WorldWideScience

Sample records for swing adsorption mtsa

  1. Transient Modeling and Analysis of a Metabolic Heat-Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) System for a PLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacomini, Christie; Powers, Aaron; Speight, Garland; Padilla, Sebastian; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    A Metabolic heat-regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) system is being developed for carbon dioxide, water and thermal control in a lunar and martian portable life support system (PLSS). A previous system analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of MTSA on PLSS design. That effort was Mars specific and assumed liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) coolant made from martian resources. Transient effects were not considered but rather average conditions were used throughout the analysis. This effort takes into further consideration the transient effects inherent in the cycling MTSA system as well as assesses the use of water as coolant. Standard heat transfer, thermodynamic, and heat exchanger methods are presented to conduct the analysis. Assumptions and model verification are discussed. The tool was used to perform various system studies. Coolant selection was explored and takes into account different operational scenarios as the minimum bed temperature is driven by the sublimation temperature of the coolant (water being significantly higher than LCO2). From this, coolant mass is sized coupled with sorbent bed mass because MTSA adsorption performance decreases with increasing sublimation temperature. Reduction in heat exchanger performance and even removal of certain heat exchangers, like a recuperative one between the two sorbent beds, is also investigated. Finally, the coolant flow rate is varied over the cycle to determine if there is a more optimal means of cooling the bed from a mass perspective. Results of these studies and subsequent recommendations for system design are presented.

  2. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2, Thermal and Humidity Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is proposed for a Portable Life Support System to remove and reject heat and carbon dioxide...

  3. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2, Thermal and Humidity Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is proposed for a Portable Life Support System to remove and reject heat and carbon dioxide...

  4. Simulated Lunar Testing of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Sebastian A.; Bower, Chad E.; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of the MTSA Subassembly (MTSAS) was designed and assembled for optimized Martian operations, but also meets system requirements for lunar operations. For lunar operations the MTSA sorption cycle is driven via a vacuum swing between suit ventilation loop pressure and lunar vacuum. The focus of this effort was testing in a simulated lunar environment. This environment was simulated in Paragon's EHF vacuum chamber. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the full cycle performance of the MTSA Subassembly EDU, and to assess CO2 loading and pressure drop of the wash coated aluminum reticulated foam sorbent bed. Lunar environment testing proved out the feasibility of pure vacuum swing operation, making MTSA a technology that can be tested and used on the Moon prior to going to Mars. Testing demonstrated better than expected CO2 Nomenclature loading on the sorbent and nearly replicates the equilibrium data from the sorbent manufacturer. This exceeded any of the previous sorbent loading tests performed by Paragon. Subsequently, the increased performance of the sorbent bed design indicates future designs will require less mass and volume than the current EDU rendering MTSA as very competitive for Martian PLSS applications.

  5. Simulated Lunar Testing of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Sebastian A.; Bower, Chad; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, H.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of the MTSA subassembly was designed and assembled for optimized Martian operations, but also meets system requirements for lunar operations. For lunar operations the MTSA sorption cycle is driven via a vacuum swing between suit ventilation loop pressure and lunar vacuum. The focus of this effort is operations and testing in a simulated lunar environment. This environment was simulated in Paragon s EHF vacuum chamber. The objective of this testing was to evaluate the full cycle performance of the MTSA Subassembly EDU, and to assess CO2 loading and pressure drop of the wash coated aluminum reticulated foam sorbent bed. The lunar testing proved out the feasibility of pure vacuum swing operation, making MTSA a technology that can be tested and used on the Moon prior to going to Mars. Testing demonstrated better than expected CO2 loading on the sorbent and nearly replicates the equilibrium data from the sorbent manufacturer. This had not been achieved in any of the previous sorbent loading tests performed by Paragon. Subsequently, the increased performance of the sorbent bed design indicates future designs will require less mass and volume than the current EDU rendering MTSA as very competitive for Martian PLSS applications.

  6. Sour pressure swing adsorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Shubhra Jyoti; Wright, Andrew David; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Kloosterman, Jeffrey William; Amy, Fabrice; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis

    2017-11-07

    Methods and apparatuses for separating CO.sub.2 and sulfur-containing compounds from a synthesis gas obtained from gasification of a carbonaceous feedstock. The primary separating steps are performed using a sour pressure swing adsorption (SPSA) system, followed by an acid gas enrichment system and a sulfur removal unit. The SPSA system includes multiple pressure equalization steps and a rinse step using a rinse gas that is supplied from a source other than directly from one of the adsorber beds of the SPSA system.

  7. Gas separation by pressure swing adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.; Gottzman, C.F.; Notaro, F.; Stewart, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past twenty years separation processes based upon pressure swing adsorption have replaced cryogenic processes in a number of selected applications such as air separation for production of moderate quantities of nitrogen and oxygen and recovery of hydrogen from refinery and chemical plant gases. Key events contributing to the emergence of PSA as an important process option have been the development of synthetic zeolite molecular sieves by Union Carbide Corporation in the USA and of carbon molecular sieves by Bergbau-Forschung in Germany. Today PSA processes enjoy significant commercial use producing oxygen from 0.1 Nm 3 /h for medical application to 1500 Nm 3 /h for steel mill use, for making nitrogen up to 1000 Nm 3 /h for inerting and in purifying hydrogen streams of up to 100,000 Nm 3 /h for refinery use. In this paper some of the principles of adsorptive separations are reviewed. The history of the technology is traced briefly with emphasis on key material, process and application events. The major commercial processes in the application of adsorption to bulk separation of air and hydrogen purification are reviewed in more detail with comparisons made to cryogenic alternatives in terms of specific characteristics, advantages and disadvantages where appropriate. Information on performance, reliability and comparative economics are discussed where available

  8. Investigation of Condensing Ice Heat Exchangers for MTSA Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Sebastian; Powers, Aaron; Ball, Tyler; Lacomini, Christie; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal, carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control for a Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). Metabolically-produced CO2 present in the ventilation gas of a PLSS is collected using a CO2-selective adsorbent via temperature swing adsorption. The temperature swing is initiated through cooling to well below metabolic temperatures. Cooling is achieved with a sublimation heat exchanger using water or liquid carbon dioxide (L CO2) expanded below sublimation temperature when exposed to low pressure or vacuum. Subsequent super heated vapor, as well as additional coolant, is used to further cool the astronaut. The temperature swing on the adsorbent is then completed by warming the adsorbent with a separate condensing ice heat exchanger (CIHX) using metabolic heat from moist ventilation gas. The condensed humidity in the ventilation gas is recycled at the habitat. The water condensation from the ventilation gas represents a significant source of potential energy for the warming of the adsorbent bed as it represents as much as half of the energy potential in the moist ventilation gas. Designing a heat exchanger to efficiently transfer this energy to the adsorbent bed and allow the collection of the water is a challenge since the CIHX will operate in a temperature range from 210K to 280K. The ventilation gas moisture will first freeze and then thaw, sometimes existing in three phases simultaneously.

  9. Optimal operation of rapid pressure swing adsorption with slop recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Gotink, R.W.M.; Bosch, H.

    1998-01-01

    Rapid pressure swing adsorption (RPSA) is a cyclic process operating, basically, in three phases: a pressurization, a delay, and a depressurization phase. A new, modified operation is suggested by the addition of either a raffinate recycle phase or an extract recycle phase, during which raffinate

  10. Pressure Swing Adsorption in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Jason

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a student laboratory in the Unit Operations Laboratory at the Colorado School of Mines: air separation by pressure swing adsorption. The flexibility of the system enables students to study the production of enriched nitrogen or oxygen streams. Automatic data acquisition permits the study of cycle steps and performance.…

  11. Ammonia Process by Pressure Swing Adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Felix Jegede

    2010-12-27

    The overall objective of the project is to design, develop and demonstrate a technically feasible and commercially viable system to produce ammonia along with recovery of the products by adsorption separation methods and significantly decrease the energy requirement in ammonia production. This is achieved through a significantly more efficient ammonia psa recovery system. The new ammonia recovery system receives the reactor effluents and achieves complete ammonia recovery, (which completely eliminates the energy intensive refrigeration and condensation system currently used in ammonia production). It also recovers the unused reactants and recycles them back to the reactor, free of potential reactor contaminants, and without the need for re-compression and re-heat of recycle stream thereby further saving more energy. The result is a significantly lower energy consumption, along with capital cost savings.

  12. AIR SEPARATION BY PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION USING SUPERIOR ADSORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph T. Yang

    2001-08-31

    Li-X zeolite (Si/Al = 1.0) is currently the best sorbent for use in the separation of air by adsorption processes. In particular, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) using zeolite sorbents is being increasingly used for air separation. Silver is also known to strongly affect the adsorptive properties of zeolites; and it is known that thermal vacuum dehydration of silver zeolites leads to the formation of silver clusters within the zeolite. In this work we have synthesized type X zeolites containing Ag and also varying mixtures of Li and Ag. In this project, we developed the Ag-containing zeolite as the best sorbent for air separation. We have also studied Co-ligand compounds as oxygen-selective sorbents. Syntheses, structural characterization and adsorption properties have been performed on all sorbents. The results are described in detail in 5 chapters.

  13. UPGRADING METHANE USING ULTRA-FAST THERMAL SWING ADSORPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the feasibility of upgrading low-Btu methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys' modular microchannel process technology. The project is on schedule and under budget. For Task 1.1, the open literature, patent information, and vendor contacts were surveyed to identify adsorbent candidates for experimental validation and subsequent demonstration in an MPT-based ultra-fast TSA separation for methane upgrading. The leading candidates for preferential adsorption of methane over nitrogen are highly microporous carbons. A Molecular Gate{trademark} zeolite from Engelhard Corporation has emerged as a candidate. For Task 1.2, experimental evaluation of adsorbents was initiated, and data were collected on carbon (MGN-101) from PICA, Inc. This carbon demonstrated a preferential capacity for methane over nitrogen, as well as a reasonable thermal swing differential capacity for a 90% methane and 10% nitrogen mixture. A similar methane swing capacity at 2 psig was measured. The mixture composition is relevant because gob gas contains nearly 85% methane and must be purified to 97% methane for pipeline quality.

  14. Optimization and Control of Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes Under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish

    2012-03-21

    The real-time periodic performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system strongly depends on the choice of key decision variables and operational considerations such as processing steps and column pressure temporal profiles, making its design and operation a challenging task. This work presents a detailed optimization-based approach for simultaneously incorporating PSA design, operational, and control aspects under the effect of time variant and invariant disturbances. It is applied to a two-bed, six-step PSA system represented by a rigorous mathematical model, where the key optimization objective is to maximize the expected H2 recovery while achieving a closed loop product H2 purity of 99.99%, for separating 70% H2, 30% CH4 feed. The benefits over sequential design and control approach are shown in terms of closed-loop recovery improvement of more than 3%, while the incorporation of explicit/multiparametric model predictive controllers improves the closed loop performance. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  15. Investigating Liquid CO2 as a Coolant for a MTSA Heat Exchanger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Padilla, Sebastian; Powers, Aaron; Iacomini, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO 2) control for a future Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. CO 2 removal and rejection is accomplished by driving a sorbent through a temperature swing of approximately 210 K to 280 K . The sorbent is cooled to these sub-freezing temperatures by a Sublimating Heat Exchanger (SHX) with liquid coolant expanded to sublimation temperatures. Water is the baseline coolant available on the moon, and if used, provides a competitive solution to the current baseline PLSS schematic. Liquid CO2 (LCO2) is another non-cryogenic coolant readily available from Martian resources which can be produced and stored using relatively low power and minimal infrastructure. LCO 2 expands from high pressure liquid (5800 kPa) to Mars ambient (0.8 kPa) to produce a gas / solid mixture at temperatures as low as 156 K. Analysis and experimental work are presented to investigate factors that drive the design of a heat exchanger to effectively use this sink. Emphasis is given to enabling efficient use of the CO 2 cooling potential and mitigation of heat exchanger clogging due to solid formation. Minimizing mass and size as well as coolant delivery are also considered. The analysis and experimental work is specifically performed in an MTSA-like application to enable higher fidelity modeling for future optimization of a SHX design. In doing so, the work also demonstrates principles and concepts so that the design can be further optimized later in integrated applications (including Lunar application where water might be a choice of coolant).

  16. Separation of hydrogen isotopes via single column pressure swing adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Y.W.; Hill, F.B.

    1981-01-01

    Separation of hydrogen isotopes based on kinetic isotope effects was studied. The mixture separated was hydrogen containing a trace of tritium as HT and the hydride was vanadium monohydride. The separation was achieved using the single-column pressure swing process. Stage separation factors are larger and product cuts smaller than for a two-column pressure swing process operated in the same monohydride phase

  17. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2, Thermal and Humidity Control, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MTSA technology specifically addresses the thermal, CO2 and humidity control challenges faced by Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS) to be used in NASA's...

  18. Physical Adsorption of Gases on Heterogeneous Solids and Equilibrium Studies of the Pressure Swing Adsorption Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaochun

    1990-01-01

    -parameter isotherm equation based on benzene adsorption isotherms. We extended further the TVFM to derive thermodynamic functions, such as the adsorption entropy, the adsorption enthalpy, and the adsorption energy distribution, and constructed these functions for various adsorption systems based on their adsorption isotherms. To explore the energetic heterogeneity of the adsorbent, we used two approaches. First, we used the overall integral isotherm equation to obtain the Langmuir -Freundlich isotherm; and second, we used the Gibb's relation to obtain an exponential isotherm equation. The adsorption energy-distribution function can be obtained from these isotherm equations. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process was studied based on Shandalman and Mitchell's equilibrium theory for a PSA system with a linear isotherm. This theory was extended to a PSA system with a non-linear isotherm. Relationships were established between the isotherms and process parameters, such as the enrichment factor, the critical recycle ratio, and the extent of the recovery.

  19. Rational design of temperature swing adsorption cycles for post-combustion CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joss, Lisa; Gazzani, Matteo; Mazzotti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The design of temperature swing adsorption (TSA) cycles aimed at recovering the heavy product at high purity is investigated by model-based design and applied to the capture of CO2 from flue gases. This model based design strategy and an extensive parametric analysis enables gaining an understanding

  20. Extension - Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2008-08-11

    The need for cost effective technologies for upgrading coal mine methane to pipeline quality natural gas is becoming ever greater. The current work presents and investigates a new approach to reduce the impact of the most costly step in the conventional technology, nitrogen rejection. The proposed approach is based on the Velocys microchannel platform, which is being developed to commercialize compact and cost efficient chemical processing technology. For this separation, ultra fast thermal swing sorption is enabled by the very high rates of heat and mass transfer inherent in microchannel processing. In a first phase of the project solid adsorbents were explored. Feasibility of ultrafast thermal swing was demonstrated but the available adsorbents had insufficient differential methane capacity to achieve the required commercial economics. In a second phase, ionic liquids were adopted as absorbents of choice, and experimental work and economic analyses, performed to gauge their potential, showed promise for this novel alternative. Final conclusions suggest that a combination of a required cost target for ionic liquids or a methane capacity increase or a combination of both is required for commercialization.

  1. Rapid Temperature Swing Adsorption using Polymeric/Supported Amine Hollow Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chance, Ronald [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Chen, Grace [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dai, Ying [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fan, Yanfang [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jones, Christopher [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kalyanaraman, Jayashree [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kawajiri, Yoshiaki [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lively, Ryan [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); McCool, Benjamin [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Pang, Simon [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Realff, Matthew [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Rezaei, Fateme [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Searcy, Katherine [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sholl, David [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Subramanian, Swernath [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Pang, Simon [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This project is a bench-scale, post-combustion capture project carried out at Georgia Tech (GT) with support and collaboration with GE, Algenol Biofuels, Southern Company and subcontract to Trimeric Corporation. The focus of the project is to develop a process based on composite amine-functionalized oxide / polymer hollow fibers for use as contactors in a rapid temperature swing adsorption post-combustion carbon dioxide capture process. The hollow fiber morphology allows coupling of efficient heat transfer with effective gas contacting, potentially giving lower parasitic loads on the power plant compared to traditional contacting strategies using solid sorbents.

  2. CFD Simulation for Separation of Carbon Dioxide-Methane Mixture by Pressure Swing Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A developing technology for gas separations is pressure swing adsorption, which has been proven to be more economical and energy efficient compared to other separation methods like cryogenic distillation and membrane separation. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA column, with carbon dioxide-methane as feed mixture and 6-FDA based polyimides as the adsorbent, was modeled and simulated in this work. Ansys Fluent 12.1, along with supplementary user defined functions, was used to develop a 2D transient Eulerian laminar viscous flow model for the PSA column. The model was validated by comparing the simulated results with established analytical models for PSA. The developed numerical model was used to determine the carbon dioxide concentration in the column as a function of time based on different operating conditions. Effect of various operating parameters like pressure, temperature, and flow rate on the separation efficiency has been studied and reported. Optimization studies were carried out to obtain suitable operating conditions for the feed gases separation. Simulation studies were carried out to determine the separation length required for complete separation of the feed mixture corresponding to different inlet feed concentrations which were entering the column at a given flow rate.

  3. Development of Pressure Swing Adsorption Technology for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, William; Paul, Heather; Thomas, Gretchen

    2006-01-01

    Metabolically produced carbon dioxide (CO2) removal in spacesuit applications has traditionally been accomplished utilizing non-regenerative Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) canisters. In recent years, regenerative Metal Oxide (MetOx) has been developed to replace the Extravehicular Mobility Unity (EMU) LiOH canister for extravehicular activity (EVA) missions in micro-gravity, however, MetOx may carry a significant weight burden for potential use in future Lunar or planetary EVA exploration missions. Additionally, both of these methods of CO2 removal have a finite capacity sized for the particular mission profile. Metabolically produced water vapor removal in spacesuits has historically been accomplished by a condensing heat exchanger within the ventilation process loop of the suit life support system. Advancements in solid amine technology employed in a pressure swing adsorption system have led to the possibility of combining both the CO2 and humidity control requirements into a single, lightweight device. Because the pressure swing adsorption system is regenerated to space vacuum or by an inert purge stream, the duration of an EVA mission may be extended significantly over currently employed technologies, while markedly reducing the overall subsystem weight compared to the combined weight of the condensing heat exchanger and current regenerative CO2 removal technology. This paper will provide and overview of ongoing development efforts evaluating the subsystem size required to manage anticipated metabolic CO2 and water vapor generation rates in a spacesuit environment.

  4. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Summer D.; Broerman, Craig D.; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O control become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solidamine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with nonregenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA implements radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrated the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or sub-ambient atmosphere.

  5. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m −3 . This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m −3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m −3

  6. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ˜0.2 Bq m-3. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m-3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m-3.

  7. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, J., E-mail: joseph.street@mines.sdsmt.edu; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D. [Department of Physics, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m{sup −3}. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m{sup −3} to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m{sup −3}.

  8. Modeling of CO2 Adsorption on Activated Carbon and 13X Zeolite via Vacuum Swing Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghampoor, M. H.; Mozaffarian, M.; Soleimani, M.; Takht Ravanchi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Due to carbon dioxide role in global warming, low CO2 emission limits have been established in recent years. This has led to a variety of studies on CO2 removal approaches. In this study, a VSA cycle consisting of two packed beds is considered for CO2 removal from flue gas. An atmospheric stream containing 20 CO2 and 80 N2 is fed to the beds at 50°C. Two adsorbents, namely Zeolite 13X and activated carbon were selected to compare their performance. Due to the monolayer adsorption of CO2 and N2 on these adsorbents, the Toth isotherm was used for equilibrium adsorption estimation. A quasi-second order model was considered for the mass transfer rate prediction due to low CO2 concentration. The modeling results showed that the average absolute deviation for equilibrium adsorption capacity prediction was 2, and the CO2 breakthrough time curve was predicted with less than 2.5 deviation. Based on the results, the VSA cycle time for zeolite 13X bed will be 3.5 times of the activated carbon bed. Another advantage of Zeolite 13X is that in each process cycle, 80 of adsorbent will be used, while only 74 of activated carbon in beds is used. The advantage of activated carbon bed is its better regeneration capability, since the activated carbon will be regenerated 5 more than zeolite 13X at a vacuum pressure of 0.02bar.

  9. A Robust Metal-Organic Framework for Dynamic Light-Induced Swing Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqing; Martinez, Marta Rubio; Perry, Zachary; Zhou, Hong-Cai; Falcaro, Paolo; Doblin, Christian; Lim, Seng; Hill, Anita J; Halstead, Barry; Hill, Matthew R

    2016-08-01

    Adsorbents for CO2 capture need to demonstrate efficient release. Light-induced swing adsorption (LISA) is an attractive new method to release captured CO2 that utilizes solar energy rather than electricity. MOFs, which can be tailored for use in LISA owing to their chemical functionality, are often unstable in moist atmospheres, precluding their use. A MOF is used that can release large quantities of CO2 via LISA and is resistant to moisture across a large pH range. PCN-250 undergoes LISA, with UV flux regulating the CO2 desorption capacity. Furthermore, under UV light, the azo residues within PCN-250 have constrained, local, structural flexibility. This is dynamic, rapidly switching back to the native state. Reusability tests demonstrate a 7.3 % and 4.9 % loss in both adsorption and LISA capacity after exposure to water for five cycles. These minimal changes confirm the structural robustness of PCN-250 and its great potential for triggered release applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Performance of an electrothermal swing adsorption system with postdesorption liquefaction for organic gas capture and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallouk, Kaitlin E; Rood, Mark J

    2013-07-02

    The use of adsorption on activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) followed by electrothermal swing adsorption (ESA) and postdesorption pressure and temperature control allows organic gases with boiling points below 0 °C to be captured from air streams and recovered as liquids. This technology has the potential to be a more sustainable abatement technique when compared to thermal oxidation. In this paper, we determine the process performance and energy requirements of a gas recovery system (GRS) using ACFC-ESA for three adsorbates with relative pressures between 8.3 × 10(-5) and 3.4 × 10(-3) and boiling points as low as -26.3 °C. The GRS is able to capture > 99% of the organic gas from the feed air stream, which is comparable to destruction efficiencies for thermal oxidizers. The energy used per liquid mole recovered ranges from 920 to 52,000 kJ/mol and is a function of relative pressure of the adsorbate in the feed gas. Quantifying the performance of the bench-scale gas recovery system in terms of its ability to remove organic gases from the adsorption stream and the energy required to liquefy the recovered organic gases is a critical step in developing new technologies to allow manufacturing to occur in a more sustainable manner. To our knowledge, this is the first time an ACFC-ESA system has been used to capture, recover, and liquefy organic compounds with vapor pressures as low as 8.3 × 10(-5) and the first time such a system has been analyzed for process performance and energy consumption.

  11. Development of a novel pressure swing adsorption dehydration system for the preservation of dermal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, S.K.; Chua, K.J.; Teoh, S.H.; Lim, K.K.; Sun, W.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the perishable nature of bioproducts, the need to preserve them until required is of paramount importance. This is particularly true for tissue engineered products such as the skin. The paper reports on a novel drying technology, Pressure Swing Adsorption Dehydration System (PSAD), for the dehydration of freshly prepared acellular porcine dermal tissue. The aim is to investigate the effectiveness of the PSADS to obtain partially dehydrated mammalian dermal tissue suitable for biomedical preservation. Experiments were carried out by a varying number of parameters such as the chamber pressure level, duration and temperature. Samples were weighed and the surface color was taken periodically to track moisture removal rate and color deterioration due to oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the lyophilized and processed samples were also taken for comparison. Results indicated that the depressurized level, frequency of pressure drops and temperature have positive effects on dehydration rate. Color change was generally low, indicating low level of oxidation. Hence, the PSADS provides a feasible way that can be as good if not better than current drying processes to obtain partially dried dermal tissue while minimizing product deterioration

  12. Dynamic modeling and explicit/multi-parametric MPC control of pressure swing adsorption systems

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish

    2011-01-01

    Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a flexible, albeit complex gas separation system. Due to its inherent nonlinear nature and discontinuous operation, the design of a model based PSA controller, especially with varying operating conditions, is a challenging task. This work focuses on the design of an explicit/multi-parametric model predictive controller for a PSA system. Based on a system involving four adsorbent beds separating 70% H2, 30% CH4 mixture into high purity hydrogen, the key controller objective is to fast track H2 purity to a set point value of 99.99%. To perform this task, a rigorous and systematic framework is employed. First, a high fidelity detailed dynamic model is built to represent the system\\'s real operation, and understand its dynamic behavior. The model is then used to derive appropriate linear models by applying suitable system identification techniques. For the reduced models, a model predictive control (MPC) step is formulated, where latest developments in multi-parametric programming and control are applied to derive a novel explicit MPC controller. To test the performance of the designed controller, closed loop simulations are performed where the dynamic model is used as the virtual plant. Comparison studies of the derived explicit MPC controller are also performed with conventional PID controllers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation and Optimization of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity levels in a spacesuit is critical to ensuring both the safety and comfort of an astronaut during extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Traditionally, this has been accomplished utilizing either non-regenerative lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or regenerative but heavy metal oxide (MetOx) canisters which pose a significant weight burden. Although such technology enables air revitalization, the volume requirements to store the waste canisters as well as the mass to transport multiple units become prohibitive as mission durations increase. Consequently, motivation exists toward developing a fully regenerative technology for spacesuit environmental control. The application of solid amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to control CO2 while concomitantly managing humidity levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating constraints imposed with the traditional technologies. Prototype air revitalization units employing this technology have been fabricated in both a rectangular and cylindrical geometry. Experimental results for these test articles have been collected and are described herein. In order to accelerate the developmental efforts, an axially-dispersed plug flow model with an accompanying energy balance has been established and correlated with the experimental data. The experimental and simulation results display good agreement for a variety of flow rates (110-170 ALM), replicated metabolic challenges (100-590 Watts), and atmosphere pressures under consideration for the spacesuit (248 and 760 mm Hg). The testing and model results lend insight into the operational capabilities of these devices as well as the influence the geometry of the device has on performance. In addition, variable metabolic profiles were imposed on the test articles in order to assess the ability of the technology to transition to new metabolic conditions. The advent of the model provides the capacity to apply

  14. Application of Vacuum Swing Adsorption for Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Removal from Manned Spacecraft Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, J.; Howard, D.

    2007-01-01

    In NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (Bush, 2004), (Griffin, 2007), humans will once again travel beyond the confines of earth's gravity, this time to remain there for extended periods. These forays will place unprecedented demands on launch systems. They must not only blast out of earth's gravity well as during the Apollo moon missions, but also liftoff the supplies needed to sustain a larger crew over much longer periods. Thus all spacecraft systems, including those for the separation of metabolic carbon dioxide and water from a crewed vehicle, must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Emphasis is also placed on system robustness both to minimize replacement parts and ensure crew safety when a quick return to earth is not possible. For short-term phases of manned space exploration, such as transit from the earth to the moon, venting of metabolic carbon dioxide and water to space is more efficient than the inclusion of large recycling systems on the spacecraft. The baseline system for the Orion spacecraft is an amine-based vacuum swing system (Smith, Perry et aI., 2006). As part of the development of an alternative approach, a sorbent-based CO2 and H2O removal system (Knox, Adams et aI., 2006), subscale testing was conducted to evaluate potential performance improvements obtainable by recuperating the heat of adsorption to aid in vacuum desorption. This bed design is shown in Figure 1, is depicted here with a lattice structure instead of reticulated foam for heat transfer. The slot widths are approximately 1.2 mm wide and 8.5 mm long. Bed depth is approximately 4.7 mm. Headers (not shown) were produced by the stereo lithography apparatus at MSFC.

  15. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2012-10-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  16. The experimental study of a new pressure equalization step in the pressure swing adsorption cycle of a portable oxygen concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    For portable oxygen concentrator by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) method, its volume, mass, power, oxygen flux and oxygen saving efficiency are the most important parameters which are affected strongly by the PSA cycle. In this paper, we propose a new pressure equalization step to optimize the PSA cycle. According to the experimental results, when the product ends of two beds are connected and the feed gas is switched from the high pressure bed to the low pressure bed during the pressure equalization step, the system has a larger oxygen flux, a less energy consumption and a more simple structure.

  17. Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts,Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) concentrations in the vapor phase of a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfortability, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxides (MetOx). Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material and requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications which control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through a fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed and documented from experimental and theoretical perspectives. To support developmental efforts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing adsorption technology. The efforts documented herein summarize performance characterization and simulation results for several variable metabolic profiles subjected to the RCA. Furthermore, a variety of control methods are explored including timed swing cycles, instantaneous CO2 feedback control, and time-averaged CO2 feedback control. A variety of off-nominal tests are also explored including high/low suit temperatures, increasingly high humidity cases, and dynamic pressure cases simulating the suit pre-breathe protocol. Consequently, this work builds on efforts previous efforts to fully bound the performance of the rapid cycle amine under a variety of nominal and off-nominal conditions.

  18. Factory test results on NOx recycle system using pressure swing adsorption method (PSA-method) for Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Masami; Nakamura, Kou; Shimizu, Yoshinao; Kubota, Masaru; Takeishi, Masayuki; Kumura, Seiji

    2005-01-01

    At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRR), a great deal of NOx is mainly used as oxidizing reagent of Pu. This NOx has been conventionally manufactured by reaction of sodium nitrite and nitric acid. Problem, however, was how to process the radioactive waste materials left after immunization of the non-radioactive sodium nitrite occurring in manufacturing and the residual NOx used in the reprocessing. This paper reports the factory test results on the recycle system for NOx from denitrating tower off-gas using PSA method (vacuum pressure swing adsorption method) which has been developed to reduce waste materials occurring in the manufacture of NOx and the processing of residual NOx in the off-gas. (author)

  19. CO2 CAPTURE BY TEMPERATURE SWING ADSORPTION IN A SOUND ASSISTED FLUIDIZED BED OF FINE POWDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Raganati, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption using solid sorbents is recognized to be attractive to complement or replace the current absorption technology for CO2 capture due to its low energy requirement. However, the development of new highly specific CO2 adsorbent is necessary: a solution is represented by fine materials, whose properties can be tuned at a molecular level by means of functionalization processes to tailor their CO2 capture performance. Another point to be addressed is the adoption of an adequate reactor co...

  20. Green Hydrogen Production from Raw Biogas: A Techno-Economic Investigation of Conventional Processes Using Pressure Swing Adsorption Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioele Di Marcoberardino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production from biogas with conventional systems. The work is part of the European project BIONICO, whose purpose is to develop and test a membrane reactor (MR for hydrogen production from biogas. Within the BIONICO project, steam reforming (SR and autothermal reforming (ATR, have been identified as well-known technologies for hydrogen production from biogas. Two biogases were examined: one produced by landfill and the other one by anaerobic digester. The purification unit required in the conventional plants has been studied and modeled in detail, using Aspen Adsorption. A pressure swing adsorption system (PSA with two and four beds and a vacuum PSA (VPSA made of four beds are compared. VPSA operates at sub-atmospheric pressure, thus increasing the recovery: results of the simulations show that the performances strongly depend on the design choices and on the gas feeding the purification unit. The best purity and recovery values were obtained with the VPSA system, which achieves a recovery between 50% and 60% at a vacuum pressure of 0.1 bar and a hydrogen purity of 99.999%. The SR and ATR plants were designed in Aspen Plus, integrating the studied VPSA model, and analyzing the behavior of the systems at the variation of the pressure and the type of input biogas. The SR system achieves a maximum efficiency, calculated on the LHV, of 52% at 12 bar, while the ATR of 28% at 18 bar. The economic analysis determined a hydrogen production cost of around 5 €/kg of hydrogen for the SR case.

  1. Separação de CO2 por meio da tecnologia PSA CO2 separation by the pressure swing adsorption technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia de Figueiredo Cordeiro Neves

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the separation of CO2 from a gas mixture containing 25% CO2, 4% O2 and 71% N2 using the pressure swing adsorption (PSA technique. The adsorbent selected was the zeolite 13X due to its great adsorption capacity for CO2 and selectivity towards the other components of the gas mixture. The experimental technique was designed to identify the most important variables for the process and to optimize it. It is shown that the PSA technique can be used to separate CO2 from O2 and N2 to obtain an effluent containing 2% CO2 with 99% separation efficiency.

  2. Integrated Testing of a Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, J. C.; Mulloth, Lila; Frederick, Kenneth; Affleck, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. This paper describes the integrated test results of a flight-like CDRA and a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for carbon dioxide removal and compression. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of CDRA.

  3. Java Swing

    CERN Document Server

    Loy, Marc; Eckstein, Robert; Elliott, James; Wood, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Swing is a fully-featured user interface development kit for Java applications. Building on the foundations of the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT), Swing enables cross-platform applications to use any of several pluggable look-and-feels. Swing developers can take advantage of its rich, flexible features and modular components, building elegant user interfaces with very little code. This second edition of Java Swing thoroughly covers all the features available in Java 2 SDK 1.3 and 1.4. More than simply a reference, this new edition takes a practical approach. It is a book by developers for

  4. Verification of hydrogen isotope separation by pressure swing adsorption process: Successive volume reduction of isotopic gas mixture using SZ-5A column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotoh, K., E-mail: kotoh@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Dept. of Applied Quantum Phys. and Nucl. Eng., Faculty of Eng., Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Takashima, S.; Tsuge, T. [Dept. of Applied Quantum Phys. and Nucl. Eng., Faculty of Eng., Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Asakura, Y.; Uda, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Sugiyama, T. [Faculty of Eng., Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chigusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    For the purpose of verifying the applicability of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process to such as volume reduction of tritiated waste storage, an experimental series was carried out by a PSA apparatus having a zeolite packed column operated at the liquefied nitrogen temperature, where synthetic zeolite 5A was used as a candidate of adsorbents. Experimental results are shown here which were obtained from cyclic operation of isolating a volume of hydrogen decontaminated with its heaver isotope from a mixture of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} while reducing a volume of this mixture storage. Successive reduction during six cycles is observed in the inventory of this hydrogen mixture in a gas holder. Experimental data are analyzed in order to evaluate the performance of this PSA process operating the hydrogen isotope separation, where several factors are introduced defining efficiencies of decontamination, volumetric reduction, and so on. These factors suggest that the PSA process is available for successive reduction of a tritiated hydrogen storage inventory. A tritium waste management system of PSA process combined with electrolysis is considerable which is aiming at reducing the inventory of tritiated water in storage.

  5. Cation siting in low-silica zeolites with potential applications in pressure swing adsorption technology and structural studies of novel tectosilicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Allen Wayne

    Adsorption and catalytic phenomena in zeolites are influenced by coulombic interactions within zeolite structure as well as by size restrictions imposed by zeolitic micropores. In the first part of this thesis, we investigate materials with potential applications in the selective adsorption of nitrogen. Studies have indicated the performance of LiX adsorbents correlates with the number of accessible lithium cations in the zeolite. However, in zeolite LiX only one-third of the lithium cations interact with adsorbed molecules. This prompted our investigation of other low-silica zeolites. The first zeolite examined was a cancrinite prepared in the presence of 1,3-butanediol. Neutron diffraction studies on the lithium-exchanged cancrinite suggest most of the lithium cations are ideally positioned within the micropores. However, our experiments show that carbonate anions are occluded within the micropores of this cancrinite. Another material examined in this study was zeolite (Ba,K)-GL. Neutron diffraction experiments show that 49 of the extraframework charges are located in the micropores. Unfortunately, less than 20% of these cations are replaced after lithium-exchange. We also attempted to directly synthesize a (Ba,Li)-GL. However, diffraction experiments and chemical analyses show that most of the extraframework charge is compensated by barium. Because of molecular size restrictions imposed by currently known zeolites, there is continued interest in the synthesis of materials that can be used for processing large molecules. This motivated our investigation of two tectosilicates MCM-61 and MCM-47. MCM-61 is an aluminosilicate made in the presence of the potassium-18-Crown-6 complex. Our structure solution shows MCM-61 is formed from novel [610412] polyhedral cage units that connect to form 18-membered-ring cages. The structure of MCM-61 suggests that crown ethers, azamacrocycles, and cryptands may be useful for the syntheses of extra-large pore zeolites. MCM-47 is

  6. Swinging, Adultery by Consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Von Der Weid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to discuss issues related to the sexual-affective relationships between men and women in our society through the experience of couples who practice swinging. It considers especially the original conceptions of marriage, sexuality, infidelity, and also the rules of a swinger relationship. Does swinging create a new marriage model? Or, instead, does it reinforce pre-existing models? Through an analysis of the discourses of swinging couples about their erotic interactions, the paper examines how they articulate values such as love, sex, and pleasure in their relationships.

  7. Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Banerjee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of saw dust for the removal of an anionic dye, tartrazine, from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The experiments were carried out in batch mode. Effect of the parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye was studied. Equilibrium was achieved in 70 min. Maximum adsorption of dye was achieved at pH 3. Removal percent was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of dye solution, and maximum removal was found to be 97% at 1 mg/L of tartrazine. The removal increases from 71% to 97% when the initial concentration of dye solution decreases from 15 mg/L to 1 mg/L. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. The (Langmuir adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is found to be 4.71 mg/g at 318 K. Kinetic modeling of the process of removal was carried out and the process of removal was found to follow a pseudo second order model and the value of rate constant for adsorption process was calculated as 2.7 × 10−3 g mg−1 min−1 at 318 K. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (ΔG°, enthalpy (ΔH° and entropy (ΔS° were determined and the negative values of ΔG° indicated that the process of removal was spontaneous at all values of temperatures. Further, the values of ΔH° indicated the endothermic nature of the process of removal.

  8. ANTI-SWING CRANE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.

    1957-09-17

    A device that reduces or eliminntes the swing of an object being transported by a traveling crane is described. The supporting cable of the crane extends through a guide and follower positioned below the crane by an electric motor and follow-up circuit. The swing or horizontal motion of the cable is detected by the follower, and a signal is generated that will cause the motor to move the follower in opposition to the motion of the swing thus having a dampening effect on the pendulum action of the supported body. This improvement is particularly valuable when the supported load may be so radioactive that a person could not manually stop the swing.

  9. SwingStates: adding state machines to the swing toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Appert , Caroline; Beaudouin-Lafon , Michel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This article describes SwingStates, a library that adds state machines to the Java Swing user interface toolkit. Unlike traditional approaches, which use callbacks or listeners to define interaction, state machines provide a powerful control structure and localize all of the interaction code in one place. SwingStates takes advantage of Java's inner classes, providing programmers with a natural syntax and making it easier to follow and debug the resulting code. SwingSta...

  10. Swinging in Imaginary Time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 2. Swinging in Imaginary Time - More on the Not-So-Simple Pendulum. Cihan Saclioglu. General Article Volume 15 Issue 2 February 2010 pp 104-115. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. El mejor swing

    OpenAIRE

    Baydal Bertomeu, José Mª; Espí Guerola, Luis; Garrido Jaen, Jose David; ALCANTARA ALCOVER, ENRIQUE; Magraner Llavador, Laura; DURA GIL, JUAN-VICENTE; Gómez Herrero, Juan Alfonso; Huertas Leyva, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    [EN] The gesture of the golf swing is a complex movement involving the participation of virtually all segments of the musculoskeletal system, it is also a gesture with a difficult technical execution and it could sometimes be harmful for the golf player. Therefore, IBV makes available to both amateur and professional golfers a set of biomechanical techniques applied to the analysis and improvement of golf technique, biomechanical adaptation and personal...

  12. Playing with a digital swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2017-01-01

    Based on a field study in a kindergarten among children in Denmark, this paper explores playing activities on a digital swing, the SON-X Octavia (SON-X) and its Applause application. SON-X is an interactive sound unit that can be attached to any swing chain. Here, I explore the relationship betwe...

  13. Swings and roundabouts: management of jealousy in heterosexual swinging couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard; McDonald, Dee

    2007-06-01

    Swinging involves consensual mutual involvement in extra-dyadic sex. Jealousy in swinging couples is an interesting topic for social psychological research, because it is a common and acceptable response to a romantic partner's real or imagined infidelity. This qualitative study examined the management of jealousy among four active heterosexual swinging couples living in southern England. Participants highlighted the importance of discussion and negotiation to develop a shared couple identity and shared rules and boundaries that allowed them to manage jealousy so that they could better enjoy swinging. Rather than seeking to eliminate jealousy, swingers may manage their feelings of jealousy in order to increase sexual excitement and arousal. This study adds to our understanding of jealousy among swingers and the broader issue of jealousy in intimate relationships.

  14. Investigation of the Linker Swing Motion in the Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework ZIF-90

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bin

    2018-03-13

    The linker swing motion in the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-90 is investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, molecular dynamics (MD) and grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The relation between the terminal aldehyde group rotation and the linker swing motion is revealed. The extremely high activation energy of the linker swing motion in ZIF-90 can be attributed to the asymmetric geometry and electron distribution of aldehyde groups. The change in the gate structure resulting from the linker rotation is used to understand the guest adsorption in ZIF-90. This study shows that it is possible to tune the linker swing motion and then the properties of ZIF-90 by manipulating the terminal group rotation. The results highlight the importance of considering the internal freedom effects to correctly describe the linker swing motion and the flexibility of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs).

  15. 104 Swinging in Imaginary Time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    104. Swinging in Imaginary Time. More on the Not-So-Simple Pendulum. Cihan Saclioglu. 116. Madhava, Gregory, Leibnitz, and Sums of Two. Squares. Shailesh A Shirali. 124. Electronic Effects in the Cyclocondensation of Benzil. G Nagendrappa. 131. Systems Biology. Karthik Raman and Nagasuma Chandra. 154.

  16. Effects of tempo, swing density, and listener's drumming experience, on swing detection thresholds for drum rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, Andrew V; Shams, Ladan

    2017-06-01

    Swing, a popular technique in music performance, has been said to enhance the "groove" of the rhythm. Swing works by delaying the onsets of even-numbered subdivisions of each beat (e.g., 16th-note swing delays the onsets of the second and fourth 16th-note subdivisions of each quarter-note beat). The "swing magnitude" (loosely speaking, the amount of delay) is often quite small. And there has been little investigation, using musical stimuli, into what swing magnitudes listeners can detect. To that end, this study presented continually-looped electronic drum rhythms, with 16th-note swing in the hi-hat on every other bar, to drummers and non-drummers. Swing magnitude was adjusted using a staircase procedure, to determine the magnitude where the difference between swinging and not-swinging bars was just-noticeable. Different tempi (60 to 140 quarter-notes per minute) and swing densities (how often notes occurred at even-numbered subdivisions) were used. Results showed that all subjects could detect smaller swing magnitudes when swing density was higher, thus confirming a previous speculation that the perceptual salience of swing increases with swing density. The just-noticeable magnitudes of swing for drummers differed from those of non-drummers, in terms of both overall magnitude and sensitivity to tempo, thus prompting questions for further exploration.

  17. Nasopharyngeal cancer through maxillary swing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Ojeda, Luis; Chicaiza Acosta, Jorge; Ulloa Miranda, Darwin

    2006-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer is very rare in Ecuador. Radiotherapy associated to concurrent chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment. In case of tumor recurrence, these two treatment modalities are usually not effective. For this reason, several studies about the satisfactory results of salvage surgery in terms of locoregional control of the disease, have appeared recently in the literature. We report our first experience of surgical salvage resection of a recurrent tumor through an anterolateral approach (maxillary swing) with an initial satisfactory result. (The author)

  18. Oxygen cost of kettlebell swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Ryan E; Mayhew, Jerry L; Koch, Alexander J

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, kettlebells have re-emerged as a popular training modality for the conditioning of athletes. We sought to quantify the aerobic challenge of one popularly recommended kettlebell workout. Ten college-aged men (age = 20.8 +/- 1.1 years, height = 179 +/- 3 cm, body mass = 77.3 +/- 7.7 kg, Vo2max = 52.78 +/- 6.22 ml.kg.min) completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion for the determination of Vo2max. Two to 7 days later, subjects completed a kettlebell exercise routine consisting of as many 2-handed swings as could be completed in 12 minutes using a 16-kg kettlebell. During this exercise bout, subjects' expired gases were collected and analyzed for the determination of Vo2, and heart rate (HR) was continuously measured. Percent HRmax and Vo2max achieved during the kettlebell exercise were compared with each other using a paired t-test. Subjects completed 265 +/- 68 swings during the 12 minutes and achieved an average Vo2 of 34.31 +/- 5.67 ml.kg.min and an average HR of 165 +/- 13 b.min. The average %HRmax (86.8 +/- 6.0%) during kettlebell exercise was significantly higher (p kettlebell swings can impart a metabolic challenge of sufficient intensity to increase Vo2max. Heart rate was substantially higher than Vo2 during kettlebell swings. Kettlebells provide a useful tool with which coaches may improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of their athletes. However, HRs achieved during continuous kettlebell exercise are significantly higher than actual Vo2.

  19. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  20. The definitive guide to Java Swing

    CERN Document Server

    Zukowski, John

    2005-01-01

    Updated for the 1.5 edition of the Java 2 Platform, this third edition is a one-stop resource for serious Java developers. It shows the parts of Java Swing API used to create graphical user interfaces (GUI); and Model-View-Controller architecture that lies behind all Swing components; and customizing components for specific environments.

  1. Swinging Over the Water Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    cuerda justo por debajo de su punto de inflexión y cayendo casi en línea recta hacia abajo en el agua desde el reposo. Por otra parte, como la velocidad...final angle1 of f / 2  if 20 2gL  , where g is earth’s R 0  L  FIGURE 1. Trajectory of a child swinging on the end of a rope and...1 cos )y L   , (3) above the water. Basic kinematics then implies that his flight time through the air will be 2 sin sin 2yt g g g

  2. Gas storage and separation by electric field swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P; Obrey, Stephen J; Devlin, David J; Sansinena, Jose Maria

    2013-05-28

    Gases are stored, separated, and/or concentrated. An electric field is applied across a porous dielectric adsorbent material. A gas component from a gas mixture may be selectively separated inside the energized dielectric. Gas is stored in the energized dielectric for as long as the dielectric is energized. The energized dielectric selectively separates, or concentrates, a gas component of the gas mixture. When the potential is removed, gas from inside the dielectric is released.

  3. SwingStates: Adding state machines to Java and the Swing toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Appert , Caroline; Beaudouin-Lafon , Michel

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This article describes SwingStates, a Java toolkit designed to facilitate the development of graphical user interfaces and bring advanced interaction techniques to the Java platform. SwingStates is based on the use of finite-state machines specified directly in Java to describe the behavior of interactive systems. State machines can be used to redefine the behavior of existing Swing widgets or, in combination with a new canvas widget that features a rich graphical mode...

  4. The how and why of arm swing during human walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyns, Pieter; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Duysens, Jacques

    Humans walk bipedally, and thus, it is unclear why they swing their arms. In this paper, we will review the mechanisms and functions of arm swinging in human gait. First, we discuss the potential advantages of having swinging arms. Second, we go into the detail on the debate whether arm swing is

  5. The how and why of arm swing during human walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyns, P.; Bruijn, S.M.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Humans walk bipedally, and thus, it is unclear why they swing their arms. In this paper, we will review the mechanisms and functions of arm swinging in human gait. First, we discuss the potential advantages of having swinging arms. Second, we go into the detail on the debate whether arm swing is

  6. Mechanical demands of kettlebell swing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish mechanical demands of kettlebell swing exercise and provide context by comparing them to mechanical demands of back squat and jump squat exercise. Sixteen men performed 2 sets of 10 swings with 16, 24, and 32 kg, 2 back squats with 20, 40, 60, and 80% 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and 2 jump squats with 0, 20, 40, and 60% 1RM. Sagittal plane motion and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were recorded during swing performance, and GRFs were recorded during back and jump squat performances. Net impulse, and peak and mean propulsion phase force and power applied to the center of mass (CM) were obtained from GRF data and kettlebell displacement and velocity from motion data. The results of repeated measures analysis of variance showed that all swing CM measures were maximized during the 32-kg condition but that velocity of the kettlebell was maximized during the 16-kg condition; displacement was consistent across different loads. Peak and mean force tended to be greater during back and jump squat performances, but swing peak and mean power were greater than back squat power and largely comparable with jump squat power. However, the highest net impulse was recorded during swing exercise with 32 kg (276.1 ± 45.3 N·s vs. 60% 1RM back squat: 182.8 ± 43.1 N·s, and 40% jump squat: 231.3 ± 47.1 N·s). These findings indicate a large mechanical demand during swing exercise that could make swing exercise a useful addition to strength and conditioning programs that aim to develop the ability to rapidly apply force.

  7. The Kinetics of Swinging a Baseball Bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Osvalds, Nikolas J; Rainbow, Michael J

    2018-04-13

    The purpose of this study was to compute the three-dimensional kinetics required to swing three youth baseball bats of varying moments of inertia (MOI). 306 swings by 22 male players (13-18 yrs.) were analyzed. Inverse dynamics with respect to the batter's hands were computed given the known kinematics and physical properties of the bats. We found that peak force increased with larger bat MOI and was strongly correlated with bat tip speed. In contrast, peak moments were weakly correlated with bat MOI and bat tip speed. Throughout the swing, the force applied to the bat was dominated by a component aligned with the long axis of the bat and directed away from the bat knob, while the moment applied to the bat was minimal until just prior to ball impact. These results indicate that players act to mostly "pull" the bat during their swing until just prior to ball impact, at which point they rapidly increase the moment on the bat. This kinetic analysis provides novel insight into the forces and moments used to swing baseball bats.

  8. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges. Each...

  9. Analysis of Swing Movement in Ballroom Dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Shioya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural rise and fall movement represents typical characteristics of the swing dances in ballroom dances. The rise and fall movements are analyzed in the mechanical point of view in the presentation. The biomechanics of the rise and fall movements were analyzed in terms of the potential energy and the velocity of the body. Some basic figures of Waltz are taken as examples with application suggestion to the other dances. A sinusoidal function is employed for vertical and horizontal movements in the analysis featuring the natural swing movement of the dancer’s body. The height of center of gravity of dancer and its vertical acceleration are quantitatively exhibited in graphs for each basic movement of the figures of these dances. It is shown that the maximum height in the movement depends on each figure in each dance and that it is limited by the acceleration analysis regardless of dancer’s height or weight.

  10. Tarzan swings: a dangerous new epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D J

    1991-09-01

    Accidental injury in school children was thought to be unpreventable. This series presents the results of 24 consecutive patients with 29 fractures as a result of a fall from a 'Tarzan' rope swing. Twenty-six of the fractures involved the upper limb, 11 patients required hospitalization with operative intervention and 13 required outpatient care only. These types of injury are preventable. The morbidity and pain that these young patients suffer can be avoided.

  11. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  12. Stepwise Precession of the Resonant Swinging Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Darryl D.; Lynch, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The swinging spring, or elastic pendulum, has a 2:1:1 resonance arising at cubic order in its approximate Lagrangian. The corresponding modulation equations are the well-known three-wave equations that also apply, for example, in laser-matter interaction in a cavity. We use Hamiltonian reduction and pattern evocation techniques to derive a formula that describes the characteristic feature of this system's dynamics, namely, the stepwise precession of its azimuthal angle.

  13. The Java Series. GUI Building with Swing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    The Swing Java package contains all the components that you expect to see in a modern User Interface, from buttons that contain pictures to trees and grids. It is a big library but it's designed to have the appropriate complexity for the task at hand - if something is simple you don't have to write much code to get it done, but if you want the power to manipulate and deeply customise it you also have it. This tutorial will introduce you to the basic set of components that Swing provides and to the mechanisms behind them. It will provide an overview of what you can do with Swing, even if you are new to GUI programming. However, if you want to follow closely the mechanisms behind what's being explained, it is convenient to have some basic knowledge of the main concepts of Java AWT (class hierarchy and event model) as provided by the previous tutorial of the Java Series. Organiser(s): M.Marquina and R.Ramos /IT-User Support

  14. Swing, o adultério consentido Swinging, adultery by consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia von der Weid

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem como objetivo discutir questões referentes às relações afetivo-sexuais entre homens e mulheres na sociedade atual a partir da experiência de casais adeptos da prática do swing. Procura-se compreender as concepções nativas sobre casamento, sexualidade, infidelidade e, também, as regras de uma relação swinger. O swing cria um novo modelo de casamento? Ou reforça os modelos já existentes? Por meio da análise do discurso dos casais adeptos da troca sobre suas interações eróticas, busca-se compreender a forma como se articulam amor, sexo e prazer nesses relacionamentosThis research seeks to discuss issues related to the sexual-affective relationships between men and women in our society through the experience of couples who practice swinging. It considers especially the original conceptions of marriage, sexuality, infidelity, and also the rules of a swinger relationship. Does swinging create a new marriage model? Or, instead, does it reinforce pre-existing models? Through an analysis of the discourses of swinging couples about their erotic interactions, the paper examines how they articulate values such as love, sex, and pleasure in their relationships

  15. Adsorption Isotherms from Temperature-Programmed Physiosorption - Equilibrium & Kinetics -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The separation of gas mixtures is a major operation in the process industry for hydrocarbon separation, removal of pollutant from effluent streams, and purification of process streams. The work in this thesis is related to gas separation by pressure swing adsorption (PSA); a well-known example is

  16. CSS-Driven Java Swing Component

    OpenAIRE

    Hvězda, Matěj

    2014-01-01

    Tato práce je zaměřená na vytvoření komponenty Java Swing, která zobrazí obsah HTML dokumentu na základě kaskádových stylů (CSS). Důvod k vytvoření takové komponenty je umožnění vývojářům tvořit uživatelské rozhraní pomocí CSS v Javě bez nutnosti toho, aby znali rozhraní Java Swing.   K syntaktickému rozboru HTML a CSS je použit zobrazovací stroj CSSBox , který umožní získat veškeré potřebné informace ke správnému zobrazení dokumentu. Komponenta je implementována pomocí komponent Swingu...

  17. The Impact of UPFC on Power Swing Blocker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khodaparast, Jalal; Khederzadeh, M.; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    Power Swing Blocker (PSB) is a complementary part in distance relay that detects power swing in the transmission line to prevent unintended operation of distance relay. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is used in a transmission line to control active and reactive power. The UPFC operation dur...

  18. 77 FR 66703 - Safety Standard for Infant Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... at http://www.cpsc.gov/library/foia/foia12/brief/infantswings.pdf . B. The Product 1. Definition ASTM... against allowing infants to sleep in the swing. One of the comments suggests that the following language be added to the warning: ``Do not use the swing for routine sleep.'' (Response 8) We do not believe...

  19. The effects of baseball bat mass properties on swing mechanics, ground reaction forces, and swing timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Walter A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Diffendaffer, Alek Z

    2016-01-01

    Swing trajectory and ground reaction forces (GRF) of 30 collegiate baseball batters hitting a pitched ball were compared between a standard bat, a bat with extra weight about its barrel, and a bat with extra weight in its handle. It was hypothesised that when compared to a standard bat, only a handle-weighted bat would produce equivalent bat kinematics. It was also hypothesised that hitters would not produce equivalent GRFs for each weighted bat, but would maintain equivalent timing when compared to a standard bat. Data were collected utilising a 500 Hz motion capture system and 1,000 Hz force plate system. Data between bats were considered equivalent when the 95% confidence interval of the difference was contained entirely within ±5% of the standard bat mean value. The handle-weighted bat had equivalent kinematics, whereas the barrel-weighted bat did not. Both weighted bats had equivalent peak GRF variables. Neither weighted bat maintained equivalence in the timing of bat kinematics and some peak GRFs. The ability to maintain swing kinematics with a handle-weighted bat may have implications for swing training and warm-up. However, altered timings of kinematics and kinetics require further research to understand the implications on returning to a conventionally weighted bat.

  20. Finite Element Modeling of Adsorption Processes for Gas Separation and Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humble, Paul H.; Williams, Richard M.; Hayes, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in the design and fabrication of automated radioxenon collection systems for nuclear explosion monitoring. In developing new systems there is an ever present need to reduce size, power consumption and complexity. Most of these systems have used adsorption based techniques for gas collection and/or concentration and purification. These processes include pressure swing adsorption, vacuum swing adsorption, temperature swing adsorption, gas chromatography and hybrid processes that combine elements of these techniques. To better understand these processes, and help with the development of improved hardware, a finite element software package (COMSOL Multiphysics) has been used to develop complex models of these adsorption based operations. The partial differential equations used include a mass balance for each gas species and adsorbed species along with a convection conduction energy balance equation. These equations in conjunction with multicomponent temperature dependent isotherm models are capable of simulating separation processes ranging from complex multibed PSA processes, and multicomponent temperature programmed gas chromatography, to simple two component temperature swing adsorption. These numerical simulations have been a valuable tool for assessing the capability of proposed processes and optimizing hardware and process parameters.

  1. KINEMATIC AND KINETIC VARIABLES DIFFER BETWEEN KETTLEBELL SWING STYLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Garrett S; Schmitt, Abigail C; Shutt, Jason M; Cook, Gray; Butler, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Kettlebell (KB) and indian club swings (ICS) are used diversely for developing strength and power. It has been proposed that multiple swing techniques can be used interchangeably to elicit similar adaptations within performance training. Hypothesis/Purpose: It was hypothesized that there will be not be a difference in peak joint angles between types of swings. Furthermore, given the nature of the overhead kettlebell swing (OKS), it was hypothesized that the OKS will be associated with a greater cycle time and a greater vertical impulse compared to shoulder height swing (SKS) and ICS. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematics and kinetics of the SKS, OKS, and ICS. Cross-sectional cohort. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent 3D biomechanical analysis for assessment of kinematic and kinetic data. Subjects performed two trials of ten repetitions at full effort for each swing in a randomized order using either a standard set of 0.45 kg indian clubs or sex specific KB loads (Female = 12kg, Male = 20kg). Lower extremity sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics were analyzed for peak values during the down and up portions of the swing patterns. Statistical analyses were carried out utilizing one-way ANOVAs ( p power training. 2.

  2. Hamstring myoelectrical activity during three different kettlebell swing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Monte, Michael J; Opar, David A; Timmins, Ryan G; Ross, James; Keogh, Justin Wl; Lorenzen, Christian

    2017-09-11

    Kettlebell exercises have become an increasingly popular form of resistance training and component of lower body rehabilitative training programs; despite a lack of scientific literature illustrating internal mechanisms and effectiveness of these approaches. Participants (n=14) performed three different styles of kettlebell swings (hip hinge, squat and double knee extension) and were assessed for medial hamstrings (MH) and biceps femoris (BF) myoelectrical activity via surface electromyography (sEMG). Bipolar pre-gelled Ag/AgCl surface electromyography (sEMG) electrodes (10mm diameter, 20mm inter-electrode distance) were placed on the participant's dominant limb after correct skin preparation.There was a main effect for swing type (p = 0.004), where the hip hinge swing elicited a greater overall MH and BF sEMG in comparison to the squat swing (mean difference = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.53 to 6.32; p = 0.002) and the double knee extension swing (mean difference = 5.32; 95% CI = 0.80 to 9.83; p = 0.020). Across all swing types, normalised percentage of MH sEMG was significantly higher compared to the BF (mean difference = 9.93; 95% CI = 1.67 to 18.19; p = 0.022). The hip hinge kettlebell swing produced the greatest amount of hamstring sEMG for the three styles of kettlebell swings assessed. These findings have implications for the application of kettlebell swing exercises in strength and conditioning, injury prevention and rehabilitation programs.

  3. A swing driven by liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng

    Angular momentum in liquid crystals exists as flow, director reorientation, etc. However, it is hard to observe and measure angular momentum in liquid crystals by a direct mechanical approach. Torsion pendulum is a general tool to measure angular momentum by torque balance. Our torsion pendulum can harvest the angular momentum in liquid crystals to make it observable. The oscillation of the pendulum keeps increasing by constructively adding a small angular momentum of liquid crystals each period at the resonant frequency of the pendulum. Its similar to a swing driven by a force at its resonant frequency. For the torsion pendulum, a cage made of two aluminum discs, in which a liquid crystal cell is placed, is suspended between two thin tungsten wires. A gold mirror, which is a part of the optical lever system, is attached on one tungsten wire. As first demonstration, we fabricate a circular hybrid liquid crystal cell, which can induce concentric backflows to generate angular momentum. The alignment on the planar substrate is concentric and tangential. Due to the coupling between director rotation and flow, the induced backflow goes around the cell when we add electrical pulses between top and bottom substrates. The oscillation is observed by a position sensitive detector and analyzed on the basis of Eriksen-Leslie theory. With vacuum condition and synchronous driving system, the oscillation signal is improved. We demonstrate that this torsion pendulum can sensitively detect the angular momentum in liquid crystals.

  4. Active-learning physics experiments using the Tarzan Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, K. P.; Gaston, Charles A.

    2001-03-01

    By reversing the conventional laboratory sequences, the Tarzan Swing engages and excites students, improving learning and retention. Problems are solved theoretically, then solutions are verified physically. Failure engenders reanalysis; success brings cheers. Students work overtime eagerly to achieve that success.

  5. CFD Analysis of Swing of Cricket Ball and Trajectory Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Jithin; Tom, Josin; Ruishikesh, Kamat; Jose, Jyothish; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    This work aims to understand the aerodynamics associated with the flight and swing of a cricket ball and predict its flight trajectory over the course of the game: at start (smooth ball) and as the game progresses (rough ball). Asymmetric airflow over the ball due to seam orientation and surface roughness can cause flight deviation (swing). The values of Drag, Lift and Side forces which are crucial for determining the trajectory of the ball were found with the help of FLUENT using the standard K- ɛ model. Analysis was done to study how the ball velocity, spin imparted to be ball and the tilt of the seam affects the movement of the ball through air. The governing force balance equations in 3 dimensions in combination a MATLAB code which used Heun's method was used for obtaining the trajectory of the ball. The conditions for the conventional swing and reverse swing to occur were deduced from the analysis and found to be in alignment with the real life situation. Critical seam angle for maximum swing and transition speed for normal to reverse swing were found out. The obtained trajectories were compared to real life hawk eye trajectories for validation. The analysis results were in good agreement with the real life situation.

  6. Effects of moment of inertia on restricted motion swing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorah, David; Choppin, Simon; James, David

    2015-06-01

    In many sports, the maximum swing speed of a racket, club, or bat is a key performance parameter. Previous research in multiple sports supports the hypothesis of an inverse association between the swing speed and moment of inertia of an implement. The aim of this study was to rigorously test and quantify this relationship using a restricted swinging motion. Eight visually identical rods with a common mass but variable moment of inertia were manufactured. Motion capture technology was used to record eight participants' maximal effort swings with the rods. Strict exclusion criteria were applied to data that did not adhere to the prescribed movement pattern. The study found that for all participants, swing speed decreased with respect to moment of inertia according to a power relationship. However, in contrast to previous studies, the rate of decrease varied from participant to participant. With further analysis it was found that participants performed more consistently at the higher end of the moment of inertia range tested. The results support the inverse association between swing speed and moment of inertia but only for higher moment of inertia implements.

  7. An prediction and explanation of 'climatic swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    Introduction. In works of the author [1, 2] the mechanism has been offered and the scenario of formation of congelations and warming of the Earth and their inversion and asymmetric displays in opposite hemispheres has been described. These planetary thermal processes are connected with gravitational forced oscillations of the core-mantle system of the Earth, controlling and directing submission of heat in the top layers of the mantle and on a surface of the Earth. It is shown, that action of this mechanism should observed in various time scales. In particular significant changes of a climate should occur to the thousand-year periods, with the periods in tens and hundred thousand years. Thus excitation of system the core-mantle is caused by planetary secular orbital perturbations and by perturbations of the Earth rotation which as is known are characterized by significant amplitudes. But also in a short time scale the climate variations with the interannual and decade periods also should be observed, how dynamic consequences of the swing of the core-mantle system of the Earth with the same periods [3]. The fundamental phenomenon of secular polar drift of the core relatively to the viscous-elastic and changeable mantle [4] in last years has obtained convincing confirmations various geosciences. Reliable an attribute of influence of oscillations of the core on a variation of natural processes is their property of inversion when, for example, activity of process accrues in northern hemisphere and decreases in a southern hemisphere. Such contrast secular changes in northern and southern (N/S) hemispheres have been predicted on the base of geodynamic model [1] and revealed according to observations: from gravimetry measurements of a gravity [5]; in determination of a secular trend of a sea level, as global, and in northern and southern hemispheres [6, 7]; in redistribution of air masses [6, 8]; in geodetic measurements of changes of average radiuses of northern and

  8. Split-arm swinging: the effect of arm swinging manipulation on interlimb coordination during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Moshe; Zeilig, Gabi; Bloch, Ayala; Fasano, Alfonso; Plotnik, Meir

    2017-08-01

    Human locomotion is defined by bilateral coordination of gait (BCG) and shared features with the fore-hindlimb coordination of quadrupeds. The objective of the present study is to explore the influence of arm swinging (AS) on BCG. Sixteen young, healthy individuals (eight women; eight right motor-dominant, eight left-motor dominant) participated. Participants performed 10 walking trials (2 min). In each of the trials AS was unilaterally manipulated (e.g., arm restriction, weight on the wrist), bilaterally manipulated, or not manipulated. The order of trials was random. Walking trials were performed on a treadmill. Gait kinematics were recorded by a motion capture system. Using feedback-controlled belt speed allowed the participants to walk at a self-determined gait speed. Effects of the manipulations were assessed by AS amplitudes and the phase coordination index (PCI), which quantifies the left-right anti-phased stepping pattern. Most of the AS manipulations caused an increase in PCI values (i.e., reduced lower limb coordination). Unilateral AS manipulation had a reciprocal effect on the AS amplitude of the other arm such that, for example, over-swinging of the right arm led to a decrease in the AS amplitude of the left arm. Side of motor dominance was not found to have a significant impact on PCI and AS amplitude. The present findings suggest that lower limb BCG is markedly influenced by the rhythmic AS during walking. It may thus be important for gait rehabilitation programs targeting BCG to take AS into account. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Control mechanisms for four-limb coordination in human locomotion are not fully known. To study the influence of arm swinging (AS) on bilateral coordination of the lower limbs during walking, we introduced a split-AS paradigm in young, healthy adults. AS manipulations caused deterioration in the anti-phased stepping pattern and impacted the AS amplitudes for the contralateral arm, suggesting that lower limb coordination is markedly

  9. WORK AND POWER ANALYSIS OF THE GOLF SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A work and power (energy analysis of the golf swing is presented as a method for evaluating the mechanics of the golf swing. Two computer models were used to estimate the energy production, transfers, and conversions within the body and the golf club by employing standard methods of mechanics to calculate work of forces and torques, kinetic energies, strain energies, and power during the golf swing. A detailed model of the golf club determined the energy transfers and conversions within the club during the downswing. A full-body computer model of the golfer determined the internal work produced at the body joints during the downswing. Four diverse amateur subjects were analyzed and compared using these two models. The energy approach yielded new information on swing mechanics, determined the force and torque components that accelerated the club, illustrated which segments of the body produced work, determined the timing of internal work generation, measured swing efficiencies, calculated shaft energy storage and release, and proved that forces and range of motion were equally important in developing club head velocity. A more comprehensive description of the downswing emerged from information derived from an energy based analysis

  10. The Effect of Kettlebell Swing Load and Cadence on Physiological, Perceptual and Mechanical Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Duncan; Rosanna Gibbard; Leanne M. Raymond; Peter Mundy

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the physiological, perceptual and mechanical responses to kettlebell swings at different loads and swing speeds. Following familiarization 16 strength trained participants (10 males, six females, mean age ± SD = 23 ± 2.9) performed four trials: 2 min kettlebell swings with an 8 kg kettlebell at a fast cadence; 2 min kettlebell swings with an 8 kg kettlebell at a slow cadence; 4 min kettlebell swings with a 4 kg kettlebell at a fast cadence; 4 min kettlebell swings with a 4...

  11. JavaFX2 a Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Čapek, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals mainly with the JavaFX2 library and its innovations. An aim is to acquaint readers with wider possibilities and help them with a transition from Swing to JavaFX2. In the thesis there are gone into benefits JavaFX2 which is accompanied by a source code examples for an illustration. A part of the thesis is also an application which shows differences between Swing and JavaFX2 both a graphical view as well as a viewing of the source code. Most of the information containe...

  12. A Standalone Vision Impairments Simulator for Java Swing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Theofanis; Votis, Konstantinos; Korn, Peter; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Likothanasis, Spriridon

    A lot of work has been done lately in an attempt to assess accessibility. For the case of web rich-client applications several tools exist that simulate how a vision impaired or colour-blind person would perceive this content. In this work we propose a simulation tool for non-web JavaTM Swing applications. Developers and designers face a real challenge when creating software that has to cope with a lot of interaction situations, as well as specific directives for ensuring an accessible interaction. The proposed standalone tool will assist them to explore user-centered design and important accessibility issues for their JavaTM Swing implementations.

  13. Software-based governor control helps manage power swings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, T.A. [Woodward Governor Co., Loveland, CO (United States); Stead, D.P. [Homer Electric Association, AK (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Severe power swings occurring when water flow increases to impulse turbines at the 120-MW Bradley Lake Project in Alaska are managed by an innovative governor control scheme. To control severe power swings occurring when water flow increased to the impulse turbines at the Bradley Lake Project near Homer, Alaska, the plant`s governor was reprogrammed. This reprogramming was made possible owing to the use of state-of-the-art digital electronics. The new control scheme, which focuses on using the total flow of water ot the turbine rather than manipulating individual needle positions, is an appropriate solution for other high-head hydroelectric plants with impulse turbines encountering similar problems.

  14. Effect of arm swing strategy on local dynamic stability of human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Wittink, Harriet; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-02-01

    Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which mode of arm swing creates the most stable gait. To examine how different modes of arm swing affect gait stability. Ten healthy young male subjects volunteered for this study. All subjects walked with four different arm swing instructions at seven different gait speeds. The Xsens motion capture suit was used to capture gait kinematics. Basic gait parameters, variability and stability measures were calculated. We found an increased stability in the medio-lateral direction with excessive arm swing in comparison to normal arm swing at all gait speeds. Moreover, excessive arm swing increased stability in the anterior-posterior and vertical direction at low gait speeds. Ipsilateral and inphase arm swing did not differ compared to a normal arm swing. Excessive arm swing is a promising gait manipulation to improve local dynamic stability. For excessive arm swing in the ML direction there appears to be converging evidence. The effect of excessive arm swing on more clinically relevant groups like the more fall prone elderly or stroke survivors is worth further investigating. Excessive arm swing significantly increases local dynamic stability of human gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 7011 - Safety Standard for Infant Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ...) lack the neck muscle tone and strength to keep their head up. In 4 of the 5 slump-over deaths, the... asphyxiation occurs when the position of the child's body (such as compression of their neck from their head... a swing motion that is not horizontal, we are proposing that the text of ASTM F 2088-11b section 7.3...

  16. Input Shaping for Helicopter Slung Load Swing Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a feedforward swing reducing control system for augmenting already existing helicopter controllers and enables slung load flight with autonomous helicopters general cargo transport. The feedforward controller is designed to avoid excitation of the lightly damped modes of the...

  17. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  18. In-situ regeneration of activated carbon with electric potential swing desorption (EPSD) for the H2S removal from biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, M.; Almustapha, M. N.; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    In-situ regeneration of a granular activated carbon was conducted for the first time using electric potential swing desorption (EPSD) with potentials up to 30 V. The EPSD system was compared against a standard non-potential system using a fixed-bed reactor with a bed of 10 g of activated carbon...... treating a gas mixture with 10,000 ppm H2S. Breakthrough times, adsorption desorption volume, capacities, effect of regeneration and desorption kinetics were investigated. The analysis showed that desorption of H2S using the new EPSD system was 3 times quicker compared with the no potential system. Hence......, physical adsorption using EPSD over activated carbon is efficient, safe and environmental friendly and could be used for the in-situ regeneration of granular activated carbon without using a PSA and/or TSA system. Additionally, adsorption and desorption cycles can be obtained with a classical two column...

  19. Swing States, The Winner-Take-All Electoral College, and Fiscal Federalism

    OpenAIRE

    Duquette, Christopher; Mixon, Franklin; Cebula, Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a debate regarding the impact of swing or independent voters in American politics. While some argue that swing voters either do not swing or have a marginal impact on campaigns, the decline in voter partisan identification and the rise of independents means that they have a potential impact on elections, making them a desirable commodity to candidates. Additionally, presidential elections represent a unique case for swing voters. A robust literature notes that during the presidenti...

  20. LUMBAR CORSETS CAN DECREASE LUMBAR MOTION IN GOLF SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hashimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K., full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC, with a soft corset (SC, and with a hard corset (HC, with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38° or HC (28° than under WOC (44° conditions (p < 0.05. The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec than under SC (177°/sec and WOC (191° /sec conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC

  1. Evaluation of the Oxygen Concentrator Prototypes: Pressure Swing Adsorption Prototype and Electrochemical Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Kelly M.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    An oxygen concentrator is needed to provide enriched oxygen in support of medical contingency operations for future exploration human spaceflight programs. It would provide continuous oxygen to an ill or injured crew member in a closed cabin environment. Oxygen concentration technology is being pursued to concentrate oxygen from the ambient environment so oxygen as a consumable resource can be reduced. Because oxygen is a critical resource in manned spaceflight, using an oxygen concentrator to pull oxygen out of the ambient environment instead of using compressed oxygen can provide better optimization of resources. The overall goal of this project is to develop an oxygen concentrator module that minimizes the hardware mass, volume, and power footprint while still performing at the required clinical capabilities. Should a medical event occur that requires patient oxygenation, the release of 100 percent oxygen into a small closed cabin environment can rapidly raise oxygen levels to the vehicles fire limit. The use of an oxygen concentrator to enrich oxygen from the ambient air and concentrate it to the point where it can be used for medical purposes means no oxygen is needed from the ultra-high purity (99.5+% O2) oxygen reserve tanks. By not adding oxygen from compressed tanks to the cabin environment, oxygen levels can be kept below the vehicle fire limit thereby extending the duration of care provided to an oxygenated patient without environmental control system intervention to keep the cabin oxygen levels below the fire limits. The oxygen concentrator will be a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearable device. A demonstration unit for the International Space Station (ISS) is planned to verify the technology and provide oxygen capability. For the ISS, the demonstration unit should not exceed 10 kg (approximately 22 lb), which is the soft stowage mass limit for launch on resupply vehicles for the ISS. The unit's size should allow for transport within the spacecraft to an ill crewmember. The user interface needs to be designed for ease of use by the local care provider and with consideration to the limited amount of training available to the astronaut corps for medical equipment and procedures.

  2. Development of Pressure Swing Adsorption Technology for Spaceflight Medical Oxygen Concentrators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There were 8 tasks associated with this project. These tasks are listed below. All were completed on schedule. In the year 1, Tasks 1, 2, and 6 were initiated. In...

  3. Effect of active arm swing to local dynamic stability during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Li, Yue; Liu, An-Min; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Yin-Zhi; Hu, Fei; Chen, Jin-Ling; Dai, Ke-Rong; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Arm swing is an essential component in regulating dynamic stability of the whole body during walking, while the contribution of active arm swing to local dynamic stability of different motion segments remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of arm swing under natural arm swing condition and active arm swing condition on local dynamic stability and gait variability of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) and lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint). The local divergence exponents (λs) and mean standard deviation over strides (MeanSD) of 24 young healthy adults were calculated while they were walking on treadmill with two arm swing conditions at their preferred walking speed (PWS). We found that in medial-lateral direction, both λs and MeanSD values of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) in active arm swing condition were significantly lower than those in natural arm swing condition (parm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). In anterior-posterior and vertical direction, neither λs nor MeanSD values of all body segments showed significant difference between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). These findings indicate that active arm swing may help to improve the local dynamic stability of the trunk segments in medial-lateral direction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization analysis of swing check valve closing induced water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wenwei; Han Weishi; Guo Qing; Wang Xin; Liu Chunyu

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical-physics model of double pump parallel feed system was constructed. The water hammer was precisely calculated, which was formed in the closing process of swing check valve. And a systematic analysis was carried out to determine the influence of the torques from both valve plate and damping torsion spring on the valve closing induced water hammer. The results show that the swing check valve would distinctly produce the water hammer during the closing procedure in the double pump parallel feed water system. The torques of the valve plate can partly reduce the water hammer effect, and implying appropriate materials of valve plate and appropriate spring can effectively relieve the harm of water hammer. (authors)

  5. Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2009-01-01

    of swing. The design of the delayed feedback controller is presented as an optimization problem which gives the possibility of an automated design process. Simulations and flight test verifications of the control system on two different autonomous helicopters are presented and it is shown how a significant......This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems using intentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous...... helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integration with a feedforward control scheme based on input shaping for concurrent avoidance and dampening...

  6. Balance Devices Train Golfers for a Consistent Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts, NASA funded research that resulted in a commercial product to treat balance disorders. West Palm Beach, Florida-based Sports Therapy Inc. worked with the inventor to modify the technology, creating the Dynamic Balance System (DBS) for sports applications. DBS is now used by Professional Golfers' Association-owned facilities and golf academies to help players achieve an effective, balanced swing.

  7. The acute hormonal response to the kettlebell swing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnar, Ronald G; Duplanty, Anthony A; Hill, David W; McFarlin, Brian K; Vingren, Jakob L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute hormonal response to the kettlebell swing exercise. Ten recreationally resistance trained men (age, 24 ± 4 years; height, 175 ± 6 cm; body mass, 78.7 ± 9.9 kg) performed 12 rounds of 30 seconds of 16 kg kettlebell swings alternated with 30 seconds of rest. Blood samples were collected before (PRE), immediately after (IP), and 15 (P15) and 30 minutes after exercise (P30) and analyzed for testosterone (T), immunoreactive growth hormone, cortisol (C), and lactate concentrations. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were measured at the end of each round. Testosterone was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) at IP than at PRE, P15, or P30 (PRE: 28 ± 3; IP: 32 ± 4; P15: 29 ± 3; P30: 27 ± 3 nmol·L). Growth hormone was higher at IP, P15, and P30 than at PRE (PRE: 0.1 ± 0.1; IP: 1.8 ± 1.2; P15: 2.1 ± 1.1; P30: 1.6 ± 1.3 μg·L). Cortisol was higher at IP and P15 than at PRE and P30 (PRE: 617 ± 266; IP: 894 ± 354; P15: 875 ± 243; P30: 645 ± 285 nmol·L). Lactate was higher at IP, P15, and P30 than at PRE (PRE: 1.1 ± 0.5; IP: 7.0 ± 3.0; P15: 4.0 ± 2.7; P30: 2.5 ± 1.8 mmol·L). Heart rate increased progressively from 57 ± 12 at PRE to 170 ± 10 at IP. The exercise protocol produced an acute increase in hormones involved in muscle adaptations. Thus, the kettlebell swing exercise might provide a good supplement to resistance training programs.

  8. Analysis of Human Swing Movement and Transferring into Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodaira, Jun; Amaoka, Yuki; Hamatani, Shinsuke; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Hirai, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Fumio

    Based on Generalized Motor Program, we analyzed the skill of human's table-tennis movement We hypothesized that it can be divided into arm swing and translational movements by upper and lower body movements, respectively. We expressed 3D position of the racket by only one parameter resulted from the analysis using Principal Component Analysis. Body trunk position measurement attested the lower body plays the role of keeping fixed relative-position between the ball and the body trunk at any hitting time. By applying human skills in upper and lower body movements, we could make the robot properly play table-tennis with a human.

  9. Early Prediction of Transient Voltage Sags caused by Rotor Swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates various methods to predict voltage sags at load buses caused by large generator rotor swings and following a transient disturbance. Three different prediction methods are proposed, which all use real-time measurements from PMUs. One of the methods uses a slightly extended...... version of the E-SIME method. The other two methods use Measurements and process them by recursive least square estimation. It is shown that the prediction method employing E-SIME allows the earliest detection of a critical voltage sag with satisfactory accuracy....

  10. Sound Synthesis of Objects Swinging through Air Using Physical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Selfridge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A real-time physically-derived sound synthesis model is presented that replicates the sounds generated as an object swings through the air. Equations obtained from fluid dynamics are used to determine the sounds generated while exposing practical parameters for a user or game engine to vary. Listening tests reveal that for the majority of objects modelled, participants rated the sounds from our model as plausible as actual recordings. The sword sound effect performed worse than others, and it is speculated that one cause may be linked to the difference between expectations of a sound and the actual sound for a given object.

  11. Swinging of two-domains vesicles in shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Tusch, Simon; Khelloufi, Kamel; Leonetti, Marc

    2014-11-01

    Giant lipid vesicles and red blood cells in shear flow at low shear rates tank tread (TT) at small viscosity ratio between the inner particle volume and the external fluid, and flip or tumble (T) at large viscosity ratio. The phase diagram of motion of red blood cells is however much more complex. Swinging superimposes to TT, cells wobble and roll rather than tumble with increasing shear rate and present a shear-rate driven transition between TT to T. These features are attributed to the shear elasticity and the non spherical stress-free shape of the cell membrane, which stores shear elastic energy as a function of the relative position of its elements. We have created vesicles with a phase diagram of motion comparable to that of red blood cells by preparing membranes with two lipids and cholesterol. These membranes present two domains separated by a contact line. The line has a tension energy that depends on its relative position on the vesicle. Similarly to red blood cells, two-domains vesicles swing and wobble. An analytical model where line tension energy is added to the Keller and Skalak's model fits our experimental data without any adjustable parameter. Our experiments and model shed light on the motion of deformable particles in shear flow.

  12. Cyclical swings: The bête noire of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Hannah S

    2016-02-01

    Progress in psychiatry in the West has been retarded by the proclivity of the discipline to swing violently between 2 approaches to viewing mental illness; that is, emphasizing-to the exclusion of the other-the material-somatic vs the psychical-experiential avenues to knowledge. Each time a shift occurs, the leaders of the new dominant approach emotionally denounce the principles and ideas that came before. We can examine this phenomenon historically by looking at Romantic psychiatry, mid-/late-19th century empirical psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern biological psychiatry. Looking at the 2 approaches in treatment today, the gold standard of patient care involves combining empirical/psychological care in 1 person (the psychiatrist) or shared between 2 clinicians working intimately with each other (psychiatrist with psychologist or social worker.) Yet as regards psychiatrists, they are discouraged from paying full attention to the psychological side by the way managed care and third-party payment have combined to remunerate them. Finally, how do we account for the intense swings and denunciations in psychiatry? The author speculates on possible explanations but leaves the question open for her readers. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Influence of simulation environment on properties of swing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-min; Han, Yuan-yuan; Zhou, Yu-feng; Han, Jie-cai; Yao, Wang

    2007-12-01

    Swing system used in the guiding system is a kind of special equipment composed by a piece of silicon carbide mirror and a support structure made of Al alloy. In order to connect them without harm to their properties, epoxy resin is used and is solidified at room temperature. The influence of connecting process on the optical property of the mirror in swing system is studied by testing the wave-front error before and after connecting process. The results show that the connecting process under room temperature has little effect on wave-front error. The deformations of the mirror under gravity fields and thermal fields are analyzed by finite element method. The calculated results show that the surface figures under all conditions are satisfied with the requirement. The deformation of the mirror under gravity field paralleling to axial direction is the largest. When there is temperature gradient, the effect of axial temperature field on the mirror surface is much greater than that of radial temperature field.

  14. Pressure swing distillation of azeotropic mixture – A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate a pressure-swing distillation column for the separation and purification of ethanol from the ethanol–water binary system. The choice for this system is due to the importance of the ethanol–water separation. A steady-state equilibrium-stage model based on normalised MESH equations is used to simulate pressure-swing distillation column applied for the production of ethanol. All the work has been carried out using Aspen Plus simulator, version 13.2. Among the activity coefficient models available, the WILSON-RK model with binary parameters predicted by the Aspen Plus simulator is shown to be the most accurate to correlate the experimental vapor-/liquid equilibrium (VLE data available for the ethanol–water system. The simulation has been satisfactorily carried out for a mixture of 20 mol% ethanol in water at 1 atm pressure and 90 °C with a molar flow rate of 100 kmol/h. The adjusting parameters include D/F ratio and reflux ratio of the two columns to get water purity of 99.5 mol% from the bottom of the Low Pressure Column (LPC and the ethanol purity of 99.7 mol% from the bottom of High Pressure Column (HPC.

  15. Supplement to Resonant Rossby Wave Triads and the Swinging Spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peter

    2003-05-01

    The wave solutions discovered by Rossby are of fundamental importance for atmospheric dynamics. The nonlinear interactions between these waves determine the primary characteristics of the energy spectrum. These interactions take place between triplets of waves known as "resonant triads" and, for small amplitude, they are described by the three-wave equations. These same equations also govern the dynamics of a simple mechanical system, the elastic pendulum or swinging spring. This equivalence allows us to deduce properties, not otherwise evident, of resonant triads from the behavior of the mechanical system. In particular, the characteristic stepwise precession of the swing plane, so obvious from observation of the physical spring pendulum, is also found for the Rossby triads. This phenomenon has not been previously noted and is an example of the insight coming from the mathematical equivalence of the two systems. The implications of the precession for predictability of atmospheric motions are considered. The pattern of breakdown of unstable Rossby waves is very sensitive to unobservable details of the perturbations, making accurate prediction very difficult.

  16. Pulsation and precession of the resonant swinging spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peter; Houghton, Conor

    2004-03-01

    When the frequencies of the elastic and pendular oscillations of an elastic pendulum or swinging spring are in the ratio 2:1, there is a regular exchange of energy between the two modes of oscillation. We refer to this phenomenon as pulsation. Between the horizontal excursions, or pulses, the spring undergoes a change of azimuth which we call the precession angle. The pulsation and stepwise precession are the characteristic features of the dynamics of the swinging spring. The modulation equations for the small-amplitude resonant motion of the system are the well-known three-wave equations. We use Hamiltonian reduction to determine a complete analytical solution. The amplitudes and phases are expressed in terms of both Weierstrass and Jacobi elliptic functions. The strength of the pulsation may be computed from the invariants of the equations. Several analytical formulas are found for the precession angle. We deduce simplified approximate expressions, in terms of elementary functions, for the pulsation amplitude and precession angle and demonstrate their high accuracy by numerical experiments. Thus, for given initial conditions, we can describe the envelope dynamics without solving the equations. Conversely, given the parameters which determine the envelope, we can specify initial conditions which, to a high level of accuracy, yield this envelope.

  17. Resonant Rossby Wave Triads and the Swinging Spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peter

    2003-05-01

    The wave solutions discovered by Rossby are of fundamental importance for atmospheric dynamics. The nonlinear interactions between these waves determine the primary characteristics of the energy spectrum. These interactions take place between triplets of waves known as "resonant triads" and, for a small amplitude, they are described by the three-wave equations. These same equations also govern the dynamics of a simple mechanical system, the elastic pendulum or swinging spring. This equivalence allows us to deduce properties, not otherwise evident, of resonant triads from the behavior of the mechanical system. In particular, the characteristic stepwise precession of the swing plane, so obvious from observation of the physical spring pendulum, is also found for the Rossby triads. This phenomenon has not been previously noted and is an example of the insight coming from the mathematical equivalence of the two systems. The implications of the precession for predictability of atmospheric motions are considered. The pattern of breakdown of unstable Rossby waves is very sensitive to unobservable details of the perturbations, making accurate prediction very difficult.

  18. Energy harvesting from human motion: exploiting swing and shock excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylli, K; Hoffmann, D; Willmann, A; Becker, P; Folkmer, B; Manoli, Y

    2015-01-01

    Modern compact and low power sensors and systems are leading towards increasingly integrated wearable systems. One key bottleneck of this technology is the power supply. The use of energy harvesting techniques offers a way of supplying sensor systems without the need for batteries and maintenance. In this work we present the development and characterization of two inductive energy harvesters which exploit different characteristics of the human gait. A multi-coil topology harvester is presented which uses the swing motion of the foot. The second device is a shock-type harvester which is excited into resonance upon heel strike. Both devices were modeled and designed with the key constraint of device height in mind, in order to facilitate the integration into the shoe sole. The devices were characterized under different motion speeds and with two test subjects on a treadmill. An average power output of up to 0.84 mW is achieved with the swing harvester. With a total device volume including the housing of 21 cm 3 a power density of 40 μW cm −3 results. The shock harvester generates an average power output of up to 4.13 mW. The power density amounts to 86 μW cm −3 for the total device volume of 48 cm 3 . Difficulties and potential improvements are discussed briefly. (paper)

  19. Development of swing-free / shock free crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J. S.; Park, B. S.; Kim, S. H.; Kwon, D. A.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. H.; Jeon, B. K.; Lee, Y. E.; Lee, S. H.

    1999-04-01

    To develop the automatized crane and to apply the relevant technology to nuclear power plants, in this project and automatized crane control system is developed along with a swing and shock crane. Also, this technology has been transferred to Bando Machinery Co. Ltd. The drive mechanism of crane is designed by adopting vector drives which provide soft acceleration and deceleration characteristics. Also, radio modems and a long-range laser displacement sensor which are commercially available are introduced to accommodate the large scaled crane systems. Also, several devices are developed for the automation of crane system. These are a crane controller, a supervisory controller, a angle measuring device, and laser localizer, a drum grapple device, and crane supervisory program. The performance of developed crane system is revealed to rapidly reduce the residual swing of the transported object and precisely controls the object position in any case. Also, the laser localizer provides he capability of measuring any arbitrary located objects within 3 cm error range

  20. Swing Once More: Relating Timing and Tempo in Expert Jazz Drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; de Haas, W.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841250

    2008-01-01

    Swing refers to a characteristic long-short subdivision of the beat that is generally considered a crucial aspect that contributes to the quality of a jazz or pop performance. The current study measures this pattern (referred to as the ‘swing ratio’) at different tempi in jazz drumming. The

  1. Swing once more: Relating timing and tempo in expert jazz drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; de Haas, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Swing refers to a characteristic long-short subdivision of the beat that is generally considered a crucial aspect that contributes to the quality of a jazz or pop performance. The current study measures this pattern (referred to as the 'swing ratio') at different tempi in jazz drumming. The

  2. Cycle-to-cycle control of swing phase of paraplegic gait induced by surface electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, H.M.; Franken, H.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Baardman, G.; Redmeijer, R.A.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Parameterised swing phase of gait in paraplegics was obtained using surface electrical stimulation of the hip flexors, hamstrings and quadriceps; the hip flexors were stimulated to obtain a desired hip angle range, the hamstrings to provide foot clearance in the forward swing, and the quadriceps to

  3. Power Swing Detection in UPFC-Compensated Line by Phase Angle of Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khodaparast, Jalal; Khederzadeh, M.; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2017-01-01

    condition. The results show that these indices may no longer work in systems with UPFC. In addition, this paper proposes a new method for detecting power swing based on the phase angle of current at relay point and compares it with two other methods. The new method distinguishes power swing from a fault...

  4. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  5. The Effect of Kettlebell Swing Load and Cadence on Physiological, Perceptual and Mechanical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Duncan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the physiological, perceptual and mechanical responses to kettlebell swings at different loads and swing speeds. Following familiarization 16 strength trained participants (10 males, six females, mean age ± SD = 23 ± 2.9 performed four trials: 2 min kettlebell swings with an 8 kg kettlebell at a fast cadence; 2 min kettlebell swings with an 8 kg kettlebell at a slow cadence; 4 min kettlebell swings with a 4 kg kettlebell at a fast cadence; 4 min kettlebell swings with a 4 kg kettlebell at a slow cadence. Repeated measured analysis of variance indicated no significant differences in peak blood lactate or peak net vertical force across loads and cadences (P > 0.05. Significant main effect for time for heart rate indicated that heart rate was higher at the end of each bout than at mid-point (P = 0.001. A significant Load X cadence interaction for rating of perceived exertion (RPE (P = 0.030 revealed that RPE values were significantly higher in the 8 kg slow cadence condition compared to the 4 kg slow (P = 0.002 and 4 kg fast (P = 0.016 conditions. In summary, this study indicates that the physiological and mechanical responses to kettlebell swings at 4 kg and 8 kg loads and at fast and slow cadence were similar, whereas the perceptual response is greater when swinging an 8 kg kettlebell at slow cadence.

  6. A low-power multi port register file design using a low-swing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hao; Liu Yan; Hua Siliang; Wang Donghui; Hou Chaohuan

    2012-01-01

    A low-power register file is designed by using a low-swing strategy and modified NAND address decoders. The proposed low-swing strategy is based on the feedback scheme and uses dynamic logic to reduce the active feedback power. This method contains two parts: WRITE and READ strategy. In the WRITE low-swing scheme, the modified memory cell is used to support low-swing WRITE. The modified NAND decoder not only dissipates less power, but also enables a great deal of area reduction. Compared with the conventional single-ended register file, the low-swing strategy saves 34.5% and 51.15% bit-line power in WRITE and READ separately. The post simulation results indicate a 39.4% power improvement when the twelve ports are all busy. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Analysis of Golf Swing Motion and Applied Loads on the Human Body Using Soft-Golf TM Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Ki Young; So, Ha Ju; Kim, Sung Hyeon; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Nam Gyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetic effect of Soft-golf TM instrument on the human body structure. To analyze the kinetic effect of Soft-golf TM instrument, Golf swing using Soft-golf TM instrument and regular golf instrument was captured. And then Upper limbs and lumbar joint torques was calculated via computer simulation. Five man participated this study. Subjects performed golf swing using a regular golf and Soft-golf TM instrument. Golf swing motion was captured using three position sensor, active infrared LED maker and force plate. Golf swing model was generated and simulated using ADAMS/LifeMOD program. As a results, joint torque during Soft-golf swing were lower than regular golf swing. Thus soft-golf swing have joint load lower than regular golf swing and contribute to reduce joint injury

  8. Development of swing-free / shock free crane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J. S.; Park, B. S.; Kim, S. H.; Kwon, D. A.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. H.; Jeon, B. K. [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. E.; Lee, S. H. [Bando Machinery Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To develop the automatized crane and to apply the relevant technology to nuclear power plants, in this project and automatized crane control system is developed along with a swing and shock crane. Also, this technology has been transferred to Bando Machinery Co. Ltd. The drive mechanism of crane is designed by adopting vector drives which provide soft acceleration and deceleration characteristics. Also, radio modems and a long-range laser displacement sensor which are commercially available are introduced to accommodate the large scaled crane systems. Also, several devices are developed for the automation of crane system. These are a crane controller, a supervisory controller, a angle measuring device, and laser localizer, a drum grapple device, and crane supervisory program. The performance of developed crane system is revealed to rapidly reduce the residual swingof the transported object and precisely controls the object position in any case. Also, the laser localizer provides he capability of measuring any arbitrary located objects within 3 cm error range.

  9. Swing-Down of 21-PWR Waste Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.K. Scheider

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) swinging down from a horizontally suspended height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 13). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 18) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design of the type of 21-PWR WP design considered in this calculation and provides the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design

  10. Effects of Aging on Arm Swing during Gait: The Role of Gait Speed and Dual Tasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelman, Anat; Bernad-Elazari, Hagar; Nobel, Tomer; Thaler, Avner; Peruzzi, Agnese; Plotnik, Meir; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Healthy walking is characterized by pronounced arm swing and axial rotation. Aging effects on gait speed, stride length and stride time variability have been previously reported, however, less is known about aging effects on arm swing and axial rotation and their relationship to age-associated gait changes during usual walking and during more challenging conditions like dual tasking. Sixty healthy adults between the ages of 30-77 were included in this study designed to address this gap. Lightweight body fixed sensors were placed on each wrist and lower back. Participants walked under 3 walking conditions each of 1 minute: 1) comfortable speed, 2) walking while serially subtracting 3's (Dual Task), 3) walking at fast speed. Aging effects on arm swing amplitude, range, symmetry, jerk and axial rotation amplitude and jerk were compared between decades of age (30-40; 41-50; 51-60; 61-77 years). As expected, older adults walked slower (p = 0.03) and with increased stride variability (p = 0.02). Arm swing amplitude decreased with age under all conditions (p = 0.04). In the oldest group, arm swing decreased during dual task and increased during the fast walking condition (parm swing asymmetry increased during the dual task in the older groups (parm swing jerk (parm swing amplitude of the dominant arm, arm swing asymmetry and axial rotation jerk were all independent predictors of age in a multivariate model. These findings suggest that the effects of gait speed and dual tasking on arm swing and axial rotation during walking are altered among healthy older adults. Follow-up work is needed to examine if these effects contribute to reduced stability in aging.

  11. adsorption isotherm a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    sawmill factory waste: adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies. KELLE, HI. Department of Pure and ... Keywords: Sawdust, crude oil, adsorption kinetics, oil sorption capacity, sorbed oil recoverability, adsorption isotherm. Key methods available for ..... of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solution. By Sphagnum Moss Peat, Can.

  12. "Speaking a Secret Language:" West Coast Swing as a Community of Practice of Informal and Incidental Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a qualitative study of competitive West Coast Swing dancers that incorporated both ethnographic and phenomenological techniques. A modern variation of the original Lindy Hop, West Coast Swing is typically learned in dance studios and non-profit clubs. The West Coast Swing community can be considered a community…

  13. Methanol Adsorption on Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsebeth Schröder

    2013-01-01

    bonds like the covalent and hydrogen bonds. The adsorption of a single methanol molecule and small methanol clusters on graphene is studied at various coverages. Adsorption in clusters or at high coverages (less than a monolayer is found to be preferable, with the methanol C-O axis approximately parallel to the plane of graphene. The adsorption energies calculated with vdW-DF are compared with previous DFT-D and MP2-based calculations for single methanol adsorption on flakes of graphene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For the high coverage adsorption energies, we also find reasonably good agreement with previous desorption measurements.

  14. A Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the College-Level Female Softball Swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Milanovich, Steven M. Nesbit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantifies and discusses the three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the female softball swing as performed by fourteen female collegiate amateur subjects. The analyses were performed using a three-dimensional computer model. The model was driven kinematically from subject swings data that were recorded with a multi-camera motion analysis system. Each subject used two distinct bats with significantly different inertial properties. Model output included bat trajectories, subject/bat interaction forces and torques, work, and power. These data formed the basis for a detailed analysis and description of fundamental swing kinematic and kinetic quantities. The analyses revealed that the softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. In addition, the potential effects of bat properties on swing mechanics are discussed. The paths of the hands and the centre-of-curvature of the bat relative to the horizontal plane appear to be important trajectory characteristics of the swing. Descriptions of the swing mechanics and practical implications are offered based upon these findings.

  15. Using swing resistance and assistance to improve gait symmetry in individuals post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Sheng-Che; Schmit, Brian D; Wu, Ming

    2015-08-01

    A major characteristic of hemiplegic gait observed in individuals post-stroke is spatial and temporal asymmetry, which may increase energy expenditure and the risk of falls. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of swing resistance/assistance applied to the affected leg on gait symmetry in individuals post-stroke. We recruited 10 subjects with chronic stroke who demonstrated a shorter step length with their affected leg in comparison to the non-affected leg during walking. They participated in two test sessions for swing resistance and swing assistance, respectively. During the adaptation period, subjects counteracted the step length deviation caused by the applied swing resistance force, resulting in an aftereffect consisting of improved step length symmetry during the post-adaptation period. In contrast, subjects did not counteract step length deviation caused by swing assistance during adaptation period and produced no aftereffect during the post-adaptation period. Locomotor training with swing resistance applied to the affected leg may improve step length symmetry through error-based learning. Swing assistance reduces errors in step length during stepping; however, it is unclear whether this approach would improve step length symmetry. Results from this study may be used to develop training paradigms for improving gait symmetry of stroke survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconstruction of human swing leg motion with passive biarticular muscle models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Sharbafi, Maziar; Mohammadi Nejad Rashty, Aida; Rode, Christian; Seyfarth, Andre

    2017-04-01

    Template models, which are utilized to demonstrate general aspects in human locomotion, mostly investigate stance leg operation. The goal of this paper is presenting a new conceptual walking model benefiting from swing leg dynamics. Considering a double pendulum equipped with combinations of biarticular springs for the swing leg beside spring-mass (SLIP) model for the stance leg, a novel SLIP-based model, is proposed to explain human-like leg behavior in walking. The action of biarticular muscles in swing leg motion helps represent human walking features, like leg retraction, ground reaction force and generating symmetric walking patterns, in simulations. In order to stabilize the motion by the proposed passive structure, swing leg biarticular muscle parameters such as lever arm ratios, stiffnesses and rest lengths need to be properly adjusted. Comparison of simulation results with human experiments shows the ability of the proposed model in replicating kinematic and kinetic behavior of both stance and swing legs as well as biarticular thigh muscle force of the swing leg. This substantiates the important functional role of biarticular muscles in leg swing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance analysis of power swing blocking feature in ABB 670 series impedance relays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Łosiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents test results of a distance protection’s PSD power swing detection feature in ABB 670 series relays. A RED670 relay was tested, which is part of the hydroelectric set protection in Żarnowiec Pumped Storage Plant. The power swing blocking feature’s performance was analysed on the basis of the results of object tests made with an Omicron digital tester. Also presented are simulation results that illustrate the PSD feature’s response to power swings caused by a disturbance in the power system. It is also shown how a distance protection may react to the same fault, depending on its settings.

  18. A Novel Approach to Detect Faults Occurring During Power Swings by Abrupt Change of Impedance Trajectory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khodaparast, Jalal; Khederzadeh, M.; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of power swing blocking is to distinguish faults from power swings. However, faults occurred during a power swing should still be detected and cleared promptly. This paper proposes an index based on detecting abrupt jump of impedance trajectory by utilization of the predicting...... of Taylor expansion is used to decrease the corrugation effect of impedance estimation and increase the reliability of the proposed method. Furthermore, in order to increase the selectivity of the proposed method, the proposed index is armed with phase comparison logic to detect internal faults...

  19. Interfacial adsorption of insulin - Conformational changes and reversibility of adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollmann, SH; Jorgensen, L; Bukrinsky, JT; Elofsson, U; Norde, W; Frokjaer, S

    The adsorption of human insulin to Teflon particles was studied with respect to conformational changes and the reversibility of adsorption was examined by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). Adsorption isotherms for the adsorption of human insulin indicated high affinity adsorption, even

  20. Interfacial adsorption of insulin. Conformational changes and reversibility of adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollmann, S.H.; Bukrinsky, J.T.; Elofsson, U.; Norde, W.; Frokjaer, S.

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of human insulin to Teflon particles was studied with respect to conformational changes and the reversibility of adsorption was examined by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). Adsorption isotherms for the adsorption of human insulin indicated high affinity adsorption, even

  1. Hybrid markerless tracking of complex articulated motion in golf swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Sim Kwoh; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin; Kiang, Lam Chee; Nadarajah, Sivadev; Sahayadhas, Arun; Ali, Md Asraf; Islam, Md Anamul; Palaniappan, Rajkumar

    2014-04-01

    Sports video tracking is a research topic that has attained increasing attention due to its high commercial potential. A number of sports, including tennis, soccer, gymnastics, running, golf, badminton and cricket have been utilised to display the novel ideas in sports motion tracking. The main challenge associated with this research concerns the extraction of a highly complex articulated motion from a video scene. Our research focuses on the development of a markerless human motion tracking system that tracks the major body parts of an athlete straight from a sports broadcast video. We proposed a hybrid tracking method, which consists of a combination of three algorithms (pyramidal Lucas-Kanade optical flow (LK), normalised correlation-based template matching and background subtraction), to track the golfer's head, body, hands, shoulders, knees and feet during a full swing. We then match, track and map the results onto a 2D articulated human stick model to represent the pose of the golfer over time. Our work was tested using two video broadcasts of a golfer, and we obtained satisfactory results. The current outcomes of this research can play an important role in enhancing the performance of a golfer, provide vital information to sports medicine practitioners by providing technically sound guidance on movements and should assist to diminish the risk of golfing injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Motion Planning of Overhead Crane Based on Suppressing Payload Residual Swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hua-sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the overhead crane system is subject to under actuation system due to that overhead crane and payload are connected by flexibility wire rope. The payload generates residual swing when the overhead crane is accelerating/ decelerating the motions. This may cause trouble for the payload precise positioning and motion planning. Hence, an optimization input shaping control method is presented to reduce the under actuated overhead crane’s payload swing caused via the inertia force. The dynamic model of the overhead crane is proposed according to the physics structure of the crane. The input shaper based on the motion planning of the crane is used as the feed forward input to suppress payload residual swing. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the ZV input shaper and ZVD input shaper can reduce the payload swing of the overhead crane.

  3. The effects of the arm swing on biomechanical and physiological aspects of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan; de Koning, Jos J; Rognstad, Asgeir Bakken; Hoset, Martin; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzed the biomechanical and physiological effects of the arm swing in roller ski skating, and compared leg-skating (i.e. ski skating without poles) using a pronounced arm swing (SWING) with leg-skating using locked arms (LOCKED). Sixteen elite male cross-country skiers performed submaximal stages at 10, 15 and 20kmh(-1) on a 2% inclined treadmill in the two techniques. SWING demonstrated higher peak push-off forces and a higher force impulse at all speeds, but a longer cycle length only at the highest speed (all Pski skating increases the ski forces and aerobic energy cost at low and moderate speeds, whereas the greater forces at high speed lead to a longer cycle length and smaller anaerobic contribution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Core Muscle Activation in One-Armed and Two-Armed Kettlebell Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Gunnarskog, Aril; Jungård, Georg-Andrè; Slåttland, Roy-Andrè; Vraalsen, Øyvind F; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis, oblique external, and lower and upper erector spinae at both sides of the truncus in 1-armed and 2-armed kettlebell swing. Sixteen healthy men performed 10 repetitions of both exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell in randomized order. For the upper erector spinae, the activation of the contralateral side during 1-armed swing was 24% greater than that of the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p kettlebell swing with 1 arm resulted in greater neuromuscular activity for the contralateral side of the upper erector spinae and ipsilateral side of the rectus abdominis, and lower activation of the opposite side of the respective muscles.

  5. Design and Implementation of a Bionic Mimosa Robot with Delicate Leaf Swing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Liang Chang; Jin-Long Shie

    2014-01-01

    This study designed and developed a bionic mimosa robot with delicate leaf swing behaviors. For different swing behaviors, this study developed a variety of situations, in which the bionic mimosa robot would display different postures. The core technologies used were Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs), plastic material, and an intelligent control device. The technology particularly focused on the SMAs memory processing bend mode, directional guidance, and the position of SMAs installed inside the pla...

  6. Effects of Kettlebell Swing vs. Explosive Deadlift Training on Strength and Power

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew R. Maulit; David C. Archer; Whitney D. Leyva; Cameron N. Munger; Megan A. Wong; Lee E. Brown; Jared W. Coburn; Andrew J. Galpin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent research has compared explosive deadlift to kettlebell training observing their effects on strength. The kettlebell swing is a popular practical exercise as it shares share a hip hinge movement with the explosive deadlift, but the two have not been compared. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of kettlebell swing vs. explosive deadlift training on strength and power. Methods: Thirty-one recreationally resistance-trained men (age = 23.1 ± 2.3 yea...

  7. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if 70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes.

  8. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

  9. Structure sensitivity in adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Nielsen, Ole Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1997-01-01

    The structure sensitivity of CO adsorption on different flat, stepped, kinked and reconstructed Pt surfaces is studied using large-scale density-functional calculations. We find an extremely strong structure sensitivity in the adsorption energy with variations up to 1 eV (or 100%) from one...

  10. Radioactive nuclide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radioactive nuclide adsorption device by applying a nickel plating on a nickel plate to render the surface active. Constitution: A capturing device for radioactive nuclide such as manganese 54, cobalt 60, 58 and the like is disposed to the inside of a pipeway provided on the upper portion of fuel assemblies through which liquid sodium as the coolant for LMFBR type reactor is passed. The device comprises a cylindrical adsorption body and spacers. The adsorption body is made of nickel and applied with a nickel plating on the surface thereof. The surface of the adsorption body is unevened to result in disturbance in the coolant and thereby improve the adsorptive efficiency. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Effects of Aging on Arm Swing during Gait: The Role of Gait Speed and Dual Tasking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Mirelman

    Full Text Available Healthy walking is characterized by pronounced arm swing and axial rotation. Aging effects on gait speed, stride length and stride time variability have been previously reported, however, less is known about aging effects on arm swing and axial rotation and their relationship to age-associated gait changes during usual walking and during more challenging conditions like dual tasking. Sixty healthy adults between the ages of 30-77 were included in this study designed to address this gap. Lightweight body fixed sensors were placed on each wrist and lower back. Participants walked under 3 walking conditions each of 1 minute: 1 comfortable speed, 2 walking while serially subtracting 3's (Dual Task, 3 walking at fast speed. Aging effects on arm swing amplitude, range, symmetry, jerk and axial rotation amplitude and jerk were compared between decades of age (30-40; 41-50; 51-60; 61-77 years. As expected, older adults walked slower (p = 0.03 and with increased stride variability (p = 0.02. Arm swing amplitude decreased with age under all conditions (p = 0.04. In the oldest group, arm swing decreased during dual task and increased during the fast walking condition (p<0.0001. Similarly, arm swing asymmetry increased during the dual task in the older groups (p<0.004, but not in the younger groups (p = 0.67. Significant differences between groups and within conditions were observed in arm swing jerk (p<0.02, axial rotation amplitude (p<0.02 and axial jerk (p<0.001. Gait speed, arm swing amplitude of the dominant arm, arm swing asymmetry and axial rotation jerk were all independent predictors of age in a multivariate model. These findings suggest that the effects of gait speed and dual tasking on arm swing and axial rotation during walking are altered among healthy older adults. Follow-up work is needed to examine if these effects contribute to reduced stability in aging.

  12. Progressing MoodSwings. The upgrade and evaluation of MoodSwings 2.0: An online intervention for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, S; Cosgrove, V E; Gliddon, E; Grimm, D; Dodd, S; Berk, L; Castle, D; Suppes, T S; Berk, M

    2017-05-01

    MoodSwings 2.0 is a self-guided online intervention for bipolar disorder. The intervention incorporates technological improvements on an earlier validated version of the intervention (MoodSwings 1.0). The previous MoodSwings trial provides this study with a unique opportunity to progress previous work, whilst being able to take into consideration lesson learnt, and technological enhancements. The structure and technology of MoodSwings 2.0 are described and the relevance to other online health interventions is highlighted. An international team from Australia and the US updated and improved the programs content pursuant to changes in DSM-5, added multimedia components and included larger numbers of participants in the group discussion boards. Greater methodological rigour in this trial includes an attention control condition, quarterly telephone assessments, and red flag alerts for significant clinical change. This paper outlines these improvements, including additional security and safety measures. A 3 arm RCT is currently evaluating the enhanced program to assess the efficacy of MS 2.0; the primary outcome is change in depressive and manic symptoms. To our knowledge this is the first randomized controlled online bipolar study with a discussion board attention control and meets the key methodological criteria for online interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Adsorption and Desorption of Na+ and NO3− Ions on Thermosensitive NIPAM-co-DMAAPS Gel in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Oktavia Ningrum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorbent gel with the ability to absorb and to desorb Na+ and NO3− ions simultaneously with temperature swing was synthesized by free radical copolymerization reaction of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM and N,N-dimethyl-(acrylamidopropylammonium propane sulfonate (DMAAPS. In this study, NIPAM acts as a thermosensitive agent and DMAAPS as an adsorbent agent. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of temperature and solution concentration on the swelling, adsorption, and desorption behaviors of NIPAM-co-DMAAPS gel. The relationship between adsorption and desorption behaviors of the gel was also elucidated. NaNO3 solution was selected as the target solution in swelling, adsorption, and desorption test. It was observed that the swelling degree of the gel increased as temperature and solution concentration raised. The adsorption amount of ions decreased with the increase of temperature. In contrast, the amount of ions desorbed from the gel increased linearly with temperature.

  14. Ground reaction forces produced by two different hockey skating arm swing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward-Ellis, Julie; Alexander, Marion J L; Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Leiter, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    The arm swing in hockey skating can have a positive effect on the forces produced by each skate, and the resulting velocity from each push off. The main purpose of this study was to measure the differences in ground reaction forces (GRFs) produced from an anteroposterior versus a mediolateral style hockey skating arm swing. Twenty-four elite-level female hockey players performed each technique while standing on a ground-mounted force platform, and all trials were filmed using two video cameras. Force data was assessed for peak scaled GRFs in the frontal and sagittal planes, and resultant GRF magnitude and direction. Upper limb kinematics were assessed from the video using Dartfish video analysis software, confirming that the subjects successfully performed two distinct arm swing techniques. The mediolateral arm swing used a mean of 18.38° of glenohumeral flexion/extension and 183.68° of glenohumeral abduction/adduction while the anteroposterior technique used 214.17° and 28.97° respectively. The results of this study confirmed that the mediolateral arm swing produced 37% greater frontal plane and 33% less sagittal plane GRFs than the anteroposterior arm swing. The magnitudes of the resultant GRFs were not significantly different between the two techniques; however, the mediolateral technique produced a resultant GRF with a significantly larger angle from the direction of travel (44.44°) as compared to the anteroposterior technique (31.60°). The results of this study suggest that the direction of GRFs produced by the mediolateral arm swing more closely mimic the direction of lower limb propulsion during the skating stride.

  15. A comparative study of two different uncinectomy techniques: swing-door and classical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Ankit A; Bansal, Chetan; Chauhan, Nirali; Soni, Saurav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which technique of uncinectomy, classical or swing door technique. Four hundred eighty Cases of sinusitis were selected and operated for Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS). Out of these, in 240 uncinectomies classical uncinectomy was done whereas in another 240 uncinectomies swing door technique was used. Initially patients were medically managed treated according to their symptoms and prior management. Patients who had received previous adequate medical management were evaluated with CT scan of the sinuses. If disease still persists than they were operated for FESS. The authors' experience indicates that Functional endoscopic sinus surgery can be performed under local or general anesthesia, as permitted or tolerated. In this review classical technique was used in 240 uncinectomies. Out of this, ethmoidal complex injury was noted in 4 cases, missed maxillary ostium syndrome (incomplete removal) was reported in 12 patients and orbital fat exposure was encountered in 5 patients. As compared to 240 uncinectomies done with swing door technique, incomplete removal was evident in 2 cases and lacrimal duct injury was reported in 3 cases. 'Evidence that underscores how this 'swing door technique' successfully combines 'the conservation goals of the anterior-to-posterior approach and anatomic virtues of the posterior-to-anterior approach to ethmoidectomy of the total 480 uncinectomies operated. Out of which 240 uncinectomies have been performed using the 'swing-door' technique. The 240 uncinectomies performed using classical technique were used as controls. The incidence of orbital penetration, incomplete removal, ethmoidal complex injury and ostium non-identification was significantly less with the new technique. Three lacrimal injuries occurred with the 'swing-door' technique compared to no injuries with classical technique. The authors recommend swing door technique as it is easy to learn, allows complete removal of the

  16. A Comparative Study of Two Different Uncinectomy Techniques: Swing-Door and Classical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit A Singhania

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine which technique of uncinectomy, classical or swing door technique.  Materials and Methods: Four hundred eighty Cases of sinusitis were selected and operated for Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS. Out of these, in 240 uncinectomies classical uncinectomy was done whereas in another 240 uncinectomies swing door technique was used. Initially patients were medically managed treated according to their symptoms and prior management. Patients who had received previous adequate medical management were evaluated with CT scan of the sinuses. If disease still persists than they were operated for FESS. Results: The authors' experience indicates that Functional endoscopic sinus surgery can be performed under local or general anesthesia, as permitted or tolerated. In this review classical technique was used in 240 uncinectomies. Out of this, ethmoidal complex injury was noted in 4 cases, missed maxillary ostium syndrome (incomplete removal was reported in 12 patients and orbital fat exposure was encountered in 5 patients. As compared to 240 uncinectomies done with swing door technique, incomplete removal was evident in 2 cases and lacrimal duct injury was reported in 3 cases. 'Evidence that underscores how this 'swing door technique' successfully combines 'the conservation goals of the anterior-to-posterior approach and anatomic virtues of the posterior-to-anterior approach to ethmoidectomy of the total 480 uncinectomies operated. Out of which 240 uncinectomies have been performed using the 'swing-door' technique. The 240 uncinectomies performed using classical technique were used as controls. The incidence of orbital penetration, incomplete removal, ethmoidal complex injury and ostium non-identification was significantly less with the new technique. Three lacrimal injuries occurred with the 'swing-door' technique compared to no injuries with classical technique. Conclusion: The authors recommend

  17. Mechanical loading of the gymnast’s motor system during swings on rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Serafin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the mechanical loading of the gymnast’s motor system during forward and backward swings on gymnastic rings. A junior gymnast of the First Class, aged 14, with body mass 53.1 kg and body length 1.61 m, participated in the study. He executed a series of ten cyclic swing movements on rings with his maximum amplitude. Kinematic variables of the gymnast’s centre of mass (COM as well as reaction forces in the cables were measured and synchronized using the SIMI MOTION movement analysis system. Two separate phases of mechanical loading of the motor system have been identified: resistance phase and non resistance phase. In the non resistance phase the gymnast attains similar values of the COM’s momentum but different angular displacements. In the resistance phase the forces acting on the motor system have their maximum. They amount to 5.5 BW for the forward swing and 6.5 BW for the backward swing movement. The maximum rate of change of the force for forward and backward swing is 42.6 BWs-1 and 67.4 BWs-1, respectively. These two variables differentiate the mechanical loading of the gymnast’s motor system between forward and backward swings. The reaction force produced by the gymnast is significantly greater during the execution of forward swings. It seems probable that horizontal displacements of COM may be the factor responsible for reduction of the mechanical loading experienced by the gymnast.

  18. Study on Shale Adsorption Equation Based on Monolayer Adsorption, Multilayer Adsorption, and Capillary Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas is an effective gas resource all over the world. The evaluation of pore structure plays a critical role in exploring shale gas efficiently. Nitrogen adsorption experiment is one of the significant approaches to analyze pore size structure of shale. Shale is extremely heterogeneous due to component diversity and structure complexity. Therefore, adsorption isotherms for homogeneous adsorbents and empirical isotherms may not apply to shale. The shape of adsorption-desorption curve indicates that nitrogen adsorption on shale includes monolayer adsorption, multilayer adsorption, and capillary condensation. Usually, Langmuir isotherm is a monolayer adsorption model for ideal interfaces; BET (Brunauer, Emmett, Teller adsorption isotherm is a multilayer adsorption model based on specific assumptions; Freundlich isotherm is an empirical equation widely applied in liquid phase adsorption. In this study, a new nitrogen adsorption isotherm is applied to simultaneously depict monolayer adsorption, multilayer adsorption, and capillary condensation, which provides more real and accurate representation of nitrogen adsorption on shale. In addition, parameters are discussed in relation to heat of adsorption which is relevant to the shape of the adsorption isotherm curve. The curve fitting results indicate that our new nitrogen adsorption isotherm can appropriately describe the whole process of nitrogen adsorption on shale.

  19. Competitive Protein Adsorption - Multilayer Adsorption and Surface Induced Protein Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    and that the outcome of IgG adsorption is much more sensitive to surface characteristics than the outcome of albumin adsorption. Using high concentrations of protein solution and hydrophobic polymer surfaces during adsorption can induce IgG aggregation, which is observed as extremely high IgG adsorptions. Besides......In this study, competitive adsorption of albumin and IgG (immunoglobulin G) from human serum solutions and protein mixtures onto polymer surfaces is studied by means of radioactive labeling. By using two different radiolabels (125I and 131I), albumin and IgG adsorption to polymer surfaces...... is monitored simultaneously and the influence from the presence of other human serum proteins on albumin and IgG adsorption, as well as their mutual influence during adsorption processes, is investigated. Exploring protein adsorption by combining analysis of competitive adsorption from complex solutions...

  20. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai

    2017-01-01

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  1. Effects of constrained arm swing on vertical center of mass displacement during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyung Suk; Atkins, Lee T; Jensen, Daniel B; James, C Roger

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of constraining arm swing on the vertical displacement of the body's center of mass (COM) during treadmill walking and examine several common gait variables that may account for or mask differences in the body's COM motion with and without arm swing. Participants included 20 healthy individuals (10 male, 10 female; age: 27.8 ± 6.8 years). The body's COM displacement, first and second peak vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs), and lowest VGRF during mid-stance, peak summed bilateral VGRF, lower extremity sagittal joint angles, stride length, and foot contact time were measured with and without arm swing during walking at 1.34 m/s. The body's COM displacement was greater with the arms constrained (arm swing: 4.1 ± 1.2 cm, arm constrained: 4.9 ± 1.2 cm, p arm COM acceleration might have contributed to the difference. These findings indicate that a change in arm swing causes differences in vertical COM displacement, which could increase energy expenditure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rhythmic arm swing enhances patterned locomotor-like muscle activity in passively moved lower extremities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Takahiko; Ogata, Toru; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Kawashima, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    The use of driven gait orthosis (DGO) has drawn attention in gait rehabilitation for patients after central nervous system (CNS) lesions. By imposing a passive locomotor-like kinematic pattern, the neural mechanisms responsible for locomotion can be activated as in a normal gait. To further enhance this activity, discussions on possible intervention are necessary. Given the possible functional linkages between the upper and lower limbs, we investigated in healthy subjects the degree of modification in the lower limb muscles during DGO-induced passive gait by the addition of swing movement in the upper extremity. The results clearly showed that muscle activity in the ankle dorsiflexor TA muscle was significantly enhanced when the passive locomotor-like movement was accompanied by arm swing movement. The modifications in the TA activity were not a general increase through the stride cycles, but were observed under particular phases as in normal gaits. Voluntary effort to swing the arms may have certain effects on the modification of the muscle activity. The results provide clinical implications regarding the usefulness of voluntary arm swing movement as a possible intervention in passive gait training using DGO, since ordinary gait training using DGO does not induce spontaneous arm swing movement despite its known influence on the lower limb movement. PMID:25742956

  3. Target of physiological gait: Realization of speed adaptive control for a prosthetic knee during swing flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wujing; Yu, Hongliu; Zhao, Weiliang; Li, Jin; Wei, Xiaodong

    2017-10-13

    Prosthetic knee is the most important component of lower limb prosthesis. Speed adaptive for prosthetic knee during swing flexion is the key method to realize physiological gait. This study aims to discuss the target of physiological gait, propose a speed adaptive control method during swing flexion and research the damping adjustment law of intelligent hydraulic prosthetic knee. According to the physiological gait trials of healthy people, the control target during swing flexion is defined. A new prosthetic knee with fuzzy logical control during swing flexion is designed to realize the damping adjustment automatically. The function simulation and evaluation system of intelligent knee prosthesis is provided. Speed adaptive control test of the intelligent prosthetic knee in different velocities are researched. The maximum swing flexion of the knee angle is set between sixty degree and seventy degree as the target of physiological gait. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the prosthetic knee with fuzzy logical control is able to realize physiological gait under different speeds. The faster the walking, the bigger the valve closure percentage of the hydraulic prosthetic knee. The proposed fuzzy logical control strategy and intelligent hydraulic prosthetic knee are effective for the amputee to achieve physiological gait.

  4. Increasing cognitive load attenuates right arm swing in healthy human walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Tim; Easthope, Christopher S.; Filli, Linard; Lőrincz, Lilla; Schrafl-Altermatt, Miriam; Brugger, Peter; Linnebank, Michael; Curt, Armin; Zörner, Björn; Bolliger, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Human arm swing looks and feels highly automated, yet it is increasingly apparent that higher centres, including the cortex, are involved in many aspects of locomotor control. The addition of a cognitive task increases arm swing asymmetry during walking, but the characteristics and mechanism of this asymmetry are unclear. We hypothesized that this effect is lateralized and a Stroop word-colour naming task-primarily involving left hemisphere structures-would reduce right arm swing only. We recorded gait in 83 healthy subjects aged 18-80 walking normally on a treadmill and while performing a congruent and incongruent Stroop task. The primary measure of arm swing asymmetry-an index based on both three-dimensional wrist trajectories in which positive values indicate proportionally smaller movements on the right-increased significantly under dual-task conditions in those aged 40-59 and further still in the over-60s, driven by reduced right arm flexion. Right arm swing attenuation appears to be the norm in humans performing a locomotor-cognitive dual-task, confirming a prominent role of the brain in locomotor behaviour. Women under 60 are surprisingly resistant to this effect, revealing unexpected gender differences atop the hierarchical chain of locomotor control.

  5. Kinetic and Kinematic Differences in a Golf Swing in One and Both Lower Limb Amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stastny Petr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amputee golfers need to cope with the absence of sole proprioception, a decreased range of swing motion and other factors which should be recognized for training purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the kinetic and kinematic differences in the golf swing in one leg and two legs amputees. The participants consisted of two males and one female at a professional or amateur level with a different degree of disability. Each participant was taped by 3D markers and performed five golf swings with the iron 6. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC did not vary between individuals in kinematics, however, it was low in kinetic variables of two leg amputees. The Kendal rank correlation showed a significant relationship between the level of amputation and a large number of kinetic and kinematic variables such as X factor, O factor, S factor and individual body angles. The fluency and similarity of the golf swing did not depend on the level of amputation. One lower limb amputation did not seem to increase movement variability contrary to two lower limb amputation. The most variable parameter was a weight-shift in all golfers. The takeaway and horizontal force angle depended on the level of amputation rather than individual technique, thus, their modification by training may be difficult. Estimation of golf swing „mistakes“ in amputees in respect to the leading arm in an early follow or late follow position appeared to be useless.

  6. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2017-07-15

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  7. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Demads of the Kettlebell Swing using Tabata Interval versus a Traditional Resistance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Howard A; Salgado, Jeanette M; Holmstrup, Angelica M; Holmstrup, Michael E

    Tabata (TAB) training, consisting of eight cycles of 20 seconds of maximal exercise followed by 10 seconds of rest, is time-efficient, with aerobic and anaerobic benefit. This study investigated the cardiovascular and metabolic demands of a TAB versus traditional (TRAD) resistance protocol with the kettlebell swing. Fourteen young (18-25y), non-obese (BMI 25.7±0.8 kg/m 2 ) participants reported on three occasions. All testing incorporated measurements of HR, oxygen consumption, and blood lactate accumulation. Each participant completed Tabata kettlebell swings (male- 8kg, female- 4.5kg; 8 intervals; 20s maximal repetitions, 10s rest). On a subsequent visit (TRAD), the total swings from the TAB protocol were evenly divided into 4 sets, with 90s rest between sets. Outcome measures were compared using paired t-tests. The TAB was completed more quickly than the TRAD protocol (240.0±0.0 v. 521.5±3.3 sec, Pkettlebell swing demonstrated significantly greater cardiovascular and metabolic responses within a TAB vs. TRAD framework. Appropriate screening and risk stratification are advised before implementing kettlebell swings.

  8. Co adsorption in kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Eliel S.; Silva, Paulo S.C.

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption of metal ions in clay minerals has been used as an alternative to water and effluents treatment. Kaolinite is a clay mineral that presents low specific surface area and exchange ion capacity. Nevertheless, structural modifications can be achieved by means of acid or thermal activation. In this paper, it was studied the surface area of kaolinite/bentonite, kaolinite/activated carbon mixtures, thermal activated kaolinite and thermal activated kaolinite/activated carbon mixture. The mixture of kaolinite/activated carbon was tested for pH, contact time, interfering ions and initial concentration effects in the cobalt adsorption. Results showed that the optimized parameters are pH 6 and contact time of 30 min. Chromium acted as a competitive ion, zinc does not appear to have affected adsorption while iron seems to have favored it. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicated that the adsorption of Co in the mixture of kaolinite/activated carbon is a spontaneous process. (author)

  9. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  10. Co adsorption in kaolinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Eliel S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: eliel201019@hotmail.com, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption of metal ions in clay minerals has been used as an alternative to water and effluents treatment. Kaolinite is a clay mineral that presents low specific surface area and exchange ion capacity. Nevertheless, structural modifications can be achieved by means of acid or thermal activation. In this paper, it was studied the surface area of kaolinite/bentonite, kaolinite/activated carbon mixtures, thermal activated kaolinite and thermal activated kaolinite/activated carbon mixture. The mixture of kaolinite/activated carbon was tested for pH, contact time, interfering ions and initial concentration effects in the cobalt adsorption. Results showed that the optimized parameters are pH 6 and contact time of 30 min. Chromium acted as a competitive ion, zinc does not appear to have affected adsorption while iron seems to have favored it. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicated that the adsorption of Co in the mixture of kaolinite/activated carbon is a spontaneous process. (author)

  11. Design and Implementation of a Bionic Mimosa Robot with Delicate Leaf Swing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study designed and developed a bionic mimosa robot with delicate leaf swing behaviors. For different swing behaviors, this study developed a variety of situations, in which the bionic mimosa robot would display different postures. The core technologies used were Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs, plastic material, and an intelligent control device. The technology particularly focused on the SMAs memory processing bend mode, directional guidance, and the position of SMAs installed inside the plastic material. Performance analysis and evaluation were conducted using two SMAs for mimosa opening/closing behaviors. Finally, by controlling the mimosa behavior with a micro-controller, the optimal strain swing behavior was realized through fuzzy logic control in order to display the different postures of mimosa under different situations. The proposed method is applicable to micro-bionic robot systems, entertainment robots, biomedical engineering, and architectural aesthetics-related fields in the future.

  12. Effect of Junction Temperature Swing Durations on a Lifetime of a Transfer Molded IGBT Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jorgensen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of junction temperature swing duration on the lifetime of a transfer molded Intelligent Power IGBT Module is studied and a relevant lifetime factor is modeled. A temperature swing duration dependent lifetime factor is defined based on 38 accelerated power cycling test...... results under 6 different conditions and it may improve a lifetime model for lifetime prediction of IGBT modules under various mission profiles of converters. The power cycling tests are performed by an advanced power cycling test setup which enables tested modules to be operated under more realistic...... electrical conditions during the power cycling test. The analysis of the test results and the temperature swing duration dependent lifetime factor under different definitions and confidence levels are presented....

  13. From Fantasy to Reality: A Grounded Theory of Experiences in the Swinging Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly, Claire; Hans, Jason D

    2017-04-01

    Swinger couples-committed couples who consensually engage in extra-relational sex for recreational purposes-are difficult for researchers to access due to the social stigma associated with swinging. This study builds upon the limited research on swinger couples by examining personal experiences with swinging. Specifically, 32 semi-structured interviews with swingers (16 husband-wife dyads, interviewed separately) were analyzed using grounded theory methods to understand the process of transitioning into and maintaining marital satisfaction in the swinging lifestyle. The model formed included (a) antecedent steps taken to enter into the lifestyle, (b) types of desires fulfilled, (c) stated benefits of being in the lifestyle, and (d) rules that guided couples throughout the process. Although variations were found across couples, the effective use of verbal and non-verbal communication to increase sexual and marital satisfaction within these non-monogamous couples was paramount to their experiences.

  14. Correlation of Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) level 1 movement screens and golf swing faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulgin, Heather R; Schulte, Brian C; Crawley, Amy A

    2014-02-01

    Although some research in the past has examined how physical limitations in strength or flexibility affect a golfer's performance, the performance outcome most measured was driving distance. Currently, there are no data that have examined the relationship between selected strength and flexibility variables and golf swing faults. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) level 1 movement screen variables and 14 common golf swing faults. Thirty-six male and female golfers (mean age, 25.4 ± 9.9 years; height, 175.9 ± 16.2 cm; mass, 76.2 ± 14.6 kg; handicap, 14.2 ± 10.4) participated. Twelve physical tests of strength, flexibility, and balance were assessed using the TPI level 1 golf fitness screening tool. Golfers then hit 4 golf shots (with a 5-iron) while being videoed, and those were then analyzed for 14 different golf swing faults (using V1Pro software). Three significant associations between a physical limitation and a particular golf swing fault were found: toe touch and early hip extension (p = 0.015), bridge on right side with both early hip extension (p = 0.050), and loss of posture (p = 0.028). In addition, an odds ratio showed that when a golfer could not overhead deep squat or single leg balance on left side, they were 2-3 times more likely to exhibit a early hip extension, loss of posture, or slide during the golf swing, as compared with those who could perform a correct overhead deep squat. Based on our findings, it is important for the golf fitness professional to particularly address a golfer's core strength, balance, and hamstring flexibility to help avoid common golf swing faults, which affect a golfer's ball striking ability and ultimately their performance.

  15. Restricted Arm Swing Affects Gait Stability and Increased Walking Speed Alters Trunk Movements in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabastita, Tijs; Desloovere, Kaat; Meyns, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Observational research suggests that in children with cerebral palsy, the altered arm swing is linked to instability during walking. Therefore, the current study investigates whether children with cerebral palsy use their arms more than typically developing children, to enhance gait stability. Evidence also suggests an influence of walking speed on gait stability. Moreover, previous research highlighted a link between walking speed and arm swing. Hence, the experiment aimed to explore differences between typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy taking into account the combined influence of restricting arm swing and increasing walking speed on gait stability. Spatiotemporal gait characteristics, trunk movement parameters and margins of stability were obtained using three dimensional gait analysis to assess gait stability of 26 children with cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing children. Four walking conditions were evaluated: (i) free arm swing and preferred walking speed; (ii) restricted arm swing and preferred walking speed; (iii) free arm swing and high walking speed; and (iv) restricted arm swing and high walking speed. Double support time and trunk acceleration variability increased more when arm swing was restricted in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children and children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Trunk sway velocity increased more when walking speed was increased in children with unilateral cerebral palsy compared to children with bilateral cerebral palsy and typically developing children and in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. Trunk sway velocity increased more when both arm swing was restricted and walking speed was increased in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. It is proposed that facilitating arm swing during gait rehabilitation can improve gait stability and decrease trunk movements in

  16. ENERGY-COST DURING AMBULATION IN TRANSFEMORAL AMPUTEES - A KNEE-JOINT WITH A MECHANICAL SWING PHASE-CONTROL VS A KNEE-JOINT WITH A PNEUMATIC SWING PHASE-CONTROL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOONSTRA, AM; SCHRAMA, J; FIDLER, [No Value; EISMA, WH

    The aim of the study was (i) to evaluate the preference of transfemoral amputees for a 4-bar linked knee joint with either a mechanical swing phase control or a pneumatic swing phase control, and (ii) to compare the energy expenditure in transfemoral amputees using a prosthesis with a mechanical

  17. Gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yongxian

    The demand of portable power generation systems for both domestic and military applications has driven the advances of mesoscale internal combustion engine systems. This dissertation was devoted to the gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of the mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems. First, the system-level thermodynamic modeling for the swing engine/generator systems has been developed. The system performance as well as the potentials of both two- and four-stroke swing engine systems has been investigated based on this model. Then through parameterc studies, the parameters that have significant impacts on the system performance have been identified, among which, the burn time and spark advance time are the critical factors related to combustion process. It is found that the shorter burn time leads to higher system efficiency and power output and the optimal spark advance time is about half of the burn time. Secondly, the turbulent combustion modeling based on levelset method (G-equation) has been implemented into the commercial software FLUENT. Thereafter, the turbulent flame propagation in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber and realistic swing engine chambers has been studied. It is found that, in mesoscale combustion engines, the burn time is dominated by the mean turbulent kinetic energy in the chamber. It is also shown that in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber, the burn time depends on the longest distance between the initial ignition kernel to its walls and by changing the ignition and injection locations, the burn time can be reduced by a factor of two. Furthermore, the studies of turbulent flame propagation in real swing engine chambers show that the combustion can be enhanced through in-chamber turbulence augmentation and with higher engine frequency, the burn time is shorter, which indicates that the in-chamber turbulence can be induced by the motion of moving components as well as the intake gas jet flow. The burn time

  18. The Effect of Biological Movement Variability on the Performance of the Golf Swing in High- and Low-Handicapped Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J.; Keogh, Justin W. L.; Hume, Patria A.; Maulder, Peter S.; Nortje, Jacques; Marnewick, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of neuromotor noise on golf swing performance in high- and low-handicap players. Selected two-dimensional kinematic measures of 20 male golfers (n = 10 per high- or low-handicap group) performing 10 golf swings with a 5-iron club was obtained through video analysis. Neuromotor noise was calculated…

  19. Swing-leg trajectory of running guinea fowl suggests task-level priority of force regulation rather than disturbance rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Blum

    Full Text Available To achieve robust and stable legged locomotion in uneven terrain, animals must effectively coordinate limb swing and stance phases, which involve distinct yet coupled dynamics. Recent theoretical studies have highlighted the critical influence of swing-leg trajectory on stability, disturbance rejection, leg loading and economy of walking and running. Yet, simulations suggest that not all these factors can be simultaneously optimized. A potential trade-off arises between the optimal swing-leg trajectory for disturbance rejection (to maintain steady gait versus regulation of leg loading (for injury avoidance and economy. Here we investigate how running guinea fowl manage this potential trade-off by comparing experimental data to predictions of hypothesis-based simulations of running over a terrain drop perturbation. We use a simple model to predict swing-leg trajectory and running dynamics. In simulations, we generate optimized swing-leg trajectories based upon specific hypotheses for task-level control priorities. We optimized swing trajectories to achieve i constant peak force, ii constant axial impulse, or iii perfect disturbance rejection (steady gait in the stance following a terrain drop. We compare simulation predictions to experimental data on guinea fowl running over a visible step down. Swing and stance dynamics of running guinea fowl closely match simulations optimized to regulate leg loading (priorities i and ii, and do not match the simulations optimized for disturbance rejection (priority iii. The simulations reinforce previous findings that swing-leg trajectory targeting disturbance rejection demands large increases in stance leg force following a terrain drop. Guinea fowl negotiate a downward step using unsteady dynamics with forward acceleration, and recover to steady gait in subsequent steps. Our results suggest that guinea fowl use swing-leg trajectory consistent with priority for load regulation, and not for steadiness of gait

  20. Swing-Leg Trajectory of Running Guinea Fowl Suggests Task-Level Priority of Force Regulation Rather than Disturbance Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yvonne; Vejdani, Hamid R.; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Hubicki, Christian M.; Hurst, Jonathan W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve robust and stable legged locomotion in uneven terrain, animals must effectively coordinate limb swing and stance phases, which involve distinct yet coupled dynamics. Recent theoretical studies have highlighted the critical influence of swing-leg trajectory on stability, disturbance rejection, leg loading and economy of walking and running. Yet, simulations suggest that not all these factors can be simultaneously optimized. A potential trade-off arises between the optimal swing-leg trajectory for disturbance rejection (to maintain steady gait) versus regulation of leg loading (for injury avoidance and economy). Here we investigate how running guinea fowl manage this potential trade-off by comparing experimental data to predictions of hypothesis-based simulations of running over a terrain drop perturbation. We use a simple model to predict swing-leg trajectory and running dynamics. In simulations, we generate optimized swing-leg trajectories based upon specific hypotheses for task-level control priorities. We optimized swing trajectories to achieve i) constant peak force, ii) constant axial impulse, or iii) perfect disturbance rejection (steady gait) in the stance following a terrain drop. We compare simulation predictions to experimental data on guinea fowl running over a visible step down. Swing and stance dynamics of running guinea fowl closely match simulations optimized to regulate leg loading (priorities i and ii), and do not match the simulations optimized for disturbance rejection (priority iii). The simulations reinforce previous findings that swing-leg trajectory targeting disturbance rejection demands large increases in stance leg force following a terrain drop. Guinea fowl negotiate a downward step using unsteady dynamics with forward acceleration, and recover to steady gait in subsequent steps. Our results suggest that guinea fowl use swing-leg trajectory consistent with priority for load regulation, and not for steadiness of gait. Swing

  1. A comparison of the modern and classic golf swing: a clinician's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The clubhead hits the ball. Early follow-through. From impact to club horizontal to ground. Late follow-through. From club horizontal to end of swing. Results in the ... tus lateralis and adductor magnus.4,32 In the upper body, the combined ...

  2. Designing Playful Interactive Installations for Urban Environments - The SwingScape Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kortbek, Karen Johanne; Christensen, Claus Møller

    2012-01-01

    . The design issues include: creating playful and collective interaction, making a familiar swing interaction simulate the experience of a music mixing board, providing gentle integration of multimedia (light and sound) in the atmosphere of an urban space, and finally making installations robust and safe...

  3. Honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) swing abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy landing on a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Huang, He; Yan, Shaoze

    2017-03-01

    Whether for insects or for aircrafts, landing is one of the indispensable links in the verification of airworthiness safety. The mechanisms by which insects achieve a fast and stable landing remain unclear. An intriguing example is provided by honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica), which use the swinging motion of their abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy and to achieve a smooth, stable, and quick landing. By using a high-speed camera, we observed that touchdown is initiated by honeybees extending their front legs or antennae and then landing softly on a wall. After touchdown, they swing the rest of their bodies until all flying energy is dissipated. We suggested a simplified model with mass-spring dampers for the body of the honeybee and revealed the mechanism of flying energy transfer and dissipation in detail. Results demonstrate that body translation and abdomen swinging help honeybees dissipate residual flying energy and orchestrate smooth landings. The initial kinetic energy of flying is transformed into the kinetic energy of the abdomen's rotary movement. Then, the kinetic energy of rotary movement is converted into thermal energy during the swinging cycle. This strategy provides more insight into the mechanism of insect flying, which further inspires better design on aerial vehicle with better landing performance.

  4. Study on Effect of Junction Temperature Swing Duration on Lifetime of Transfer Molded Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of junction temperature swing duration on lifetime of transfer molded power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules is studied and a relevant lifetime factor is modeled. This study is based on 39 accelerated power cycling test results under six different...

  5. Electromyographic analysis of lower limb muscles during the golf swing performed with three different clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Vaz, João Rocha; Castro, Maria António; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the EMG patterns of select lower limb muscles throughout the golf swing, performed with three different clubs, in non-elite middle-aged players. Fourteen golfers performed eight swings each using, in random order, a pitching wedge, 7-iron and 4-iron. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from lower limb muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. Three-dimensional high-speed video analysis was used to determine the golf swing phases. Results showed that, in average handicap golfers, the highest muscle activation levels occurred during the Forward Swing Phase, with the right semitendinosus and the right biceps femoris muscles producing the highest mean activation levels relative to maximal electromyography (70-76% and 68-73% EMG(MAX), respectively). Significant differences between the pitching wedge and the 4-iron club were found in the activation level of the left semitendinosus, right tibialis anterior, right peroneus longus, right vastus medialis, right rectus femuris and right gastrocnemius muscles. The lower limb muscles showed, in most cases and phases, higher mean values of activation on electromyography when golfers performed shots with a 4-iron club.

  6. Jazz Style and Articulation: How to Get Your Band or Choir to Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of jazz style is crucial to the element of swing in any jazz ensemble performance. Today, many charts for both large and small instrumental and vocal jazz ensembles are well marked with articulations and expression markings. However, in some cases, there is nothing to guide the musician. This article addresses some common jazz…

  7. Research on the measurement technology of effective arm length of swing arm profilometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Jing, Hongwei; Wei, Zhongwei; Li, Jie; Cao, Xuedong

    2014-09-01

    When the swing arm profilometer(SAP) measuring the mirror, the effective arm length of SAP which haves an obvious influence on the measurement results of the mirror surface shape needs to be measured accurately. It requires the measurement uncertainty of the effective arm length to reach 10μm in order to meet the measurement requirements, in this paper, we present a kind of technology based on laser tracker to measure the effective arm length of SAP. When the swing arm rotates around the shaft axis of swing arm rotary stage, the probe and two laser tracker balls form three sections of circular arc around the shaft axis of swing arm rotary stage in space. Laser tracker tracks and measures the circular arcs of two laser tracker balls, the center coordinates of the circular plane of circular arc can be calculated by data processing. The linear equation that passes through the two center coordinates is the equation of the shaft axis of rotary stage, the vertical distance from the probe to the shaft axis of rotary stage which can be calculated refer to the equation from the point to the line is the effective arm length. After Matlab simulation, this measurement method can meet the measurement accuracy.

  8. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Demads of the Kettlebell Swing using Tabata Interval versus a Traditional Resistance Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORTNER, HOWARD A.; SALGADO, JEANETTE M.; HOLMSTRUP, ANGELICA M.; HOLMSTRUP, MICHAEL E.

    2014-01-01

    Tabata (TAB) training, consisting of eight cycles of 20 seconds of maximal exercise followed by 10 seconds of rest, is time-efficient, with aerobic and anaerobic benefit. This study investigated the cardiovascular and metabolic demands of a TAB versus traditional (TRAD) resistance protocol with the kettlebell swing. Fourteen young (18–25y), non-obese (BMI 25.7±0.8 kg/m2) participants reported on three occasions. All testing incorporated measurements of HR, oxygen consumption, and blood lactate accumulation. Each participant completed Tabata kettlebell swings (male- 8kg, female- 4.5kg; 8 intervals; 20s maximal repetitions, 10s rest). On a subsequent visit (TRAD), the total swings from the TAB protocol were evenly divided into 4 sets, with 90s rest between sets. Outcome measures were compared using paired t-tests. The TAB was completed more quickly than the TRAD protocol (240.0±0.0 v. 521.5±3.3 sec, PTRAD framework. Appropriate screening and risk stratification are advised before implementing kettlebell swings. PMID:27182402

  9. An efficient pricing algorithm for swing options based on Fourier cosine expansions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Swing options give contract holders the right to modify amounts of future delivery of certain commodities, such as electricity or gas. We assume that these options can be exercised at any time before the end of the contract, and more than once. However, a recovery time between any two consecutive

  10. Neuro fuzzy control of the FES assisted freely swinging leg of paraplegic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, J.H.; Velthuis, W.J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors designed a neuro fuzzy control strategy for control of cyclical leg movements of paraplegic subjects. The cyclical leg movements were specified by three `swing phase objectives', characteristic of natural human gait. The neuro fuzzy controller is a combination of a fuzzy logic controller

  11. Effect of arm swing strategy on local dynamic stability of human gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, M.; Bruijn, S.M.; Wittink, H.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which

  12. High Bar Swing Performance in Novice Adults: Effects of Practice and Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Irurtia, Alfredo; Ranz, Daniel; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's a priori talent can affect movement performance during learning. Also, task requirements and motor-perceptual factors are critical to the learning process. This study describes changes in high bar swing performance after a 2-month practice period. Twenty-five novice participants were divided by a priori talent level…

  13. A Datalogger Demonstration of Electromagnetic Induction with a Falling, Oscillating and Swinging Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Darren; Lee, Paul; Foong, See Kit

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic induction phenomenon for a "falling," "oscillating" and "swinging" magnet and a coil, with the help of a datalogger. For each situation, we discuss the salient aspects of the phenomenon, with the aid of diagrams, and relate the motion of the magnet to its mathematical and graphical representations. Using various…

  14. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-12-26

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  15. Comparison of kettlebell swings and treadmill running at equivalent rating of perceived exertion values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, Caleb R; Soto, David T; Koch, Alexander J; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare metabolic demand of a kettlebell (KB) swing routine with treadmill (TM) running at equivalent rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Thirteen subjects (11 male, 2 female, age = 21.4 ± 2.1 years, weight = 73.0 ± 9.2 kg) completed a 10-minute KB swing routine consisting of 35-second swing intervals followed by 25-second rest intervals. Men used a 16-kg KB, and women used an 8-kg KB. After 48 hours of rest, the subjects completed a 10-minute TM run at equivalent RPEs as measured during the swing workout. Metabolic data were monitored each minute during each exercise using an automated cart, with the final 7 minutes used for analysis. The RPE and heart rate (HR) recorded at minutes 5, 7, 9, and 10 increased by 2-3 and 7-9%, respectively, for each exercise, producing a significantly increasing pattern but no significant difference between exercises. Average HR and RPE were not significantly different between KB and TM and averaged 90 and 89%, respectively, of age-predicted HRmax. Oxygen consumption, METS, pulmonary ventilation, and calorie expenditure were significantly higher for TM (25-39%) than for KB. Respiratory exchange ratio (TM = 0.94 ± 0.04, KB = 0.95 ± 0.05) and respiratory rate (TM = 38 ± 7, KB = 36 ± 4 b·min) were not significantly different between the exercises at any time point. During TM and KB exercises matched for RPE, the subjects are likely to have higher oxygen consumption, work at a higher MET level, and burn more kilocalories per minute during TM running than during KB swings. However, according to the American College of Sports Medicine standards, this KB drill could provide sufficient exercise stress to produce gains in aerobic capacity.

  16. Physical adsorption and molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohan, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of noble gases adsorption (except He) on graphite substracts are reviewed. Experimental results from this adsorption are analyzed and compared with molecular dynamics calculations. (L.C.) [pt

  17. Statistical mechanical model of gas adsorption in porous crystals with dynamic moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Efrem; Carraro, Carlo; Smit, Berend

    2017-01-01

    Some nanoporous, crystalline materials possess dynamic constituents, for example, rotatable moieties. These moieties can undergo a conformation change in response to the adsorption of guest molecules, which qualitatively impacts adsorption behavior. We pose and solve a statistical mechanical model of gas adsorption in a porous crystal whose cages share a common ligand that can adopt two distinct rotational conformations. Guest molecules incentivize the ligands to adopt a different rotational configuration than maintained in the empty host. Our model captures inflections, steps, and hysteresis that can arise in the adsorption isotherm as a signature of the rotating ligands. The insights disclosed by our simple model contribute a more intimate understanding of the response and consequence of rotating ligands integrated into porous materials to harness them for gas storage and separations, chemical sensing, drug delivery, catalysis, and nanoscale devices. Particularly, our model reveals design strategies to exploit these moving constituents and engineer improved adsorbents with intrinsic thermal management for pressure-swing adsorption processes. PMID:28049851

  18. Adsorption in cryogenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravex, A.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main fields for application of physical adsorption in cryogenics: cryopumping and refrigeration. Cryopumping has known many developments but is now almost industrial. Basic principles, applications and realizations are presented, for instance, in nuclear fusion and particle physics. For refrigeration developments and realizations are rare but present potential space applications [fr

  19. Transfemoral amputee recovery strategies following trips to their sound and prosthesis sides throughout swing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Camila; Simon, Ann M; Kuiken, Todd A

    2015-09-09

    Recovering from trips is challenging for transfemoral amputees, and attempts often result in falls. Better understanding of the effects of the sensory-motor deficits brought by amputation and the functional limitations of prosthetic devices could help guide therapy and fall prevention mechanisms in prostheses. However, how transfemoral amputees attempt to recover from trips on the sound and prosthesis sides throughout swing phase is poorly understood. We tripped eight able-bodied subjects and eight unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing their prescribed prostheses. The protocol consisted of six repetitions of 6 and 4 points throughout swing phase, respectively. We compared recovery strategies in able-bodied, sound side and prosthesis side limbs. The number of kinematic recovery strategies used, when they were used throughout swing phase, and kinematic characteristics (tripped limb joint angles, bilateral trochanter height and time from foot arrest to foot strike) of each strategy were compared across limb groups. Non-parametric statistical tests with corrections for post-hoc tests were used. Amputees used the same recovery strategies as able-bodied subjects on both sound and prosthesis sides, although not all subjects used all strategies. Compared to able-bodied subjects, amputees used delayed-lowering strategies less often from 30-60 % of swing phase on the sound side, and from 45-60 % of swing phase on the prosthesis side. Within-strategy kinematic differences occurred across limbs; however, these differences were not consistent across all strategies. Amputee-specific recovery strategies-that are not used by control subjects-occurred following trips on both the sound and prosthesis sides in mid- to late swing. Collectively, these results suggest that sensory input from the distal tripped leg is not necessary to trigger able-bodied trip recovery strategies. In addition, the differences between sound and prosthesis side recoveries indicate that the ability of the

  20. Traps for phosphorus adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Nawer D; Villegas, Wilson E; Rodriguez, Lino M; Taborda, Nelson; Montes de C, Consuelo

    2001-01-01

    Several AL 2 O 3 supported oxides such as: NiO, CuO, Co 2 O 3 BaO, CeO 2 and ZnO were investigated for phosphorus adsorption. Zno/y-Al 2 O 3 exhibited the highest phosphorus adsorption capacity. However, since it diminishes the activity of to the reaction mixture it should be located upstream of the NoX catalyst, i.e. 0,3% Pd-H-MOR, in order to protect it against p poisoning. The treatment procedure with citric acid was effective for the removal of more than 70% phosphorus from the adsorbent, ZnO/y-Al 2 O 3

  1. Swinging multi-source industrial CT systems for aperiodic dynamic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwen; Yu, Hengyong; Gong, Changcheng; Liu, Fenglin

    2017-10-02

    The goal of this paper is to develop a new architecture for industrial computed tomography (ICT) aiming at dynamically imaging an aperiodic changing object. We propose a data acquisition approach with multiple x-ray source/detector pairs targeting a continuously changeable object with corresponding timeframes. In this named swinging multi-source CT (SMCT) structure, each source and its associated detector swing forth and back within a certain angle for CT scanning. In the SMCT system design, we utilize a circular journal bearing based setup to replace the normal CT slip ring by weakening the scanning speed requirement. Inspired by the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm, we apply a modified PICCS algorithm for the SMCT (SM-PICCS). Our numerical simulation and realistic specimen experiment studies demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  2. Fast generation shedding equipment based on the observation of swings of generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Matsuzawa, K.; Sato, M.; Omata, K.; Tsukui, R.; Nakamura, T.; Mizuguchi, S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a new method and newly developed stabilizing equipment to prevent the loss of synchronism of generators in pumped-storage plants from spreading. The proposed method includes functions to estimate the swing of each generator by using on-line generator output sampled at a rate of 600 times per second after an occurrence of disturbance such as fault, faulty equipment and so on, to predict generator swing 200-300 milliseconds ahead and loss of synchronism between generators in pumped-storage plants and those in thermal and nuclear plants, and to decide the number of generators that must be shed to maintain stability. Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) installed the newly developed stabilizing equipment based on this method in the power system in June, 1986

  3. Maxillary Swing Approach for Removal of Palatal Carcinoma: A Modified Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Nomura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report a modification of the maxillary swing approach to remove a palatal tumor while preserving the anterior alveolar area. Methods. Case report using clinical records. Results. The patient was a 54-year-old male. TNM grade was T4bN0M0, and invasion to the base of the pterygoid process was seen. Two courses of induction chemotherapy were administered prior to the operation. Because there was no evidence of anterior maxillary invasion, the maxillary swing approach was chosen. The left anterior maxilla was cut and swung laterally, preserving the blood supply. After removal of the palatal tumor, the maxilla was repositioned and the defect was restored with an anterior lateral thigh flap. Postoperative course was typical, and facial appearance, speech, and masticatory function were satisfactory. Conclusions. This technique is particularly useful for preserving appearance as well as speech and mastication.

  4. PKU: high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-11-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU patients (median age 8.5, range 0-35 years) participated (median phenylalanine concentration in total sample 277 (range 89-1171) μmol/l; and in patients introvert or extravert behavior. The interviewer as well as the respondents were blinded with regard to the phenylalanine concentration. Patients reported less deviant behavior compared to close environment. Mood swings were positively associated with phenylalanine concentrations in the total group (P=0.039) and patients introvert and extravert behavior were not statistically significant. there is a positive association between phenylalanine concentrations and mood swings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of uncertainty through the interval smart/swing weighting method: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Flávio Autran Monteiro Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasingly competitive market means that many decisions must be taken, quickly and with precision, in complex, high risk scenarios. This combination of factors makes it necessary to use decision aiding methods which provide a means of dealing with uncertainty in the judgement of the alternatives. This work presents the use of the MAUT method, combined with the INTERVAL SMART/SWING WEIGHTING method. Although multicriteria decision aiding was not conceived specifically for tackling uncertainty, the combined use of MAUT and the INTERVAL SMART/SWING WEIGHTING method allows approaching decision problems under uncertainty. The main concepts which are involved in these two methods are described and their joint application to the case study concerning the selection of a printing service supplier is presented. The case study makes use of the WINPRE software as a support tool for the calculation of dominance. It is then concluded that the proposed approach can be applied to decision making problems under uncertainty.

  6. Validation of an Inertial Sensor System for Swing Analysis in Golf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lückemann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wearable inertial sensor systems are an upcoming tool for self-evaluation in sports, and can be used for swing analysis in golf. The aim of this work was to determine the validity and repeatability of an inertial sensor system attached to a player’s glove using a radar system as a reference. 20 subjects performed five full swings with each of three different clubs (wood, 7-iron, wedge. Clubhead speed was measured simultaneously by both sensor systems. Limits of Agreement were used to determine the accuracy and precision of the inertial sensor system. Results show that the inertial sensor system is quite accurate but with a lack of precision. Random error was quantified to approximately 17 km/h. The measurement error was dependent on the club type and was weakly negatively correlated to the magnitude of clubhead speed.

  7. Creative mood swings: divergent and convergent thinking affect mood in opposite ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Chermahini, Soghra; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that emotions affect cognitive processes. Recent approaches have also considered the opposite: that cognitive processes might affect people's mood. Here we show that performing and, to a lesser degree, preparing for a creative thinking task induce systematic mood swings: Divergent thinking led to a more positive mood, whereas convergent thinking had the opposite effect. This pattern suggests that thought processes and mood are systematically related but the type of relationship is process-specific.

  8. An Ingenious Modification in Conventional Swing Lock Cast Partial Denture for Rehabilitating A Hemi Mandibulectomy Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rupal Jaydip; Lagdive, Sanjay Balaji; Saini, Shraddha Lalit; Verma, Vishal Bipinbihari; Shah, Satyaprakash Ranjit

    2017-01-01

    Mandibular resections compromise the balance and symmetry of mandibular functions. Since centuries there has been advent of various prosthetic treatment modalities to improve the masticatory efficiency. Swing lock dentures, a treatment facet with high degree of clinical effectiveness, yet gradually fading into oblivion due to its design complexities, has been resurrected by retaining its indigenous concept of reciprocation, and consolidating aesthetics with introduction of newer breed of aesthetic material (Thermoplastic Acetal resin).

  9. Effects of Kettlebell Swing vs. Explosive Deadlift Training on Strength and Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Maulit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has compared explosive deadlift to kettlebell training observing their effects on strength. The kettlebell swing is a popular practical exercise as it shares share a hip hinge movement with the explosive deadlift, but the two have not been compared. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of kettlebell swing vs. explosive deadlift training on strength and power. Methods: Thirty-one recreationally resistance-trained men (age = 23.1 ± 2.3 years, height = 175.5 ± 6.6 cm, mass = 83.9 ± 13.8 kg, 1RM deadlift = 159.9 ± 31.7 kg were randomly assigned to one of two groups [kettlebell swing group (KBG n = 15, or explosive deadlift group (EDLG n = 16]. Vertical jump height, isometric mid-thigh pull (MTP, and 1RM deadlift were measured pre and post training. Both groups trained twice per week for 4 weeks. Volume and load were increased after the first 2 weeks of training. Results: A 2 (time x 2 (group mixed factor ANOVA revealed a significant (P<0.05 increase in deadlift 1RM (pre: 159.9 ± 31.7 kg, post: 168.9 ± 31.8 kg and vertical jump height (pre: 56.6 ± 9.9 cm, post: 57.9 ± 9.7 cm for both groups, but were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant changes in MTP. Conclusions: Strength and conditioning professionals may use both kettlebell swings and explosive deadlifts to increase deadlift strength and vertical jump power.

  10. Creative mood swings: divergent and convergent thinking affect mood in opposite ways

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari Chermahini, Soghra; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that emotions affect cognitive processes. Recent approaches have also considered the opposite: that cognitive processes might affect people’s mood. Here we show that performing and, to a lesser degree, preparing for a creative thinking task induce systematic mood swings: Divergent thinking led to a more positive mood, whereas convergent thinking had the opposite effect. This pattern suggests that thought processes and mood are systematically related but the type o...

  11. Comparison between swinging and playing of white noise among colicky babies: A paired randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezici, Emel; Yigit, Deniz

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of swinging and playing of white noise on the crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies. Infantile colic (IC) is one of the most common reasons for doctor visits among babies younger than 3 months. One of five babies older than 3 months also experiences IC. IC, unlike gastrointestinal problems, is regarded as an individual differentiation and maturation of the central nervous system. Providing a warm bath, breastfeeding, swinging and playing of white noise are nonpharmacological methods. The efficiency of these methods has been proven by various studies independently of one another. The study is a prospective, multicentre, paired randomised controlled trial. The study was conducted between April-December 2016. The study sample consisted of 40 1-month-old babies with gas pains who passed a hearing screening and their mothers. The total daily crying and sleeping durations of the babies were determined without any intervention on the first week. On the second week, 20 randomly selected babies (first group) were swung each time they cried, and on the third week, they were made to listen to white noise. The other 20 babies (second group) were made to listen to white noise on the second week and were swung on the third week. Swinging and playing of white noise were performed until the babies stopped crying. After every intervention, the total crying and sleeping durations of the babies were evaluated using a "Colicky Baby's Diary." Playing of white noise significantly decreased the daily crying durations (p white noise was found to be a more effective nonpharmacological method on crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies than swinging. Playing of white noise may be helpful for parents and healthcare personnel in reducing the gas pains of babies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Explaining medium run swings in unemployment : shocks, monetary policy and labour market frictions

    OpenAIRE

    Rannenberg, Ansgar

    2010-01-01

    The literature trying to link the increase in unemployment in many western European countries since the middle of the 1970s to an increase in labour market rigidity has run into a number of problems. In particular, changes in labour market institutions do not seem to be able to explain the evolution of unemployment across time. We conclude that a new theory of medium run unemployment swings should explain the increase in unemployment in many European countries and the lack thereof...

  13. Enhanced arm swing alters interlimb coordination during overground walking in individuals with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, Ksenia I; Langenderfer, Joseph E; Balendra, Nilanthy

    2017-04-01

    The current study investigated interlimb coordination in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during overground walking. The study involved 10 participants with coordination, balance, and gait abnormalities post-TBI, as well as 10 sex- and age-matched healthy control individuals. Participants walked 12m under two experimental conditions: 1) at self-selected comfortable walking speeds; and 2) with instructions to increase the amplitude and out-of-phase coordination of arm swinging. The gait was assessed with a set of spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters including the gait velocity, step length and width, double support time, lateral displacement of the center of mass, the amplitude of horizontal trunk rotation, and angular motions at shoulder and hip joints in sagittal plane. Interlimb coordination (coupling) was analyzed as the relative phase angles between the left and right shoulders, hips, and contralateral shoulders and hips, with an ideal out-of-phase coupling of 180° and ideal in-phase coupling of 0°. The TBI group showed much less interlimb coupling of the above pairs of joint motions than the control group. When participants were required to increase and synchronize arm swinging, coupling between shoulder and hip motions was significantly improved in both groups. Enhanced arm swinging was associated with greater hip and shoulder motion amplitudes, and greater step length. No other significant changes in spatiotemporal or kinematic gait characteristics were found in either group. The results suggest that arm swinging may be a gait parameter that, if controlled properly, can improve interlimb coordination during overground walking in patients with TBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain blood-flow changes during motion sickness. [thalamus vascular changes in dogs during swing tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. H.; Hsuen, J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility of diminished blood flow in the brain is studied as one of the factors resulting from an increase in skeletal muscle blood volume concomitant with other characteristics of motion sickness. Thermistors are implanted in the thalamus of dogs and blood flow changes are recorded while they are subjected to sinusoidal movement on a two pole swing. Results of these initial steps in a proposed long term exploration of different areas of the brain are presented.

  15. Operational Investigation of Overhead Crane with Fuzzy Logic Anti-Swing Controller Using 3-D Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Petrenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a crane control system is to provide load transfer with minimum swinging. The paper presents a developed three-dimensional simulation model of a bridge crane with fuzzy logic controller designed with application of genetic algorithms. Comparative indices of oscillation while load transferring are given in the paper. The indices have been obtained at various parameters of the fuzzy logic controller. 

  16. Experiments on the Porch Swing Bearing of Michelson Interferometer for Low Resolution FTIR

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomas Välikylä; Jyrki Kauppinen

    2013-01-01

    Porch swing bearing for the linear motion of the mirror in Michelson interferometer for mid-infrared low resolution Fourier transform spectrometer was studied experimentally using the modulation depth of the collimated laser beam. The mirror tilting was measured to be lower than 5 μrad over 3 mm mirror travel using two different bearings assemblies. Additionally, the manufacturing tolerances of the bearing type were proved to be loose enough not to limit the interferometer application. These ...

  17. Foot varus in stroke patients: muscular activity of extensor digitorum longus during the swing phase of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, F; Dériaz, O; Bergeau, J

    2009-06-01

    Hemiparetic patients often present an abnormal leg muscles balance that can lead to foot deformities like equinovarus or varus. To assess whether a muscle imbalance between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus was associated with a varus deformity of the foot during the swing phase of gait in stroke patients. Twenty hemiparetic patients presenting a foot varus during the swing phase of gait were compared to 16 healthy subjects. Gait was analyzed by video recording and by surface electromyography. Duration and magnitude of electromyographic signal were collected for tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus. Presence of an activity of the calf muscles during the swing phase was also evaluated. Hemiparetic patients exhibited more often premature activity of the calf muscles (pextensor digitorum longus (pextensor digitorum longus activity (pextensor digitorum longus muscle during the swing phase of gait is important to balance the foot in the frontal plane. The activation of that muscle should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  18. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions.

  19. Investigations of leakage mechanisms and its influences on a micro swing engine considering rarefaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiong; Zhang, Zhenyu; Kong, Wenjun; Du, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanisms of the leakage flow in different flow regimes have been studied. • The leakage flow regime and patterns in the micro swing engine are presented. • Slip on the walls has a larger effect on leakage flow with decreasing the gap. • Rarefaction effects on the engine performance have been investigated. - Abstract: Considering rarefaction effects, this paper investigated mechanisms of the clearance leakage and its influences on a micro swing engine for the micro power generation by employing three different flow models named as discrete velocity direction (DVD) model, Navier-Stokes equations with slip boundary conditions (NS-slip) and no-slip boundary conditions (NS-no slip). Using the DVD model, this paper firstly studied leakage mechanisms of a micro Couette-Poisueille flow. Factors which control the leakage in different regimes were obtained. Furthermore, the system-level predictions of the clearance leakage in the micro swing engine have been conducted by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The leakage flow regime, patterns and characteristics were presented. Results by NS-slip and NS-no slip were compared to study the rarefaction effects. Finally, investigations of the engine size and the gap height on the engine performance have been conducted. The significance of the leakage in different engine size regimes was presented, and the results show that rarefaction effects affect the indicated thermal efficiency greatly with the decrease of the engine size scale.

  20. Simulation of Pressure-swing Distillation for Separation of Ethyl Acetate-Ethanol-Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhou, Menglin; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Gang

    2017-12-01

    In the light of the azeotrope of ethyl acetate-ethanol-water, a process of pressure-swing distillation is proposed. The separation process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the effects of theoretical stage number, reflux ratio and feed stage about the pressure-swing distillation are optimized. Some better process parameters are as follows: for ethyl acetate refining tower, the pressure is 500.0 kPa, theoretical stage number is 16, reflux ratio is 0.6, feed stage is 5; for crude ethanol tower, the pressure is 101.3 kPa, theoretical stage number is 15, reflux ratio is 0.3, feed stage is 4; for ethanol tower, the pressure is 101.3 kPa, theoretical stage number is 25, reflux ratio is 1.2, feed stage is 10. The mass fraction of ethyl acetate in the bottom of the ethyl acetate refining tower reaches 0.9990, the mass fraction of ethanol in the top of the ethanol tower tower reaches 0.9017, the mass fraction of water in the bottom of the ethanol tower tower reaches 0.9622, and there is also no ethyl acetate in the bottom of the ethanol tower. With laboratory tests, experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation results, which indicates that the separation of ethyl acetate ethanol water can be realized by the pressure-swing distillation separation process. Moreover, it has certain practical significance to industrial practice.

  1. Quasi-stiffness of the knee joint in flexion and extension during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Sim, Taeyong; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical understanding of the knee joint during a golf swing is essential to improve performance and prevent injury. In this study, we quantified the flexion/extension angle and moment as the primary knee movement, and evaluated quasi-stiffness represented by moment-angle coupling in the knee joint. Eighteen skilled and 23 unskilled golfers participated in this study. Six infrared cameras and two force platforms were used to record a swing motion. The anatomical angle and moment were calculated from kinematic and kinetic models, and quasi-stiffness of the knee joint was determined as an instantaneous slope of moment-angle curves. The lead knee of the skilled group had decreased resistance duration compared with the unskilled group (P knee was lower than that of the trail knee in the skilled group (P knee of the skilled golfers had greater flexible excursion duration than the trail knee of the skilled golfers, and of both the lead and trail knees of the unskilled golfers. These results provide critical information for preventing knee injuries during a golf swing and developing rehabilitation strategies following surgery.

  2. Wireless inclinometer acquisition system for reducing swing movement control module experiment of hook model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Ou, Jinping; Zhang, Chunwei; Li, Luyu

    2008-03-01

    Large Scale Heavy Derrick Lay Barge is very important for sea work. Under intense wind and wave load, the hook on the Barge will vibrate so large that in some cases it can not work. Through installing the Tuned Mass Damper(TMD) on the hook, the vibration will be reduced to a certain range to meet the demand on sea work, which is also important for increasing the efficiency of sea work. To design the suitable TMD for the hook, the dynamical parameters should be specified beforehand. Generally, the related dynamical parameters such as inclinometer and acceleration are measured by wire sensors. But due to the restriction of the actual condition, the wire sensors are very hard to implement. Recently, the wireless sensors have been presented to overcome the shortcomings of wire ones. It is more suitable and also convenient to utilize wireless sensors to acquire the useful data of large scale heavy derrick lay barge. In this paper, the hook reducing swing movement control module is designed for large scale heavy derrick lay barge. Secondly, wireless inclinometer sensor system is integrated using the technique of MEMS, sensing and wireless communication. Finally, the hook reducing swing movement control module is validated by the developed wireless inclinometer data acquisition system. The wireless inclinometer sensor can be used not only in swing monitoring for large scale heavy derrick lay barge's Hook, but also in vibration monitoring for TV tower, large crane. In general, it has great application foreground.

  3. Between the Dance Studio and the Social Dance Floor: On Solidarity and Practices of Mutuality in Swing Dance Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kravanja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the dynamics of actualization of solidarity and hierarchical relations in contemporary swing dance communities. It shows how these communities are based on a specific solidarity ideology, at least it terms of dealing with processes of their institutionalization, commercialization and establishing of formal dance hierarchies. However, when we take into view the swing dancers themselves, diverse practices of mutuality become evident. In contrast to the formal solidarity discourses and practices, the latter are much more heterogeneous and as such more interesting for anthropological discussion, for they establish solidarity and hierarchical relations apart from wider mobilization movements of the swing dance industry, and many of them implicitly resist institutionalization. The thesis arising from this case study is that the practices of mutuality are not always in complementary relation with discourses of solidarity. On the contrary, they often bypass the major solidarity flows and, paradoxically, contribute most efficiently to the actual solidarity of vital parts of the swing communities. The author discusses the subject on the basis of six years of active participation in different Slovene swing dance scenes and occasional presence at international swing dance events in different European cities.

  4. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of urea adsorption onto activated carbon: Adsorption mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kameda, Tomohito; Ito, Saya; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    We found that activated carbon effectively removed urea from solution and that urea adsorption onto activated carbon followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. We classified the urea adsorption on activated carbon as physical adsorption and found that it was best described by the Halsey adsorption isotherm, suggesting that the multilayer adsorption of urea molecules on the adsorption sites of activated carbon best characterized the adsorption system. The mechanism of adsorption of urea by ...

  5. Adsorption and collective paramagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Selwood, Pierce W

    1962-01-01

    Adsorption and Collective Paramagnetism describes a novel method for studying chemisorption. The method is based on the change in the number of unpaired electrons in the adsorbent as chemisorption occurs. The method is applicable to almost all adsorbates, but it is restricted to ferromagnetic adsorbents such as nickel, which may be obtained in the form of very small particles, that is to say, to ferromagnetic adsorbents with a high specific surface. While almost all the data used illustratively have been published elsewhere this is the first complete review of the subject. The book is addresse

  6. Study on Shale Adsorption Equation Based on Monolayer Adsorption, Multilayer Adsorption, and Capillary Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qing; Tian, Yuanyuan; Li, Peng; Yan, Changhui; Pang, Yu; Zheng, Li; Deng, Hucheng; Zhou, Wen; Meng, Xianghao

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas is an effective gas resource all over the world. The evaluation of pore structure plays a critical role in exploring shale gas efficiently. Nitrogen adsorption experiment is one of the significant approaches to analyze pore size structure of shale. Shale is extremely heterogeneous due to component diversity and structure complexity. Therefore, adsorption isotherms for homogeneous adsorbents and empirical isotherms may not apply to shale. The shape of adsorption-desorption curve indi...

  7. Altered kinematics of arm swing in Parkinson's disease patients indicates declines in gait under dual-task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Elise I; Miller Koop, Mandy; Streicher, Matthew C; Rosenfeldt, Anson B; Alberts, Jay L

    2018-03-01

    Declines in simultaneous performance of a cognitive and motor task are present in Parkinson's disease due to compromised basal ganglia function related to information processing. The aim of this project was to determine if biomechanical measures of arm swing could be used as a marker of gait function under dual-task conditions in Parkinson's disease patients. Twenty-three patients with Parkinson's disease completed single and dual-task cognitive-motor tests while walking on a treadmill at a self-selected rate. Multiple cognitive domains were evaluated with five cognitive tests. Cognitive tests were completed in isolation (single-task) and simultaneously with gait (dual-task). Upper extremity biomechanical data were gathered using the Motek CAREN system. Primary outcomes characterizing arm swing were: path length, normalized jerk, coefficient of variation of arm swing time, and cognitive performance. Performance on the cognitive tasks were similar across single and dual-task conditions. However, biomechanical measures exhibited significant changes between single and dual-task conditions, with the greatest changes occurring in the most challenging conditions. Arm swing path length decreased significantly from single to dual-task, with the greatest decrease of 21.16%. Jerk, characterizing smoothness, increased significantly when moving from single to dual-task conditions. The simultaneous performance of a cognitive and gait task resulted in decrements in arm swing while cognitive performance was maintained. Arm swing outcomes provide a sensitive measure of declines in gait function in Parkinson's disease under dual-task conditions. The quantification of arm swing is a feasible approach to identifying and evaluating gait related declines under dual-task conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Global versus local adsorption selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzat, Françoise; Marloie, Gael; Markovits, Alexis; Ellinger, Yves

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the enantiomeric excess found in the amino acids present in the organic matter of carbonaceous meteorites is still unclear. Selective adsorption of one of the two enantiomers existing after a racemic formation could be part of the answer. Hereafter we report a comparative study of the adsorption of the R and S enantiomers of α-alanine and lactic acid on the hydroxylated { } chiral surface of α-quartz using numerical simulation techniques. Structurally different adsorption sites were found with opposite R versus S selectivity for the same molecule-surface couple, raising the problem of whether to consider adsorption as a local property or as a global response characteristic of the whole surface. To deal with the second term of this alternative, a statistical approach was designed, based on the occurrence of each adsorption site whose energy was calculated using first principle periodic density functional theory. It was found that R-alanine and S-lactic acid are the enantiomers preferentially adsorbed, even if the adsorption process on the quartz { } surface stays with a disappointingly poor enantio-selectivity. Nevertheless, it highlighted the important point that considering adsorption as a global property changes perspectives in the search for more efficient enantio-selective supports and more generally changes the way to apprehend adsorption processes in astro-chemistry/biology.

  9. Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, David O.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiment developed and used in the unit operations laboratory course at the University of Wyoming. Involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous solution on activated carbon, and is relevant to adsorption processes in general. (TW)

  10. Double Swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    There are two main streams of understanding intercultural communication. The “classic” transmission models include the basic elements of communication involved in sending messages from a sender to a receiver. These models enable analysis of all communication elements and effects by focusing...

  11. Swinging Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadrava, Michal; Hlinka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, suppl. 1 (2016), P146 ISSN 1471-2202 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-29835A; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02634S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : neurodynamics * connectivity * music * epilepsy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology https://bmcneurosci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12868-016-0283-6

  12. Biomechanical factors behind toe clearance during the swing phase in hemiparetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Fumihiro; Mukaino, Masahiko; Ohtsuka, Kei; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Tsuchiyama, Kazuhiro; Teranishi, Toshio; Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Eiichi

    2017-04-01

    The toe clearance of a paretic limb in the swing phase of gait is related to tripping, which is considered a major cause of falls. The biomechanical factors for obtaining toe clearance are more complicated in hemiparetic gait than that in normal gait because of the compensatory movements during swing phase. Understanding the biomechanical factors should help in targeting the point for rehabilitative interventions. To clarify the biomechanical factors behind toe clearance during swing phase in hemiparetic gait. Fifty patients with hemiparesis after a stroke participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used for the kinematic analysis of the hemiparetic gait. The correlation coefficients between limb shortening and angle changes and between limb shortening and hip elevation and foot lateral shift were calculated. Limb shortening was defined as the shortening of the hip-toe distance. The significant factors that determine toe clearance were examined by multiple regression analysis. Independent variables were limb shortening, hip elevation, and foot lateral shift. Limb shortening was negatively correlated with hip elevation (r = -0.75) and foot lateral shift (r = -0.41). Multiple regression analysis showed a significant contribution of limb shortening and hip elevation to toe clearance. The coefficient of determination was 0.95. Toe clearance was mainly determined by limb shortening and hip elevation, which were found to be in a trade-off relationship. These results warrant further investigation into the use of three-dimensional motion analysis in the rehabilitation clinic to facilitate targeted rehabilitative training to restore gait ability.

  13. Active gate driving method for reliability improvement of IGBTs via junction temperature swing reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an advanced gate driver used as thermal swing control method for the reduction of AC load current-related ΔTj in Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A switchable gate resistor network is applied to the advanced gate driver, so that the switching power losses can...... be changed according to the amplitude of AC current. Accordingly, a closed-loop thermal control method including the functions of root-mean-square calculation and phase analysis is proposed. Hence ΔTj can be reduced by means of changing losses-related gate resistors on the basis of output fundamental...

  14. The effect of spin in swing bowling in cricket: model trajectories for spin alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2015-02-01

    In ‘swing’ bowling, as employed by fast and fast-medium bowlers in cricket, back-spin along the line of the seam is normally applied in order to keep the seam vertical and to provide stability against ‘wobble’ of the seam. Whilst spin is normally thought of as primarily being the slow bowler's domain, the spin applied by the swing bowler has the side-effect of generating a lift or Magnus force. This force, depending on the orientation of the seam and hence that of the back-spin, can have a side-ways component as well as the expected vertical ‘lift’ component. The effect of the spin itself, in influencing the trajectory of the fast bowler's delivery, is normally not considered, presumably being thought of as negligible. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, using calculated model trajectories, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin and to see how this predicted movement compares with the total observed side-ways movement. The size of the vertical lift component is also estimated. It is found that, although the spin is an essential part of the successful swing bowler's delivery, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin itself amounts to a few centimetres or so, and is therefore small, but perhaps not negligible, compared to the total amount of side-ways movement observed. The spin does, however, provide a considerable amount of lift compared to the equivalent delivery bowled without spin, altering the point of pitching by up to 3 m, a very large amount indeed. Thus, for example, bowling a ball with the seam pointing directly down the pitch and not designed to swing side-ways at all, but with the amount of back-spin varied, could provide a very powerful additional weapon in the fast bowler's arsenal. So-called ‘sling bowlers’, who use a very low arm action, can take advantage of spin since effectively they can apply side-spin to the ball, giving rise to a large side-ways movement, ˜ 20{}^\\circ cm or more, which certainly is

  15. A Resolution of the Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle: Imperfect Knowledge and Long Swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Goldberg, Michael D.; Johansen, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Asset prices undergo long swings that revolve around benchmark levels. In currency markets, fluctuations involve real exchange rates that are highly persistent and that move in near-parallel fashion with nominal rates. The inability to explain these two regularities with one model has been called...... the "purchasing power parity puzzle." In this paper, we trace the puzzle to exchange rate modelers' use of the "Rational Expectations Hypothesis." We show that once imperfect knowledge is recognized, a monetary model is able to account for the puzzle, as well as other salient features of the data, including...

  16. Sensitivity based Assessment of Transient Voltage Sags caused by Rotor Swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces an approach to investigate voltage sags, which are caused by large generator rotor swings following a transient disturbance. Therefore, the method exploits sensitivities derived from the algebraic network equations. These provide information on the impact of a generator...... on the voltage magnitude at a load bus and the effect of load variation on the generator’s power injection. It is shown that these sensitivities give valuable information to identify critical generator-load pairs and locations for applying preventive control measures....

  17. Derivation and application of sensitivities to assess transient voltage sags caused by rotor swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces an approach to investigate voltage sags, which are caused by large generator rotor swings following a transient disturbance. Therefore, the method exploits sensitivities derived from the algebraic network equations. These provide information on the impact of a generator...... on the voltage magnitude at a load bus and the effect of load variation on the generator’s power injection. It is shown that these sensitivities give valuable information to identify critical generator–load pairs and locations for applying preventive control measures....

  18. The effect of spin in swing bowling in cricket: model trajectories for spin alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    In ‘swing’ bowling, as employed by fast and fast-medium bowlers in cricket, back-spin along the line of the seam is normally applied in order to keep the seam vertical and to provide stability against ‘wobble’ of the seam. Whilst spin is normally thought of as primarily being the slow bowler's domain, the spin applied by the swing bowler has the side-effect of generating a lift or Magnus force. This force, depending on the orientation of the seam and hence that of the back-spin, can have a side-ways component as well as the expected vertical ‘lift’ component. The effect of the spin itself, in influencing the trajectory of the fast bowler's delivery, is normally not considered, presumably being thought of as negligible. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, using calculated model trajectories, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin and to see how this predicted movement compares with the total observed side-ways movement. The size of the vertical lift component is also estimated. It is found that, although the spin is an essential part of the successful swing bowler's delivery, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin itself amounts to a few centimetres or so, and is therefore small, but perhaps not negligible, compared to the total amount of side-ways movement observed. The spin does, however, provide a considerable amount of lift compared to the equivalent delivery bowled without spin, altering the point of pitching by up to 3 m, a very large amount indeed. Thus, for example, bowling a ball with the seam pointing directly down the pitch and not designed to swing side-ways at all, but with the amount of back-spin varied, could provide a very powerful additional weapon in the fast bowler's arsenal. So-called ‘sling bowlers’, who use a very low arm action, can take advantage of spin since effectively they can apply side-spin to the ball, giving rise to a large side-ways movement, ∼20 ∘ cm or more, which

  19. System and process for polarity swing assisted regeneration of gas selective capture liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Tegrotenhuis, Ward E.; Freeman, Charles J.; Elliott, Michael L.; Koech, Phillip K.; Humble, Paul H.; Zheng, Feng; Zhang, Jian

    2017-07-18

    A polarity swing-assisted regeneration (PSAR) process is disclosed for improving the efficiency of releasing gases chemically bound to switchable ionic liquids. Regeneration of the SWIL involves addition of a quantity of non-polar organic compound as an anti-solvent to destabilize the SWIL, which aids in release of the chemically bound gas. The PSAR decreases gas loading of a SWIL at a given temperature and increases the rate of gas release compared to heating in the absence of anti-solvent.

  20. A Comparison of Jump Height, Takeoff Velocities, and Blocking Coverage in the Swing and Traditional Volleyball Blocking Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Ficklin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare traditional and swing blocking techniques on center of mass (COM projectile motion and effective blocking area in nine healthy Division I female volleyball players. Two high-definition (1080 p video cameras (60 Hz were used to collect two-dimensional variables from two separate views. One was placed perpendicular to the plane of the net and the other was directed along the top of the net, and were used to estimate COM locations and blocking area in a plane parallel to the net and hand penetration through the plane of the net respectively. Video of both the traditional and swing techniques were digitized and kinematic variables were calculated. Paired samples t-tests indicated that the swing technique resulted in greater (p < 0.05 vertical and horizontal takeoff velocities (vy and vx, jump height (H, duration of the block (tBLOCK, blocking coverage during the block (C as well as hand penetration above and through the net’s plane (YPEN, ZPEN. The traditional technique had significantly greater approach time (tAPP. The results of this study suggest that the swing technique results in both greater jump height and effective blocking area. However, the shorter tAPP that occurs with swing is associated with longer times in the air during the block which may reduce the ability of the athlete to make adjustments to attacks designed to misdirect the defense.

  1. Anti-Swing Control of Gantry and Tower Cranes Using Fuzzy and Time-Delayed Feedback with Friction Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Omar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed a feedback controller to automate crane operations by controlling the load position and its swing. First, a PD tracking controller is designed to follow a prescribed trajectory. Then, another controller is added to the control loop to damp the load swing. The anti-swing controller is designed based on two techniques: a time-delayed feedback of the load swing angle and an anti-swing fuzzy logic controller (FLC. The rules of the FLC are generated by mapping the performance of the time-delayed feedback controller. The same mapping method used for generating the rules can be applied to mimic the performance of an expert operator. The control algorithms were designed for gantry cranes and then extended to tower cranes by considering the coupling between the translational and rotational motions. Experimental results show that the controller is effective in reducing load oscillations and transferring the load in a reasonable time. To experimentally validate the theory, we had to compensate for friction. To this end, we estimated the friction and then applied a control action to cancel it. The friction force was estimated by assuming a mathematical model and then estimating the model coefficients using an off-line identification technique, the method of least squares (LS.

  2. Kettlebell swing, snatch, and bottoms-up carry: back and hip muscle activation, motion, and low back loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Marshall, Leigh W

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to quantify spine loading during different kettlebell swings and carries. No previously published studies of tissue loads during kettlebell exercises could be found. Given the popularity of kettlebells, this study was designed to provide an insight into the resulting joint loads. Seven male subjects participated in this investigation. In addition, a single case study of the kettlebell swing was performed on an accomplished kettlebell master. Electromyography, ground reaction forces (GRFs), and 3D kinematic data were recorded during exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell. These variables were input into an anatomically detailed biomechanical model that used normalized muscle activation; GRF; and spine, hip, and knee motion to calculate spine compression and shear loads. It was found that kettlebell swings create a hip-hinge squat pattern characterized by rapid muscle activation-relaxation cycles of substantial magnitudes (∼50% of a maximal voluntary contraction [MVC] for the low back extensors and 80% MVC for the gluteal muscles with a 16-kg kettlebell) resulting in about 3,200 N of low back compression. Abdominal muscular pulses together with the muscle bracing associated with carries create kettlebell-specific training opportunities. Some unique loading patterns discovered during the kettlebell swing included the posterior shear of the L4 vertebra on L5, which is opposite in polarity to a traditional lift. Thus, quantitative analysis provides an insight into why many individuals credit kettlebell swings with restoring and enhancing back health and function, although a few find that they irritate tissues.

  3. Adsorption of Atenolol on Kaolinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingmo Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the adsorption of atenolol (AT, a β-blocker, on kaolinite, a clay mineral of low surface charge, was investigated under varying initial AT concentration, equilibrium time, solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature conditions. The results showed that the amounts of AT uptake by kaolinite were close to its cation exchange capacity value and the AT adsorption was almost instantaneous, suggesting a surface adsorption. The adsorption was exothermic and the free energy of adsorption was small negative, indicating physical adsorption. The increase in ionic strength of the solution drastically reduced AT uptake on kaolinite. A significant reduction in AT uptake was found at solution pH below 5 or above 10. The FTIR results showed band shifting and disappearance for NH bending vibration and benzene ring skeletal vibration at 3360 and 1515 cm−1 and band splitting at 1412 and 1240 cm−1 attributed to C–N valence vibration coupled with NH bending vibrations and alkyl aryl ether linkage, suggesting the participation of NH, –O–, and benzene ring for AT adsorption on kaolinite.

  4. Adsorption Desalination: A Novel Method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2010-11-15

    The search for potable water for quenching global thirst remains a pressing concern throughout many regions of the world. The demand for new and sustainable sources and the associated technologies for producing fresh water are intrinsically linked to the solving of potable water availability and hitherto, innovative and energy efficient desalination methods seems to be the practical solutions. Quenching global thirst by adsorption desalination is a practical and inexpensive method of desalinating the saline and brackish water to produce fresh water for agriculture irrigation, industrial, and building applications. This chapter provides a general overview of the adsorption fundamentals in terms of adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and heat of adsorption. It is then being more focused on the principles of thermally driven adsorption desalination methods. The recent developments of adsorption desalination plants and the effect of operating conditions on the system performance in terms of specific daily water production and performance ratio are presented. Design of a large commercial adsorption desalination plant is also discussed herein.

  5. Differences in wrist mechanics during the golf swing based on golf handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorcik, Gregory G; Queen, Robin M; Abbey, Alicia N; Moorman, Claude T; Ruch, David S

    2012-05-01

    Variation in swing mechanics between golfers of different skill levels has been previously reported. To investigate if differences in three-dimensional wrist kinematics and the angle of golf club descent between low and high handicap golfers. A descriptive laboratory study was performed with twenty-eight male golfers divided into two groups, low handicap golfers (handicap = 0-5, n = 15) and high handicap golfers (handicap ≥ 10, n = 13). Bilateral peak three-dimensional wrist mechanics, bilateral wrist mechanics at ball contact (BC), peak angle of descent from the end of the backswing to ball contact, and the angle of descent when the forearm was parallel to the ground (DEC-PAR) were determined using an 8 camera motion capture system. Independent t-tests were completed for each study variable (α = 0.05). Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between golf handicap and each of the study variables. The peak lead arm radial deviation (5.7 degrees, p = 0.008), lead arm radial deviation at ball contact (7.1 degrees, p = 0.001), and DEC-PAR (15.8 degrees, p = 0.002) were significantly greater in the high handicap group. In comparison with golfers with a low handicap, golfers with a high handicap have increased radial deviation during the golf swing and at ball contact. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Orientation of Cells Cultured in Vortex Flow with Swinging Plate in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An effect of flow on cell culture has been studied in vitro. A silicone disk was placed in the center of culture dish of 52 mm internal diameter to make a doughnut-shaped canal. The dish was placed on a tilted plate, which rotates to make a vortex flow around the silicone disk with a swing motion. Variations were made on the diameter (20 mm, 30 mm, and 40 mm of the silicone disk and the rotational speed (2.1 rad/sec, 5.2 rad/sec of the swinging plate, which tilts with 0.1 rad from the horizontal plane. Five kinds of cells were cultured in the vortex flow of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium for seven days: C2C12 (mouse myoblast, L6 (rat skeletal muscle cell, A7r5 (rat aortic smooth muscle cell, CS-2P2-C75 (primary normal porcine aortic endothelial cell, and L929 (mouse fibroblast. The experiments show the following results. The orientation of cells depends on flow and on kinds of cells. A7r5 and CS-2P2-C75 line along the streamline of the flow. C2C12 and L6 adhere along the direction of the flow in the first stage, and tilt to the perpendicular direction to the flow differentiating to myotubes with fusion in the second stage.

  7. Development of a doorframe-typed swinging seedling pick-up device for automatic field transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, H.; Mao, H.; Hu, J.; Tian, K.

    2015-07-01

    A doorframe-typed swing seedling pick-up device for automatic field transplanters was developed and evaluated in a laboratory. The device, consisting of a path manipulator and two grippers, can move the pins slowly to extract seedlings from the tray cells and return quickly to the pick-up point for the next extraction. The path manipulator was constructed with the creative design of type-Ⅱ mechanism combination in series. It consists of an oscillating guide linkage mechanism and a grooved globoidal cam mechanism. The gripper is a pincette-type mechanism using the pick-up pins to penetrate into the root mass for seedling extraction. The dynamic analysis of the designed seedling pick-up device was simulated with ADAMS software. Being the first prototype, various performance tests under local production conditions were conducted to find out the optimal machine operation parameters and transplant production conditions. As the gripper with multiple fine pins was moved by the swing pick-up device, it can effectively complete the transplanting work cycle of extracting, transferring, and discharging a seedling. The laboratory evaluation showed that the pick-up device equipped with two grippers can extract 80 seedlings/min with a 90% success and a 3% failure in discharging seedlings, using 42-day-old tomato plantlets. The quality of extracting seedlings was satisfactory. (Author)

  8. Swing-attenuation for a quadrotor transporting a cable-suspended payload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, M Eusebia; Mercado-Ravell, D Alberto; Lozano, Rogelio; García-Beltrán, C Daniel

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the problem of safe and fast transportation of packages by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) kind quadrotor. A mathematical model and a control strategy for a special class of underactuated mechanical systems, composed of a quadrotor transporting a cable-suspended payload, are proposed. The Euler-Lagrange formulation is used to obtain the dynamic model of the system, where the integrated dynamics of the quadrotor, cable and payload are considered. An Interconnection and Damping Assignment-Passivity Based Control (IDA-PBC) is chosen because of its inherent robustness against parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics. Two cases are considered to obtain two different control laws, in the first case, the designed control law depends on the swing angle of the payload, in the second case the control law does not depend on it. The control objective is to transport the payload from point to point, with swing reduction along trajectory. Experimental results using monocular vision based navigation are shown to evaluate the proposed control law. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solar Power Ramp Events Detection Using an Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-07

    Solar power ramp events (SPREs) are those that significantly influence the integration of solar power on non-clear days and threaten the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Accurately extracting solar power ramps becomes more important with increasing levels of solar power penetrations in power systems. In this paper, we develop an optimized swinging door algorithm (OpSDA) to detection. First, the swinging door algorithm (SDA) is utilized to segregate measured solar power generation into consecutive segments in a piecewise linear fashion. Then we use a dynamic programming approach to combine adjacent segments into significant ramps when the decision thresholds are met. In addition, the expected SPREs occurring in clear-sky solar power conditions are removed. Measured solar power data from Tucson Electric Power is used to assess the performance of the proposed methodology. OpSDA is compared to two other ramp detection methods: the SDA and the L1-Ramp Detect with Sliding Window (L1-SW) method. The statistical results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. OpSDA can significantly improve the performance of the SDA, and it can perform as well as or better than L1-SW with substantially less computation time.

  10. Getting into the flow: Red cells go on a roll, two-component vesicles swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Dupire, Jules; Khelloufi, Kamel; Al Halifa, Al Hair; Adhesion and Inflammation Team

    2013-11-01

    Red blood cells are soft capsules. Under shear flow, their two known motions were ``tumbling'' and ``swinging-tank treading,'' depending on cell mechanics and flow conditions. We reveal new wobbling regimes, among which the ``rolling'' regime, where red cells move as wheels on a road. We show, by coupling two video-microscopy approaches providing multi-directional cell pictures that the orientation of cells flipping into the flow is determined by the shear rate. Rolling permits to avoid energetically costly cellular deformations and is a true signature of the cytoskeleton elasticity. We highlight two transient dynamics: an intermittent regime during the ``tank-treading-to-flipping'' transition and a Frisbee-like ``spinning'' regime during the ``rolling-to-tank-treading'' transition. We find that the biconcave red cell shape is very stable under moderate shear stresses, and we interpret this result in terms of shape memory and elastic buckling. Finally, we generate lipid vesicles with a shape memory by using two lipids with different bending rigidities. These vesicles swing in shear flow similarly to red blood cells but their non-axisymmetric stress-free shape changes the periodicity of the motion and induces specific features.

  11. Influence of the Pressure Difference and Door Swing on Heavy Contaminants Migration between Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendiger, Jacek; Chludzińska, Marta; Ziętek, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations whose aim was to describe the influence of the pressure difference level on the ability of contaminants migration between neighbouring rooms in dynamic conditions associated with door swing. The analysis was based on airflow visualization made with cold smoke, which simulated the heavy contaminants. The test room was pressurized to a specific level and then the door was opened to observe the trail of the smoke plume in the plane of the door. The door was opened in both directions: to the positively and negatively pressurized room. This study focuses on the visualization of smoke plume discharge and an uncertainty analysis is not applicable. Unlike other studies which focus on the analysis of pressure difference, the present study looks at the contaminants which are heavier than air and on "pumping out" the contaminants by means of door swing. Setting the proper level of pressure difference between the contaminated room and the neighbouring rooms can prove instrumental in ensuring protection against toxic contaminants migration. This study helped to establish the threshold of pressure difference necessary to reduce migration of heavy contaminants to neighbouring rooms.

  12. The influence of the gait-related arm swing on elevation gain measured by sport watches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammann Rahel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The elevation gain is an important contributor to the total workload in endurance sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the arm swing on elevation gain in three sport watches (Garmin® Forerunner 910XT, Polar® RS800CX and Suunto® Ambit2 on a flat 400 m outdoor track. Altogether, a total of 120 repetitions of 1,200 m were performed at self-selected speeds corresponding to strolling, walking, jogging and running. During the assessment two devices of each sport watch, one secured on the hip and one on the wrist, were worn by the participants. A small but significant (effect size = .39; p < .001 influence of the arm swing on elevation was revealed in all sport watches. Elevation indication errors recorded on the wrist were significantly larger than the ones recorded on the hip (4.0-7.4 vs. 1.2-5.7 m per 1,200 m; p < .05. Furthermore, when wearing the devices on the wrist, errors in elevation indication increased when gait speed increased. Users should be aware that wearing the devices on the hip can significantly decrease measurement errors. This might be especially relevant for activities with high dynamics, such as jogging and running.

  13. Anti-Swing Control of Suspended Loads on Shipboard Robotic Cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackrit Suthakorn

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the speed at which materials can be transferred between ships at sea is limited by sea conditions. Rough sea conditions cause the payload to swing making load transfer difficult and time-consuming. The objective of this research is to develop a real-time, command compensating control for reducing sea state induced payload swing for shipboard robotic cranes. The future use of this control strategy will be to facilitate faster "ship-to-ship" payload transfer in rough sea conditions. In this study, only the sea-induced rotational motion of the ship is considered, since it is assumed that a station-keeping control maintains a constant position of the ship. This rotational motion is modelled using pitch-yaw-roll Euler angles. The shipboard robotic crane is modelled as a spherical pendulum attached to a three-degree-of-freedom manipulator. The three degrees-of-freedom are azimuth (rotation about an axis normal to the ship's deck, elevation (rotation about an axis parallel with the ship's deck, also referred to as luffing, and lift-line length. An inverse kinematics based approach and a sliding mode control strategy are explored. Both approaches use the azimuth and the elevation capability of the crane manipulator to maintain a horizontal position of the suspended load to reduce sea-induced payload sway.

  14. The effect of two different swinging methods upon colic and crying durations among the infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Swinging "repetitive and rhythmic" movements are helpful because these provide a continuous stimulus. These methods are reported to be effective upon decreasing baby′s pains or cry. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors of the two different methods (rhythmic rocking of infants in the arm and rhythmic rocking infants on a blanket on crying duration and colic as well as the factors affecting duration of crying with colic. Materials and Methods: A pre-test post-test quasi experimental model was used. Subjects included 72 infants (1-3 months who had colic and their mothers. The infants were healthy and were delivered after full-term gestation. Results: It has been determined that as the duration of application increased (at the end of the second week, the crying duration of babies who were in each of the two groups decreased. Conclusion: It has been found that swinging ( rhythmic rocking the infants on a blanket and in arm, decreased the colic and crying duration of infants.

  15. The effects of cognitive anxiety on the biomechanical characteristics of the golf swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MBA De Ste Croix

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive anxiety (CA on the biomechanical characteristics of the golf swing. Written informed consent was obtained from 9 subjects, with a range of golf experience (handicap range 4-23. Each subject was filmed under a low anxiety condition (during practice, and a high anxiety condition (during competition and completed a revised version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2. Human movement analysis (Hu-m-an software package was used to identify the clubhead speeds during the backswing, downswing, and impact time, along with the completion times for each phase. The absolute angle of the club to the vertical, and the relative angle of the forearm, wrist, and club hinge, at the completion of the backswing stage were also examined. CA intensity scores were significantly lower during practice than competition (p<0.05. CA interpretation scores indicate that anxiety symptoms during practice were significantly more facilitative to performance (p<0.05. The time taken to complete the downswing phase was significantly lower during competition (p<0.05. The combined backswing and downswing times were significantly lower during the competition trial (p<0.05. There were no significant differences between the practice and competition trials on any of the remaining swing variables measured.

  16. Development of a doorframe-typed swinging seedling pick-up device for automatic field transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H.; Mao, H.; Hu, J.; Tian, K.

    2015-01-01

    A doorframe-typed swing seedling pick-up device for automatic field transplanters was developed and evaluated in a laboratory. The device, consisting of a path manipulator and two grippers, can move the pins slowly to extract seedlings from the tray cells and return quickly to the pick-up point for the next extraction. The path manipulator was constructed with the creative design of type-Ⅱ mechanism combination in series. It consists of an oscillating guide linkage mechanism and a grooved globoidal cam mechanism. The gripper is a pincette-type mechanism using the pick-up pins to penetrate into the root mass for seedling extraction. The dynamic analysis of the designed seedling pick-up device was simulated with ADAMS software. Being the first prototype, various performance tests under local production conditions were conducted to find out the optimal machine operation parameters and transplant production conditions. As the gripper with multiple fine pins was moved by the swing pick-up device, it can effectively complete the transplanting work cycle of extracting, transferring, and discharging a seedling. The laboratory evaluation showed that the pick-up device equipped with two grippers can extract 80 seedlings/min with a 90% success and a 3% failure in discharging seedlings, using 42-day-old tomato plantlets. The quality of extracting seedlings was satisfactory. (Author)

  17. Eight Weeks of Kettlebell Swing Training Does not Improve Sprint Performance in Recreationally Active Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Michael E; Jensen, Brock T; Evans, William S; Marshall, Emily C

    2016-01-01

    The kettlebell swing (KBS), emphasizing cyclical, explosive hip extension in the horizontal plane, aligns with movement- and velocity-specificity of sprinting. The present study examined the effect of an eight-week KBS intervention on sprinting in recreationally-active females, in comparison to an eight-week intervention using the stiff-legged deadlift (SDL). Following a pre-testing session measuring 30 meter sprint and countermovement vertical jump performance, participants were divided evenly by sprint time into KBS (n=8) and SDL (n=10) cohorts. Following familiarization with the exercises, KBS met twice weekly to perform swings using the Tabata interval (20s work, 10s rest, 8 rounds), stressing a rapid, explosive tempo. In contrast, the SDL group performed their Tabata stiff-legged deadlifts at a conventional resistance training tempo (2 seconds concentric, 2 seconds eccentric). Following eight weeks and greater than 95% training adherence, the SDL group only had a slightly greater average training volume (~3%) than KBS. No significant differences in pre-test values, or changes were noted in sprint performance from pre- to post-intervention in either group. An improvement in vertical jump performance was noted across groups. Potential explanations for the lack of sprint improvement compared to previous studies include differences between recreationally-active and athletic females, and low exercise volume (~46% of a comparable study with improvements in vertical jump). Future studies should seek to determine the appropriate volume and intensity for KBS components of sprint programming.

  18. Adsorption facility and adsorption vessel for radioactive carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harashina, Heihachi; Miwa, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Takeo.

    1992-01-01

    If 14 CO 2 gas-containing gases to be adsorbed are pressurized and sent to a packaging adsorption means, CO 2 ingredient in the gases to be adsorbed is adsorbed or absorbed, and remaining gases are passed through and sent out to downstream. CO 2 adsorption or absorption of the packaging adsorption means is judged by monitoring the state of the remaining gases, and if it is normal, remaining gases are sent further to downstream and processed. If abnormality is found, a gas feedback system is operated, and CO 2 removing gas is sent again to the packaging adsorption means, in which CO 2 gases are adsorbed or absorbed again repeatingly. With such procedures, in a case where C 14 nuclides having a long half decay time are supplied in the form of 14 CO 2 gas, they are efficiently adsorbed or absorbed in the packaging system to improve removing and storing property of 14 C nuclides. (T.M.)

  19. Random sequential adsorption on fractals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Michal; Barbasz, Jakub

    2012-07-28

    Irreversible adsorption of spheres on flat collectors having dimension d fractals (1 < d < 2), and on general Cantor set (d < 1). Adsorption process is modeled numerically using random sequential adsorption (RSA) algorithm. The paper concentrates on measurement of fundamental properties of coverages, i.e., maximal random coverage ratio and density autocorrelation function, as well as RSA kinetics. Obtained results allow to improve phenomenological relation between maximal random coverage ratio and collector dimension. Moreover, simulations show that, in general, most of known dimensional properties of adsorbed monolayers are valid for non-integer dimensions.

  20. Galactose adsorption on Ru(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Matti; Puisto, Mikko

    2014-03-01

    In order to understand the valorisation of biomass, it is essential to study the behavior of sugar molecules on catalytic surfaces. We have studied the adsorption of galactose molecules on the Ru(0001) surface using first principles calculations. We present results for the fully relaxed configurations of the molecule at different adsorption sites. We also compare the effect of the inclusion of the van der Waals interactions on both the energetics of the free galactose molecule and the adsorption energy of galactose on Ru(0001). We compare our results, obtained using periodically repeated supercells, to those obtained with cluster calculations.

  1. Carbon nanomaterials for gas adsorption

    CERN Document Server

    Terranova, Maria Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Research in adsorption of gases by carbon nanomaterials has experienced considerable growth in recent years, with increasing interest for practical applications. Many research groups are now producing or using such materials for gas adsorption, storage, purification, and sensing. This book provides a selected overview of some of the most interesting scientific results regarding the outstanding properties of carbon nanomaterials for gas adsorption and of interest both for basic research and technological applications. Topics receiving special attention in this book include storage of H, purific

  2. Protein Adsorption in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Erwin A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical work clarifying the physical chemistry of blood-protein adsorption from aqueous-buffer solution to various kinds of surfaces is reviewed and interpreted within the context of biomaterial applications, especially toward development of cardiovascular biomaterials. The importance of this subject in biomaterials surface science is emphasized by reducing the “protein-adsorption problem” to three core questions that require quantitative answer. An overview of the protein-adsorption literature identifies some of the sources of inconsistency among many investigators participating in more than five decades of focused research. A tutorial on the fundamental biophysical chemistry of protein adsorption sets the stage for a detailed discussion of the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein adsorption, including adsorption competition between two proteins for the same adsorbent immersed in a binary-protein mixture. Both kinetics and steady-state adsorption can be rationalized using a single interpretive paradigm asserting that protein molecules partition from solution into a three-dimensional (3D) interphase separating bulk solution from the physical-adsorbent surface. Adsorbed protein collects in one-or-more adsorbed layers, depending on protein size, solution concentration, and adsorbent surface energy (water wettability). The adsorption process begins with the hydration of an adsorbent surface brought into contact with an aqueous-protein solution. Surface hydration reactions instantaneously form a thin, pseudo-2D interface between the adsorbent and protein solution. Protein molecules rapidly diffuse into this newly-formed interface, creating a truly 3D interphase that inflates with arriving proteins and fills to capacity within milliseconds at mg/mL bulk-solution concentrations CB. This inflated interphase subsequently undergoes time-dependent (minutes-to-hours) decrease in volume VI by expulsion of either-or-both interphase water and

  3. Water adsorption on goethite: Application of multilayer adsorption models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, C. D.; Tumminello, R.; Meredith, R.

    2016-12-01

    Adsorbed water on the surface of atmospheric mineral dust has recently been shown to significantly affect the ability of mineral dust aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei. We have studied water adsorption as a function of relative humidity (RH) on goethite (α-FeO(OH)), a common component of atmospheric mineral dust. The goethite surface area and particle size was determined using BET analysis and with N2 as an adsorbate and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Water adsorption on the sample was monitored using horizontal attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (HATR-FTIR) spectroscopy equipped with a flow cell. Water content was determined using Beer's law and the optical constants for bulk water. The results were analyzed using Type II adsorption isotherms to model multilayer adsorption, including BET (Brunauer, Emmet and Teller), FHH (Frenkel, Halsey and Hill) and Freundlich. BET fits to experimental data provide parameters of monolayer coverage, while the FHH and Freundlich isotherms provide insights into multilayer adsorption mechanisms. Results indicate that goethite contains 5% H2O by mass at 50% RH, which increases to 12% by mass at 90% RH. Adsorption parameters and experimental results will be presented.

  4. Subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory for nonvolatile operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, In; Cheon, Woo Young; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-04-01

    A subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory (SAT RAM) has been proposed and fabricated for low-power nonvolatile memory applications. The proposed SAT RAM cell demonstrates adjustable subthreshold swing (SS) depending on stored information: small SS in the erase state ("1" state) and large SS in the program state ("0" state). Thus, SAT RAM cells can achieve low read voltage (Vread) with a large memory window in addition to the effective suppression of ambipolar behavior. These unique features of the SAT RAM are originated from the locally stored charge, which modulates the tunneling barrier width (Wtun) of the source-to-channel tunneling junction.

  5. Design of Low Voltage Low Power CMOS OP-AMPS with Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalaiah, SV; Shivaprasad, AP; Panigrahi, Sukanta K

    2004-01-01

    A novel input and output biasing circuit to extend the input common mode (CM) voltage range and the output swing to rail-to-rail in a low voltage op-amp in standard CMOS technology is presented. The input biasing circuit uses a Switched Capacitor Based Attenuator (SCBA) approach to establish rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. And the output biasing circuit uses an Output Driver (OD), with floating bias to give the rail-to-rail swing at output stage. Three different OD schemes in op...

  6. CO2 Molecule as a Quantum Realization of the 1∶1∶2 Resonant Swing-Spring with Monodromy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, R. H.; Dullin, H. R.; Giacobbe, A.; Holm, D. D.; Joyeux, M.; Lynch, P.; Sadovskií, D. A.; Zhilinskií, B. I.

    2004-07-01

    We consider the wide class of systems modeled by an integrable approximation to the 3degrees of freedom elastic pendulum with 1∶1∶2 resonance, or the swing-spring. This approximation has monodromy which prohibits the existence of global action-angle variables and complicates the dynamics. We study the quantum swing-spring formed by bending and symmetric stretching vibrations of the CO2 molecule. We uncover quantum monodromy of CO2 as a nontrivial codimension2 defect of the three dimensional energy-momentum lattice of its quantum states.

  7. Testing Hypotheses in an I(2) Model with Applications to the Persistent Long Swings in the Dmk/$ Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Juselius, Katarina; Frydman, Roman

    and persistent swings in the foreign exchange market between Germany and USA. The data analyzed consist of nominal exchange rates, relative prices, US inflation rate, two long-term interest rates and two short-term interest rates over the 1975-1999 period. One important aim of the paper is to demonstrate...... that by structuring the data with the help of the I(2) model one can achieve a better understanding of the empirical regularities underlying the persistent swings in nominal exchange rates, typical in periods of floating exchange rates...

  8. Prediction of Pure Component Adsorption Equilibria Using an Adsorption Isotherm Equation Based on Vacancy Solution Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Krøll, Annette Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    An adsorption isotherm equation for nonideal pure component adsorption based on vacancy solution theory and the Non-Random-Two-Liquid (NRTL) equation is found to be useful for predicting pure component adsorption equilibria at a variety of conditions. The isotherm equation is evaluated successfully...... adsorption systems, spreading pressure and isosteric heat of adsorption are also calculated....

  9. Critical Comparison of Structured Contactors for Adsorption-Based Gas Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Stephen J A; Sinha, Anshuman; Kalyanaraman, Jayashree; Zhang, Fengyi; Realff, Matthew J; Lively, Ryan P

    2018-03-26

    Recent advances in adsorptive gas separations have focused on the development of porous materials with high operating capacity and selectivity, useful parameters that provide early guidance during the development of new materials. Although this material-focused work is necessary to advance the state of the art in adsorption science and engineering, a substantial problem remains: how to integrate these materials into a fixed bed to efficiently utilize the separation. Structured sorbent contactors can help manage kinetic and engineering factors associated with the separation, including pressure drop, sorption enthalpy effects, and external heat integration (for temperature swing adsorption, or TSA). In this review, we discuss monoliths and fiber sorbents as the two main classes of structured sorbent contactors; recent developments in their manufacture; advantages and disadvantages of each structure relative to each other and to pellet packed beds; recent developments in system modeling; and finally, critical needs in this area of research. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 9 is June 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  10. Potential Theory of Multicomponent Adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We developed a theory of multicomponent adsorption on the basis of the potential concept originally suggested by Polanyi. The mixture is considered as a heterogeneous substance segregated in the external field emitted by the adsorbent. The same standard equation of state, with no additional fitting...... parameters, is used for the segregated and for the bulk phases. With this approach, few parameters are needed to correlate pure component adsorption isotherms. These parameters may be used to predict adsorption equilibria of multicomponent mixtures without additional adjustment. A connection between...... the potential theory and the spreading pressure concept is established, and problems of the theory consistency are studied. Numerical algorithms are suggested for evaluation of the segregated state of the mixture in the potential field of adsorption forces. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement...

  11. Adsorption of antibiotics on microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Kaina; Zhang, Hua

    2018-03-03

    Microplastics and antibiotics are two classes of emerging contaminants with proposed negative impacts to aqueous ecosystems. Adsorption of antibiotics on microplastics may result in their long-range transport and may cause compound combination effects. In this study, we investigated the adsorption of 5 antibiotics [sulfadiazine (SDZ), amoxicillin (AMX), tetracycline (TC), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and trimethoprim (TMP)] on 5 types of microplastics [polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)] in the freshwater and seawater systems. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis revealed that microplastics have different surface characterizes and various degrees of crystalline. Adsorption isotherms demonstrated that PA had the strongest adsorption capacity for antibiotics with distribution coefficient (K d ) values ranged from 7.36 ± 0.257 to 756 ± 48.0 L kg -1 in the freshwater system, which can be attributed to its porous structure and hydrogen bonding. Relatively low adsorption capacity was observed on other four microplastics. The adsorption amounts of 5 antibiotics on PS, PE, PP, and PVC decreased in the order of CIP > AMX > TMP > SDZ > TC with K f correlated positively with octanol-water partition coefficients (Log K ow ). Comparing to freshwater system, adsorption capacity in seawater decreased significantly and no adsorption was observed for CIP and AMX. Our results indicated that commonly observed polyamide particles can serve as a carrier of antibiotics in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An In-Depth Structural Study of the Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Process in the Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks CPO-27-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato-Doldán, Breogán; Rosnes, Mali H; Dietzel, Pascal D C

    2017-04-22

    The CO 2 adsorption process in the family of porous metal-organic framework materials CPO-27-M (M=Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) was studied by variable-temperature powder synchrotron X-ray diffraction under isobaric conditions. The Rietveld analysis of the data provided a time-lapse view of the adsorption process on CPO-27-M. The results confirm the temperature-dependent order of occupation of the three adsorption sites in the pores of the CPO-27-M materials. In CPO-27-M (M=Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn), the adsorption sites are occupied in sequential order, primarily because of the high affinity of CO 2 for the open metal sites. CPO-27-Cu deviates from this stepwise mechanism, and the adsorption sites at the metal cation and the second site are occupied in parallel. The temperature dependence of the site occupancy of the individual CO 2 adsorption sites derived from the diffraction data is reflected in the shape of the volumetric sorption isotherms. The fast kinetics and high reversibility observed in these experiments support the suitability of these materials for use in temperature- or pressure-swing processes for carbon capture. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Adsorption refrigeration technology theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ruzhu; Wu, Jingyi

    2014-01-01

    Gives readers a detailed understanding of adsorption refrigeration technology, with a focus on practical applications and environmental concerns Systematically covering the technology of adsorption refrigeration, this book provides readers with a technical understanding of the topic as well as detailed information on the state-of-the-art from leading researchers in the field. Introducing readers to background on the development of adsorption refrigeration, the authors also cover the development of adsorbents, various thermodynamic theories, the design of adsorption systems and adsorption refri

  14. Modulating Arm Swing Symmetry with Cognitive Load: A Window on Rhythmic Spinal Locomotor Networks in Humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Tim; Easthope, Christopher S; Filli, Linard; Linnebank, Michael; Curt, Armin; Bolliger, Marc; Zörner, Björn

    2017-05-15

    In healthy subjects, changes in arm swing symmetry while walking are observed when a cognitive dual task is added, with a tendency toward left-dominant arm swing as cognitive load increases. We applied a modified Stroop word/color naming paradigm to investigate this effect in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. Six patients with cervical SCI (cSCI), 6 with thoracic injuries (tSCI; all 12 patients American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] Injury Score [AIS]D), and 12 healthy, matched controls underwent three-dimensional 3D gait analysis while walking normally at a comfortable speed (NW) and when performing an additional congruent (CS) and incongruent (IS) Stroop task. An arm swing symmetry index (ASI)-in which positive values indicate proportionally more movement on the left and vice versa-was calculated. Even in the baseline NW condition, all three subject groups showed larger arm movements on the left. In controls, ASI increased (NW, 13.7 ± 6.3; CS, 16.6 ± 6.4; IS, 19.6 ± 7.8) as the task became more demanding. A larger shift in tSCI patients (NW, 15.8 ± 6.0; CS, 23.4 ± 3.8; IS, 30.7 ± 4.4) was driven by a significant reduction in right wrist trajectory (p = 0.014), whereas cSCI patients showed a small reduction in mean ASI with high variability (NW, 14.2 ± 10.7; CS, 9.3 ± 13.5; IS, 6.0 ± 12.9). The effect of the IS task on ASI compared to baseline (NW) was significantly different between tSCI (+12.5 ± 6.3) and cSCI (-8.2 ± 6.0) patients (p = 0.011). Disruption of the long propriospinal connections coordinating arm and leg movements during walking may explain the heightened sensitivity to manipulation of cognitive load in tSCI, whereas the more robust automaticity in cSCI may be attributed to impaired supraspinal inputs in the context of preserved intraspinal pathways.

  15. Comparative analysis of selected biomechanic characteristics between a support backward swing and support swing for the 1 1/4 straddle-piked forward salto on the parallel bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Edvard; Kolar, Katarina Andlovic; Stuhec, Stanko

    2002-01-01

    The aim of our research was to study the relationships between performance variables in a support backward swing (SBS), which was used as a progressive step in the learning procedure for a 1 1/4 straddle-piked front somersault and the swing prior to a 1 1/4 straddle-piked front somersault from support to bent arm support on the parallel bars (5/4S). Mitja Petkovsek, parallel bars gold medallist at the 2000 EC in Bremen, performed these elements. Kinematic analysis involved CMAS software (Praha, 1993), and the Suskana body segment model that has 17 points and 15 segments. Kinetic variables were estimated using 2D IMGIM software, which has 8 points and 6 segments (Colja and Cuk, 1994). The results indicated that some kinematic aspects of the two types of swings were similar but there were important differences in kinetic aspects of the motion. During the swing for the 5/4S, force and torque were higher than in the SBS.

  16. Development of adsorption process for NOx recycling in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Shingo; Kodama, Takashi; Kumagai, Mikio; Tamura, Takaaki; Izumi, Jun; Someya, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    A large amount of NOx, which is used in a reprocessing plant mainly as an oxidizing agent of Pu 3+ , eventually results in the formation of low-level radioactive sodium nitrate waste. Since NOx is generated by the reaction of sodium nitrite and nitric acid, non-radioactive sodium nitrate is also formed as a by-product. In order to reduce the amounts of radioactive and non-radioactive sodium nitrate wastes, a new method was examined to recover NOx for recycling from the off-gas of the denitrator of uranyl nitrate solution. Fundamental and consequent bench scale experiments showed that the vacuum pressure swing adsorption method, using combined silica-gel and clinoptilolite for water vapor removal and pentasil zeolite for NOx recovery, is applicable for this purpose. (author)

  17. Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm for Wind Power Ramp Event Detection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony R.; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-06

    Significant wind power ramp events (WPREs) are those that influence the integration of wind power, and they are a concern to the continued reliable operation of the power grid. As wind power penetration has increased in recent years, so has the importance of wind power ramps. In this paper, an optimized swinging door algorithm (SDA) is developed to improve ramp detection performance. Wind power time series data are segmented by the original SDA, and then all significant ramps are detected and merged through a dynamic programming algorithm. An application of the optimized SDA is provided to ascertain the optimal parameter of the original SDA. Measured wind power data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) are used to evaluate the proposed optimized SDA.

  18. Comments on "cyclical swings" by Professor Hannah Decker: The underappreciated "solid center" of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pies, Ronald W

    2016-02-01

    The history of psychiatry is characterized by some deep ideological and conceptual divisions, as adumbrated in Professor Hannah Decker's essay. However, the schism between "biological" and "psychosocial" models of mental illness and its treatment represents extreme positions among some psychiatrists-not the model propounded by academic psychiatry or its affiliated professional organizations. Indeed, the "biopsycho-social model" (BPSM) developed by Dr. George L. Engel has been, and remains, the foundational model for academic psychiatry, notwithstanding malign market forces that have undermined the BPSM's use in clinical practice. The BPSM is integrally related to "centralizing" and integrative trends in American psychiatry that may be traced to Franz Alexander, Karl Jaspers, and Engel himself, among others. This "Alexandrian-Jaspersian-Engelian" tradition is explored in relation to Professor Decker's "cyclical swing" model of psychiatry's history. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Swinging Atwood Machine: Experimental and numerical results, and a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, O.; Pérez, J. P.; Ramis, J. P.; Simó, C.; Simon, S.; Weil, J. A.

    2010-06-01

    A Swinging Atwood Machine ( SAM) is built and some experimental results concerning its dynamic behaviour are presented. Experiments clearly show that pulleys play a role in the motion of the pendulum, since they can rotate and have non-negligible radii and masses. Equations of motion must therefore take into account the moment of inertia of the pulleys, as well as the winding of the rope around them. Their influence is compared to previous studies. A preliminary discussion of the role of dissipation is included. The theoretical behaviour of the system with pulleys is illustrated numerically, and the relevance of different parameters is highlighted. Finally, the integrability of the dynamic system is studied, the main result being that the machine with pulleys is non-integrable. The status of the results on integrability of the pulley-less machine is also recalled.

  20. Selectivity of power system protections at power swings in power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Machowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses out-of-step protection systems such as: generator pole slip protections, out of step tripping protections, distance protections of step-up transformer, distance protections of transmission lines and transformers, power swing blocking, and special out-of-step protection. It is shown that all these protections make up a protection system, to which a setting concept uniform for the entire power system has to be applied. If a power system is inappropriately equipped with these protections, or their settings are inappropriate, they may operate unselectively, thus contributing to the development of power system blackouts. In the paper the concepts for a real power system are given for the two stages: target stage fully compliant with selectivity criteria, and transitional stage between the current and target stages.

  1. CO2 Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-05-31

    This report outlines the comprehensive bench-scale testing of the CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) solvent platform and its unique Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study outlines all efforts on a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule, including solvent synthesis, material characterization, preliminary toxicology studies, and measurement of all physical, thermodynamic and kinetic data, including bench-scale testing. Equilibrium and kinetic models and analysis were made using Aspen Plus™. Preliminary process configurations, a technoeconomic assessment and solvent performance projections for separating CO2 from a subcritical coal-fired power plant are compared to the U.S. Department of Energy's Case 10 monoethanolamine baseline.

  2. Rotation of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and Thomas spin precession: two sides of one coin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, Mikhail I

    2009-01-01

    Using elementary geometric tools, we apply essentially the same methods to derive expressions for the rotation angle of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and the rotation angle of the spin of a relativistic particle moving in a circular orbit (the Thomas precession effect). (methodological notes)

  3. Rotation of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and Thomas spin precession: two sides of one coin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivoruchenko, Mikhail I [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Russian Federation State Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    Using elementary geometric tools, we apply essentially the same methods to derive expressions for the rotation angle of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and the rotation angle of the spin of a relativistic particle moving in a circular orbit (the Thomas precession effect). (methodological notes)

  4. The effects of additional arm weights on arm-swing magnitude and gait patterns in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jiyeon; Park, Jinse; Park, Kunbo; Jo, Geunyeol; Kim, Haeyu; Jang, Wooyoung; Kim, Ji Sun; Youn, Jinyoung; Oh, Eung Seok; Kim, Hee-Tae; Youm, Chang Hong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, arm facilitation has been interested in gait rehabilitation. However, there have been few studies concerning arm facilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of increasing arm weights on gait pattern in patients with PD. Twenty-seven patients with PD were enrolled, and they underwent gait analysis using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Sandbags were applied to the distal forearms in all participants. We compared gait parameters including arm swing, pelvic motion, spatiotemporal data, and relative rotational angle between the weighted and unweighted gaits. The total arm-swing amplitude and pelvic rotation were significantly higher when walking with additional arm weights than without arm weights. Cadence, walking speed, stride length, and swing phase were significantly higher, whereas stride time, double-support time, and stance phase were significantly lower, when walking with additional arm weights than without arm weights. We conclude that adding weights to the arm during walking may facilitate arm and pelvic movements, which results in changes to gait patterns. The therapeutic use of additional arm weights could be considered for gait rehabilitation in PD to improve gait impairment. Arm-swing facilitation using weight load improved gait in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Wireless Swing Angle Measurement Scheme Using Attitude Heading Reference System Sensing Units Based on Microelectromechanical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Feasible real-time swing angle measurement is significant to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial crane systems. This paper presents a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS-based swing angle measurement system. The system consists of two attitude heading reference system (AHRS sensing units with a wireless communication function, which are mounted on the hook (or payload and the jib (or base of the crane, respectively. With a combination of a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF is used to estimate the desired orientation of the payload and the base. Wireless ZigBee communication is employed to transmit the orientation of the payload to the sensing unit mounted on the base, which measures the orientation of the base. Because several physical parameters from the payload to the base can be acquired from the original crane control system, the swing angles of the payload can be calculated based on the two measured orientation parameters together with the known physical parameters. Experiments were performed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed swing angle measurement system.

  6. Soleus stretch reflex inhibition in the early swing phase of gait using deep peroneal nerve stimulation in spastic stroke participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, Marco M.; Ladouceur, Michel; Veltink, Petrus H.; Sinkjaer, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the feasibility of inhibiting the stretch reflex of the soleus muscle by a conditioning stimulus applied to the deep peroneal nerve in spastic stroke participants during the early swing phase of gait. - Materials and Methods: This study investigated the effect of an

  7. Using a Swinging Vane Anemometer to Measure Airflow. Module 14. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on using a swinging vane anemometer to measure airflow. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each…

  8. The development and validation of a golf swing and putt skill assessment for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Hardy, Louise L; Brian, Ali S; Robertson, Sam

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to describe development of a process-oriented instrument designed to assess the golf swing and putt stroke, and to assess the instrument's discriminative validity in terms of age and reliability (intra-rater and re-test). A Delphi consultation (with golf industry professionals and researchers in movement skill assessment) was used to develop an assessment for each skill based on existing skill assessment protocols. Each skill had six components to be marked as present/absent. Individual scores were based on the number of performance components successfully demonstrated over two trials for each skill (potential score range 0 to 24). Children (n = 43) aged 6-10 years (M = 7.8 years, SD = 1.3) were assessed in both skills live in the field by one rater at Time 1(T1). A subset of children (n = 28) had consent for assessments to be videoed. Six weeks later 19 children were reassessed, five days apart (T2, T3). An ANOVA assessed discriminative validity i.e. whether skill competence at T1 differed by age (6 years, 7/8 years and 9/10 years). Intraclass correlations (ICC) assessed intra-rater reliability between the live and video assessment at T1 and test-retest reliability (between T2 and T3). Paired t-tests assessed any systematic differences between live and video assessments (T1) and between T2 and T3. Older children were more skilled (F (2, 40) = 11.18, p mastery level, and talent identification in beginner young golf players.Process rather than product oriented outcomes better identify areas of skill deficit in young children.The proposed swing and putt instrument can reliably identify skill deficits in children of elementary school age who are new to golf and can be used by a range of stakeholders including golf coaches, generalist sport coaches and physical education teachers.

  9. The effect of isolated core training on selected measures of golf swing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Coleman, Neil J; Spears, Iain R

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to quantify the effect of an 8-wk isolated core training program on selected ball and club parameters during the golf swing and also the variability of these measures. Thirty-six club-level golfers were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 18) or control (n =18) group. The exercise group participated in an 8-wk core training program, which included eight basic exercises. Both groups continued with their normal activity levels including golf. Baseline and postintervention measurements included club-head speed, backspin, sidespin, and timed core endurance. Baseline measures for club-head speed, backspin, sidespin, and core endurance test were 79.9 ± 8.4 mph, 3930 ± 780 rpm, 1410 ± 610 rpm, and 91 ± 56 s for the intervention group and 77.6 ± 8.8 mph, 3740 ± 910 rpm, 1290 ± 730 rpm, and 69 ± 55 s for the control group (mean ± SD). The effect of our core training, when compared with control, was a likely small improvement in club-head speed (3.6%; 90% confidence limits = ±2.7%) and a very likely small improvement in muscular endurance (61%; ±33%). The effect on backspin (5%; ±10%) and sidespin (-6%; ±20%) was unclear. Baseline variability for club-head speed, backspin, and sidespin (based on 10 swings per golfer) was 5.7% ± 5.3%, 43% ± 19%, and 140% ± 180% for the intervention group and 6.5% ± 5.3%, 53% ± 53%, and 170% ± 130% for control group. The effect of the intervention on within-subject variability was a moderate decrease for club-head speed, a small decrease for backspin, and a small increase for sidespin when compared with control. The benefits achieved from our isolated core training program are comparable with those from other studies.

  10. Introduction of π-complexation into porous aromatic framework for highly selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan

    2014-06-18

    In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the introduction of π-complexation into a porous aromatic framework (PAF), affording significant increase in ethylene uptake capacity, as illustrated in the context of Ag(I) ion functionalized PAF-1, PAF-1-SO3Ag. IAST calculations using single-component-isotherm data and an equimolar ethylene/ethane ratio at 296 K reveal that PAF-1-SO3Ag shows exceptionally high ethylene/ethane adsorption selectivity (Sads: 27 to 125), far surpassing benchmark zeolite and any other MOF reported in literature. The formation of π-complexation between ethylene molecules and Ag(I) ions in PAF-1-SO 3Ag has been evidenced by the high isosteric heats of adsorption of C2H4 and also proved by in situ IR spectroscopy studies. Transient breakthrough experiments, supported by simulations, indicate the feasibility of PAF-1-SO3Ag for producing 99.95%+ pure C 2H4 in a Pressure Swing Adsorption operation. Our work herein thus suggests a new perspective to functionalizing PAFs and other types of advanced porous materials for highly selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. Continuous One-Arm Kettlebell Swing Training on Physiological Parameters in US Air Force Personnel: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Molly; O'Hara, Reginald; Caldwell, Lydia; Ordway, Jason; Bryant, Darryn

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous one-arm kettlebell (KB) swing training on various US Air Force physical fitness testing components. Thirty trained male (n = 15) and female (n = 15) US Air Force (USAF) personnel volunteered and were sequentially assigned to one of three groups based on 1.5-mile run time: (1) KB one-arm swing training, (2) KB one-arm swing training plus highintensity running (KB + run), and (3) traditional USAF physical training (PT) according to Air Force Instruction 36-2905. The following measurements were made before and after 10 weeks of training: 1.5-mile run, 1-minute maximal push-ups, 1-minute maximal situps, maximal grip strength, pro agility, vertical jump, 40-yard dash, bodyweight, and percent body fat. Subjects attended three supervised exercise sessions per week for 10 weeks. During each exercise session, all groups performed a 10-minute dynamic warm-up followed by either (1) 10 minutes of continuous KB swings, (2) 10 minutes of continuous kettlebell swings plus 10 minutes of high-intensity running, or (3) 20 minutes of moderate intensity running plus push-ups and sit-ups. Average and peak heart rate were recorded for each subject after all sessions. Paired t tests were conducted to detect changes from pretesting to posttesting within each group and analysis of variance was used to compare between-group variability (ρ ≤ .05). Twenty subjects completed the study. There were no statistically significant changes in 1.5-mile run time between or within groups. The 40- yard dash significantly improved within the KB swing (ρ ≤ .05) and KB + run group (ρ ≤ .05); however, there were no significant differences in the traditional PT group (ρ ≤ .05) or between groups. Maximal push-ups significantly improved in the KB + run group (ρ ≤ .05) and trends toward significant improvements in maximal push-ups were found in both the KB (ρ = .057) and traditional PT (ρ = .067) groups. This study

  12. Comparison of lumbar and abdominal muscle activation during two types of golf swing: An EMG analysis. (Comparación de la activación muscular abdominal y lumbar en la realización de dos tipos de swing en Golf: Un análisis electromiográfico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu Jaspal Singh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGolf is a popular sport and golf swing is a complex movement which requires a coordinated sequence of muscle activity. Two types of golf swing exists i.e. “Classical” and “Modern”. Classical swing differs from modern swing in several respects, which are important when considering their effects on the lower back. The present study compared muscle activation amplitudes in the trunk region of golfers during two different types of golf swing. 22 golfers (21.5 years ±3.4 were instructed to perform modern and classical golf swing and surface EMG activity was recorded from external oblique (E.O., internal oblique (I.O., and erector spinae (E.S. muscles of both sides. Results showed muscle activity of right and left side of E.O. and I.O. to be lower in modern swing than classical swing (significant difference p menor que 0.05 in downswing and impact phase, whereas it is higher for both sides E.S. in modern swing. The E.S. muscle activity during follow-through phase was significantly higher (p menor que 0.05 in modern swing compared to classical swing. Significant differences in E.S. and other muscles activity suggest inappropriate recruitment of these muscles in golfers during the modern swing. EMG evidence proposes that the modern golf swing produces more extension forces in the lower back compared with the forces of classical swing.Resumen El Golf es un deporte popular y el swing en golf es un movimiento complejo que reclama una secuencia coordinada de movimientos. Existen dos tipos de swing: el clásico y el moderno. El Clásico se diferencia del Moderno en varios aspectos que son importantes cuando se consideran sus efectos en la parte inferior de la espalda. Este estudio comparó la amplitud de la activación muscular en el tronco de los golfistas al realizar los dos tipos de swing. Veintidos jugadores de golf (21.5 años ±3.4 fueron instruidos para realizar el swing moderno y clásico, tomándose la actividad muscular (actividad

  13. Contributions of knee swing initiation and ankle plantar flexion to the walking mechanics of amputees using a powered prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Kimberly A; Fey, Nicholas P; Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-01-01

    Recently developed powered prostheses are capable of producing near-physiological joint torque at the knee and/or ankle joints. Based on previous studies of biological joint impedance and the mechanics of able-bodied gait, an impedance-based controller has been developed for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis that integrates knee swing initiation and powered plantar flexion in late stance with increasing ankle stiffness throughout stance. In this study, five prosthesis configuration conditions were tested to investigate the individual contributions of each sub-strategy to the overall walking mechanics of four unilateral transfemoral amputees as they completed a clinical 10-m walk test using a powered knee and ankle prosthesis. The baseline condition featured constant ankle stiffness and no swing initiation or powered plantar flexion. The four remaining conditions featured knee swing initiation alone (SI) or in combination with powered plantar flexion (SI+PF), increasing ankle stiffness (SI+IK), or both (SI+PF+IK). Self-selected walking speed did not significantly change between conditions, although subjects tended to walk the slowest in the baseline condition compared to conditions with swing initiation. The addition of powered plantar flexion resulted in significantly higher ankle power generation in late stance irrespective of ankle stiffness. The inclusion of swing initiation resulted in a significantly more flexed knee at toe off and a significantly higher average extensor knee torque following toe off. Identifying individual contributions of intrinsic control strategies to prosthesis biomechanics could help inform the refinement of impedance-based prosthesis controllers and simplify future designs of prostheses and lower-limb assistive devices alike.

  14. A biological oil adsorption filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasila, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  15. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  16. A biological oil adsorption filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasila, Antti

    2004-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore.

  17. Theoretical insight of adsorption cooling

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2011-06-03

    This letter proposes and presents a thermodynamic formulation to calculate the energetic performances of an adsorption cooler as a function of pore widths and volumes of solid adsorbents. The simulated results in terms of the coefficient of performance are validated with experimental data. It is found from the present analysis that the performance of an adsorption cooling device is influenced mainly by the physical characteristics of solid adsorbents, and the characteristics energy between the adsorbent-adsorbate systems. The present study confirms that there exists a special type of silicagel having optimal physical characteristics that allows us to obtain the best performance.

  18. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANT ON CLAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  19. ADSORPTION ONTO BREWERS' SPENT GRAIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    were obtained for both the raw and treated BSG for optimum adsorption time of 120 minutes, pH 8.0 and adsorbent dose of ... metals' values can be recovered along with their removal from the effluents [5]. However reverse osmosis and ion exchange may not be economically feasible in certain ... The variation in percentage.

  20. Thermodynamic features of dioxins’ adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prisciandaro, Marina [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and of Economics, University of L’Aquila, Viale Giovanni Gronchi 18, L’Aquila 67100 (Italy); Piemonte, Vincenzo, E-mail: v.piemonte@unicampus.it [Faculty of Engineering, University Campus Biomedico of Rome, Via Alvaro del Portillo 21, Rome 00128 (Italy); Mazziotti di Celso, Giuseppe [Faculty of Bioscience, University of Teramo, Via R. Balzarini, 1, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Ronconi, Silvia [Arta Abruzzo, Department of L’Aquila, Bazzano (AQ), 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Capocelli, Mauro [Faculty of Engineering, University Campus Biomedico of Rome, Via Alvaro del Portillo 21, Rome 00128 (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We develop the P-T diagram for six PCDD. • We derive theoretical adsorption isotherms according to the Langmuir’s model. • We calculate K and w{sub max} values for several temperatures. • We estimate the adsorption heat with a good agreement with literature data. - Abstract: In this paper, the six more poisonous species among all congeners of dioxin group are taken into account, and the P-T diagram for each of them is developed. Starting from the knowledge of vapour tensions and thermodynamic parameters, the theoretical adsorption isotherms are calculated according to the Langmuir’s model. In particular, the Langmuir isotherm parameters (K and w{sub max}) have been validated through the estimation of the adsorption heat (ΔH{sub ads}), which varies in the range 20–24 kJ/mol, in agreement with literature values. This result will allow to put the thermodynamical basis for a rational design of different process units devoted to dioxins removal.

  1. Adsorption Properties of Polymer Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hradil, Juriy

    The adsorption properties of the macroporous, hypercrosslinked, and functional polymers were studied. A series of macroporous methacrylate sorbents with different chemical structure and polarity was prepared to examine the effect of polarity and porous structure on the sorption of organic compounds from aqueous solutions.

  2. Thermodynamic Properties of Chromium Adsorption by Sediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption of Chromium from aqueous solution using river Watari sediment as an adsorbent was modeled. The influence of initial pH, solution temperature, adsorbent and adsorbate concentrations on the adsorption efficiency was investigated using batch equilibrium assays. From the results obtained for the adsorption ...

  3. Phosphorus adsorption characteristics of selected southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phosphorus adsorption characteristics of selected Southeastern Nigerian soils from Ikom, Bende and Ihiagwa were evaluated. P adsorption isotherm was obtained by shaking soil samples with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm P in 0.01M CaCl2 solution. P adsorption maxima (b), affinity constant (k), buffering capacity and P ...

  4. adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of plantain peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    determined. Data evaluation showed that the adsorption of Zn and Cu followed the pseudo-second order adsorption kinetic model with the Langmuir model being the best fit for the isotherm model. The thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption was a physisorption process which was spontaneous and endothermic ...

  5. Adsorption of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The adsorption efficiency of a new hybrid clay adsorbent for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. (PAHs) is compared with known modified clay adsorbents. The new hybrid clay adsorbent (HYCA) showed far higher adsorption capacities for the adsorption of various PAH molecules compared with sodium ...

  6. Propiedades psicométricas de la versión Española del cuestionario de interacción trabajo-familia (SWING) [Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Survey Work-Home Interaction Nijmegen (SWING)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Jiménez, B.; Sanz Vergel, A.I.; Rodriguez Muñoz, A.; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Survey Work-Home Interaction Nijmegen (SWING). The aim of this work was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the «Survey Work-Home Interaction Nijmegen» (SWING) developed by S. Geurts and colleagues to evaluate the

  7. Combined use of maxillomandibular swing approach and neurosurgical ultrasonic aspirator in the management of extensive clival chordoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shahid

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chordoma is a rare malignant tumour with an incidence of metastasis of less than 10 percent. Usually arising from clivus its posterior extension may involve the brainstem before presenting as nasal mass and obstruction. Surgery is the main mode of treatment with adjuvant radiotherapy. However surgery is rarely possible for a large intracranial lesion. Case presentation We report the case of an adolescent patient with a chordoma extending posteriorly to the brainstem and anteriorly to the nasopharynx and managed by the combination of resection using a maxillomandibular swing approach and the use of a neurosurgical ultrasonic aspirator. Conclusion Maxillomandibular swing approach provides good access for large nasopharyngeal tumour extending brainstem area.

  8. Testing hypotheses in an I(2) model with applications to the persistent long swings in the Dmk/$ rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Juselius, Katarina; Frydman, Roman

    components in the I(2) model is discussed at some length. Model specification and tests are illustrated with an empirical analysis of long and persistent swings in the foreign exchange market between Germany and USA. The data analyzed consist of nominal exchange rates, relative prices, US inflation rate, two...... in nominal exchange rates, typical in periods of floating exchange rates....... long-term interest rates and two short-term interest rates over the 1975-1999 period. One important aim of the paper is to demonstrate that by structuring the data with the help of the I(2) model one can achieve a better understanding of the empirical regularities underlying the persistent swings...

  9. Subthreshold Current and Swing Modeling of Gate Underlap DG MOSFETs with a Source/Drain Lateral Gaussian Doping Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunal; Kumar, Sanjay; Goel, Ekta; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Mirgender; Dubey, Sarvesh; Jit, Satyabrata

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model for the subthreshold current and swing of the short-channel symmetric underlap ultrathin double gate metal oxide field effect transistors with a source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profile. The channel potential model already reported earlier has been utilized to formulate the closed form expression for the subthreshold current and swing of the device. The effects of the lateral straggle and geometrical parameters such as the channel length, channel thickness, and oxide thickness on the off current and subthreshold slope have been demonstrated. The devices with source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profiles in the underlap structure are observed to be highly resistant to short channel effects while improving the current drive. The proposed model is validated by comparing the results with the numerical simulation data obtained by using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two-dimensional (2-D) device simulator from SILVACO.

  10. THE SWINGS OF SELENDANGIN RONGGENG DUKUH PARUK AND THE DANCER SCRUTINIZED THROUGH DECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Maria L.A. Fajarini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Known as an adornment and beautification for womenin dancing costume, a scarf (selendang – Javanese/Indonesian in RonggengDukuhParuk and The Dancer has two contradictory meanings. On the one hand, it represents the shackle of the dancer, Srintil. On the other hand, the scarf can be a symbol of Srintil‘s dominance againstthe patriarchal system. As far as patriarchal society is concerned, subjugation towards women tends to occur. Believed to be born as a ronggeng dancer, Srintilgoes through oppressions since her early adolescent. However, employing Derrida‘s deconstruction theory, this paper will argue that Srintil attempts veryhard to achieve her liberation and to overturn the control. The swings of the scarf during the dancing denote the domination of the dancer‘s fated life and her self-determination as a woman. Under a strong influence of Javanese female negotiation, Srintil endeavors to liberate herself – although she is rendered to be unsuccessful – yet, there are some efforts done by her. Through some discussionthe readers are supposed to observe that Srintil– who is treated unjustly by patriarchal society– manipulativelyresists and fights for her freedom.

  11. Microtiming in Swing and Funk affects the body movement behavior of music expert listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilchenmann, Lorenz; Senn, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The theory of Participatory Discrepancies (or PDs) claims that minute temporal asynchronies (microtiming) in music performance are crucial for prompting bodily entrainment in listeners, which is a fundamental effect of the “groove” experience. Previous research has failed to find evidence to support this theory. The present study tested the influence of varying PD magnitudes on the beat-related body movement behavior of music listeners. 160 participants (79 music experts, 81 non-experts) listened to 12 music clips in either Funk or Swing style. These stimuli were based on two audio recordings (one in each style) of expert drum and bass duo performances. In one series of six clips, the PDs were downscaled from their originally performed magnitude to complete quantization in steps of 20%. In another series of six clips, the PDs were upscaled from their original magnitude to double magnitude in steps of 20%. The intensity of the listeners' beat-related head movement was measured using video-based motion capture technology and Fourier analysis. A mixed-design Four-Factor ANOVA showed that the PD manipulations had a significant effect on the expert listeners' entrainment behavior. The experts moved more when listening to stimuli with PDs that were downscaled by 60% compared to completely quantized stimuli. This finding offers partial support for PD theory: PDs of a certain magnitude do augment entrainment in listeners. But the effect was found to be small to moderately sized, and it affected music expert listeners only. PMID:26347694

  12. Analysis of Pelvis-Thorax Coordination Patterns of Professional and Amateur Golfers during Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Taeyong; Yoo, Hakje; Choi, Ahnryul; Lee, Ki Young; Choi, Mun-Taek; Lee, Soeun; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify the coordination pattern between thorax and pelvis during a golf swing. The coordination patterns were calculated using vector coding technique, which had been applied to quantify the coordination changes in coupling angle (γ) between two different segments. For this, fifteen professional and fifteen amateur golfers who had no significant history of musculoskeletal injuries. There was no significant difference in coordination patterns between the two groups for rotation motion during backswing (p = 0.333). On the other hand, during the downswing phase, there were significant differences between professional and amateur groups in all motions (flexion/extension: professional [γ] = 187.8°, amateur [γ] = 167.4°; side bending: professional [γ] = 288.4°, amateur [γ] = 245.7°; rotation: professional [γ] = 232.0°, amateur [γ] = 229.5°). These results are expected to be a discriminating measure to assess complex coordination of golfers' trunk movements and preliminary study for interesting comparison by golf skilled levels.

  13. Rapid inversion: running animals and robots swing like a pendulum under ledges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Mongeau

    Full Text Available Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12-15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot.

  14. The effect of expert performance microtiming on listeners’ experience of groove in swing or funk music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Senn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the influence of expert performance microtiming on listeners' groove experience. Two professional rhythm section (bass/drums performances in swing and funk style were recorded, and the performances' original microtemporal deviations from a regular metronomic grid were scaled to several magnitude levels. Music expert (n=79 and non-expert (n=81 listeners rated the groove qualities of stimuli using a newly developed questionnaire that measures three dimensions of the groove experience (Entrainment, Enjoyment, and the absence of Irritation. Findings show that music expert listeners were more sensitive to microtiming manipulations than non-experts. Across both expertise groups and for both styles, groove ratings were high for microtiming magnitudes equal or smaller than those originally performed and decreased for exaggerated microtiming magnitudes. In particular, both the fully quantized music and the music with the originally performed microtiming pattern were rated equally high on groove. This means that neither the claims of PD theory (that microtiming deviations are necessary for groove nor the opposing exactitude hypothesis (that microtiming deviations are detrimental to groove were supported by the data.

  15. ON MEASURING AMPLITUDES AND PERIODS OF PHYSICAL PENDULUM MICRO-SWINGS WITH ROLLING-CONTACT BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Riznookaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a method and an instrument for measuring amplitudes and  periods of physical pendulum oscillations with rolling-contact bearing in the regime of micro-swings when the oscillation amplitude is significantly less of an elastic contact angle. It has been established that the main factors limiting a measuring accuracy are noises of the measuring circuit, base vibration and analog-digital conversion. A new measuring methodology based on original algorithms of data processing and application of the well-known methods for statistic processing of a measuring signal is  proposed in the paper. The paper contains error estimations for measuring oscillation amplitudes justified by discreteness of a signal conversion in a photoelectric receptor and also by the influence of measuring circuit noise. The paper reveals that the applied methodologies make it possible to ensure measuring of amplitudes with an error of 0.2 second of arc and measuring of a period with an error of 10–4 s. The original measuring instrument including mechanical and optical devices and also an electric circuit of optical-to-electrical measuring signal conversion is described in the paper. 

  16. Systemic swings in end-Permian environments from Siberian Traps carbon and sulfur outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B. A.; Neely, R.; Lamarque, J. F.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Kiehl, J. T.; Shields, C. A.; Mills, M. J.; Bardeen, C.

    2017-12-01

    U-Pb geochronology has revealed that Siberian Traps flood basalt magmatism coincided with the 252 Ma end-Permian mass extinction. Most environmental consequences of magmatism follow directly or indirectly from the release of sulfur and some combination of magmatic and metamorphic carbon to the atmosphere (exceptions include ozone depletion from halogen emissions, release of toxic metals, and enhanced weathering of fresh volcanic rocks). However, the critical combinations of forcing and stress that trigger global mass extinction remain unknown. In particular, the combined and competing effects of sulfur and carbon outgassing on Earth systems remain to be quantified. Here we present results from global climate model simulations of flood basalt outgassing that account for sulfur chemistry and aerosol microphysics. We consider the effects of sulfur and carbon in isolation and in tandem, and find that carbon and sulfur emissions combine to generate swings in climate, ocean circulation, and hydrology. Our simulations provide a self-consistent framework to quantitatively explain observed features of the end-Permian including surface warming, fluctuating ocean oxygenation, intense weathering, and carbon cycle perturbation, unifying observed changes in climate and geochemical cycles with feedbacks initiated by Siberian Traps magmatism.

  17. Enhancing analog performance and suppression of subthreshold swing using hetero-junctionless double gate TFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sudakar Singh; Sharma, Neha

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes hetero-junctionless double gate tunnel field effect transistor (HJLDG-TFETs) for suppression of subthreshold swing (SS) using an InAs compound semiconductor material. The proposed device with high dielectric material, gives an excellent performance when InAs uses at source side. Because of low band gap of 0.36 eV , it reduces the potential barrier height of source channel interface causing higher band to band tunneling. Whereas, Si at the drain side with higher band gap of 1.12 eV , increasing the barrier height of drain channel interface causing lower quantum tunneling. As a result, the proposed device with high-k (HfO2) at 30 nm channel section provides a tremendous characteristics with high ION /IOFF ratio of 2 ×1011 , a point SS of 43.30 mV / decade and moderate SS of 56.75 mV / decade . All the above results show that the proposed device is assured for a low power switching application. The variation in gate supply voltage also analyzed for transconductance property of the device.

  18. A study of the Armstrong Whitworth swing beam engine for automotive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The introduction of ceramics to those parts suffering high thermal loading was successfully demonstrated, and there is no question that the 100 kw (134 hp) naturally aspirated engine of the future will be developed to produce up to 300 kw (402 hp) by the application of turbocharging or its equivalent. However, at the 60 - 80 kw (80 - 107 hp) size needed for the economic automotive engine, scaling down the 300 kw (402 hp) is beset by the laws of scale. The conventional four stroke diesel was not shown to be successful at the small high speed engine size. The opposed piston two stroke engine does not suffer the same laws of scale and engines in the low power range have already been marketed successfully. The half liter/cylinder Armstrong Whitworth Swing Beam Engine is the latest to be designed with the automotive market in mind. Its low noise structure and balanced linkage system coupled with advantages for easy start and potential use of low grade fuels, derived from its variable compression ratio and slow piston motion, qualifies it for the application.

  19. Rapid Inversion: Running Animals and Robots Swing like a Pendulum under Ledges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; McRae, Brian; Jusufi, Ardian; Birkmeyer, Paul; Hoover, Aaron M.; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12–15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot. PMID:22701594

  20. Analysis of Dynamic Differential Swing Limited Logic for Low-Power Secure Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Flandre

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-power secure applications such as Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and smart cards represent extremely constrained environments in terms of power consumption and die area. This paper investigates the power, delay and security performances of the dynamic differential swing limited logic (DDSLL. A complete analysis of an advanced encryption standard (AES S-box is conducted using a low-power (LP 65 nm CMOS technology node. Measurements show that the DDSLL S-box has 35% less power consumption than the static CMOS S-box, with an area increase of only 12%, at the expense of a 2.5× increase in delay which remains fairly acceptable for low-power applications such as RFIDs and smart cards. Also when compared to other dynamic differential logic (DDL styles, simulation results show that DDSLL and dynamic current mode logic (DyCML consume the same power which is about 1.8× less that of sense amplifier based logic (SABL. The effect of process variations is also studied, measurement results show that the DDSLL style has lower variability in terms of dynamic power as the activity factor (αF is deterministic thanks to glitch-free operation. As for security, the perceived information metric demonstrates that the DDSLL S-box has a 3× security margin compared to static CMOS. Therefore, DDSLL presents an interesting tradeoff between improved security and area constrained low-power designs.

  1. Adsorption from solutions of non-electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Kipling, J J

    1965-01-01

    Adsorption from Solutions of Non-Electrolytes provides a general discussion of the subject, which has so far been given little or no attention in current textbooks of physical chemistry. A general view of the subject is particularly needed at a time when we wish to see how far it will be possible to use theories of solutions to explain the phenomena of adsorption. The book opens with an introductory chapter on the types of interface, aspects of adsorption from solution, types of adsorption, and classification of systems. This is followed by separate chapters on experimental methods, adsorption

  2. Allocation of ESS by interval optimization method considering impact of ship swinging on hybrid PV/diesel ship power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shuli; Lan, Hai; Hong, Ying-Yi; Yu, David C.; Zhang, Lijun; Cheng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An uncertainty model of PV generation on board is developed based on the experiments. • The moving and swinging of the ship are considered in the optimal ESS sizing problem. • Optimal sizing of ESS in a hybrid PV/diesel/ESS ship power system is gained by the interval optimization method. • Different cases were studied to show the significance of the proposed method considering the swinging effects on the cost. - Abstract: Owing to low efficiency of traditional ships and the serious environmental pollution that they cause, the use of solar energy and an energy storage system (ESS) in a ship’s power system is increasingly attracting attention. However, the swinging of a ship raises crucial challenges in designing an optimal system for a large oil tanker ship, which are associated with uncertainties in solar energy. In this study, a series of experiments are performed to investigate the characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) system on a moving ship. Based on the experimental results, an interval uncertainty model of on-board PV generation is established, which considers the effect of the swinging of the ship. Due to the power balance equations, the outputs of the diesel generator and the ESS on a large oil tanker are also modeled using interval variables. An interval optimization method is developed to determine the optimal size of the ESS in this hybrid ship power system to reduce the fuel cost, capital cost of the ESS, and emissions of greenhouse gases. Variations of the ship load are analyzed using a new method, taking five operating conditions into account. Several cases are compared in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  3. EMG Analysis and Sagittal Plane Kinematics of the Two-Handed and Single-Handed Kettlebell Swing: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gelder, Leonard H; Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Alonzo, Bryan; Briggs, Dayna; Hatzel, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Kettlebell (KB) swing exercises have been proposed as a possible method to improve hip and spinal motor control as well as improve power, strength, and endurance. To describe electromyographic (EMG) and sagittal plane kinematics during two KB exercises: the two-handed KB swing (THKS) and the single-handed KB swing (SHKS). In addition, the authors sought to investigate whether or not hip flexor length related to the muscular activity or the kinematics of the exercise. Twenty-three healthy college age subjects participated in this study. Demographic information and passive hip flexor length were recorded for each subject. A maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of bilateral gluteus maximus (GMAX), gluteus medius (GMED), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles was recorded. EMG activity and sagittal plane video was recorded during both the THKS and SHKS in a randomized order. Normalized muscular activation of the three studied muscles was calculated from EMG data. During both SHKS and THKS, the average percent of peak MVIC for GMAX was 75.02% ± 55.38, GMED 55.47% ± 26.33, and BF 78.95% ± 53.29. Comparisons of the mean time to peak activation (TTP) for each muscle showed that the biceps femoris was the first muscle to activate during the swings. Statistically significant (p < .05), moderately positive correlations (r = .483 and .417) were found between passive hip flexor length and % MVIC for the GMax during the SHKS and THKS, respectively. The THKS and SHKS provide sufficient muscular recruitment for strengthening of all of the muscles explored. This is the first study to show significant correlations between passive hip flexor length and muscular activation of hip extensors, particularly the GMax. Finally, the BF consistently reached peak activity before the GMax and GMed during the SHKS. Level 3.

  4. Immediate Effects of Sports Taping Applied on the Lead Knee of Low- and High-Handicapped Golfers During Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Eun-Kuk; Park, Jong-Chul

    2017-04-01

    Kim, T-G, Kim, E-K, and Park, J-C. Immediate effects of sports taping applied on the lead knee of low- and high-handicapped golfers during golf swing. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 981-989, 2017-Elite golf athletes suffer from various musculoskeletal injuries due to repeated golf swings. Repetitive varus moment during golf swing has been suggested as a possible cause of injuries to the lead knee. The aim of this study was to objectively and quantitatively evaluate the immediate effects of sports taping on the lead knee of elite golfers to restrict varus moment. Thirty-one elite golfers were assigned to the low- (LHG, n = 15) or high-handicapped group (HHG, n = 16). Using 3-dimensional motion analysis, the lead knee position on the frontal plane with and without rigid taping (RT), elastic taping (ET), and placebo taping was identified in 4 separate phases by the 5 events of golf swing as follows: the peak of the backswing (E1), parallel to the ground during downswing (E2), ball impact (E3), parallel to the ground during follow-through (E4), and finish (E5). The LHG when using a driver club had decreased movement toward knee varus with RT and ET than that without it from E1 to E2 (p = 0.001). The LHG when using a 5-iron club decreased movement toward knee varus with RT than that without it from E1 to E2 (p = 0.006) and from E2 to E3 (p = 0.019). The HHG when using a driver club had decreased movement toward knee varus with RT from E1 to E2 (p = 0.014). Sports taping may be helpful for elite golfers in terms of reducing varus moment of the lead knee during the downswing and be useful for the development of preventive strategies for golf-related knee injuries.

  5. Dynamic model and workspace analysis of novel incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables is introduced in this article. Based on wrench of forces theory and Lagrange’s equation of first kind, the static and dynamics models of incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables are established, respectively. In order to obtain an intuitive understanding of the trajectory analysis, a dynamics model consisting of governing equation and geometric constraint conditions which is a set of the mixed differential-algebraic equation in mathematics is established. A typical feedback controller and an inverse model were set up to estimate the driving function. The effective workspace, which is used to guarantee an efficient swing process, mostly depends on the geometrical shape rather than the volume itself which was calculated by trajectory analysis. In order to estimate system features and ensure a limited range of tension in underconstrained spatial cable system, the probable location of unbalanced loading was evaluated by pointwise evaluation techniques during normal work.

  6. Influence on Strength and Flexibility of a Swing Phase-Specific Hamstring Eccentric Program in Sprinters' General Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Kenny J; Lugrin, Véronique; Borloz, Stéphane; Millet, Grégoire P

    2016-02-01

    Hamstring injuries are common in sprinters and mainly occur during the terminal swing phase. Eccentric training has been shown to reduce hamstring injury rate by improving several risk factors. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an additional swing phase-specific hamstring eccentric training in well-trained sprinters performed at the commencement of the winter preparation is more efficient to improve strength, ratio, optimum angle, and flexibility than a similar program without hamstring eccentric exercises. Twenty sprinters were randomly allocated to an eccentric (n = 10) or a control group (n = 10). Both groups performed their usual track and field training throughout the study period. Sprinters in the eccentric group performed an additional 6-week hamstring eccentric program, which was specific to the swing phase of the running cycle (eccentric high-load open-chain kinetic movements covering the whole hamstring length-tension relationship preformed at slow to moderate velocity). Isokinetic and flexibility measurements were performed before and after the intervention. The eccentric group increased hamstring peak torques in concentric at 60° · s(-1) by 16% (p ratios by 12% (p hamstring peak torques only in eccentric at 30° · s(-1) by 6% (p ≤ 0.05) and at 120° · s(-1) by 6% (p hamstring eccentric training in sprinters seems to be crucial to address different risk factors for hamstring strain injuries, such as eccentric and concentric strength, hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio ratio, and flexibility.

  7. Analytical modeling of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of Gaussian-doped strained-Si-on-insulator MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Gopal; Kumar, Sanjay; Goel, Ekta; Kumar, Mirgender; Jit, S.; Dubey, Sarvesh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical modeling of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of short-channel fully-depleted (FD) strained-Si-on-insulator (SSOI) MOSFETs having vertical Gaussian-like doping profile in the channel. The subthreshold current and subthreshold swing have been derived using the parabolic approximation method. In addition to the effect of strain on silicon layer, various other device parameters such as channel length (L), gate-oxide thickness (t ox ), strained-Si channel thickness (t s-Si ), peak doping concentration (N P ), project range (R p ) and straggle (σ p ) of the Gaussian profile have been considered while predicting the device characteristics. The present work may help to overcome the degradation in subthreshold characteristics with strain engineering. These subthreshold current and swing models provide valuable information for strained-Si MOSFET design. Accuracy of the proposed models is verified using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two-dimensional (2D) device simulator from SILVACO. (semiconductor devices)

  8. From aggregative adsorption to surface depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rother, Gernot; Müter, Dirk; Bock, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption of a short-chain nonionic amphiphile (C6E3) at the surface of mesoporous silica glass (CPG) was studied by a combination of adsorption measurements and mesoscale simulations. Adsorption measurements covering a wide composition range of the C6E3 + water system show that no adsorption...... occurs up to the critical micelle concentration, at which a sharp increase of adsorption is observed that is attributed to ad-micelle formation at the pore walls. Intriguingly, as the concentration is increased further, the surface excess of the amphiphile begins to decrease and eventually becomes...... negative, which corresponds to preferential adsorption of water rather than amphiphile at high amphiphile concentrations. The existence of such a surface-azeotropic point has not previously been reported in the surfactant adsorption field. Dissipative particle dynamics simulations were performed to reveal...

  9. Safety and walking ability of KAFO users with the C-Brace®Orthotronic Mobility System, a new microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröbsting, Eva; Kannenberg, Andreas; Zacharias, Britta

    2017-02-01

    There are clear indications for benefits of stance control orthoses compared to locked knee ankle foot orthoses. However, stance control orthoses still have limited function compared with a sound human leg. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis compared to stance control orthoses and locked knee ankle foot orthoses in activities of daily living. Survey of lower limb orthosis users before and after fitting of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis. Thirteen patients with various lower limb pareses completed a baseline survey for their current orthotic device (locked knee ankle foot orthosis or stance control orthosis) and a follow-up for the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with the Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire, a new self-reported outcome measure devised by modifying the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire for use in lower limb orthotics and the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire. The Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire results demonstrated significant improvements by microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis use in the total score and the domains of ambulation ( p = .001), paretic limb health ( p = .04), sounds ( p = .02), and well-being ( p = .01). Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire results showed significant improvements with the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with regard to perceived safety and difficulty of activities of daily living. The microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis may facilitate an easier, more physiological, and safer execution of many activities of daily living compared to traditional leg orthosis technologies. Clinical relevance This study compared patient-reported outcomes of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis (C-Brace) to those with traditional knee ankle foot orthosis and stance control orthosis devices. The C-Brace offers new functions including controlled

  10. Is there really an eccentric action of the hamstrings during the swing phase of high-speed running? part I: A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooren, Bas; Bosch, Frans

    2017-12-01

    It is widely assumed that there is an eccentric hamstring muscle fibre action during the swing phase of high-speed running. However, animal and modelling studies in humans show that the increasing distance between musculotendinous attachment points during forward swing is primarily due to passive lengthening associated with the take-up of muscle slack. Later in the swing phase, the contractile element (CE) maintains a near isometric action while the series elastic (tendinous) element first stretches as the knee extends, and then recoils causing the swing leg to forcefully retract prior to ground contact. Although modelling studies showed some active lengthening of the contractile (muscular) element during the mid-swing phase of high-speed running, we argue that the increasing distance between the attachment points should not be interpreted as an eccentric action of the CE due to the effects of muscle slack. Therefore, there may actually be no significant eccentric, but rather predominantly an isometric action of the hamstrings CE during the swing phase of high-speed running when the attachment points of the hamstrings are moving apart. Based on this, we propose that isometric rather than eccentric exercises are a more specific way of conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running.

  11. Numerical simulations of constant cycle jets from a swing nozzle; Kubirufi undo suru fukidashiguchi yori funshutsu sareru funryu no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, T.; Shibano, T. [Shinryo Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Hagino, G.; Honda, N.; Suzuki, M. [University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-25

    To apply swing nozzles to HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems in large indoor spaces, numerical simulations were conducted for the characteristics of constant cycle jets from a swing nozzle. For the simulations, the velocity and temperature of air supply, and the inclination angle and swing cycle of outlet were used as parameters. A total of 168 numerical simulations were conducted, which included cases with fixed air supply direction. As a result, jet formations could be classified into four groups. Among these, two groups provided distributions with depressions in their centers, which means that the residual air flow velocity in the dwelling region should be carefully examined. Characteristics of cycle jets greatly varied dependent on the parameters. Especially, the vertical distance from the outlet and the diffusion width of swing direction increased or decreased monotonously against the variation of parameters, except only a part of cases. For the change of air flow velocity at the fixed point, its amplitude became shorter with shortening the swing frequency. The frequency was not always in agreement with the movement of the nozzle. Complicated behavior of air flow velocity was observed dependent on the swing frequency. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Hydrogen Adsorption on Nanoporous Biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M. B.; Burress, J. W.; Lapilli, C. M.; Pfeifer, P.; Shah, P. S.; Suppes, G. J.; Dillon, A. C.; Parilla, P. A.

    2007-03-01

    As a part of the Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (http://all-craft.missouri.edu) we study activated carbons made from corncob, optimized for storing methane and hydrogen (H2) by physisorption at low pressure. We report here: (a) storage capacities of 73-91 g H2/kg carbon at 77 K and 47 bar, validated in three different laboratories (the 2010 DOE target is 60 g H2/kg system); (b) binding energies from H2 adsorption isotherms (c) temperature-programmed desorption data; (d) degree of graphitization of the carbon surface from Raman spectra; (e) pore structure of carbon from nitrogen and methane adsorption isotherms, and small-angle x-ray scattering. The structural analysis shows that the carbon is highly microporous and that the pore space is highly correlated (micropores do not scatter independently).

  13. Random sequential adsorption of cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Kubala, Piotr

    2018-01-14

    Random packings built of cubes are studied numerically using a random sequential adsorption algorithm. To compare the obtained results with previous reports, three different models of cube orientation sampling were used. Also, three different cube-cube intersection algorithms were tested to find the most efficient one. The study focuses on the mean saturated packing fraction as well as kinetics of packing growth. Microstructural properties of packings were analyzed using density autocorrelation function.

  14. Water vapour adsorption on coal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švábová, Martina; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2011), s. 1892-1899 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : water vapour * adsorption * kinetics Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001623611100007X

  15. More extreme swings of the South Pacific convergence zone due to greenhouse warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenju; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Borlace, Simon; Collins, Matthew; Cowan, Tim; McPhaden, Michael J; Timmermann, Axel; Power, Scott; Brown, Josephine; Menkes, Christophe; Ngari, Arona; Vincent, Emmanuel M; Widlansky, Matthew J

    2012-08-16

    The South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) is the Southern Hemisphere's most expansive and persistent rain band, extending from the equatorial western Pacific Ocean southeastward towards French Polynesia. Owing to its strong rainfall gradient, a small displacement in the position of the SPCZ causes drastic changes to hydroclimatic conditions and the frequency of extreme weather events--such as droughts, floods and tropical cyclones--experienced by vulnerable island countries in the region. The SPCZ position varies from its climatological mean location with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), moving a few degrees northward during moderate El Niño events and southward during La Niña events. During strong El Niño events, however, the SPCZ undergoes an extreme swing--by up to ten degrees of latitude toward the Equator--and collapses to a more zonally oriented structure with commensurately severe weather impacts. Understanding changes in the characteristics of the SPCZ in a changing climate is therefore of broad scientific and socioeconomic interest. Here we present climate modelling evidence for a near doubling in the occurrences of zonal SPCZ events between the periods 1891-1990 and 1991-2090 in response to greenhouse warming, even in the absence of a consensus on how ENSO will change. We estimate the increase in zonal SPCZ events from an aggregation of the climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phases 3 and 5 (CMIP3 and CMIP5) multi-model database that are able to simulate such events. The change is caused by a projected enhanced equatorial warming in the Pacific and may lead to more frequent occurrences of extreme events across the Pacific island nations most affected by zonal SPCZ events.

  16. Constant speed control of four-stroke micro internal combustion swing engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zhu, Honghai; Ni, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The increasing demands on safety, emission and fuel consumption require more accurate control models of micro internal combustion swing engine (MICSE). The objective of this paper is to investigate the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE. The operation principle of the four-stroke MICSE is presented based on the description of MICSE prototype. A two-level Petri net based hybrid model is proposed to model the four-stroke MICSE engine cycle. The Petri net subsystem at the upper level controls and synchronizes the four Petri net subsystems at the lower level. The continuous sub-models, including breathing dynamics of intake manifold, thermodynamics of the chamber and dynamics of the torque generation, are investigated and integrated with the discrete model in MATLAB Simulink. Through the comparison of experimental data and simulated DC voltage output, it is demonstrated that the hybrid model is valid for the four-stroke MICSE system. A nonlinear model is obtained from the cycle average data via the regression method, and it is linearized around a given nominal equilibrium point for the controller design. The feedback controller of the spark timing and valve duration timing is designed with a sequential loop closing design approach. The simulation of the sequential loop closure control design applied to the hybrid model is implemented in MATLAB. The simulation results show that the system is able to reach its desired operating point within 0.2 s, and the designed controller shows good MICSE engine performance with a constant speed. This paper presents the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE and carries out the simulation tests, the models and the simulation results can be used for further study on the precision control of four-stroke MICSE.

  17. Gender differences in triple jump phase ratios and arm swing motion of international level athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female triple jumping is a relatively new athletics event. A limited number of researchers have focused on comparing male and female jumpers competing in international events, resulting in scarce findings in the literature regarding gender differences of the determinants of triple jump performance. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the possible gender differences in the approach step characteristics, the spatiotemporal parameters of the separate phases of the triple jump as performed by athletes participating in sub-elite international events. Methods: The male and female participants of the 2015 European Team Championships triple jump event were recorded with a panning video camera. Approach speed was measured using photocells. Kinematical parameters were extracted using the APAS WIZARD 13.3.0.3 software. The relationships between the examined parameters and the actual triple jump performance were examined with Pearson's correlation analysis. Repeated measures ANOVA and chi-square statistical tests were run to examine the significance of the differences between genders. Results: Approach speed significantly correlated with the actual jumping distance in both males and females (p < .05. Significant gender differences (p < .05 existed concerning basic kinematical parameters. Men were found to have larger average horizontal speed of the 11 m to 1 m segment of the final approach, step length of the final six steps of the approach, step frequency of the final two steps, actual phase distances and percentage distribution of the step. Women, unlike men, used solely single arm swing techniques. No athlete executed the jump using a jump dominated technique. Conclusions: Gender differences in triple jump performance lies upon the kinematical parameters of the final two steps of the approach, the length of the step phase and the support time for the jump. The technique elements of the penultimate step are suggested to

  18. Engineering design solutions of flux swing with structural requirements for ohmic heating solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Here a more detailed publication is summarized which presents analytical methods with solutions that describe the structural behavior of ohmic heating solenoids to achieve a better understanding of the relationships between the functional variables that can provide the basis for recommended design improvements. The solutions relate the requirements imposed by structural integrity to the need for producing sufficient flux swing to initiate a plasma current in the tokamak fusion machine. A method is provided to perform a detailed structural analysis of every conducting turn in the radial build of the solenoid, and computer programmed listings for the closed form solutions are made available as part of the reference document. Distinction is made in deriving separate models for the regions of the solenoid where turn-to-turn radial contact is maintained with radial compression or with a bond in the presence of radial tension, and also where there is turn-to-turn radial separation due to the absence or the loss of bonding in the presence of would be radial tension. The derivations follow the theory of elasticity for a body possessing cylindrical anisotropy where the material properties are different in the radial and tangential directions. The formulations are made practical by presenting the methods for reducing stress and for relocating the relative position for potential turn-to-turn radial delamination by permitting an arbitrary traction at the outer radial surface of the solenoid in the form of pressure or displacement such as may be applied by a containment or a shrink fit structural cylinder

  19. Cadmium Adsorption on HDTMA Modified Montmorillionite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Elmuntasir I. Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto modified montmorillonite clay is investigated. Batch adsorption experiments performed revealed an enhanced removal of cadmium using HDTMA modified montmorillonite to 100% of its exchange capacity. Modified montmorillonite adsorption capacity increases at higher pHs suggesting adsorption occurs as a result of surface precipitation and HDTMA complex formation due to the fact that the original negatively charged montmorillonite is now covered by a cationic layer of HDTMA. Adsorption isotherms generated followed a Langmuir isotherm equation possibly indicating a monolayer coverage. Adsorption capacities of up to 49 mg/g and removals greater than 90% were achieved. Anionic selectivity of the HDTMA modified monmorillonite is particularly advantageous in water treatment applications where high concentrations of less adsorbable species are present, and the lack of organoclay affinity for these species may allow the available capacity to be utilized selectively by the targeted species.

  20. Solar heat utilization for adsorption cooling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Malcho, Milan

    2012-04-01

    This article deals with possibility of solar system connection with adsorption cooling system. Waste heat from solar collectors in summer is possible to utilize in adsorption cooling systems, which desorption temperatures have to be lower than temperature of heat transport medium operation temperature. For verification of work of this system was constructed on the Department of power engineering on University of Zilina solar adsorption cooling device.

  1. High Pressure Multicomponent Adsorption in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent film...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  2. Adsorption of Hazardous Compounds to Mineral Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carron, Keith

    1997-01-01

    The project entitled 'Adsorption of Hazardous Compounds to Mineral Surfaces' involved five faculty members from the University of Wyoming's Departments of Chemistry, Geology, Soil Science, and Mathematics...

  3. Electrode potential and selective ionic adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexe-Ionescu, A.L. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Laboratory for Engineering of the Neuromuscular System, and Dipartimento di Elettronica, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Barbero, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: giovanni.barbero@polito.it; Merletti, R. [Laboratory for Engineering of the Neuromuscular System, and Dipartimento di Elettronica, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-04-27

    A simple description of the electrode potential based on the selective ionic adsorption is proposed. It is shown that if the adsorption-desorption coefficients entering in the Langmuir kinetic equation for the adsorption at the limiting surfaces are not identical, a difference of potential between the electrode and the bulk of the solution exists. In the case where the thickness of the sample is large with respect to the length of Debye, this difference of potential depends only on the adsorption-desorption coefficients and on the length of Debye of the ionic solution.

  4. Adsorptive property of rice husk for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Yi Facheng

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption experiments were researched by using the rice husk powder as the adsorbent to remove the U(VI) from aqueous solution. The affecting factors on the U(VI) removal rate such as rice husk particle size, pH, initial concentration, adsorption time, temperature and dosage of adsorbent were evaluated, kinetics and adsorption isotherm law were analyzed, and mechanisms for U(VI) removal were discussed by SEM, FT-IR and energy spectrum analysis. The results show that U(VI) removal rate increases with the decrease of the size of adsorbent, and with the increase of adsorbent dosage and temperature. The process of adsorption can be described by an equation of pseudo 2nd-order mode, and the relation coefficient is 1. The process of adsorption also fits to Freundlich isotherm (R 2 =0.995 4). The adsorption of uranium on rice husk changes the surface form of rice husk. Hydroxyl, carboxylic, P-O and Si-O are the main functional groups in the reaction with U(VI). The adsorption mechanism is mixture adsorption, including the physical and chemical adsorption. (authors)

  5. Adsorption induced losses in interfacial cohesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaro, R.J.

    1977-07-01

    A model for interfacial cohesion is developed which describes the loss in the strength of an interface due to the segregation and adsorption of impurities on it. Distinctions are made between interface separations that occur too rapidly for any significant redistribution of adsorbing matter to take place and separations that are slow enough to allow full adsorption equilibrium. Expressions for the total work of complete decohesion are presented for both cases. The results are applied to well-known model adsorption isotherms and some experimental data for grain boundary adsorption of phosphorus in iron is analyzed with respect to the losses in intergranular cohesion

  6. Adsorption analysis equilibria and kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Do, Duong D

    1998-01-01

    This book covers topics of equilibria and kinetics of adsorption in porous media. Fundamental equilibria and kinetics are dealt with for homogeneous as well as heterogeneous particles. Five chapters of the book deal with equilibria and eight chapters deal with kinetics. Single component as well as multicomponent systems are discussed. In kinetics analysis, we deal with the various mass transport processes and their interactions inside a porous particle. Conventional approaches as well as the new approach using Maxwell-Stefan equations are presented. Various methods to measure diffusivity, such

  7. Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Sorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts, Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) vapor concentrations in a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfort, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxide (MetOx) canisters. Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material that requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications. The vacuum swing units control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed experimentally and documented in previous reports. To support developmental e orts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing sorption technology. For the first time in several decades, a major re-design of Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the extra-vehicular mobility unit (EMU) is underway. NASA at Johnson Space Center built and tested an integrated PLSS test bed of all subsystems under a variety of simulated EVA conditions of which the RCA prototype played a significant role. The efforts documented herein summarize RCA test performance and simulation results for single and variable metabolic rate experiments in an integrated context. In addition, a variety of off-nominal tests were performed to assess the capability of the RCA to function under challenging circumstances. Tests included high water production experiments, degraded vacuum regeneration, and deliberate valve/power failure and recovery.

  8. Evaluation of a subject-specific female gymnast model and simulation of an uneven parallel bar swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Alison L; Hubbard, Mont

    2008-11-14

    A gymnast model and forward dynamics simulation of a dismount preparation swing on the uneven parallel bars were evaluated by comparing experimental and predicted joint positions throughout the maneuver. The bar model was a linearly elastic spring with a frictional bar/hand interface, and the gymnast model consisted of torso/head, arm and two leg segments. The hips were frictionless balls and sockets, and shoulder movement was planar with passive compliant structures approximated by a parallel spring and damper. Subject-specific body segment moments of inertia, and shoulder compliance were estimated. Muscles crossing the shoulder and hip were represented as torque generators, and experiments quantified maximum instantaneous torques as functions of joint angle and angular velocity. Maximum torques were scaled by joint torque activations as functions of time to produce realistic motions. The downhill simplex method optimized activations and simulation initial conditions to minimize the difference between experimental and predicted bar-center, shoulder, hip, and ankle positions. Comparing experimental and simulated performances allowed evaluation of bar, shoulder compliance, joint torque, and gymnast models. Errors in all except the gymnast model are random, zero mean, and uncorrelated, verifying that all essential system features are represented. Although the swing simulation using the gymnast model matched experimental joint positions with a 2.15cm root-mean-squared error, errors are correlated. Correlated errors indicate that the gymnast model is not complex enough to exactly reproduce the experimental motion. Possible model improvements including a nonlinear shoulder model with active translational control and a two-segment torso would not have been identified if the objective function did not evaluate the entire system configuration throughout the motion. The model and parameters presented in this study can be effectively used to understand and improve an uneven

  9. Influence of optimization constraints in uneven parallel bar dismount swing simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Alison L; Hubbard, Mont

    2009-08-07

    Forward dynamics simulations of a dismount preparation swing on the uneven parallel bars were optimized to investigate the sensitivity of dismount revolution potential to the maximum bar force before slipping, and to low-bar avoidance. All optimization constraints were classified as 1-anatomical/physiological; limiting maximum hand force on the high bar before slipping, joint ranges of motion and maximum torques, muscle activation/deactivation timing and 2-geometric; avoiding low-bar contact, and requiring minimum landing distance. The gymnast model included torso/head, arm and two leg segments connected by a planar rotating, compliant shoulder and frictionless ball-and-socket hip joints. Maximum shoulder and hip torques were measured as functions of joint angle and angular velocity. Motions were driven by scaling maximum torques by a joint torque activation function of time which approximated the average activation of all muscles crossing the joint causing extension/flexion, or adduction/abduction. Ten joint torque activation values, and bar release times were optimized to maximize dismount revolutions using the downhill simplex method. Low-bar avoidance and maximum bar-force constraints are necessary because they reduce dismount revolution potential. Compared with the no low-bar performance, optimally avoiding the low bar by piking and straddling (abducting) the hips reduces dismount revolutions by 1.8%. Using previously reported experimentally measured peak uneven bar-force values of 3.6 and 4.0 body weight (BW) as optimization constraints, 1.40 and 1.55 revolutions with the body extended and arms overhead were possible, respectively. The bar-force constraint is not active if larger than 6.9 BW, and instead performances are limited only by maximum shoulder and hip torques. Bar forces accelerate the mass center (CM) when performing muscular work to flex/extend the joints, and increase gymnast mechanical energy. Therefore, the bar-force constraint inherently

  10. The Development and Validation of a Golf Swing and Putt Skill Assessment for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett, Louise L. Hardy, Ali S. Brian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to describe development of a process-oriented instrument designed to assess the golf swing and putt stroke, and to assess the instrument’s discriminative validity in terms of age and reliability (intra-rater and re-test. A Delphi consultation (with golf industry professionals and researchers in movement skill assessment was used to develop an assessment for each skill based on existing skill assessment protocols. Each skill had six components to be marked as present/absent. Individual scores were based on the number of performance components successfully demonstrated over two trials for each skill (potential score range 0 to 24. Children (n = 43 aged 6-10 years (M = 7.8 years, SD = 1.3 were assessed in both skills live in the field by one rater at Time 1(T1. A subset of children (n = 28 had consent for assessments to be videoed. Six weeks later 19 children were reassessed, five days apart (T2, T3. An ANOVA assessed discriminative validity i.e. whether skill competence at T1 differed by age (6 years, 7/8 years and 9/10 years. Intraclass correlations (ICC assessed intra-rater reliability between the live and video assessment at T1 and test-retest reliability (between T2 and T3. Paired t-tests assessed any systematic differences between live and video assessments (T1 and between T2 and T3. Older children were more skilled (F (2, 40 = 11.18, p < 0.001. The live assessment reflected the video assessment (ICC = 0.79, 95% CI 0.59, 0.90 and scores did not differ between live and video assessments. Test retest reliability was acceptable (ICC = 0.60, 95% CI 0.23, 0.82, although the mean score was slightly higher at retest. This instrument could be used reliably by golf coaches and physical education teachers as part of systematic early player assessment and feedback.

  11. A Diaminopropane-Appended Metal–Organic Framework Enabling Efficient CO 2 Capture from Coal Flue Gas via a Mixed Adsorption Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milner, Phillip J.; Siegelman, Rebecca L.; Forse, Alexander C.; Gonzalez, Miguel I.; Runčevski, Tomče [Materials; Martell, Jeffrey D.; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Long, Jeffrey R. [Materials

    2017-09-14

    A new diamine-functionalized metal–organic framework comprised of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane (dmpn) appended to the Mg2+ sites lining the channels of Mg2(dobpdc) (dobpdc4– = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) is characterized for the removal of CO2 from the flue gas emissions of coal-fired power plants. Unique to members of this promising class of adsorbents, dmpn–Mg2(dobpdc) displays facile step-shaped adsorption of CO2 from coal flue gas at 40 °C and near complete CO2 desorption upon heating to 100 °C, enabling a high CO2 working capacity (2.42 mmol/g, 9.1 wt %) with a modest 60 °C temperature swing. Evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters of adsorption for dmpn–Mg2(dobpdc) suggests that the narrow temperature swing of its CO2 adsorption steps is due to the high magnitude of its differential enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads = -73 ± 1 kJ/mol), with a larger than expected entropic penalty for CO2 adsorption (Δsads = -204 ± 4 J/mol·K) positioning the step in the optimal range for carbon capture from coal flue gas. In addition, thermogravimetric analysis and breakthrough experiments indicate that, in contrast to many adsorbents, dmpn–Mg2(dobpdc) captures CO2 effectively in the presence of water and can be subjected to 1000 humid adsorption/desorption cycles with minimal degradation. Solid-state 13C NMR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction structures of the Zn analogue reveal that this material adsorbs CO2 via formation of both ammonium carbamates and carbamic acid pairs, the latter of which are crystallographically verified for the first time in a porous material. Taken together, these properties render dmpn–Mg2(dobpdc) one of the most promising adsorbents for carbon capture applications.

  12. The transmission interferometric adsorption sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuberger, M; Balmer, T E

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a high-speed adsorption sensor based on thin-film interference at the interfaces. The sensor can be used as a stand-alone instrument or in combination with a direct surface force measurement, which yields a wide range of additional information on molecular interactions on adsorbed films. The achieved mass resolution of the presented method (1-10 ng cm -2 Hz -1/2 ) is comparable to or better than other modern bio-sensors. The dependence of mass resolution on various factors is presented and demonstrated in a number of relevant examples. The described method is suitable for the implementation of a low-cost bio-sensor with a minimal number of optical elements. The measurement spot size is one micrometre or more and sampling rates >10 Hz are readily possible. In contrast to other bio-sensors, the signal baseline has a remarkable long-term stability since the measured signal is virtually independent of refractive index changes in the fluid medium above the sensor surface. In combination with an optical spectral correlation method, the classical computer calculations are substituted by an optical calculator and a label-free real-time imaging adsorption sensor is realized. We demonstrate sensor operation both inside the extended surface forces apparatus as well as in a stand-alone bio-sensor configuration. As a final point, we illustrate the imaging capability of this new sensor technology on a patterned bio-functionalized surface. (review article)

  13. Analytical solution of the problem of acceleration of cargo by a bridge crane with constant acceleration at elimination of swings of a cargo rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytov, M. S.; Shcherbakov, V. S.; Titenko, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    Limitation of the swing of the bridge crane cargo rope is a matter of urgency, as it can significantly improve the efficiency and safety of the work performed. In order to completely dampen the pendulum swing after the break-up of a bridge or a bridge-crane freight cart to maximum speed, it is necessary, in the normal repulsion control of the electric motor, to split the process of dispersion into a minimum of three gaps. For a dynamic system of swinging of a bridge crane on a flexible cable hanger in a separate vertical plane, an analytical solution was obtained to determine the temporal dependence of the cargo rope angle relative to the gravitational vertical when the cargo suspension point moves with constant acceleration. The resulting analytical dependence of the cargo rope angle and its first derivative can break the process of dispersing the cargo suspension point into three stages of dispersal and braking with various accelerations and enter maximum speed of movement of the cargo suspension point. In doing so, the condition of eliminating the swings of the cargo rope relative to the gravitational vertical is fulfilled. Provides examples of the maximum speed output constraints-to-time when removing the rope swing.

  14. Kinetics of polymer adsorption, desorption and exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijt, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the study in this thesis was to gain more insight in the kinetics of polymer adsorption. To this end some well-characterised polymers have been systematically investigated.

    In the process of polymer adsorption one may distinguish three kinetic contributions: transport to

  15. Surfactant adsorption to soil components and soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, Munehide; Koopal, Luuk K.

    2016-01-01

    Soils are complex and widely varying mixtures of organic matter and inorganic materials; adsorption of surfactants to soils is therefore related to the soil composition. We first discuss the properties of surfactants, including the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surfactant adsorption on

  16. Adsorption of ferrous ions onto montmorillonites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Dawei, E-mail: qdw109@163.com [Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China); Niu, Xia [Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China); Qiao, Min; Liu, Gang; Li, Hongxin; Meng, Zhenxiao [Shandong SiBang pharmaceutical co., LTD, Jinan, Shandong, 250200 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption study of ferrous ions on montmorillonites. • Using ascorbic acid as antioxidants in adsorption process. • Fe (II)-MMT had good affinity for phosphate. - Abstract: The adsorption of Fe (II) onto montmorillonites was investigated through initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. During the whole adsorption process, the ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was added as a kind of antioxidant, at the same time, deionized water (after boiling) and nitrogen protection were also used to avoid oxidation. The Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sub total} ratio of the iron exists in the Fe-montmorillonites was found more than 95%. Two kinetic models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model, were used to analyze the adsorption process of Fe (II) on montmorillonites. The results of our study showed that adsorption process fitted with pseudo-second-order well. Adsorption isotherms showed that Langmuir model was better than Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0} and ΔH{sup 0} were 3.696 kJ/mol and 6.689 kJ/mol (we just gave the values at 298 K), respectively. The positive values at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous and endothermic. The characteristics of materials were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Surface area and porosity analyzer, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Zeta potential distribution.

  17. Thermodynamics of gas adsorption on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budrugeac, P.

    1979-01-01

    Starting with several hypotheses about the adsorbtion system and the adsorption phenomenon, a thermodynamic treatment of gas adsorption on solid adsorbants is presented. The relationships for determination from isotherms and calorimetric data of thermodynamic functions are derived. The problem of the phase changes in adsorbed layer is discussed. (author)

  18. Comparative Adsorption of Spiramycin on Veegum , Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... The adsorption data obtained for the three adsorbents were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich's plots. Results: At neutral pH, drug adsorprtion by Garcinia kola, activated charcoal and Veegum® were 67,. 54 and 71 %, respectively; differences in adsorption was not significant (p = 0.09). However, the ...

  19. FLUORIDE REMOVAL BY ADSORPTION ON THERMALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    capability. Speciation analysis reveals that at low initial fluoride concentrations the dissolution of gibbsite is facilitated by the adsorption of fluoride onto gibbsite. This may result in the formation of aluminum fluoro complexes in water. KEY WORDS: Fluoride removal, Laterite soils, Speciation analysis, Adsorption capacity, ...

  20. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine ...

  1. Adsorptive, Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Inhibitive Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption of Cissus populnea stem extract and its subsequent corrosion inhibition properties on aluminum in 0.5 M HCl solutions have been investigated using weight loss measurements. Inhibition efficiency of the plant extract increased with concentration but decreased with rise in temperature. The adsorption of the ...

  2. Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica for uranium adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Guo; Yurun, Feng; Li, Ma; Dezhi, Gao; Jie, Jing; Jincheng, Yu; Haibin, Sun; Hongyu, Gong; Yujun, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) was synthesized by modified mesoporous silica with γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane and tributyl phosphate. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), thermo-gravimetric/differential thermalanalyzer (TG/DTA), N2 adsorption-desorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Results showed that TBP-SBA-15 had large surface areas with ordered channel structure. Moreover, the effects of adsorption time, sorbent dose, solution pH, initial uranium concentration and temperature on the uranium adsorption behaviors were investigated. TBP-SBA-15 showed a high uranium adsorption capacity in a broad range of pH values. The U(VI) adsorption rate of TBP-SBA-15 was fast and nearly achieved completion in 10 min with the sorbent dose of 1 g/L. The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, indicating that the process was belonged to chemical adsorption. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0 and ΔS0) confirmed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.

  3. Thermodynamic Properties of Chromium Adsorption by Sediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-06-19

    Jun 19, 2013 ... aqueous system and therefore decreasing percentage adsorption. Thermodynamic Parameters. The changes of Gibb's free energy, enthalpy, entropy and isosteric heats of adsorption were all calculated using the data generated from the experiments and was presented in Tables 3a and 3b respectively.

  4. Adsorption Properties of the Cu(115) Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godowski, P. J.; Groso, A.; Hoffmann, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    in context of substrate geometry and compared with the ones of other copper planes. There are no indications of dissociative adsorption of CO, only residual carbon and oxygen were found after adsorbate desorption around 220 K. CO molecules show a strong tendency to "on top" adsorption in sites far from...

  5. METHYLENE BLUE ADSORPTION FROM GLYCEROL SOLUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α- goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the ...

  6. Hydrophobic nano-carrier for lysozyme adsorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... For this purpose, adsorption conditions wereoptimized and maximum lysozyme binding capacity was found to be 278.8 mg g−1 polymer in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer at 25∘C. Desorption and reusability properties of the nanoparticles were investigated and lysozyme adsorption efficiency did not change ...

  7. Adsorption of Phthalates on Municipal Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates (PAEs are commonly detected in discharge of municipal wastewater treatment plants. This study investigated the removal of six typical PAEs with activated sludge and the results revealed that concentrations of aqueous PAEs decreased rapidly during the beginning 15 min and reached equilibrium within 2 hours due to the adsorption of activated sludge. The process followed first-order kinetic equation, except for dioctyl phthalate (DOP. The factors influencing the adsorption were also evaluated and it was found that higher initial concentrations of PAEs enhanced the removal but affected little the adsorption equilibrium time. The adsorption of PAEs favored lower operating temperature (the optimum temperature was approximately 25°C in this research, which could be an exothermic process. Additionally, lower aqueous pH could also benefit the adsorption.

  8. Adsorption -capacity data for 283 organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaws, C.L.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Adsorption on activated carbon is a widely used method for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gases and other exhaust streams. This article presents a compilation of adsorption-capacity data as a function of the VOC concentration in the gas. The results are useful in engineering and environmental studies, and in the design of carbon-based adsorption systems to remove unwanted organic pollutants from gases. For vapor control, carbon-based systems typically combine a carbon-adsorption unit with a secondary control method to reclaim or destroy the vapors desorbed during carbon-bed regeneration. To remove organics dissolved in wastewater, air stripping is typically used to transfer the organics to a vapor stream. Carbon adsorption is then used to separate the organics from the stripper exhaust. Collected vapors can be recovered for reuse or destroyed, depending on their value.

  9. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  10. Adsorption of aqueous silicate on hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.; Ticknor, K.V.

    1997-08-01

    During radioisotope sorption studies, adsorption of silicate from synthetic groundwaters by synthetic hematite was observed. To further investigate this observation, the adsorption of silicate onto hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) powder from a neutral, aqueous NaC1 solution (0.1 mol/dm 3 ), containing 2.56 x 10 -4 mol/dm 3 of Si added as Na 2 SiO 3 ·9H 2 O, was measured at ∼21 deg C. Equilibrium adsorption of silicate amounted to ∼1.93 μmol/m 2 (one Si(O,OH) 4 moiety per 86 A 2 ). It is important to take this adsorption into account when evaluating the ability of iron oxides to adsorb other species, especially anions, from groundwaters. Silicate adsorption is known to diminish the ability of iron oxides to adsorb other anions. (author)

  11. Black Phosphorus Based Field Effect Transistors with Simultaneously Achieved Near Ideal Subthreshold Swing and High Hole Mobility at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinke; Ang, Kah-Wee; Yu, Wenjie; He, Jiazhu; Feng, Xuewei; Liu, Qiang; Jiang, He; Dan Tang; Wen, Jiao; Lu, Youming; Liu, Wenjun; Cao, Peijiang; Han, Shun; Wu, Jing; Liu, Wenjun; Wang, Xi; Zhu, Deliang; He, Zhubing

    2016-04-22

    Black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as a promising two-dimensional (2D) material for next generation transistor applications due to its superior carrier transport properties. Among other issues, achieving reduced subthreshold swing and enhanced hole mobility simultaneously remains a challenge which requires careful optimization of the BP/gate oxide interface. Here, we report the realization of high performance BP transistors integrated with HfO2 high-k gate dielectric using a low temperature CMOS process. The fabricated devices were shown to demonstrate a near ideal subthreshold swing (SS) of ~69 mV/dec and a room temperature hole mobility of exceeding >400 cm(2)/Vs. These figure-of-merits are benchmarked to be the best-of-its-kind, which outperform previously reported BP transistors realized on traditional SiO2 gate dielectric. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis further reveals the evidence of a more chemically stable BP when formed on HfO2 high-k as opposed to SiO2, which gives rise to a better interface quality that accounts for the SS and hole mobility improvement. These results unveil the potential of black phosphorus as an emerging channel material for future nanoelectronic device applications.

  12. Eu, tu, ele(s, ela(s: cartografando heteroconjugalidades na prática do swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Marília Alves de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo As experimentações da sexualidade produzidas nas heteroconjugalidades contemporâneas têm vivido transições nos seus suportes afetivo-relacionais, maior flexibilização em suas hierarquias de gênero e enriquecimento das suas possibilidades institucionais. Problematizaremos a prática do swing como uma das linhas de tensionamento produzidas nesta agonística cultural, tomando como objeto de estudo hetero/casais em cenas eróticas ‘dissidentes’. Nesta cena da pesquisa nos valemos de conversações entre interlocutoras/res swingers cearenses e uma das pesquisadoras. Os princípios do método do nosso estudo se (desacomodam em perspectivas feministas e desde os estudos queer, assumindo um modo de análise em posição discursivo-desconstrucionista, a partir dos pressupostos foucaultianos da análise do discurso. Esta cartografia íntima nos permitiu acompanhar algo dos/nos trânsitos das relações hetero/conjugais contemporâneas e suas (dissidentes performances de gênero e experimentações das sexualidades. De modo que assumimos, pelo instante, a ideia do swing como prática de subjetivação e modo de experimentação da heteroconjugalidade.

  13. A Novel Approach to Determine Strides, Ice Contact, and Swing Phases During Ice Hockey Skating Using a Single Accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Bernd J; Buckeridge, Erica; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nigg, Sandro R; Nigg, Benno M

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a new approach for automated identification of ice hockey skating strides and a method to detect ice contact and swing phases of individual strides by quantifying vibrations in 3D acceleration data during the blade-ice interaction. The strides of a 30-m forward sprinting task, performed by 6 ice hockey players, were evaluated using a 3D accelerometer fixed to a hockey skate. Synchronized plantar pressure data were recorded as reference data. To determine the accuracy of the new method on a range of forward stride patterns for temporal skating events, estimated contact times and stride times for a sequence of 5 consecutive strides was validated. Bland-Altman limits of agreement (95%) between accelerometer and plantar pressure derived data were less than 0.019 s. Mean differences between the 2 capture methods were shown to be less than 1 ms for contact and stride time. These results demonstrate the validity of the novel approach to determine strides, ice contact, and swing phases during ice hockey skating. This technology is accurate, simple, effective, and allows for in-field ice hockey testing.

  14. Bio-inspired swing leg control for spring-mass robots running on ground with unexpected height disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdani, H R; Blum, Y; Daley, M A; Hurst, J W

    2013-12-01

    We proposed three swing leg control policies for spring-mass running robots, inspired by experimental data from our recent collaborative work on ground running birds. Previous investigations suggest that animals may prioritize injury avoidance and/or efficiency as their objective function during running rather than maintaining limit-cycle stability. Therefore, in this study we targeted structural capacity (maximum leg force to avoid damage) and efficiency as the main goals for our control policies, since these objective functions are crucial to reduce motor size and structure weight. Each proposed policy controls the leg angle as a function of time during flight phase such that its objective function during the subsequent stance phase is regulated. The three objective functions that are regulated in the control policies are (i) the leg peak force, (ii) the axial impulse, and (iii) the leg actuator work. It should be noted that each control policy regulates one single objective function. Surprisingly, all three swing leg control policies result in nearly identical subsequent stance phase dynamics. This implies that the implementation of any of the proposed control policies would satisfy both goals (damage avoidance and efficiency) at once. Furthermore, all three control policies require a surprisingly simple leg angle adjustment: leg retraction with constant angular acceleration.

  15. Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica for uranium adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Guo; Yurun, Feng; Li, Ma; Dezhi, Gao; Jie, Jing; Jincheng, Yu; Haibin, Sun [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Hongyu, Gong, E-mail: gong_hongyu@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yujun, Zhang, E-mail: yujunzhangcn@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) is synthesized. • The amino and phosphoryl groups are successfully grafted on SBA-15. • TBP-SBA-15 has high and rapid uranium adsorption capacity in broad pH range. • The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 is spontaneous and belongs to chemical adsorption. - Abstract: Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) was synthesized by modified mesoporous silica with γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane and tributyl phosphate. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), thermo-gravimetric/differential thermalanalyzer (TG/DTA), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Results showed that TBP-SBA-15 had large surface areas with ordered channel structure. Moreover, the effects of adsorption time, sorbent dose, solution pH, initial uranium concentration and temperature on the uranium adsorption behaviors were investigated. TBP-SBA-15 showed a high uranium adsorption capacity in a broad range of pH values. The U(VI) adsorption rate of TBP-SBA-15 was fast and nearly achieved completion in 10 min with the sorbent dose of 1 g/L. The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, indicating that the process was belonged to chemical adsorption. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0}) confirmed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.

  16. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi, S. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasiri, M., E-mail: mnasiri@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mesbahi, A. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khani, M.H. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, 14395-836 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The adsorbent (polypyrrole) was synthesized by a chemical method using PEG, DBSNa and CTAB as the surfactant. • The solution pH was one of the most important parameters affecting the adsorption of uranium. • The CTAB provided higher removal percentage compared with the other surfactants. • The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm was 87.72 mg/g. • The pseudo second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic of polypyrrole to uranium. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7 min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72 mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0} showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous.

  17. 2-D analytical modeling of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing for ion-implanted strained-Si double-material double-gate (DMDG) MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ekta; Singh, Kunal; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Sanjay; Jit, Satyabrata

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the subthreshold behavior of ion-implanted strained-Si double-material double-gate (DMDG) MOSFETs has been analyzed by means of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing. The surface potential based formulation of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing is done by solving the 2-D Poisson's equations in the channel region using parabolic approximation method. The dependence of subthreshold characteristics on various device parameters such as gate length ratio, Ge mole fraction, peak doping concentration, projected range, straggle parameter etc. has been studied. The modeling results are found to be well matched with the simulation data obtained by a 2-D device simulator, ATLAS™, from SILVACO.

  18. Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm Adsorption Equations for Chromium (VI) Waste Adsorption by Zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murni Handayani; Eko Sulistiyono

    2009-01-01

    The research of chromium (VI) waste adsorption by zeolite has done. Wastes which are produced by Industries, both radioactive waste and heavy metal waste need done more processing so that they are not endanger environment and human health. Zeolite has very well-ordered crystal form with cavity each other to way entirely so that cause surface wide of zeolite become very big and very good as adsorbents. This research intends to know appropriate isotherm adsorption method to determine maximum capacity of zeolite to chromium (VI) waste. The equations which used in adsorption process are Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm Adsorption equations. The instrument was used in adsorption process by using Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The experiment result showed that the biggest mass of chromium (VI) metal ion which was absorb by zeolite in 20 ppm concentration was 7.71 mg/gram zeolite. Adsorption process of Chromium (VI) waste by zeolite followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations with R 2 >0,9 . Appropriate equation to determine maximum adsorption capacity of zeolite for chromium (VI) waste adsorption is Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of zeolite is 52.25 mg/gram. (author)

  19. Adsorption of dyes onto activated carbon cloth: using QSPRs as tools to approach adsorption mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metivier-Pignon, Hélène; Faur, Catherine; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the adsorption of dyes onto activated carbon cloths. Kinetics and isotherms were studied based on results of batch reactors to constitute databases for the adsorption rates and capacities of 22 commercial dyes. Added to a qualitative analysis of experimental results, quantitative structure property relationships (QSPRs) were used to determine the structural features that influence most adsorption processes. QSPRs consisted of multiple linear regressions correlating adsorption parameters with molecular connectivity indices (MCIs) as molecular descriptors. Results related to adsorption kinetics showed that the size of molecules was the significant feature, the high order MCIs involved in QSPRs indicating the influence of a critical size on adsorption rate. Improved statistical fits were obtained when the database was divided according to the chemical classes of dyes. As regards to adsorption isotherms, their particular form led to the use of saturation capacity as the adsorption parameter. By contrast with adsorption kinetics, molecular overcrowding seemed to be of less influence on adsorption equilibrium. In this case, MCIs included in the QSPR were more related to details of the molecular structure. The robustness of the QSPR assessed for azo dyes was studied for the other dyes. Although the small size of the database limited predictive ability, features relevant to the influence of the database composition on QSPRs have been highlighted.

  20. Efficient Adsorption of Sulfamethazine onto Modified Activated Carbon: A Plausible Adsorption Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaohui; Dong, Wenping; Zhang, Lingli; Kong, Qiang; Wang, Weiliang

    2017-09-29

    Activated carbon (AC) was modified by FeCl 3 . Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the characteristics of equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of Sulfamethazine adsorption onto original and modified AC. The results showed that Fe 3+ treatment changed the surface area, pore volume and surface zeta potential and increased the number of surface oxygenic functional groups. The adsorption of Sulfamethazine on modified activated carbon (MAC) was significantly improved. Isotherm test results revealed that the adsorption isotherms of Sulfamethazine on MAC fit the Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin equations well. The maximum adsorption quantity of Sulfamethazine on MAC was 17.2414 mg/g at 25 °C. The adsorption kinetics of Sulfamethazine on AC and MAC can be characterized by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption process was affected by membrane diffusion, surface adsorption and internal diffusion. The adsorption quantities of Sulfamethazine first increased and then decreased for pH between 3 and 10. The removal efficiencies decreased with increasing temperature, which is favorable for adsorption at low temperature. It was also found that the mechanisms of adsorption included micropore capture and electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, π-π electron donor-acceptor (EDA) and coordination interactions as well as other interactions.

  1. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  2. ADSORPTION RATE CONSTANTS OF EOSIN IN HUMIN

    OpenAIRE

    anshar, andi muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Eosin is one of the dyes commonly used in the industry and has the potential to cause pollution of the water environment. The Eosin pollution treatment methods used in this study was the adsorption method using humin fraction obtained from the peat land comes from Kalimantan. From the research data showed that the adsorption of eosin in humin result of washing with HCl / HF optimum at pH 4 and a contact time of 60 minutes with the adsorption-order rate was 8,4 x 10-3 min-1

  3. Fluidized bed adsorption of cephalosporin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicketier, M; Buchholz, K

    2002-02-28

    Fluidized bed adsorption can substantially simplify the recovery of products from fermentation. There are, however, several critical parameters, which have a significant influence on the performance of such systems. This paper presents experimental results on the adsorption of an antibiotic, Cephalosporin C, on macroporous adsorbents of the polystyrene type and on an ion exchanger. Internals (static mixers) were used to control bed expansion and mixing, the range of flow rates could thus be extended significantly. An integrated mathematical model was developed comprising bed expansion, residence time distribution and mixing, adsorption kinetics and equilibria.

  4. Adsorption of gases on heterogeneous surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Rudzinski, W

    1991-01-01

    All real solid surfaces are heterogeneous to a greater or lesser extent and this book provides a broad yet detailed survey of the present state of gas adsorption. Coverage is comprehensive and extends from basic principles to computer simulation of adsorption. Underlying concepts are clarified and the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods described are discussed.Key Features* Adsorption isotherm equations for various types of heterogeneous solid surfaces* Methods of determining the nature of surface heterogeneity and porosity from experimental data* Studies of pha

  5. Adsorption of aliphatic alcohols on ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalova, L.B.; Zakumbaeva, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    The adsorption is studied of allyl-, propyl- and propargyl alcohols on a ruthenium catalyst-electrode at 20, 30 and 40 deg C in H 2 SO 4 in helium. Above adsorption has been found to grow with increased concentration of the alcohols in the solution. In solutions with the same concentration, propargyl alcohol has been noted to show highest sorptive capacity, followed by that of allyl- and propyl alcohols. With variations in the ruthenium electrode potential, alcohol adsorption occurs via maximum at potential = 0.18

  6. Adsorption of arsenic, phosphorus and chromium by bismuth impregnated biochar: Adsorption mechanism and depleted adsorbent utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ningyuan; Yan, Tingmei; Qiao, Jun; Cao, Honglei

    2016-12-01

    Bismuth impregnated biochar were synthesized to deal with wastewater pollution. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the characteristics of adsorbents and explore the main adsorption mechanism. Results showed that bismuth particle was carried successfully within the biochar matrix, making contributions to creating micropore and boost specific surface area. The loaded bismuth, served as the adsorption site, rather than the specific surface area played an important role in arsenic and phosphorus adsorption. Batch adsorption experiments demonstrated a fit Langmuir model for arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) and a suitable Freundlich model for chromium (Cr). Thermodynamic parameters depicted the endothermic nature and the spontaneous process for phosphate and arsenic adsorption. Besides, this contaminant-loaded carbon adsorbent was further applied for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research of Adsorption on PCBs: Isotherm Modeling and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Peiyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PCBs are a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in the environment. Adsorption behavior of PCBs has obtained great attention affecting the degradation, mobility activities. In this paper, adsorption process was studied systematically to figure out the model of adsorption, adsorption mechanism and the influencing factors, which will provides the theoretical basis for further research.

  8. Adsorption properties of stearic acid onto untreated kaolinite | Sari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the study is to investigate adsorption property and determine thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of stearic acid onto untreated kaolinite at the temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 oC. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms were analyzed by linear Langmuir and Freundlich models. Adsorption experiments ...

  9. Preparation, characterization and As(V) adsorption behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm model and from the data its monolayer adsorption capacity was estimated to be 44.1 mg/g. The adsorption data were best described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, ferrihydrite, arsenic, adsorption, isotherms. International Journal of ...

  10. Adsorptive removal of fluoride from water using nanoscale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intraparticle diffusion was not a rate-controlling step for the adsorption process. Thus, the overall study indicates that nano-AlOOH is an efficient defluoridating material. KEY WORDS: Nanoscale AlOOH, Defluoridation, Fluoride removal efficiency, Adsorption capacity, Adsorption kinetics, Adsorption mechanism. Bull.

  11. Adsorption mechanism of cadmium on juniper bark and wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun Woo Shin; K. G. Karthikeyan; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2007-01-01

    In this study the capacity of sorbents prepared from juniper wood (JW) and bark (JB) to adsorb cadmium (Cd) from aqueous solutions at different pH values was compared. Adsorption behavior was characterized through adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and adsorption edge experiments. Results from kinetics and isotherm experiments showed that JB (76.3–91.6 lmol Cd...

  12. Research of Adsorption on PCBs: Isotherm Modeling and Influencing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Peiyu; Xing Luping; Xuan Hui; Xue Wen

    2016-01-01

    PCBs are a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. Adsorption behavior of PCBs has obtained great attention affecting the degradation, mobility activities. In this paper, adsorption process was studied systematically to figure out the model of adsorption, adsorption mechanism and the influencing factors, which will provides the theoretical basis for further research.

  13. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Hwayang-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Namhoon, E-mail: nhlee@anyang.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane.

  14. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan; Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Namhoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane

  15. Adsorption and Retardation of PFASs in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Yan, N.; Fu, X.; Carroll, K. C.; Holguin, F. O. O.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Per- and poly-fluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants of concern that are present in the subsurface at numerous military and industrial facilities. Knowledge of the retention behavior of these compounds in the subsurface environment is critical for effective risk characterization and remediation. The objective of this research is to investigate the role of adsorption at the air-water interface on PFAS retention in vadose-zone systems. Surface tensions were measured for select PFAS to determine interfacial adsorption coefficients. Column experiments were conducted to characterize retardation and transport under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions. The impact of soil properties and groundwater constituents on surface tension, solid-phase adsorption, and interfacial adsorption was investigated.

  16. Selective Adsorption of Tetrahydropalmatine by a Molecularly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    - ity of the MIP. KEYWORDS. Molecularly imprinted polymer, tetrahydropalmatine, selective adsorption, microcalorimetry, modified rosin. 1. Introduction. Molecular imprinting is a technique for preparing molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) that ...

  17. In vitro adsorption studies of cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjian, F; Cutie, A J; Jochsberger, T

    1980-03-01

    The adsorption of cimetidine on selected pharmaceuticals including kaolin, activated charcoal, talc, and nonsystemic antacids was determined at pH 5.0 and 25 degrees. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms showed that cimetidine adsorption was significant with activated charcoal, kaolin, talc, and magnesium trisilicate and was virtually nonexistent with magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide. Equations expressing the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were evaluated for each adsorbent. The approximate amounts of cimetidine adsorbed per gram of adsorbent were 25.6, 0.402, 0.291, and 0.343 mg for charcoal, kaolin, talc, and magnesium trisilicate, respectively. These in vitro studies indicate that some cimetidine may be lost when it is administered concomitantly with pharmaceutical adsorbents.

  18. Evaluation of the potassium adsorption capacity of a potassium adsorption filter during rapid blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, H; Akatsuka, Y; Muramatsu, C; Isogai, S; Sugiura, Y; Arakawa, S; Murayama, M; Kurahashi, M; Takasuga, H; Oshige, T; Yuba, T; Mizuta, S; Emi, N

    2015-05-01

    The concentration of extracellular potassium in red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) increases during storage, leading to risk of hyperkalemia. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) can eliminate the potassium at normal blood transfusion. This study aimed to investigate the potassium adsorption capacity of a PAF during rapid blood transfusion. We tested several different potassium concentrations under a rapid transfusion condition using a pressure bag. The adsorption rates of the 70-mEq/l model were 76·8%. The PAF showed good potassium adsorption capacity, suggesting that this filter may provide a convenient method to prevent hyperkalemia during rapid blood transfusion. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Evaluation of thermodynamic parameters of cadmium adsorption on sand from Temkin adsorption isotherm

    OpenAIRE

    KHAN, Abdul Sattar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic parameters provide clues for finding the spontaneity of a given process at a given temperature. In the present work, the Temkin adsorption model was applied for evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters of cadmium adsorption studied on sand. The lateral interaction energy parameter was found to be unity, which showed that the heat of adsorption is directly proportional to the fraction of free adsorption sites. The values of D H° and D S° were --4.8 kJ mol-1 and 42 J m...

  20. Selective adsorption of bacterial cells onto zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Munehiro; Nakabayashi, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Shiomi, Tohru; Yamada, Yusuke; Ino, Keita; Yamanokuchi, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Masayoshi; Tsunoda, Tatsuo; Mizukami, Fujio; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2008-06-15

    Zeolites adsorb microbial cells on their surfaces and selective adsorption for specific microorganisms was seen with certain zeolites. Tests for the adsorption ability of zeolites were conducted using various established microbial cell lines. Specific cell lines were shown to selectively absorb to certain zeolites, species to species. In order to understand the selectivity of adsorption, we tested adsorption under various pH conditions and determined the zeta-potentials of zeolites and cells. The adsorption of some cell lines depended on the pH, and some microorganisms were preferentially adsorbed at acidic pH. The values of zeta-potentials were used for calculating the electric double layer interaction energy between zeolites and microbial cells. There was a correlation between the experimental adsorption results and the interaction energy. Moreover, we evaluated the surface hydrophobicity of bacterial cells by using the microbial adherence to hydrocarbon (MATH) assay. In addition, we also applied this method for zeolites to quantify relative surface hydrophobicity. As a result, we found a correlation between the adsorption results and the hydrophobicity of bacterial cells and zeolites. These results suggested that adsorption could be explained mainly by electric double layer interactions and hydrophobic interactions. Finally, by using the zeolites Na-BEA and H-Y, we succeeded in clearly separating three representative microbes from a mixture of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Zeolites could adsorb each of the bacterial cell species with high selectivity even from a mixed suspension. Zeolites can therefore be used as effective carrier materials to provide an easy, rapid and accurate method for cell separation.

  1. A one-step separation of human serum high density lipoproteins 2 and 3 by rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation in a swinging bucket rotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.H.E.; Scheek, L.M.; Havekes, L.; Noort, W.L. van; Hooft, F.M. van 't

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed for the separation of the high density lipoprotein subclasses HDL2 and HDL3 from human serum. Six serum samples are fractionated in a single-step ultracentrifugal procedure using the Beckman (SW-40) swinging bucket rotor. The method is based on a difference in flotation rate

  2. Is the modified Tardieu scale in semi-standing position better associated with knee extension and hamstring activity in terminal swing than the supine Tardieu?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Nienhuis, B.; Rijs, N.P.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modified Tardieu scale (MTS) in a semi-standing position, used for the assessment of hamstrings spasticity, was better associated with knee extension and hamstrings activity in terminal swing than the MTS in a supine position in children with

  3. A New Limb Movement Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Swing with a Gyration Air Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb swing with a gyration air mouse and a newly developed limb movement detection program (LMDP, i.e., a new software program that turns a gyration air mouse into a precise limb movement detector). The study was performed…

  4. Use of Real‐Time GNSS‐RF Data to Characterize the Swing Movements of Forestry Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryer M. Becker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western United States faces significant forest management challenges after severe bark beetle infestations have led to substantial mortality. Minimizing costs is vital for increasing the feasibility of management operations in affected forests. Multi‐transmitter Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS‐radio frequencies (RF technology has applications in the quantification and analysis of harvest system production efficiency and provision of real‐time operational machine position, navigation, and timing. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy with which multi‐transmitter GNSS‐RF captures the swinging and forwarding motions of ground based harvesting machines at varying transmission intervals. Assessing the accuracy of GNSS in capturing intricate machine movements is a first step toward development of a real‐time production model to assist timber harvesting of beetle‐killed lodgepole pine stands. In a complete randomized block experiment with four replicates, a log loader rotated to 18 predetermined angles with GNSS‐RF transponders collecting and sending data at two points along the machine boom (grapple and heel rack and at three transmission intervals (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 s. The 2.5 and 5.0 s intervals correctly identified 94% and 92% of cycles at the grapple and 92% and 89% of cycles at the heel, respectively. The 2.5 s interval successfully classified over 90% of individual cycle elements, while the 5.0 s interval returned statistically similar results. Predicted swing angles obtained the highest level of similarity to observed angles at the 2.5 s interval. Our results show that GNSS‐RF is useful for realtime, model‐based analysis of forest operations, including woody biomass production logistics.

  5. COMPARISON OF THE TRADITIONAL, SWING, AND CHICKEN WING VOLLEYBALL BLOCKING TECHNIQUES IN NCAA DIVISION I FEMALE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taubi J. Neves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In volleyball, blocking is highly correlated with team success. The identification of specific techniques that produce a more successful block would be helpful knowledge for coaches and players. This study compared the traditional, swing, and "chicken wing" blocking techniques in combination with the running step footwork pattern in order to determine which technique enabled athletes to perform a more effective block. High-speed videography (7 cameras, Vicon Motion Analysis System was used to capture the blocking movements of thirteen female NCAA Division I athletes (age = 19.4 ± 1.19 years, height = 1.82 ± 0.08 m, mass = 70.63 ± 7.96 kg, and years of participation at the collegiate level = 2.23 ± 1.17 years. Each player was familiar with each blocking technique. Reflective markers were placed on the players and in randomized order the players performed 3 blocking trials of each technique. The following dependent variables were assessed: The time it took the athletes to get off the ground and get their hands above (vertically the net was calculated. The distance the hand reached over the net or hand penetration (displacement between the net and finger in the anterior and vertical planes was also measured. Lastly, jump height was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were done (α = 0.05. There was no significant difference in the main effect for time to get off the ground (p > 0.05. There was a significant difference in the time to get the hands above the net (p < 0.05. The swing block was best for jump height (p <.001 and hand penetration (p < 0.05. These results can help coaches and players decide which blocking technique will benefit them most as a blocking team and as individual blockers

  6. Adsorption of uranium in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobuke, Yoshiaki

    1988-01-01

    Among the metal resources dissolved in seawater, elements which are considered to bring the additional value by extraction are listed. At present, the industrialization of the extraction of rare components is not expected except sodium and magnesium. In order to make it feasible, the scientific principle for solving extremely low concentration and the competition of coexisting ions, and the establishment of the peculiar molecule resognition of respective metal ions are necessary first of all. Based on these, the support of the engineering technique for handling enormous quantity of seawater is necessary. In this report, the recent research and development of the extraction of uranium in seawater are described, and the problems to be solved are pointed out. In the oxidizing atmosphere on the earth, uranium exists in the form of uranium dioxide, but under the existence of carbonic acid, stable carbonic acid complex is formed, and it was confirmed that this is uniformly dissolved in the sea worldwide. The concentration is as very low as 3.3 ppb, but the total amount is about 4 billion tons. The general problems in the extraction of uranium in seawater, the molecular design of the adsorbent for extracting uranium in seawater, amidoxime resin and the fibers, the search for the engineering techniques of extracting uranium in seawater, desorbing process and the adsorption system of fiber adsorbent are described. (Kako, I.)

  7. Adsorption behavior of protein onto siloxane microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bailing; Cao Shunsheng; Deng Xiaobo; Li Songjun; Luo Rong

    2006-01-01

    The siloxane microspheres with core-shell structure (PMMA/PMPS) (MMA, methyl methacrylate; MPS, 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane) have been prepared by dispersion polymerization as described in our previous work. In this paper, the developed poly(MMA-MPS) microspheres, as a carrier, are used to investigate the adsorption behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on them. The Langmuir and Freundlich models have been applied to describe the adsorption behavior. The experimental results indicated that the presence of PMPS evidently increases the adsorption rate and the amount of protein, and it also influences the interaction of BSA molecules. The adsorption of BSA on the poly(MMA-MPS) microspheres seems to be sensitive to pH and ionic strength. The fittings curves from Langmuir and Freundlich models showed that the adsorption was actually more complicated than ideal situation because one or more interactions were involved in the process. For understanding the electronic contribution, the Zeta potential was used to measure the reactive system before and after protein adsorption

  8. Nitrate Adsorption on Clay Kaolin: Batch Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohsenipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils possessing kaolin, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite particles have been found to have a natural capacity to attenuate pollution in aqueous phase. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in soil increases anion exchange capacity under a low pH condition. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of kaolin on nitrate reduction under acidic condition. In order to analyze the kaolin adsorption behaviour under various conditions, four different concentrations of nitrate, 45, 112.5, 225, and 450 mgNO3-/L, with a constant pH equal to 2, constant temperature equal to 25°C, and exposure period varying from 0 to 150 minutes were considered. The capacity of nitrate adsorption on kaolin has also been studied involving two well-known adsorption isotherm models, namely, Freundlich and Longmuir. The results revealed that approximately 25% of the nitrate present in the solution was adsorbed on clay kaolin. The laboratory experimental data revealed that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was more accurate than Longmuir adsorption model in predicting of nitrate adsorption. Furthermore, the retardation factor of nitrate pollution in saturated zone has been found to be approximately 4 in presence of kaolin, which indicated that kaolin can be used for natural scavenger of pollution in the environment.

  9. Carbon dioxide adsorption in graphene sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Mishra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Control over the CO2 emission via automobiles and industrial exhaust in atmosphere, is one of the major concerns to render environmental friendly milieu. Adsorption can be considered to be one of the more promising methods, offering potential energy savings compared to absorbent systems. Different carbon nanostructures (activated carbon and carbon nanotubes have attracted attention as CO2 adsorbents due to their unique surface morphology. In the present work, we have demonstrated the CO2 adsorption capacity of graphene, prepared via hydrogen induced exfoliation of graphitic oxide at moderate temperatures. The CO2 adsorption study was performed using high pressure Sieverts apparatus and capacity was calculated by gas equation using van der Waals corrections. Physical adsorption of CO2 molecules in graphene was confirmed by FTIR study. Synthesis of graphene sheets via hydrogen exfoliation is possible at large scale and lower cost and higher adsorption capacity of as prepared graphene compared to other carbon nanostructures suggests its possible use as CO2 adsorbent for industrial application. Maximum adsorption capacity of 21.6 mmole/g was observed at 11 bar pressure and room temperature (25 ºC.

  10. New Adsorption Cycles for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Ritter; Armin Ebner; Steven Reynolds Hai Du; Amal Mehrotra

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this three-year project was to study new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration at high temperature. The heavy reflux (HR) PSA concept and the use of a hydrotalcite like (HTlc) adsorbent that captures CO{sub 2} reversibly at high temperatures simply by changing the pressure were two key features of these new PSA cycles. Through the completion or initiation of nine tasks, a bench-scale experimental and theoretical program has been carried out to complement and extend the process simulation study that was carried out during Phase I (DE-FG26-03NT41799). This final report covers the entire project from August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2008. This program included the study of PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture by both rigorous numerical simulation and equilibrium theory analysis. The insight gained from these studies was invaluable toward the applicability of PSA for CO{sub 2} capture, whether done at ambient or high temperature. The rigorous numerical simulation studies showed that it is indeed possible to capture and concentrate CO{sub 2} by PSA. Over a wide range of conditions it was possible to achieve greater than 90% CO{sub 2} purity and/or greater than 90% CO{sub 2} recovery, depending on the particular heavy reflux (HR) PSA cycle under consideration. Three HR PSA cycles were identified as viable candidates for further study experimentally. The equilibrium theory analysis, which represents the upper thermodynamic limit of the performance of PSA process, further validated the use of certain HR PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration. A new graphical approach for complex PSA cycle scheduling was also developed during the course of this program. This new methodology involves a priori specifying the cycle steps, their sequence, and the number of beds, and then following a systematic procedure that requires filling in a 2-D grid based on a few simple rules, some heuristics and some experience. It has been

  11. Adsorption Properties of Lac Dyes on Wool, Silk, and Nylon

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Bo; Chen, Qiu-Yuan; Chen, Guoqiang; Tang, Ren-Cheng; Zhang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the dyeing of textiles with natural dyes. The research about the adsorption properties of natural dyes can help to understand their adsorption mechanism and to control their dyeing process. This study is concerned with the kinetics and isotherms of adsorption of lac dyes on wool, silk, and nylon fibers. It was found that the adsorption kinetics of lac dyes on the three fibers followed the pseudosecond-order kinetic model, and the adsorption rate of lac dyes ...

  12. Adsorption kinetics of laterally and polarly flagellated Vibrio.

    OpenAIRE

    Belas, M R; Colwell, R R

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of laterally and polarly flagellated bacteria to chitin was measured, and from the data obtained, a modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm was derived. Results indicated that the adsorption of laterally flagellated Vibrio parahaemolyticus follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, a type of adsorption referred to as surface saturation kinetics, when conditions are favorable for the production of lateral flagella. When conditions were not favorable for the production of lateral fl...

  13. Surface Complexation Modeling of Fluoride Adsorption by Soil and the Role of Dissolved Aluminum on Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, S.; Tokunaga, T.

    2017-12-01

    Adsorption of fluoride (F) on soil can control the mobility of F and subsequent contamination of groundwater. Hence, accurate evaluation of adsorption equilibrium is a prerequisite for understanding transport and fate of F in the subsurface. While there have been studies for the adsorption behavior of F with respect to single mineral constituents based on surface complexation models (SCM), F adsorption to natural soil in the presence of complexing agents needs much investigation. We evaluated the adsorption processes of F on a natural granitic soil from Tsukuba, Japan, as a function of initial F concentration, ionic strength, and initial pH. A SCM was developed to model F adsorption behavior. Four possible surface complexation reactions were postulated with and without including dissolved aluminum (Al) and Al-F complex sorption. Decrease in F adsorption with the increase in initial pH was observed in between the initial pH range of 4 to 9, and a decrease in the rate of the reduction of adsorbed F with respect to the increase in the initial pH was observed in the initial pH range of 5 to 7. Ionic strength variation in the range of 0 to 100mM had insignificant effect on F removal. Changes in solution pH were observed by comparing the solution before and after F adsorption experiments. At acidic pH, the solution pH increased, whereas at alkaline pH, the solution pH decreased after equilibrium. The SCM including dissolved Al and the adsorption of Al-F complex can simulate the experimental results quite successfully. Also, including dissolved Al and the adsorption of Al-F complex to the model explained the change in solution pH after F adsorption.

  14. Activated Carbon Preparation and Modification for Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhe

    Butanol is considered a promising, infrastructure-compatible biofuel. Butanol has a higher energy content than ethanol and can be used in conventional gas engines without modifications. Unfortunately, the fermentation pathway for butanol production is restricted by its toxicity to the microbial strains used in the process. Butanol is toxic to the microbes, and this can slow fermentation rates and reduce butanol yields. Gas stripping technology can efficiently remove butanol from the fermentation broth as it is produced, thereby decreasing its inhibitory effects. Traditional butanol separation heavily depends on the energy intensive distillation method. One of the main issues in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation is that butanol concentrations in the fermentation broth are low, ranging from 1 to 1.2 percent in weight, because of its toxicity to the microorganisms. Therefore distillation of butanol is even worse than distillation of corn ethanol. Even new separation methods, such as solid- extraction methods involve adding substances, such as polymer resin and zeolite or activated carbon, to biobutanol fermentatioon broth did not achieve energy efficient separation of butanol due to low adsorption selectivity and fouling in broth. Gas-stripping - condensation is another new butanol recovery method, however, the butanol in gas-stripping stream is too low to be condensed without using expensive and energy intensive liquid nitrogen. Adsorption can then be used to recover butanol from the vapor phase. Activated carbon (AC) samples and zeolite were investigated for their butanol vapor adsorption capacities. Commercial activated carbon was modified via hydrothermal H2O2 treatment, and the specific surface area and oxygen-containing functional groups of activated carbon were tested before and after treatment. Hydrothermal H2O 2 modification increased the surface oxygen content, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, micropore volume, and total pore volume of active carbon

  15. Numerical evaluation of Cs adsorption in PB column by extended Langmuir formula and one-dimensional adsorption model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Ogawa; Akiko Kitajima; Hisashi Tanaka; Tohru Kawamoto

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption property of granulated Prussian blue adsorbent on radioactive cesium was evaluated for efficient decontamination in Fukushima area. The adsorbent was found to show an inflective adsorption isotherm, which was expressed by extended Langmuir formula with three adsorption sites. Adsorption speeds of each site were evaluated by time-dependent batch experiment. The simulation using derived parameters and one-dimensional adsorption model successfully reproduced the experimental data of cesium decontamination by small and large columns. (author)

  16. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kanika Octavia

    A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls

  17. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes. 86 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Adsorption performance of silver-loaded activated carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver-loaded activated carbon fiber is prepared, and its adsorption performance is studied experimentally using five methylene blue solutions with different concentrations under three different temperature conditions. The adsorption tests show that fibers adsorption increase as the increase of temperature, and there is an optimal value for solution concentration, beyond which its adsorption will de-crease. Fibers isothermal adsorption to methylene blue is different from those by the monolayer adsorption by Langmuir model and the multilayer adsorption by Freundlich model. Through the analysis of thermodynamic parameters, Gibbs free energy, standard entropy, and standard enthalpy, it is found that the fibers adsorption to methylene blue is an exothermic process of physical adsorption.

  19. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A

    2016-10-18

    The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  20. Albumin (BSA) adsorption onto graphite stepped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Vilhena, J. G.; Takeuchi, Noboru; Serena, Pedro A.; Pérez, Rubén

    2017-06-01

    Nanomaterials are good candidates for the design of novel components with biomedical applications. For example, nano-patterned substrates may be used to immobilize protein molecules in order to integrate them in biosensing units. Here, we perform long MD simulations (up to 200 ns) using an explicit solvent and physiological ion concentrations to characterize the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto a nano-patterned graphite substrate. We have studied the effect of the orientation and step size on the protein adsorption and final conformation. Our results show that the protein is stable, with small changes in the protein secondary structure that are confined to the contact area and reveal the influence of nano-structuring on the spontaneous adsorption, protein-surface binding energies, and protein mobility. Although van der Waals (vdW) interactions play a dominant role, our simulations reveal the important role played by the hydrophobic lipid-binding sites of the BSA molecule in the adsorption process. The complex structure of these sites, that incorporate residues with different hydrophobic character, and their flexibility are crucial to understand the influence of the ion concentration and protein orientation in the different steps of the adsorption process. Our study provides useful information for the molecular engineering of components that require the immobilization of biomolecules and the preservation of their biological activity.

  1. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  2. Malachite Green Adsorption by Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamimie Atirah Mat, Siti; Zati Hanani Syed Zuber, Sharifah; Rahim, Siti Kartini Enche Ab; Sohaimi, Khairunissa Syairah Ahmad; Halim, Noor Amirah Abdul; Fauziah Zainudin, Nor; Aida Yusoff, Nor; Munirah Rohaizad, Nor; Hidayah Ishak, Noor; Anuar, Adilah; Sarip, Mohd Sharizan Md

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the ability of spent coffee grounds (SCG) as a low-cost adsorbent to remove malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions was studied. Batch adsorption tests were carried out to observe the effect of various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of malachite green and adsorbent dosage on the removal of dye. The results obtained show that the percentage of dye removal will decreased with the increased of initial concentration of dye in the range of 50 mg/L to 250 mg/L. Besides, percentage removal of dye was also found to be increased as the contact time increased until it reached equilibrium condition. The results also showed that the adsorbent dosage in range of 0.2 g to 1.0 g is proportional to the percentage removal of malachite green dye. Study on the kinetic adsorption and isotherm adsorption has also been investigated. The adsorption isotherm data were described by Langmuir isotherm with high-correlation coefficients while the experimental data showed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model was the best model for the adsorption of MG by SCG with the coefficients of correlation R2 > 0.9978.

  3. Factors affecting drug adsorption on beta zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasti, Luisa; Sarti, Elena; Cavazzini, Alberto; Marchetti, Nicola; Dondi, Francesco; Martucci, Annalisa

    2013-05-01

    The adsorption behaviour of three commonly used drugs, namely ketoprofen, hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol, from diluted aqueous solutions on beta zeolites with different SiO2/Al2O3 ratio (i.e. 25, 38 and 360) was investigated by changing the ionic strength and the pH, before and after thermal treatment of the adsorbents. The selective adsorption of drugs was confirmed by thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction. The adsorption capacity of beta zeolites was strongly dependent on both the solution pH and the alumina content of the adsorbent. Such a remarkable difference was interpreted as a function of the interactions between drug molecules and zeolite surface functional groups. Atenolol was readily adsorbed on the less hydrophobic zeolite, under pH conditions in which electrostatic interactions were predominant. On the other hand, ketoprofen adsorption was mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions. For undissociated molecules the adsorption capability increased with the increase of hydrophobicity. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mierczynska-Vasilev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  5. Adsorption of plutonium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Moritz; Wilson, Richard E; Lee, Sang Soo; Soderholm, L; Fenter, P

    2012-02-07

    Adsorption of monodisperse cubic plutonium oxide nanoparticles ("Pu-NP", [Pu(38)O(56)Cl(x)(H(2)O)(y)]((40-x)+), with a fluorite-related lattice, approximately 1 nm in edge size) to the muscovite (001) basal plane from aqueous solutions was observed in situ (in 100 mM NaCl background electrolyte at pH 2.6). Uptake capacity of the surface quantified by α-spectrometry was 0.92 μg Pu/cm(2), corresponding to 10.8 Pu per unit cell area (A(UC)). This amount is significantly larger than that of Pu(4+) needed for satisfying the negative surface charge (0.25 Pu(4+) for 1 e(-)/A(UC)). The adsorbed Pu-NPs cover 17% of the surface area, determined by X-ray reflectivity (XR). This correlates to one Pu-NP for every 14 unit cells of muscovite, suggesting that each particle compensates the charge of the unit cells onto which it adsorbs as well as those in its direct proximity. Structural investigation by resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity distinguished two different sorption states of Pu-NPs on the surface at two different regimes of distance from the surface. A fraction of Pu is distributed within 11 Å from the surface. The distribution width matches the Pu-NP size, indicating that this species represents Pu-NPs adsorbed directly on the surface. Beyond the first layer, an additional fraction of sorbed Pu was observed to extend more broadly up to more than 100 Å from the surface. This distribution is interpreted as resulting from "stacking" or aggregation of the nanoparticles driven by sorption and accumulation of Pu-NPs at the interface although these Pu-NPs do not aggregate in the solution. These results are the first in situ observation of the interaction of nanoparticles with a charged mineral-water interface yielding information important to understanding the environmental transport of Pu and other nanophase inorganic species.

  6. Modeling adsorption of liquid mixtures on porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA), which was previously applied to adsorption from gases, is extended onto adsorption of liquid mixtures on porous materials. In the MPTA, the adsorbed fluid is considered as an inhomogeneous liquid with thermodynamic properties that depend...... of the MPTA onto liquids has been tested on experimental binary and ternary adsorption data. We show that, for the set of experimental data considered in this work, the MPTA model is capable of correlating binary adsorption equilibria. Based on binary adsorption data, the theory can then predict ternary...

  7. Water adsorption constrained Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory: Montmorillonite and illite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Courtney D.; Greenaway, Ann L.; Christie, Matthew J.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    Fresh mineral aerosol has recently been found to be effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and contribute to the number of cloud droplets in the atmosphere due to the effect of water adsorption on CCN activation. The work described here uses experimental water adsorption measurements on Na-montmorillonite and illite clay to determine empirical adsorption parameters that can be used in a recently derived theoretical framework (Frenkel-Halsey-Hill Activation Theory, FHH-AT) that accounts for the effect of water adsorption on CCN activation. Upon fitting the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption model to water adsorption measurements, we find FHH adsorption parameters, AFHH and BFHH, to be 98 ± 22 and 1.79 ± 0.11 for montmorillonite and 75 ± 17 and 1.77 ± 0.11 for illite, respectively. The AFHH and BFHH values obtained from water adsorption measurements differ from values reported previously determined by applying FHH-AT to CCN activation measurements. Differences in FHH adsorption parameters were attributed to different methods used to obtain them and the hydratable nature of the clays. FHH adsorption parameters determined from water adsorption measurements were then used to calculate the critical super-saturation (sc) for CCN activation using FHH-AT. The relationship between sc and the dry particle diameter (Ddry) gave CCN activation curve exponents (xFHH) of -0.61 and -0.64 for montmorillonite and illite, respectively. The xFHH values were slightly lower than reported previously for mineral aerosol. The lower exponent suggests that the CCN activity of hydratable clays is less sensitive to changes in Ddry and the hygroscopicity parameter exhibits a broader variability with Ddry compared to more soluble aerosols. Despite the differences in AFHH, BFHH and xFHH, the FHH-AT derived CCN activities of montmorillonite and illite are quite similar to each other and in excellent agreement with experimental CCN measurements resulting from wet-generated clay aerosol

  8. The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) and its operations from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) during the AROMAT campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Tack, Frederik; Constantin, Daniel; Georgescu, Lucian; Maes, Jeroen; Fayt, Caroline; Mingireanu, Florin; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Meier, Andreas Carlos; Schönardt, Anja; Ruhtz, Thomas; Bellegante, Livio; Nicolae, Doina; Den Hoed, Mirjam; Allaart, Marc; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2018-01-01

    The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) is a compact remote sensing instrument dedicated to mapping trace gases from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). SWING is based on a compact visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror to collect scattered sunlight. Its weight, size, and power consumption are respectively 920 g, 27 cm × 12 cm × 8 cm, and 6 W. SWING was developed in parallel with a 2.5 m flying-wing UAV. This unmanned aircraft is electrically powered, has a typical airspeed of 100 km h-1, and can operate at a maximum altitude of 3 km. We present SWING-UAV experiments performed in Romania on 11 September 2014 during the Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign, which was dedicated to test newly developed instruments in the context of air quality satellite validation. The UAV was operated up to 700 m above ground, in the vicinity of the large power plant of Turceni (44.67° N, 23.41° E; 116 m a. s. l. ). These SWING-UAV flights were coincident with another airborne experiment using the Airborne imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP), and with ground-based DOAS, lidar, and balloon-borne in situ observations. The spectra recorded during the SWING-UAV flights are analysed with the DOAS technique. This analysis reveals NO2 differential slant column densities (DSCDs) up to 13±0.6×1016 molec cm-2. These NO2 DSCDs are converted to vertical column densities (VCDs) by estimating air mass factors. The resulting NO2 VCDs are up to 4.7±0.4×1016 molec cm-2. The water vapour DSCD measurements, up to 8±0.15×1022 molec cm-2, are used to estimate a volume mixing ratio of water vapour in the boundary layer of 0.013±0.002 mol mol-1. These geophysical quantities are validated with the coincident measurements.

  9. The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING and its operations from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV during the AROMAT campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Merlaud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING is a compact remote sensing instrument dedicated to mapping trace gases from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. SWING is based on a compact visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror to collect scattered sunlight. Its weight, size, and power consumption are respectively 920 g, 27 cm  ×  12 cm  ×  8 cm, and 6 W. SWING was developed in parallel with a 2.5 m flying-wing UAV. This unmanned aircraft is electrically powered, has a typical airspeed of 100 km h−1, and can operate at a maximum altitude of 3 km. We present SWING-UAV experiments performed in Romania on 11 September 2014 during the Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT campaign, which was dedicated to test newly developed instruments in the context of air quality satellite validation. The UAV was operated up to 700 m above ground, in the vicinity of the large power plant of Turceni (44.67° N, 23.41° E; 116 m a. s. l. . These SWING-UAV flights were coincident with another airborne experiment using the Airborne imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP, and with ground-based DOAS, lidar, and balloon-borne in situ observations. The spectra recorded during the SWING-UAV flights are analysed with the DOAS technique. This analysis reveals NO2 differential slant column densities (DSCDs up to 13±0.6×1016 molec cm−2. These NO2 DSCDs are converted to vertical column densities (VCDs by estimating air mass factors. The resulting NO2 VCDs are up to 4.7±0.4×1016 molec cm−2. The water vapour DSCD measurements, up to 8±0.15×1022 molec cm−2, are used to estimate a volume mixing ratio of water vapour in the boundary layer of 0.013±0.002 mol mol−1. These geophysical quantities are validated with the coincident measurements.

  10. Monolayer adsorption of noble gases on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Sidi M.; Gatica, Silvina M.

    2018-02-01

    We report our results of simulations of the adsorption of noble gases (Kr, Ar, Xe) on graphene. For Kr, we consider two configurations: supported and free-standing graphene, where atoms are adsorbed only on one or two sides of the graphene. For Ar and Xe, we studied only the case of supported graphene. For the single-side adsorption, we calculated the two-dimensional gas-liquid critical temperature for each adsorbate. We determined the different phases of the monolayers and constructed the phase diagrams. We found two-dimensional incommensurate solid phases for krypton, argon and xenon, and a two-dimensional commensurate solid phase for krypton. For double side adsorption of Kr, we do not see evidence of an ordering transition driven by the interlayer forces.

  11. Adsorption of amphipathic dendrons on polystyrene nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, T; Florence, A T

    2003-03-18

    Adsorption of dendrons onto nanoparticles may provide new model structures which may be useful in drug and gene delivery. Tritiated amphipathic dendrons having three lipidic (C(14)) chains coupled to branched (dendritic) lysine head groups with 8, 16 or 32 free terminal amino groups have been synthesised by solid phase peptide techniques. The interaction between these tritiated dendrons and 200 nm polystyrene latex nanoparticles was investigated in phosphate buffered saline. The amount of dendron adsorbed increased with increasing concentration of dendrons and then decreased. Maximum adsorption of dendrons per gram of nanoparticles was found to be between 8.2 and 84 x 10(-6)M, the amounts adsorbed being inversely proportional to the number of amino groups present in the molecule. The number of dendron molecules adsorbed per nanoparticle was found to be between 430 and 4421. The degree of adsorption was found to be slightly altered by the temperature. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Adsorption properties of thermally sputtered calcein film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglenko, I.; Burlachenko, J.; Kravchenko, S.; Savchenko, A.; Slabkovska, M.; Shirshov, Yu.

    2014-05-01

    High humidity environments are often found in such areas as biotechnology, food chemistry, plant physiology etc. The controlling of parameters of such ambiences is vitally important. Thermally deposited calcein films have extremely high adsorptivity at exposure to water vapor of high concentration. This feature makes calcein a promising material for humidity sensing applications. The aim of this work is to explain high sensitivity and selectivity of calcein film to high humidity. Quartz crystal microbalance sensor, AFM and ellipsometry were used for calcein film characterization and adsorption properties investigation. The proposed model takes into account both the molecular properties of calcein (the presence of several functional groups capable of forming hydrogen bonds, and their arrangement) and the features of structure of thermally deposited calcein film (film restructuring due to the switching of bonds "calcein-calcein" to "calcein-water" in the course of water adsorption).

  13. Novel nano bearings constructed by physical adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-09-01

    The paper proposes a novel nano bearing formed by the physical adsorption of the confined fluid to the solid wall. The bearing is formed between two parallel smooth solid plane walls sliding against one another, where conventional hydrodynamic lubrication theory predicted no lubricating effect. In this bearing, the stationary solid wall is divided into two subzones which respectively have different interaction strengths with the lubricating fluid. It leads to different physical adsorption and slip properties of the lubricating fluid at the stationary solid wall respectively in these two subzones. It was found that a significant load-carrying capacity of the bearing can be generated for low lubricating film thicknesses, because of the strong physical adsorption and non-continuum effects of the lubricating film.

  14. Thermodynamic cycles of adsorption desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jun W.; Hu, Eric J.; Biggs, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic cycles of adsorption desalination (AD) system have been identified all possible evaporator temperature scenarios. ► Temperature of evaporator determines the cycle. ► Higher evaporator temperature leads to higher water production if no cooling is required. -- Abstract: The potential to use waste heat to co-generate cooling and fresh water from saline water using adsorption on silica is attracting increasing attention. A variety of different thermodynamic cycles of such an adsorption desalination (AD) system arise as the temperature of the saline water evaporator is varied relative to temperature of the water used to cool the adsorbent as it adsorbs the evaporated water. In this paper, all these possible thermodynamic cycles are enumerated and analysed to determine their relative performances in terms of specific energy consumption and fresh water productivity.

  15. Adsorption of lipids on silicalite-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Ivanova, I. I.; Ivanova, M. V.; Tarasevich, B. N.; Fedosov, D. A.

    2017-05-01

    The adsorption of egg lecithin and cholesterol from chloroform solutions onto silicalite-1 (hydrophobic silica with MFI zeolite structure) is investigated. Adsorption isotherms of the L-type for lecithin and the S-type for cholesterol are obtained in the 0.05-4.5 mg/mL range of equilibrium lipid concentrations. The maximum adsorption for lecithin is 30 mg/g; for cholesterol it is 70 mg/g. Chloroform treatment results in the desorption of no more than 10% of the lecithin and up to 50% of the cholesterol from the silicalite-1 surface. The lecithin molecules in the monolayer on the silicalite-1 are oriented such that their hydrophobic tails are oriented toward the surface and are partially inside the pores of the adsorbent.

  16. Limb swinging in elephants and giraffes and implications for the reconstruction of limb movements and speed estimates in large dinosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christian

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Speeds of walking dinosaurs that left fossil trackways have been estimated using the stride length times natural pendulum frequency of the limbs. In a detailed analysis of limb movements in walking Asian elephants and giraffes, however, distinct differences between actual limb movements and the predicted limb movements using only gravity as driving force were observed. Additionally, stride frequency was highly variable. Swing time was fairly constant, but especially at high walking speeds, much shorter than half the natural pendulum period. An analysis of hip and shoulder movements during walking showed that limb swinging was influenced by accelerations of hip and shoulder joints especially at high walking speeds. These results suggest an economical fast walking mechanism that could have been utilised by large dinosaurs to increase maximum speeds of locomotion. These findings throw new light on the dynamics of large vertebrates and can be used to improve speed estimates in large dinosaurs. Geschwindigkeiten gehender Dinosaurier, die fossile Fährten hinterlassen haben, wurden als Produkt aus Schrittlänge und natürlicher Pendelfrequenz der Beine abgeschätzt. Eine detaillierte Analyse der Beinbewegungen von gehenden Asiatischen Elefanten und Giraffen offenbarte allerdings klare Unterschiede zwischen den tatsächlichen Extremitätenbewegungen und den Bewegungen, die zu erwarten wären, wenn die Gravitation die einzige treibende Kraft darstellte. Zudem erwies sich die Schrittfrequenz als hochgradig variabel. Die Schwingzeit der Gliedmaßen war recht konstant, aber besonders bei hohen Gehgeschwindigkeiten viel kürzer als die halbe natürliche Pendelperiode der Extremitäten. Eine Analyse der Bewegungen der Hüft- und Schultergelenke während des Gehens zeigte, daß das Schwingen der Gliedmaßen durch Beschleunigungen dieser Gelenke beeinflußt wurde, insbesondere bei hohen Gehgeschwindigkeiten. Die Resultate legen einen ökonomischen Mechanismus

  17. The Short-Term Effect of Kettlebell Swings on Lumbopelvic Pressure Pain Thresholds: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilman, Brandon M; Hanney, William J; Kolber, Morey J; Pabian, Patrick S; Salamh, Paul A; Rothschild, Carey E; Liu, Xinliang

    2017-11-01

    Keilman, BM, Hanney, WJ, Kolber, MJ, Pabian, PS, Salamh, PA, Rothschild, CE, and Liu, X. The short-term effect of kettlebell swings on lumbopelvic pressure pain thresholds: a randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3001-3009, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of kettlebell swings (KBSs) on lumbopelvic pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in healthy adults. Sixty participants (male = 23, female = 37, mean age = 25.12 ± 2.86 years, height = 170.73 ± 9.2 cm, mass = 70.49 ± 13.32 kg) were randomized into one of 2 groups. The experimental group performed a warm-up followed by 8 consecutive 20-second rounds of KBS with 10-second rest periods. The control group performed the warm-up alone. An evaluator blinded to group assignment, assessed PPTs immediately before and after the intervention using a handheld pressure algometer. The algometer was applied to the regions of the right paravertebral (PVM), quadratus lumborum (QL), and piriformis (PF) muscles perpendicular to the skin based on standardized palpation procedures. The participants were instructed to report when sensation changed from "comfortable pressure" to "slightly unpleasant pain." No significant group differences existed at baseline for PPTs (PVM p = 0.068; QL p = 0.134, & PF p = 0.105). Significant group by time interactions existed for each site after the interventions (PVM, p = 0.018; QL, p = 0.004; PF, p = 0.026) favoring the KBS group. Results suggest that KBSs create a reduction in muscle sensitivity to noxious pressure based on pressure algometry measurements. These findings may be due to the unique cyclic muscle contraction associated with KBSs, which has been proposed to facilitate removal of muscle metabolites. The findings of this study provide a foundation for future studies to examine the use of this type of training in patients with low back pain of a muscular etiology or postexercise muscle soreness. Furthermore, future studies should evaluate

  18. Surface shear rheology of saponin adsorption layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemanov, Konstantin; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Pelan, Edward; Stoyanov, Simeon D

    2012-08-21

    Saponins are a wide class of natural surfactants, with molecules containing a rigid hydrophobic group (triterpenoid or steroid), connected via glycoside bonds to hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. These surfactants are very good foam stabiliziers and emulsifiers, and show a range of nontrivial biological activities. The molecular mechanisms behind these unusual properties are unknown, and, therefore, the saponins have attracted significant research interest in recent years. In our previous study (Stanimirova et al. Langmuir 2011, 27, 12486-12498), we showed that the triterpenoid saponins extracted from Quillaja saponaria plant (Quillaja saponins) formed adsorption layers with unusually high surface dilatational elasticity, 280 ± 30 mN/m. In this Article, we study the shear rheological properties of the adsorption layers of Quillaja saponins. In addition, we study the surface shear rheological properties of Yucca saponins, which are of steroid type. The experimental results show that the adsorption layers of Yucca saponins exhibit purely viscous rheological response, even at the lowest shear stress applied, whereas the adsorption layers of Quillaja saponins behave like a viscoelastic two-dimensional body. For Quillaja saponins, a single master curve describes the data for the viscoelastic creep compliance versus deformation time, up to a certain critical value of the applied shear stress. Above this value, the layer compliance increases, and the adsorption layers eventually transform into viscous ones. The experimental creep-recovery curves for the viscoelastic layers are fitted very well by compound Voigt rheological model. The obtained results are discussed from the viewpoint of the layer structure and the possible molecular mechanisms, governing the rheological response of the saponin adsorption layers.

  19. Adsorption of ion pairs onto graphene flakes and impacts of counterions during the adsorption processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Yun, Jiena; Wang, Qian; Yang, Gang

    2018-03-01

    Although cations and anions are two integral constituents for all electrolytes, adsorption of ion pairs onto carbonaceous materials gains obviously less attention than adsorption of only cations or anions. Here DFT calculations are employed finding that four adsorption configurations emerge for KI onto graphene flakes (GF) instead of three for the other ion pairs. Reservation of ionic bonds is critical to their stabilities, and the bilateral configurations, where GFs couple with both cations and anions, are disfavored due to rupture of ionic bonds. Relative stabilities of two vertical configurations can be regulated and even reversed through edge-functionalization. Surprisingly, the horizontal adsorption configurations, which are global energy minima as long as present, are non-existent for a majority of ion pairs, and their existence or not is determined by the adsorption differences between halide ions and alkali ions (△Ead). Counterions effects for both cations and anions increase with the atomic electronegativities and cations correspond to stronger counterion effects; e.g., Li+ added on the other side of GFs promotes the adsorption of F- more pronouncedly than edge-functionalization. Mechanisms of electron transfers are also discussed, and three alteration patterns by counterions are observed for each type of adsorption configurations. Furthermore, addition of counterions causes band gaps to vary within a wider range that may be useful to design electronic devices.

  20. Adsorptive Removal and Adsorption Kinetics of Fluoroquinolone by Nano-Hydroxyapatite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Chen

    Full Text Available Various kinds of antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs have been widely used for the therapy of infectious diseases in human and livestock. For their poorly absorbed by living organisms, large-scale misuse or abuse of FQs will foster drug resistance among pathogenic bacteria, as well as a variety of environmental problems when they were released in the environment. In this work, the adsorption properties of two FQs, namely norfloxacin (NOR and ciprofloxacin (CIP, by nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAP were studied by batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption curves of FQs by n-HAP were simulated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results shown that NOR and CIP can be adsorbed effectively by the adsorbent of n-HAP, and the adsorption capacity of FQs increase with increasing dosage of n-HAP. The optimum dosage of n-HAP for FQs removal was 20 g · L(-1, in which the removal efficiencies is 51.6% and 47.3%, and an adsorption equilibrium time is 20 min. The maximum removal efficiency occurred when pH is 6 for both FQs. The adsorption isotherm of FQs fits well for both Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of both FQs by n-HAP follows second-order kinetics.

  1. Adsorptive Removal and Adsorption Kinetics of Fluoroquinolone by Nano-Hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yajun; Lan, Tao; Duan, Lunchao; Wang, Fenghe; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Shengtian; Wei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Various kinds of antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) have been widely used for the therapy of infectious diseases in human and livestock. For their poorly absorbed by living organisms, large-scale misuse or abuse of FQs will foster drug resistance among pathogenic bacteria, as well as a variety of environmental problems when they were released in the environment. In this work, the adsorption properties of two FQs, namely norfloxacin (NOR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), by nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAP) were studied by batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption curves of FQs by n-HAP were simulated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results shown that NOR and CIP can be adsorbed effectively by the adsorbent of n-HAP, and the adsorption capacity of FQs increase with increasing dosage of n-HAP. The optimum dosage of n-HAP for FQs removal was 20 g · L(-1), in which the removal efficiencies is 51.6% and 47.3%, and an adsorption equilibrium time is 20 min. The maximum removal efficiency occurred when pH is 6 for both FQs. The adsorption isotherm of FQs fits well for both Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of both FQs by n-HAP follows second-order kinetics.

  2. Adsorptive Removal and Adsorption Kinetics of Fluoroquinolone by Nano-Hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yajun; Lan, Tao; Duan, Lunchao; Wang, Fenghe; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Shengtian; Wei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Various kinds of antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) have been widely used for the therapy of infectious diseases in human and livestock. For their poorly absorbed by living organisms, large-scale misuse or abuse of FQs will foster drug resistance among pathogenic bacteria, as well as a variety of environmental problems when they were released in the environment. In this work, the adsorption properties of two FQs, namely norfloxacin (NOR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), by nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAP) were studied by batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption curves of FQs by n-HAP were simulated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results shown that NOR and CIP can be adsorbed effectively by the adsorbent of n-HAP, and the adsorption capacity of FQs increase with increasing dosage of n-HAP. The optimum dosage of n-HAP for FQs removal was 20 g·L-1, in which the removal efficiencies is 51.6% and 47.3%, and an adsorption equilibrium time is 20 min. The maximum removal efficiency occurred when pH is 6 for both FQs. The adsorption isotherm of FQs fits well for both Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of both FQs by n-HAP follows second-order kinetics. PMID:26698573

  3. Molecular simulation of methane adsorption characteristics on coal macromolecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyuan; He, Xiaoxiao; Meng, Zhuoyue; Xue, Wenying

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the molecular model of anthracite named Wender2 was selected to study the adsorption behaviour of single component CH4 and the competitive adsorption of CH4/CO2, CH4/H2O and CH4/N2. The molecular model of anthracite was established by molecular simulation software (Materials Studio 8.0), and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were carried out to investigate the single and binary component adsorption. The effects of pressure and temperature on the adsorption position, adsorption energy and adsorption capacity were mainly discussed. The results show that for the single component adsorption, the adsorption capacity of CH4 increases rapidly with the pressure ascending, and then tends to be stable after the first step. The low temperature is favourable for the adsorption of CH4, and the high temperature promotes desorption quantity of CH4 from the coal. Adsorbent molecules are preferentially adsorbed on the edge of coal macromolecules. The order of adsorption capacity of CH4/CO2, CH4/H2O and CH4/N2 in the binary component is H2O>CO2>CH4>N2. The change of pressure has little effect on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent in the competitive adsorption, but it has a great influence on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, and there is a positive correlation between them.

  4. Adsorption equilibria and kinetics for the adsorption of p-nitrophenol on a phenoxy groups modified hypercrosslinked polystyrene resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Zhao, Chenxi; Huang, Jianhan

    2013-03-01

    Adsorption equilibria and kinetics of p-nitrophenol adsorbed on HJ-01 were investigated in this study. The result indicated that phenoxy groups were uploaded on the skeleton of HJ-01 successfully, the Friedel-Crafts reaction brought on prodigious changes for the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore structure while the nucleophilic substitution reaction had few effects. The adsorption experiments revealed that the acidic solution was suitable for p-nitrophenol adsorption, the adsorption isotherms could be characterized by the Freundlich isotherm equation and the adsorption thermodynamic parameters were all negative, the adsorption kinetic curves obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate equation.

  5. Adsorption of amylase enzyme on ultrafiltration membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2007-01-01

    A method to measure the static adsorption on membrane surfaces has been developed and described. The static adsorption of an amylase-F has been measured on two different ultrafiltration membranes, both with a cut-off value of 10 kDa (a PES membrane and the ETNA10PP membrane, which is a surface-mo...... is independent of the membrane type. At higher concentrations of enzyme, concentration polarization effects can not be neglected. Therefore stagnant film theory and the osmotic pressure model can describe the dependency between flux and bulk concentration....

  6. ADSORPTION OF GLYPHOSATE AND AMPAIN AGRICULTURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Rampazzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Immediately after application glyphosate is mostly adsorbed in the upper 2 cm of soils, and is then transported and adsorbed after few days in deeper soil horizons with concomitant increasing content of its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA. This work confirmed previous studies, where Fe-oxides seem to play a major role in the adsorption of glyphosate and AMPA in soils:  the Chernozem featured lower contents of Fed and Feo, with consequently lower adsorption of glyphosate and AMPAas compared with the higher weathered Cambisol and Stagnosol.

  7. SANS Study of Protein Adsorption on Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2011-07-01

    Adsorption of lysozyme protein on silica nanoparticle has been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at pH 7. The measurements were carried out on fixed concentration (1 wt %) of nanoparticles and varying concentration of protein in the range 0 to 2 wt%. It has been found that the protein is adsorbed on the nanoparticle surface at very low protein concentrations whereas strong electrostatic interaction of lysozyme with silica nanoparticles at higher protein concentrations leads to the aggregation of nanoparticles. The adsorption is found to be increased with increase in the particle size and the aggregation is determined to be fractal structure.

  8. Adsorption Properties of Chalk Reservoir Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okhrimenko, Denis

    Understanding adsorption energetics and wetting properties of calcium carbonate surfaces is essential for developing remediation strategies for aquifers, improving oil recovery, minimising risk in CO2 storage and optimising industrial processes. This PhD was focussed on comparing the vapour....../gas adsorption properties of synthetic calcium carbonate phases (calcite, vaterite and aragonite) with chalk, which is composed of biogenic calcite (>98%). In combination with data from nanotechniques, the results demonstrate the complexity of chalk behavior and the role of nanoscale clay particles. The results...

  9. Adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triolo, R.; Lietzke, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers. The effect of variables such as the concentration of the ion being adsorbed, the concentration of the supporting electrolyte, loading, the values of the capacities and equilibrium constants for the various exchange processes, and the fraction of each adsorber in the mixture on the observed distribution coefficient has been investigated. A computer program has been written to facilitate the calculation of distribution coefficients for the adsorption of an ion on a given mixture of ion exchangers under a specified set of conditions

  10. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of polynucleotide adsorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strašák, Luděk; Dvořák, Jakub; Hasoň, Stanislav; Vetterl, Vladimír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 56, 1/2 (2002), s. 37-41 ISSN 1567-5394 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004002; GA AV ČR IBS5004107; GA ČR GV204/97/K084 Grant - others:GA FRVŠ(XC) G40583; GA FRVŠ(XC) F40564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : electrochemical impedance spectroscopy * DNA adsorption * poly A adsorption Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2002

  11. Analytical Subthreshold Current and Subthreshold Swing Models for a Fully Depleted (FD) Recessed-Source/Drain (Re-S/D) SOI MOSFET with Back-Gate Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramekala, Gopi Krishna; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) analytical models for the subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of the back-gated fully depleted recessed-source/drain (Re-S/D) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) are presented. The surface potential is determined by solving the 2D Poisson equation in both channel and buried-oxide (BOX) regions, considering suitable boundary conditions. To derive closed-form expressions for the subthreshold characteristics, the virtual cathode potential expression has been derived in terms of the minimum of the front and back surface potentials. The effect of various device parameters such as gate oxide and Si film thicknesses, thickness of source/drain penetration into BOX, applied back-gate bias voltage, etc. on the subthreshold current and subthreshold swing has been analyzed. The validity of the proposed models is established using the Silvaco ATLAS™ 2D device simulator.

  12. Analytical model for subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of short-channel double-material-gate MOSFETs with strained-silicon channel on silicon—germanium substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari Pramod Kumar; Saramekala Gopi Krishna; Mukhopadhyay Anand Kumar; Dubey Sarvesh

    2014-01-01

    The present work gives some insight into the subthreshold behaviour of short-channel double-material-gate strained-silicon on silicon—germanium MOSFETs in terms of subthreshold swing and off-current. The formulation of subthreshold current and, thereupon, the subthreshold swing have been done by exploiting the expression of potential distribution in the channel region of the device. The dependence of the subthreshold characteristics on the device parameters, such as Ge mole fraction, gate length ratio, work function of control gate metal and gate length, has been tested in detail. The analytical models have been validated by the numerical simulation results that were obtained from the device simulation software ATLAS™ by Silvaco Inc. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Kinetic modelling and mechanism of dye adsorption on unburned carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.B.; Li, H.T. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Textile dyeing processes are among the most environmentally unfriendly industrial processes by producing coloured wastewaters. The adsorption method using unburned carbon from coal combustion residue was studied for the decolourisation of typical acidic and basic dyes. It was discovered that the unburned carbon showed high adsorption capacity at 1.97 x 10{sup -4} and 5.27 x 10{sup -4} mol/g for Basic Violet 3 and Acid Black 1, respectively. The solution pH, particle size and temperature significantly influenced the adsorption capacity. Higher solution pH favoured the adsorption of basic dye while reduced the adsorption of acid dye. The adsorption of dye increased with increasing temperature but decreased with increasing particle size. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption mechanism consisted of two processes, external diffusion and intraparticle diffusion, and the external diffusion was the dominating process.

  14. Adsorption mechanisms and the effect of oxytetracycline on activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiancai; Liu, Dongfang; Zhang, Guowei; Frigon, Matthew; Meng, Xianrong; Li, Kexun

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption mechanisms and the effect of Oxytetracycline (OTC) onto activated sludge were studied. The results show that the adsorption of Oxytetracycline (OTC) onto activated sludge was coincident with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The Freundlich model had the best fit which suggested that chemical adsorption mechanism was dominant. The influences including pH and metal ions on the OTC were examined. It was demonstrated that the adsorption process was highly pH-dependant, which indicate that cationic exchange mechanisms may play an important role in the adsorption process. Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Cd(2+) ions more or less inhibited the adsorption of OTC on activated sludge while Cu(2+) enhanced the adsorption ability. The phenomenon may reflect the result that a surface complexation mechanism could involved in the adsorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Adsorption behavior of anionic dyes onto magnetic chitosan derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong-lu; Hu, Xiao-min; Zhao, Yan; Su, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption of acid red 1 (AR1) and xylenol orange (XO) onto magnetic quaternary chitosan particles were studied through the static adsorption method. The results showed that, the maximal adsorption capacities calculated by Langmuir equations were 781.55 mg x g(-1) for AR1, 537.40 mg x g(-1) for XO at pH 3.0 and 25 degrees C. The constant n obtained by Frendlich equations were 1.71 and 1.92 respectively, which reflected the favourable adsorption of the dyes onto CS/EPTAC/Fe3O4. Temkin equations showed that heterogeneous surface of adsorbent was the main adsorption point. The adsorption kinetics of two kinds of dyes followed the pseudo-second-order model, which indicated the process was mainly chemical adsorption. Compared with the powder activated carbon, CS/EPTAC/Fe3O4 showed advantages of excellent adsorption performance, rapid separation and easy regeneration.

  16. Adsorption mechanisms and impact factors of oxytetracycline on activated sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiancai, Song; Dongfang, Liu; Lejun, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    The adsorption mechanisms and the effect of Oxytetracycline (OTC) onto activated sludge were studied. The results show that the adsorption of Oxytetracycline (OTC) onto activated sludge was coincident with the Pseudo-second-order kinetic model which suggested that chemical adsorption mechanism was dominant. The influences including pH and metal ions on the OTC were examined. It was demonstrated that the adsorption process was highly pH-dependant, which indicate that cationic exchange mechanisms may play an important role in the adsorption process. Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cd2+ ions more or less inhibited the adsorption of OTC on activated sludge while Cu2+ enhanced the adsorption ability. The phenomenon may reflect the result that a surface complexation mechanism could involved in the adsorption.

  17. Removal of Pyrethrin from Aqueous Effluents by Adsorptive Micellar Flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardon K. Kuipa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium adsorption of pyrethrin onto aggregates formed by the flocculation of micelles of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS with aluminium sulphate is reported. The experimental results were analysed using different adsorption isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Radke-Prausnitz, Temkin, linear equilibrium, and the Dubin-Radushkevich isotherms. The Freundlich and linear equilibrium isotherms best describe the adsorption of pyrethrin onto SDS micellar flocs, with the Freundlich adsorption constant, KF, and the mass distribution coefficient, KD, of 64.266 ((mg/g(L/mg1/n and 119.65 L/g, respectively. Applicability of the Freundlich adsorption model suggests that heterogeneous surface adsorption affects the adsorption. The mean free energy value estimated using the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was 0.136 kJ/mol indicating that physisorption may be predominant in the adsorption process.

  18. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto Some Selected Local Adsorbents. ... South African Journal of Chemistry ... KEYWORDS Adsorption, chromium (VI), avocado kernel seed, papaya peel, Juniperus procera sawdust, local adsorbent, adsorption kinetic, Thermodynamic of adsorption.

  19. Comparison of three definitions of the mid-stance and mid-swing events of the gait cycle in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T; Jeffery, R S; Bakheit, A M O

    2006-05-30

    Different criteria are used to define the terms mid-stance (MST) and mid-swing (MSW) when describing the gait cycle. None of these definitions is universally accepted. This causes difficulties with the interpretation of gait analysis data and hinders the comparison between the different studies. The aim of the present study was to compare three definitions of MST and MSW by examining the gait of a group of healthy children. A prospective comparison of three commonly used definitions of the MST and MSW events of the gait cycle. The timing of the temporal, kinematic and kinetic MST and MSW of the gait cycle. Thirty healthy 8 - 10-year-old children were studied. There was no consistent correlation between the timing of the chosen definitions of MST and MSW. However, there was a tendency for the timing of the temporal and kinetic MST and MSW to occur, respectively, at approximately 30 and 80% of the gait cycle. The temporal definition of MST and MSW as the midpoints in time of the respective phases of the gait cycle appears to be more appropriate than other definitions. The use of this definition may prevent misunderstanding and permit comparison of the results of the different gait analysis studies.

  20. Suicide and general elections in Austria: do preceding regional suicide rate differentials foreshadow subsequent voting behavior swings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Formann, Anton K; Fülöp, Gerhard; Sonneck, Gernot

    2003-05-01

    Suicide-epidemiological research on short-term effects of elections on national/regional suicide and parasuicide incidence has yielded contradictory evidence. Reversing the cause-effect relationship of this line of research we investigated whether preceding regional suicide rates are related to subsequent election results. For Austria's 121 districts, we regressed averaged standardized suicide rates for the preceding period (1988-1994) on political parties' subsequent electoral gains/losses (1999-to-1995) while controlling for a set of 12 domain-relevant psychosocial/economic indices. Stepwise weighted multiple regression led to a significant model. The 1999-to-1995 electoral gains/losses of two opposition parties, together with the population variation caused by migration balance and by births/deaths balance, accounted for a substantial part (30%) of the variability in preceding district-level suicide rates. Various other social indices failed to contribute further substantial increments to this model. This finding suggests that variations in preceding regional suicide incidence might be mirrored in subsequent changes in voting behavior. A speculative post hoc explanation for the finding is offered: on a community level, suicide's aftermath might produce socially and politically alienated survivors of suicide who co-shape swings towards opposition parties in subsequent general elections. The finding calls for more research on suicide's long-term aftermath. Within-country replicability and cross-national generalizability await further investigation. At present, the factor/mechanism accounting for this finding is neither well-established nor has been directly tested.

  1. SWING-UAV: Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG from an UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlaud, A.; Constantin, D.; Van Roozendael, M.; Fayt, C.; Maes, J.; Mingireanu, F.; Voiculescu, M.; Murariu, G.; Georgescu, L. P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new instrument, the Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING), dedicated to trace gases mapping at high spatial resolution from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The system maps trace gases fields based on a compact ultra-violet visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror. The payload's weight, size and power consumption are respectively 920g, 27*12*12 cm3, and 6W. The custom-built UAV wingspan is 2.5m and can reach an altitude of 3km during 2 hours, flying at 60 km/h in preprogrammed tracks. Considering the 120° swath of the instrument, it is able to cover an area of 20*20 km2 in less than one hour. The spectra are analyzed using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and several species are detectable. Our primary objective is NO2, a major pollutant and a key species in tropospheric chemistry for which simulations show that a 200*200m ground resolution is possible in polluted zones. We show first measurements of NO2 in Belgium and Romania. Such measurements are complementary to ground-based instruments and, besides studying air quality and NOx sources, are valuable for satellite validation. Another promising application is monitoring of SO2 emissions from volcanoes.

  2. Constructed wetlands and solar-driven disinfection technologies for sustainable wastewater treatment and reclamation in rural India: SWINGS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, J A; Ávila, C; Otter, P; Kilian, R; Istenič, D; Rolletschek, M; Molle, P; Khalil, N; Ameršek, I; Mishra, V K; Jorgensen, C; Garfi, A; Carvalho, P; Brix, H; Arias, C A

    2017-09-01

    SWINGS was a cooperation project between the European Union and India, aiming at implementing state of the art low-cost technologies for the treatment and reuse of domestic wastewater in rural areas of India. The largest wastewater treatment plant consists of a high-rate anaerobic system, followed by vertical and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with a treatment area of around 1,900 m 2 and a final step consisting of solar-driven anodic oxidation (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection units allowing direct reuse of the treated water. The implementation and operation of two pilot plants in north (Aligarh Muslim University, AMU) and central India (Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, IGNTU) are shown in this study. The overall performance of AMU pilot plant during the first 7 months of operation showed organic matter removal efficiencies of 87% total suspended solids, 95% 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and 90% chemical oxygen demand, while Kjeldahl nitrogen removal reached 89%. The UV disinfection unit produces water for irrigation and toilet flushing with pathogenic indicator bacteria well below WHO guidelines. On the other hand, the AO disinfection unit implemented at IGNTU and operated for almost a year has been shown to produce an effluent of sufficient quality to be reused by the local population for agriculture and irrigation.

  3. Safety and walking ability of KAFO users with the C-Brace? Orthotronic Mobility System, a new microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pr?bsting, Eva; Kannenberg, Andreas; Zacharias, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are clear indications for benefits of stance control orthoses compared to locked knee ankle foot orthoses. However, stance control orthoses still have limited function compared with a sound human leg. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis compared to stance control orthoses and locked knee ankle foot orthoses in activities of daily living. Study design: Survey of lower limb orthosis user...

  4. Effect of spinal manipulative therapy with stretching compared with stretching alone on full-swing performance of golf players: a randomized pilot trial☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Soraya M.V.; Chibana, Yumi E.T.; Giavarotti, Leandro; Compagnoni, Débora S.; Shiono, Adriana H.; Satie, Janice; Bracher, Eduardo S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective There has been a steady growth of chiropractic treatment using spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) that aims to increase the performance of athletes in various sports. This study evaluates the effect of SMT by chiropractors on the performance of golf players. Methods Golfers of 2 golf clubs in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in this study. They were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: Group I received a stretch program, and group II received a stretch program in addition to SMT. Participants in both groups performed the same standardized stretching program. Spinal manipulative therapy to dysfunctional spinal segments was performed on group II only. All golfers performed 3 full-swing maneuvers. Ball range was considered as the average distance for the 3 shots. Treatment was performed after the initial measurement, and the same maneuvers were performed afterward. Each participant repeated these procedures for a 4-week period. Student t test, Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, and 1-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with significance level of 5% were used to analyze the study. Results Forty-three golfers completed the protocol. Twenty participants were allocated to group I and 23 to group II. Average age, handicap, and initial swing were comparable. No improvement of full-swing performance was observed during the 4 sessions on group I (stretch only). An improvement was observed at the fourth session of group II (P = .005); when comparing the posttreatment, group II had statistical significance at all phases (P = .003). Conclusions Chiropractic SMT in association with muscle stretching may be associated with an improvement of full-swing performance when compared with muscle stretching alone. PMID:19948307

  5. Effects of bilateral swing-away grab bars on the biomechanics of stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand toilet transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Mehta-Desai, Ricky; Oh, Kyunggeune; Sanford, Jon; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2018-03-09

    Kinetic characteristics of transfers to and from a toilet performed using bilateral grab bars are not fully quantified to inform grab bar design and configuration. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine effects of bilateral swing-away grab bars on peaks of ankle, knee and hip joint moments during grab bar assisted stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers; and (2) determine effects of three different heights and widths of swing-away grab bars on the same kinetic characteristics. Healthy subjects (N = 11, age 25-58 years) performed stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers with and without grab bars. In transfers with grab bars, 9 grab bar configurations were tested by varying their height from the floor (0.787 m, 0.813 m, 0.838 m; 31″-33″) and width, the distance of each grab bar from the toilet's centerline (0.330 m, 0.356 m, 0.381 m; 13″-15″). Motion capture, force plate and inverse dynamics analysis were used to determine lower limb joint moments. The use of bilateral grab bars generally reduced the peak magnitude of extension moments at lower limb joints during stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers (p toilet using the swing-away grab bars is useful for informing grab bar design and configuration recommendations for assisted living and skilled nursing facilities. Our findings suggest that the swing-away grab bars located at certain ranges are a reasonable alternative to the grab bars mandated by the current Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines. Future research investigating the effects of grab bars on transfer performance should consider additional factors, such as a wider range of abilities and transfer methods of the users.

  6. A review on adsorption heat pump: Problems and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Hasan; Mobedi, Moghtada; Ülkü, Semra

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption heat pumps have considerably sparked attentions in recent years. The present paper covers the working principle of adsorption heat pumps, recent studies on advanced cycles, developments in adsorbent-adsorbate pairs and design of adsorbent beds. The adsorbent-adsorbate pair features for in order to be employed in the adsorption heat pumps are described. The adsorption heat pumps are compared with the vapor compression and absorption heat pumps. The problems and troubles of adsorptio...

  7. Theoretical study of adsorption of lithium atom on carbon nanotube

    OpenAIRE

    Senami, Masato; Ikeda, Yuji; Fukushima, Akinori; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the adsorption of lithium atoms on the surface of the (12, 0) single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) by using ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The adsorption of one lithium atom on the inside of this SWCNT is favored compared to the outside. We check this feature by charge transfer and regional chemical potential density. The adsorption of multiple lithium atoms on the interior of the SWCNT is studied in terms of adsorption energy and charge transfer. We show that repulsiv...

  8. The Initial Adsorption of Pb2+ to Dunaliella Salina

    OpenAIRE

    Muhaemin, Moh

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption process of metal ion to algal sudace groups and complexes to become organic material at all growth phases could be ajecting their behaviour in seawater. The dwerential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASIO method was used to determine the adsorption and interaction between the Dunaliella salina and Pbz`. The rate of adsorption was found in two steps; first a relative fast adsorption step (I0 min) and second slower or aw'usion—controlled uptake into the cells. The parabolic...

  9. Competitive Adsorption of a Two-Component Gas on a Deformable Adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Usenko, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the competitive adsorption of a two-component gas on the surface of an adsorbent whose adsorption properties vary in adsorption due to the adsorbent deformation. The essential difference of adsorption isotherms for a deformable adsorbent both from the classical Langmuir adsorption isotherms of a two-component gas and from the adsorption isotherms of a one-component gas taking into account variations in adsorption properties of the adsorbent in adsorption is obtained. We establi...

  10. Effects of integrating rhythmic arm swing into robot-assisted walking in patients with subacute stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae-Woo; Oh, Duck-Won; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of rhythmic arm swing during robot-assisted walking training on balance, gait, motor function, and activities of daily living among patients with subacute stroke. Twenty patients with subacute stroke were recruited, and thereafter randomly allocated to either the experimental group that performed the robot-assisted walking training with rhythmic arm swing, or the control group that performed the training in arm fixation. In total, 30 training sessions were carried out. The outcome measures included the 10-m walk test, Berg balance scale, timed up-and-go test, fall index that was measured using the Tetrax system, motor function test of Fugl-Meyer assessment, and modified Barthel index. The patients of both groups showed significant improvement in all parameters after the intervention (Pscale, Fugl-Meyer assessment, and modified Barthel index scores at post-test appeared to be significantly higher for the experimental group than for the control group (P<0.05). These findings indicate that more favorable effects from robot-assisted walking training in patients with subacute stroke may be obtained by the use of rhythmic arm swing.

  11. A single-blind investigation into the hypoalgesic effects of different swing patterns of interferential currents on cold-induced pain in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Tabasam, Ghazala

    2003-03-01

    To compare the analgesic effects of differing swing patterns of interferential current (IFC) on cold-induced pain. Single-blind intervention study in which subjects completed 6 cycles of the cold-induced pain test-2 pretreatment, 2 during treatment, and 2 posttreatment. Laboratory. Forty healthy volunteers. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 4 IFC treatment interventions: 1 integral 1, 6 integral 6, 6 wedge 6, or burst. IFC was administered for 20 minutes via 4 electrodes attached to the forearm (quadripolar application) at a strong but comfortable intensity using amplitude-modulated frequencies of 1 to 100 Hz. Change in pain threshold and self-report of pain intensity and unpleasantness from pretreatment baseline. Two-way repeated-measure analysis of variance found significant effects for time and group by time interaction (P<.01), but effects for groups failed to reach statistical significance (P=0.1). This suggests that when all groups are considered together, subjects experience a rise in pain threshold when IFC devices are switched on but not when they are switched off. However, the rise in pain threshold was not dependent on the swing pattern employed. Analysis of pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings found no effects for group or group by time interaction. There were no differences in the hypoalgesic effects of different swing patterns. Copyright 2003 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  12. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motkuri, R.K.; Annapureddy, H.V.R.; Vijaykumar, M.; Schaef, H.T.; Martin, P.F.; McGrail, B.P.; Dang, L.X.; Krishna, R.; Thallapally, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and

  13. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motkuri, RK; Annapureddy, HVR; Vijaykumar, M; Schaef, HT; Martin, PF; McGrail, BP; Dang, LX; Krishna, R; Thallapally, PK

    2014-07-09

    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and hierarchical mesoporous frameworks. The microporous frameworks show a saturation uptake capacity for dichlorodifluoromethane of >4 mmol g(-1) at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/P-o) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous framework shows an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching >14 mmol g(-1) at P/P-o of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption is found to generally correlate with the polarizability and boiling point of the refrigerant, with dichlorodifluoromethane >chlorodifluoromethane >chlorotrifluoromethane >tetrafluoromethane >methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting these sorbents for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling.

  14. Adsorption Kinetics in Nanoscale Porous Coordination Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nune, Satish K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, Benard Peter; Annapureddy, Harsha V. R.; Dang, Liem X.; Mei, Donghai; Karri, Naveen; Alvine, Kyle J.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Dohnalkova, Alice

    2015-10-07

    Nanoscale porous coordination polymers were synthesized using simple wet chemical method. The effect of various polymer surfactants on colloidal stability and shape selectivity was investigated. Our results suggest that the nanoparticles exhibited significantly improved adsorption kinetics compared to bulk crystals due to decreased diffusion path lengths and preferred crystal plane interaction.

  15. Adsorption and desorption of cellulose derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Cellulose derivatives, in particular carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are used in many (industrial) applications. The aim of this work is to obtain insight into the adsorption mechanism of cellulose derivatives on solid-liquid interfaces.

    In chapter

  16. ADSORPTIVE APPROACH ON NEPHOLOMETRIC STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-02

    2Water Resources Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA. 3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Hull, UK. (Received December 2, 2014; revised August 21, 2016). ABSTRACT. Adsorptive study of paint effluent coagulation using T. fuscatus coagulant (TFC) is investigated. Effects of pH, dose, ...

  17. BSA adsorption on bimodal PEO brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, WTE; Iakovlev, PA; Norde, W; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen

    2005-01-01

    BSA adsorption onto bimodal PEO brushes at a solid surface was measured using optical reflectometry. Bimodal brushes consist of long (N = 770) and short (N = 48) PEO chains and were prepared on PS surfaces, applying mixtures of PS29-PEO48 and PS37-PEO770 block copolymers and using the

  18. ADSORPTION ON HEAT REGENERATED SPENT BLEACHING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS OF AQUEOUS Cu(II) ADSORPTION ON. HEAT REGENERATED SPENT BLEACHING EARTH. Enos W. Wambu1*, Gerald K. Muthakia2*, Joseph K. wa-Thiong'o1 and Paul M. Shiundu3. 1Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

  19. Adsorption studies of iron (III) on chitin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adsorption of ferric ions by chitin was studied by the batch equilibration method. The influence of particle size and dosage of the adsorbant, contact time, initial concentration of the adsorbate and temperature were experimentally verified. The effect of anions like chloride, nitrate and sulphate and also of cations like zinc, ...

  20. BSA adsorption on bimodal PEO brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, W.T.E.; Iakovlev, P.A.; Norde, W.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    BSA adsorption onto bimodal PEO brushes at a solid surface was measured using optical reflectometry. Bimodal brushes consist of long (N=770) and short (N=48) PEO chains and were prepared on PS surfaces, applying mixtures of PS 29-PEO48 and PS37-PEO770 block copolymers and using the Langmuir-Blodgett

  1. Optimization of Adsorptive Immobilization of Alcohol Dehydrogenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivedi, Archana; Heinemann, Matthias; Spiess, Antje C.; Daussmann, Thomas; Büchs, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a systematic examination of various parameters of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on solid support is performed and the impact of these parameters on immobilization efficiency is studied. Depending on the source of the enzymes, these parameters differently

  2. Polymer adsorption theory : universal aspects and intricacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der C.C.

    1995-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is based on the theory for polymer adsorption by Scheutjens and Fleer (SF). Roughly, the thesis can be divided into two parts: the first two chapters consider the original theory from a new viewpoint, attempting to find universal laws and to establish

  3. Adsorption of lecithin liposomes to acid clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Naoki; Kato, An-Na; Murase, Norio

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between lecithin liposomes and acid clay was investigated to clarify the mechanism for liposome adsorption to the clay. It was found that the multilamellar vesicular structure of the liposomes was broken as a result of primary adsorption. The acid clay particles aggregated and were eventually covered by the lecithin layer structure. In the case of kaolin, on the other hand, the liposomes were weakly adsorbed to the clay and maintained the vesicular structure. The amount of primary adsorption to the clay surface, which was estimated from the adsorption isotherm, was more for acid clay than for kaolin, and the total amount adsorbed to the acid clay was also more than to kaolin. This result can be explained by the much higher density of the negative charge on the acid clay surface than that for kaolin. The liposomes are therefore considered to be adsorbed to the acid clay mainly by the choline positive charge residing at the end of the lecithin molecule, although this is of no net charge as a whole.

  4. Adsorption studies of iron(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adsorption of ferric ions by chitin was studied by the batch equilibration method. The influence of particle size and dosage of the adsorbant, contact time, initial concentration of the adsorbate and temperature were experimentally verified. The effect of anions like chloride, nitrate and sulphate and also of cations like zinc, ...

  5. THERMODYNAMICS AND ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BAFFA

    ABSTRACT. The use of maize (Zea mays) cob for the biosorption of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) is reported. Biosorption experiments were carried out using batch process with 8g weight of adsorbent and variable adsorbate concentrations. Variations in the concentration of the different adsorbates during the adsorption process.

  6. ADSORPTION OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN ONTO ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin was studied using the activated carbon prepared from Elaeagnus stone with chemical activation. Elaeagnus stone activated carbon was characterized using the point of zero charge, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method, ...

  7. Adsorption of metals by immobilized tannins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, J.L.; Olivares, S.; De La Rosa, D.; Martinez, F.; Vargas, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous adsorption of thorium, europium, cerium, and neodymium by immobilized tannic was studied at different ph values. Tannic materials have excellent ability to adsorb selectively thorium at pH 5. The rest of the elements could be isolated in group at pH 7

  8. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motkuri, Radha Kishan; Annapureddy, Harsha V. R.; Vijaykumar, M.; Schaef, H. Todd; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-07-01

    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and hierarchical mesoporous frameworks. The microporous frameworks show a saturation uptake capacity for dichlorodifluoromethane of >4 mmol g-1 at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous framework shows an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching >14 mmol g-1 at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption is found to generally correlate with the polarizability and boiling point of the refrigerant, with dichlorodifluoromethane >chlorodifluoromethane >chlorotrifluoromethane >tetrafluoromethane >methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting these sorbents for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling.

  9. Modeling the Adsorption of Oxalate onto Montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M Elena; Emiroglu, Caglayan; García, David; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio; Huertas, F Javier

    2015-11-03

    In this work, a multiscale modeling of the interaction of oxalate with clay mineral surfaces from macroscale thermodynamic equilibria simulations to atomistic calculations is presented. Previous results from macroscopic adsorption data of oxalate on montmorillonite in 0.01 M KNO3 media at 25 °C within the pH range from 2.5 to 9 have been used to develop a surface complexation model. The experimental adsorption edge data were fitted using the triple-layer model (TLM) with the aid of the FITEQL 4.0 computer program. Surface complexation of oxalate is described by two reactions: >AlOH + Ox(2-) + 2H(+) = >AlOxH + H2O (log K = 14.39) and >AlOH + Ox(2-) + H(+) = >AlOx(-) + H2O (log K = 10.39). The monodentate complex >AlOxH dominated adsorption below pH 4, and the bidentate complex >AlOx(-) was predominant at higher pH values. Both of the proposed inner-sphere oxalate species are qualitatively consistent with previously published diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopic results for oxalate on montmorillonite edge surface (Chem. Geol. 2014, 363, 283-292). Atomistic computational studies have been performed to understand the interactions at the molecular level between adsorbates and mineral surface, showing the atomic structures and IR frequency shifts of the adsorption complexes of oxalate with the edge surface of a periodic montmorillonite model.

  10. THERMODYNAMICS AND ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BAFFA

    THERMODYNAMICS AND ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR THE. BIOSORPTION OF Cr(VI), Ni(II) AND Cd(II) ONTO MAIZE COB. *Muhammad B. Ibrahim and Wahab L. O. Jimoh. Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. *Email: bashirmbi2@yahoo.ca. ABSTRACT.

  11. Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belova, Dina Alexandrovna; Lakshtanov, Leonid; Carneiro, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    and chalk and pH ranging from 7.7 to 8.8, explored the influence of initial concentration and the amount and type of sorbent on Ni uptake. Adsorption increases with increased surface area and pH. A surface complexation model describes the data well. Stability constants for the Ni surface complex are log KNi...

  12. Simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of synthetic melanoidin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being an antioxidant, melanoidin removal through purely biodegradation has been inadequate. Consequently, in the current study, simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) was employed in a stirred tank system to remove melanoidin from synthetic wastewater. Mixed microbial consortium was immobilized onto ...

  13. ADSORPTIVE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM WATER USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    It requires high capital investment cost and high energy consumption, and is not economical as in the case of the ..... and Temkin isotherm. Freundlich isotherm model assumes unlimited sorption sites which .... energy 13.15 kJ mol-1, which indicates the fluoride removal by nano-AlOOH is chemisorption process. Adsorption ...

  14. Thermodynamic studies on adsorption of lead (II) Ion from aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption of Pb (II) on the all adsorbents best fitted the Langmuir adsorption isotherm based on its better regression coefficient. Kinetics result showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second order perfectly implying chemisorption. Thermodynamic result revealed ΔG values of (-6.73 to -0.502 kJ/mol), depicting that ...

  15. Adsorption dynamics and equilibrium studies of Zn (II) onto chitosan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Batch equilibration studies are conducted to determine the nature of adsorption of zinc (II) over chitosan. The factors affecting the adsorption process like particle size, contact time, dosage, pH, effects of chloride and nitrate are identified. The influence of temperature and co-ions on the adsorption process is verified.

  16. Performance evaluation of Fe (III) adsorption onto brewers' spent grain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter, batch adsorption technique was employed to evaluate the effects of adsorption variables such as pH, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dosage and contact time on the sorption efficiency of BSG. The maximum adsorption time was fixed at 120minutes with a stirring speed of 100rpm. Experimental data ...

  17. Effect of crosslinker on the swelling and adsorption properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The SAPs were used to adsorb the dye Orange G at different initial concentrations of the dye. The equilibrium adsorption data followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The SAPs were also used to adsorb three other dyes, namely, Congo red, Amido black and Alizarin cyanine green. They exhibited different adsorption ...

  18. Adsorption of lysozyme unto silica and polystyrene surfaces in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption capacity of lysozyme (chicken egg white) from aqueous solutions unto silica and polystyrene interfaces was studied at varying lysozyme concentrations and ionic strength. The studies revealed an increase in adsorption capacity with increase in concentration and with maximum adsorption densities of 1.34 ...

  19. Adsorption dynamics and equilibrium studies of Zn (II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Batch equilibration studies are conducted to determine the nature of adsorption of zinc (II) over chitosan. The factors affecting the adsorption process like particle size, contact time, dosage, pH, effects of chloride and nitrate are identified. The influence of temperature and co-ions on the adsorption process is verified.

  20. Equilibrium and kinetics studies of metal ion adsorption on dyed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batch equilibration studies were conducted to determine the nature of adsorption of Zn (II) and Cu (II) onto dyed coconut pollens. The nature of adsorption of metal ions was explained using the Langmuir equation. The calculated values of equilibrium parameter indicated favourable adsorption by the adsorbents. Also the ...