G2 arrest in irradiated cells and these signals likely attenuate the G(2)/M checkpoint. These alterations to normal cell cycling may promote the emergence of both numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities and their tolerance. Such a condition could play a key role in neoplastic transformation and be crucial in tumor progression. Furthermore, cyclin A(1) overexpression may play an autonomous role in the neoplastic transformation of BALB/c 3T3 cells, as it does in other cell types of mesenchymal origin. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Construction of a eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1-HuR-FLAG and its transient expression in NIH3T3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao LI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To construct a eukaryotic expression vector for HuR and analyze its expression and biological function in NIH3T3 cells.Methods The total RNA was extracted from NIH3T3 cells and reverse transcribed to cDNAs.The coding region sequence of mouse HuR was then amplified by PCR and subcloned into the pcDNA3.1-FLAG plasmid.The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-HuR-FLAG was verified by PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis,confirmed by DNA sequence analysis,and then transiently transfected into NIH3T3 cells with Lipofectamine LTX.The expression of HuR protein was determined by Western blotting,and the mRNA level of HuR and DUSP1 were analyzed by using real-time PCR.Result The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-HuR-FLAG was correctly constructed.Twenty-four hours after transfection of the recombinant plasmid into NIH3T3 cells,the fusion protein was found to have highly expressed in the cells as revealed by Western blotting.Real-time PCR results detected that the over-expression of HuR could up-regulate the expression of DUSP1.Conclusion The eukaryotic expression vector for HuR-FLAG fusion protein has been successfully constructed and transiently expressed in NIH3T3 cells.It can be used in further analysis of the posttranscriptional regulation of DUSP1 by HuR in cancer cells.

  18. Stochastic modeling of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cultures to determine probabilities of events in the cell's life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Naama; Gefen, Amit

    2011-10-01

    3T3-L1 preadipocytes are often being used in research of adipose-related diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. We developed a stochastic model that simulated differentiation of four 3T3-L1 culture conditions distinct by the insulin concentration in the differentiation medium (2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 μg/mL). The model simulated culture behavior and the accumulation of lipid droplets in the maturing cells from the day of induction of differentiation through 28 days after that. The cellular processes including cell adhesion, mitosis, growing after undergoing mitosis, commitment to the adipocyte lineage, and apoptosis were referred to as stochastic events in the modeling. By minimizing the error between our model and experimental results, we found that the probability for becoming committed to the adipocyte lineage in a single division and the probability for growing after undergoing mitosis were 0.02 and 0.8, respectively, regardless of the insulin concentration. The probability for undergoing mitosis was equal to 0.2 and 0.4 in cultures that had insulin concentrations of 2.5 and 5-10 μg/mL in the differentiation medium, respectively; hence the insulin concentration affected the probability for mitosis in the 3T3-L1 cells. The model and resulted probabilities now allow quantitative and visual predictions of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cultures, toward computational design of cell culturing protocols.

  19. Effect of Thymosin beta4 on the Differentiation and Mineralization of MC3T3-E1 Cell on a Titanium Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soon-Jeong; Jeong, Moon-Jin

    2016-02-01

    Osteoblasts are responsible for the synthesis of bone matrix through the secretion of collagenous and non-collagenous proteins with mineralization. Thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4) is an actin-sequestering peptide that is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. A recent study reported that the inhibition of Tbeta4 mRNA synthesis strongly decreases the level of gene expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), osteocalcin (OCN), osteonectin (ON) and collagen type I (Col I) with mineralization during differentiation in odontoblasts. Titanium (Ti) is used commonly as an implant material for dental implants, which have strong mechanical potential and good biocompatibility with bone. This study examined whether Tbeta4 can be a potential molecule for promoting the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells on a Ti surface. Tbeta4 increased the viability of MC3T3-E1 cells during differentiation on Ti discs compared to that of the control. The expression of Tbeta4 mRNA and protein in the Tbeta4-treated MC3T3-E1 cells was higher than the control during differentiation on the Ti discs. In addition, Tbeta4 increased the formation of mineralization nodules and the mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), DSPP, dentin matrix protein1 (DMP1), BSP and Col I compared to that of the control in MC3T3-E1 cells during differentiation on Ti discs. From the results, Tbeta4 increased the viability and promoted the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells on Ti discs. This highlights the potential use of Tbeta4 for increasing osseointegration through osteoblast differentiation and mineralization on Ti discs.

  20. Delivering MC3T3-E1 cells into injectable calcium phosphate cement through alginate-chitosan microcapsules for bone tissue engineering*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Peng-yan; Li, Fang-fang; Dong, Li-min; Xu, Tao; Xie, Qiu-fei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To deliver cells deep into injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) through alginate-chitosan (AC) microcapsules and investigate the biological behavior of the cells released from microcapsules into the CPC. Methods: Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in alginate and AC microcapsules using an electrostatic droplet generator. The two types of cell-encapsulating microcapsules were then mixed with a CPC paste. MC3T3-E1 cell viability was investigated using a Wst-8 kit, and osteogenic differentiation was demonstrated by an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. Cell attachment in CPC was observed by an environment scanning electron microscopy. Results: Both alginate and AC microcapsules were able to release the encapsulated MC3T3-E1 cells when mixed with CPC paste. The released cells attached to the setting CPC scaffolds, survived, differentiated, and formed mineralized nodules. Cells grew in the pores concomitantly created by the AC microcapsules in situ within the CPC. At Day 21, cellular ALP activity in the AC group was approximately four times that at Day 7 and exceeded that of the alginate microcapsule group (Pmicrocapsules had a diameter of several hundred microns and were spherical compared with those formed by alginate microcapsules. Conclusions: AC microcapsule is a promising carrier to release seeding cells deep into an injectable CPC scaffold for bone engineering. PMID:24711359

  1. Delivering MC3T3-E1 cells into injectable calcium phosphate cement through alginate-chitosan microcapsules for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Peng-yan; Li, Fang-fang; Dong, Li-min; Xu, Tao; Xie, Qiu-fei

    2014-04-01

    To deliver cells deep into injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) through alginate-chitosan (AC) microcapsules and investigate the biological behavior of the cells released from microcapsules into the CPC. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in alginate and AC microcapsules using an electrostatic droplet generator. The two types of cell-encapsulating microcapsules were then mixed with a CPC paste. MC3T3-E1 cell viability was investigated using a Wst-8 kit, and osteogenic differentiation was demonstrated by an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. Cell attachment in CPC was observed by an environment scanning electron microscopy. Both alginate and AC microcapsules were able to release the encapsulated MC3T3-E1 cells when mixed with CPC paste. The released cells attached to the setting CPC scaffolds, survived, differentiated, and formed mineralized nodules. Cells grew in the pores concomitantly created by the AC microcapsules in situ within the CPC. At Day 21, cellular ALP activity in the AC group was approximately four times that at Day 7 and exceeded that of the alginate microcapsule group (Pmicrocapsules had a diameter of several hundred microns and were spherical compared with those formed by alginate microcapsules. AC microcapsule is a promising carrier to release seeding cells deep into an injectable CPC scaffold for bone engineering.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of the topoisomerase inhibitor, etoposide, in the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans and 3T3-L1 normal murine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Young; Kim, Joo Yeon; Jung, Yu-Jin; Kang, Kyungsu

    2017-06-01

    Etoposide, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, has been widely used as a clinical anticancer drug to treat diverse cancer patients. Since not only rapidly dividing cancer cells but also the cells of normal human tissues and every living organism in environmental ecosystems have topoisomerases, it is crucial to study the toxicity of etoposide in other organisms in addition to cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of etoposide in both a soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and 3T3-L1 normal murine cells. Etoposide significantly retarded the growth, egg laying, and hatching in C. elegans. Etoposide also affected the reproductive gonad tissue, decreased the number of germ cells and induced abnormally enlarged nuclei in C. elegans. In addition, etoposide inhibited 3T3-L1 cell proliferation, with IC 50 values of 37.8 ± 7.3 and 9.8 ± 1.8 μM after 24 and 48 hours of treatment, respectively, via the induction of cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptotic cell death. Etoposide also induced nuclear enlargement in 3T3-L1 normal murine cells. The reproductive toxicity and abnormal nuclear morphological changes seemed to correlate with the adverse effects of etoposide. We suggest that these experimental platforms, i.e., the toxicological evaluation of both nematodes and 3T3-L1 cells, may be useful to study the mechanisms underlying the side effects of chemicals, including topoisomerase inhibitors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on grid-topographic surface and evidence for involvement of YAP mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Gong, He; Sun, Yan; Huang, Yan; Fan, Yubo

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that surface topography can promote cell-substrate associations and deeply influence cell fate. The intracellular mechanism or how micro- or nano-patterned extracellular signal is ultimately linked to activity of nuclear transcription factors remains unknown. It has been reported that Yes-associated protein (YAP) can respond to extracellular matrix microenvironment signals, thus regulates stem cell differentiation process. We propose that YAP may play a role in mediating the topography induced cell differentiation. To this end, we fabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropatterns with grid topology (GT) (3 μm pattern width, 2 μm pattern interval length, 7 μm pattern height); nonpatterned PDMS substrates were used as the planar controls. The MC3T3-E1 cells were then cultured on these surfaces, respectively, in osteogenic inducing medium. Cell differentiation in terms of osteogenesis related gene expression, protein levels, alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization was assessed. It was shown that the cells on GT surfaces had stronger osteogenesis capacity. In addition, expression level of YAP was increased when MC3T3-E1 cells grew on GT substrates, which was similar to the levels of osteogenic differentiation markers. It was also shown that YAP knockdown attenuated GT substrates-induced MC3T3-E1 differentiation, which reduced the osteogenic differentiation effect of the GT substrates. Collectively, our findings indicate that GT substrates-induced MC3T3-E1 differentiation may be associated with YAP. This paper provides new target points for transcriptional mechanism research of microenvironment induced cell differentiation and a useful approach to obtain more biofunctionalization scaffolds for tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Lidocaine inhibits NIH-3T3 cell multiplication by increasing the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sukumar P; Kojima, Koji; Vacanti, Charles A; Kodama, Shohta

    2008-11-01

    We explored molecular mechanisms by which lidocaine inhibits growth in the murine embryonic fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3. Local anesthetics can adversely affect cell growth in vitro. Their effects on wound healing are controversial. We examined the effects and novel mechanisms by which lidocaine affects in vitro multiplication of the murine fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3. NIH-3T3 cells were grown in culture with lidocaine [0, 0.05, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 mM]. Cell multiplication was assessed by determining cell counts on subsequent days, while mechanisms by which inhibition occurred were evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine uptake, gene expression using polymerase chain reaction array, and Western blot analysis to verify increased levels of affected proteins. Lidocaine caused dose-dependent inhibition of multiplication of NIH-3T3 cells. Effects ranged from no inhibition [0.05 and 0.5 mM] and mild inhibition [1 mM], to severe inhibition [2 and 5 mM] [P = 0.006]. Lidocaine 2 mM inhibited bromodeoxyuridine uptake at day 3.5 [P = 0.02 versus control, and P = 0.0495 vs 1 mM lidocaine]. On day 1.5, lidocaine upregulated expression of cyclin-D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [p21]. On day 2.5, lidocaine increased the levels of p21 protein. Low concentrations of lidocaine, as would be seen in plasma after spinal, epidural, or plexus anesthesia, do not significantly affect multiplication of fibroblasts. Higher doses of lidocaine arrest cell multiplication at the S-phase of the growth cycle by upregulation of p21, an extremely potent inhibitor of cell multiplication. Higher concentrations, as would be seen after tissue infiltration, severely inhibit fibroblast multiplication and thus may impair wound healing.

  5. The role of non-thermal atmospheric pressure biocompatible plasma in the differentiation of osteoblastic precursor cells, MC3T3-E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ihn; Choi, Eun Ha

    2017-05-30

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is ionized matter, composed of highly reactive species that include positive ions, negative ions, free radicals, neutral atoms, and molecules. Recent reports have suggested that non-thermal biocompatible plasma (NBP) can selectively kill a variety of cancer cells, and promote stem cell differentiation. However as of yet, the regulation of proliferation and differentiation potential of NBP has been poorly understood.Here, we investigated the effects of NBP on the osteogenic differentiation of precursor cell lines of osteoblasts, MC3T3 E1 and SaOS-2. For in vitro osteogenic differentiation, precursor cell lines were treated with NBP, and cultured with osteogenic induction medium. After 10 days of treatment, the NBP was shown to be effective in osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3 E1 cells by von Kossa and Alizarin Red S staining assay. Real-time PCR was then performed to investigate the expression of osteogenic specific genes, Runx2, OCN, COL1, ALP and osterix in MC3T3 E1 cells after treatment with NBP for 4 days. Furthermore, analysis of the protein expression showed that NBP treatment significantly reduced PI3K/AKT signaling and MAPK family signaling. However, p38 controlled phosphorylation of transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) that related to cell differentiation with increased phosphorylated p38. These results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma can induce osteogenic differentiation, and enhance bone formation.

  6. Promoting Effect of Pinostrobin on the Proliferation, Differentiation, and Mineralization of Murine Pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbo Gu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pinostrobin (PI, a natural flavonoid found in a variety of plants, is well known for its rich pharmacological activities. However, its osteogenic function remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of PI on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of murine pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro using MTT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, the synthesis of collagen I (Col I assay, and Von-Kossa staining, respectively. The expression of osteocalcin (OCN mRNA in cells was detected by real-time PCR. The effect of PI on the differentiation of dexamethasone (DEX-suppressed cells was also investigated. The results showed that PI greatly promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells at 5–80 μg/mL (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01, and caused a significant elevation of ALP activity, Col I content, and mineralization of osteoblasts at 10–40 μg/mL (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01, and the expression levels of OCN gene were greatly upregulated after PI treatment (p < 0.01. Furthermore, PI could rescue the inhibition effect of cell differentiation induced by DEX. Taken together, these results indicated that PI could directly promote proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells and has potential for use as a natural treatment for osteoporosis.

  7. Necl-5/PVR enhances PDGF-induced attraction of growing microtubules to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of moving NIH3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Akihiro; Mizutani, Kiyohito; Waseda, Masazumi; Kajita, Mihoko; Miyata, Muneaki; Ikeda, Wataru; Takai, Yoshimi

    2010-11-01

    Microtubules (MTs) search for and grow toward the leading edge of moving cells, followed by their stabilization at a specific structure at the rear site of the leading edge. This dynamic re-orientation of MTs is critical to directional cell movement. We previously showed that Necl-5/poliovirus receptor (PVR) interacts with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor and integrin α(v) β(3) at the leading edge of moving NIH3T3 cells, resulting in an enhancement of their directional movement. We studied here the role of Necl-5 in the PDGF-induced attraction of growing MTs to the leading edge of NIH3T3 cells. Necl-5 enhanced the PDGF-induced growth of MTs and attracted them near to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of NIH3T3 cells in an integrin α(v) β(3) -dependent manner. Furthermore, Necl-5 enhanced the PDGF-induced attraction of the plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs), including EB1, CLIP170, an intermediate chain subunit of cytoplasmic dynein, and p150(Glued) , a subunit of dynactin, near to the plasma membrane of the leading edge. Thus, Necl-5 plays a role in the attraction of growing MTs to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of moving cells. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor Regulates Glucocorticoid-Induced Inhibition of Osteoblast Differentiation in Murine MC3T3-E1 Cells via ERK Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High dose glucocorticoid (GC administration impairs the viability and function of osteoblasts, thus causing osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. Neuropeptide Y1 receptor (Y1 receptor is expressed in bone tissues and cells, and regulates bone remodeling. However, the role of Y1 receptor in glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation remains unknown. In the present study, osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium was treated with or without of 10−7 M dexamethasone (Dex, Y1 receptor shRNA interference, Y1 receptor agonist [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY, and antagonist BIBP3226. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay and cleaved caspase expression, respectively. Osteoblast differentiation was evaluated by Alizarin Red S staining and osteogenic marker gene expressions. Protein expression was detected by Western blot analysis. Dex upregulated the expression of Y1 receptor in MC3T3-E1 cells associated with reduced osteogenic gene expressions and mineralization. Blockade of Y1 receptor by shRNA transfection and BIBP3226 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of Dex on osteoblastic activity. Y1 receptor signaling modulated the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK as well as the expressions of osteogenic genes. Y1 receptor agonist inhibited ERK phosphorylation and osteoblast differentiation, while Y1 receptor blockade exhibited the opposite effects. Activation of ERK signaling by constitutive active mutant of MEK1 (caMEK abolished Y1 receptor-mediated Dex inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, Y1 receptor regulates Dex-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in murine MC3T3-E1 cells via ERK signaling. This study provides a novel role of Y1 receptor in the process of GC-induced suppression in osteoblast survival and differentiation.

  9. 7-ketocholesterol induces apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells associated with reactive oxygen species generation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and caspase-3/7 dependent pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Sato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures without reduction of bone mineral density. The cholesterol oxide 7-ketocholesterol (7KCHO has been implicated in numerous diseases such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer, age-related macular degeneration and T2DM. In the present study, 7KCHO decreased the viability of MC3T3-E1 cells, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and apoptotic rate, and upregulated the caspase-3/7 pathway. Furthermore, these effects of 7KCHO were abolished by pre-incubation of the cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an ROS inhibitor. Also, 7KCHO enhanced the mRNA expression of two endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress markers; CHOP and GRP78, in MC3T3-E1 cells. Pre-incubation of the cells with NAC suppressed the 7KCHO-induced upregulation of CHOP, but not GRP78. In conclusion, we demonstrated that 7KCHO induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells associated with ROS generation, ER stress, and caspase-3/7 activity, and the effects of 7KCHO were abolished by the ROS inhibitor NAC. These findings may provide new insight into the relationship between oxysterol and pathophysiology of osteoporosis seen in T2DM.

  10. Cell competition in mouse NIH3T3 embryonic fibroblasts is controlled by the activity of Tead family proteins and Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamada, Hiroshi; Sato, Takashi; Ota, Mitsunori; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-02-15

    Cell competition is a short-range communication originally observed in Drosophila. Relatively little is known about cell competition in mammals or in non-epithelial cells. Hippo signaling and its downstream transcription factors of the Tead family, control cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we established an in vitro model system that shows cell competition in mouse NIH3T3 embryo fibroblast cells. Co-culture of Tead-activity-manipulated cells with normal (wild-type) cells caused cell competition. Cells with reduced Tead activity became losers, whereas cells with increased Tead activity became super-competitors. Tead directly regulated Myc RNA expression, and cells with increased Myc expression also became super-competitors. At low cell density, cell proliferation required both Tead activity and Myc. At high cell density, however, reduction of either Tead activity or Myc was compensated for by an increase in the other, and this increase was sufficient to confer 'winner' activity. Collectively, NIH3T3 cells have cell competition mechanisms similar to those regulated by Yki and Myc in Drosophila. Establishment of this in vitro model system should be useful for analyses of the mechanisms of cell competition in mammals and in fibroblasts. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Antiproliferative activity of flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the MCF7, KB, and NIH/3T3 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedel, Fernanda; Begnini, Karine; Carvalho, Pedro Henrique de Azambuja; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Beira, Fátima T A; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto B

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the antiproliferative effect in vitro of the flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB), and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines, using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. A cell density of 2×10(4)/well was seeded in 96-well plates, and samples at different concentrations ranging from 10 to 500 mg/mL were tested. The optical density was determined in an ELISA multiplate reader (Thermo Plate TP-Reader). Results demonstrated that the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity against both the tumor cell lines KB and MCF-7, presenting a GI(50) (MCF-7=13.09 mg/mL), TGI (KB=37.76 mg/mL), and IL(50) (KB=291.07 mg/mL). Also, the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity toward NIH 3T3 cells GI(50) (183.65 mg/mL), TGI (280.54 mg/mL), and IL(50) (384.59 mg/mL). The results indicate that the flower hexane extract obtained from M. spicata associated with M. rotundifolia presents an antineoplastic activity against KB and MCF-7, although an antiproliferative effect at a high concentration of the extract was observed toward NIH 3T3.

  12. Involvement of the calcium-sensing receptor in mineral trioxide aggregate-induced osteogenic gene expression in murine MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Takuya; Hayashi, Makoto; Tanabe, Natsuko; Tsuda, Hiromasa; Suzuki, Yusuke; Kawato, Takayuki; Suzuki, Naoto; Maeno, Masao; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2017-07-26

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has excellent biocompatibility as well as bioactivity, including an ability to induce osteoblast differentiation. We examined the effects of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on osteogenic gene expression induced by MTA. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with or without (control) MTA. The expression levels of Runx2, type I collagen, and CaSR genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and their products were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The levels were increased significantly in cells exposed to MTA compared with control. Next, MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with MTA and EGTA (a calcium chelator), because calcium ions were released continuously from MTA into the culture. Expression levels were decreased to control levels by MTA plus EGTA. NPS2143 (a CaSR antagonist) also reduced MTA-induced gene expression. These results suggest that MTA induced osteogenic gene expressions of Runx2 and type I collagen via CaSR in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  13. Differentiation to adipocytes in accompanied by an increase in the amounts of Gi- and Go-proteins in 3T3-L1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.C.; Northup, J.K.; Malbon, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of cultures of 3T3-L1 cells with methylisobutyl-xanthine and dexamethasone has been shown to result in accumulation of lipid and conversion to the morphology of adipocytes in more than 90% of the cells. The status of the stimulatory (Gs), inhibitory (Gi) and Go-proteins during the course of 3T3-L1 differentiation was examined. The amount of alpha subunit of Gs (αGs), assayed by radiolabeling in the presence of cholera toxin and [ 32 P]NAD + , increased upon differentiation as previously described by others. The amounts of αGi and αGo assayed by radiolabeling in the presence of pertussis toxin and [ 32 P]NAD + increased 3-fold upon differentiation. Immunoblots of cell membranes subjected to gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate were probed with two rabbit antisera raised against bovine brain αGo and with one raised against theβ-subunit of the bovine rod-outer-segment G-protein, referred to as transducin. The immunoblotting data confirm the increase upon differentiation of αGo and also demonstrate an increase in the amount of the β-subunit. Thus differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells is accompanied by dramatic changes in the complexion of G-proteins in the membranes

  14. Osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on poly(L-lactide)/Fe3O4 nanofibers with static magnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferation and differentiation of bone-related cells are modulated by many factors such as scaffold design, growth factor, dynamic culture system, and physical simulation. Nanofibrous structure and moderate-intensity (1 mT–1 T) static magnetic field (SMF) have been identified as capable of stimulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Herein, magnetic nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning mixture solutions of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and ferromagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (NPs). The PLLA/Fe 3 O 4 composite nanofibers demonstrated homogeneous dispersion of Fe 3 O 4 NPs, and their magnetism depended on the contents of Fe 3 O 4 NPs. SMF of 100 mT was applied in the culture of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts on pure PLLA and PLLA/Fe 3 O 4 composite nanofibers for the purpose of studying the effect of SMF on osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic cells on magnetic nanofibrous scaffolds. On non-magnetic PLLA nanofibers, the application of external SMF could enhance the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. In comparison with pure PLLA nanofibers, the incorporation of Fe 3 O 4 NPs could also promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in the absence or presence of external SMF. The marriage of magnetic nanofibers and external SMF was found most effective in accelerating every aspect of biological behaviors of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. The findings demonstrated that the magnetic feature of substrate and microenvironment were applicable ways in regulating osteogenesis in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Magnetic nanofibers containing well-dispersed Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were produced. • Static magnetic field (SMF) was applied to perform the culture of osteoblasts. • Osteogenic differentiation was enhanced on magnetic substrate with exposure to SMF

  15. Dose-dependence of PTH-related peptide-1 on the osteogenic induction of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Li, Jingfeng; Yang, Liang; Zhou, Yichi; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH), an 84-amino acid peptide, is an endocrine hormone that is secreted by parathyroid glands. PTH performs important functions in calcium regulation and bone remodeling. The PTH (1-34) named teriparatide, a 34-amino acid peptide derived from the N-terminus of PTH, conserves most of the functions of PTH, specifically the osteogenic capability. However, teriparatide is only used by injection and exhibits short duration. In addition, this PTH could not thoroughly expose active sites. In this study, a novel PTH-related peptide (designated PTHrP-1) derived from the N-terminus of PTH was added into the complete medium at different concentrations of PTHrP-1 (0, 50, 100, and 200 ng/mL) to induce the MC3T3-E1 cells. PTHrP-1 was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Cell morphology, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and ALP activity, osteocalcin concentration, and collagen type I (Col-I), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA expression by RT-PCR and protein expression by western blotting were observed and detected. The purity of the PTHrP-1 was 95.14%, and the PTHrP-1 can induce MC3T3-E1 cells into osteoblasts, thus improving ALP activity and OCN concentration, and increasing Col-I, OPN, and OCN mRNA expression and protein expression in MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. The PTHrP-1 proved to be an ideal active peptide. In addition, the osteogenic ability of PTHrP-1 at 200 and 100 ng/mL concentrations was not significantly different but significantly higher than 50 and 0 ng/mL groups. Results indicate that PTHrP-1 is a kind of active peptides that exhibits good biocompatibility with MC3T3-E1 cells and could improve cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, PTHrP-1, at the preferable concentration of 100 ng/mL, could effectively promote MC3T3-E1 cells into osteoblasts.

  16. Real-time monitoring of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation using a commercially available electric cell-substrate impedance sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Adam H; Joos-Vandewalle, Julia; Edkins, Adrienne L; Frost, Carminita L; Prinsloo, Earl

    2014-01-24

    Real-time analysis offers multiple benefits over traditional end point assays. Here, we present a method of monitoring the optimisation of the growth and differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes using the commercially available ACEA xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyser Single Plate (RTCA SP) system. Our findings indicate that the ACEA xCELLigence RTCA SP can reproducibly monitor the primary morphological changes in pre- and post-confluent 3T3-L1 fibroblasts induced to differentiate using insulin, dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and rosiglitazone; and may be a viable primary method of screening compounds for adipogenic factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Theobromine inhibits differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells during the early stage of adipogenesis via AMPK and MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeon Jeong; Koo, Hyun Jung; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Kang, Se Chan; Rhee, Dong-Kwon; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is characterized by hypertrophy and/or by the differentiation or adipogenesis of pre-existing adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of theobromine, a type of alkaloid in cocoa, on adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and its mechanisms of action. Theobromine inhibited the accumulation of lipid droplets, the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα, and the mRNA expression of aP2 and leptin. The inhibition of adipogenic differentiation by theobromine occurred primarily in the early stages of differentiation. In addition, theobromine arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and regulated the expressions of CDK2, p27, and p21. Theobromine treatment increased AMPK phosphorylation and knockdown of AMPKα1/α2 prevented the ability of theobromine to inhibit PPARγ expression in the differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. Theobromine reduced the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Moreover, the secretion and the mRNA level of TNF-α and IL-6 were inhibited by theobromine treatment. These data suggest that theobromine inhibits adipocyte differentiation during the early stages of adipogenesis by regulating the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα through the AMPK and ERK/JNK signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

  18. The roots of Atractylodes japonica Koidzumi promote adipogenic differentiation via activation of the insulin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yunkyung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is a key transcription factor and plays an important role in the regulation of genes involved in adipogenic differentiation, glucose metabolism and insulin signal transduction. Methods In this study, the effects of the root extract of Atractylodes japonica Koidzumi (Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, ARA on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the possible mechanism of glucose transport were investigated. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured with insulin and ARA extract. Results In 3T3-L1 cells, ARA extract significantly enhanced adipogenic differentiation and upregulated the expression of PPARγ genes and protein in a dose-dependent manner. ARA also promoted glucose transport by increasing the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and insulin receptor substrates-1 (IRS-1 levels. Conclusion Our results suggest that ARA extract may be an attractive therapeutic agent for managing T2D via promoting the differentiation of adipocytes with the upregulation of PPARγ levels and the activation of the insulin signaling pathway.

  19. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bianca Luena Victorio

    Full Text Available Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv, which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1 and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D. Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  20. Blueberry peel extracts inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and reduce high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuno Song

    Full Text Available This study examined the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of blueberry peel extracts (BPE in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese rats. The levels of lipid accumulation were measured, along with the changes in the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Evidenced by Oil-red O staining and triglyceride assay, BPE dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation at concentrations of 0, 50, and 200 µg/ml. BPE decreased the expression of the key adipocyte differentiation regulator C/EBPβ, as well as the C/EBPα and PPARγ genes, during the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Moreover, BPE down-regulated adipocyte-specific genes such as aP2 and FAS compared with control adipocytes. The specific mechanism mediating the effects of BP revealed that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was strongly decreased, and its downstream substrate, phospho-GSK3β, was downregulated by BPE treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. Together, these data indicated that BP exerted anti-adipogenic activity by inhibiting the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPβ and the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Next, we investigated whether BP extracts attenuated HFD-induced obesity in rats. Oral administration of BPE reduced HFD-induced body weight gain significantly without affecting food intake. The epididymal or perirenal adipose tissue weights were lower in rats on an HFD plus BPE compared with the tissue weights of HFD-induced obese rats. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the rats fed BPE were modestly reduced, and the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFD plus BP-fed rats compared with those of HFD-fed rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of BP on adipogenesis through the down-regulation of C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ and the reduction of the phospho-Akt adipogenic factor in 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, BPE reduced body weight gain

  1. Revelation of Different Nanoparticle-Uptake Behavior in Two Standard Cell Lines NIH/3T3 and A549 by Flow Cytometry and Time-Lapse Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Jochums

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of nanomaterials into different cell types is a central pharmacological issue for the determination of nanotoxicity as well as for the development of drug delivery strategies. Most responses of the cells depend on their intracellular interactions with nanoparticles (NPs. Uptake behavior can be precisely investigated in vitro, with sensitive high throughput methods such as flow cytometry. In this study, we investigated two different standard cell lines, human lung carcinoma (A549 and mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3 cells, regarding their uptake behavior of titanium dioxide NPs. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of TiO2 NPs and samples were taken at certain time points to compare the uptake kinetics of both cell lines. Samples were analyzed with the help of flow cytometry by studying changes in the side and forward scattering signal. To additionally enable a detection via fluorescence, NPs were labeled with the fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC and propidium iodide (PI. We found that NIH/3T3 cells take up the studied NPs more efficiently than A549 cells. These findings were supported by time-lapse microscopic imaging of the cells incubated with TiO2 NPs. Our results confirm that the uptake behavior of individual cell types has to be considered before interpreting any results of nanomaterial studies.

  2. Anthraquinone Glycoside Aloin Induces Osteogenic Initiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells: Involvement of MAPK Mediated Wnt and Bmp Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Pengjam, Yutthana; Madhyastha, Harishkumar; Madhyastha, Radha; Yamaguchi, Yuya; Nakajima, Yuichi; Maruyama, Masugi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone pathology leading to increased fracture risk and challenging the quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an anthraquinone glycoside, aloin, on osteogenic induction of MC3T3-E1 cells. Aloin increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, an early differentiation marker of osteoblasts. Aloin also increased the ALP activity in adult human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC), indicating that the action of aloin was not cell-type specific. Alizarin...

  3. Effect of surface topography and bioactive properties on early adhesion and growth behavior of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Chen, Gang; Liu, Jue; Xia, Yang; Chen, Hanbang; Tang, Hui; Zhang, Feimin; Gu, Ning

    2014-10-08

    The effects of bioactive properties and surface topography of biomaterials on the adhesion and spreading properties of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells was investigated by preparation of different surfaces. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) electrospun fibers (ES) were produced as a porous rough surface. In our study, coverslips were used as a substrate for the immobilization of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and collagen type I (COL I) in the preparation of bioactive surfaces. In addition, COL I was immobilized onto porous electrospun fibers surfaces (E-COL) to investigate the combined effects of bioactive molecules and topography. Untreated coverslips were used as controls. Early adhesion and growth behavior of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the different surfaces were studied at 6, 12, and 24 h. Evaluation of cell adhesion and morphological changes showed that the all the surfaces were favorable for promoting the adhesion and spreading of cells. CCK-8 assays and flow cytometry revealed that both topography and bioactive properties were favorable for cell growth. Analysis of β1, α1, α2, α5, α10 and α11 integrin expression levels by immunofluorescence, real-time RT-PCR, and Western blot and indicated that surface topography plays an important role in the early stage of cell adhesion. However, the influence of topography and bioactive properties of surfaces on integrins is variable. Compared with any of the topographic or bioactive properties in isolation, the combined effect of both types of properties provided an advantage for the growth and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells. This study provides a new insight into the functions and effects of topographic and bioactive modifications of surfaces at the interface between cells and biomaterials for tissue engineering.

  4. Multifunctional chitosan/polyvinyl pyrrolidone/45S5 Bioglass® scaffolds for MC3T3-E1 cell stimulation and drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Qingqing; Li, Wei; Yu, Shanshan; Ma, Liwei; Jin, Dayong; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Liu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Novel chitosan–polyvinyl pyrrolidone/45S5 Bioglass® (CS-PVP/BG) scaffolds were prepared via foam replication and chemical cross-linking techniques. The pristine BG, CS-PVP coated BG and genipin cross-linked CS-PVP/BG (G-CS-PVP/BG) scaffolds were synthesized and characterized in terms of chemical composition, physical structure and morphology respectively. Resistance to enzymatic degradation of the scaffold is improved significantly with the use of genipin cross-linked CS-PVP. The bio-effects of scaffolds on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were evaluated by studying cell viability, adhesion and proliferation. The CCK-8 assay shows that cell viability on the resulting G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold is improved obviously after cross-linking of genipin. Cell skeleton images exhibit that well-stretched F-actin bundles are obtained on the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. SEM results present significant improvement on the cell adhesion and proliferation for cells cultured on the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. The drug release performance on the as-synthesized scaffold was studied in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. Vancomycin is found to be released in burst fashion within 24 h from the pristine BG scaffold, however, the release period from the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold is enhanced to 7 days, indicating improved drug release properties of the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. Our results suggest that the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffolds possess promising physicochemical properties, sustained drug release capability and good biocompatibility for MC3T3-E1 cells' proliferation and adhesion, suggesting their potential applications in areas such as MC3T3-E1 cell stimulation and bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Novel genipi–chitosan–polyvinyl pyrrolidone/45S5 Bioglass® scaffolds are prepared. • Resistance to enzymatic degradation of the scaffold is improved significantly. • The resulting scaffold shows enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion and proliferation. • Release of antibiotic vancomycin from the

  5. Multifunctional chitosan/polyvinyl pyrrolidone/45S5 Bioglass® scaffolds for MC3T3-E1 cell stimulation and drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Qingqing [Institute of Advanced Materials for Nano-Bio Applications, School of Ophthalmology & Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, 270 Xueyuan Xi Road, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China); Li, Wei [Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 6, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Yu, Shanshan; Ma, Liwei [Institute of Advanced Materials for Nano-Bio Applications, School of Ophthalmology & Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, 270 Xueyuan Xi Road, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China); Jin, Dayong [Institute for Biomedical Materials and Devices, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Advanced Cytometry Labs, ARC Center of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Boccaccini, Aldo R., E-mail: Aldo.Boccaccini@ww.uni-erlangen.de [Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 6, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yongliu1980@hotmail.com [Institute of Advanced Materials for Nano-Bio Applications, School of Ophthalmology & Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, 270 Xueyuan Xi Road, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China); Advanced Cytometry Labs, ARC Center of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2015-11-01

    Novel chitosan–polyvinyl pyrrolidone/45S5 Bioglass® (CS-PVP/BG) scaffolds were prepared via foam replication and chemical cross-linking techniques. The pristine BG, CS-PVP coated BG and genipin cross-linked CS-PVP/BG (G-CS-PVP/BG) scaffolds were synthesized and characterized in terms of chemical composition, physical structure and morphology respectively. Resistance to enzymatic degradation of the scaffold is improved significantly with the use of genipin cross-linked CS-PVP. The bio-effects of scaffolds on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were evaluated by studying cell viability, adhesion and proliferation. The CCK-8 assay shows that cell viability on the resulting G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold is improved obviously after cross-linking of genipin. Cell skeleton images exhibit that well-stretched F-actin bundles are obtained on the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. SEM results present significant improvement on the cell adhesion and proliferation for cells cultured on the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. The drug release performance on the as-synthesized scaffold was studied in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. Vancomycin is found to be released in burst fashion within 24 h from the pristine BG scaffold, however, the release period from the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold is enhanced to 7 days, indicating improved drug release properties of the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. Our results suggest that the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffolds possess promising physicochemical properties, sustained drug release capability and good biocompatibility for MC3T3-E1 cells' proliferation and adhesion, suggesting their potential applications in areas such as MC3T3-E1 cell stimulation and bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Novel genipi–chitosan–polyvinyl pyrrolidone/45S5 Bioglass® scaffolds are prepared. • Resistance to enzymatic degradation of the scaffold is improved significantly. • The resulting scaffold shows enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion and proliferation. • Release of antibiotic vancomycin from the

  6. Modulation of adipogenesis and glucose uptake by Curcuma longa extract in 3T3L1 and L6 cell lines - An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prathapan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of ethyl acetate extract of Curcuma longa against modulation of glucose uptake and adipogenesis in cell line models. Methods: We used 3T3L1 and L6 cells to investigate cytotoxicity, glucose uptake with 2-NBDG as probe and adipogenesis. All the analysis was done with flowcytometry. Results: The results showed that the extract did not possess any significant glucose uptake activity but it exhibited significant adipocyte differentiation potential. Conclusions: Ethyl acetate extract of Curcuma longa exhibits significant antiadipogenesis and can be used as an effective drug for the treatment of obesity and other associated complications.

  7. Effect of borate glass composition on its conversion to hydroxyapatite and on the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger F; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Dwilewicz, Agatha B; Huang, Wenhai; Day, Delbert E; Li, Yadong; Bal, B Sonny

    2009-02-01

    Glasses containing varying amounts of B(2)O(3) were prepared by partially or fully replacing the SiO(2) in silicate 45S5 bioactive glass with B(2)O(3). The effects of the B(2)O(3) content of the glass on its conversion to hydroxyapatite (HA) and on the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells were investigated in vitro. Conversion of the glasses to HA in dilute (20 mM) K(2)HPO(4) solution was monitored using weight loss and pH measurements. Proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined qualitatively by assay of cell density at the glass interface after incubation for 1 day and 3 days, and quantitatively by fluorescent measurements of total DNA in cultures incubated for 4 days. Higher B(2)O(3) content of the glass increased the conversion rate to HA, but also resulted in a greater inhibition of cell proliferation under static culture conditions. For a given mass of glass in the culture medium, the inhibition of cell proliferation was alleviated by using glasses with lower B(2)O(3) content, by incubating the cell cultures under dynamic rather than static conditions, or by partially converting the glass to HA prior to cell culture.

  8. Study of smart antibacterial PCL-xFe3O4thin films using mouse NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai B, Ganesh; Kulkarni, Ajay V; Jain, Shilpee

    2017-05-01

    Surface energy plays a major role in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell interactions with biomedical devices. In the present study, poly(ε-caprolactone)-xFe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (PCL-xFO NPs; x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 wt% FO concentration in PCL) composite thin films were developed for skin tissue regeneration. The surface properties in terms of roughness, surface energy, wettability of the thin films were altered with the incorporation of Fe 3 O 4 NPs. These thin films show antimicrobial properties and cyto-compatibility with NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The porosity and thickness of the films were controlled by varying RPM of the spin coater. Interestingly, at 1000 RPM the roughness of the film decreased with increasing concentrations of FO NPs in PCL, whereas the surface energy increased with increasing FO NPs concentrations. Furthermore, the spreading of NIH-3T3 cells grown on PCL-xFO thin films was less as compared to control (TCPS), however cells overcame this effect after 48 h of seeding and cells spread similarly to those grown on TCPS after 48 h. Also, the incorporation of FO NPs in thin films induced inner membrane permeabilization in E. coli bacteria leading to bacterial cell death. The viability of E. coli bacteria decreased with increasing concentration of FO NPs in PCL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 795-804, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Enhancement of growth and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells via facile surface functionalization of polylactide membrane with chitooligosaccharide based on polydopamine adhesive coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huihua [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Luo, Chuang [Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Luo, Binghong, E-mail: tluobh@jnu.edu.cn [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wen, Wei [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Xiaoying [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ding, Shan [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • COS was conveniently immobilized on PDLLA membrane based on PDOPA adhesive layer. • The hydrophilicity of PDLLA membrane was improved by modified with PDOPA and COS. • COS-functionalized PDLLA membrane is favorable to cell adhesion and proliferation. • COS-coated PDLLA membrane notably promote osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1. - Abstract: To develop a chitooligosaccharide(COS)-functionalized poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) membrane to enhance growth and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, firstly a thin polydopamine (PDOPA) layer was adhered to the PDLLA membrane via the self-polymerization and strong adhesion behavior of dopamine. Subsequently, COS was immobilized covalently on the resultant PDLLA/PDOPA composite membrane by coupling with PDOPA active coating. The successful immobilization of the PDOPA and COS was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results indicated that the surface topography and roughness of the membranes were changed, and the root mean square increased from 0.613 nm to 6.96 and 7.12 nm, respectively after coating PDOPA and COS. Water contact angle and surface energy measurements revealed that the membrane hydrophilicity was remarkably improved by surface modification. In vitro cells culture results revealed that the PDOPA- and COS-functionalized surfaces showed a significant increase in MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and alkaline phosphate activity compared to the pristine PDLLA substrate. Furthermore the COS-functionalized PDLLA membrane was more effectively at enhancing osteoblast activity than the PDOPA-functionalized PDLLA membrane.

  10. Anthraquinone Glycoside Aloin Induces Osteogenic Initiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells: Involvement of MAPK Mediated Wnt and Bmp Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjam, Yutthana; Madhyastha, Harishkumar; Madhyastha, Radha; Yamaguchi, Yuya; Nakajima, Yuichi; Maruyama, Masugi

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone pathology leading to increased fracture risk and challenging the quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an anthraquinone glycoside, aloin, on osteogenic induction of MC3T3-E1 cells. Aloin increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, an early differentiation marker of osteoblasts. Aloin also increased the ALP activity in adult human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC), indicating that the action of aloin was not cell-type specific.Alizarin red S staining revealed a signifiant amount of calcium deposition in cells treated with aloin. Aloin enhanced the expression of osteoblast differentiation genes, Bmp-2, Runx2 and collagen 1a, in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that noggin and inhibitors of p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK signals attenuated aloin-promoted expressions of Bmp-2 and Runx2 proteins. siRNA mediated blocking of Wnt-5a signaling pathway also annulled the influenceof aloin, indicating Wnt-5a dependent activity. Inhibition of the different signal pathways abrogated the influenceof aloin on ALP activity, confirmingthat aloin induced MC3T3-E1 cells into osteoblasts through MAPK mediated Wnt and Bmp signaling pathway.

  11. Traditional Korean Herbal Formula Samsoeum Attenuates Adipogenesis by Regulating the Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jin Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis is the cell differentiation process from preadipocytes into adipocytes and the critical action in the development of obesity. In the present study, we conducted in vitro analyses to investigate the inhibitory effects of Samsoeum (SSE, a traditional herbal decoction. SSE had no significant cytotoxic effect against either the undifferentiated or differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Oil Red O staining results showed that SSE significantly inhibited fat accumulation in adipocytes. SSE treatment consistently reduced the intracellular triglyceride content in the cells. SSE significantly inactivated glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH, a major link between carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and markedly inhibited the production of leptin, an important adipokine, in differentiated cells. SSE markedly suppressed the mRNA expression of the adipogenesis-related genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-α, fatty acid synthase (FAS, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4. Importantly, SSE increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not p38 MAPK and JNK, in adipose cells. Overall, our results indicate that SSE exerts antiadipogenic activity and modulates expressions of adipogenesis-related genes and ERK1/2 activation in adipocytes.

  12. Substance P Activates the Wnt Signal Transduction Pathway and Enhances the Differentiation of Mouse Preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Mei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments have explored the impact of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and Substance P (SP on the regulation of osteogenesis. However, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of SP on the formation of osteoblasts is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of SP on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The osteogenic effect of SP was observed at different SP concentrations (ranging from 10−10 to 10−8 M. To unravel the underlying mechanism, the MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with SP after the pretreatment by neurokinin-1 (NK1 antagonists and Dickkopf-1 (DKK1 and gene expression levels of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway components, as well as osteoblast differentiation markers (collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and Runx2, were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Furthermore, protein levels of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were detected using Western blotting and the effects of SP, NK1 antagonist, and DKK1 on β-catenin activation were investigated by immunofluorescence staining. Our data indicated that SP (10−9 to 10−8 M significantly up-regulated the expressions of osteoblastic genes. SP (10−8 M also elevated the mRNA level of c-myc, cyclin D1, and lymphocyte enhancer factor-1 (Lef1, as well as c-myc and β-catenin protein levels, but decreased the expression of Tcf7 mRNA. Moreover, SP (10−8 M promoted the transfer of β-catenin into nucleus. The effects of SP treatment were inhibited by the NK1 antagonist and DKK1. These findings suggest that SP may enhance differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells via regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  13. The effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and enamel matrix derivative on the bioactivity of mineral trioxide aggregate in MC3T3-E1cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youngdan; Yang, Wonkyung; Ko, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and enamel matrix derivative (EMD) respectively with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on hard tissue regeneration have been investigated in previous studies. This study aimed to compare the osteogenic effects of MTA/BMP-2 and MTA/EMD treatment in MC3T3-E1 cells. Materials and Methods MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with MTA (ProRoot, Dentsply), BMP-2 (R&D Systems), EMD (Emdogain, Straumann) separately and MTA/BMP-2 or MTA/EMD combination. Mineralization was evaluated by staining the calcium deposits with alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Sigma-Aldrich) and Alizarin red (Sigma-Aldrich). The effects on the osteoblast differentiation were evaluated by the expressions of osteogenic markers, including ALP, bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN) and osteonectin (OSN), as determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR, AccuPower PCR, Bioneer). Results Mineralization increased in the BMP-2 and MTA/BMP-2 groups and increased to a lesser extent in the MTA/EMD group but appeared to decrease in the MTA-only group based on Alizarin red staining. ALP expression largely decreased in the EMD and MTA/EMD groups based on ALP staining. In the MTA/BMP-2 group, mRNA expression of OPN on day 3 and BSP and OCN on day 7 significantly increased. In the MTA/EMD group, OSN and OCN gene expression significantly increased on day 7, whereas ALP expression decreased on days 3 and 7 (p MTA/BMP-2 combination promoted more rapid differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells than did MTA/EMD during the early mineralization period. PMID:25110642

  14. Sirtuin1 promotes osteogenic differentiation through downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in MC3T3-E1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Bo [Department of Orthopaedics, Chengdu Military General Hospital, Chengdu 610083 (China); Ma, Yuan [Department of Neurosurgery, Chengdu Military General Hospital, Chengdu 610083 (China); Yan, Ming [Department of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital of The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Gong, Kai; Liang, Feng; Deng, Shaolin; Jiang, Kai; Ma, Zehui [Department of Orthopaedics, Chengdu Military General Hospital, Chengdu 610083 (China); Pan, Xianming, E-mail: xianmingpanxj@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Chengdu Military General Hospital, Chengdu 610083 (China)

    2016-09-09

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by bone loss, resulting in architectural deterioration of the skeleton, decreased bone strength and an increased risk of fragility fractures. Strengthening osteogenesis is an effective way to relieve osteoporosis. Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +})-dependent deacetylase, which is reported to be involved in improving osteogenesis. Sirt1 targets peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in the regulation of adipose tissues; however, the molecular mechanism of Sirt1 in osteogenic differentiation is still unknown. PPARγ tends to induce more adipogenic differentiation rather than osteogenic differentiation. Hence, we hypothesized that Sirt1 facilitates osteogenic differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ signaling. Mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured under osteogenic medium. Sirt1 was overexpressed through plasmid transfection. The results showed that high expression of Sirt1 was associated with increased osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis of osteogenic markers, and Von Kossa staining. Sirt1 overexpression also directly and negatively regulated the expression of PPARγ and its downstream molecules. Use of the PPARγ agonist Rosiglitazone, reversed the effects of Sirt1 on osteogenic differentiation. Using constructed luciferase plasmids, we demonstrated a role of Sirt1 in inhibiting PPARγ–induced activity and expression of adipocyte–specific genes, including acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (Acc) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4). The interaction between Sirt1 and PPARγ was further confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation analysis. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for Sirt1 in osteogenic differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ activity. These findings suggest that the Sirt1–PPARγ pathway may represent a potential target for enhancement of osteogenesis and treatment

  15. The effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and enamel matrix derivative on the bioactivity of mineral trioxide aggregate in MC3T3-E1cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdan Jeong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and enamel matrix derivative (EMD respectively with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA on hard tissue regeneration have been investigated in previous studies. This study aimed to compare the osteogenic effects of MTA/BMP-2 and MTA/EMD treatment in MC3T3-E1 cells. Materials and Methods MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with MTA (ProRoot, Dentsply, BMP-2 (R&D Systems, EMD (Emdogain, Straumann separately and MTA/BMP-2 or MTA/EMD combination. Mineralization was evaluated by staining the calcium deposits with alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Sigma-Aldrich and Alizarin red (Sigma-Aldrich. The effects on the osteoblast differentiation were evaluated by the expressions of osteogenic markers, including ALP, bone sialoprotein (BSP, osteocalcin (OCN, osteopontin (OPN and osteonectin (OSN, as determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR, AccuPower PCR, Bioneer. Results Mineralization increased in the BMP-2 and MTA/BMP-2 groups and increased to a lesser extent in the MTA/EMD group but appeared to decrease in the MTA-only group based on Alizarin red staining. ALP expression largely decreased in the EMD and MTA/EMD groups based on ALP staining. In the MTA/BMP-2 group, mRNA expression of OPN on day 3 and BSP and OCN on day 7 significantly increased. In the MTA/EMD group, OSN and OCN gene expression significantly increased on day 7, whereas ALP expression decreased on days 3 and 7 (p < 0.05. Conclusions These results suggest the MTA/BMP-2 combination promoted more rapid differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells than did MTA/EMD during the early mineralization period.

  16. Sheets of vertically aligned BaTiO3 nanotubes reduce cell proliferation but not viability of NIH-3T3 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Giannini

    Full Text Available All biomaterials initiate a tissue response when implanted in living tissues. Ultimately this reaction causes fibrous encapsulation and hence isolation of the material, leading to failure of the intended therapeutic effect of the implant. There has been extensive bioengineering research aimed at overcoming or delaying the onset of encapsulation. Nanotechnology has the potential to address this problem by virtue of the ability of some nanomaterials to modulate interactions with cells, thereby inducing specific biological responses to implanted foreign materials. To this effect in the present study, we have characterised the growth of fibroblasts on nano-structured sheets constituted by BaTiO3, a material extensively used in biomedical applications. We found that sheets of vertically aligned BaTiO3 nanotubes inhibit cell cycle progression - without impairing cell viability - of NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells. We postulate that the 3D organization of the material surface acts by increasing the availability of adhesion sites, promoting cell attachment and inhibition of cell proliferation. This finding could be of relevance for biomedical applications designed to prevent or minimize fibrous encasement by uncontrolled proliferation of fibroblastic cells with loss of material-tissue interface underpinning long-term function of implants.

  17. 3T3 fibroblasts induce cloned interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to resemble connective tissue mast cells in granular constituency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayton, E.T.; Pharr, P.; Ogawa, M.; Serafin, W.E.; Austen, K.F.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Stevens, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    As assessed by ultrastructure, histochemical staining, and T-cell dependency, in vitro-differentiated interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells are comparable to the mast cells that reside in the gastrointestinal mucosa but not in the skin or the serosal cavity of the mouse. The authors now demonstrate that when cloned interleukin 3-dependent mast cells are cocultured with mouse skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of WEHI-3 conditioned medium for 28 days, the mast cells acquire the ability to stain with safranin, increase their histamine content ∼ 50-fold and their carboxypeptidase. A content ∼ 100-fold, and augment ∼ their biosynthesis of proteoglycans bearing 35 S-labeled haparin relative to 35 S-labeled chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Thus, fibroblasts induce interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to change phenotype from mucosal-like to connective tissue-like, indicating that the biochemical and functional characteristics of this mast cell type are strongly influenced by the connective tissue microenvironment

  18. Osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on poly(L-lactide)/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofibers with static magnetic field exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Organic–inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Shi, Yuzhou; Shan, Dingying; Jia, Wenkai; Duan, Shun [Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Deng, Xuliang [Department of Geriatric Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yang, Xiaoping, E-mail: yangxp@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic–inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Proliferation and differentiation of bone-related cells are modulated by many factors such as scaffold design, growth factor, dynamic culture system, and physical simulation. Nanofibrous structure and moderate-intensity (1 mT–1 T) static magnetic field (SMF) have been identified as capable of stimulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Herein, magnetic nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning mixture solutions of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and ferromagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs). The PLLA/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite nanofibers demonstrated homogeneous dispersion of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs, and their magnetism depended on the contents of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. SMF of 100 mT was applied in the culture of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts on pure PLLA and PLLA/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite nanofibers for the purpose of studying the effect of SMF on osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic cells on magnetic nanofibrous scaffolds. On non-magnetic PLLA nanofibers, the application of external SMF could enhance the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. In comparison with pure PLLA nanofibers, the incorporation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs could also promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in the absence or presence of external SMF. The marriage of magnetic nanofibers and external SMF was found most effective in accelerating every aspect of biological behaviors of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. The findings demonstrated that the magnetic feature of substrate and microenvironment were applicable ways in regulating osteogenesis in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Magnetic nanofibers containing well-dispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were produced. • Static magnetic field (SMF) was applied to perform the culture of osteoblasts. • Osteogenic differentiation was enhanced on magnetic substrate with exposure to SMF.

  19. An active extract of Ulmus pumila inhibits adipogenesis through regulation of cell cycle progression in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Chiranjit; Chung, Ha-Yull; Nandre, Rahul M; Lee, John Hwa; Jeon, Tae-Il; Kim, In-Sook; Yang, Seung Hak; Hwang, Seong-Gu

    2012-06-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders has become a major obstacle in improving the average life span. In this regard therapeutic approach using natural compounds are currently receiving much attention. Herbal compounds rich in triterpenes are well known to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we have found that Ulmus pumila (UP) contained at least four different triterpenoids and inhibited adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The cell viability was dose dependently decreased by UP showing the increase of cell accumulation in G1 phase while reducing in S and G2/M phase of cell cycle. UP treatment also significantly decreased the GPDH activity and intracellular lipid accumulation. In addition, UP inhibited the mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors and lipogenic genes such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP1c and FAS while showing no effects on C/EBP-β and C/EBP-δ. Importantly enough, treatment of cells with UP suppressed the TNF-α induced activation of NF-κB signaling. Collectively, our results indicate that UP extract effectively attenuated adipogenesis by controlling cell cycle progression and down regulating adipogenic gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of cell passage on the susceptibility of BALB/3T3 clone A31-1-1 cells to 3-methylcholanthrene-induced morphological transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, C W; Moreland, F M; Dunkel, V C

    1987-01-01

    The response of BALB/3T3 clone A31-1-1 cells to chemically induced morphological transformation was evaluated using 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). Stock cultures were initiated from cryopreserved cells, grown in T25 flasks containing 5 ml of medium, and replated at subconfluency. Serially transferred cells were then subjected to transformation assay. After 24-hr seeding, cells were incubated 48 hr with MCA in a 5% CO2 incubator. They were then rinsed and incubated for an additional 4 weeks with twice weekly medium change. Type III foci were scored after fixation and staining with Giemsa. With serial passage from the frozen state, cells of passages 3-14 had a low level of spontaneous transformation; zero to 6 type III foci per 20 dishes were counted. In the MCA-treated cultures the number of transformed foci, however, increased with passage. Such passage-related sensitivity to MCA was demonstrated for cells cultured in two batches of sera: one from MA Bioproducts (Lot no. 2E052) and the other from Armour Pharmaceuticals (Lot no. Y65801). The passage-related increase in number of transformed foci was not related to doubling time, cloning efficiency, or MCA-induced growth inhibition.

  1. Kaempferol suppresses lipid accumulation by inhibiting early adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Joo; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Seo, Min-Jung; Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2015-08-01

    Kaempferol is a flavonoid present in Kaempferia galanga and Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten. Recent studies have suggested that it has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we focused on the anti-adipogenic effects of kaempferol during adipocyte differentiation. The results showed that kaempferol inhibits lipid accumulation in adipocytes and zebrafish. Oil Red O and Nile Red staining showed that the number of intracellular lipid droplets decreased in adipocytes and zebrafish treated with kaempferol. LPAATθ (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase), lipin1, and DGAT1 (triglyceride synthetic enzymes) and FASN and SREBP-1C (fatty acid synthetic proteins) showed decreased expression levels in the presence of kaempferol. In addition, treatment of kaempferol showed an inhibitory activity on cell cycle progression. Kaempferol delayed cell cycle progression from the S to G2/M phase through the regulation of cyclins in a dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol blocked the phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway during the early stages of adipogenesis. In addition, kaempferol down-regulated pro-early adipogenic factors such as CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins β (C/EBPβ), and Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) 4 and 5, while anti-early adipogenic factors, such as KLF2 and pref-1(preadipocyte factor-1), were upregulated. These kaempferol-mediated regulations of early adipogenic factors resulted in the attenuation of late adipogenic factors such as C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). These results were supported in zebrafish based on the decrease in lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic factors. Our results indicated that kaempferol might have an anti-obesity effect by regulating lipid metabolism.

  2. The role of kaempferol-induced autophagy on differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Ryoung; Kim, Seong-Eon; Baek, Hyun-Su; Kim, Bok-Joo; Kim, Chul-Hoon; Chung, In-Kyo; Park, Bong-Soo; Shin, Sang-Hun

    2016-08-31

    Kaempferol, a kind of flavonol, has been reported to possess various osteogenic biological activities, such as inhibiting bone resorption of osteoclasts and promoting the differentiation and mineralization of preosteoblasts. However, the precise cellular mechanism of action of kaempferol in osteogenesis is elusive. Autophagy is a major intracellular degradation system, which plays an important role in cell growth, survival, differentiation and homeostasis in mammals. Recent studies showed that autophagy appeared to be involved in the degradation of osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes, potentially pointing to a new pathogenic mechanism of bone homeostasis and bone marrow disease. The potential correlation between autophagy, osteogenesis and flavonoids is unclear. The present study verified that kaempferol promoted osteogenic differentiation and mineralization and that it elevated osteogenic gene expression based on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining and quantitative PCR. And then we found that kaempferol induced autophagy by acridine orange (AO) and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and autophagy-related protein expression. The correlation between kaempferol-induced autophagy and the osteogenic process was confirmed by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Kaempferol promoted the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts at a concentration of 10 μM. Kaempferol showed cytotoxic properties at concentrations above 50 μM. Concentrations above 10 μM decreased ALP activity, whereas those up to 10 μM increased ALP activity. Kaempferol at concentrations up to 10 μM also increased the expression of the osteoblast- activated factors RUNX-2, osterix, BMP-2 and collagen I according to RT-PCR analyses. 10 μM or less, the higher of the concentration and over time, kaempferol promoted the activity of osteoblasts. Kaempferol induced autophagy. It also increased the expression of the autophagy-related factors

  3. Activation and inactivation of the volume-sensitive taurine leak pathway in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and Ehrlich Lettre ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry

    2007-01-01

    Hypotonic exposure provokes the mobilization of arachidonic acid, production of ROS, and a transient increase in taurine release in Ehrlich Lettre cells. The taurine release is potentiated by H(2)O(2) and the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate and reduced by the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2......)) inhibitors bromoenol lactone (BEL) and manoalide, the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor ETH-615139, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyl iodonium (DPI), and antioxidants. Thus, swelling-induced taurine efflux in Ehrlich Lettre cells involves Ca(2+)-independent (iPLA(2))/secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) plus 5-LO...... activity and modulation by ROS. Vanadate and H(2)O(2) stimulate arachidonic acid mobilization and vanadate potentiates ROS production in Ehrlich Lettre cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts under hypotonic conditions. However, vanadate-induced potentiation of the volume-sensitive taurine efflux is, in both cell...

  4. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-02-26

    Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation.

  5. Inhibitory activity of chokeberry, bilberry, raspberry and cranberry polyphenol-rich extract towards adipogenesis and oxidative stress in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipose cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kowalska

    Full Text Available Berries are a rich source of antioxidants and phytochemicals that have received considerable interest for their possible relations to human health. In this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of polyphenol-rich extract obtained from chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa (Michx. Elliot, raspberry Rubus idaeus L., bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. and cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton fruits and its underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Treatment with the extract (25-100 μg/mL significantly decreased lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species generation in adipocytes without showing cytotoxicity. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the extract at a concentration of 100 μg/mL suppressed adipogenesis and lipogenesis via the down-regulation of PPARγ (67%, C/EBPα (72%, SREBP1 (62%, aP2 (24%, FAS (32%, LPL (40%, HSL (39%, and PLIN1 (32% gene expression. Moreover, the extract significantly increased the expression of adiponectin (4.4-fold and decreased leptin expression (90% and respectively regulated the production of these adipokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The obtained results suggest that the analyzed extract may be a promising source of bioactive compounds that support long-term weight maintenance and promote the effective management of obesity.

  6. T1R3 homomeric sweet taste receptor regulates adipogenesis through Gαs-mediated microtubules disassembly and Rho activation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Masubuchi

    Full Text Available We previously reported that 3T3-L1 cells express a functional sweet taste receptor possibly as a T1R3 homomer that is coupled to Gs and negatively regulates adipogenesis by a Gαs-mediated but cAMP-independent mechanism. Here, we show that stimulation of this receptor with sucralose or saccharin induced disassembly of the microtubules in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which was attenuated by overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of Gαs (Gαs-G226A. In contrast, overexpression of the constitutively active mutant of Gαs (Gαs-Q227L as well as treatment with cholera toxin or isoproterenol but not with forskolin caused disassembly of the microtubules. Sweetener-induced microtubule disassembly was accompanied by activation of RhoA and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK. This was attenuated with by knockdown of GEF-H1, a microtubule-localized guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPase. Furthermore, overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of RhoA (RhoA-T19N blocked sweetener-induced dephosphorylation of Akt and repression of PPARγ and C/EBPα in the early phase of adipogenic differentiation. These results suggest that the T1R3 homomeric sweet taste receptor negatively regulates adipogenesis through Gαs-mediated microtubule disassembly and consequent activation of the Rho/ROCK pathway.

  7. Extracellular biosynthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by Bacillus cereus strain HMH1: Characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity analysis on MCF-7 and 3T3 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Mohsen; Mollania, Nasrin; Momeni-Moghaddam, Majid; Sadeghifar, Fatemeh

    2018-03-20

    Discovery of new properties and special functionalities at the nanoscale materials caused nanotechnology to become one of the leading parts in all sciences namely biology and medicine. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONPs) are among interesting nanomaterials in biomedical arena, which have attracted the attention of many researchers owing to their extensive capabilities. Due to the simple, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly production processes, biosynthesis is of paramount importance between different methods of nanoparticles production. In the current study, we succeeded to synthesize MIONPs using a newly extracted bacteria supernatant. Produced nanoparticles were characterized using FE-SEM, DLS, VSM, UV-vis, FT-IR and EDS spectroscopy. Analysis showed that the average particle size of very stable spherical MIONPs is about 29.3 nm. The bacteria protein profile obtained by SDS-PAGE analysis indicated induction of different proteins. In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on the viability of MCF7 and 3T3 cell lines was assessed by MTT assay. The results show that toxicity of the produced nanoparticles (IC 50, MCF-7  > 5 mg/ml and IC 50, 3T3  > 7.5 mg/ml) follows a concentration dependent manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibitory activity of chokeberry, bilberry, raspberry and cranberry polyphenol-rich extract towards adipogenesis and oxidative stress in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipose cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna; Szwajgier, Dominik; Olkowicz, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Berries are a rich source of antioxidants and phytochemicals that have received considerable interest for their possible relations to human health. In this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of polyphenol-rich extract obtained from chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot, raspberry Rubus idaeus L., bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. and cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton fruits and its underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Treatment with the extract (25-100 μg/mL) significantly decreased lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species generation in adipocytes without showing cytotoxicity. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the extract at a concentration of 100 μg/mL suppressed adipogenesis and lipogenesis via the down-regulation of PPARγ (67%), C/EBPα (72%), SREBP1 (62%), aP2 (24%), FAS (32%), LPL (40%), HSL (39%), and PLIN1 (32%) gene expression. Moreover, the extract significantly increased the expression of adiponectin (4.4-fold) and decreased leptin expression (90%) and respectively regulated the production of these adipokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The obtained results suggest that the analyzed extract may be a promising source of bioactive compounds that support long-term weight maintenance and promote the effective management of obesity.

  9. Lysosomotropic cationic amphiphilic drugs inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1K cells via accumulation in cells and phospholipid membranes, and inhibition of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagebeck, Patrik; Nikiforova, Violetta; Brunken, Lars; Easwaranathan, Arrabi; Ruegg, Joelle; Cotgreave, Ian; Munic Kos, Vesna

    2018-04-05

    Some cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) have been individually reported to interfere with the differentiation of immune system cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. To investigate the possible generic nature of this process, in this study we aimed to see whether these drugs are capable of interfering with the differentiation of adipocytes. Further, we investigated whether this feature might be connected to the lysosomotropic character of these drugs, and their disturbance of intracellular membrane trafficking rather than to the individual pharmacologic properties of each drug. Thus, for the selected set of compounds consisting of seven structurally and pharmacologically diverse CADs and three non-CAD controls we have measured the impact on differentiation of 3T3-L1K murine preadipocytes to adipocytes. We conclude that CADs indeed inhibit adipocyte differentiation, as shown morphologically, at the level of lipid droplet formation and on the expression of genetic markers of adipocytes. Furthermore, the intensity of this inhibitory effect was found to strongly positively correlate with the extent of drug accumulation in adipocytes, with their affinity for phospholipid membranes, as well as with their ability to induce phospholipidosis and inhibit autophagy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Potentiation of endothelin-1-induced prostaglandin E2 formation by Ni(2+) and Sr(2+) in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Hans Jörg; Windischhofer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Cation recognition mechanisms beyond calcium-sensing receptors are still largely unexplored and consequently there is surprisingly little information on linking of this primary event to key metabolic features of different cell systems, such as arachidonic acid metabolism. However, information on the modulatory role of extracellular cations in cellular function is scarce. In this study we have demonstrated, that Ni(2+) and Sr(2+) potentiate endothelin-1 induced prostaglandin E2 formation in the osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, even in the absence of extracellular calcium. The effect is strictly dependent of receptor-mediated signal transduction processes evoked by endothelin-1 and arachidonate release involves cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity. The ligation sites, at least for Ni(2+) are extracellular. The data suggest a novel activation mechanism for arachidonate release and subsequent prostaglandin formation that does not require calcium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying the roles of random motility and directed motility using advection-diffusion theory for a 3T3 fibroblast cell migration assay stimulated with an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Matthew J; Lo, Kai-Yin; Sun, Yung-Shin

    2017-03-17

    Directed cell migration can be driven by a range of external stimuli, such as spatial gradients of: chemical signals (chemotaxis); adhesion sites (haptotaxis); or temperature (thermotaxis). Continuum models of cell migration typically include a diffusion term to capture the undirected component of cell motility and an advection term to capture the directed component of cell motility. However, there is no consensus in the literature about the form that the advection term takes. Some theoretical studies suggest that the advection term ought to include receptor saturation effects. However, others adopt a much simpler constant coefficient. One of the limitations of including receptor saturation effects is that it introduces several additional unknown parameters into the model. Therefore, a relevant research question is to investigate whether directed cell migration is best described by a simple constant tactic coefficient or a more complicated model incorporating saturation effects. We study directed cell migration using an experimental device in which the directed component of the cell motility is driven by a spatial gradient of electric potential, which is known as electrotaxis. The electric field (EF) is proportional to the spatial gradient of the electric potential. The spatial variation of electric potential across the experimental device varies in such a way that there are several subregions on the device in which the EF takes on different values that are approximately constant within those subregions. We use cell trajectory data to quantify the motion of 3T3 fibroblast cells at different locations on the device to examine how different values of the EF influences cell motility. The undirected (random) motility of the cells is quantified in terms of the cell diffusivity, D, and the directed motility is quantified in terms of a cell drift velocity, v. Estimates D and v are obtained under a range of four different EF conditions, which correspond to normal

  12. Importância do co-cultivo com fibroblastos de camundongo 3T3 para estabelecer cultura de suspensão de células epiteliais do limbo humano Importance of 3T3 feeder layer to establish epithelial cultures from cell suspension obtained from corneo-scleral rims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Cardoso Cristovam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a importância da presença de células 3T3 para estabelecer cultura de suspensão de células epiteliais do limbo obtido de rimas córneo-esclerais. MÉTODOS: Rimas de diferentes doadores tiveram seus estroma posterior e endotélio removidos (n=6. Cada rima foi dividida em três segmentos iguais, que foram colocados em cultura em três diferentes condições: um segmento foi colocado na placa de cultura com o lado epitelial para cima (Grupo A. Os dois segmentos restantes foram tripsinizados e a suspensão de células obtida foi cultivada com (Grupo B ou sem (Grupo C células 3T3 irradiadas. As células foram mantidas em meio de cultura "supplemental hormonal epithelial médium" (SHEM, a migração epitelial e a formação de clones nos grupos A, B e C foram avaliadas pela microscopia de contraste de fase e por coloração pela rodamina B. Os resultados foram comparados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: O crescimento de células epiteliais foi observado em 4/6 rimas (Grupo A. Todas as suspensões de células epiteliais que foram cultivadas com células 3T3 (Grupo B formaram clones. Nenhuma adesão ou formação de clones verdadeiros (holo ou meroclones foi observada na cultura de células que foi cultivada sem 3T3 (Grupo C (p=0,009. CONCLUSÕES: Suspensão de células epiteliais límbicas obtidas de rimas córneo-esclerais no modelo utilizado precisa ser cultivada com células 3T3 para formar clones e estabelecer colônias epiteliais com perspectivas para uso terapêutico na reconstrução da superfície ocular.PURPOSE: To evaluate the importance of the presence of 3T3 fibroblasts for establishing limbal epithelial cultures from cell suspension obtained from corneo-scleral rims (CSR. METHODS: Corneo-scleral rims from different donors (n=6 had their posterior stroma and endothelium stripped away. Each corneo-scleral rim was divided into three equal segments that were set up in tissue culture in three different conditions: one of the

  13. Cysteine deprivation prevents induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 and adipose differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yasein, Nadia Nabil; Berg, Ole; Jernerén, Fredrik; Refsum, Helga; Nebb, Hilde I; Dalen, Knut Tomas

    2017-06-01

    Plasma cysteine is strongly associated with body fat mass in human cohorts and diets low in cysteine prevents fat accumulation in mice. It is unclear if plasma cysteine affects fat development or if fat accumulation raises plasma cysteine. To determine if cysteine affects adipogenesis, we differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in medium with reduced cysteine. Cells incubated in media with 10-20μM cysteine exhibited reduced capacity to differentiate into triacylglycerol-storing mature adipocytes compared with cells incubated with 50μM cysteine. Low cysteine severely reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (Pparγ2) and its target genes perlipin1 (Plin1) and fatty acid binding protein-4 (Fabp4). Expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1), known to be repressed with cysteine depletion, was also reduced with low cysteine. Medium depletion of the essential amino acids leucine, valine, and isoleucine had only a modest effect on adipocyte specific gene expression and differentiation. Stimulation with the PPARγ agonist BRL-49653 or addition of a hydrogen sulfide donor enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells cultured in low cysteine. This demonstrates that the ability to induce PPARγ expression is preserved when cells are cultured in low cysteine. It therefore appears that cysteine depletion inhibits adipogenesis by specifically affecting molecular pathways required for induction of PPARγ expression, rather than through a general reduction of global protein synthesis. In conclusion, we show that low extracellular cysteine reduces adipocyte differentiation by interfering with PPARγ2 and PPARγ target gene expression. Our results provide further evidence for the hypothesis that plasma cysteine is a casual determinant for body fat mass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibitory effects of constituents from Morus alba var. multicaulis on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Gang; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2011-07-19

    A new arylbenzofuran, 3',5'-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-7-prenyl-2-arylbenzofuran (1), and 25 known compounds, including moracin R (2), moracin C (3), moracin O (4), moracin P (5), artoindonesianin O (6), moracin D (7), alabafuran A (8), mulberrofuran L (9), mulberrofuran Y (10), kuwanon A (11), kuwanon C (12), kuwanon T (13), morusin (14), kuwanon E (15), sanggenon F (16), betulinic acid (17), uvaol (18), ursolic acid (19), β-sitosterol (20), oxyresveratrol 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (21), mulberroside A (22), mulberroside B (23), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (24), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (25) and adenosine (26), were isolated from Morus alba var. multicaulis Perro. (Moraceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The prenyl-flavonoids 11-14, 16, triterpenoids 17,18 and 20 showed significant inhibitory activity towards the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The arylbenzofurans 1-10 and prenyl-flavonoids 11-16 also showed significant nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory effects in RAW264.7 cells.

  15. Dehydrodiconiferyl Alcohol Isolated from Cucurbita moschata Shows Anti-adipogenic and Anti-lipogenic Effects in 3T3-L1 Cells and Primary Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Jonghyun; Choi, Hyounjeong; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeong, Jinhyun; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    A water-soluble extract from the stems of Cucurbita moschata, code named PG105, was previously found to contain strong anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. One of its biological characteristics is that it inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. To isolate the biologically active compound(s), conventional solvent fractionation was performed, and the various fractions were tested for anti-adipogenic activity using Oil Red O staining method. A single spot on thin layer chromatography of the chloroform fraction showed a potent anti-adipogenic activity. When purified, the structure of its major component was resolved as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan, by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. In 3T3-L1 cells, synthesized DHCA significantly reduced the expression of several adipocyte marker genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (Cebpa), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), sterol response element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (Scd), and decreased lipid accumulation without affecting cell viability. DHCA also suppressed the mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes (an early event of adipogenesis), probably by suppressing the DNA binding activity of C/EBPβ, and lowered the production level of cyclinA and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), coinciding with the decrease in DNA synthesis and cell division. In addition, DHCA directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1. Similar observations were made, using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Taken together, our data indicate that DHCA may contain dual activities, affecting both adipogenesis and lipogenesis. PMID:22262865

  16. Raspberry Ketone Reduced Lipid Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Cells and Ovariectomy-Induced Obesity in Wistar Rats by Regulating Autophagy Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Sy-Ying; Chen, Yi-Chen; Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Hung, Yao-Wen; Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Lee, Yen-Mei; Cheng, Pao-Yun

    2017-12-20

    This study aimed to determine the antiobesity effects of raspberry ketone (RK), one of the major aromatic compounds contained in raspberry, and its underlying mechanisms. During adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, RK (300 μM) significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). RK also reduced the expression of light chain 3B (LC3B), autophagy-related protein 12 (Atg12), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and phosphorylated-tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), whereas it increased the level of p62 and phosphorylated-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Daily administration of RK decreased the body weight (ovariectomy [Ovx] + RK, 352.6 ± 5 vs Ovx, 386 ± 5.8 g; P < 0.05), fat mass (Ovx + RK, 3.2 ± 0.05 vs Ovx, 5.0 ± 0.4 g; P < 0.05), and fat cell size (Ovx + RK, 6.4 ± 0.6 vs Ovx, 11.1 ± 0.7 × 10 3 μm 2 ; P < 0.05) in Ovx-induced obesity in rats. The expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS, and FABP4 was significantly reduced in the Ovx + RK group compared with that in the Ovx group. Similar patterns were observed in autophagy-related proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins. These results suggest that RK inhibited lipid accumulation by regulating autophagy in 3T3-L1 cells and Ovx-induced obese rats.

  17. Delivery of the autofluorescent protein R-phycoerythrin by calcium phosphate nanoparticles into four different eukaryotic cell lines (HeLa, HEK293T, MG-63, MC3T3): Highly efficient, but leading to endolysosomal proteolysis in HeLa and MC3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Mathis; Rotan, Olga; Papadopoulos, Chrisovalantis; Schulze, Nina; Meyer, Hemmo; Epple, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles can be used as carriers to transport biomolecules like proteins and synthetic molecules across the cell membrane because many molecules are not able to cross the cell membrane on their own. The uptake of nanoparticles together with their cargo typically occurs via endocytosis, raising concerns about the possible degradation of the cargo in the endolysosomal system. As the tracking of a dye-labelled protein during cellular uptake and processing is not indicative of the presence of the protein itself but only for the fluorescent label, a label-free tracking was performed with the red-fluorescing model protein R-phycoerythrin (R-PE). Four different eukaryotic cell lines were investigated: HeLa, HEK293T, MG-63, and MC3T3. Alone, the protein was not taken up by any cell line; only with the help of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, an efficient uptake occurred. After the uptake into HeLa cells, the protein was found in early endosomes (shown by the marker EEA1) and lysosomes (shown by the marker Lamp1). There, it was still intact and functional (i.e. properly folded) as its red fluorescence was detected. However, a few hours after the uptake, proteolysis started as indicated by the decreasing red fluorescence intensity in the case of HeLa and MC3T3 cells. 12 h after the uptake, the protein was almost completely degraded in HeLa cells and MC3T3 cells. In HEK293T cells and MG-63 cells, no degradation of the protein was observed. In the presence of Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of acidification and protein degradation in lysosomes, the fluorescence of R-PE remained intact over the whole observation period in the four cell lines. These results indicate that despite an efficient nanoparticle-mediated uptake of proteins by cells, a rapid endolysosomal degradation may prevent the desired (e.g. therapeutic) effect of a protein inside a cell.

  18. Ionomycin induces prostaglandin E2 formation in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells via mechanisms independent of its ionophoric nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Hans Jörg; Windischhofer, Werner

    2016-06-01

    Ionomycin and A23187 are divalent cation ionophores with a marked preference for calcium. Studies using these ionophores have almost exclusively interpreted their results in the light of calcium elevation. It was the aim of this study to investigate the effects of ionomycin in osteoblatic MC3T3-E1 cells that are not attributable to its ionophoric properties. Thus, we have found that in contrast to A23187, ionomycin shows similar effects on prostaglandin E2 formation as bradykinin and endothelin-1, being potentiated by extracellular nickel and inhibited by cholera toxin and pertussis toxin. Our data strongly suggest that inomycin, at least in part, exerts its effects via specific binding to a G-protein coupled receptor, thereby evoking downstream cellular events like arachidonate release with subsequent prostaglandin formation.

  19. Effects of Apatite Cement Containing Atelocollagen on Attachment to and Proliferation and Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Osteoblastic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Takechi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve the osteoconductivity of apatite cement (AC for reconstruction of bone defects after oral maxillofacial surgery, we previously fabricated AC containing atelocollagen (AC(ate. In the present study, we examined the initial attachment, proliferation and differentiation of mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells on the surface of conventional AC (c-AC, AC(ate and a plastic cell dish. The number of osteoblastic cells showing initial attachment to AC(ate was greater than those attached to c-AC and similar to the number attached to the plastic cell wells. We also found that osteoblastic cells were well spread and increased their number on AC(ate in comparison with c-AC and the wells without specimens, while the amount of procollagen type I carboxy-terminal peptide (PIPC produced in osteoblastic cells after three days on AC(ate was greater as compared to the others. There was no significant difference in regard to alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and osteocalcin production by osteoblastic cells among the three surface types after three and six days. However, after 12 days, ALP activity and the produced osteocalcin were greater with AC(ate. In conclusion, AC(ate may be a useful material with high osteoconductivity for reconstruction of bone defects after oral maxillofacial surgery.

  20. Mechanisms for proteinase-activated receptor 1-triggered prostaglandin E2 generation in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yuma; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Yamanaka, Rumi; Sugimoto, Ryo; Yamasoba, Daichi; Tomita, Shiori; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed signaling mechanisms for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production following activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a thrombin receptor, in preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. PAR1 stimulation caused PGE2 release, an effect suppressed by inhibitors of COX-1, COX-2, iPLA2, cPLA2, MAP kinases (MAPKs), Src, EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), but not by an intracellular Ca2+ chelator or inhibitors of PI3 kinase, protein kinase C (PKC) and NF-κB. PAR1 activation induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and upregulation of COX-2. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was suppressed by inhibitors of Src and EGFR-TK. The COX-2 upregulation was dependent on ERK, p38, EGFR-TK, Src, and COX-2 itself. PAR1 activation also induced MEK-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). All inhibitors of EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors suppressed the PAR1-triggered PGE2 release. Exogenously applied PGE2 facilitated PAR1-triggered COX-2 upregulation, but it alone had no effect. Together, the PAR1-mediated PGE2 production in MC3T3-E1 cells appears to involve iPLA2 and cPLA2 for arachidonic acid release, and the MEK/ERK/CREB and Src/MMP/EGFR/p38 pathways for COX-2 upregulation, which is facilitated by endogenous PGE2 formed by COX-2. These signaling mechanisms might underlie the role of the thrombin/PAR1/PGE2 system in the early stage of the bone healing.

  1. The in vitro effects of macrophages on the osteogenic capabilities of MC3T3-E1 cells encapsulated in a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Leila S; Carles-Carner, Maria; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2018-04-15

    Poly(ethylene glycol) PEG-based hydrogels are promising for cell encapsulation and tissue engineering, but are known to elicit a foreign body response (FBR) in vivo. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of the FBR, and specifically the presence of inflammatory macrophages, on encapsulated cells and their ability to synthesize new extracellular matrix. This study employed an in vitro co-culture system with murine macrophages and MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts encapsulated in a bone-mimetic hydrogel, which were cultured in transwell inserts, and exposed to an inflammatory stimulant, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The co-culture was compared to mono-cultures of the cell-laden hydrogels alone and with LPS over 28 days. Two macrophage cell sources, RAW 264.7 and primary derived, were investigated. The presence of LPS-stimulated primary macrophages led to significant changes in the cell-laden hydrogel by a 5.3-fold increase in percent apoptotic osteoblasts at day 28, 4.2-fold decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity at day 10, and 7-fold decrease in collagen deposition. The presence of LPS-stimulated RAW macrophages led to significant changes in the cell-laden hydrogel by 5-fold decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity at day 10 and 4-fold decrease in collagen deposition. Mineralization, as measured by von Kossa stain or quantified by calcium content, was not sensitive to macrophages or LPS. Elevated interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion were detected in mono-cultures with LPS and co-cultures. Overall, primary macrophages had a more severe inhibitory effect on osteoblast differentiation than the macrophage cell line, with greater apoptosis and collagen I reduction. In summary, this study highlights the detrimental effects of macrophages on encapsulated cells for bone tissue engineering. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels are promising for cell encapsulation and tissue engineering, but are known to elicit a foreign body response (FBR) in

  2. Ultraviolet C Irradiation Induces Different Expression of Cyclooxygenase 2 in NIH 3T3 Cells and A431 Cells: The Roles of COX-2 Are Different in Various Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsiu Wu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet C (UVC is a DNA damage inducer, and 20 J/m2 of UVC irradiation caused cell growth inhibition and induced cell death after exposure for 24–36 h. The growth of NIH 3T3 cells was significantly suppressed at 24 h after UVC irradiation whereas the proliferation of A431 cells was inhibited until 36 h after UVC irradiation. UVC irradiation increased COX-2 expression and such up-regulation reached a maximum during 3–6 h in NIH 3T3 cells. In contrast, UVC-induced COX-2 reached a maximum after 24–36 h in A431 cells. Measuring prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 level showed a biphasic profile that PGE2 release was rapidly elevated in 1–12 h after UVC irradiation and increased again at 24 h in both cell lines. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor, SC-791, during maximum expression of COX-2 induction, attenuated the UVC induced-growth inhibition in NIH 3T3 cells. In contrast, SC-791 treatment after UVC irradiation enhanced death of A431 cells. These data showed that the patterns of UVC-induced PGE2 secretion from NIH 3T3 cells and A431 cells were similar despite the differential profile in UVC-induced COX-2 up-regulation. Besides, COX-2 might play different roles in cellular response to UVC irradiation in various cell lines.

  3. Cytotoxicity of Etch-and-Rinse, Self-Etch, and Universal Dental Adhesive Systems in Fibroblast Cell Line 3T3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupo, Yasmine Mendes; Bernardo, Cintia Fernanda de Freitas; de Souza, Francielly Fernanda de Freitas A; Michél, Milton Domingos; Ribeiro, Camila Nunes de Morais; Germano, Sandro; Maluf, Daniela Florencio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in fibroblast cultures the direct cytotoxic effects of etch-and-rinse, self-etch, and universal adhesive systems. The sterile glass cover slips ( n = 3) were then immersed in culture medium to obtain the eluates for the experimental groups: (1) Adper™ Single Bond 2; (2) Ambar; (3) Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose; (4) Scotchbond™ Universal; (5) Ambar Universal; and (6) OptiBond All-In-One. As a negative control, sterile glass cover slips were immersed in culture medium only. After 24 h, the eluate obtained was applied on fibroblast culture. Cell viability and cell morphology were evaluated by MTT assay and SEM, respectively. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests ( α = 0.05). All adhesive systems except universal reduced cell viability in 3T3 cells to between 26.04% and 56.57%, and Scotchbond Universal and Ambar Universal reduced cell viability to 2.13% and 3.57%, respectively, when compared to the negative control. Cytoplasmic membrane shrinkage and cell-free areas with residual membrane fragments from dead cells were observed. In conclusion, improvements in universal adhesive system formulations and their mechanisms of action are not accompanied by increased toxicity compared with those in other systems, warranting commitment to the use of these dentin-pulp complexes.

  4. Cytotoxicity of Etch-and-Rinse, Self-Etch, and Universal Dental Adhesive Systems in Fibroblast Cell Line 3T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Mendes Pupo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate in fibroblast cultures the direct cytotoxic effects of etch-and-rinse, self-etch, and universal adhesive systems. The sterile glass cover slips (n=3 were then immersed in culture medium to obtain the eluates for the experimental groups: (1 Adper™ Single Bond 2; (2 Ambar; (3 Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose; (4 Scotchbond™ Universal; (5 Ambar Universal; and (6 OptiBond All-In-One. As a negative control, sterile glass cover slips were immersed in culture medium only. After 24 h, the eluate obtained was applied on fibroblast culture. Cell viability and cell morphology were evaluated by MTT assay and SEM, respectively. Data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests (α=0.05. All adhesive systems except universal reduced cell viability in 3T3 cells to between 26.04% and 56.57%, and Scotchbond Universal and Ambar Universal reduced cell viability to 2.13% and 3.57%, respectively, when compared to the negative control. Cytoplasmic membrane shrinkage and cell-free areas with residual membrane fragments from dead cells were observed. In conclusion, improvements in universal adhesive system formulations and their mechanisms of action are not accompanied by increased toxicity compared with those in other systems, warranting commitment to the use of these dentin-pulp complexes.

  5. IL-17A stimulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines via celecoxib-blocked prostaglandin in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Koyama, Yuki; Sanuki, Rina; Mitsui, Narihiro; Suzuki, Naoto; Kimura, Akemi; Nakajima, Akira; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Maeno, Masao

    2010-09-01

    The prostaglandins (PGs) released from osteoblasts can alter the process of bone remodelling. Recently, we showed that compressive force induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17s and their receptors in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and that IL-17A was expressed most highly. Consequently, in the current study we examined the effect of IL-17A and/or celecoxib on PGE(2) production and the expression of cyclooxygenases (COXs) and inflammatory cytokines in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also examined the effects of PGE(2) and cyclohexamide on the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Cells were cultured with or without IL-17A (0.1, 1.0, or 10 ng/ml) in the presence or absence of 10 microM celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, for up to 72 h. Cells were pretreated with or without 10 microg/ml cycloheximide, protein synthesis inhibitor, for 30 min, and then cultured with 10 ng/ml IL-17A for 24 h. Cells were also cultured with or without 1.5 ng/ml PGE(2) for 24 h. PGE(2) production was determined by ELISA. The expression of COX-1, COX-2, IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-11, and TNF-alpha mRNAs and proteins was determined by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. The expression of COX-2, IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-11, and TNF-alpha, as well as PGE(2) production increased in the presence of IL-17A, whereas COX-1 expression did not change. Celecoxib blocked the stimulatory effect of IL-17A on the expression of COX-2, IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-11 as well as PGE(2) production, whereas it did not block TNF-alpha expression. Cycloheximide pretreatment suppressed the expression of IL-17-induced inflammatory cytokines. The expression of IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-11 increased by the addition of PGE(2), whereas TNF-alpha expression was not affected. These results suggest that IL-17A stimulates the expression of bone resorption-related inflammatory cytokines through an autocrine mechanism involving celecoxib-blocked PGs, mainly PGE(2), in osteoblasts. Copyright

  6. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, YK11, Up-Regulates Osteoblastic Proliferation and Differentiation in MC3T3-E1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsu, Tomofumi; Kusakabe, Taichi; Kato, Keisuke; Inouye, Yoshio; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Kanno, Yuichiro

    2018-01-01

    Androgens are key regulators that play a critical role in the male reproductive system and have anabolic effects on bone mineral density and skeletal muscle mass. We have previously reported that YK11 is a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) and induces myogenic differentiation and selective gene regulation. In this study, we show that treatment of YK11 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) accelerated cell proliferation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cells. Further, YK11-treated cells increased osteoblast specific differentiation markers, such as osteoprotegerin and osteocalcin, compared to untreated cells. These observations were attenuated by androgen receptor (AR) antagonist treatment. To clarify the effect of YK11, we investigated rapid non-genomic signaling by AR. The phosphorylated Akt protein level was increased by YK11 and DHT treatment, suggesting that YK11 activates Akt-signaling via non-genomic signaling of AR. Because it is known Akt-signaling is a key regulator of androgen-mediated osteoblast differentiation, YK11 has osteogenic activity as well as androgen.

  7. Effects of calcium ion incorporation on osteoblast gene expression in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on microstructured titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Suh, Jo-Young; Chung, Hyun-Ju

    2008-07-01

    The surface characteristics of a calcium ion (Ca)-incorporated titanium (Ti) surface, produced by hydrothermal treatment using an alkaline Ca-containing solution, and its effects on osteoblastic differentiation were investigated. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells were cultured on machined or grit-blasted Ti surfaces with and without Ca incorporation. The MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation, and real-time PCR was used for quantitative analysis of osteoblastic gene expression. Hydrothermal treatment with a Ca-containing solution produced a crystalline CaTiO(3) nanostructure of approximately 100 nm in dimension, preserving original micron-scaled surface topographies and microroughness caused by machining, blasting, or blasting and etching treatments. After immersion in Hank's balanced salt solution, considerable apatite formation was observed on all surfaces of the Ca-incorporated samples. Significantly more cell proliferation was found on Ca-incorporated Ti surfaces than on untreated Ti surfaces (p < 0.001). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed notably higher alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and osteocalcin mRNA levels in cells grown on Ca-incorporated blasted surfaces than on other surfaces at an early time point. Thus, Ca incorporation may have a beneficial effect on osseointegration of microstructured Ti implants by accelerating osteoblast proliferation and differentiation during the early healing phase following implantation. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. α-Mangostin Improves Glucose Uptake and Inhibits Adipocytes Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells via PPARγ, GLUT4, and Leptin Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been often associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. The development of obesity is also accompanied by significant differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the activity of α-mangostin, a major xanthone component isolated from the stem bark of G. malaccensis, on glucose uptake and adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells focusing on PPARγ, GLUT4, and leptin expressions. α-Mangostin was found to inhibit cytoplasmic lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation. Cells treated with 50 μM of α-mangostin reduced intracellular fat accumulation dose-dependently up to 44.4% relative to MDI-treated cells. Analyses of 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake activity showed that α-mangostin significantly improved the glucose uptake (P<0.05 with highest activity found at 25 μM. In addition, α-mangostin increased the amount of free fatty acids (FFA released. The highest glycerol release level was observed at 50 μM of α-mangostin. qRT-PCR analysis showed reduced lipid accumulation via inhibition of PPARγ gene expression. Induction of glucose uptake and free fatty acid release by α-mangostin were accompanied by increasing mRNA expression of GLUT4 and leptin. These evidences propose that α-mangostin might be possible candidate for the effective management of obesity in future.

  9. In vitro and in vivo study of microporous ceramics using MC3T3 cells, CAM assay and a pig animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomco, Marek; Petrovova, Eva; Giretova, Maria; Almasiova, Viera; Holovska, Katarina; Cigankova, Viera; Jenca, Andrej; Jencova, Janka; Jenca, Andrej; Boldizar, Martin; Balazs, Kosa; Medvecky, Lubomir

    2017-09-01

    Bone tissue engineering combines biomaterials with biologically active factors and cells to hold promise for reconstructing craniofacial defects. In this study the biological activity of biphasic hydroxyapatite ceramics (HA; a bone substitute that is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios) was characterized (1) in vitro by assessing the growth of MC3T3 mouse osteoblast lineage cells, (2) in ovo by using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and (3) in an in vivo pig animal model. Biocompatibility, bioactivity, bone formation and biomaterial degradation were detected microscopically and by radiology and histology. HA ceramics alone demonstrated great biocompatibility on the CAM as well as bioactivity by increased proliferation and alkaline phosphatase secretion of mouse osteoblasts. The in vivo implantation of HA ceramics with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) showed de novo intramembranous bone healing of critical-size bone defects in the right lateral side of pig mandibular bodies after 3 and 9 weeks post-implantation. Compared with the HA ceramics without MMSCs, the progress of bone formation was slower with less-developed features. This article highlights the clinical use of microporous biphasic HA ceramics despite the unusually shaped elongated micropores with a high length/width aspect ratio (up to 20) and absence of preferable macropores (>100 µm) in bone regenerative medicine.

  10. Bisphenol-A impairs insulin action and up-regulates inflammatory pathways in human subcutaneous adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Valentino

    Full Text Available Current evidence indicates that chemical pollutants may interfere with the homeostatic control of nutrient metabolism, thereby contributing to the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Bisphenol-A (BPA is a lipophilic compound contained in plastic which is considered a candidate for impairing energy and glucose metabolism. We have investigated the impact of low doses of BPA on adipocyte metabolic functions. Human adipocytes derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with BPA, in order to evaluate the effect on glucose utilization, insulin sensitivity and cytokine secretion. Treatment with 1 nM BPA significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose utilization, without grossly interfering with adipocyte differentiation. Accordingly, mRNA levels of the adipogenic markers PPARγ and GLUT4 were unchanged upon BPA exposure. BPA treatment also impaired insulin-activated receptor phosphorylation and signaling. Moreover, adipocyte incubation with BPA was accompanied by increased release of IL-6 and IFN-γ, as assessed by multiplex ELISA assays, and by activation of JNK, STAT3 and NFkB pathways. Treatment of the cells with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 almost fully reverted BPA effect on insulin signaling and glucose utilization. In conclusion, low doses of BPA interfere with inflammatory/insulin signaling pathways, leading to impairment of adipose cell function.

  11. Oncogenic Ras-Induced Morphologic Change Is through MEK/ERK Signaling Pathway to Downregulate Stat3 at a Posttranslational Level in NIH3T3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Heng Yeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ras is a key regulator of the MAP kinase-signaling cascade and may cause morphologic change of Ras-transformed cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 can be activated by cytokine stimulation. In this study, we unravel that Ha-rasV12 overexpression can downregulate the expression of Stat3 protein at a posttranslational level in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Stat3 expression downregulated by Ha-rasV12 overexpression is through proteosome degradation and not through a mTOR/p70S6K-related signaling pathway. The suppression of Stat3 accompanied by the morphologic change induced by Ha-rasV12 was through mitogen extracellular kinase (MEK/extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway. Microtubule disruption is involved in Ha-rasV12-induced morphologic change, which could be reversed by overexpression of Stat3. Taken together, we are the first to demonstrate that Stat3 protein plays a critical role in Ha-rasV12-induced morphologic change. Oncogenic Ras-triggered morphologic change is through the activation of MEK/ERK to posttranslationally downregulate Stat3 expression. Our finding may shed light on developing novel therapeutic strategies against Ras-related tumorigenesis.

  12. Bentonite modified with zinc enhances aflatoxin B1 adsorption and increase survival of fibroblasts (3T3) and epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, Janaína; Solhaug, Anita; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl; Macuvele, Domingos Lusitâneo Pier; Poli, Anicleto; Soares, Cíntia; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves; Riella, Humberto Gracher; Nones, Jader

    2017-09-05

    Bentonites are commonly used as feed additives to reduce the bioavailability and thus the toxicity of aflatoxins by adsorbing the toxins in the gastrointestinal tract. Aflatoxins are particular harmful mycotoxins mainly found in areas with hot and humid climates. They occur in food and feedstuff as a result of fungal contamination before and after harvest. The aim of this study was to modify Brazilian bentonite clay by incorporation of zinc (Zn) ions in order to increase the adsorption capacity and consequently reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins. The significance of Zn intercalating conditions such as concentration, temperature and reaction time were investigated. Our results showed that the Zn treatment of the bentonite increased the aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) adsorption and that Zn concentration had a negative effect. Indeed, temperature and time had no significant effect in the binding capacity. The modified bentonite (Zn-Bent1) was not cytotoxic to either fibroblasts (3T3) nor epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) cell lines. Interestingly, Zn-Bent1 has higher protective effect against AFB 1 induced cytotoxicity than the unmodified bentonite. In conclusion, the Zn modified bentonite, Zn-Bent1, represent an improved tool to prevent aflatoxicosis in animals fed on AFB 1 contaminated feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro and in vivo enhancement of adipogenesis by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum in 3T3-L1 cells and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariadhas Valan Arasu

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis is very much important in improving the quality of meat in animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo adipogenesis regulation properties of Lolium multiflorum on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mice. Chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of L. multiflorum (PET-LM confirmed the presence of fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, docosatetraenoic acid, and caprylic acid, as the major compounds. PET-LM treatment increased viability, lipid accumulation, lipolysis, cell cycle progression, and DNA synthesis in the cells. PET-LM treatment also augmented peroxysome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, adiponectin, adipocyte binding protein, glucose transporter-4, fatty acid synthase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in differentiated adipocytes. In addition, mice administered with 200 mg/kg body weight PET-LM for 8 weeks showed greater body weight than control mice. These findings suggest that PET-LM facilitates adipogenesis by stimulating PPARγ-mediated signaling cascades in adipocytes which could be useful for quality meat development in animals.

  14. Expression of cell adhesion and differentiation related genes in MC3T3 osteoblasts plated on titanium alloys: role of surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sista, Subhash; Wen, Cuie; Hodgson, Peter D.; Pande, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand the cellular and molecular events that take place at the cell–material interface of implants used for bone repair. An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the initial stages of osteoblast interactions with the surface of the implant material is fundamental in deciding the fate of the cells that come in contact with it. In this study, we compared the relative gene expression of markers that are known to be associated with cell adhesion and differentiation in MC3T3 osteoblast cells, at various time points after plating the cells on surfaces of titanium (Ti) and its two alloys, titanium–zirconium (TiZr) and titanium–niobium (TiNb) by using Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Our analysis indicated that expression of adhesion supporting genes was higher on TiZr surface as compared to Ti and TiNb. The behavior of these genes is possibly driven by a higher surface energy of TiZr. However no significant difference in the expression of differentiation related genes could be seen between the two alloys, although on both substrates it was higher as compared to unalloyed Ti. We propose that substrate composition of the alloys can influence the adhesion and differentiation related gene expression and that Ti alloys are better substrates for inducing osteogenesis as compared to unalloyed Ti. - Highlights: ► Methodology for comparing gene expression in osteoblasts plated on Ti, TiZr or TiNb ► Alloys with higher surface energy (TiZr) induce cell adhesion genes more efficiently ► Alloyed Ti is superior to unalloyed Ti to induce osteoblast differentiation genes

  15. Prostaglandin E2 modulates F-actin stress fiber in FSS-stimulated MC3T3-E1 cells in a PKA-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Liyun; Duncan, Randall L; Pan, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on bone mass has been well-established in vivo. Previous studies have showed that PGE2 increases differentiation, proliferation, and regulates cell morphology through F-actin stress fiber in statically cultured osteoblasts. However, the effect of PGE2 on osteoblasts in the presence of fluid shear stress (FSS), which could better uncover the anabolic effect of PGE2 in vivo, has yet to be examined. Here, we hypothesized that PGE2 modulates F-actin stress fiber in FSS-stimulated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells through protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Furthermore, this PGE2-induced F-actin remodeling was associated with the recovery of cellular mechanosensitivity. Our data showed that treatment with 10 nM dmPGE2 for 15 min significantly suppressed the F-actin stress fiber intensity in FSS-stimulated cells in a PKA-dependent manner. In addition, dmPGE2 treatment enhanced the cells' calcium peak magnitude and the percentage of responding cells in the second FSS stimulation, though these effects were abolished and attenuated by co-treatment with phalloidin. Our results demonstrated that 10 nM dmPGE2 was able to accelerate the 'reset' process of F-actin stress fiber to its pre-stimulated level partially through PKA pathway, and thus promoted the recovery of cellular mechanosensitivity. Our finding provided a novel cellular mechanism by which PGE2 increased bone formation as shown in vivo, suggesting that PGE2 could be a potential target for treatments of bone formation-related diseases.

  16. Delivery of the autofluorescent protein R-phycoerythrin by calcium phosphate nanoparticles into four different eukaryotic cell lines (HeLa, HEK293T, MG-63, MC3T3: Highly efficient, but leading to endolysosomal proteolysis in HeLa and MC3T3 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathis Kopp

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles can be used as carriers to transport biomolecules like proteins and synthetic molecules across the cell membrane because many molecules are not able to cross the cell membrane on their own. The uptake of nanoparticles together with their cargo typically occurs via endocytosis, raising concerns about the possible degradation of the cargo in the endolysosomal system. As the tracking of a dye-labelled protein during cellular uptake and processing is not indicative of the presence of the protein itself but only for the fluorescent label, a label-free tracking was performed with the red-fluorescing model protein R-phycoerythrin (R-PE. Four different eukaryotic cell lines were investigated: HeLa, HEK293T, MG-63, and MC3T3. Alone, the protein was not taken up by any cell line; only with the help of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, an efficient uptake occurred. After the uptake into HeLa cells, the protein was found in early endosomes (shown by the marker EEA1 and lysosomes (shown by the marker Lamp1. There, it was still intact and functional (i.e. properly folded as its red fluorescence was detected. However, a few hours after the uptake, proteolysis started as indicated by the decreasing red fluorescence intensity in the case of HeLa and MC3T3 cells. 12 h after the uptake, the protein was almost completely degraded in HeLa cells and MC3T3 cells. In HEK293T cells and MG-63 cells, no degradation of the protein was observed. In the presence of Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of acidification and protein degradation in lysosomes, the fluorescence of R-PE remained intact over the whole observation period in the four cell lines. These results indicate that despite an efficient nanoparticle-mediated uptake of proteins by cells, a rapid endolysosomal degradation may prevent the desired (e.g. therapeutic effect of a protein inside a cell.

  17. Grateloupia lanceolata (Okamura) Kawaguchi, the edible red seaweed, inhibits lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species production during differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2013-05-01

    Grateloupia lanceolata (Okamura) Kawaguchi is a red alga native to coastal areas of East Asia. The effect of a G. lanceolata extract on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in 3T3-L1 cells was assessed by examining adipogenic transcription factors and ROS-regulating genes at the molecular level. An ethanol extract of G. lanceolata inhibited lipid accumulation and ROS production during adipogenesis. Treatment with the G. lanceolata extract lead to a reduction in the mRNA levels of the transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and CCAAT/ enhancer binding protein-α, and at the protein level for the target protein, adipocyte protein 2. ROS-producing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) oxidase 4 and NADPH-producing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNAs decreased following G. lanceolata extract treatment. In contrast, the mRNA level of ROS scavenging enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase increased in the extract-treated group. The increase in SOD1 (Cu/Zn-SOD) and 2 (Mn-SOD) proteins was correlated with their mRNA levels. Additionally, the G. lanceolata extract significantly enhanced mRNA levels of adiponectin, one of the adipokines secreted from adipocytes. Our results show that G. lanceolata extract inhibited lipid accumulation and ROS production by controlling adipogenic signals and ROS regulating genes.

  18. Layer-by-layer assembly of peptide based bioorganic–inorganic hybrid scaffolds and their interactions with osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, Steven M. [Fordham University Department of Chemistry, 441 East Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458 (United States); Fath, Karl R. [The City University of New York, Queens College, Department of Biology, 65-30 Kissena Blvd, Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, NY 10016 (United States); Phekoo, Aruna P. [The City University of New York, Queens College, Department of Biology, 65-30 Kissena Blvd, Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Knoll, Grant A. [Fordham University Department of Chemistry, 441 East Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458 (United States); Banerjee, Ipsita A., E-mail: banerjee@fordham.edu [Fordham University Department of Chemistry, 441 East Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this work we have developed a new family of biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration by utilizing self-assembled fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl protected Valyl-cetylamide (FVC) nanoassemblies as templates. To tailor the assemblies for enhanced osteoblast attachment and proliferation, we incorporated (a) Type I collagen, (b) a hydroxyapatite binding peptide sequence (EDPHNEVDGDK) derived from dentin sialophosphoprotein and (c) the osteoinductive bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) to the templates by layer-by-layer assembly. The assemblies were then incubated with hydroxyapatite nanocrystals blended with varying mass percentages of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and coated with alginate to form three dimensional scaffolds for potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. The morphology was examined by TEM and SEM and the binding interactions were probed by FITR spectroscopy. The scaffolds were found to be non-cytotoxic, adhered to mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and promoted osteogenic differentiation as indicated by the results obtained by alkaline phosphatase assay. Furthermore, they were found to be biodegradable and possessed inherent antibacterial capability. Thus, we have developed a new family of tissue-engineered biocomposite scaffolds with potential applications in bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Fmoc-val-cetylamide assemblies were used as templates. • Collagen, a short dentin sialophosphoprotein derived sequence and BMP-4 were incorporated. • Hydroxyapatite–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite blends and alginate were incorporated. • The 3D scaffold biocomposites adhered to preosteoblasts and promoted osteoblast differentiation. • The biocomposites also displayed antimicrobial activity.

  19. Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz Extract Inhibits Lipid Accumulation on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyu Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract reduced the body weight gain induced through feeding a high-fat diet to C57BL/6 mice. The treatment of Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly reduced the adipose tissue weight to 2.7/100 g of body weight in high-fat mice. When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice. In addition, in Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice, a significant reduction of serum triglyceride and T-cholesterol was observed at to 21% and 17%, respectively. The discovery of bioactive compounds from diet or dietary supplementation is one of possible ways to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of various obesity-related diseases. These results support that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract is expected to create the therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

  20. Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract inhibits lipid accumulation on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Changhyun; Park, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Hee-June; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Jin-Kyu

    2012-07-23

    Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract reduced the body weight gain induced through feeding a high-fat diet to C57BL/6 mice. The treatment of Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly reduced the adipose tissue weight to 2.7/100 g of body weight in high-fat mice. When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice. In addition, in Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice, a significant reduction of serum triglyceride and T-cholesterol was observed at to 21% and 17%, respectively. The discovery of bioactive compounds from diet or dietary supplementation is one of possible ways to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of various obesity-related diseases. These results support that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract is expected to create the therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

  1. Binding efficiency of recombinant collagen-binding basic fibroblast growth factors (CBD-bFGFs) and their promotion for NIH-3T3 cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenxu; Zhou, Yulai; Chen, Li; Hu, Mingxin; Wang, Yu; Li, Linlong; Wang, Zongliang; Zhang, Peibiao

    2018-03-01

    The recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) containing collagen-binding domain (CBD) has been found to be a potential therapeutic factor in tissue regeneration. However, its binding efficiency and quantification remain uncertain. In this research, massive recombinant bFGFs with good bioactivity for enhancing the proliferation of NIH-3T3 cells were achieved. An ELISA-based quantitative method was set up to investigate the binding efficiency of CBD-bFGFs on collagen films. It indicated that the CBDs significantly increased the collagen-binding ability of bFGF (P < .05), with the optimum binding condition first determined to be in the pH range of 7.5-9.5 (P < .05). Then, the relevant equations to calculate the binding density of bFGF, C-bFGF, and V-bFGF were acquired. Analysis confirmed that the bioactivity of immobilized bFGFs was well correlated with the density of growth factor on collagen films. Based on this research, the density of growth factor is a logical and applicable dosage unit for quantification of binding efficiency of growth factors, rather than traditional concentration of soluble growth factors in tissue engineering applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Proliferation and osteogenic response of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells on porous zirconia ceramics stabilized with magnesia or yttria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjicharalambous, Chrystalleni; Mygdali, Evdokia; Prymak, Oleg; Buyakov, Ales; Kulkov, Sergei; Chatzinikolaidou, Maria

    2015-11-01

    Dense zirconia ceramics are used in bone applications due to their mechanical strength and biocompatibility, but lack osseointegration. A porous interface in contact with bone tissue may lead to better bone bonding but the biological properties of porous zirconia are not widely explored. The present study focuses on the manufacturing of an yttria- (YSZ) and a magnesia-stabilized (MgSZ) porous zirconia, and on their in vitro biological investigation. The sintered ceramics had similar characteristics of porosity, pore size and interconnectivity. Their elastic moduli and compressive strength values were within the range of the values of human cortical bone. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were used to investigate the proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen deposition and expression profile of four genes involved in bone metabolism of cells on porous ceramics. Scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy were employed to visualize cell morphology and growth. Pre-osteoblasts adhered well on both ceramics but cell numbers on YSZ were higher. Cells exhibited an increase in ALP activity and collagen deposition after 14 days on both MgSZ and YSZ, with higher levels on YSZ. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that the expression of bone sialoprotein (Bsp) and collagen type I (col1aI) were significantly higher on YSZ. No significant differences were found in their ability to regulate the early gene expression of Runx2 and Alp. Nevertheless, the biomineralized calcium content was similar on both ceramics after 21 days, indicating that despite chemical differences, both scaffolds direct the pre-osteoblasts toward a mature state capable of mineralizing the extracellular matrix. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 56Co-labelled radioactive Fe3O4 nanoparticles for in vitro uptake studies on Balb/3T3 and Caco-2 cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorato, P.; Simonelli, F.; Abbas, K.; Kozempel, J.; Holzwarth, U.; Franchini, F.; Ponti, J.; Gibson, N.; Rossi, F.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) are manufactured nanomaterials increasingly used in healthcare for different medical applications ranging from diagnosis to therapy. This study deals with the irradiation of Fe3O4 NPs with a proton beam in order to produce 56Co as radiolabel and also with the possible use of nuclear techniques for the quantification of Fe3O4 NPs in biological systems. Particular attention has been focused on the size distribution (in the range of 100 nm) and the surface charge of the NPs characterizing them before and after the irradiation process in order to verify if these essential properties would be preserved during irradiation. Moreover, X-ray diffraction studies have been performed on radioactive and non-radioactive NPs, to assess if major changes in NPs structure might occur due to thermal and/or radiation effects. The radiation emitted from the radiolabels has been used to quantify the cellular uptake of the NPs in in vitro studies. As for the biological applications two cell lines have been selected: immortalized mouse fibroblast cell line (Balb/3T3) and human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2). The cell uptake has been quantified by radioactivity measurements of the 56Co radioisotope performed with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry equipment. This study has showed that, under well-established irradiation conditions, Fe3O4 NPs do not undergo significant structural modifications and thus the obtained results are in line with the uptake studies carried out with the same non-radioactive nanomaterials (NMs). Therefore, the radiolabelling method can be fruitfully applied to uptake studies because of the low-level exposure where higher sensitivity is required.

  4. Magnetically actuated mechanical stimuli on Fe3O4/mineralized collagen coatings to enhance osteogenic differentiation of the MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Junjun; Lin, Suya; Dong, Lingqing; Cheng, Kui; Weng, Wenjian

    2018-03-15

    Mechanical stimuli at the bone-implant interface are considered to activate the mechanotransduction pathway of the cell to improve the initial osseointegration establishment and to guarantee clinical success of the implant. However, control of the mechanical stimuli at the bone-implant interface still remains a challenge. In this study, we have designed a strategy of a magnetically responsive coating on which the mechanical stimuli is controlled because of coating deformation under static magnetic field (SMF). The iron oxide nanoparticle/mineralized collagen (IOP-MC) coatings were electrochemically codeposited on titanium substrates in different quantities of IOPs and distributions; the resulting coatings were verified to possess swelling behavior with flexibility same as that of hydrogel. The relative quantity of IOP to collagen and the IOP distribution in the coatings were demonstrated to play a critical role in mediating cell behavior. The cells present on the outer layer of the distributed IOP-MC (O-IOP-MC) coating with a mass ratio of 0.67 revealed the most distinct osteogenic differentiation activity being promoted, which could be attributed to the maximized mechanical stimuli with exposure to SMF. Furthermore, the enhanced osteogenic differentiation of the stimulated MC3T3-E1 cells originated from magnetically actuated mechanotransduction signaling pathway, embodying the upregulated expression of osteogenic-related and mechanotransduction-related genes. This work therefore provides a promising strategy for implementing mechanical stimuli to activate mechanotransduction on the bone-implant interface and thus to promote osseointegration. The magnetically actuated coating is designed to produce mechanical stimuli to cells for promoting osteogenic differentiation based on the coating deformation. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IOPs) were incorporated into the mineralized collagen coatings (MC) forming the composite coatings (IOP-MC) with spatially distributed IOPs

  5. CLA isomer t10,c12 induce oxidation and apoptosis in 3t3 adipocyte cells in a similar effect as omega-3 linolenic acid and DHA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Meadus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commercial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA dietary supplements contain an equal mixture of the C18:2 isomers, cis-9trans-11 and trans-10cis-12. Predominantly, CLA-c9t11 occurs naturally in meat and dairy products at ~ 0.5% of total fat , whereas CLA-t10c12 occurs at >0.1%. Recent studies show that CLA-c9t11 generally promotes lipid accumulation but CLA-t10c12 may inhibit lipid accumulation and may also promote inflammation. The omega-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA have also been observed to inhibit lipid accumulation and effect inflammation; therefore we examined the effects of the two main isomersof CLA and omega -3 fatty acids C18:3n-3 and DHA at the molecular levelto determine if they are causing similar oxidative stresses.Methods:Purified CLA-c9t11 and CLA-t10c12 were added to 3T3 cells induced into mature adipocyte cultures at 100uM concentrations and compared with 100uM C18:3n-3(α-linolenic acid and 50uM docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to observe their effect on growth, gene transcription and general oxidation. The results of multiple separate trials were averaged and compared for significance at levels of P< 0.05, using one way ANOVA and Student’s t-test.Results:C18:3n-3, DHA and CLA-t10c12inhibited 3T3 adipose cell growth and caused a significant increase in lipid hydro peroxide activity. CLA-t10c12 and c9t11 increased AFABP, FAS and ACOX1 mRNA gene expression but DHA and C18:3n-3decreased the same mRNAs. CLA-c9t11 but not the t10c12 stimulated adipoQ expression even though; CLA-c9t11 had only a slightly greater affinity for PPARγ than CLA-t10c12, according to TR-FRET assays. The expression of the xenobiotic metabolism genes, aldo-keto reduct as 1c1 (akr1c1, superoxide dismutase (SODand inflammation chemokine secretions of eotaxin (CCL11, Rantes (CCL5, MIG (CCL9 and MCP-1 were increased by DHA, C18:3n-3and CLA-t10c12 but not CLA-c9t11. This correlated with an increase in apoptosis factors

  6. Glycerol Production from Glucose and Fructose by 3T3-L1 Cells: A Mechanism of Adipocyte Defense from Excess Substrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Romero

    Full Text Available Cultured adipocytes (3T3-L1 produce large amounts of 3C fragments; largely lactate, depending on medium glucose levels. Increased glycolysis has been observed also in vivo in different sites of rat white adipose tissue. We investigated whether fructose can substitute glucose as source of lactate, and, especially whether the glycerol released to the medium was of lipolytic or glycolytic origin. Fructose conversion to lactate and glycerol was lower than that of glucose. The fast exhaustion of medium glucose was unrelated to significant changes in lipid storage. Fructose inhibited to a higher degree than glucose the expression of lipogenic enzymes. When both hexoses were present, the effects of fructose on gene expression prevailed over those of glucose. Adipocytes expressed fructokinase, but not aldolase b. Substantive release of glycerol accompanied lactate when fructose was the substrate. The mass of cell triacylglycerol (and its lack of change could not justify the comparatively higher amount of glycerol released. Consequently, most of this glycerol should be derived from the glycolytic pathway, since its lipolytic origin could not be (quantitatively sustained. Proportionally (with respect to lactate plus glycerol, more glycerol was produced from fructose than from glucose, which suggests that part of fructose was catabolized by the alternate (hepatic fructose pathway. Earlier described adipose glycerophophatase activity may help explain the glycolytic origin of most of the glycerol. However, no gene is known for this enzyme in mammals, which suggests that this function may be carried out by one of the known phosphatases in the tissue. Break up of glycerol-3P to yield glycerol, may be a limiting factor for the synthesis of triacylglycerols through control of glycerol-3P availability. A phosphatase pathway such as that described may have a potential regulatory function, and explain the production of glycerol by adipocytes in the absence of

  7. The corrosion and biological behaviour of titanium alloys in the presence of human lymphoid cells and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yumei; Zhao Yimin; Chai Feng; Hildebrand, Hartmut F; Hornez, Jean-Christophe; Li, Chang Liang; Traisnel, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion behaviour of biomedical alloys is generally determined in mineral electrolytes: unbuffered NaCl 0.9% (pH 7.4) or artificial saliva (pH 6.8). The assays with exclusive utilization of these electrolytes are of low relevance for the biological condition, to which the alloys will be exposed once implanted in the human organism. As an approach to the biological situation regarding the interaction of proteins, electrolytes and metals, we added the RPMI cell culture medium containing foetal calf serum as a biological electrolyte (pH 7.0). The analysis of corrosion behaviour was also performed in the presence of human lymphoid cells (CEM). The rest potential (E r ) and the global polarization were determined on cp-Ti, micro-arc oxidized cp-Ti (MAO-Ti), four different Ti-alloys (Ti6Al4V, Ti12Zr, Ti(AlMoZr), Ti(NbTaZr)) and 316L stainless steel. The 316L exhibited an appropriate E r and a good passive current density (I p ), but a high corrosion potential (E c ) and a very low breakdown potential (E b ) in all electrolytes. All Ti-alloys exhibited a much better electrochemical behaviour: better E r and E c and very high E b . No significant differences of the above parameters existed between the Ti-alloys, except for Zr-containing alloys that showed better corrosion behaviour. A remarkable difference, however, was stated with respect to the electrolytes. NaCl 0.9% induced strong variations between the Ti-alloys. More homogeneous results were obtained with artificial saliva and RPMI medium, which induced a favourable E c and an increased I p . The presence of cells further decreased these values. The unbuffered NaCl solution seems to be less appropriate for the analysis of corrosion of metals. Additional in vitro biological assessments with CEM cell suspensions and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed the advantages of the Ti(AlMoZr) and Ti(NbTaZr) alloys with an improved cell proliferation and vitality rate.

  8. The corrosion and biological behaviour of titanium alloys in the presence of human lymphoid cells and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Mei; Chai, Feng; Hornez, Jean-Christophe; Li, Chang Liang; Zhao, Yi Min; Traisnel, Michel; Hildebrand, Hartmut F

    2009-02-01

    Corrosion behaviour of biomedical alloys is generally determined in mineral electrolytes: unbuffered NaCl 0.9% (pH 7.4) or artificial saliva (pH 6.8). The assays with exclusive utilization of these electrolytes are of low relevance for the biological condition, to which the alloys will be exposed once implanted in the human organism. As an approach to the biological situation regarding the interaction of proteins, electrolytes and metals, we added the RPMI cell culture medium containing foetal calf serum as a biological electrolyte (pH 7.0). The analysis of corrosion behaviour was also performed in the presence of human lymphoid cells (CEM). The rest potential (Er) and the global polarization were determined on cp-Ti, micro-arc oxidized cp-Ti (MAO-Ti), four different Ti-alloys (Ti6Al4V, Ti12Zr, Ti(AlMoZr), Ti(NbTaZr)) and 316L stainless steel. The 316L exhibited an appropriate Er and a good passive current density (Ip), but a high corrosion potential (Ec) and a very low breakdown potential (Eb) in all electrolytes. All Ti-alloys exhibited a much better electrochemical behaviour: better Er and Ec and very high Eb. No significant differences of the above parameters existed between the Ti-alloys, except for Zr-containing alloys that showed better corrosion behaviour. A remarkable difference, however, was stated with respect to the electrolytes. NaCl 0.9% induced strong variations between the Ti-alloys. More homogeneous results were obtained with artificial saliva and RPMI medium, which induced a favourable Ec and an increased Ip. The presence of cells further decreased these values. The unbuffered NaCl solution seems to be less appropriate for the analysis of corrosion of metals. Additional in vitro biological assessments with CEM cell suspensions and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed the advantages of the Ti(AlMoZr) and Ti(NbTaZr) alloys with an improved cell proliferation and vitality rate.

  9. The corrosion and biological behaviour of titanium alloys in the presence of human lymphoid cells and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yumei; Zhao Yimin [School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Chai Feng; Hildebrand, Hartmut F [Groupe de Recherche sur les Biomateriaux, Faculte de Medecine, F-59045 Lille cedex (France); Hornez, Jean-Christophe [Laboratoire des Materiaux et Procedes (LMP), EA 2443, UVHC, 59600 Maubeuge (France); Li, Chang Liang [Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Traisnel, Michel, E-mail: zhaoym@fmmu.edu.c, E-mail: fhildebrand@univ-lille2.f [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Lille, UMR CNRS 8008, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2009-02-15

    Corrosion behaviour of biomedical alloys is generally determined in mineral electrolytes: unbuffered NaCl 0.9% (pH 7.4) or artificial saliva (pH 6.8). The assays with exclusive utilization of these electrolytes are of low relevance for the biological condition, to which the alloys will be exposed once implanted in the human organism. As an approach to the biological situation regarding the interaction of proteins, electrolytes and metals, we added the RPMI cell culture medium containing foetal calf serum as a biological electrolyte (pH 7.0). The analysis of corrosion behaviour was also performed in the presence of human lymphoid cells (CEM). The rest potential (E{sub r}) and the global polarization were determined on cp-Ti, micro-arc oxidized cp-Ti (MAO-Ti), four different Ti-alloys (Ti6Al4V, Ti12Zr, Ti(AlMoZr), Ti(NbTaZr)) and 316L stainless steel. The 316L exhibited an appropriate E{sub r} and a good passive current density (I{sub p}), but a high corrosion potential (E{sub c}) and a very low breakdown potential (E{sub b}) in all electrolytes. All Ti-alloys exhibited a much better electrochemical behaviour: better E{sub r} and E{sub c} and very high E{sub b}. No significant differences of the above parameters existed between the Ti-alloys, except for Zr-containing alloys that showed better corrosion behaviour. A remarkable difference, however, was stated with respect to the electrolytes. NaCl 0.9% induced strong variations between the Ti-alloys. More homogeneous results were obtained with artificial saliva and RPMI medium, which induced a favourable E{sub c} and an increased I{sub p}. The presence of cells further decreased these values. The unbuffered NaCl solution seems to be less appropriate for the analysis of corrosion of metals. Additional in vitro biological assessments with CEM cell suspensions and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed the advantages of the Ti(AlMoZr) and Ti(NbTaZr) alloys with an improved cell proliferation and vitality rate.

  10. Does the intracellular ionic concentration or the cell water content (cell volume) determine the activity of TonEBP in NIH3T3 cells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Schou, Kenneth; Friis, Martin Barfred

    2008-01-01

    of the present investigation was to investigate whether cell shrinkage or high intracellular ionic concentration induced the activation of TonEBP. We designed a model system for isotonically shrinking cells over a prolonged period of time. Cells swelled in hypotonic medium and performed a regulatory volume......Cl(-) co-transporter, and Gadolinium inhibited shrinkage-activated Na(+) channels. Cells remained shrunken for at least 4 hours (isotonically shrunken cells). The activity of TonEBP was investigated with a Luciferase assay after isotonic shrinkage and after shrinkage in a high NaCl hypertonic medium....... We found that TonEBP was strongly activated after 4 and 16 hours in cells in high NaCl hypertonic medium but not after 4 or 16 hours in isotonically shrunken cells. Cells treated with high NaCl hypertonic medium for 4 hours had significantly higher intracellular concentrations of both K(+) and Na...

  11. In vitro antitumour activity, safety testing and subcellular distribution of two poly[oxyethylene(aminophosphonate-co-H-phosphonate]s in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and BALB/c 3T3 cell culture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Georgieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two polyphosphoesters containing anthracene-derived aminophosphonate and hydrophilic H-phosphonate repeating units, poly[oxyethylene(aminophosphonate-co-H-phosphonate]s (1 and 2, were tested for the in vitro antitumour activity on cell cultures derived from ascitic form of Ehrlich mammary adenocarcinoma by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT-dye reduction assay. The in vitro safety testing of the copolymers was performed by BALB/c 3T3 neutral red uptake assay. A study on their uptake and subcellular distribution in non-tumourigenic and tumour cells was performed by means of fluorescence microscopy. Both copolymers showed significant antitumour activity towards Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cells. However, the in vitro safety testing revealed significant toxicity of polymer 2 to BALB/c 3T3 mouse embryo cells. In contrast, polymer 1 showed complete absence of cytotoxicity to BALB/c 3T3 cells. The fluorescent studies showed that the substances were diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm in both cell culture systems. As opposed to BALB/c 3T3 cells, in EAC cells, intense fluorescent signal was observed in the nuclei and in the perinuclear region. The tested polyphosphoesters are expected to act under physiological conditions as prodrugs of aminophosphonates.

  12. Characterization of mutagen-activated cellular oncogenes that confer anchorage independence to human fibroblasts and tumorigenicity to NIH 3T3 cells: Sequence analysis of an enzymatically amplified mutant HRAS allele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.W.; Manoharan, T.H.; Fahl, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of diploid human fibroblasts with an alkylating mutagen has been shown to induce stable, anchorage-independent cell populations at frequencies consistent with an activating mutation. After treatment of human foreskin fibroblasts with the mutagen benzo[α]pyrene (±)anti-7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-epoxide and selection in soft agar, 17 anchorage-independent clones were isolated and expanded, and their cellular DNA was used to cotransfect NIH 3T3 cells along with pSV2neo. DNA from 11 of the 17 clones induced multiple NIH 3T3 cell tumors in recipient nude mice. Southern blot analyses showed the presence of human Alu repetitive sequences in all of the NIH 3T3 tumor cell DNAs. Intact, human HRAS sequences were observed in 2 of the 11 tumor groups, whereas no hybridization was detected when human KRAS or NRAS probes were used. Slow-migrating ras p21 proteins, consistent with codon 12 mutations, were observed in the same two NIH 3T3 tumor cell groups that contained the human HRAS bands. Genomic DNA from one of these two human anchorage-independent cell populations (clone 21A) was used to enzymatically amplify a portion of exon 1 of the HRAS gene. The results demonstrate that exposure of normal human cells to a common environmental mutagen yields HRAS GC → TA codon 12 transversions that have been commonly observed in human tumors

  13. Simultaneous use of two prostaglandin radioimmunoassays employing two antisera of differing specificity. II. Relative stability of prostaglandins E1, E2, and F1alpha in cell cultures of BALB/c 3T3 and SV3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzi, E.M.; Stylos, W.A.

    1976-11-01

    The relative stability of Prostaglandins (PGs) E1, E2 and F1..cap alpha.. in cultures of BALB/c 3T3 and SV3T3 cells has been evaluated using 3 different approaches. First, total recovery of tritium in the ethyl acetate phase following incubation and extraction of PGF1..cap alpha.. and PGE1 demonstrated greater stability for PGF1..cap alpha.. (88.8 percent) than PGE1 (65.9 percent). Second, analysis of incubated, extracted, tritiated PGs by thin layer chromatography revealed decreases of up to 23 percent in the PGE zone following incubation of 3H-PGE1. With increasing time of incubation, decreases in the PGE zone were accompanied by increase in PGA-like compounds. 3H-PGF1..cap alpha.. demonstrated greater stability, having greater than 90 percent recovery of the tritium in the PGF zone. A third approach to the assessment of PG stability in culture was the comparison of the production of individual PGs by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The data obtained by RIA indicated a lag in the increase of PGA and PGB, until an initial rise in PGE was noted, suggesting that PGA and PGB may be secondary products arising from PGE which exhibits only partial stability in culture. By employing two RIAs, one for total PGE and one for PGA and PGB, the composite determination PG (E + (A + B)) can be used to provide a more meaningful determination of PG production because of the instability of the PGs. On the other hand, individual determinations are helpful in assessing the stability of PGEs in cell cultures.

  14. Simultaneous use of two prostaglandin radioimmunoassays employing two antisera of differing specificity. II. Relative stability of prostaglandins E1, E2, and F1alpha in cell cultures of BALB/c 3T3 and SV3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritzi, E.M.; Stylos, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    The relative stability of Prostaglandins (PGs) E1, E2 and F1α in cultures of BALB/c 3T3 and SV3T3 cells has been evaluated using 3 different approaches. First, total recovery of tritium in the ethyl acetate phase following incubation and extraction of PGF1α and PGE1 demonstrated greater stability for PGF1α (88.8 percent) than PGE1 (65.9 percent). Second, analysis of incubated, extracted, tritiated PGs by thin layer chromatography revealed decreases of up to 23 percent in the PGE zone following incubation of 3H-PGE1. With increasing time of incubation, decreases in the PGE zone were accompanied by increase in PGA-like compounds. 3H-PGF1α demonstrated greater stability, having greater than 90 percent recovery of the tritium in the PGF zone. A third approach to the assessment of PG stability in culture was the comparison of the production of individual PGs by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The data obtained by RIA indicated a lag in the increase of PGA and PGB, until an initial rise in PGE was noted, suggesting that PGA and PGB may be secondary products arising from PGE which exhibits only partial stability in culture. By employing two RIAs, one for total PGE and one for PGA and PGB, the composite determination PG [E + (A + B)] can be used to provide a more meaningful determination of PG production because of the instability of the PGs. On the other hand, individual determinations are helpful in assessing the stability of PGEs in cell cultures

  15. ROS-induced toxicity: exposure of 3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7 cells to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles results in cell death by mitochondria-dependent apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Hui-Chen, E-mail: d93548008@ntu.edu.tw; Chen, Chung-Ming, E-mail: chung@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China); Hsieh, Wen-Yuan, E-mail: hsiehw@itri.org.tw [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Biomedical Technology and Device Research Labs (China); Chen, Ching-Yun, E-mail: chingyun523@gmail.com; Liu, Chia-Ching, E-mail: d95548005@ntu.edu.tw; Lin, Feng-Huei, E-mail: double@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China)

    2015-02-15

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, SPIO) have been used as magnetic resonance imaging enhancers for years. However, bio-safety issues concerning nanoparticles remain largely unexplored. Of particular concern is the possible cellular impact of nanoparticles during SPIO uptake and subsequent oxidative stress. SPIO causes cell death by apoptosis via a little understood mitochondrial pathway. To more closely examine this process, three kinds of cells—3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7—were treated with SPIO coated with polyethylene glycol (SPIO-PEG) and monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using cytotoxicity evaluation, mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and Annexin V assay. TEM revealed that SPIO-PEG nanoparticles surrounded the cellular endosome membrane, creating a bulge in the endosome. Compared to 3T3 cells, greater numbers of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles infiltrated the mitochondria of RAW264.7 and MCF7 cells. SPIO-PEG residency is associated with boosted ROS, with elevated levels of mitochondrial activity, and advancement of cell apoptosis. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that a polynomial model demonstrates a better fit than a linear model in MCF7, implying that cytotoxicity may have alternative impacts on cell death at different concentrations. Thus, we believe that MCF7 cell death results from the apoptosis pathway triggered by mitochondria, and we find lower cytotoxicity in 3T3. We propose that optimal levels of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles lead to increased levels of ROS and a resulting oxidative stress environment which will kill only cancer cells while sparing normal cells. This finding has great potential for use in cancer therapies in the future.

  16. ROS-induced toxicity: exposure of 3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7 cells to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles results in cell death by mitochondria-dependent apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Chen; Chen, Chung-Ming; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Ching-Yun; Liu, Chia-Ching; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2015-02-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, SPIO) have been used as magnetic resonance imaging enhancers for years. However, bio-safety issues concerning nanoparticles remain largely unexplored. Of particular concern is the possible cellular impact of nanoparticles during SPIO uptake and subsequent oxidative stress. SPIO causes cell death by apoptosis via a little understood mitochondrial pathway. To more closely examine this process, three kinds of cells—3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7—were treated with SPIO coated with polyethylene glycol (SPIO-PEG) and monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using cytotoxicity evaluation, mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and Annexin V assay. TEM revealed that SPIO-PEG nanoparticles surrounded the cellular endosome membrane, creating a bulge in the endosome. Compared to 3T3 cells, greater numbers of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles infiltrated the mitochondria of RAW264.7 and MCF7 cells. SPIO-PEG residency is associated with boosted ROS, with elevated levels of mitochondrial activity, and advancement of cell apoptosis. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that a polynomial model demonstrates a better fit than a linear model in MCF7, implying that cytotoxicity may have alternative impacts on cell death at different concentrations. Thus, we believe that MCF7 cell death results from the apoptosis pathway triggered by mitochondria, and we find lower cytotoxicity in 3T3. We propose that optimal levels of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles lead to increased levels of ROS and a resulting oxidative stress environment which will kill only cancer cells while sparing normal cells. This finding has great potential for use in cancer therapies in the future.

  17. Oscillatory fluid flow elicits changes in morphology, cytoskeleton and integrin-associated molecules in MLO-Y4 cells, but not in MC3T3-E1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyun Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial fluid flow stress is one of the most important mechanical stimulations of bone cells under physiological conditions. Osteocytes and osteoblasts act as primary mechanosensors within bones, and in vitro are able to respond to fluid shear stress, both morphologically and functionally. However, there is little information about the response of integrin-associated molecules using both osteoblasts and osteocytes. In this study, we investigated the changes in response to 2 hours of oscillatory fluid flow stress in the MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cell line and the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell line. MLO-Y4 cells exhibited a significant increase in the expression of integrin-associated molecules, including OPN, CD44, vinculin and integrin avp3. However, there was no or limited increase observed in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. Cell area and fiber stress formation were also markedly promoted by fluid flow only in MLO-Y4 cells. But the numbers of processes per cell remain unaffected in both cell lines.

  18. Inhibition of fat cell differentiation in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes by all-trans retinoic acid: Integrative analysis of transcriptomic and phenotypic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Katharina; Sass, Steffen; Theis, Fabian J; Hauner, Hans; Pfaffl, Michael W

    2017-03-01

    The process of adipogenesis is controlled in a highly orchestrated manner, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. In developing 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, this program can be interrupted by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To examine this inhibiting impact by ATRA, we generated large-scale transcriptomic data on the microRNA and mRNA level. Non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs represent a field in RNA turnover, which is very important for understanding the regulation of mRNA gene expression. High throughput mRNA and microRNA expression profiling was performed using mRNA hybridisation microarray technology and multiplexed expression assay for microRNA quantification. After quantitative measurements we merged expression data sets, integrated the results and analysed the molecular regulation of in vitro adipogenesis. For this purpose, we applied local enrichment analysis on the integrative microRNA-mRNA network determined by a linear regression approach. This approach includes the target predictions of TargetScan Mouse 5.2 and 23 pre-selected, significantly regulated microRNAs as well as Affymetrix microarray mRNA data. We found that the cellular lipid metabolism is negatively affected by ATRA. Furthermore, we were able to show that microRNA 27a and/or microRNA 96 are important regulators of gap junction signalling, the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton as well as the citric acid cycle, which represent the most affected pathways with regard to inhibitory effects of ATRA in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In conclusion, the experimental workflow and the integrative microRNA-mRNA data analysis shown in this study represent a possibility for illustrating interactions in highly orchestrated biological processes. Further the applied global microRNA-mRNA interaction network may also be used for the pre-selection of potential new biomarkers with regard to obesity or for the identification of new pharmaceutical targets.

  19. Estradiol-induced regulation of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 cells: involvement of ESR1 and AKT activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campello, Raquel S; Fátima, Luciana A; Barreto-Andrade, João Nilton; Lucas, Thais F; Mori, Rosana C; Porto, Catarina S; Machado, Ubiratan F

    2017-10-01

    Impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake involves reduced expression of the GLUT4 (solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter member 4, SLC2A4 gene). 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) modulates SLC2A4 /GLUT4 expression, but the involved mechanisms are unclear. Although E 2 exerts biological effects by binding to estrogen receptors 1/2 (ESR1/2), which are nuclear transcriptional factors; extranuclear effects have also been proposed. We hypothesize that E 2 regulates GLUT4 through an extranuclear ESR1 mechanism. Thus, we investigated the effects of E 2 upon (1) subcellular distribution of ESRs and the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinases (SRC) involvement; (2) serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) activation; (3) Slc2a4 /GLUT4 expression and (4) GLUT4 subcellular distribution and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultivated or not with E 2 for 24 h, and additionally treated or not with ESR1-selective agonist (PPT), ESR1-selective antagonist (MPP) or selective SRC inhibitor (PP2). Subcellular distribution of ESR1, ESR2 and GLUT4 was analyzed by immunocytochemistry; Slc2a4 mRNA and GLUT4 were quantified by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively; plasma membrane GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake were analyzed under insulin stimulus for 20 min or not. E 2 induced (1) translocation of ESR1, but not of ESR2, from nucleus to plasma membrane and AKT phosphorylation, effects mimicked by PPT and blocked by MPP and PP2; (2) increased Slc2a4 /GLUT4 expression and (3) increased insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. In conclusion, E 2 treatment promoted a SRC-mediated nucleus-plasma membrane shuttle of ESR1, and increased AKT phosphorylation, Slc2a4 /GLUT4 expression and plasma membrane GLUT4 translocation; consequently, improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These results unravel mechanisms through which estrogen improves insulin sensitivity. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Mouse 3T3 fibroblasts under the influence of fibroblasts isolated from stroma of human basal cell carcinoma acquire properties of multipotent stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabo, Pavol; Kolář, Michal; Dvořánková, B.; Lacina, L.; Štork, J.; Vlček, Čestmír; Strnad, Hynek; Tvrdek, M.; Smetana, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 5 (2011), s. 233-248 ISSN 0248-4900 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06106; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : basal cell carcinoma (BCC) * stem cell * tumour stroma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.600, year: 2011

  1. A Small Molecule Swertisin from Enicostemma littorale Differentiates NIH3T3 Cells into Islet-Like Clusters and Restores Normoglycemia upon Transplantation in Diabetic Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidheesh Dadheech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Stem cell therapy is one of the upcoming therapies for the treatment of diabetes. Discovery of potent differentiating agents is a prerequisite for increasing islet mass. The present study is an attempt to screen the potential of novel small biomolecules for their differentiating property into pancreatic islet cells using NIH3T3, as representative of extra pancreatic stem cells/progenitors. Methods. To identify new agents that stimulate islet differentiation, we screened various compounds isolated from Enicostemma littorale using NIH3T3 cells and morphological changes were observed. Characterization was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, Q-PCR, immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, and insulin secretion assay for functional response in newly generated islet-like cell clusters (ILCC. Reversal of hyperglycemia was monitored after transplanting ILCC in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Results. Among various compounds tested, swertisin, an isolated flavonoid, was the most effective in differentiating NIH3T3 into endocrine cells. Swertisin efficiently changed the morphology of NIH3T3 cells from fibroblastic to round aggregate cell cluster in huge numbers. Dithizone (DTZ stain primarily confirmed differentiation and gene expression studies signified rapid onset of differentiation signaling cascade in swertisin-induced ILCC. Molecular imaging and immunoblotting further confirmed presence of islet specific proteins. Moreover, glucose induced insulin release (in vitro and decreased fasting blood glucose (FBG (in vivo in transplanted diabetic BALB/c mice depicted functional maturity of ILCC. Insulin and glucagon expression in excised islet grafts illustrated survival and functional integrity. Conclusions. Rapid induction for islet differentiation by swertisin, a novel herbal biomolecule, provides low cost and readily available differentiating agent that can be translated as a therapeutic tool for effective treatment in diabetes.

  2. Metal ion effects on different types of cell line, metal ion incorporation into L929 and MC3T3-E1 cells, and activation of macrophage-like J774.1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yoshimitsu; Gotoh, Emiko

    2013-05-01

    V ions showed high cytotoxicity for mouse fibroblast L929, osteoblastic MC3T3-E1, and macrophage-like J774.1 cells compared with Pb, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, and Mo ions. The quantities of metal ions incorporated into the L929 and MC3T3-E1 cells increased with increasing metal concentration in the medium, depending on the metal ion type. In particular, the quantities of V incorporated into the cells were markedly higher than those of other metals. It was suggested that the cytotoxicity of a metal ion changes with the quantity of the metal ion incorporated into cells. It was also considered that V ions are incorporated into cells through xanthine derived from fetal bovine serum by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The strong interaction of Co, Ni and Mo with amino acids was analyzed by HPLC. The rate of increase of nitric oxide (NO) concentration released with the activation of the mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells increased at a concentration of V ions ten times lower than that of Ni ions. The release of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from the J774.1 cells started at approximately 0.5 ppm V; interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) showed a marked increase in the rate of increase at more than 1 ppm V. No increase in the concentration of IL-1α, IL-8, IL-15 or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was observed for V and Ni ions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the effects of elevated inorganic phosphate on primary human vascular smooth muscle cells and the pre-osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup

    , is prevailing in patients suffering from diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease. Patients with chronic kidney disease have elevated levels of Pi in the blood (hyperphosphatemia), and hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of vascular mineralization and poor disease outcome. Research in the past decade...... the role of PiT1 in mesenchymal stem cell osteoblastic differentiation/mineralization and found that PiT1 is upstream of Runx2 expression in the osteoblastic differentiation also. While the role of PiT1 as a regulator of Pi-induced Runx2 expression in VSMCs has been interpreted as Pi causes an osteo...... into the role of Pi on vascular mineralization has revealed that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) mineralize in vitro when cultured in hyperphosphatemic media in a manner that is dependent on the type III sodium-dependent Pi transporter, PiT1, and that Pi causes regulation of gene expression, e...

  4. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Alleviates High-Glucose Suppressed Osteogenic Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells via Antioxidant Effect and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Dong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Patients with diabetes mellitus have a higher risk of dental implant failure. One major cause is high-glucose induced oxidative stress. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA, a naturally occurring compound and dietary supplement, has been established as a potent antioxidant that is a strong scavenger of free radicals. However, few studies have yet investigated the effect of ALA on osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts cultured with high glucose medium. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ALA on the osteoblastic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells under high glucose condition. Methods: MC3T3-E1 cells were divided into 4 groups including normal glucose (5.5 mM group (control, high glucose (25.5 mM group, high glucose + 0.1 mM ALA group, and high glucose + 0.2 mM ALA group. The proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of cells were evaluated by MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity assay, alizarin red staining and real time-polymerase chain reaction. High-glucose induced oxidative damage was also assessed by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and superoxide dismutase (SOD. Western blots were performed to examine the role of PI3K/Akt pathway. Results: The proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells were significantly decreased by the ROS induced by high-glucose. All observed oxidative damage and osteogenic dysfunction induced were inhibited by ALA. Moreover, the PI3K/Akt pathway was activated by ALA. Conclusions: We demonstrate that ALA may attenuate high-glucose mediated MC3T3-E1 cells dysfunction through antioxidant effect and modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway.

  5. Mechanotransductive Regulation of Gap-Junction Activity Between MLO-Y4 Osteocyte-Like and MC3T3-E1 Osteoblast-Like Cells in Three-Dimensional Co-Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, C. M.; Blaber, E. A.; Almeida, E. A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Cell and animal studies conducted onboard the International Space Station and formerly on Shuttle flights have provided groundbreaking data illuminating the deleterious biological response of bone to mechanical unloading. However the intercellular communicative mechanisms associated with the regulation of bone synthesis and bone resorption cells are still largely unknown. Connexin-43 (CX43), a gap junction protein, is hypothesized to play a significant role in osteoblast and osteocyte signaling. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate within a novel three-dimensional microenvironment how the osteocyte-osteoblast gap-junction expression changes when cultures are exposed to exaggerated mechanical load. MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells were cultured on a 3D-Biotek polystyrene insert and placed in direct contact with an MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast co-cultured monolayer and exposed to 48 h of mechanical stimulation (pulsatile fluid flow (PFF) or monolayer cyclic stretch (MCS)) then evaluated for viability, proliferation, metabolism, and CX43 expression. Mono-cultured MLO-Y4 and MC3T3-E1 control experiments were conducted under PFF and MCS stimulation to observe how strain application stimuli (PFF cell membrane shear or MCS cell focal adhesion/attachment loading) initiates different signaling pathways or downstream regulatory controls. TotalLive cell count, viability and metabolic reduction (Trypan Blue, LIVEDead and Alamar Blue analysis respectively) indicate that mechanical activation of MC3T3-E1 cells inhibits proliferation while maintaining an average 1.04E4 reductioncell metabolic rate, *p0.05 n4. MLO-Y4s in monolayer culture increase in number when exposed to MCS loading but the percent of live cells within the population is low (46.3 total count, *p0.05 n4), these results may indicate an apoptotic signaling cascade. PFF stimulation of the three-dimensional co-cultures elicits a universal increase in CX43 in MLO-Y4 and MC3T3-E1 cells, illustrated by

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates insulin-like and lipo-mobilising effects of β-glucan-rich polysaccharides isolated from Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.), Singer mushroom, in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasabapathy, G; Chua, K H; Malek, S N A; Vikineswary, S; Kuppusamy, U R

    2014-02-15

    Mushrooms have been used to treat various diseases for thousands of years. In the present study, the effects of Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom on lipogenesis, lipolysis and oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 cells were investigated. The β-glucan-rich polysaccharides (GE) from P. sajor-caju stimulated lipogenesis and lipolysis but attenuated protein carbonyl and lipid hydroperoxide levels in 3T3-L1 cells. This extract caused an increase in the expression of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit γ-2 (PKRAG2) and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit γ-3 (PKRAG3) when compared to control (untreated) cells. Moreover, GE induced the expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose triglyceride lipase enzymes, leptin, adiponectin and glucose transporter-4 in 3T3-L1 cells which may have contributed to the lipolytic and insulin-like activities observed in this study. These findings suggest that GE is a novel AMPK activator that may be valuable in the formulation of nutraceuticals and functional food for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol can induce cell cycle arrest by blocking the hyper-phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein in benzo[a]pyrene-treated NIH3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jin Boo [Bioresource Sciences, Andong National University, Andong 760749 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyung Jin, E-mail: jhj@andong.ac.kr [Bioresource Sciences, Andong National University, Andong 760749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} 2M4VP activated the expression of p21 and p15 protein, and down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. {yields} 2M4VP inhibited hyper-phosphorylation of Rb protein. {yields} 2M4VP induced cell cycle arrest from G1 to S. {yields} 2M4VP inhibited hyper-proliferation of the cells in BaP-treated cells. {yields} 2M4VP induces growth arrest of BaP-treated cells by blocking hyper-phosphorylation of Rb via regulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins. -- Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environment carcinogen that can enhance cell proliferation by disturbing the signal transduction pathways in cell cycle regulation. In this study, the effects of 2M4VP on cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell cycle regulatory proteins were studied in BaP-treated NIH 3T3 cells to establish the molecular mechanisms of 2M4VP as anti-proliferative agents. 2M4VP exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth correlated with a G1 arrest. Analysis of G1 cell cycle regulators expression revealed 2M4VP increased expression of CDK inhibitor, p21Waf1/Cip1 and p15 INK4b, decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and inhibited kinase activities of CDK4 and CDK2. However, 2M4VP did not affect the expression of CDK4 and CDK2. Also, 2M4VP inhibited the hyper-phosphorylation of Rb induced by BaP. Our results suggest that 2M4VP induce growth arrest of BaP-treated NIH 3T3 cells by blocking the hyper-phosphorylation of Rb via regulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins.

  8. 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol can induce cell cycle arrest by blocking the hyper-phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein in benzo[a]pyrene-treated NIH3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Jeong, Hyung Jin

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → 2M4VP activated the expression of p21 and p15 protein, and down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. → 2M4VP inhibited hyper-phosphorylation of Rb protein. → 2M4VP induced cell cycle arrest from G1 to S. → 2M4VP inhibited hyper-proliferation of the cells in BaP-treated cells. → 2M4VP induces growth arrest of BaP-treated cells by blocking hyper-phosphorylation of Rb via regulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins. -- Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environment carcinogen that can enhance cell proliferation by disturbing the signal transduction pathways in cell cycle regulation. In this study, the effects of 2M4VP on cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell cycle regulatory proteins were studied in BaP-treated NIH 3T3 cells to establish the molecular mechanisms of 2M4VP as anti-proliferative agents. 2M4VP exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth correlated with a G1 arrest. Analysis of G1 cell cycle regulators expression revealed 2M4VP increased expression of CDK inhibitor, p21Waf1/Cip1 and p15 INK4b, decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and inhibited kinase activities of CDK4 and CDK2. However, 2M4VP did not affect the expression of CDK4 and CDK2. Also, 2M4VP inhibited the hyper-phosphorylation of Rb induced by BaP. Our results suggest that 2M4VP induce growth arrest of BaP-treated NIH 3T3 cells by blocking the hyper-phosphorylation of Rb via regulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins.

  9. CSN1S2 protein of goat milk inhibits the decrease of viability and increases the proliferation of MC3T3E1 pre-osteoblast cell in methyl glyoxal exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choirunil Chotimah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether the CNS1S2 protein of goat milk is able to inhibit the toxicity of methyl glyoxal (MG towards MC3T3E1 pre-osteoblast cells. Methods: At confluency, pre-osteoblast cells were divided into five groups which included control (untreated, pre-osteoblast cells exposed to 5 µmol/L MG, pre-osteoblast cells exposed to MG in the presence of CSN1S2 protein at doses of 0.025, 0.050, and 0.100 mg/L, respectively. Analysis of reactive oxygen species was done with 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorochrome. The proliferation and viability of MC3T3E1 cells were measured by trypan blue staining. Malondialdehyde analysis was done colorimetrically. Results: Cell's viabilities were significantly lower in MG+0.050 mg/L CSN1S2 protein of goat milk compared to MG group (P<0.05. MG+0.100 mg/L CSN1S2 protein of goat milk significantly increased the cells viability compared to MG group (P<0.05. The levels of proliferation were significantly higher in MG+0.100 mg/L CSN1S2 protein of goat milk compared to control group and all treatment groups, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions: High dose of CSN1S2 protein of goat milk (0.100 mg/L in high MG environment inhibits the decrease of viability due to the increases of the proliferation of MC3T3E1 preosteoblast cell.

  10. Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and quercetin on the gene expression of bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin during the differentiation in irradiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Un; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Jun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    To investigate the effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and quercetin (QCT) on gene expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC) during the differentiation in irradiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. When MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells had reached 70-80% confluence, cultures were transferred to a differentiating medium supplemented with 5 mM 2-DG or 10 {mu}M QCT, and then irradiated with 2, 4, 6, and 8 Gy. At various times after irradiation, the cells were analyzed for the synthesis of type I collagen, and expression of BSP and OC. The synthesis of type I collagen in cells exposed to 2 Gy of radiation in the presence of 2-DG or QCT showed no significant difference compared with the control group within 15 days post-irradiation. When the cells were irradiated with 8 Gy, 2-DG facilitated the irradiation mediated decrease of type I collagen synthesis, whereas such decrease was inhibited by treating with QCT. During MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell differentiation, the mRNA expression of BSP and OC showed the peak value at 14 days and 21 days, respectively. 2-DG or QCT treatment alone decreased the level of BSP mRNA, but increased the OC mRNA level only at early time of differentiation (day 7). In the cells irradiated with 2, 4, 8 Gy, the mRNA expression of BSP and OC decreased at 7 days after the irradiation. The cells were treated with various dose of radiation in the presence of 2-DG or QCT, the mRNA level of both BSP and OC increased although this increase was observed at low dose of radiation (2 Gy) and at the early stage of differentiation. However, when the cells were exposed to 4, 6, or 8 Gy, the increase of BSP and OC mRNAs was detected only in cells co-incubated with QCT. This study demonstrates that 2-DG and QCT affect differently the expression of bone formation related factors, type I collagen, BSP, and OC in the irradiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblasic cells, according to the dose of radiation and the times of differentiation. Overall, the present findings

  11. Extracellular calcium-sensing-receptor (CaR)-mediated opening of an outward K(+) channel in murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells: evidence for expression of a functional CaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, C. P.; Yamaguchi, T.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Sanders, J. L.; Vassilev, P. M.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The existence in osteoblasts of the G-protein-coupled extracellular calcium (Ca(o)(2+))-sensing receptor (CaR) that was originally cloned from parathyroid and kidney remains controversial. In our recent studies, we utilized multiple detection methods to demonstrate the expression of CaR transcripts and protein in several osteoblastic cell lines, including murine MC3T3-E1 cells. Although we and others have shown that high Ca(o)(2+) and other polycationic CaR agonists modulate the function of MC3T3-E1 cells, none of these actions has been unequivocally shown to be mediated by the CaR. Previous investigations using neurons and lens epithelial cells have shown that activation of the CaR stimulates Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. Because osteoblastic cells express a similar type of channel, we have examined the effects of specific "calcimimetic" CaR activators on the activity of a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel in MC3T3-E1 cells as a way of showing that the CaR is not only expressed in those cells but is functionally active. Patch-clamp analysis in the cell-attached mode showed that raising Ca(o)(2+) from 0.75 to 2.75 mmol/L elicited about a fourfold increase in the open state probability (P(o)) of an outward K(+) channel with a conductance of approximately 92 pS. The selective calcimimetic CaR activator, NPS R-467 (0.5 micromol/L), evoked a similar activation of the channel, while its less active stereoisomer, NPSS-467 (0.5 micromol/L), did not. Thus, the CaR is not only expressed in MC3T3-E1 cells, but is also functionally coupled to the activity of a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel. This receptor, therefore, could transduce local or systemic changes in Ca(o)(2+) into changes in the activity of this ion channel and related physiological processes in these and perhaps other osteoblastic cells.

  12. Loss or gain of function in NIH3T3 and PC12 cells produced by different mutations in the RET tyrosine kinase domain may explain phenotypic diversity between Hirchsprung disease and MEN 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasini, B.; Seri, M.; Yin, L. [Laboratorio di Genetica Molecolare, Genova (Italy)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The RET protooncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the control differentiation of neural crest derived cells. Point mutations of the RET tyrosine kinase domain were identified among others in 2 distinct genetic disorders, Hirchsprung disease (HSCR) and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 2B (MEN 2B). In order to test the biological effect of HSCR and MEN 2B mutations we used a system based on RET-PTC2, a chimeric activated form of the RET protoocogene isolated from a papillary thyroid carcinoma, which shows a detectable transforming activity in NIH3T3 cells and induction of differentiation in PC12 cells. By site-direct mutagenesis we introduced into RET-PTC2 cDNA the mutations at codon 918 (Met{yields}thr, typical of MEN 2B), at codon 765 (Ser{yields}Pro, observed in HSCR) and at codon 897 (Arg{yields}Gln, also observed in HSCR). The former mutation appears to increase the transforming activity of RET-PTC2 in NIH3T3 cells. The latter two mutations abolish the oncogenic activity in NIH3T3 cells as well as its differentiating effect in PC12 cells. These results suggest that RET mutations may cause MEN 2B and HSCR phenotypes through a mechanism of gain or loss of function respectively. Finally, co-transfection experiments of wild-type RET-PTC2 with either HSCR mutation are in progress in order to test the hypothesis of a dominant negative effect in heterozygous state.

  13. Protective Effects of Pretreatment with Quercetin Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Apoptosis and the Inhibition of Osteoblast Differentiation via the MAPK and Wnt/β-Catenin Pathways in MC3T3-E1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Quercetin, a flavonoid found in onions and other vegetables, has potential inhibitory effects on bone resorption in vivo and in vitro. In our previous study, we found that quercetin treatment reversed lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway in MC3T3-E1 cells. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of pretreatment with quercetin on apoptosis and the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells induced by LPS. Methods: MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were treated with quercetin for 2 h; cells were then incubated with LPS in the presence of quercetin for the indicated times. Cell viability was measured using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay, and cell apoptosis was evaluated using Hoechst 33258 staining. The mRNA expression levels of osteoblast-specific genes, Bax and caspase-3 were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Protein levels of osteoblast-specific genes, caspase-3, Bax, cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, phosphorylated MAPKs and Wnt/β-catenin were measured using Western blot assays. The MAPK and Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways were blocked prior to pretreatment with quercetin. Results: Pretreatment with quercetin significantly restored LPS-suppressed bone mineralization and the mRNA and protein expression levels of osteoblast-specific genes such as Osterix (OSX, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and osteocalcin (OCN in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with quercetin also inhibited osteoblast apoptosis, significantly restored the down-regulated expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL and decreased the upregulated expression of caspase-3, Bax, and cytochrome c in MC3T3-E1 cells induced by LPS. Furthermore, pretreatment with quercetin not only decreased the abundance of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and increased the abundance of phosphorylated

  14. Integration of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 DNA in vitro by cytoplasmic extracts of Moloney murine leukemia virus-infected mouse NIH 3T3 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Vink (Cornelis); D.C. van Gent (Dik); R.H. Plassterk

    1990-01-01

    textabstractAn essential step in the life cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is integration of a DNA copy of the viral RNA into the genome of the infected cell. We show here that this step can be faithfully accomplished in vitro by the enzymatic machinery of another

  15. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis of doxorubicin-loaded/superparamagnetic iron oxide colloidal nanoassemblies on MCF7 and NIH3T3 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomankova K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Katerina Tomankova,1 Katerina Polakova,2 Klara Pizova,1 Svatopluk Binder,1 Marketa Havrdova,2 Mary Kolarova,2 Eva Kriegova,3 Jana Zapletalova,1 Lukas Malina,1 Jana Horakova,1 Jakub Malohlava,1 Argiris Kolokithas-Ntoukas,4 Aristides Bakandritsos,4 Hana Kolarova,1 Radek Zboril2 1Department of Medical Biophysics, Institute of Translation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 2Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, 3Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 4Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, Patras, Greece Abstract: One of the promising strategies for improvement of cancer treatment is based on magnetic drug delivery systems, thus avoiding side effects of standard chemotherapies. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles have ideal properties to become a targeted magnetic drug delivery contrast probes, named theranostics. We worked with SPIO condensed colloidal nanocrystal clusters (MagAlg prepared through a new soft biomineralization route in the presence of alginate as the polymeric shell and loaded with doxorubicin (DOX. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro cytotoxicity of these new MagAlg–DOX systems on mouse fibroblast and breast carcinoma cell lines. For proper analysis and understanding of cell behavior after administration of MagAlg–DOX compared with free DOX, a complex set of in vitro tests, including production of reactive oxygen species, comet assay, cell cycle determination, gene expression, and cellular uptake, were utilized. It was found that the cytotoxic effect of MagAlg–DOX system is delayed compared to free DOX in both cell lines. This was attributed to the different mechanism of internalization of DOX and MagAlg–DOX into the cells, together with the fact that the drug is strongly bound on the drug nanocarriers. We

  16. Evaluating the antidiabetic effects of Chinese herbal medicine: Xiao-Ke-An in 3T3-L1 cells and KKAy mice using both conventional and holistic omics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Linli; Zhang, Feng; Li, Zheng

    2015-08-13

    Xiao-Ke-An (XKA) is a Chinese medicine widely used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It is composed of eight herbal medicines traditionally used for T2D, including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Coptis chinensis Franch, etc. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of XKA with both conventional and holistic omics approaches. The antidiabetic effect of XKA was first investigated in 3T3-L1 cells to study the effect of XKA on adipogenesis in vitro. Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation. The intracellular total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents in XKA treated 3T3-L1 cells were also evaluated. The therapeutic effects of XKA was further evaluated in KKAy mice with both conventional and holistic omics approaches. Body weight, fasting and non-fasting blood glucose, and oral glucose tolerance were measured during the experiment. At the time of sacrifice, serum was collected for the measurement of TG, TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). The liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, heart and adipose tissues were harvested and weighted. The liver was used for further microarray experiment. Omics approaches were adopted to evaluate the holistic rebalancing effect of XKA at molecular network level. XKA significantly inhibited adipogenic differentiation, lowered the intracellular TC and TG contents in 3T3-L1 cells. XKA improved the glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, ameliorated insulin resistance in KKAy mice. Furthermore, XKA also exhibited effective therapeutic effects by reversing the molecular T2D disease network from an unbalanced state. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of XKA with both conventional and holistic omics approaches, providing both phenotypic evidence and underlying action mechanisms for the clinical use of XKA treating T2D.

  17. Effects of retinoic acid and hydrogen peroxide on sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a activation during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eldaim, Mabrouk A. Abd; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Terao, Akira; Kimura, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Both retinoic acid (RA) and oxidative stress (H2O2) increased transcription and cleavage of membrane-bound sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1, leading to enhanced transcription of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in hepatoma cells. On the other hand, RA and H2O2 decreased and increased lipogenesis in adipocytes, respectively, although roles of SREBP-1 activation in these effects remain to be elucidated. To elucidate its involvement, we examined the activation of SREBP...

  18. Differential role for ERK2 in anoxia-induced activation of transcription and translation of Hsp70 in NIH 3T3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossum, Carlo; Lauritsen, Anders N.; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    transcription and translation of Hsp70 during recovery from chemical anoxia and the role of the extracellular signal regulated kinase ERK2 in this induction of Hsp70. 10 mM azide for 30 minutes (chemical anoxia) significantly inhibited the activity of ERK2 (measured as phospho-ERK) but the ERK-2 activity...... is rapidly increased in a MEK-independen manner, when azide is washed out of the cells. Chemical anoxia and overnight recovery induced Hsp70 expression (analyzed by Western blotting) and this was inhibited by actinomycin D as well as by cycloheximide showing that induction of both translation...

  19. Mitogenic stimuli and phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover in cultured 3T3 fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, C.; Petersen, R.

    1986-01-01

    The hydrolysis of PI and polyphosphoinositides by phopholipase C is an early and rapid response to cell activation by a variety of neurotransmitters, hormones, growth factors and pharmacological agonists. The authors have examined the role of PI turnover and the generation of second messengers (diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate) in the mitogenic response of cultured Balb/c and Swiss 3T3 cells to polypeptide growth factors. Cells were prelabelled with 3 H inositol for 18-20 hours, washed and suspended in Herpes + Li + buffer, and stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vasopressin, insulin, and other growth factors. PI turnover was measured as the increase in total inositol phosphate (IP) production. IP1, IP2, and IP3 were characterized by sequential elution from a Dowex column. Partially purified PDGF produced a 2-4 fold stimulation of total IP production. This was seen as early as 30 seconds after stimulation and increased for up to 1-2 hours. Balb/c cells were more sensitive than Swiss cells to the mitogenic and PI effects of PDGF. Other mitogenic stimuli had differential effects on PI turnover. Vasopressin (4-400 ng/ml) markedly stimulated PI turnover (3-6 fold) in Swiss, but not Balb/c cells. Insulin (100 ng/ml - 10 μg/ml) increased total IP to a greater degree in Balb/c cells. Epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml - 10 μg/ml) had no effect on PI turnover and fibroblast growth factor (10 ng/ml - 10 μg/ml) only stimulated at the higher concentrations in Swiss cells. Thrombin (1U/ml - 10 U/ml) produced a 1.5 - 2 fold stimulation in Balb/c cells. Thus, various polypeptide growth factors have differential effects on PI turnover depending on their mitogenic potential and the effector cell type

  20. Inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and suppression of abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet-feeding C57BL/6J mice after downregulation of hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, E; Jung, M Y; Park, J H; Kim, S; Seo, C R; Park, K W; Lee, E K; Yeom, C H; Lee, S

    2014-08-01

    Adipogenesis can be spatially and temporally regulated by extracellular matrix (ECM). We hypothesized that the regulation of hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the ECM, can affect adipogenesis in fat cells. The effects of HA on adipogenesis were investigated in vitro in 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo in high-fat diet-feeding C57BL/6J mice. We investigated the effects of HA by degradation of pre-existing or synthesized HA and artificial inhibition of HA synthesis in adipogenesis. In vitro adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited by treating them with exogenous hyaluronidase (HYAL) and with 4-methylumbelliferone, which inhibited the synthesis of HA in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet-feeding C57BL/6J mice was suppressed by exogenous HYAL 10(4) IU injections, which was associated with reduction of lipid accumulation in liver and increase of insulin sensitivity. Changes in the ECM such as accumulation of high molecular weight of HA by HAS and degradation of HA by endogenous HYAL were essential for adipogenesis both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. PRELP (proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein) promotes osteoblastic differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by regulating the β-catenin pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haiying; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing [School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Ji' nan, Shandong (China); Key Laboratory for Rare Disease Research of Shandong Province, Key Laboratory for Biotech Drugs of the Ministry of Health, Shandong Medical Biotechnological Center, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji' nan, Shandong (China); Zhang, Xiumei [School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Ji' nan, Shandong (China); Li, Chengzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Liang [School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Ji' nan, Shandong (China); Key Laboratory for Rare Disease Research of Shandong Province, Key Laboratory for Biotech Drugs of the Ministry of Health, Shandong Medical Biotechnological Center, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji' nan, Shandong (China); Wang, Huaxin [Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ji' an, Shandong (China); Han, Jinxiang, E-mail: jxhan9888@aliyun.com [School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Ji' nan, Shandong (China); Key Laboratory for Rare Disease Research of Shandong Province, Key Laboratory for Biotech Drugs of the Ministry of Health, Shandong Medical Biotechnological Center, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji' nan, Shandong (China)

    2016-02-12

    Proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP) is a collagen-binding proteoglycan highly expressed in the developing bones. Recent studies indicated that PRELP could inhibit osteoclastogenesis as a NF-κB inhibitor. However, its role during osteoblast differentiation is still unclear. In this study, we confirmed that the expression of PRELP increased with the osteogenesis induction of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Down-regulation of PRELP expression by shRNA reduced ALP activity, mineralization and expression of osteogenic marker gene Runx2. Our microarray analysis data suggested that β-catenin may act as a hub gene in the PRELP-mediated gene network. We validated furtherly that PRELP knockdown could inhibit the level of connexin43, a key regulator of osteoblast differentiation by affecting β-catenin protein expression, and its nuclear translocation in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Therefore, this study established a new role of PRELP in modulating β-catenin/connexin43 pathway and osteoblast differentiation.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxicity of ZnO-Fe3O4 Magnetic Composite Nanoparticles in Human Breast Cancer Cell Line (MDA-MB-231) and Mouse Fibroblast (NIH 3T3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Gunjan; Rayamajhi, Sagar; KC, Biplab; Paudel, Siddhi Nath; Karna, Deepak; Shrestha, Bhupal G.

    2016-12-01

    Novel magnetic composite nanoparticles (MCPs) were successfully synthesized by ex situ conjugation of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and Fe3O4 NPs using trisodium citrate as linker with an aim to retain key properties of both NPs viz. inherent selectivity towards cancerous cell and superparamagnetic nature, respectively, on a single system. Successful characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was done by XRD, TEM, FTIR, and VSM analyses. VSM analysis showed similar magnetic profile of thus obtained MCPs as that of naked Fe3O4 NPs with reduction in saturation magnetization to 16.63 emu/g. Also, cell viability inferred from MTT assay showed that MCPs have no significant toxicity towards noncancerous NIH 3T3 cells but impart significant toxicity at similar concentration to breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231. The EC50 value of MCPs on MDA-MB-231 is less than that of naked ZnO NPs on MDA-MB-231, but its toxicity on NIH 3T3 was significantly reduced compared to ZnO NPs. Our hypothesis for this prominent difference in cytotoxicity imparted by MCPs is the synergy of selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhausting scavenging activity of cancerous cells, which further enhance the cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 NPs on cancer cells. This dramatic difference in cytotoxicity shown by the conjugation of magnetic Fe3O4 NPs with ZnO NPs should be further studied that might hold great promise for the development of selective and site-specific nanoparticles.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxicity of ZnO-Fe3O4 Magnetic Composite Nanoparticles in Human Breast Cancer Cell Line (MDA-MB-231) and Mouse Fibroblast (NIH 3T3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Gunjan; Rayamajhi, Sagar; Kc, Biplab; Paudel, Siddhi Nath; Karna, Deepak; Shrestha, Bhupal G

    2016-12-01

    Novel magnetic composite nanoparticles (MCPs) were successfully synthesized by ex situ conjugation of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and Fe 3 O 4 NPs using trisodium citrate as linker with an aim to retain key properties of both NPs viz. inherent selectivity towards cancerous cell and superparamagnetic nature, respectively, on a single system. Successful characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was done by XRD, TEM, FTIR, and VSM analyses. VSM analysis showed similar magnetic profile of thus obtained MCPs as that of naked Fe 3 O 4 NPs with reduction in saturation magnetization to 16.63 emu/g. Also, cell viability inferred from MTT assay showed that MCPs have no significant toxicity towards noncancerous NIH 3T3 cells but impart significant toxicity at similar concentration to breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231. The EC50 value of MCPs on MDA-MB-231 is less than that of naked ZnO NPs on MDA-MB-231, but its toxicity on NIH 3T3 was significantly reduced compared to ZnO NPs. Our hypothesis for this prominent difference in cytotoxicity imparted by MCPs is the synergy of selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhausting scavenging activity of cancerous cells, which further enhance the cytotoxicity of Fe 3 O 4 NPs on cancer cells. This dramatic difference in cytotoxicity shown by the conjugation of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 NPs with ZnO NPs should be further studied that might hold great promise for the development of selective and site-specific nanoparticles. Schematic representation of the conjugation, characterization and cytotoxicity analysis of Fe 3 O 4 -ZnO magnetic composite particles (MCPs).

  4. Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), β-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3 µg mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity.

  5. TNF-α induces matrix metalloproteinase-9-dependent soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 release via TRAF2-mediated MAPKs and NF-κB activation in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been shown to be induced by cytokines including TNF-α and may contribute to bone inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying MMP-9 expression induced by TNF-α in MC3T3-E1 cells remain unclear. Results We applied gelatin zymography, Western blot, RT-PCR, real-time PCR, selective pharmacological inhibitors of transcription (actinomycin D, Act.D), translation (cycloheximide, CHI), c-Src (PP1), MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), and NF-κB (Bay11-7082), respective siRNAs transfection, promoter assay, immunofluorescence staining, and ELISA to investigate the MMP-9 expression and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) release induced by TNF-α in MC3T3-E1 cells. Here we demonstrated that TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression was attenuated by Act.D, CHI, PP1, U0126, SB202190, SP600125, and Bay11-7082, and by the transfection with siRNAs for ERK2, p38 MAPK, and JNK2. TNF-α-stimulated TNFR1, TRAF2, and c-Src complex formation was revealed by immunoprecipitation and Western blot. Furthermore, TNF-α-stimulated NF-κB phosphorylation and translocation were blocked by Bay11-7082, but not by PP1, U0126, SB202190, or SP600125. TNF-α time-dependently induced MMP-9 promoter activity which was also inhibited by PP1, U0126, SB202190, SP600125, or Bay11-7082. Up-regulation of MMP-9 was associated with the release of sICAM-1 into the cultured medium, which was attenuated by the pretreatment with MMP-2/9i, an MMP-9 inhibitor. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that TNF-α up-regulates MMP-9 expression via c-Src, MAPKs, and NF-κB pathways. In addition, TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression may contribute to the production of sICAM-1 by MC3T3-E1 cells. The interplay between MMP-9 expression and sICAM-1 release may exert an important role in the regulation of bone inflammatory diseases. PMID:24502696

  6. Ghrelin protects against depleted uranium-induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through oxidative stress-mediated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yuhui; Liu, Cong; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Li, Hong; Yang, Zhangyou; Liu, Jing; Wang, Weidong; Li, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) mainly accumulates in the bone over the long term. Osteoblast cells are responsible for the formation of bone, and they are sensitive to DU damage. However, studies investigating methods of reducing DU damage in osteoblasts are rarely reported. Ghrelin is a stomach hormone that stimulates growth hormones released from the hypothalamic–pituitary axis, and it is believed to play an important physiological role in bone metabolism. This study evaluates the impact of ghrelin on DU-induced apoptosis of the osteoblast MC3T3-E1 and investigates its underlying mechanisms. The results show that ghrelin relieved the intracellular oxidative stress induced by DU, eliminated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced lipid peroxidation by increasing intracellular GSH levels; in addition, ghrelin effectively suppressed apoptosis, enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibited cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation after DU exposure. Moreover, ghrelin significantly reduced the expression of DU-induced phosphorylated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). A specific inhibitor (SB203580) or specific siRNA of p38-MAPK could significantly suppress DU-induced apoptosis and related signals, whereas ROS production was not affected. In addition, ghrelin receptor inhibition could reduce the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin on DU and reverse the effect of ghrelin on intracellular ROS and p38-MAPK after DU exposure. These results suggest that ghrelin can suppress DU-induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells, reduce DU-induced oxidative stress by interacting with its receptor, and inhibit downstream p38-MAPK activation, thereby suppressing the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway. - Highlights: • Ghrelin suppressed DU-induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells. • Ghrelin inhibited DU-induced oxidative stress and further p38-MAPK activation. • Ghrelin further suppressed mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway. • The anti-oxidation effect of

  7. Herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) from Curcuma longa, Alnus japonica, and Massa Medicata Fermentata inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and regulates obesity in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong Sung; Lee, Hyunghee; Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Park, Sun Dong; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2015-08-02

    Adipocyte lipid accumulation due to impaired fatty acid oxidation causes adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue increment, leading to obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the antiobesity effects of the herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) (GGH(4)) composed of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. (Betulaceae), and the fermented traditional Korean medicine Massa Medicata Fermentata. The effects of GGH(4) and the individual components on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and body weight gain in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were examined using Oil red O staining, hematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative real-time PCR, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transactivation assay. GGH(4), individual components, and an active principle of Curcuma longa curcumin inhibited lipid accumulation and mRNA levels of adipocyte-specific genes (PPARγ, aP2, and C/EBPα) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with control cells. Treatment with GGH(4), the individual components or curcmumin increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial (CPT-1, MCAD, and VLCAD) and peroxisomal (ACOX and thiolase) PPARα target genes. GGH(4) and the individual components also increased PPARα reporter gene expression compared with control cells. These effects were most prominent in GGH(4)-treated cells. However, the PPARα antagonist GW6471 reversed the inhibitory effects of GGH(4) on adipogenesis. An in vivo study showed that GGH(4) decreased body weight gain, adipose tissue mass, and visceral adipocyte size with increasing mRNA levels of adipose tissue PPARα target genes in OLETF rats. These results demonstrate that GGH(4) has an antiobesity effects through the inhibition of adipocyte lipid accumulation, and this process may be mediated in part through adipose PPARα activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. LIPUS suppressed LPS-induced IL-1α through the inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation via AT1-PLCβ pathway in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Mayu; Tanabe, Natsuko; Manaka, Soichiro; Naito, Masako; Sekino, Jumpei; Takayama, Tadahiro; Kawato, Takayuki; Torigoe, Go; Kato, Shunichiro; Tsukune, Naoya; Maeno, Masao; Suzuki, Naoto; Sato, Shuichi

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, are involved in inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid osteoarthritis and periodontal disease. Particularly, periodontal disease, which destroys alveolar bone, is stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is used for bone healing in orthopedics and dental treatments. However, the mechanism underlying effects of LIPUS on LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine are not well understood. We therefore aimed to investigate the role of LIPUS on LPS-induced IL-1α production. Mouse calvaria osteoblast-like cells MC3T3-E1 were incubated in the presence or absence of LPS (Porphyromonas gingivalis), and then stimulated with LIPUS for 30 min/day. To investigate the role of LIPUS, we determined the expression of IL-1α stimulated with LIPUS and treated with an angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonist, Losartan. We also investigate to clarify the pathway of LIPUS, we transfected siRNA silencing AT1 (siAT1) in MC3T3-E1. LIPUS inhibited mRNA and protein expression of LPS-induced IL-1α. LIPUS also reduced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB by LPS-induced IL-1α. Losartan and siAT1 blocked all the stimulatory effects of LIPUS on IL-1α production and IL-1α-mediated NF-κB translocation induced by LPS. Furthermore, PLCβ inhibitor U73122 recovered NF-κB translocation. These results suggest that LIPUS inhibits LPS-induced IL-1α via AT1-PLCβ in osteoblasts. We exhibit that these findings are in part of the signaling pathway of LIPUS on the anti-inflammatory effects of IL-1α expression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Limonin, a Component of Dictamni Radicis Cortex, Inhibits Eugenol-Induced Calcium and cAMP Levels and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Non-Neuronal 3T3-L1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Cho Yoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Limonin, one of the major components in dictamni radicis cortex (DRC, has been shown to play various biological roles in cancer, inflammation, and obesity in many different cell types and tissues. Recently, the odorant-induced signal transduction pathway (OST has gained attention not only because of its function in the perception of smell but also because of its numerous physiological functions in non-neuronal cells. However, little is known about the effects of limonin and DRC on the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells. We investigated odorant-stimulated increases in Ca2+ and cAMP, major second messengers in the OST pathway, in non-neuronal 3T3-L1 cells pretreated with limonin and ethanol extracts of DRC. Limonin and the extracts significantly decreased eugenol-induced Ca2+ and cAMP levels and upregulated phosphorylation of CREB and PKA. Our results demonstrated that limonin and DRC extract inhibit the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells by modulating Ca2+ and cAMP levels and phosphorylation of CREB.

  10. Curcuma longa polyphenols improve insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and attenuate proinflammatory response of 3T3-L1 adipose cells during oxidative stress through regulation of key adipokines and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Le Sage, Fanny; Hatia, Sarah; Catan, Aurélie; Janci, Laurent; Gonthier, Marie-Paule

    2016-07-08

    Plant polyphenols may exert beneficial action against obesity-related oxidative stress and inflammation which promote insulin resistance. This study evaluated the effect of polyphenols extracted from French Curcuma longa on 3T3-L1 adipose cells exposed to H2 O2 -mediated oxidative stress. We found that Curcuma longa extract exhibited high amounts of curcuminoids identified as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which exerted free radical-scavenging activities. Curcuma longa polyphenols improved insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene expression and adiponectin secretion which decreased in H2 O2 -treated cells. Curcuminoids attenuated H2 O2 -enhanced production of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and nuclear factor κappa B. Moreover, they reduced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species elevated by H2 O2 and modulated the expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase and catalase antioxidant enzymes. Collectively, these findings highlight that Curcuma longa polyphenols protect adipose cells against oxidative stress and may improve obesity-related metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):418-430, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Gelidium elegans, an edible red seaweed, and hesperidin inhibit lipid accumulation and production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2014-11-01

    Gelidium elegans is an edible red alga native to the intertidal area of northeastern Asia. We investigated the effect of G. elegans extract and its main flavonoids, rutin and hesperidin, on lipid accumulation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells. Our data show that G. elegans extract decreased lipid accumulation and ROS/RNS production in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also inhibited the mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, while enhancing the protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases 1 and 2, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase compared with controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production was significantly reduced in G. elegans extract-treated RAW264.7 cells. In analysis of the effects of G. elegans flavonoids on lipid accumulation and ROS/RNS production, only hesperidin showed an inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and ROS production; rutin did not affect adipogenesis and ROS status. The antiadipogenic effect of hesperidin was evidenced by the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, and fatty acid binding protein 4 gene expression. Collectively, our data suggest that G. elegans is a potential food source containing antiobesity and antioxidant constituents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Ascofuranone stimulates expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor through the modulation of mitogen activated protein kinase family members in 3T3-L1, murine pre-adipocyte cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Young-Chae, E-mail: ycchang@cu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyun-Ji, E-mail: hjcho.dr@gmail.com [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascofuranone increases expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibitors for MEK and JNK increased the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascofuranone significantly suppressed phosho-ERK, while increasing phospho-p38. -- Abstract: Ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic, was originally isolated as a hypolipidemic substance from a culture broth of the phytopathogenic fungus, Ascochyta visiae. Adiponectin is mainly synthesized by adipocytes. It relieves insulin resistance by decreasing the plasma triglycerides and improving glucose uptake, and has anti-atherogenic properties. Here, we found that ascofuranone increases expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}, a major transcription factor for adiponectin, in 3T3-L1, murine pre-adipocytes cell line, without promoting accumulation of lipid droplets. Ascofuranone induced expression of adiponectin, and increases the promoter activity of adiponectin and PPRE, PPAR response element, as comparably as a PPAR{gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone, that stimulates lipid accumulation in the preadipocyte cell line. Moreover, inhibitors for MEK and JNK, like ascofuranone, considerably increased the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}, while a p38 inhibitor significantly suppressed. Ascofuranone significantly suppressed ERK phosphorylation, while increasing p38 phosphorylation, during adipocyte differentiation program. These results suggest that ascofuranone regulates the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma} through the modulation of MAP kinase family members.

  13. Structure and expression of murine malic enzyme mRNA. Differentiation-dependent accumulation of two forms of malic enzyme mRNA in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, S; Wise, L S; Brown, M L; Bregman, D; Sul, H S; Rubin, C S

    1987-02-05

    Many murine cells express two mRNAs with markedly different sizes (2.0 and 3.1 kilobases (kb)) that hybridize with cDNA probes for cytosolic malic enzyme ((S)-malate NADP+ oxidoreductase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating, EC 1.1.1.40). A series of overlapping cDNA clones corresponding to 3129 nucleotides of malic enzyme mRNA was isolated and sequenced to determine the relationship between the two mRNAs and establish the primary structure of mouse malic enzyme. The larger mRNA has an open reading frame of 1716 nucleotides followed by a 3' untranslated region of 1348 nucleotides. The sequence of an exceptionally G/C-rich (88%) portion (65 nucleotides) of the 5' noncoding region was also established. An uncommon poly A addition signal (AUUAAA) is used during the processing of the 3.1-kb mRNA. The 2.0-kb mRNA results from the utilization of another poly A addition signal that truncates the 3' noncoding sequence by approximately 1 kb. The mRNA coding sequence indicates that the malic enzyme subunit contains 572 amino acid residues and has a Mr of 64,000. Two putative components of an NADP-binding domain are located between residues 100 and 165. During the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes both the rate of synthesis and relative mRNA concentration for malic enzyme and another lipogenic enzyme, ATP-citrate lyase, are coordinately increased 5-7-fold. However, as preadipocytes approach confluence, the mRNA levels for both lipogenic enzymes transiently increase 3-4-fold, whereas the rates of synthesis of the two proteins are only slightly elevated. Thus, lipogenic enzyme expression is controlled at a pretranslational level during adipogenesis, but the accumulation of the same enzymes may also be subject to translational control in the fibroblast-like preadipocytes. In contrast, mRNA coding for a third enzyme required for lipogenesis, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, is not detected in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, but rapidly accumulates during adipocyte

  14. Topiramate effects lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Gabriela Poltronieri Campagnaro; Souza, Camila Oliveira; Marques, Scherolin; Luciano, Thais Fernandes; DA Silva Pieri, Bruno Luiz; Rosa, José César; DA Silva, Adelino Sanchez Ramos; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Rodrigues, Bruno; DE Lira, Fabio Santos; DE Souza, Claudio Teodoro

    2015-11-01

    Studies have shown that topiramate (TPM)-induced weight loss can be dependent on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the direct action of TPM on adipose tissue has not been tested previously. Thus, the present study aimed to examine whether TPM modulates lipolysis in 3T3-L1. The 3T3-L1 cells were incubated in 50 µM TPM for 30 min. The β-adrenergic stimulator, isoproterenol, was used as a positive control. The release of lactate dehydrogenase, non-esterified fatty acid, glycerol and incorporation of 14 C-palmitate to lipid were analyzed. The phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and perilipin A, as well as the protein levels of comparative genetic identification 58 (CGI-58) were assessed. The levels of glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid increased markedly when the cells were treated with TPM. The TPM effects were similar to the isoproterenol positive control. Additionally, TPM reduced lipogenesis. These results were observed without any change in cell viability. Finally, the phosphorylation of PKA, HSL, ATGL and perilipin A, as well as the protein levels of CGI-58 were increased compared to the control cells. These results were similar to those observed in the cells treated with isoproterenol. The present results show that TPM increased the phosphorylation of pivotal lipolytic enzymes, which induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting that this drug may act directly in the adipose tissue independent from its effect on the CNS.

  15. Effect of copper-doped silicate 13–93 bioactive glass scaffolds on the response of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro and on bone regeneration and angiogenesis in rat calvarial defects in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yinan; Xiao, Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Bal, B. Sonny [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212 (United States); Rahaman, Mohamed N., E-mail: rahaman@mst.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The release of inorganic ions from biomaterials could provide an alternative approach to the use of growth factors for improving tissue healing. In the present study, the release of copper (Cu) ions from bioactive silicate (13–93) glass scaffolds on the response of cells in vitro and on bone regeneration and angiogenesis in vivo was studied. Scaffolds doped with varying concentrations of Cu (0–2.0 wt.% CuO) were created with a grid-like microstructure by robotic deposition. When immersed in simulated body fluid in vitro, the Cu-doped scaffolds released Cu ions into the medium in a dose-dependent manner and converted partially to hydroxyapatite. The proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the scaffolds were not affected by 0.4 and 0.8 wt.% CuO in the glass but they were significantly reduced by 2.0 wt.% CuO. The percent new bone that infiltrated the scaffolds implanted for 6 weeks in rat calvarial defects (46 ± 8%) was not significantly affected by 0.4 or 0.8 wt.% CuO in the glass whereas it was significantly inhibited (0.8 ± 0.7%) in the scaffolds doped with 2.0 wt.% CuO. The area of new blood vessels in the fibrous tissue that infiltrated the scaffolds increased with CuO content of the glass and was significantly higher for the scaffolds doped with 2.0 wt.% CuO. Loading the scaffolds with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (1 μg/defect) significantly enhanced bone infiltration and reduced fibrous tissue in the scaffolds. These results showed that doping the 13–93 glass scaffolds with up to 0.8 wt.% CuO did not affect their biocompatibility whereas 2.0 wt.% CuO was toxic to cells and detrimental to bone regeneration. - Highlights: • First study to evaluate Cu ion release from silicate (13-93) bioactive glass scaffolds on osteogenesis in vivo • Released Cu ions influenced bone regeneration in a dose dependent manner • Lower concentrations of Cu ions had little effect on bone regeneration • Cu ion

  16. Molecularly characterized solvent extracts and saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L show high anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, brine shrimp and fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eAyaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum hydropiper is used as anti-cancer and anti-rheumatic agent in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor and cytotoxic potentials of different solvent extracts and isolated saponins. Samples were analyzed using GC, GC-MS to identify major and bioactive compounds. Quantitation of antiangiogenesis for the plant's samples including methanolic extract (Ph.Cr, its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ph.Hex, chloroform (Ph.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc, n-Butanol (Ph.Bt, aqueous (Ph.Aq, saponins (Ph.Sp were performed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay. Potato disc anti-tumor assay was performed on Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tumor inducing plasmid. Cytotoxicity was performed on Artemia salina and mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line using brine shrimps and MTT cells viability assays. The GC-MS analysis of Ph.Cr, Ph.Hex, Ph.Chf, Ph.Bt and Ph.EtAc identified 126, 124, 153, 131 and 164 compounds respectively. In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75 and 461.53 µg/ml respectively. In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19 and 342.53 µg/ml respectively. In MTT cells viability assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, Ph.Sp were most active causing 79.00, 72.50 and 71.50% cytotoxicity respectively at 1000 µg/ml with the LD50 of 140, 160 and 175 µg/ml respectively. In overall study, Ph.Chf and Ph.Sp have shown overwhelming results which signifies their potentials as sources of therapeutic agents against cancer.

  17. Fluid shear stress suppresses TNF-α-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells: Involvement of ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a-Bim/FasL signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin, Geng; Bo, Zhang; Jing, Wang; Jin, Jiang; Xiaoyi, Tan; Cong, Chen; Liping, An; Jinglin, Ma; Cuifang, Wang; Yonggang, Chen; Yayi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    TNF-α is known to induce osteoblasts apoptosis, whereas mechanical stimulation has been shown to enhance osteoblast survival. In the present study, we found that mechanical stimulation in the form of fluid shear stress (FSS) suppresses TNF-α induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family that has been implicated in cell survival. We also demonstrated that FSS imposed by flow chamber in vitro leads to a markedly activation of ERK5, which was shown to be protective against TNF-α-induced apoptosis, whereas the transfection of siRNA against ERK5 (ERK5-siRNA) reversed the FSS-medicated anti-apoptotic effects. An initial FSS-mediated activation of ERK5 that phosphorylates AKT to increase its activity, and a following forkhead box O 3a (FoxO3a) was phosphorylated by activated AKT. Phosphorylated FoxO3a is sequestered in the cytoplasm, and prevents it from translocating to nucleus where it can increase the expression of FasL and Bim. The inhibition of AKT-FoxO3a signalings by a PI3K (PI3-kinase)/AKT inhibitor (LY294002) or the transfection of ERK5-siRNA led to the nuclear translocation of non-phosphorylated FoxO3a, and increased the protein expression of FasL and Bim. In addition, the activation of caspase-3 by TNF-α was significantly inhibited by aforementioned FSS-medicated mechanisms. In brief, the activation of ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a signaling pathways by FSS resulted in a decreased expression of FasL and Bim and an inhibition of caspase-3 activation, which exerts a protective effect that prevents osteoblasts from apoptosis. - Highlights: • Fluid shear stress inhibits osteoblast apoptosis induced by TNF-α. • Inhibition of ERK5 activity by transfection of ERK5 siRNA blocks FSS-mediated anti-apoptotic effect in osteoblast. • Activated ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a-Bim/FasL signaling pathways by FSS is required to protect osteoblast from apoptosis.

  18. Fluid shear stress suppresses TNF-α-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells: Involvement of ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a-Bim/FasL signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin, Geng; Bo, Zhang; Jing, Wang; Jin, Jiang; Xiaoyi, Tan; Cong, Chen; Liping, An; Jinglin, Ma; Cuifang, Wang; Yonggang, Chen [The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, #82 Cuiyingmen, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China); Orthopaedics Key Laboratory of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China); Yayi, Xia, E-mail: xiayayildey@163.com [The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, #82 Cuiyingmen, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China); Orthopaedics Key Laboratory of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China)

    2016-05-01

    TNF-α is known to induce osteoblasts apoptosis, whereas mechanical stimulation has been shown to enhance osteoblast survival. In the present study, we found that mechanical stimulation in the form of fluid shear stress (FSS) suppresses TNF-α induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family that has been implicated in cell survival. We also demonstrated that FSS imposed by flow chamber in vitro leads to a markedly activation of ERK5, which was shown to be protective against TNF-α-induced apoptosis, whereas the transfection of siRNA against ERK5 (ERK5-siRNA) reversed the FSS-medicated anti-apoptotic effects. An initial FSS-mediated activation of ERK5 that phosphorylates AKT to increase its activity, and a following forkhead box O 3a (FoxO3a) was phosphorylated by activated AKT. Phosphorylated FoxO3a is sequestered in the cytoplasm, and prevents it from translocating to nucleus where it can increase the expression of FasL and Bim. The inhibition of AKT-FoxO3a signalings by a PI3K (PI3-kinase)/AKT inhibitor (LY294002) or the transfection of ERK5-siRNA led to the nuclear translocation of non-phosphorylated FoxO3a, and increased the protein expression of FasL and Bim. In addition, the activation of caspase-3 by TNF-α was significantly inhibited by aforementioned FSS-medicated mechanisms. In brief, the activation of ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a signaling pathways by FSS resulted in a decreased expression of FasL and Bim and an inhibition of caspase-3 activation, which exerts a protective effect that prevents osteoblasts from apoptosis. - Highlights: • Fluid shear stress inhibits osteoblast apoptosis induced by TNF-α. • Inhibition of ERK5 activity by transfection of ERK5 siRNA blocks FSS-mediated anti-apoptotic effect in osteoblast. • Activated ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a-Bim/FasL signaling pathways by FSS is required to protect osteoblast from apoptosis.

  19. Transformer 2β homolog (Drosophila) (TRA2B) Regulates Protein Kinase C δI (PKCδI) Splice Variant Expression during 3T3L1 Preadipocyte Cell Cycle*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rekha S.; Carter, Gay; Cooper, Denise R.; Apostolatos, Hercules; Patel, Niketa A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We previously showed that PKCδ expression is dysregulated in obesity (Carter, G., Apostolatos, A., Patel, R., Mathur, A., Cooper, D., Murr, M., and Patel, N. A. (2013) ISRN Obes. 2013, 161345). Using 3T3L1 preadipocytes, we studied adipogenesis in vitro and showed that expression of PKCδ splice variants, PKCδI and PKCδII, have different expression patterns during adipogenesis (Patel, R., Apostolatos, A., Carter, G., Ajmo, J., Gali, M., Cooper, D. R., You, M., Bisht, K. S., and Patel, N. A. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 26834–26846). Here, we evaluated the role of PKCδI splice variant during adipogenesis. Our results indicate that PKCδI expression level is high in preadipocytes and decreasing PKCδI accelerated terminal differentiation. Our results indicate that PKCδI is required for mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes. We next evaluated the splice factor regulating the expression of PKCδI during 3T3L1 adipogenesis. Our results show TRA2B increased PKCδI expression. To investigate the molecular mechanism, we cloned a heterologous splicing PKCδ minigene and showed that inclusion of PKCδ exon 9 is increased by TRA2B. Using mutagenesis and a RNA-immunoprecipitation assay, we evaluated the binding of Tra2β on PKCδI exon 9 and show that its association is required for PKCδI splicing. These results provide a better understanding of the role of PKCδI in adipogenesis. Determination of this molecular mechanism of alternative splicing presents a novel therapeutic target in the management of obesity and its co-morbidities. PMID:25261467

  20. ROS activate KCl cotransport in nonadherent Ehrlich ascites cells but K+ and Cl- channels in adherent Ehrlich Lettré and NIH3T3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Klausen, Thomas Kjær; Bergdahl, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Addition of H2O2 (0.5 mM) to Ehrlich ascites tumor cells under isotonic conditions results within 25 min in a substantial (22 +/- 1 %) reduction in cell volume. The cell shrinkage is paralleled by net loss of K(+), which was significant within 8 min, whereas no concomitant increase in the K......(+) or Cl(-) conductances could be observed. The H2O2-induced cell shrinkage was unaffected by the presence of clofilium and clotrimazole, that block volume-sensitive and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, respectively, and unaffected by a raise in extracellular K(+) concentration to a value which eliminates...... the electrochemical driving force for K(+). On the other hand, the H2O2-induced cell shrinkage was impaired in the presence of the KCl cotransport inhibitor DIOA, following substitution of NO3(-) for Cl(-), and when the driving force for KCl cotransport was omitted. It is suggested that H2O2 activates electro neutral...

  1. Oligomerization-induced conformational change in the C-terminal region of Nel-like molecule 1 (NELL1) protein is necessary for the efficient mediation of murine MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion and spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoko; Hasebe, Ai; Takahashi, Kaneyoshi; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Maturana, Andrés D; Ting, Kang; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Niimi, Tomoaki

    2014-04-04

    NELL1 is a large oligomeric secretory glycoprotein that functions as an osteoinductive factor. NELL1 contains several conserved domains, has structural similarities to thrombospondin 1, and supports osteoblastic cell adhesion through integrins. To define the structural requirements for NELL1-mediated cell adhesion, we prepared a series of recombinant NELL1 proteins (intact, deleted, and cysteine-mutant) from a mammalian expression system and tested their activities. A deletion analysis demonstrated that the C-terminal cysteine-rich region of NELL1 is critical for the cell adhesion activity of NELL1. Reducing agent treatment decreased the cell adhesion activity of full-length NELL1 but not of its C-terminal fragments, suggesting that the intramolecular disulfide bonds within this region are not functionally necessary but that other disulfide linkages in the N-terminal region of NELL1 may be involved in cell adhesion activity. By replacing cysteine residues with serines around the coiled-coil domain of NELL1, which is responsible for oligomerization, we created a mutant NELL1 protein that was unable to form homo-oligomers, and this monomeric mutant showed substantially lower cell adhesion activity than intact NELL1. These results suggest that an oligomerization-induced conformational change in the C-terminal region of NELL1 is important for the efficient mediation of cell adhesion and spreading by NELL1.

  2. Oligomerization-induced Conformational Change in the C-terminal Region of Nel-like Molecule 1 (NELL1) Protein Is Necessary for the Efficient Mediation of Murine MC3T3-E1 Cell Adhesion and Spreading*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoko; Hasebe, Ai; Takahashi, Kaneyoshi; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Maturana, Andrés D.; Ting, Kang; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Niimi, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    NELL1 is a large oligomeric secretory glycoprotein that functions as an osteoinductive factor. NELL1 contains several conserved domains, has structural similarities to thrombospondin 1, and supports osteoblastic cell adhesion through integrins. To define the structural requirements for NELL1-mediated cell adhesion, we prepared a series of recombinant NELL1 proteins (intact, deleted, and cysteine-mutant) from a mammalian expression system and tested their activities. A deletion analysis demonstrated that the C-terminal cysteine-rich region of NELL1 is critical for the cell adhesion activity of NELL1. Reducing agent treatment decreased the cell adhesion activity of full-length NELL1 but not of its C-terminal fragments, suggesting that the intramolecular disulfide bonds within this region are not functionally necessary but that other disulfide linkages in the N-terminal region of NELL1 may be involved in cell adhesion activity. By replacing cysteine residues with serines around the coiled-coil domain of NELL1, which is responsible for oligomerization, we created a mutant NELL1 protein that was unable to form homo-oligomers, and this monomeric mutant showed substantially lower cell adhesion activity than intact NELL1. These results suggest that an oligomerization-induced conformational change in the C-terminal region of NELL1 is important for the efficient mediation of cell adhesion and spreading by NELL1. PMID:24563467

  3. Using quantitative PCR to Identify Kinesin-3 Genes that are Upregulated During Growth Arrest in MouseNIH3T3 Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Rikke; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Pedersen, Lotte Bang

    2009-01-01

    Most cells in our body form a single primary cilium when entering growth arrest. During the past decade, a number of studies have revealed a key role for primary cilia in coordinating a variety of signaling pathways that control important cellular and developmental processes. Consequently, signif...

  4. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, facilitates osteogenic proliferation and differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2, and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways involving β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuelun; Li, Shilun; Xue, Peng; Li, Yukun

    2017-11-15

    Previous studies have proven that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor agonist exert favorable anabolic effects on skeletal metabolism. However, whether GLP-1 could directly impact osteoblast-mediated bone formation is still controversial, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Thus in this paper, we investigated the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, on murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts proliferation and differentiation and explored the potential cellular basis. Our study confirmed the presence of GLP-1R in MC3T3-E1, and demonstrated that liraglutide promotes osteoblasts proliferation at an intermediate concentration (100nM) and time (48h), upregulated the expression of osteoblastogenic biomarkers at various stages, and stimulated osteoblastic mineralization. Liraglutide also elevated the intracellular cAMP level and phosphorylation of AKT, ERK and β-catenin simultaneously with increased nuclear β-catenin content and transcriptional activity. Pretreatment of cells with the inhibitors LY294002, PD98059, H89 and GLP-1R and β-catenin siRNA partially blocked the liraglutide-induced signaling activation and attenuated the facilitating effect of liraglutide on MC3T3-E1 cells. Collectively, liraglutide was capable of acting upon osteoblasts directly through GLP-1R by activating PI3K/AKT, ERK1/2, cAMP/PKA/β-cat-Ser675 signaling to promote bone formation via GLP-1R. Thus, GLP-1 analogues may be potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of osteoporosis in diabetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-Obesity Effects of Starter Fermented Kimchi on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Eui-Seong; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The anti-obesity effects of starter (Leuconostoc mesenteroides+Lactobacillus plantarum) fermented kimchi on 3T3-L1 adipocyte were studied using naturally fermented kimchi (NK), a functional kimchi (FK, NK supplemented with green tea), and FK supplemented with added starters (FKS). Oil red O staining and cellular levels of triglyceride (TG) and glycerol were used to evaluate the in vitro anti-obesity effects of these kimchis in 3T3-L1 cells. The expressions of adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related genes of peroxisome proliferator-active receptor (PPAR)-γ, CCAAT/enhance-binding protein (C/EBP)-α, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were determined by RT-PCR. Kimchis, especially FKS, markedly decreased TG levels and increased levels of intracellular glycerol and lipid lipolysis. In addition, FKS also reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, and FAS, which are related to adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest the anti-obesity effects of FKS were to due to enhanced lipolysis and reduced adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  6. Anti-Obesity Effects of Starter Fermented Kimchi on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Eui-Seong; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-01-01

    The anti-obesity effects of starter (Leuconostoc mesenteroides+Lactobacillus plantarum) fermented kimchi on 3T3-L1 adipocyte were studied using naturally fermented kimchi (NK), a functional kimchi (FK, NK supplemented with green tea), and FK supplemented with added starters (FKS). Oil red O staining and cellular levels of triglyceride (TG) and glycerol were used to evaluate the in vitro anti-obesity effects of these kimchis in 3T3-L1 cells. The expressions of adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related genes of peroxisome proliferator-active receptor (PPAR)-γ, CCAAT/enhance-binding protein (C/EBP)-α, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were determined by RT-PCR. Kimchis, especially FKS, markedly decreased TG levels and increased levels of intracellular glycerol and lipid lipolysis. In addition, FKS also reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, and FAS, which are related to adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest the anti-obesity effects of FKS were to due to enhanced lipolysis and reduced adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:26770918

  7. Synthetic peptide TEKKRRETVEREKE derived from ezrin induces differentiation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulkina, Marina; Negmadjanov, Ulugbek; Lebedeva, Ekaterina; Pichugin, Aleksey; Mazurov, Dmitriy; Ataullakhanov, Ravshan; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson

    2017-09-15

    Synthetic 14 AA peptide (Gepon) derived from the hinge region of ezrin, a protein that links cell surface molecules to intracellular actin filaments, accelerates and facilitates wound and ulcer healing in clinical applications. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and involved in enhanced healing of wounds with Gepon are not yet understood. The purpose of current study was to investigate intracellular signaling pathways involved in the effect of this peptide on wild type and genetically modified (CD44 KO) NIH/3T3 embryonic mouse fibroblasts. Gepon treatment of NIH/3T3 cells resulted in morphological and biochemical changes, characteristic of differentiated fibroblasts. While treatment of NIH/3T3 cells with TGF-β1 triggered the activation of both canonical and non-canonical signaling pathways, exposure of fibroblasts to Gepon activated only the ERK1/2 dependent pathway without modulating SMAD dependent signaling pathway. Knocking out hyaluronic acid CD44 receptor did not change Gepon or TGF-β1 dependent activation of intracellular signaling pathways and assembling of α-SMA-positive filaments. Gepon dependent differentiation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts is based on activation of ERK1/2 kinase, non-canonical intracellular signaling pathway. Our data suggest that the treatment of fibroblasts with Gepon triggers activation of the non-canonical (SMAD independent) intracellular signaling pathway that involves ERK1/2kinase phosphorylation. Activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and the increase in formation of α-SMA containing stress filaments induced by Gepon were independent on presence of CD44 receptor in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Thus, our observation designates the significance and sufficiency of MAPK pathway mediated activation of fibroblasts with Gepon for healing of erosion, ulcers and wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.

  9. Isoproterenol Increases Uncoupling, Glycolysis, and Markers of Beiging in Mature 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette N Miller

    Full Text Available Beta-adrenergic activation stimulates uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, enhancing metabolic rate. In vitro, most work has studied brown adipocytes, however, few have investigated more established adipocyte lines such as the murine 3T3-L1 line. To assess the effect of beta-adrenergic activation, mature 3T3-L1s were treated for 6 or 48 hours with or without isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM following standard differentiation supplemented with thyroid hormone (T3; 1 nM. The highest dose of isoproterenol increased lipid content following 48 hours of treatment. This concentration enhanced UCP1 mRNA and protein expression. The increase in UCP1 following 48 hours of isoproterenol increased oxygen consumption rate. Further, coupling efficiency of the electron transport chain was disturbed and an enhancement of glycolytic rate was measured alongside this, indicating an attempt to meet the energy demands of the cell. Lastly, markers of beige adipocytes (protein content of CD137 and gene transcript of CITED1 were also found to be upregulated at 48 hours of isoproterenol treatment. This data indicates that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes are responsive to isoproterenol and induce UCP1 expression and activity. Further, this finding provides a model for further pharmaceutical and nutraceutical investigation of UCP1 in 3T3-L1s.

  10. Stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Increases Insulin Sensitivity in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabilatul Hani Mohd-Radzman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana has been reported to exert antihyperglycemic effects in both rat and human subjects. There have been few studies on these effects in vitro. In this paper, radioactive glucose uptake assay was implemented in order to assess improvements in insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells by elevation of glucose uptake following treatment with stevioside. Oil Red-O staining and MTT assay were utilized to confirm adipocyte differentiation and cell viability, respectively. Findings from this research showed a significant increase in absorbance values in mature adipocytes following Oil Red-O staining, confirming the differentiation process. Stevioside was noncytotoxic to 3T3-L1 cells as cell viability was reduced by a maximum of 17%, making it impossible to determine its IC50. Stevioside increased glucose uptake activities by 2.1 times (p<0.001 in normal conditions and up to 4.4 times (p<0.001 in insulin-resistant states. At times, this increase was higher than that seen in positive control group treated with rosiglitazone maleate, an antidiabetic agent. Expressions of pY20 and p-IRS1 which were measured via Western blot were improved by stevioside treatment. In conclusion, stevioside has direct effects on 3T3-L1 insulin sensitivity via increase in glucose uptake and enhanced expression of proteins involved in insulin-signalling pathway.

  11. Ginkgolide C Suppresses Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via the AMPK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian-Jiun Liou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolide C, isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a flavone reported to have multiple biological functions, from decreased platelet aggregation to ameliorating Alzheimer disease. The study aim was to evaluate the antiadipogenic effect of ginkgolide C in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ginkgolide C was used to treat differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Cell supernatant was collected to assay glycerol release, and cells were lysed to measure protein and gene expression related to adipogenesis and lipolysis by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Ginkgolide C significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. It also decreased adipogenesis-related transcription factor expression, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein. Furthermore, ginkgolide C enhanced adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase production for lipolysis and increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, resulting in decreased activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase for fatty acid synthesis. In coculture with an AMPK inhibitor (compound C, ginkgolide C also improved activation of sirtuin 1 and phosphorylation of AMPK in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The results suggest that ginkgolide C is an effective flavone for increasing lipolysis and inhibiting adipogenesis in adipocytes through the activated AMPK pathway.

  12. Volume-sensitive NADPH oxidase activity and taurine efflux in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Vorum, Katrine Gribel; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in NIH3T3 fibroblasts during hypotonic stress, and H(2)O(2) potentiates the concomitant release of the organic osmolyte taurine (Lambert IH. J Membr Biol 192: 19-32, 2003). The increase in ROS production [5-(and-6)-carboxy-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein......M) but is unaffected by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, indicating that the volume-sensitive ROS production is NADPH oxidase dependent. NIH3T3 cells express the NADPH oxidase components: p22 phox, a NOX4 isotype; p47 phox; and p67 phox (real-time PCR). Exposure to the Ca2...

  13. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40, Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Activation of PPAR-γ recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion.

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Yoshizaki, Takayuki; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Ieko, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Activation of PPAR-γ recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion

  16. Feasibility study of a biocompatible pneumatic dispensing system using mouse 3T3-J2 fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Hojin; Kim, Joonwon

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents results for dispensing living cells using a pneumatic dispensing system to verify the feasibility of using this system to fabricate biomaterials. Living cells (i.e., mouse 3T3-J2 fibroblast) were dispensed with different dispensing pressures in order to evaluate the effect of dispensing process on cell viability and proliferation. Based on the results of a live-dead assay, more than 80% of cell viability has been confirmed which was reasonably similar to that in the control group. Furthermore, measurement of cell metabolic activity after dispensing confirmed that the dispensed cell proliferated at a rate comparable to that of the control group. These results demonstrate that the pneumatic dispensing system is a promising tool for fabrication of biomaterials.

  17. Enhanced osteocalcin expression by osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) exposed to bioactive coating glass (SiO2-CaO-P2O5-MgO-K2O-Na2O system) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, V G; Saiz, E; Loomer, P M; Ancheta, B; Uritani, N; Ho, S P; Tomsia, A P; Marshall, S J; Marshall, G W

    2009-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that bioactive coating glass (SiO(2)-CaO-P(2)O(5)-MgO-K(2)O-Na(2)O system), used for implant coatings, enhanced the induction of collagen type 1 synthesis and in turn enhanced the expression of downstream markers alkaline phosphatase, Runx2 and osteocalcin during osteoblast differentiation. The ions from experimental bioactive glass (6P53-b) and commercial Bioglass(TM) (45S5) were added to osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cultures as a supplemented ion extract (glass conditioned medium (GCM)). Ion extracts contained significantly higher concentrations of Si and Ca (Si, 47.9+/-10.4 ppm; Ca, 69.8+/-14.0 for 45S5; Si, 33.4+/-3.8 ppm; Ca, 57.1+/-2.8 ppm for 6P53-b) compared with the control extract (Si<0.1 ppm, Ca 49.0 ppm in alpha-MEM) (ANOVA, p<0.05). Cell proliferation rate was enhanced (1.5x control) within the first 3 days after adding 45S5 and 6P53-b GCM. MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cultures were then studied for their response to the addition of test media (GCM and control medium along with ascorbic acid (AA; 50 ppm)). Each GCM+AA treatment enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis as observed in both gene expression results (day 1, Col1alpha1, 45S5 GCM+AA: 3x control+AA; 6P53-b GCM+AA: 4x control+AA; day 5, Col1alpha2, 45S5 GCM+AA: 3.15x control+AA; 6P53-b GCM+AA: 2.35x control+AA) and in histological studies (Picrosirius stain) throughout the time course of early differentiation. Continued addition of each GCM and AA treatment led to enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase (1.4x control+AA after 5 days, 2x control+AA after 10 days), Runx2 (2x control+AA after 7 days) and osteocalcin gene (day 3, 45S5 GCM+AA: 14x control+AA; day 5, 6P53-b GCM+AA: 19x control+AA) and protein expression (40x-70x control+AA after 6 days). These results indicated the enhanced effect of bioactive glass ions on key osteogenic markers important for the bone healing process.

  18. Nebivolol stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chenglin; Chen, Dongrui; Xie, Qihai [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Yang, Ying, E-mail: yangying_sh@yahoo.com [Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Shen, Weili, E-mail: weili_shen@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Nebivolol may act as a partial agonist of β3-adrenergic receptor (AR). •Nebivolol stimulates mitochondrial DNA replication and protein expression. •Nebivolol promotes mitochondrial synthesis via activation of eNOS by β3-AR. -- Abstract: Nebivolol is a third-generation β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blocker with additional beneficial effects, including the improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism in obese individuals. However, the underlying mechanism of nebivolol’s role in regulating the lipid profile remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of nebivolol in mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Exposure of 3T3-L1 cells to nebivolol for 24 h increased mitochondrial DNA copy number, mitochondrial protein levels and the expression of transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PPAR-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1 (Nrf1). These changes were accompanied by an increase in oxygen consumption and in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, including nebivolol-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as well as an increase in the formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) attenuated nebivolol-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, as did the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ. Treatment with nebivolol and β3-AR blocker SR59230A markedly attenuated PGC-1α, Sirt3 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein levels in comparison to treatment with nebivolol alone. These data indicate that the mitochondrial synthesis and metabolism in adipocytes that is promoted by nebivolol is primarily mediated through the eNOS/cGMP-dependent pathway and is initiated by the activation of β3-AR receptors.

  19. Regulation of p53 in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts following hyperosmotic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Enghoff, Maria Stine; Brandi, Marie-Luise

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to analyze the regulation of p53 expression in NIH3T3 fibroblasts under the influence of increasing hyperosmotic stress. Expression of p53 showed a biphasic response pattern in NIH3T3 cells under increasing osmotic stress (337 mOsm to 737 mOsm) with a maximum at 587 m......Osm. Under isotonic conditions p53 expression increased after addition of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 indicating that cellular p53 levels in unperturbed cells is kept low by proteasomal degradation. However, under hypertonic conditions p53 synthesis as well as p53 degradation were significantly reduced...... and it is demonstrated that the increase in p53 expression observed when tonicity is increased from 337 to 587 mOsm reflects that degradation is more inhibited than synthesis, whereas the decrease in p53 expression at higher tonicities reflects that synthesis is more inhibited than degradation. The activity of the p53...

  20. bFGF rescues imatinib/STI571-induced apoptosis of sis-NIH3T3 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Kappert, Kai; Micke, Patrick; Otsuka, Kichibee

    2009-04-03

    PDGF-B-transfected, sis-NIH3T3 fibroblasts serve as a model system for examining the role of PDGF signaling in tumors. We have found that imatinib/STI571, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting PDGF receptors, induces apoptosis of sis-NIH3T3 fibroblasts cultured under serum free conditions, which was rescued by the addition of 10% newborn calf serum (NCS). Therefore, growth factors included in serum were tested with regard to their ability to rescue imatinib-induced apoptosis. While PDGF-AB, EGF, and IGF-I failed to protect imatinib-induced sis-NIH3T3 cell apoptosis, bFGF rescued it. The effects of bFGF were confirmed by both cell viability assays and Bax/Bcl-2 gene expression ratio. An FGF receptor inhibitor, PD166866, invalidated the protective effect of bFGF. However, combination of imatinib and PD166866 failed to induce cell death of sis-NIH3T3 cells when cultured in 10% NCS. These results indicate that synergistic administration of some types of tyrosine kinase inhibitors need to be tested under in vivo-like conditions to establish novel strategies in anti-cancer therapy.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide Modifies Glycerol Permeability and Metabolism in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Durendale Chiadak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaglyceroporins—aquaporin membrane channels (AQP that conduct glycerol and other small neutral solutes in addition to water—play major roles in obesity. In adipocytes, aquaglyceroporins mediate glycerol uptake and release across the plasma membrane, which are two key steps for triacylglycerols (TAGs synthesis (lipogenesis and hydrolysis (lipolysis. The aim of this study was to assess both glycerol permeability and metabolism in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells (UDCs as well as in untreated (CTL-DCs versus lipopolysaccharide (LPS-DCs-treated differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glycerol release, TAGs content and whole membrane glycerol permeability were significantly increased in DCs as compared to UDCs. Moreover, in DCs, LPS treatment significantly increased TAGs content and decreased glycerol permeability. In addition, a significant reduction in whole membrane glycerol permeability was observed in LPS-DCs as compared to CTL-DCs. The relative contributions of AQP3, AQP7 and AQP9 (facilitated diffusion, as well as that of the phospholipid bilayer (simple diffusion, to the whole membrane glycerol permeability, were estimated biophysically in UDCs, CTL-DCs and LPS-DCs, using selective AQP inhibitors. Further studies will be required to determine if modifications in either subcellular localization and/or activity of aquaglyceroporins could account for the data herein. Nevertheless, our findings provide novel insights in understanding the LPS-induced adipocyte hypertrophy that accompanies obesity.

  2. Irradiation of Polystyrene and Polypropylene to study NIH 3T3 fibroblasts adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeitman, C.R. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Grosso, M.F. del, E-mail: delgrosso@tandar.cnea.gov.a [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina); Ibanez, I. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina); Gerencia de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas de la Energia Nuclear, Dpto. de Radiobiologia, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Garcia Bermudez, G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM (Argentina); Duran, H. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina); Gerencia de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas de la Energia Nuclear, Dpto. de Radiobiologia, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM (Argentina); Chappa, V.C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina); Mazzei, R. [U.A. Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, CNEA, Dpto. Ing. Quimica, UTN FRBA, Bs. As. (Argentina); Behar, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-10-01

    When polymers are irradiated with heavy ions new chemical groups are created in a few microns of the material. The irradiation changed the polarity and wettability on the surface so that could enhance the biocompatibility of the modified polymer. The study of chemistry and nanoscale topography of the biomaterial is important in determining its potential applications in medicine and biotechnology, because their strong influence on cell function, adhesion and proliferation. In this study, thin films of Polystyrene and Polypropylene samples were modified by irradiation with low energy ion beams (30-150 keV) and swift heavy ions both with various fluences and energies. The changes were evaluated with different methods. Adhesion of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts onto unirradiated and irradiated surfaces has been studied by in vitro techniques. The correlations between physicochemical properties as a function of different irradiations parameters were compared with cell adhesion on the modified polymer surface.

  3. Irradiation of Polystyrene and Polypropylene to study NIH 3T3 fibroblasts adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeitman, C.R.; Grosso, M.F. del; Ibanez, I.; Garcia Bermudez, G.; Duran, H.; Chappa, V.C.; Mazzei, R.; Behar, M.

    2010-01-01

    When polymers are irradiated with heavy ions new chemical groups are created in a few microns of the material. The irradiation changed the polarity and wettability on the surface so that could enhance the biocompatibility of the modified polymer. The study of chemistry and nanoscale topography of the biomaterial is important in determining its potential applications in medicine and biotechnology, because their strong influence on cell function, adhesion and proliferation. In this study, thin films of Polystyrene and Polypropylene samples were modified by irradiation with low energy ion beams (30-150 keV) and swift heavy ions both with various fluences and energies. The changes were evaluated with different methods. Adhesion of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts onto unirradiated and irradiated surfaces has been studied by in vitro techniques. The correlations between physicochemical properties as a function of different irradiations parameters were compared with cell adhesion on the modified polymer surface.

  4. Effect of Ganoderma applanatum mycelium extract on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Sung-Jin; Yu, Mi-Hee; Lee, Sam-Pin

    2014-10-01

    Ganoderma applanatum (GA) and related fungal species have been used for over 2000 years in China to prevent and treat various human diseases. However, there is no critical research evaluating the functionality of GA grown using submerged culture technology. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of submerged culture GA mycelium (GAM) and its active components (protocatechualdehyde [PCA]) on preadipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Mouse-derived preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells were treated with differentiation inducers in the presence or absence of GAM extracts. We determined triglyceride accumulations, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activities, and differentiation makers. PCA, the active component of GAM extract, was also used to treat 3T3-L1 cells. The MTT assay showed that the GAM extract (0.01-1 mg/mL) was not toxic to 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. Treatment of cells with GAM extracts and its active components significantly decreased the GPDH activity and lipid accumulation, a marker of adipogenesis, in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis results showed that the protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) were inhibited by the GAM extract. In addition, adipogenic-specific genes such as perilipin, fatty acid synthase (FAS), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the GAM extract contained 1.14 mg/g PCA. GAM extracts suppressed differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, in part, through altered regulation of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1. These results suggest that GAM extracts and PCA may suppress adipogenesis by inhibiting differentiation of preadipocytes.

  5. Obese gene expression at in vivo levels by fat pads derived from s.c. implanted 3T3-F442A preadipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, S; Loftus, T M; MacDougald, O A

    1997-01-01

    3T3-F442A preadipocytes implanted s.c. into athymic mice develop into fat pads that are indistinguishable from normal adipose tissue. Implanted preadipocytes harboring a beta-galactosidase transgene gave rise to fat pads in which almost all adipocytes expressed beta-galactosidase. This finding...... proved that the implanted 3T3-F442A preadipocytes, rather than endogenous preadipose cells, gave rise to the newly developed "adipose tissue." 3T3-F442A preadipocytes, when differentiated into adipocytes in cell culture, express the obese gene at an unexpectedly low level, i.e.,...

  6. Obese gene expression at in vivo levels by fat pads derived from s.c. implanted 3T3-F442A preadipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, S; Loftus, T M; MacDougald, O A

    1997-01-01

    proved that the implanted 3T3-F442A preadipocytes, rather than endogenous preadipose cells, gave rise to the newly developed "adipose tissue." 3T3-F442A preadipocytes, when differentiated into adipocytes in cell culture, express the obese gene at an unexpectedly low level, i.e.,......3T3-F442A preadipocytes implanted s.c. into athymic mice develop into fat pads that are indistinguishable from normal adipose tissue. Implanted preadipocytes harboring a beta-galactosidase transgene gave rise to fat pads in which almost all adipocytes expressed beta-galactosidase. This finding...

  7. Ursolic acid inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghan He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid (UA is a triterpenoid compound with multiple biological functions. This compound has recently been reported to possess an anti-obesity effect; however, the mechanisms are less understood. OBJECTIVE: As adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence or absence of UA for 6 days. The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular targets that regulate or are involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. The results demonstrated that ursolic acid at concentrations ranging from 2.5 µM to 10 µM dose-dependently attenuated adipogenesis, accompanied by reduced protein expression of CCAAT element binding protein β (C/EBPβ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, respectively. Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, but decreased protein expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4. Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and protein expression of (silent mating type information regulation 2, homolog 1 (Sirt1. Further studies demonstrated that the anti-adipogenic effect of UA was reversed by the AMPK siRNA, but not by the Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1, the upstream kinase of AMPK, was upregulated by UA. When LKB1 was silenced with siRNA or the inhibitor radicicol, the effect of UA on AMPK activation was diminished. CONCLUSIONS: Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK

  8. Effects of Methylmercury exposure in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Vertigan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury-containing compounds are environmental pollutants that have become increasingly consequential in the Arctic regions of North America due to processes of climate change increasing their release and availability at northern latitudes. Currently, the form of mercury known to be most detrimental to human health is methylmercury, CH3Hg+, which is found in the environment and accumulates in the tissues of piscivores, including those consumed by Alaska Natives through subsistence gathering. Much is known about the neurotoxicity of methylmercury after exposure to high concentrations, but little is known about toxicity to other tissues and cell types, particularly for long-term exposure and the lower concentrations that would occur through fish consumption. Effects of methylmercury exposure on 3T3-L1 adipocytes in culture were assessed using assays for cytotoxicity and an ELISA assay for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, a signaling molecule shown to be important for maintaining metabolic status in adipose tissue. Results showed that exposure to methylmercury leads to significant toxicity in adipocytes at exposures of 100 ng/mL during later stages of differentiation, but lower methylmercury concentrations produced little to no toxicity. Results also showed that VEGF secretion is elevated in adipocytes exposed to methylmercury after the process of differentiating into mature, fat-storing cells. These results provide a basis for further exploration into metabolic consequences of methylmercury exposure on specific cell types and cell models.

  9. Casein kinase 2 regulates the active uptake of the organic osmolyte taurine in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jack H; Clement, Christian A; Friis, Martin B

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of the constitutively active casein kinase 2 (CK2) with 2-dimethyl-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidasole stimulates the Na(+)-dependent taurine influx via the taurine transporter TauT in NIH3T3 cells. CK2 inhibition reduces the TauT mRNA level and increases the localization of Tau......T to ER but has no detectable effect on TauT protein expression. On the other hand, CK2 inhibition increases the affinity of TauT towards Na(+ )and reduces the Na(+)/taurine stoichiometry for active taurine uptake. It is suggested that CK2 controls the cellular taurine uptake in unperturbated NIH3T3 cells......, i.e., inhibition of CK2 increases the affinity of TauT towards Na(+) and hence Na(+)-dependent taurine uptake....

  10. Activation of liver X receptors prevents statin-induced death of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Petersen, Rasmus K; Steffensen, Knut R

    2008-01-01

    The biological functions of liver X receptors (LXRs) alpha and beta have primarily been linked to pathways involved in fatty acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Here we report a novel role of LXR activation in protecting cells from statin-induced death. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced...... of LXRalpha, we demonstrate that the response to LXR agonists is LXR-dependent. Interestingly, LXR-mediated rescue of statin-induced apoptosis was not related to up-regulation of genes previously shown to be involved in the antiapoptotic action of LXR. Furthermore, forced expression of Bcl-2 did not prevent...... statin-induced apoptosis; nor did LXR action depend on protein kinase B, whose activation by insulin was impaired in statin-treated cells. Rather, LXR-dependent rescue of statin-induced apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes required NF-kappaB activity, since expression of a dominant negative version...

  11. MicroRNA-24 promotes 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by directly targeting the MAPK7 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Min, E-mail: min_jin@zju.edu.cn [Division of Reproductive Medicine & Infertility, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 88#, Jiefang Rd., Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310009 (China); Wu, Yutao; Wang, Jing [School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 288# Yuhangtang Rd, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310003 (China); Chen, Jian; Huang, Yiting; Rao, Jinpeng; Feng, Chun [Division of Reproductive Medicine & Infertility, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 88#, Jiefang Rd., Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310009 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Over the past years, MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as a vital role in harmony with gene regulation and maintaining cellular homeostasis. It is well testified that miRNAshave been involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, cell fate decision, and cellular differentiation. Adipogenesis is an organized process of cellular differentiation by which pre-adipocytes differentiate towards mature adipocytes, and it is tightly modulated by a series of transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and sterol regulatory-element binding proteins 1 (SREBP1). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the connection between miRNAs and adipogenesis-related transcription factors remain obscure. In this study, we unveiled that miR- 24 was remarkably upregulated during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. Overexpression of miR-24 significantly promoted 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, as evidenced by its ability to increase the expression of PPAR-γ and SREBP1, lipid droplet formation and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. Furthermore, we found that neither ectopic expression of miR-24nor miR-24 inhibitor affect cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Finally, we demonstrated that miR-24 plays the modulational role by directly repressing MAPK7, a key number in the MAPK signaling pathway. These data indicate that miR-24 is a novel positive regulator of adipocyte differentiation by targeting MAPK7, which provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of miRNA-mediated cellular differentiation. -- Highlights: •We firstly found miR-24 was upregulated in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes differentiation. •miR-24 promoted 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes differentiation while silencing the expression of miR-24 had an opposite function. •miR-24 regulated 3T3-L1 differentiation by directly targeting MAPK7 signaling pathway. •miR-24did not affect 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes cellular proliferation.

  12. C2C12 myotubes inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by reducing the expression of glucocorticoid receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Weiwei; Wei, Wei; Yu, Shigang; Han, Haiyin; Shi, Xiaoli [College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Sun, Wenxing [College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); College of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 (China); Gao, Ying [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zhang, Lifan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Chen, Jie, E-mail: jiechen@njau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2016-03-25

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor to health for its relationship with insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Myocyte-adipocyte crosstalk model plays a significant role in studying the interaction of muscle and adipose development. Previous related studies mainly focus on the effects of adipocytes on the myocytes activity, however, the influence of myotubes on the preadipocytes development remains unclear. The present study was carried out to settle this issue. Firstly, the co-culture experiment showed that the proliferation, cell cycle, and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were arrested, and the apoptosis was induced, by differentiated C2C12 myotubes. Next, the sensitivity of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to glucocorticoids (GCs), which was well known as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis factor, was decreased after co-cultured with C2C12 myotubes. What's more, our results showed that C2C12 myotubes suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, indicating the potential mechanism of GCs sensitivity reduction. Taken together, we conclude that C2C12 myotubes inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocytes proliferation and differentiation by reducing the expression of GR. These data suggest that decreasing GR by administration of myokines may be a promising therapy for treating patients with obesity or diabetes. - Highlights: • C2C12 myotubes inhibited proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. • C2C12 myotubes arrested cell cycle of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. • C2C12 myotubes induced apoptosis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. • C2C12 inhibit 3T3-L1 cells by reducing the expression of glucocorticoid receptor gene.

  13. Differentiation of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.C.; Baly, D.L.; Cushman, S.W.; Lane, M.D.; Simpson, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    3T3-L1 fibroblasts differentiate in culture to resemble adipocytes both morphologically and biochemically. Insulin-sensitive glucose transport, as measured by 2-deoxy-[1- 14 C]- glucose uptake in the undifferentiated cell is small (2X). In contrast, the rate of glucose transport in fully differentiated cells is elevated 15-fold over basal in the presence of insulin. To determine if this is due to an increase in the number of transporters/cell or accessibility to the transporters, the number of transporters was measured in subcellular fractions over differentiation using a 3 H-cytochalasin B binding assay. The increase in the rate of insulin-sensitive glucose transport directly parallels an increase in the number of transporters which reside in an insulin-responsive intracellular compartment. This observation was confirmed by identifying the transporters by immunoblotting using an antibody generated against the human erythrocyte transporter. The molecular weight of this transporter increases over differentiation from a single band of 40kDa to a heterogeneous triplet of 40, 44 and 48kDa. These data suggest that the transporter undergoes differential processing and that the functional, insulin-responsive transporter may be different from the insulin-insensitive (basal) transporter

  14. Lipolytic efficacy of alginate double-layer nanoemulsion containing oleoresin capsicum in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Shin, Yoonjin; Lee, Seohyun; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Yangha

    2017-01-01

    Background : Oleoresin capsicum (OC) is an organic extract from fruits of the genus Capsicum , and has been reported to have an anti-obesity effect. Objective : This study comparatively investigated lipolytic effects of single-layer nanoemulsion (SN) and alginate double-layer nanoemulsion (AN) containing OC in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods : SN and AN were compared by analyzing the intracellular lipid accumulation, triglyceride (TG) content, release of free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol, and mRNA expression of genes related to adipogenesis and lipolysis were analyzed in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Results : Compared with SN, AN exhibited higher efficiency in inhibiting the intracellular lipid accumulation and TG content, and enhanced the release of FFAs and glycerol into the medium. In AN-treated cells, mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and the fatty acid-binding protein adipocyte protein-2, which are involved in adipogenesis, were down-regulated, whereas those of genes related to lipolysis, including hormone-sensitive lipase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1α, were up-regulated compared with SN-treated cells. Conclusion : The lipolytic effect of AN was greater than that of SN; this was partly associated with the increased TG hydrolysis via induction of lipolytic gene expression and suppression of adipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.​​​​.

  15. Dietary xenoestrogens differentially impair 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and persistently affect leptin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phrakonkham, Pascal; Viengchareun, Say; Belloir, Christine; Lombès, Marc; Artur, Yves; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal

    2008-05-01

    Recent observations have highlighted adipogenesis alterations under exposure to several xenoestrogens at critical stages, and pointed at their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it remains unclear whether these effects are mediated by classical estrogen receptor (ER) binding and subsequent transcriptional modulation. The aim of this study was to determine the (anti-)adipogenic impact of apigenin, bisphenol A, genistein and 17beta-estradiol at the onset of adipose cell maturation, and to correlate it to their estrogenic potential. In steroid-free conditions, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence of xenoestrogens for 2 days. DNA and triglyceride levels, leptin secretion and expression of Pref-1, C/EBPbeta, PPARgamma2, FAS, leptin and ERs were measured on days 0, 3 and 8 of differentiation. Genistein potently blocked mitotic clonal expansion and all markers of maturation. Bisphenol A and estradiol did not modify triglyceride accumulation but increased the expression of differentiation genes. Apigenin caused a weak but reversible delay in adipogenesis although it unexpectedly enhanced leptin synthesis. However, the expression of steroid hormone receptors was not associated with these differential effects. In conclusion, we could not put a clear estrogen-dependent mechanism forward, but early exposure to xenoestrogens persistently disrupted adipocyte gene expression and leptin synthesis.

  16. Inhibition of adipogenesis and leptin production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by a derivative of meridianin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yu-Kyoung; Lee, Tae-Yoon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Hong, Victor Sukbong; Lee, Jinho; Park, Jong-Wook; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Compound 7b, a meridianin C derivative, inhibits adipogenesis. • Compound 7b inhibits C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, STAT-3, and STAT-5 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Compound 7b inhibits leptin, but not adiponectin, expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Compound 7b thus may have therapeutic potential against obesity. - Abstract: Meridianin C, a marine alkaloid, is a potent protein kinase inhibitor and has anti-cancer activity. We have recently developed a series of meridianin C derivatives (compound 7a–7j) and reported their proviral integration Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (pim) kinases’ inhibitory and anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia cells. Here we investigated the effect of these meridianin C derivatives on adipogenesis. Strikingly, among the derivatives tested, compound 7b most strongly inhibited lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. However, meridianin C treatment was largely cytotoxic to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. On mechanistic levels, compound 7b reduced not only the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) but also the phosphorylation levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and STAT-5 during adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, compound 7b repressed leptin, but not adiponectin, expression during adipocyte differentiation. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that a meridianin C derivative inhibits adipogenesis by down-regulating expressions and/or phosphorylations of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, STAT-3 and STAT-5

  17. Inhibition of adipogenesis and leptin production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by a derivative of meridianin C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yu-Kyoung [Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae-Yoon [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, 170 Hyunchung-Ro, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong-Soon [Division of Life Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, 169-148 Gwahakro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Victor Sukbong [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jinho, E-mail: jinho@gw.kmu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Wook, E-mail: j303nih@dsmc.or.kr [Department of Immunology, College of Medicine, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Byeong-Churl, E-mail: jangbc123@gw.kmu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Compound 7b, a meridianin C derivative, inhibits adipogenesis. • Compound 7b inhibits C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, STAT-3, and STAT-5 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Compound 7b inhibits leptin, but not adiponectin, expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Compound 7b thus may have therapeutic potential against obesity. - Abstract: Meridianin C, a marine alkaloid, is a potent protein kinase inhibitor and has anti-cancer activity. We have recently developed a series of meridianin C derivatives (compound 7a–7j) and reported their proviral integration Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (pim) kinases’ inhibitory and anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia cells. Here we investigated the effect of these meridianin C derivatives on adipogenesis. Strikingly, among the derivatives tested, compound 7b most strongly inhibited lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. However, meridianin C treatment was largely cytotoxic to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. On mechanistic levels, compound 7b reduced not only the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) but also the phosphorylation levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and STAT-5 during adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, compound 7b repressed leptin, but not adiponectin, expression during adipocyte differentiation. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that a meridianin C derivative inhibits adipogenesis by down-regulating expressions and/or phosphorylations of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, STAT-3 and STAT-5.

  18. Effects of C-reactive protein on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Guoyue; Jia, Jue; Di, Liangliang; Zhou, Libin; Dong, Sijing; Ye, Jingjing; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jifang; Li, Lianxi; Yang, Ying; Mao, Chaoming; Chen, Mingdao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CRP increases TNF-α and IL-6 genes expression in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► CRP suppresses adiponectin, leptin and PPAR-γ mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 cells. ► Wortmannin reverses effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-α and leptin mRNA levels. ► CRP may regulate IR, obesity and metabolic syndrome by this mechanism. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is now recognized to be an important endocrine organ, secreting a variety of adipokines that are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered as one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation. A number of studies have shown that elevation of CRP concentrations is an independent predictive parameter of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is also strongly associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of CRP on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CRP inhibited adiponectin, leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) genes expression and raised tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase by wortmannin partially reversed the effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-α and leptin genes expression. These results collectively suggest that CRP regulates adiponectin, TNF-α, leptin, IL-6 and PPAR-γ genes expression, and that might represent a mechanism by which CRP regulates insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  19. Effects of C-reactive protein on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Guoyue, E-mail: yuanguoyue@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Jia, Jue; Di, Liangliang [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Zhou, Libin [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China); Dong, Sijing; Ye, Jingjing; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jifang [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Li, Lianxi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, 600, Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Yang, Ying [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China); Mao, Chaoming [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Chen, Mingdao, E-mail: mingdaochensh@yahoo.com [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP increases TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 genes expression in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP suppresses adiponectin, leptin and PPAR-{gamma} mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wortmannin reverses effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin mRNA levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP may regulate IR, obesity and metabolic syndrome by this mechanism. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is now recognized to be an important endocrine organ, secreting a variety of adipokines that are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered as one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation. A number of studies have shown that elevation of CRP concentrations is an independent predictive parameter of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is also strongly associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of CRP on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CRP inhibited adiponectin, leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-{gamma}) genes expression and raised tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase by wortmannin partially reversed the effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin genes expression. These results collectively suggest that CRP regulates adiponectin, TNF-{alpha}, leptin, IL-6 and PPAR-{gamma} genes expression, and that might represent a mechanism by which CRP regulates insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  20. Radicicol, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, inhibits differentiation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yonghan [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China); Li, Ying [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Zhang, Shuocheng [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Perry, Ben [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Zhao, Tiantian [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, Canada M1C 1A4 (Canada); Wang, Yanwen, E-mail: yanwen.wang@nrc.ca [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Sun, Changhao, E-mail: sun2002changhao@yahoo.com [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Radicicol suppressed intracellular fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Radicicol inhibited the expression of FAS and FABP4. •Radicicol blocked cell cycle at the G1-S phase during cell differentiation. •Radicicol inhibited the PDK1/Akt pathway in adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is involved in various cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As adipocyte differentiation plays a critical role in obesity development, the present study investigated the effect of an Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and potential mechanisms. The cells were treated with different concentrations of radicicol during the first 8 days of cell differentiation. Adipogenesis, the expression of adipogenic transcriptional factors, differentiation makers and cell cycle were determined. It was found that radicicol dose-dependently decreased intracellular fat accumulation through down-regulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR{sub γ}) and CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBP{sub α}), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that radicicol blocked cell cycle at G1-S phase. Radicicol redcued the phosphorylation of Akt while showing no effect on β-catenin expression. Radicicol decreased the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). The results suggest that radicicol inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation through affecting the PDK1/Akt pathway and subsequent inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion and the expression/activity of adipogenic transcriptional factors and their downstream adipogenic proteins.

  1. Radicicol, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, inhibits differentiation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yonghan; Li, Ying; Zhang, Shuocheng; Perry, Ben; Zhao, Tiantian; Wang, Yanwen; Sun, Changhao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Radicicol suppressed intracellular fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Radicicol inhibited the expression of FAS and FABP4. •Radicicol blocked cell cycle at the G1-S phase during cell differentiation. •Radicicol inhibited the PDK1/Akt pathway in adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is involved in various cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As adipocyte differentiation plays a critical role in obesity development, the present study investigated the effect of an Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and potential mechanisms. The cells were treated with different concentrations of radicicol during the first 8 days of cell differentiation. Adipogenesis, the expression of adipogenic transcriptional factors, differentiation makers and cell cycle were determined. It was found that radicicol dose-dependently decreased intracellular fat accumulation through down-regulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ) and CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBP α ), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that radicicol blocked cell cycle at G1-S phase. Radicicol redcued the phosphorylation of Akt while showing no effect on β-catenin expression. Radicicol decreased the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). The results suggest that radicicol inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation through affecting the PDK1/Akt pathway and subsequent inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion and the expression/activity of adipogenic transcriptional factors and their downstream adipogenic proteins

  2. Initial experience with 3T 3D-TOF MRA in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Shizue; Matsubara, Ichiro; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko; Miki, Hitoshi; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the value of 3T 3D-time of flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms compared with 1.5T 3D-TOF MRA. Twenty-one patients with 22 aneurysms underwent MRA at 1.5T and 3T. Images were interpreted by two radiologists. Each of nine aneurysms that had been considered ''definite'' at 1.5T 3D-TOF MRA were considered ''definite'' at 3T 3D-TOF MRA. Seven aneurysms that had been considered ''suspicious'' at 1.5T MRA were considered ''definite'' at 3T. And four aneurysms that had been considered ''suspicious'' at 1.5T were considered ''negative'' at 3T. We concluded that 3T 3D-TOF MRA is superior to 1.5T 3D-TOF MRA in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms. (author)

  3. Polyphosphates inhibit extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoac, Betty; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Millán, José Luis; McKee, Marc D

    2013-04-01

    Studies on various compounds of inorganic phosphate, as well as on organic phosphate added by post-translational phosphorylation of proteins, all demonstrate a central role for phosphate in biomineralization processes. Inorganic polyphosphates are chains of orthophosphates linked by phosphoanhydride bonds that can be up to hundreds of orthophosphates in length. The role of polyphosphates in mammalian systems, where they are ubiquitous in cells, tissues and bodily fluids, and are at particularly high levels in osteoblasts, is not well understood. In cell-free systems, polyphosphates inhibit hydroxyapatite nucleation, crystal formation and growth, and solubility. In animal studies, polyphosphate injections inhibit induced ectopic calcification. While recent work has proposed an integrated view of polyphosphate function in bone, little experimental data for bone are available. Here we demonstrate in osteoblast cultures producing an abundant collagenous matrix that normally show robust mineralization, that two polyphosphates (PolyP5 and PolyP65, polyphosphates of 5 and 65 phosphate residues in length) are potent mineralization inhibitors. Twelve-day MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures with added ascorbic acid (for collagen matrix assembly) and β-glycerophosphate (a source of phosphate for mineralization) were treated with either PolyP5 or PolyP65. Von Kossa staining and calcium quantification revealed that mineralization was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both polyphosphates, with complete mineralization inhibition at 10μM. Cell proliferation and collagen assembly were unaffected by polyphosphate treatment, indicating that polyphosphate inhibition of mineralization results not from cell and matrix effects but from direct inhibition of mineralization. This was confirmed by showing that PolyP5 and PolyP65 bound to synthetic hydroxyapatite in a concentration-dependent manner. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, ALPL) efficiently hydrolyzed the two PolyPs as

  4. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid droplet (LD formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3 in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0 and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9 on 3T3-L1 adipocyte LD formation, regulation of genes central to LD function and adipokine responsiveness. Cells were supplemented with 100 μM FA during 7-day differentiation. Results EPA markedly reduced LD size and total lipid accumulation, suppressing PPARγ, Cidea and D9D/SCD1 genes, distinct from other treatments. These changes were independent of alterations of lipolytic genes, as both EPA and STA similarly elevated LPL and HSL gene expressions. In response to acute lipopolysaccharide exposure, EPA-differentiated adipocytes had distinct improvement in inflammatory response shown by reduction in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and elevation in adiponectin and leptin gene expressions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that EPA differentially modulates adipogenesis and lipid accumulation to suppress LD formation and size. This may be due to suppressed gene expression of key proteins closely associated with LD function. Further analysis is required to determine if EPA exerts a similar influence on LD formation and regulation in-vivo.

  5. Visfatin is involved in TNFα-mediated insulin resistance via an NAD(+)/Sirt1/PTP1B pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouranton, Erwan; Romier, Béatrice; Marcotorchino, Julie; Tourniaire, Franck; Astier, Julien; Peiretti, Franck; Landrier, Jean-François

    2014-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is a well-known mediator of inflammation in the context of obesity in adipose tissue. Its action appears to be directly linked to perturbations of the insulin pathway, leading to the development of insulin resistance. Visfatin has been suspected to be linked to insulin sensitivity, but the mechanism involved is still partly unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of visfatin in the impairment of the insulin pathway by TNFα activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and to unveil the mechanisms involved in such impairment. We demonstrated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes that visfatin was involved in TNFα-mediated insulin resistance in adipocytes. Indeed, after TNFα treatment in 3T3-L1 cells, visfatin was downregulated, leading to decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) concentrations in cells. This decrease was followed by a decrease in Sirt1 activity, which was linked to an increase in PTP1B expression. The modulation of PTP1B by visfatin was likely responsible for the observed decreases in glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Here, we demonstrated a complete pathway involving visfatin, NAD(+), Sirt1, and PTP1B that led to the perturbation of insulin signaling by TNFα in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  6. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Yoshizaki, Takayuki; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Ieko, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. ► Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-κB activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  7. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  8. Deltamethrin increases the fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peiyi; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsiu; Yue, Yiren; Sun, Quancai; Clark, John M; Park, Yeonhwa

    2017-03-01

    Research has shown that permethrin, a Type-I pyrethroid, increases triglyceride (fat) accumulation in adipocytes. Little is known, however, about any similar effect of deltamethrin, a Type-II pyrethroid, which produces a distinct syndrome of poisoning in mammals compared with permethrin. This study was therefore aimed to explore the role of deltamethrin on fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans. Deltamethrin (10 μM) significantly increased the fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and wild type C. elegans compared to respective controls. Deltamethrin decreased the ratio of phosphorylated AMP-activated kinase (pAMPKα) over AMPKα and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) over ACC, while it increased expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Similarly, deltamethrin potentiated fat accumulation in C. elegans without affecting growth or pharyngeal pumping rate. Moreover, deltamethrin significantly reduced the total progeny number and locomotive activities in C. elegans in a dose-dependent manner. Deltamethrin increased fat accumulation via aak-2 (an ortholog of AMPKα) and nhr-49 (a homolog of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and also downstream target of aak-2) mediated mechanisms. The current work is the first report of the effects of deltamethrin on increased fat storage by 3T3- L1 adipocytes and C. elegans via aak-2 (AMPKα ortholog)-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of the crystalline form of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Rutile, and not anatase, induces toxic effects in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboldi, Chiara; Urbán, Patricia; Gilliland, Douglas; Bajak, Edyta; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Ponti, Jessica; Rossi, François

    2016-03-01

    The wide use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in industrial applications requires the investigation of their effects on human health. In this context, we investigated the effects of nanosized and bulk titania in two different crystalline forms (anatase and rutile) in vitro. By colony forming efficiency assay, a dose-dependent reduction of the clonogenic activity of Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts was detected in the presence of rutile, but not in the case of anatase NPs. Similarly, the cell transformation assay and the micronucleus test showed that rutile TiO2 NPs were able to induce type-III foci formation in Balb/3T3 cells and appeared to be slightly genotoxic, whereas anatase TiO2 NPs did not induce any significant neoplastic or genotoxic effect. Additionally, we investigated the interaction of TiO2 NPs with Balb/3T3 cells and quantified the in vitro uptake of titania using mass spectrometry. Results showed that the internalization was independent of the crystalline form of TiO2 NPs but size-dependent, as nano-titania were taken up more than their respective bulk materials. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the cytotoxic, neoplastic and genotoxic effects triggered in Balb/3T3 cells by TiO2 NPs depend on the crystalline form of the nanomaterial, whereas the internalization is regulated by the particle size. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Quintero-Fabián

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. Incubation of cells for 24 h with 100 μmol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 h. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is involved in LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes, was decreased following alliin treatment. Furthermore, the gene expression profile by microarrays evidentiate an upregulation of genes involved in immune response and downregulation of genes related with cancer. The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile.

  11. Cytotoxic effects in 3T3-L1 mouse and WI-38 human fibroblasts following 72 hour and 7 day exposures to commercial silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stępnik, Maciej; Arkusz, Joanna; Smok-Pieniążek, Anna; Bratek-Skicki, Anna; Salvati, Anna; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; De Jong, Wim H.; Rydzyński, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The potential toxic effects in murine (3T3-L1) and human (WI-38) fibroblast cell lines of commercially available silica nanoparticles (NPs), Ludox CL (nominal size 21 nm) and CL-X (nominal size of 30 nm) were investigated with particular attention to the effect over long exposure times (the tests were run after 72 h exposure up to 7 days). These two formulations differed in physico-chemical properties and showed different stabilities in the cell culture medium used for the experiments. Ludox CL silica NPs were found to be cytotoxic only at the higher concentrations to the WI-38 cells (WST-1 and LDH assays) but not to the 3T3-L1 cells, whereas the Ludox CL-X silica NPs, which were less stable over the 72 h exposure, were cytotoxic to both cell lines in both assays. In the clonogenic assay both silica NPs induced a concentration dependent decrease in the surviving fraction of 3T3-L1 cells, with the Ludox CL-X silica NPs being more cytotoxic. Cell cycle analysis showed a trend indicating alterations in both cell lines at different phases with both silica NPs tested. Buthionine sulfoximine (γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor) combined with Ludox CL-X was found to induce a strong decrease in 3T3-L1 cell viability which was not observed for the WI-38 cell line. This study clearly indicates that longer exposure studies may give important insights on the impact of nanomaterials on cells. However, and especially when investigating nanoparticle effects after such long exposure, it is fundamental to include a detailed physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles and their dispersions over the time scale of the experiment, in order to be able to interpret eventual impacts on cells. -- Highlights: ► Ludox CL silica NPs are cytotoxic to WI-38 fibroblasts but not to 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. ► Ludox CL-X silica NPs are cytotoxic to both cell lines. ► In clonogenic assay both silica NPs induce cytotoxicity, higher for CL-X silica. ► Cell cycle analysis shows

  12. Conventional kinesin KIF5B mediates adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ju, E-mail: juzi.cui@gmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing (China); Pang, Jing; Lin, Ya-Jun; Jiang, Ping; Gong, Huan [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing (China); Wang, Zai [Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Li, Jian; Cai, Jian-Ping [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing (China); Huang, Jian-Dong, E-mail: jdhuang@hku.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences and Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); The Centre for Synthetic Biology Engineering Research, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen (China); Zhang, Tie-Mei, E-mail: tmzhang126@126.com [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing (China)

    2016-08-05

    Insulin stimulates adiponectin secretion and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation in adipocyte to regulate metabolism homeostasis. Similar to GLUT4 translocation, intracellular trafficking and release of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the trans-Golgi network and endosomal system. Recent studies show that the heavy chain of conventional kinesin (KIF5B) mediates GLUT4 translocation in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes, however, the motor machinery involved in mediating intracellular trafficking and release of adiponectin is unknown. Here, we examined the role of KIF5B in the regulation of adiponectin secretion. The KIF5B level was up-regulated during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. This increase in cytosolic KIF5B was synchronized with the induction of adiponectin. Endogenous KIF5B and adiponectin were partially colocalized at the peri-nuclear and cytosolic regions. In addition, adiponectin-containing vesicles were co-immunoprecipitated with KIF5B. Knockdown of KIF5B resulted in a marked inhibition of adiponectin secretion and overexpression of KIF5B enhanced adiponectin release, whereas leptin secretion was not affected by changes in KIF5B expression. These data suggest that the secretion of adiponectin, but not leptin, is dependent on functional KIF5B. - Highlights: • The KIF5B level was up regulated during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. • Endogenous KIF5B and adiponectin were partially colicalized. • Adiponectin-containing vesicles were co-immunoprecipitated with KIF5B. • The secretion of adiponectin, but not leptin, is dependent on functional KIF5B.

  13. Lactobacillus plantarum LG42 Isolated from Gajami Sik-Hae Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Eun Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether lactic acid bacteria isolated from gajami sik-hae (GLAB are capable of reducing the intracellular lipid accumulation by downregulating the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The GLAB, Lactobacillus plantarum LG42, significantly decreased the intracellular triglyceride storage and the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH activity in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA expression of transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP α involved in adipogenesis was markedly decreased by the GLAB treatment. Moreover, the GLAB also decreased the expression level of adipogenic markers like adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2, leptin, GPDH, and fatty acid translocase (CD36 significantly. These results suggest that the GLAB inhibits lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocyte through downregulating the expression of adipogenic transcription factors and other specific genes involved in lipid metabolism.

  14. Trichosanthes cucumerina extracts enhance glucose uptake and regulate adiponectin and leptin concentrations in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassi, A.,

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichosanthes cucumerina (Cucurbitaceae commonly known as Snake gourd or Labu Ular is considered the largest genre in the Cucurbitaceae family and is mainly found in the southeast areas of Asia. It has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for certain diseases such as Diabetes mellitus, but these acclaims lack scientific-based evidence. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of three parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina namely; whole vegetable, peels, and seeds, were assessed for toxicity through a cell viability assay using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes model which revealed a maximum toleration concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The extracts were further tested on adipocytes’ differentiation and positively showed a stimulation of lipid droplets formation during adipogenesis and significantly (p<0.001 increased glycerol release levels (75.34±3.69 μg/ml during adipolysis. The extracts also significantly (p<0.001 promoted the uptake of glucose into the cells (2636.22±91.33 Bq in an action similar to that of insulin. Similar results were observed during ELISA assay with a significant increase (p<0.001 in adiponectin concentrations (3593.1±225.25 ng/mL and a decrease in leptin concentrations (23870±5066.07 pg/mL. The present study results indicate a beneficial effect of Trichosanthes cucumerina extracts on adipogenesis, adipolysis and glucose uptake, in addition to a regulation of adiponectin and leptin concentrations in 3T3-L1 adipocytes which can be of clinical importance in energy regulation which is a key factor in treating diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

  15. Regulation of myosin light chain kinase during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Woody

    Full Text Available Myosin II (MyoII is required for insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our previous studies have shown that insulin signaling stimulates phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC of MyoIIA via myosin light chain kinase (MLCK. The experiments described here delineate upstream regulators of MLCK during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Since 3T3-L1 adipocytes express two MyoII isoforms, we wanted to determine which isoform was required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Using a siRNA approach, we demonstrate that a 60% decrease in MyoIIA protein expression resulted in a 40% inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We also show that insulin signaling stimulates the phosphorylation of MLCK. We further show that MLCK can be activated by calcium as well as signaling pathways. We demonstrate that adipocytes treated with the calcium chelating agent, 1,2-b (iso-aminophenoxy ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid, (BAPTA (in the presence of insulin impaired the insulin-induced phosphorylation of MLCK by 52% and the RLC of MyoIIA by 45% as well as impairing the recruitment of MyoIIA to the plasma membrane when compared to cells treated with insulin alone. We further show that the calcium ionophore, A23187 alone stimulated the phosphorylation of MLCK and the RLC associated with MyoIIA to the same extent as insulin. To identify signaling pathways that might regulate MLCK, we examined ERK and CaMKII. Inhibition of ERK2 impaired phosphorylation of MLCK and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, while inhibition of CaMKII did inhibit phosphorylation of the RLC associated with MyoIIA, inhibition of CAMKIIδ did not impair MLCK phosphorylation or translocation to the plasma membrane or glucose uptake. Collectively, our results are the first to delineate a role for calcium and ERK in the activation of MLCK and thus MyoIIA during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  16. Monoterpene limonene induces brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Jameel; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-15

    Several dietary compounds that are able to induce the brown fat-like phenotype in white adipocytes have been considered for treatment of obesity due to their ability to increase energy expenditure. Here, we report that limonene induces the brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by increasing expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins. Limonene-induced browning in white adipocytes was investigated by determining expression levels of brown fat-specific genes and proteins by real-time RT-PCR, immunoblot analysis, and immunocytochemical staining. Limonene enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, as evidenced by increased mitochondrial content and immunofluorescent intensity. Limonene also significantly elevated protein levels of HSL, PLIN, p-AMPK, p-ACC, ACO, COX4, CPT1, and CYT C, suggesting its possible role in enhancement of lipolysis and lipid catabolism. Increased expression of PRDM16, UCP1, C/EBPβ, and other brown fat-specific markers by limonene was possibly mediated by activation of β3-adnergenic receptor (β3-AR), as inhibition of β3-AR inhibited up-regulation of brown fat-specific markers. Similarly, limonene-mediated activation of ERK and up-regulation of key brown adipocyte specific markers were eliminated by treatment with ERK antagonist. Taken together, these results suggest that limonene induces browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via activation of β3-AR and the ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, our findings suggest that limonene plays a dual modulatory role in induction of the brown adipocyte-like phenotype as well as promotion of lipid metabolism and thus may have potential therapeutic implications for treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of osmotic stress on the activity of MAPKs and PDGFR-beta-mediated signal transduction in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M-B; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Hoffmann, E K

    2008-01-01

    Signaling in cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis is highly affected by osmotic stress and changes in cell volume, although the mechanisms underlying the significance of cell volume as a signal in cell growth and death are poorly understood. In this study, we used NIH-3T3 fibroblasts...... in a serum- and nutrient-free inorganic medium (300 mosM) to analyze the effects of osmotic stress on MAPK activity and PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-beta-mediated signal transduction. We found that hypoosmolarity (cell swelling at 211 mosM) induced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of ERK1/2, most...

  18. Centipede grass exerts anti-adipogenic activity through inhibition of C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ expression and the AKT signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyoung Joon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Centipede grass (CG originates from China and South America and is reported to contain several C-glycosyl flavones and phenolic constituents, including maysin and luteolin derivatives. This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the antiobesity activity of CG and its potential molecular mechanism in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods To study the effect of CG on adipogenesis, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells were treated every day with CG at various concentrations (0–100 μg/ml for six days. Oil-red O staining and triglyceride content assay were performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of mRNAs or proteins associated with adipogenesis was measured using RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. We examined the effect of CG on level of phosphorylated Akt in 3T3-L1 cells treated with CG at various concentration s during adipocyte differentiation. Results Differentiation was investigated with an Oil-red O staining assay using CG-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that CG suppressed lipid droplet formation and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes with CG resulted in an attenuation of the expression of adipogenesis-related factors and lipid metabolic genes. The expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ, the central transcriptional regulators of adipogenesis, was decreased by the treatment with CG. The expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, aP2 were significantly inhibited following the CG treatment. Moreover, the CG treatment down-regulated the phosphorylation levels of Akt and GSK3β. Conclusions Taken collectively, these data indicated that CG exerts antiadipogenic activity by inhibiting the expression of C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ and the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  19. Cdc48: A Swiss Army Knife of Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guem Hee Baek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cdc48 (also called VCP and p97 is an abundant protein that plays essential regulatory functions in a broad array of cellular processes. Working with various cofactors, Cdc48 utilizes its ATPase activity to promote the assembly and disassembly of protein complexes. Here, we review key biological functions and regulation of Cdc48 in ubiquitin-related events. Given the broad employment of Cdc48 in cell biology and its intimate ties to human diseases (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, studies of Cdc48 will bring significant insights into the mechanism and function of ubiquitin in health and diseases.

  20. Traf2 interacts with Smad4 and regulates BMP signaling pathway in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Koichi; Ikeda, Kyoko; Ito, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in osteoblast differentiation and maturation. In mammals, the BMP-induced receptor-regulated Smads form complexes with Smad4. These complexes translocate and accumulate in the nucleus, where they regulate the transcription of various target genes. However, the function of Smad4 remains unclear. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using Smad4 as bait and a cDNA library derived from bone marrow, to indentify the proteins interacting with Smad4. cDNA clones for Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (Traf2) were identified, and the interaction between the endogenous proteins was confirmed in the mouse osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. To investigate the function of Traf2, we silenced it with siRNA. The level of BMP-2 protein in the medium, the expression levels of the Bmp2 gene and BMP-induced transcription factor genes, including Runx2, Dlx5, Msx2, and Sp7, and the phosphorylated-Smad1 protein level were increased in cells transfected with Traf2 siRNA. The nuclear accumulation of Smad1 increased with TNF-α stimulation for 30 min at Traf2 silencing. These results suggest that the TNF-α-stimulated nuclear accumulation of Smad1 may be dependent on Traf2. Thus, the interaction between Traf2 and Smad4 may play a role in the cross-talk between TNF-α and BMP signaling pathways.

  1. Effects of high glucose on caveolin-1 and insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ortega, Sara; Varela-Guruceaga, Maider; Martínez, J Alfredo; de Miguel, Carlos; Milagro, Fermín I

    2016-01-01

    Adipocytes exposed to high glucose concentrations exhibit impaired metabolic function, including an increase of oxidative and proinflammatory factors that might favor the development of insulin resistance. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a key mediator of the insulin transduction pathway whose expression is significantly enhanced during adipocyte differentiation. In this work, we studied the effects of high glucose concentration on the regulation of Cav-1 expression and activation and its relation to the insulin signaling pathway during the adipogenic process and in long-term differentiated adipocytes. Both, long-term high glucose exposure during adipogenesis and short-term glucose incubation of mature adipocytes, promoted triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. The short-term exposure of mature adipocytes to high glucose significantly reduced the sensitivity to insulin of Cav-1, insulin receptor (IR) and potein kinase B (AKT-2) phosphorylation, as well as insulin-induced deoxyglucose uptake. Adipocytes differentiated in the presence of high glucose lost Cav-1 and IR response to insulin-stimulated phosphorylation, but maintained the insulin sensitivity of AKT-2 phosphorylation and deoxyglucose uptake. Although long-term high glucose exposure increased DNA methylation in Cav-1 promoter, Cav-1 expression was not affected. Moreover, these cells showed an increase of Cav-1, IR and AKT-2 protein content, pointing to an adaptive response induced by the long-term high glucose exposure.

  2. [Effects of triterpenoid from Psidium guajava leaves ursolic acid on proliferation, differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte and insulin resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juan-Na; Kuang, Qiao-Ting; Ye, Kai-He; Ye, Chun-Ling; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the influences of triterpenoid from Psidium guajava Leaves (ursolic acid) on the proliferation, differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte, and its possible mechanism treat for insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 preadipocyte was cultured in vitro. After adding ursolic acid to the culture medium for 48h, the cell viability was tested by MTT assay. Induced for 6 days, the lipid accumulation of adipocyte was measured by Oil Red O staining. The insulin resistant cell model was established with Dexamethasone. Cellular glucose uptake was determined with GOD-POD assays and FFA concentration was determined at the time of 48h. Secreted adiponectin were measured by ELISA. The protein levels of PPARgamma and PTP1B in insulin resistant adipocyte were measured by Western Blotting. Compared with medium control group, 30, 100 micromol/L ursolic acid could increase its proliferation and differentiation significantly (P 0.05). Ursolic acid can improve the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte, enhance cellular glucose uptake, inhibit the production of FFA, promote the secretion of adiponectin insulin resistant adipocyte, its mechanism may be related to upregulating the expression of PPARgamma protein.

  3. Parabens inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase: A potential role in paraben-enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodani, Sean D; Overby, Haley B; Morisseau, Christophe; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-11-16

    Parabens are a class of small molecules that are regularly used as preservatives in a variety of personal care products. Several parabens, including butylparaben and benzylparaben, have been found to interfere with endocrine signaling and to stimulate adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized these biological effects could be due to interference with the endocannabinoid system and identified fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as the direct molecular target of parabens. FAAH inhibition by parabens yields mixed-type and time-independent kinetics. Additionally, structure activity relationships indicate FAAH inhibition is selective for the paraben class of compounds and the more hydrophobic parabens have higher potency. Parabens enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation in a dose dependent fashion, different from two other FAAH inhibitors URB597 and PF622. Moreover, parabens, URB597 and PF622 all failed to enhance AEA-induced differentiation. Furthermore, rimonabant, a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1 )-selective antagonist, did not attenuate paraben-induced adipocyte differentiation. Thus, adipogenesis mediated by parabens likely occurs through modulation of endocannabinoids, but cell differentiation is independent of direct activation of CB 1 by endocannabinoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytoprotective role of the fatty acid binding protein 4 against oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Kajimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4, one of the most abundant proteins in adipocytes, has been reported to have a proinflammatory function in macrophages. However, the physiological role of FABP4, which is constitutively expressed in adipocytes, has not been fully elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that FABP4 was involved in the regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of FABP4 silencing on the oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and 8-nitro-cyclic GMP levels were significantly elevated in the differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes transfected with a small interfering RNA (siRNA against Fabp4, although the intracellular levels or enzyme activities of antioxidants including reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione S-transferase A4 (GSTA4 were not altered. An in vitro evaluation using the recombinant protein revealed that FABP4 itself functions as a scavenger protein against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. FABP4-knockdown resulted in a significant lowering of cell viability of 3T3-L1 adipocytes against H2O2 treatment. Moreover, four kinds of markers related to the ER stress response including the endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1 (Ern1, the signal sequence receptor α (Ssr1, the ORM1-like 3 (Ormdl3, and the spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s, were all elevated as the result of the knockdown of FABP4. Consequently, FABP4 might have a new role as an antioxidant protein against H2O2 and contribute to cytoprotection against oxidative and ER stress in adipocytes.

  5. RKIP phosphorylation–dependent ERK1 activation stimulates adipogenic lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes overexpressing LC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jong Ryeal [Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, JinJu, 527-27 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, JinJu, 527-27 (Korea, Republic of); Ahmed, Mahmoud [Department of Biochemistry and Convergence Medical Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, JinJu, 527-27 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, JinJu, 527-27 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Deok Ryong, E-mail: drkim@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Convergence Medical Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, JinJu, 527-27 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, JinJu, 527-27 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-09

    3T3-L1 preadipocytes undergo adipogenesis in response to treatment with dexamethaxone, 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, and insulin (DMI) through activation of several adipogenic transcription factors. Many autophagy-related proteins are also highly activated in the earlier stages of adipogenesis, and the LC3 conjugation system is required for formation of lipid droplets. Here, we investigated the effect of overexpression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 fusion protein on adipogenesis. Overexpression of GFP-LC3 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using poly-L-lysine-assisted adenoviral GFP-LC3 transduction was sufficient to produce intracellular lipid droplets. Indeed, GFP-LC3 overexpression stimulated expression of some adipogenic transcription factors (e.g., C/EBPα or β, PPARγ, SREBP2). In particular, SREBP2 was highly activated in preadipocytes transfected with adenoviral GFP-LC3. Also, phosphorylation of Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) at serine 153, consequently stimulating extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK)1 activity, was significantly increased during adipogenesis induced by either poly-L-lysine-assisted adenoviral GFP-LC3 transduction or culture in the presence of dexamethasone, 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, and insulin. Furthermore, RKIP knockdown promoted ERK1 and PPARγ activation, and significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of triacylglycerides in DMI-induced adipogenesis. In conclusion, GFP-LC3 overexpression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes stimulates adipocyte differentiation via direct modulation of RKIP-dependent ERK1 activity. - Highlights: • Overexpression of GFP-LC3 in 3T3-L1 cells produces intracellular lipid droplets. • SREBP2 is highly activated in preadipocytes transfected with adenoviral GFP-LC3. • RKIP phosphorylation at serine 153 is significantly increased during adipogenesis. • RKIP knockdown promotes ERK1 and PPARγ activation during adipogenesis. • RKIP-dependent ERK1 activation increases triacylglycerides in

  6. GH induced lipolysis stimulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes stably expressing hGHR: analysis on signaling pathway and activity of 20K hGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, N; Takahashi, Y; Wada, M; Naito, N; Uchida, H; Ikeda, M; Honjo, M

    2000-04-25

    We have constructed a cell line of 3T3-L1 which can efficiently express human GHR (3T3-L1-hGHR) after differentiation to adipocytes. The expressed hGHR was detected as two bands with approximate molecular sizes of 120K by Western analysis using hGHR specific monoclonal antibody. Maximum lipolytic activity induced by hGH in the 3T3-L1-hGHR was enhanced 10-fold as compared to that in 3T3-L1, suggesting that expressed hGHR is functionally active. Comparative analysis using bGH and hGH revealed that 70% of lipolysis stimulation by 1-10 ng/ml hGH could be attributed to hGHR-mediated response. Analyses on inhibition and phosphorylation of signaling molecules suggested that GH-induced lipolysis stimulation is dependent on gene expression and not mediated through PKA-, PKC-, PLA-, PLC-, nor MAPK-pathway but possibly through JAK-STATs pathway. Duration of STAT5 activation by hGH continued up to 48 h. We also revealed that 22 K hGH isoform, 20K hGH which has been reported as a weaker agonist for GH-induced lipolysis stimulation, possesses equipotent activity and shows stronger action in the presence of hGHBP as compared to 22 K hGH. Taken together we conclude that the hGH-induced lipolysis was not mediated through MAP-, PKA-, PKC-, nor PLA-pathway but might be mediated through STAT pathway and that 20K hGH might show higher lipolytic activity than 22 K hGH in adipose tissue that produces a large amount of GHBP.

  7. The interaction of /sup 125/I-insulin with cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes: quantitative analysis by the hypothetical grain method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J.Y.; Carpentier, J.L.; Van Obberghen, E.; Blackett, N.M.; Grunfeld, C.; Gorden, P.; Orci, L.

    1983-07-01

    The murine 3T3-L1 fibroblast under appropriate incubation conditions differentiates into an adipocyte phenotype. This 3T3-L1 adipocyte exhibits many of the morphologic, biochemical, and insulin-responsive features of the normal rodent adipocyte. Using quantitative electron microscopic (EM) autoradiography we find that, when /sup 125/I-insulin is incubated with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, the ligand at early times of incubation localizes to the plasma membrane of the cell preferentially to microvilli and coated pits. When the incubation is continued at 37 degrees C, /sup 125/I-insulin is internalized by the cells and preferential binding to the villous surface is lost. With the internalization of the ligand, two intracellular structures become labeled, as determined by the method of hypothetical grain analysis. These include large clear, presumably endocytotic, vesicles and multivesicular bodies. Over the first hour of incubation the labeling of these structures increases in parallel, but in the second hour they diverge: the labeling of multivesicular bodies and other lysosomal forms continuing to increase and the labeling of large clear vesicles decreasing. At 3 hours limited but significant labeling occurs in small Golgi-related vesicles that have the typical distribution of GERL. The distinct morphologic features of this cell make it ideal for a quantitative morphologic analysis and allow for an unambiguous view of the sequence of events involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis of a polypeptide hormone. These events are likely to be representative of the processing of insulin by the mature rodent adipocyte.

  8. Glucose availability controls adipogenesis in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes via up-regulation of nicotinamide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert M; Griesel, Beth A; Gurley, Jami M; Szweda, Luke I; Olson, Ann Louise

    2017-11-10

    Expansion of adipose tissue in response to a positive energy balance underlies obesity and occurs through both hypertrophy of existing cells and increased differentiation of adipocyte precursors (hyperplasia). To better understand the nutrient signals that promote adipocyte differentiation, we investigated the role of glucose availability in regulating adipocyte differentiation and maturation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were grown and differentiated in medium containing a standard differentiation hormone mixture and either 4 or 25 mm glucose. Adipocyte maturation at day 9 post-differentiation was determined by key adipocyte markers, including glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and adiponectin expression and Oil Red O staining of neutral lipids. We found that adipocyte differentiation and maturation required a pulse of 25 mm glucose only during the first 3 days of differentiation. Importantly, fatty acids were unable to substitute for the 25 mm glucose pulse during this period. The 25 mm glucose pulse increased adiponectin and GLUT4 expression and accumulation of neutral lipids via distinct mechanisms. Adiponectin expression and other early markers of differentiation required an increase in the intracellular pool of total NAD/P. In contrast, GLUT4 protein expression was only partially restored by increased NAD/P levels. Furthermore, GLUT4 mRNA expression was mediated by glucose-dependent activation of GLUT4 gene transcription through the cis-acting GLUT4-liver X receptor element (LXRE) promoter element. In summary, this study supports the conclusion that high glucose promotes adipocyte differentiation via distinct metabolic pathways and independently of fatty acids. This may partly explain the mechanism underlying adipocyte hyperplasia that occurs much later than adipocyte hypertrophy in the development of obesity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes is dependent on lipoxygenase activity during the initial stages of the differentiation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Petersen, Rasmus K; Sørensen, Morten B

    2003-01-01

    (nordihydroguaiaretic acid) and the 12/15-LOX selective inhibitor baicalein. Baicalein-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation was rescued by administration of rosiglitazone. Treatment with baicalein during the first 4 days of the differentiation process prevented adipocyte differentiation; supplementation...... with rosiglitazone during the same period was sufficient to rescue adipogenesis. Accordingly, we demonstrate that adipogenic conversion of 3T3-L1 cells requires PPARgamma ligands only during the first 4 days of the differentiation process. We show that the baicalein-sensitive synthesis of endogenous PPARgamma ligand...

  10. AICAR inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3L1 and restores metabolic alterations in diet-induced obesity mice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Key Lyndon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is one of the principal causative factors involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an energy sensor that regulates cellular metabolism. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase in adipocyte differentiation is not completely understood, therefore, we examined the effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, a pharmacological activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3L1 cells and in a mouse Diet induced obesity (DIO model. Methods To examine the effect of AICAR on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3L1 cells and in a mouse Diet induced obesity (DIO model, 3T3L1 cells were differentiatied in the presence or absence of different concentration of AICAR and neutral lipid content and expression of various adipocyte-specific transcription factors were examined. In vivo study, treated and untreated mice with AICAR (0.1–0.5 mg/g body weight were fed high-fat diet (60% kcal% fat to induce DIO and several parameters were studied. Results AICAR blocked adipogenic conversion in 3T3L1 cells along with significant decrease in the neutral lipid content by downregulating several adipocyte-specific transcription factors including peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, C/EBPα and ADD1/SREBP1, which are critical for adipogenesis in vitro. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of AICAR (0.5 mg g/body weight to mice fed with high-fat diet (60% kcal% fat to induce DIO, significantly blocked the body weight gain and total content of epididymal fat in these mice over a period of 6 weeks. AICAR treatment also restored normal adipokine levels and resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The reduction in adipose tissue content in AICAR treated DIO mice was due to reduction in lipid accumulation in the pre-existing adipocytes. However, no change was observed in the expression

  11. Soluble Forms of the Notch Ligands Delta1 and Jagged1 Promote in Vivo Tumorigenicity in NIH3T3 Fibroblasts with Distinct Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Roudabush, Alice; O'Neill, Christine F.; Pinz, Ilka; Prudovsky, Igor; Kacer, Doreen; Tang, Yuefang; Liaw, Lucy; Small, Deena

    2008-01-01

    We previously found that soluble forms of the Notch ligands Jagged1 and Delta1 induced fibroblast growth factor receptor-dependent cell transformation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. However, the phenotypes of these lines differed, indicating distinct functional differences among these Notch ligands. In the present study, we used allografts to test the hypothesis that NIH3T3 fibroblasts that express soluble forms of Delta1 and Jagged1 accelerate tumorigenicity in vivo. With the exception of the full-length Jagged1 transfectant, all other cell lines, including the control, generated tumors when injected subcutaneously in athymic mice. Suppression of Notch signaling by the soluble ligands significantly increased tumor onset and growth, whereas full-length Jagged1 completely suppressed tumor development. In addition, there were striking differences in tumor pathology with respect to growth kinetics, vascularization, collagen content, size and number of necrotic foci, and invasiveness into the underlying tissue. Further, the production of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor, also differed among the tumor types. Lastly, both Jagged1- and Delta1-derived tumors contained phenotypically distinct populations of lipid-filled cells that corresponded with increased expression of adipocyte markers. The divergence of tumor phenotype may be attributed to ligand-specific alterations in Notch receptor responses in exogenous and endogenous cell populations within the allographs. Our findings demonstrate distinct functional properties for these Notch ligands in the promotion of tumorigenicity in vivo. PMID:18688026

  12. A nonradioisotope chemiluminescent assay for evaluation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Effect of various carbonyls species on insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Nicolas; Cavaillé, Jean Pierre; Poggi, Marjorie; Peiretti, Franck; Stocker, Pierre

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a rapid nonradioisotope chemiluminescent assay adapted to high-throughput screening experiments, to evaluate glucose uptake activity in cultured cells. For chemiluminescence quantification of 2-deoxyglucose, we used a luminol oxidation reaction after an enzymatic dephosphorylation of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate. All reactions were performed at 37 °C by consecutive addition of reagents, and the assay is able to quantify 2DG in picomole per well. To confirm the reliability of this method, we have evaluated the dose-effect of insulin, GLUT4 inhibitors and insulin-sensitizing agent on 2DG uptake into 3T3-L1 cells. The results obtained with the assay for 2DG uptake in vitro in the absence or presence of insulin stimulation, were similar to those obtained by the previous radioisotopic and enzymatic methods. We have also used this assay to evaluate the effect of various reactive carbonyl and oxygen species on insulin-stimulated 2DG-uptake into adipocytes. All reactive carbonyl species tested decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner without affecting basal glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. 4-hydroxynonenal was found to be the most potent in the impairment of glucose uptake. This new enzymatic chemiluminescent assay is rapid and useful for measurement of 2DG uptake in insulin-responsive in cultured cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced migration of murine fibroblast-like 3T3-L1 preadipocytes on type I collagen-coated dish is reversed by silibinin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoling; Xu, Qian; Liu, Weiwei; Yao, Guodong; Zhao, Yeli; Xu, Fanxing; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Yamato, Masayuki; Ikejima, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Migration of fibroblast-like preadipocytes is important for the development of adipose tissue, whereas excessive migration is often responsible for impaired adipose tissue related with obesity and fibrotic diseases. Type I collagen (collagen I) is the most abundant component of extracellular matrix and has been shown to regulate fibroblast migration in vitro, but its role in adipose tissue is not known. Silibinin is a bioactive natural flavonoid with antioxidant and antimetastasis activities. In this study, we found that type I collagen coating promoted the proliferation and migration of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, implying that collagen I could be an extracellular signal. Regarding the mechanisms of collagen I-stimulated 3T3-L1 migration, we found that NF-κB p65 is activated, including the increased nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 as well as the upregulation of NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and acetylation, accompanied by the increased expressions of proinflammatory factors and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reduction of collagen I-enhanced migration of cells by treatment with silibinin was associated with suppression of NF-κB p65 activity and ROS generation, and negatively correlated with the increasing sirt1 expression. Taken together, the enhanced migration of 3T3-L1 cells induced on collagen I-coated dish is mediated by the activation of NF-κB p65 function and ROS generation that can be alleviated with silibinin by upregulation of sirt1, leading to the repression of NF-κB p65 function and ROS generation.

  14. Fluid shear stress induction of COX-2 protein and prostaglandin release in cultured MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts does not require intact microfilaments or microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, Suzanne M; Ponik, Suzanne M; Bowen, Deidre K; Gerard, Rita; Pavalko, Fredrick M

    2004-03-01

    Cultured osteoblasts express three major types of cytoskeleton: actin microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. The cytoskeletal network is thought to play an important role in the transmission and conversion of a mechanical stimulus into a biochemical response. To examine a role for the three different cytoskeletal networks in fluid shear stress-induced signaling in osteoblasts, we individually disrupted actin microfilaments, micro-tubules, and intermediate filaments in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts with multiple pharmacological agents. We subjected these cells to 90 min of laminar fluid shear stress (10 dyn/cm(2)) and compared the PGE(2) and PGI(2) release and induction of cyclooxygenase-2 protein to control cells with intact cytoskeletons. Disruption of actin microfilaments, microtubules, or intermediate filaments in MC3T3-E1 cells did not prevent a significant fluid shear stress-induced release of PGE(2) or PGI(2). Furthermore, disruption of actin microfilaments or microtubules did not prevent a significant fluid shear stress-induced increase in cyclooxygenase-2 protein levels. Disruption of intermediate filaments with acrylamide did prevent the fluid shear stress-induced increase in cyclooxygenase-2 but also prevented a PGE(2)-induced increase in cyclooxygenase-2. Thus none of the three major cytoskeletal networks are required for fluid shear stress-induced prostaglandin release. Furthermore, although neither actin microfilaments nor microtubules are required for fluid shear stress-induced increase in cyclooxygenase-2 levels, the role of intermediate filaments in regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression is less clear.

  15. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of culinary-medicinal mushrooms and their toxicity assessment using differentiating Neuro-2a and embryonic fibroblast BALB/3T3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2013-10-11

    Mushrooms are not only regarded as gourmet cuisine but also as therapeutic agent to promote cognition health. However, little toxicological information is available regarding their safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen selected ethno-pharmacologically important mushrooms for stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth and to test for any cytotoxicity. The stimulatory effect of mushrooms on neurite outgrowth was assessed in differentiating mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Neurite length was measured using Image-Pro Insight processor system. Neuritogenesis activity was further validated by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining of neurofilaments. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated by using mouse embryonic fibroblast (BALB/3T3) and N2a cells for any embryo- and neuro-toxic effects; respectively. Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus and Grifola frondosa; as well as an ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris significantly (p effects following 24 h exposure of N2a and 3T3 cells to mushroom extracts. Our results indicate that G. lucidum, L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, G. frondosa and C. militaris may be developed as safe and healthy dietary supplements for brain and cognitive health.

  16. Riboflavin and photoproducts in MC3T3-E1 differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Yano, Claudia Lumy; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Machado, Daisy; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Ferreira, Carmen Verissima

    2010-01-01

    Photoderivatives of riboflavin can modulate the proliferation and survival of cancer cells. In this work, we examined the influence of riboflavin and photoderivatives on osteoblast differentiation induced by ascorbic acid and beta-glycerophosphate. These compounds decreased the osteoblast

  17. Phenyllactic Acid from Lactobacillus plantarum PromotesAdipogenic Activity in 3T3-L1 Adipocyte via Up-Regulationof PPAR-γ2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundharrajan Ilavenil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic drugs are commonly used to cure various human ailments at present. However, the uses of synthetic drugs are strictly regulated because of their adverse effects. Thus, naturally occurring molecules may be more suitable for curing disease without unfavorable effects. Therefore, we investigated phenyllactic acid (PLA from Lactobacillus plantarum with respect to its effects on adipogenic genes and their protein expression in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes by qPCR and western blot techniques. PLA enhanced differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells at the concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μM. Maximum differentiation and lipid accumulation were observed at a concentration of 100 μM of PLA, as compared with control adipocytes (p < 0.05. The mRNA and protein expression of PPAR-γ2, C/EBP‑α, adiponectin, fatty acid synthase (FAS, and SREBP-1 were increased by PLA treatment as compared with control adipocytes (p < 0.05. PLA stimulates PPAR-γ mRNA expression in a concentration dependent manner, but this expression was lesser than agonist (2.83 ± 0.014 fold of PPAR-γ2. Moreover, PLA supplementation enhances glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes (11.81 ± 0.17 mM compared to control adipocytes, but this glucose uptake was lesser than that induced by troglitazone (13.75 ± 0.95 mM and insulin treatment (15.49 ± 0.20 mM. Hence, we conclude that PLA treatment enhances adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake via activation of PPAR-γ2, and PLA may thus be the potential candidate for preventing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM.

  18. Ultrastructural evidence for the accumulation of insulin in nuclei of intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes by an insulin-receptor mediated process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Jarett, L.

    1987-01-01

    Monomeric ferritin-labeled insulin (F/sub m/-Ins), a biologically active, electron-dense marker of occupied insulin receptors, was used to characterize the internalization of insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. F/sub m/-Ins bound specifically to insulin receptors and was internalized in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. In the nucleus, several F/sub m/-Ins particles usually were found in the same general location-near nuclear pores, associated with the periphery of the condensed chromatin. Addition of a 250-fold excess of unlabeled insulin or incubation at 15 0 C reduced the number of F/sub m/-Ins particles found in nuclei after 90 min by 99% or 92%, respectively. Nuclear accumulation of unlabeled ferritin was only 2% of that found with F/sub m/-Ins after 90 min at 37 0 C. Biochemical experiments utilizing 125 I-labeled insulin and subcellular fractionation indicated that intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes internalized insulin rapidly and that ≅ 3% of the internalized ligand accumulated in nuclei after 1 hr. These data provide biochemical and high-resolution ultrastructural evidence that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate potentially significant amounts of insulin in nuclei by an insulin receptor-mediated process. The transport of insulin or the insulin-receptor complex to nuclei in this cell or in others may be directly involved in the long-term biological effects of insulin - in particular, in the control of DNA and RNA synthesis

  19. Coffee extract inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocyes by interrupting insulin signaling through the downregulation of IRS1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Maki

    Full Text Available Although epidemiological data have indicated that a strong negative association exists between coffee consumption and the prevalence of obesity-associated diseases, the molecular mechanisms by which coffee intake prevents obesity-associated diseases has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we found that coffee intake significantly suppressed high-fat diet (HFD-induced metabolic alternations such as increases in body weight and the accumulation of adipose tissue, and up-regulation of glucose, free fatty acid, total cholesterol and insulin levels in the blood. We also found that coffee extract significantly inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In the early phase of adipogenesis, 3T3-L1 cells treated with coffee extract displayed the retardation of cell cycle entry into the G2/M phase called as mitotic clonal expansion (MCE. Coffee extract also inhibited the activation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ by preventing its phosphorylation by ERK. Furthermore, the coffee extract suppressed the adipogenesis-related events such as MCE and C/EBPβ activation through the down-regulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1. The stability of the IRS1 protein was markedly decreased by the treatment with coffee extract due to proteasomal degradation. These results have revealed an anti-adipogenic function for coffee intake and identified IRS1 as a novel target for coffee extract in adipogenesis.

  20. Regulation of adiponectin secretion by insulin and amino acids in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blümer, Regje M. E.; van Roomen, Cindy P.; Meijer, Alfred J.; Houben-Weerts, Judith H. P. M.; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Dubbelhuis, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is a fat cell-derived hormone with insulin-sensitizing properties. Low plasma adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance as found in obesity. One of the mechanisms for this finding is hampered insulin signaling via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) with concomitant

  1. Downregulation of the taurine transporter TauT during hypo-osmotic stress in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Friis, Martin Barfred; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2012-01-01

    The present work was initiated to investigate regulation of the taurine transporter TauT by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts during acute and long-term (4 h) exposure to low-sodium/hypo-osmotic stress. Taurine...... are significantly increased following hyperosmotic exposure. Swelling-induced ROS production in NIH3T3 fibroblasts is generated by NOX4 and by increasing total ROS, by either exogenous application of H(2)O(2) or overexpressing NOX4, we demonstrate that TonEBP activity and taurine influx are regulated negatively...... by ROS under hypo-osmotic, low-sodium conditions, whereas the TauT mRNA level is unaffected. Acute exposure to ROS reduces taurine uptake as a result of modulated TauT transport kinetics. Thus, swelling-induced ROS production could account for the reduced taurine uptake under low...

  2. Nuclear phosphoproteome analysis of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation reveals system-wide phosphorylation of transcriptional regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabiee, Atefeh; Schwämmle, Veit; Sidoli, Simone

    2017-01-01

    of which were assigned as regulators of gene expression. Among 288 identified transcriptional regulators, 49 were regulated within four hours of adipogenic stimulation including several known and many novel potential adipogenic regulators. A kinase-substrate database for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes established...... stages (4 hours) of preadipocyte differentiation. We identified a total of 4072 proteins including 2434 phosphorylated proteins, a majority of which were assigned as regulators of gene expression. Our results demonstrate that adipogenic stimuli increase the nuclear abundance and/or the phosphorylation...... for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by investigating the relationship between protein kinases and protein phosphorylation sites identified in our dataset. A majority of the putative protein kinases belong to the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family and the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family including P...

  3. Overtraining is associated with DNA damage in blood and skeletal muscle cells of Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruno Cesar; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini; de Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; de Paula Venâncio, Vinícius; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; de Souza, Claudio Teodoro; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Papoti, Marcelo; da Silva, Adelino Sanchez Ramos

    2013-10-08

    The alkaline version of the single-cell gel (comet) assay is a useful method for quantifying DNA damage. Although some studies on chronic and acute effects of exercise on DNA damage measured by the comet assay have been performed, it is unknown if an aerobic training protocol with intensity, volume, and load clearly defined will improve performance without leading to peripheral blood cell DNA damage. In addition, the effects of overtraining on DNA damage are unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of aerobic training and overtraining on DNA damage in peripheral blood and skeletal muscle cells in Swiss mice. To examine possible changes in these parameters with oxidative stress, we measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in total blood, and GSH levels and lipid peroxidation in muscle samples. Performance evaluations (i.e., incremental load and exhaustive tests) showed significant intra and inter-group differences. The overtrained (OTR) group showed a significant increase in the percentage of DNA in the tail compared with the control (C) and trained (TR) groups. GSH levels were significantly lower in the OTR group than in the C and TR groups. The OTR group had significantly higher lipid peroxidation levels compared with the C and TR groups. Aerobic and anaerobic performance parameters can be improved in training at maximal lactate steady state during 8 weeks without leading to DNA damage in peripheral blood and skeletal muscle cells or to oxidative stress in skeletal muscle cells. However, overtraining induced by downhill running training sessions is associated with DNA damage in peripheral blood and skeletal muscle cells, and with oxidative stress in skeletal muscle cells and total blood.

  4. A novel NIH/3T3 duplex feeder system to engineer corneal epithelial sheets with enhanced cytokeratin 15-positive progenitor populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Hideyuki; Shimmura, Shigeto; Higa, Kazunari; Yoshida, Satoru; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2008-07-01

    Corneal epithelial cell sheets co-cultivated with feeder cells are used to reconstruct the ocular surface in stem cell-depleted eyes. The present study was conducted to investigate the optimal method of using feeder cells in the interest of preserving progenitor cells in cultivated sheets. We compared the phenotype and secondary colony forming efficiency (CFE) of cell sheets that were engineered using 3T3 feeder cells as a separate layer or as a contact layer. We also devised a novel "duplex feeder" system that consists of two separate layers of feeder cells. After cells reached confluence, cells were cultured at the air-liquid interface to allow full stratification. Stratified sheets were then analyzed using immunohistochemistry and secondary colony formation. Contact feeder cultures and duplex feeder cultures yielded epithelial sheets with small, cuboid basal cells with strong expression of keratin (K)3, K12, and K 15. Furthermore, only duplex feeder layers reproduced the basal K 15, suprabasal K12 limbal phenotype where epithelial stem cells reside. A similar effect was observed when cornea stroma-derived progenitor cells were used as feeder cells. Duplex feeder sheets also produced significantly more secondary colonies than cells dissociated from single layer sheets, suggesting that the duplex feeder system produces transplantable sheets with a higher yield of progenitor cells.

  5. A proteomic analysis of the functional effects of fatty acids in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Magdalon, Juliana

    2011-11-24

    Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that long chain fatty acids influence fibroblast function at sub-lethal concentrations. This study is the first to assess the effects of oleic, linoleic or palmitic acids on protein expression of fibroblasts, as determined by standard proteomic techniques. The fatty acids were not cytotoxic at the concentration used in this work as assessed by membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation and the MTT assay but significantly increased cell proliferation. Subsequently, a proteomic analysis was performed using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and MS based identification. Cells treated with 50 μM oleic, linoleic or palmitic acid for 24 h were associated with 24, 22, 16 spots differentially expressed, respectively. Among the identified proteins, α-enolase and far upstream element binding protein 1 (FBP-1) are of importance due to their function in fibroblast-associated diseases. However, modulation of α-enolase and FBP-1 expression by fatty acids was not validated by the Western blot technique.

  6. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O 2 for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  7. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 (Japan); Taguchi, Sadayoshi [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  8. Germinated brown rice extract inhibits adipogenesis through the down-regulation of adipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-adipogenic effect of germinated brown rice methanol extract (GBR) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The GBR inhibited adipocyte differentiation was measured by Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner without initiating any cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα), proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and adipogenic genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), were significantly down-regulated by treatment with GBR when compared to that of untreated control cells. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expressions were attenuated by GBR in mature adipocytes. These data suggest that GBR exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect through the suppression of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  9. 18O-Tracer Metabolomics Reveals Protein Turnover and CDP-Choline Cycle Activity in Differentiating 3T3-L1 Pre-Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S Kirkwood

    Full Text Available The differentiation of precursor cells into mature adipocytes (adipogenesis has been an area of increased focus, spurred by a rise in obesity rates. Though our understanding of adipogenesis and its regulation at the cellular level is growing, many questions remain, especially regarding the regulation of the metabolome. The 3T3-L1 cell line is the most well characterized cellular model of adipogenesis. Using a time course metabolomics approach, we show that the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte metabolome is greatly altered during the first 48 hours of differentiation, where cells go through about two rounds of cell division, a process known as mitotic clonal expansion. Short-chain peptides were among several small molecules that were increased during mitotic clonal expansion. Additional indicators of protein turnover were also increased, including bilirubin, a degradation product of heme-containing proteins, and 3-methylhistidine, a post-translationally modified amino acid that is not reutilized for protein synthesis. To study the origin of the peptides, we treated differentiating preadipocytes with 18O labeled water and found that 18O was incorporated into the short chain peptides, confirming them, at least in part, as products of hydrolysis. Inhibitors of the proteasome or matrix metalloproteinases affected the peptide levels during differentiation, but inhibitors of autophagy or peptidases did not. 18O was also incorporated into several choline metabolites including cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline, glycerophosphocholine, and several phosphatidylcholine species, indicative of phosphatidylcholine synthesis/degradation and of flux through the CDP-choline cycle, a hallmark of proliferating cells. 18O-Tracer metabolomics further showed metabolic labeling of glutamate, suggestive of glutaminolysis, also characteristic of proliferating cells. Together, these results highlight the utility of 18O isotope labeling in combination with metabolomics to

  10. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John's wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostanska, Katarina; Rostock, Matthias; Melzer, Joerg; Baumgartner, Stephan; Saller, Reinhard

    2012-07-18

    Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712-2), its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712-1) and unsuccussed solvent (0712-3) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined "wound field". All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712-2) exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9%) vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712-1) at 1:100 dilutions (p 0.05). Preparation (0712-2) at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p < 0.001) from succussed solvent (0712-1), which caused 22.1% wound closure. Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712-2) exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis.

  11. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John’s wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hostanska Katarina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. Methods We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712–2, its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712–1 and unsuccussed solvent (0712–3 on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined “wound field”. All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. Results None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712–2 exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9% vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712–1 at 1:100 dilutions (p  0.05. Preparation (0712–2 at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p  Conclusion Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712–2 exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis.

  12. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John’s wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. Methods We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712–2), its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712–1) and unsuccussed solvent (0712–3) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined “wound field”. All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. Results None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712–2) exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9%) vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712–1) at 1:100 dilutions (p  0.05). Preparation (0712–2) at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p < 0.001) from succussed solvent (0712–1), which caused 22.1% wound closure. Conclusion Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712–2) exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis. PMID:22809174

  13. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of culinary-medicinal mushrooms and their toxicity assessment using differentiating Neuro-2a and embryonic fibroblast BALB/3T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mushrooms are not only regarded as gourmet cuisine but also as therapeutic agent to promote cognition health. However, little toxicological information is available regarding their safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen selected ethno-pharmacologically important mushrooms for stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth and to test for any cytotoxicity. Methods The stimulatory effect of mushrooms on neurite outgrowth was assessed in differentiating mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Neurite length was measured using Image-Pro Insight processor system. Neuritogenesis activity was further validated by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining of neurofilaments. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated by using mouse embryonic fibroblast (BALB/3T3) and N2a cells for any embryo- and neuro-toxic effects; respectively. Results Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus and Grifola frondosa; as well as an ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris significantly (p < 0.05) promoted the neurite outgrowth in N2a cells by 38.4 ± 4.2%, 38.1 ± 2.6%, 33.4 ± 4.6%, 33.7 ± 1.5%, and 35.8 ± 3.4%; respectively. The IC50 values obtained from tetrazolium (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed no toxic effects following 24 h exposure of N2a and 3T3 cells to mushroom extracts. Conclusion Our results indicate that G. lucidum, L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, G. frondosa and C. militaris may be developed as safe and healthy dietary supplements for brain and cognitive health. PMID:24119256

  14. Ectodermal-Neural Cortex 1 Isoforms Have Contrasting Effects on MC3T3-E1 Osteoblast Mineralization and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worton, Leah E; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Smith, Elisabeth J; Barry, Simon C; Gonda, Thomas J; Whitehead, Jonathan P; Gardiner, Edith M

    2017-08-01

    The importance of Wnt pathway signaling in development of bone has been well established. Here we investigated the role of a known Wnt target, ENC1 (ectodermal-neural cortex 1; NRP/B), in osteoblast differentiation. Enc1 expression was detected in mouse osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and osteocytes by in situ hybridization, and osteoblastic expression was verified in differentiating primary cultures and MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells, with 57 kDa and 67 kDa ENC1 protein isoforms detected throughout differentiation. Induced knockdown of both ENC1 isoforms reduced alkaline phosphatase staining and virtually abolished MC3T3-E1 mineralization. At culture confluence, Alpl (alkaline phosphatase liver/bone/kidney) expression was markedly reduced compared with control cells, and there was significant and coordinated alteration of other genes involved in cellular phosphate biochemistry. In contrast, with 67 kDa-selective knockdown mineralized nodule formation was enhanced and there was a two-fold increase in Alpl expression at confluence. There was enhanced expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes with knockdown of both isoforms at this time-point and a five-fold increase in Frzb (Frizzled related protein) with 67 kDa-selective knockdown at mineralization, indicating possible ENC1 interactions with Wnt signaling in osteoblasts. These results are the first to demonstrate a role for ENC1 in the control of osteoblast differentiation. Additionally, the contrasting mineralization phenotypes and transcriptional patterns seen with coordinate knockdown of both ENC1 isoforms vs selective knockdown of 67 kDa ENC1 suggest opposing roles for the isoforms in regulation of osteoblastic differentiation, through effects on Alpl expression and phosphate cellular biochemistry. This study is the first to report differential roles for the ENC1 isoforms in any cell lineage. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2141-2150, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. High glucose impaired estrogen receptor alpha signaling via β-catenin in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Gao, Dong; Zhou, Yin; Chen, Lu; Luo, Bin; Yu, Yanrong; Li, Hao; Hu, Jiawei; Huang, Qiren; He, Ming; Peng, Weijie; Luo, Dan

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic Mellitus is a risk factor for osteoporosis. It has been suggested that altered estrogen or estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β) signaling may be involved in diabetic osteoporosis. The present study is to investigate the effects of high glucose on ERα/β signaling in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 and how the altered signaling of ERα/β affect osteoblastic bone formation. ERα/β signaling was demonstrated as ERα/β protein expression (Western Blotting) and ER transcription activity (Luciferase Reporter assays). Proliferation (WSK-1 assaying), differentiation (ALP staining) and mineralization (Alizalard Red staining) of MC3T3-E1 were examined to evaluate bone formation function. It has been found that high glucose increased ERα/β expression dose-dependently and time-dependently, but high glucose (33mM) decreased ERα transcription activity. 17β-estradiol increased the ERα/β expression dose-dependently in normal medium, but decreased the ERα/β expression dose-dependently in medium with high glucose (33mM). High glucose decreased bone formation and also decreased the osteogenic effects of 17β-estradiol (10 -8 M). High glucose decreased β-catenin expression dose-dependently and time-dependently. LiCl, an inhibitor of β-catenin degradation, decreased ERα expression but increased ERα transcription activity. When compared with high glucose treatment, LiCl (5mM) increased ALP activity and calcified nodes. Besides, high glucose also decreased the protein expression PI-3K, pAKT/AKT, GSK-3β. In conclusion, the present study suggested that high glucose may impair ERα transcription activity by inhibiting β-catenin signaling in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1, leading decreased bone formation ligand-dependently or ligand-independently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Arachidonic acid has a dominant effect to regulate lipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Vaidya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on the regulation of adipocytes metabolism are well known. These fatty acids are generally consumed together in our diets; however, the metabolic regulation of adipocytes in the presence of these fatty acids when given together is not known. Objective: To investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA and arachidonic acid (AA, an n-6 PUFA, on the regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated in the presence or absence of 100 µM of eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA; docosahexaenoic acid, DHA; docosapentaenoic acid, DPA and AA, either alone or AA+n-3 PUFA; control cells received bovine serum albumin alone. The mRNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes was measured. The fatty acid composition of adipocytes was analyzed using gas chromatography. Results: Individual n-3 PUFA or AA had no effect on the mRNA expression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ; however, AA+EPA and AA+DPA significantly increased (P<0.05 the expression compared to control cells (38 and 42%, respectively. AA and AA+EPA increased the mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (P<0.05. AA treatment decreased the mRNA expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 (P<0.01, while n-3 PUFA, except EPA, had no effect compared to control cells. AA+DHA and AA+DPA inhibited SCD1 gene expression (P<0.05 suggesting a dominant effect of AA. Fatty acids analysis of adipocytes revealed a higher accretion of AA compared to n-3 PUFA. Conclusions: Our findings reveal that AA has a dominant effect on the regulation of lipogenic genes in adipocytes.

  17. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B Crown

    Full Text Available The branched chain amino acids (BCAA valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass spectrometry and model-based isotopomer data analysis. Specifically, we performed parallel labeling experiments with four fully 13C-labeled tracers, [U-13C]valine, [U-13C]leucine, [U-13C]isoleucine and [U-13C]glutamine. We measured mass isotopomer distributions of fatty acids and intracellular metabolites by GC-MS and analyzed the data using the isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA framework. We demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate significant amounts of even chain length (C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0 and odd chain length (C15:0 and C17:0 fatty acids under standard cell culture conditions. Using a novel GC-MS method, we demonstrate that propionyl-CoA acts as the primer on fatty acid synthase for the production of odd chain fatty acids. BCAA contributed significantly to the production of all fatty acids. Leucine and isoleucine contributed at least 25% to lipogenic acetyl-CoA pool, and valine and isoleucine contributed 100% to lipogenic propionyl-CoA pool. Our results further suggest that low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and mass action kinetics of propionyl-CoA on fatty acid synthase result in high rates of odd chain fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overall, this work provides important new insights into the connection between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes and underscores the high capacity of adipocytes for metabolizing BCAA.

  18. Interactions between sub-10-nm iron and cerium oxide nanoparticles and 3T3 fibroblasts: the role of the coating and aggregation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safi, M; Sarrouj, H; Berret, J-F; Sandre, O; Mignet, N

    2010-01-01

    Recent nanotoxicity studies revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of engineered nanomaterials play an important role in the interactions with living cells. Here, we report on the toxicity and uptake of cerium and iron oxide sub-10-nm nanoparticles by NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Coating strategies include low-molecular weight ligands (citric acid) and polymers (poly(acrylic acid), M W = 2000 g mol -1 ). Electrostatically adsorbed on the surfaces, the organic moieties provide a negatively charged coating in physiological conditions. We find that most particles were biocompatible, as exposed cells remained 100% viable relative to controls. Only the bare and the citrate-coated nanoceria exhibit a slight decrease in mitochondrial activity at very high cerium concentrations (>1 g l -1 ). We also observe that the citrate-coated particles are internalized/adsorbed by the cells in large amounts, typically 250 pg/cell after 24 h incubation for iron oxide. In contrast, the polymer-coated particles are taken up at much lower rates (<30 pg/cell). The strong uptake shown by the citrated particles is related to the destabilization of the dispersions in the cell culture medium and their sedimentation down to the cell membranes. In conclusion, we show that the uptake of nanomaterials by living cells depends on the coating of the particles and on its ability to preserve the colloidal nature of the dispersions.

  19. Interactions between sub-10-nm iron and cerium oxide nanoparticles and 3T3 fibroblasts: the role of the coating and aggregation state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safi, M; Sarrouj, H; Berret, J-F [Matiere et Systemes Complexes, UMR 7057 CNRS, Universite Denis Diderot Paris VII, Batiment Condorcet, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris (France); Sandre, O [UPMC Universite Paris VI-Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Electrolytes, Colloides et Sciences Analytiques, UMR 7195 UPMC Universite Paris 6/CNRS/ESPCI Paristech, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Mignet, N, E-mail: jean-francois.berret@univ-paris-diderot.fr [CNRS UMR 8151, Faculte de Pharmacie, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75270 Paris (France)

    2010-04-09

    Recent nanotoxicity studies revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of engineered nanomaterials play an important role in the interactions with living cells. Here, we report on the toxicity and uptake of cerium and iron oxide sub-10-nm nanoparticles by NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Coating strategies include low-molecular weight ligands (citric acid) and polymers (poly(acrylic acid), M{sub W} = 2000 g mol{sup -1}). Electrostatically adsorbed on the surfaces, the organic moieties provide a negatively charged coating in physiological conditions. We find that most particles were biocompatible, as exposed cells remained 100% viable relative to controls. Only the bare and the citrate-coated nanoceria exhibit a slight decrease in mitochondrial activity at very high cerium concentrations (>1 g l{sup -1}). We also observe that the citrate-coated particles are internalized/adsorbed by the cells in large amounts, typically 250 pg/cell after 24 h incubation for iron oxide. In contrast, the polymer-coated particles are taken up at much lower rates (<30 pg/cell). The strong uptake shown by the citrated particles is related to the destabilization of the dispersions in the cell culture medium and their sedimentation down to the cell membranes. In conclusion, we show that the uptake of nanomaterials by living cells depends on the coating of the particles and on its ability to preserve the colloidal nature of the dispersions.

  20. Clk/STY (cdc2-like kinase 1 and Akt regulate alternative splicing and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Li

    Full Text Available The development of adipocytes from their progenitor cells requires the action of growth factors signaling to transcription factors to induce the expression of adipogenic proteins leading to the accumulation of lipid droplets, induction of glucose transport, and secretion of adipokines signaling metabolic events throughout the body. Murine 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes sequentially express all the proteins necessary to become mature adipocytes throughout an 8-10 day process initiated by a cocktail of hormones. We examined the role of Clk/STY or Clk1, a cdc2-like kinase, in adipogenesis since it is known to be regulated by Akt, a pivotal kinase in development. Inhibition of Clk1 by a specific inhibitor, TG003, blocked alternative splicing of PKCβII and expression of PPARγ1 and PPARγ2. SiRNA depletion of Clk1 resulted in early expression of PKCβII and sustained PKCβI expression. Since Clk1 is a preferred Akt substrate, required for phosphorylation of splicing factors, mutation of Clk1 Akt phosphorylation sites was undertaken. Akt sites on Clk1 are in the serine/arginine-rich domain and not the kinase domain. Mutation of single and multiple sites resulted in dysregulation of PKCβII, PKCβI, and PPARγ1&2 expression. Additionally, adipogenesis was blocked as assessed by Oil Red O staining, adiponectin, and Glut1 and 4 expression. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Clk1 triple mutant cDNA, transfected into pre-adipocytes, resulted in excluding SRp40 (SFSR6 from co-localizing to the nucleus with PFS, a perispeckle specific protein. This study demonstrates the role of Akt and Clk1 kinases in the early differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to adipocytes.

  1. Clk/STY (cdc2-Like Kinase 1) and Akt Regulate Alternative Splicing and Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Pre-Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Carter, Gay; Romero, Jacqueline; Gower, Kathryn M.; Watson, James; Patel, Niketa A.; Cooper, Denise R.

    2013-01-01

    The development of adipocytes from their progenitor cells requires the action of growth factors signaling to transcription factors to induce the expression of adipogenic proteins leading to the accumulation of lipid droplets, induction of glucose transport, and secretion of adipokines signaling metabolic events throughout the body. Murine 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes sequentially express all the proteins necessary to become mature adipocytes throughout an 8–10 day process initiated by a cocktail of hormones. We examined the role of Clk/STY or Clk1, a cdc2-like kinase, in adipogenesis since it is known to be regulated by Akt, a pivotal kinase in development. Inhibition of Clk1 by a specific inhibitor, TG003, blocked alternative splicing of PKCβII and expression of PPARγ1 and PPARγ2. SiRNA depletion of Clk1 resulted in early expression of PKCβII and sustained PKCβI expression. Since Clk1 is a preferred Akt substrate, required for phosphorylation of splicing factors, mutation of Clk1 Akt phosphorylation sites was undertaken. Akt sites on Clk1 are in the serine/arginine-rich domain and not the kinase domain. Mutation of single and multiple sites resulted in dysregulation of PKCβII, PKCβI, and PPARγ1&2 expression. Additionally, adipogenesis was blocked as assessed by Oil Red O staining, adiponectin, and Glut1 and 4 expression. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Clk1 triple mutant cDNA, transfected into pre-adipocytes, resulted in excluding SRp40 (SFSR6) from co-localizing to the nucleus with PFS, a perispeckle specific protein. This study demonstrates the role of Akt and Clk1 kinases in the early differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to adipocytes. PMID:23308182

  2. Effects of LPS and dietary free fatty acids on MCP-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and macrophages in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullberg, K B; Larsen, Jens Ølholm; Pedersen, S B

    2014-01-01

    Effects of LPS and dietary free fatty acids on MCP-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and macrophages in vitro......Effects of LPS and dietary free fatty acids on MCP-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and macrophages in vitro...

  3. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Peng [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Sun, Guifan [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Andersen, Melvin E. [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jpi@thehamner.org [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs{sup 3+} decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 {mu}M) inorganic arsenite (iAs{sup 3+}) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs{sup 3+} exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs{sup 3+} exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4

  4. E2a-Pbx1 induces aberrant expression of tissue-specific and developmentally regulated genes when expressed in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X; Kamps, M P

    1997-03-01

    The E2a-Pbx1 oncoprotein contains the transactivation domain of E2a joined to the DNA-binding homeodomain (HD) of Pbx1. In mice, E2a-Pbx1 transforms T lymphoblasts and fibroblasts and blocks myeloblast differentiation. Pbx1 and E2a-Pbx1 bind DNA as heterodimers with other HD proteins whose expression is tissue specific. While the transactivation domain of E2a is required for all forms of transformation, DNA binding by the Pbx1 HD is essential for blocking myeloblast differentiation but dispensable for fibroblast or T-lymphoblast transformation. These properties suggest (i) that E2a-Pbx1 causes cellular transformation by activating gene transcription, (ii) that transcription of E2a-Pbx1 target genes is normally regulated by ubiquitous Pbx proteins and tissue-specific partners, and (iii) that DNA-binding mutants of E2a-Pbx1 activate a subset of all gene targets. To test these predictions, genes induced in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts by E2a-Pbx1 were identified and examined for tissue- and stage-specific expression and their differential abilities to be upregulated by E2a-Pbx1 in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and myeloblasts and by a DNA-binding mutant of E2a-Pbx1 in NIH 3T3 cells. Of 12 RNAs induced by E2a-Pbx1, 4 encoded known proteins (a J-C region of the immunoglobulin kappa light chain, natriuretic peptide receptor C, mitochondrial fumarase, and the 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, PDE1A) and 5 encoded new proteins related to angiogenin, ion channels, villin, epidermal growth factor repeat proteins, and the human 2.19 gene product. Expression of many of these genes was tissue specific or developmentally regulated, and most were not expressed in fibroblasts, indicating that E2a-Pbx1 can induce ectopic expression of genes associated with lineage-specific differentiation.

  5. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Peng; Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu; Sun, Guifan; Andersen, Melvin E.; Pi, Jingbo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs 3+ decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. → iAs 3+ attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. → iAs 3+ activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. → iAs 3+ impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. → iAs 3+ decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 μM) inorganic arsenite (iAs 3+ ) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs 3+ exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs 3+ exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4 expression may also be involved in arsenic-induced insulin resistance in

  6. Kudinoside-D, a triterpenoid saponin derived from Ilex kudingcha suppresses adipogenesis through modulation of the AMPK pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yanyun; Wang, Qiuhong; Xiao, Ruyue; Zhang, Jiayu; Zhang, Yaqiong; Gu, Wen; Rao, Gaoxiong; Wang, Changfu; Kuang, Haixue

    2018-03-01

    The leaves of Ilex Kudingcha, locally named "Kudingcha" in China, has been traditionally applied for treating obesity. Studies have demonstrated that the ethanol extract of Ilex kudingcha have anti-adipogenic effects. However, the constituent which was responsible for its anti-obesity and its underlying molecular mechanism has not yet been elucidated. This research explored the anti-obesity effect of kudinoside-D which was a main natural component of triterpenoid saponin from the ethanol extract of Ilex kudingcha, on lipid accumulation and the potential mechanism of action of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The adipocytes were treated with various concentrations of kudinoside D (0 to 40μM) during differentiation. The image-based Oil Red O staining analyses revealed that KD-D, dose dependently reduced cytoplasmic lipid droplet in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the IC 50 is 59.49μM. Meanwhile, major adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) were significantly repressed as well as their target genes. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target phosphorylated-acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) expression were also increased. In addition, the inhibitory effects of KD-D on the expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα were weakened when cells were cotreated with AMPK inhibitor Compound C. These results indicated KD-D exerts anti-adipogenic effects through modulation of adipogenic transcription factors via AMPK signaling pathway. And the current findings demonstrated that KD-D was a potential therapeutic candidate for alleviating obesity and hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Antiobesity effects of quercetin-rich onion peel extract on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the adipogenesis in high fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyoung; Do, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Oh Yoen; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on anti-differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the antiobesity in high-fat fed rats. We found that lipid accumulations and TG contents in 3T3-L1 cells were markedly suppressed by OPE. The mRNA levels of activating protein (AP2) were down-regulated and those of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 α (CPT-1α) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were up-regulated by 75 and 100 μg/ml OPE. Body weight, retroperitoneal and mesenteric fat weights of SD rats were significantly lower in the 8 week high fat (HF) diet+0.72% OPE group than in the HF group. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ mRNA levels were down-regulated in the epididymal fat of OPE than those of control and HF, and significant down-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α mRNA levels in OPE was also observed than the control. The mRNA levels of CPT-1α and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) were up-regulated by the OPE, while those of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were down-regulated in HF and OPE groups compared to control group. These results suggest that quercentin-enriched OPE may have antiobesity effects by suppressing preadipocyte differentiation and inhibiting adipogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genotoxic and biochemical effects of Yohimbe after short-term treatment in somatic and germ cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A.

    2006-01-01

    Yohimbe was evaluated for its effects on cytological and biochemical toxicity in male Swiss albino mice. Adult male mice were mice were treated with different doses (750, 1500 and 3000 mg yohombe/kg., body weight/day) in form of an aqueous suspension for 7 consecutive days by gavage. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) cytological studies on micronucleus test, (ii) cytological analysis of spermatozoa abnormalities, (iii) Cytogentic analysis of meiotic chromosomes in the tests, (iv) quantification of proteins, ribose nucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) in hepatic and testicular cells and (v) estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) in hepatic and testicular cells. The treatment caused significant changes in the frequency of micronuclei in the femoral cells and induced spermatozoal abnormalities and testicular chromosomal aberrations. The study on biochemical parameters showed an increase of MDA and depletion of NP-SH, proteins, RNA and DNA in both hepatic and testicular cells. The data elucidated the role of free radical species in cytological and biochemical changes in both somatic and germ cells of Swiss albino mice. The exact mechanism of the genesis of lipid peroxides is not known, however, this might be related to the influence of yohimbine (the principal constituent of yohimbe) to enhance some catecholamines, including norepineprine which possess destructive stimuli on biological systems. It is suggested that, in view of the observed cytological and biochemical effects of yohimbe, it may be subjected to a thorough evaluation of toxicity before making it available for human use. (author)

  9. Proteomic analysis of cAMP-mediated signaling during differentiation of 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Kamil; Wrzesinski, Krzysztow; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2014-01-01

    Initiation of adipocyte differentiation is promoted by the synergistic action of insulin/insulin-like growth factor, glucocorticoids, and agents activating cAMP-dependent signaling. The action of cAMP is mediated via PKA and Epac, where at least part of the PKA function relates to strong repression...... of Rho kinase activity, whereas Epac counteracts the reduction in insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling associated with complete repression of Rho kinase activity. However, detailed knowledge of the Epac-dependent branch and the interplay with PKA is still limited. In the present study, we present...... a comprehensive evaluation of Epac-mediated processes and their interplay with PKA during the initiation of 3 T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation using a combination of proteomics, molecular approaches, and bioinformatics. Proteomic analyses revealed 7 proteins specifically regulated in response to Epac activation...

  10. A proteomic approach for identification of secreted proteins during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratchmarova, Irina; Kalume, Dario E; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2002-01-01

    cholinergic neurostimulating peptide, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and haptoglobin to be expressed highly by mature adipocytes. We also used liquid chromatography-based separation followed by automated tandem mass spectrometry to identify proteins secreted by mature adipocytes. Several......We have undertaken a systematic proteomic approach to purify and identify secreted factors that are differentially expressed in preadipocytes versus adipocytes. Using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry, proteins that were specifically...... secreted by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or adipocytes were identified. In addition to a number of previously reported molecules that are up- or down-regulated during this differentiation process (adipsin, adipocyte complement-related protein 30 kDa, complement C3, and fibronectin), we identified four secreted...

  11. Cytotoxicity of MEIC chemicals Nos. 11-30 in 3T3 mouse fibroblasts with and without microsomal activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of MEIC chemicals Nos, 11-30 was evaluated by determination of neutral red uptake in Balb/c 3T3 mouse fibroblasts with and without the addition of a microsomal activation mixture. The use of microsomes significantly decreased the cytotoxicity of malathion, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic...... acid, propranolol, thioridazine, lithium sulfate, copper sulfate and thallium sulfate, whereas the cytotoxicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethylene, phenol, nicotine, and paraquat was significantly increased by use of the microsomal activation mixture. These cytotoxicity data are in line with observations...... in other studies on microsomal modulation of the cytotoxicity of the test substances. Moderate to good correlations were found between the cytotoxicity data and rodent lethality data, and the addition of microsomes slightly improved the in vitro/in vivo concordance. The evidence to support the relevance...

  12. Curcumin attenuates lipolysis stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α or isoproterenol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-yun; Kong, Po-Ren; Wu, Jin-feng; Li, Ying; Li, Yan-xiang

    2012-12-15

    Curcumin, an active component derived from dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been demonstrated antihyperglycemic, antiinflammatory and hypocholesterolemic activities in obesity and diabetes. These effects are associated with decreased level of circulating free fatty acids (FFA), however the mechanism has not yet been elucidated. The flux of FFA and glycerol from adipose tissue to the blood stream primarily depends on the lipolysis of triacylglycerols in the adipocytes. Adipocyte lipolysis is physiologically stimulated by catecholamine hormones. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) stimulates chronic lipolysis in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined the role of curcumin in inhibiting lipolytic action upon various stimulations in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glycerol release from TNFα or isoproterenol-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the absence or presence of curcumin was determined using a colorimetric assay (GPO-Trinder). Western blotting was used to investigate the TNFα-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and perilipin expression. Fatcake and cytosolic fractions were prepared to examine the isoproterenol-stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase translocation. Treatment with curcumin attenuated TNFα-mediated lipolysis by suppressing phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and reversing the downregulation of perilipin protein in TNFα-stimulated adipocytes (p<0.05). The acute lipolytic response to adrenergic stimulation of isoproterenol was also restricted by curcumin (10-20 μM, p<0.05), which was compatible with reduced perilipin phosphorylation(29%, p<0.05) and hormone-sensitive lipase translocation(20%, p<0.05). This study provides evidence that curcumin acts on adipocytes to suppress the lipolysis response to TNFα and catecholamines. The antilipolytic effect could be a cellular basis for curcumin decreasing plasma FFA levels and improving insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. PPARγ partial agonist GQ-16 strongly represses a subset of genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, Flora Aparecida [Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Laboratório de Farmacologia Molecular, Universidade de Brasília (Brazil); Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Cvoro, Aleksandra [Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Amato, Angelica A. [Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Laboratório de Farmacologia Molecular, Universidade de Brasília (Brazil); Sieglaff, Douglas H.; Filgueira, Carly S.; Arumanayagam, Anithachristy Sigamani [Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Caro Alves de Lima, Maria do; Rocha Pitta, Ivan [Laboratório de Planejamento e Síntese de Fármacos – LPSF, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil); Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco de [Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Laboratório de Farmacologia Molecular, Universidade de Brasília (Brazil); Webb, Paul, E-mail: pwebb@HoustonMethodist.org [Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists that improve insulin resistance but trigger side effects such as weight gain, edema, congestive heart failure and bone loss. GQ-16 is a PPARγ partial agonist that improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mouse models of obesity and diabetes without inducing weight gain or edema. It is not clear whether GQ-16 acts as a partial agonist at all PPARγ target genes, or whether it displays gene-selective actions. To determine how GQ-16 influences PPARγ activity on a gene by gene basis, we compared effects of rosiglitazone (Rosi) and GQ-16 in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes using microarray and qRT-PCR. Rosi changed expression of 1156 genes in 3T3-L1, but GQ-16 only changed 89 genes. GQ-16 generally showed weak effects upon Rosi induced genes, consistent with partial agonist actions, but a subset of modestly Rosi induced and strongly repressed genes displayed disproportionately strong GQ-16 responses. PPARγ partial agonists MLR24 and SR1664 also exhibit disproportionately strong effects on transcriptional repression. We conclude that GQ-16 displays a continuum of weak partial agonist effects but efficiently represses some negatively regulated PPARγ responsive genes. Strong repressive effects could contribute to physiologic actions of GQ-16. - Highlights: • GQ-16 is an insulin sensitizing PPARγ ligand with reduced harmful side effects. • GQ-16 displays a continuum of weak partial agonist activities at PPARγ-induced genes. • GQ-16 exerts strong repressive effects at a subset of genes. • These inhibitor actions should be evaluated in models of adipose tissue inflammation.

  14. Effect of germinated brown rice extracts on pancreatic lipase, adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, See Meng; Goh, Yong Meng; Kuan, Wen Bin; Loh, Su Peng

    2014-11-03

    This study investigated anti-obesity effects of seven different solvent (n-hexane, toluene, dicholoromethane, ethyl acetate, absolute methanol, 80% methanol and deionized water) extracts of germinated brown rice (GBR) on pancreatic lipase activity, adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GBR were extracted separately by employing different solvents with ultrasound-assisted. Pancreatic lipase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate (p-NPB) to p-nitrophenol at 405 nm. Adipogenesis and lipolysis were assayed in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by using Oil Red O staining and glycerol release measurement. GBR extract using hexane showed the highest inhibitory effect (13.58 ± 0.860%) at concentration of 200 μg/ml followed by hexane extract at 100 μg/ml (9.98 ± 1.048%) while ethyl acetate extract showed the lowest (2.62 ± 0.677%) at concentration of 200 μg/ml on pancreatic lipase activity. Water extract at 300 μg/ml showed 61.55 ± 3.824% of Oil Red O staining material (OROSM), a marker of adipogenesis. It significantly decrease (p < 0.05) lipid accumulation than control (OROSM = 100%), follow by ethyl acetate extract at 300 μg/ml (OROSM = 65.17 ± 3.131%). All the GBR extracts induced lipolysis with 1.22-1.83 fold of greater glycerol release than control. GBR extracts especially the least polar and intermediate polar solvent extracts exhibited inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase, decrease fat accumulation by adipocyte differentiation inhibition, and stimulate lipolysis on adipocytes. Therefore, GBR could be furthered study and developed as a functional food in helping the treatment and/or prevention of obesity.

  15. Influence of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast culture on the corrosion of a T6-treated AZ91 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Emily K.; Tobias, Menachem E.; Yang, Shuying; Bone, Lawrence B.; Ehrensberger, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the corrosion of artificially aged T6 heat-treated Mg-9%Al-1%Zn (AZ91) for biomedical applications. Corrosion tests and surface analysis were completed both with and without a monolayer of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the sample. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICPMS) were used to explore the corrosion processes after either 3 or 21 days of AZ91 incubation in cell culture medium (CCM). The EIS showed both the inner layer resistance (Rin) and outer layer resistance (Rout) were lower for samples without cells cultured on the surface at 3 days (Rin = 2.64 e4 Ω/cm2, Rout = 140 Ω/cm2) compared to 21 days (Rin = 3.60 e4 Ω/cm2, Rout = 287 Ω/cm2) due to precipitation of magnesium and calcium phosphates over time. Samples with preosteoblasts cultured on the surface had a slower initial corrosion (3 day, Rin = 1.88 e5 Ω/cm2, Rout = 1060 Ω/cm2) which was observed to increase over time (21 day, Rin = 2.99 e4 Ω/cm2, Rout = 287 Ω/cm2). Changes in the corrosion processes were thought to be related to changes in the coverage provided by the cell layer. Our results reveal that the presence of cells and biological processes are able to significantly influence the corrosion rate of AZ91. PMID:25715925

  16. The Effect of Pericellular Oxygen Levels on Proteomic Profile and Lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Differentiated Preadipocytes Cultured on Gas-Permeable Cultureware.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weiszenstein

    Full Text Available Pericellular oxygen concentration represents an important factor in the regulation of cell functions, including cell differentiation, growth and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Hypoxia in adipose tissue has been associated with altered adipokine secretion profile and suggested as a possible factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. In vitro experiments provide an indispensable tool in metabolic research, however, physical laws of gas diffusion make prolonged exposure of adherent cells to desired pericellular O2 concentrations questionable. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct effect of various O2 levels (1%, 4% and 20% O2 on the proteomic profile and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 differentiated preadipocytes using gas-permeable cultureware. Following differentiation of cells under desired pericellular O2 concentrations, cell lysates were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein visualization using Coomassie blue staining. Spots showing differential expression under hypoxia were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. All identified proteins were subjected to pathway analysis. We observed that protein expression of 26 spots was reproducibly affected by 4% and 1% O2 (17 upregulated and 9 downregulated. Pathway analysis showed that mitochondrial energy metabolism and triglyceride synthesis were significantly upregulated by hypoxia. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the direct effects of pericellular O2 levels on adipocyte energy metabolism and triglyceride synthesis, probably mediated through the reversed tricarboxylic acid cycle flux.

  17. Neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis associated with overexpression of imup-1 and imup-2 genes in cultured NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoo, Zae Young; Jung, Boo Kyoung; Lee, Sang Ryeul; Kim, Myoung Ok; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, Hyo Jin; Ahn, Jung Yong; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Cho, Youl Hee; Park, Jae Hak; Kim, Jin Kyeoung

    2006-01-01

    Immortalization-upregulated protein 1 (IMUP-1) and immortalization-upregulated protein 2 (IMUP-2) genes have been recently cloned and are known to be involved in SV40-mediated immortalization. IMUP-1 and IMUP-2 genes were strongly expressed in various cancer cell lines and tumors, suggesting the possibility that they might be involved in tumorigenicity. To directly elucidate the functional role of IMUP-1 and IMUP-2 on neoplastic transformation and tumorigenicity, we stably transfected IMUP-1 and IMUP-2 into NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. Cellular characteristics of the neoplastic transformation were assessed by transformation foci, growth in soft agar, and tumor development in nude mice. We found that IMUP-1 and IMUP-2 overexpressing cells showed altered growth properties, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and inducing tumor in nude mice. Furthermore, IMUP-1 and IMUP-2 transformants proliferated in reduced serum and shortened cell cycle. These results suggest that ectopic overexpression of IMUP-1 and IMUP-2 may play an important role in acquiring a transformed phenotype, tumorigenicity in vivo, and be related to cellular proliferation

  18. The Alkamide trans-Pellitorine Targets PPARγ via TRPV1 and TRPA1 to Reduce Lipid Accumulation in Developing 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lieder

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ in the human body. However, pathological overgrowth is associated with chronic illness. Regulation of adipogenesis and maturation of adipocytes via bioactive compounds in our daily diet has been in focus of research in the past years and showed promising results for agonists of the ion channels transient receptor potential channel (TRP V1 and A1. Here, we investigated the anti-adipogenic potential and underlying mechanisms of the alkamide trans-pellitorine present in Piper nigrum via TRPV1 and TRPA1 in 3T3-L1 cells. trans-pellitorine was found to suppress mean lipid accumulation, when applied during differentiation and maturation, but also during maturation phase solely of 3T3-L1 cells in a concentration range between 1 nM and 1 μM by up to 8.84 ± 4.97 or 7.49 ± 5.08%, respectively. Blockage of TRPV1 using the specific inhibitor trans-tert-butyl-cyclohexanol demonstrated that the anti-adipogenic activity of trans-pellitorine depends on TRPV1. In addition, blockage of the TRPA1 channel using the antagonist AP-18 showed a TRPA1-dependent signaling in the early to intermediate stages of adipogenesis. On a mechanistic level, treatment with trans-pellitorine during adipogenesis led to reduced PPARγ expression on gene and protein level via activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1, and increased expression of the microRNA mmu-let-7b, which has been associated with reduced PPARγ levels. In addition, cells treated with trans-pellitorine showed decreased expression of the gene encoding for fatty acid synthase, increased expression of microRNA-103 and a decreased short-term fatty acid uptake on the functional level. In summary, these data point to an involvement of the TRPV1 and TRPA1 cation channels in the anti-adipogenic activity of trans-pellitorine via microRNA-let7b and PPARγ. Since trans-pellitorine does not directly activate TRPV1 or TRPA1, an indirect modulation of the channel activity is assumed and

  19. Effects of clozapine on adipokine secretions/productions and lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubai, Tomomi; Yoshimi, Akira; Hamada, Yoji; Nakao, Makoto; Arima, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2017-02-01

    Clozapine, a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA), is a cause of side effects related to metabolic syndrome. The participation of serotonin 5-HT 2C and histamine H 1 receptors in the central nervous system has been reported as a mechanism of the weight gain caused by clozapine. In the present study, we investigated the direct pharmacological action of clozapine on the 3T3-L1 adipocytes and compared it to that of blonanserin, an SGA with low affinity for both receptors. Short-term exposure to clozapine decreased secretion and mRNA expression of leptin. Long-term exposure decreased leptin as well as adiponectin secretion, and further increased lipid droplets accumulation. However, short- and long-term exposures to blonanserin did not affect these parameters. A selective serotonin 5-HT 2C , but not a histamine H 1 , receptor antagonist enhanced the decreased secretion of leptin induced by short-term exposure to clozapine, but did not affect the increased accumulation of lipid droplets. Our findings indicate that clozapine, but not blonanserin, strongly and directly affected the secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, in adipocytes and caused adipocyte enlargement. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of clozapine on adipokine secretions/productions and lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Tsubai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine, a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA, is a cause of side effects related to metabolic syndrome. The participation of serotonin 5-HT2C and histamine H1 receptors in the central nervous system has been reported as a mechanism of the weight gain caused by clozapine. In the present study, we investigated the direct pharmacological action of clozapine on the 3T3-L1 adipocytes and compared it to that of blonanserin, an SGA with low affinity for both receptors. Short-term exposure to clozapine decreased secretion and mRNA expression of leptin. Long-term exposure decreased leptin as well as adiponectin secretion, and further increased lipid droplets accumulation. However, short- and long-term exposures to blonanserin did not affect these parameters. A selective serotonin 5-HT2C, but not a histamine H1, receptor antagonist enhanced the decreased secretion of leptin induced by short-term exposure to clozapine, but did not affect the increased accumulation of lipid droplets. Our findings indicate that clozapine, but not blonanserin, strongly and directly affected the secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, in adipocytes and caused adipocyte enlargement.

  1. Mechanically induced c-fos expression is mediated by cAMP in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    In serum-deprived MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, mechanical stimulation caused by mild (287 x g) centrifugation induced a 10-fold increase in mRNA levels of the proto-oncogene, c-fos. Induction of c-fos was abolished by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89, suggesting that the transient c-fos mRNA increase is mediated by cAMP. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment failed to significantly reduce c-fos induction, suggesting that TPA-sensitive isoforms of PKC are not responsible for c-fos up-regulation. In addition, 287 x g centrifugation increased intracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels 2.8-fold (Pprostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can induce c-fos expression via a cAMP-mediated mechanism, we asked whether the increase in c-fos mRNA was due to centrifugation-induced PGE2 release. Pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and flurbiprofen did not hinder the early induction of c-fos by mechanical stimulation. We conclude that c-fos expression induced by mild mechanical loading is dependent primarily on cAMP, not PKC, and initial induction of c-fos is not necessarily dependent on the action of newly synthesized PGE2.

  2. Egg white hydrolysate shows insulin mimetic and sensitizing effects in 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Jahandideh

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and inflammation in adipose tissue is a key mechanism underlying metabolic syndrome, a growing health problem characterized by diabetes, obesity and hypertension. Previous work from our research group has demonstrated the potential of egg white ovotransferrin derived bioactive peptides against hypertension, oxidative stress and inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Egg white hydrolysate (EWH has also shown anti-hypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Given the interplay among hypertension, inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome, the objective of the study was to test the EWH on differentiation, insulin signaling and inflammatory responses in 3T