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Sample records for swine pathogen mycoplasma

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

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    Klein Cátia S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a highly infectious swine pathogen and is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP. Following the previous report of a proteomic survey of the pathogenic 7448 strain of swine pathogen, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, we performed comparative protein profiling of three M. hyopneumoniae strains, namely the non-pathogenic J strain and the two pathogenic strains 7448 and 7422. Results In 2DE comparisons, we were able to identify differences in expression levels for 67 proteins, including the overexpression of some cytoadherence-related proteins only in the pathogenic strains. 2DE immunoblot analyses allowed the identification of differential proteolytic cleavage patterns of the P97 adhesin in the three strains. For more comprehensive protein profiling, an LC-MS/MS strategy was used. Overall, 35% of the M. hyopneumoniae genome coding capacity was covered. Partially overlapping profiles of identified proteins were observed in the strains with 81 proteins identified only in one strain and 54 proteins identified in two strains. Abundance analysis of proteins detected in more than one strain demonstrates the relative overexpression of 64 proteins, including the P97 adhesin in the pathogenic strains. Conclusions Our results indicate the physiological differences between the non-pathogenic strain, with its non-infective proliferate lifestyle, and the pathogenic strains, with its constitutive expression of adhesins, which would render the bacterium competent for adhesion and infection prior to host contact.

  2. Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae†

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    Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Carvalho, Marcos O.; Pinto, Paulo M.; Almeida, Darcy F.; Almeida, Luiz G. P.; Almeida, Rosana; Alves-Filho, Leonardo; Assunção, Enedina N.; Azevedo, Vasco A. C.; Bogo, Maurício R.; Brigido, Marcelo M.; Brocchi, Marcelo; Burity, Helio A.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Camargo, Sandro S.; Carepo, Marta S.; Carraro, Dirce M.; de Mattos Cascardo, Júlio C.; Castro, Luiza A.; Cavalcanti, Gisele; Chemale, Gustavo; Collevatti, Rosane G.; Cunha, Cristina W.; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Dambrós, Bibiana P.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Falcão, Clarissa; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Felipe, Maria S. S.; Fiorentin, Laurimar; Franco, Gloria R.; Freitas, Nara S. A.; Frías, Diego; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Guimarães, Claudia T.; Hungria, Mariangela; Jardim, Sílvia N.; Krieger, Marco A.; Laurino, Jomar P.; Lima, Lucymara F. A.; Lopes, Maryellen I.; Loreto, Élgion L. S.; Madeira, Humberto M. F.; Manfio, Gilson P.; Maranhão, Andrea Q.; Martinkovics, Christyanne T.; Medeiros, Sílvia R. B.; Moreira, Miguel A. M.; Neiva, Márcia; Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E.; Nicolás, Marisa F.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Paixão, Roger F. C.; Pedrosa, Fábio O.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Pereira, Maristela; Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian; Piffer, Itamar; Pinto, Luciano S.; Potrich, Deise P.; Salim, Anna C. M.; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schmitt, Renata; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene S.; Schuck, Adriana F.; Seuanez, Hector N.; Silva, Denise W.; Silva, Rosane; Silva, Sérgio C.; Soares, Célia M. A.; Souza, Kelly R. L.; Souza, Rangel C.; Staats, Charley C.; Steffens, Maria B. R.; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Urmenyi, Turan P.; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Zuccherato, Luciana W.; Simpson, Andrew J. G.; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2005-01-01

    This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae. PMID:16077101

  3. Molecular diagnostics of swine infection caused by Mycoplasma suis

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    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .

  4. Interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Swine Influenza Virus

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    Thacker, Eileen L.; Thacker, Brad J.; Janke, Bruce H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental respiratory model was used to investigate the interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus (SIV) in the induction of pneumonia in susceptible swine. Previous studies demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic bronchopneumonia in swine, potentiates a viral pneumonia induced by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to inoculation with SIV. Clinical disease as characterized by the severity of cough and fever was evaluated daily. Percentages of lung tissue with visual lesions and microscopic lesions were assessed upon necropsy at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following SIV inoculation. Clinical observations revealed that pigs infected with both SIV and M. hyopneumoniae coughed significantly more than pigs inoculated with a single agent. Macroscopic pneumonia on necropsy at days 3 and 7 was greatest in both SIV-infected groups, with minimal levels of pneumonia in the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected pigs. At 14 days post-SIV inoculation, pneumonia was significantly more severe in pigs infected with both pathogens. However, by 21 days postinoculation, the level of pneumonia in the dual-infected pigs was similar to that of the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected group, and the pneumonia in the pigs inoculated with only SIV was nearly resolved. Microscopically, there was no apparent increase in the severity of pneumonia in pigs infected with both agents compared to that of single-agent-challenged pigs. The results of this study found that while pigs infected with both agents exhibited more severe clinical disease, the relationship between the two pathogens lacked the profound potentiation found with dual infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between mycoplasmas and viruses varies with the individual agent. PMID:11427564

  5. Unravelling the transcriptome profile of the Swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas.

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    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale.

  6. Unravelling the Transcriptome Profile of the Swine Respiratory Tract Mycoplasmas

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    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale. PMID:25333523

  7. Isolation of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae from pneumonic lung of swine.

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    Dahlia, H; Tan, L J; Zarrahimah, Z; Maria, J

    2009-12-01

    The isolation of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae from a piglet with severe pneumonia is described. This is the first report of M. hyosynoviae isolation in the country. The lung sample where the isolation was made was severely consolidated, suppurative and pleurisy. The pathogenicity of the M. hyosynoviae isolated has yet to be determined.

  8. New insights on the biology of swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas from a comparative genome analysis

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    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis live in swine respiratory tracts. M. flocculare, a commensal bacterium, is genetically closely related to M. hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of enzootic porcine pneumonia. M. hyorhinis is also pathogenic, causing polyserositis and arthritis. In this work, we present the genome sequences of M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae strain 7422, and we compare these genomes with the genomes of other M. hyoponeumoniae strain and to the a M. hyorhinis genome. These analyses were performed to identify possible characteristics that may help to explain the different behaviors of these species in swine respiratory tracts. Results The overall genome organization of three species was analyzed, revealing that the ORF clusters (OCs) differ considerably and that inversions and rearrangements are common. Although M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae display a high degree of similarity with respect to the gene content, only some genomic regions display considerable synteny. Genes encoding proteins that may be involved in host-cell adhesion in M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display differences in genomic structure and organization. Some genes encoding adhesins of the P97 family are absent in M. flocculare and some contain sequence differences or lack of domains that are considered to be important for adhesion to host cells. The phylogenetic relationship of the three species was confirmed by a phylogenomic approach. The set of genes involved in metabolism, especially in the uptake of precursors for nucleic acids synthesis and nucleotide metabolism, display some differences in copy number and the presence/absence in the three species. Conclusions The comparative analyses of three mycoplasma species that inhabit the swine respiratory tract facilitated the identification of some characteristics that may be related to their different behaviors. M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display many differences

  9. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic variability within a swine operation.

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    Pantoja, Lucina Galina; Pettit, Kalie; Dos Santos, Lucas F; Tubbs, Rick; Pieters, Maria

    2016-03-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic diversity within a swine operation comingling weaned pigs. Bronchial swabs and tracheal aspirates were collected from 3 nursery-to-finish farms. During the finishing production stages, samples were obtained from mortalities and from live coughing pigs in rooms where mortality was not observed. A total of 105 samples were examined by a M. hyopneumoniae real-time polymerase chain reaction and subjected to genetic typing using a multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) assay. The MLVA was used to identify genetic variants based on the number of repeats in 2 variable number tandem repeats loci, namely P97 and P146, thought to mediate adherence of M. hyopneumoniae to swine cilia. Four distinguishable M. hyopneumoniae variants were identified: MVLA variants 9-15, 11-21, 9-21, and 7-15. Variant 9-15 was the most prevalent, observed in 79% of rooms, and detected on all 3 farms. Variant 11-21 was present in 37% of the rooms on 2 of the 3 farms. Only one 9-21 variant was identified in 1 farm, and all samples of variant 7-15 were recovered from another farm. Based on the low prevalence and limited geographic distribution of the last 2 variants, it is hypothesized that they might be the result of in-situ recombination. All variants detected in this investigation appeared to belong to 3 clusters. Overall, a limited number of variants and clusters were identified in a system that comingles pigs from different sources, suggesting limited M. hyopneumoniae genetic variation within commercial swine production environments. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Antibody responses of swine following infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis, M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare.

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    Gomes Neto, João Carlos; Strait, Erin L; Raymond, Matthew; Ramirez, Alejandro; Minion, F Chris

    2014-11-07

    Several mycoplasma species possessing a range of virulence have been described in swine. The most commonly described are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma flocculare. They are ubiquitious in many pig producing areas of the world, and except for M. hyopneumoniae, commercial antibody-based assays are lacking for most of these. Antibody cross-reactivity among these four mycoplasma species is not well characterized. Recently, the use of pen-based oral fluids for herd surveillance is of increasing interest. Thus, this study sought to measure pig antibody responses and the level of cross-reactivity in serum and pen-based oral fluids after challenge with four species of swine mycoplasmas. Four groups of four mycoplasma-free growing pigs were separately inoculated with the different mycoplasma species. Pen-based oral fluids and serum samples were collected weekly until necropsy. Species-specific Tween 20 ELISAs were used to measure antibody responses along with four other commercial M. hyopneumoniae ELISAs. Animals from all groups seroconverted to the challenge species of mycoplasma and no evidence of cross-contamination was observed. A delayed antibody response was seen with all but M. hyorhinis-infected pigs. Cross-reactive IgG responses were detected in M. hyopneumoniae- and M. flocculare-infected animals by the M. hyorhinis Tween 20 ELISA, while sera from M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare-infected pigs were positive in one commercial assay. In pen-based oral fluids, specific anti-M. hyopneumoniae IgA responses were detected earlier after infection than serum IgG responses. In summary, while some antibody-based assays may have the potential for false positives, evidence of this was observed in the current study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. MOLECULAR BACKGROUND OF FLUOROQUINOLONE RESISTANCE IN PATHOGENIC HUMAN MYCOPLASMAS

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    A. N. Vaganova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human mycoplasma pathogens are resistant to many types of antibiotics because of the lack of a cell wall. Macrolides are most often used for the treatment of mycoplasmosis, but the spread of forms resistant to these antibiotics requires the use of alternative treatment regimens, in particular, the administration of f luoroquinolones and tetracyclines. Of the existing antimicrobial compounds, only f luoroquinolones have a bactericidal effect against mycoplasmas, so use of these antimicrobials is preferable for the treatment of immunosuppressed patients. The limitation of the f luoroquinolones is the resistance of the causative agent to these antimicrobials. Mutations leading to amino acid substitutions in the composition of the targets of f luoroquinolones, gyrase and topoisomerase IV are the most common cause of resistance to f luoroquinolones both in mycoplasms and in other bacteria. It was noted that for mycoplasmas belonging to different species have different patterns of substitutions in the subunits of gyrase and topoisomerase IV. The differences of the structure of these proteins, ref lected in the natural susceptibility to f luoroquinolones in mycoplasmas, may be a reason of this heterogeneity. A number of studies indicate the existence of additional resistance mechanisms, which, first of all, include multiple-resistance systems. Such systems belonging to the ABC-transporter group were also found in mycoplasmas. They are described in Mycoplasma hominis and M. pneumoniae, in M. hominis, their ability to excrete f luoroquinolones from the cells was observed, and in M. pneumoniae the ability of multiple-resistance systems to export macrolides also was noted. Genes encoding components of multiple resistance systems have been found in genomes of other species, including M. genitalium and mycoplasmas, causing animal diseases. Also, in the non-pathogenic for human mycoplasmas Acholeplasma laidlawii, the ability to export proteins and genetic

  12. Genotype distribution of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine herds from different geographical regions.

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    Dos Santos, Lucas F; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Torremorell, Montserrat; Moreira, Maria A S; Sibila, Marina; Pieters, Maria

    2015-02-25

    Genetic heterogeneity of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs has been reported, however there has been limited reproducibility on the molecular methods employed so far. The aim of this study was to modify and standardize a high-resolution multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), to investigate the genetic variability of M. hyopneumoniae circulating in the United States of America (USA), Brazil, Mexico and Spain. The MLVA was standardized on the basis of the number of tandem repeats in two Mycoplasma adhesins, P97 and P146, which are proteins involved in the adherence of the pathogen to cilia. A total of 355 samples obtained from the four countries were analyzed. The Simpson's diversity index for the assay was D=0.976 when samples from all countries were combined. A large number of MLVA types (n=139) were identified, suggesting that multiple M. hyopneumoniae variants are circulating in swine. The locus P97 had 17 different types with 2-18 repeats. The P146 locus showed higher heterogeneity, with 34 different types, ranging from 7 to 48 repeats. MLVA types that presented more than 30 repeats in P146 were found in Spain and Brazil, while shorter repeats were observed in the USA and Mexico. This simplified MLVA method proved to be an efficient tool for typing M. hyopneumoniae with a high degree of stability, repeatability, and discriminatory power. In conclusion, M. hyopneumoniae showed a high variable number tandem repeat heterogeneity and this assay can be applied in molecular epidemiology investigations within farms and productions systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ABC transporters in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae: insights into evolution and pathogenicity

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    Marisa Fabiana Nicolás

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABC transporters represent one of the largest superfamilies of active membrane transport proteins (MTPs with a highly conserved ATPase domain that binds and hydrolyzes ATP, supplying energy for the uptake of a variety of nutrients and for the extrusion of drugs and metabolic wastes. The complete genomes of a non-pathogenic (J and pathogenic (7448 strain of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, as well as of a pathogenic (53 strain of Mycoplasma synoviae have been recently sequenced. A detailed study revealed a high percentage of CDSs encoding MTPs in M. hyopneumoniae strains J (13.4%, 7448 (13.8%, and in M. synoviae 53 (11.2%, and the ABC systems represented from 85.0 to 88.6% of those CDSs. Uptake systems are mainly involved in cell nutrition and some might be associated with virulence. Exporter systems include both drug and multidrug resistant systems (MDR, which may represent mechanisms of resistance to toxic molecules. No relation was found between the phylogeny of the ATPase domains and the lifestyle or pathogenicity of Mycoplasma, but several proteins, potentially useful as targets for the control of infections, were identified.

  14. Mycoplasma genitalium: an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen.

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    Sethi, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Samanta, Palash; Sharma, Meera

    2012-12-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a member of genital mycoplasmas, which is emerging as an important causative agent of sexually transmitted infections both in males and females. The advent of polymerase chain reaction and other molecular methods have made studies on M. genitalium more feasible, which is otherwise a difficult organism to isolate. Besides Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium is now an important and established cause of non gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men, more so in persistent and recurrent NGU. Multiple studies have also shown a positive association of M. genitalium with mucopurulent cervicitis and vaginal discharge in females as well. The evidences for M. genitalium pelvic inflammatory diseases and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that this organism has potential to cause ascending infection. Lack of clear association with M. genitalium has been reported for bacterial vaginosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diagnosis of M. genitalium infections is performed exclusively using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), owing to poor or slow growth of bacterium in culture. Although there are no guidelines available regarding treatment, macrolide group of antimicrobials appear to be more effective than tetracyclines. The present review provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of sexually transmitted infections due to M. genitalium.

  15. Draft genome sequence of the first human isolate of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum

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    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Fischer, Anne; Heller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is a well-known pathogen of small ruminants. A recent human case of septicemia involving this agent raised the question of its potential pathogenicity to humans. We present the first draft genome sequence of a human Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum...

  16. Pro-apoptotic effect of a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae putative type I signal peptidase on PK(15) swine cells.

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    Paes, Jéssica A; Virginio, Veridiana G; Cancela, Martín; Leal, Fernanda M A; Borges, Thiago J; Jaeger, Natália; Bonorino, Cristina; Schrank, Irene S; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2017-03-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is an economically significant swine pathogen that causes porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). Important processes for swine infection by M. hyopneumoniae depend on cell surface proteins, many of which are secreted by secretion pathways not completely elucidated so far. A putative type I signal peptidase (SPase I), a possible component of a putative Sec-dependent pathway, was annotated as a product of the sipS gene in the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae 7448 genome. This M. hyopneumoniae putative SPase I (MhSPase I) displays only 14% and 23% of sequence identity/similarity to Escherichia coli bona fide SPase I, and, in complementation assays performed with a conditional E. coli SPase I mutant, only a partial restoration of growth was achieved with the heterologous expression of a recombinant MhSPase I (rMhSPase I). Considering the putative surface location of MhSPase I and its previously demonstrated capacity to induce a strong humoral response, we then assessed its potential to elicit a cellular and possible immunomodulatory response. In assays for immunogenicity assessment, rMhSPase I unexpectedly showed a cytotoxic effect on murine splenocytes. This cytotoxic effect was further confirmed using the swine epithelial PK(15) cell line in MTT and annexin V-flow cytometry assays, which showed that rMhSPase I induces apoptosis in a dose dependent-way. It was also demonstrated that this pro-apoptotic effect of rMhSPase I involves activation of a caspase-3 cascade. The potential relevance of the rMhSPase I pro-apoptotic effect for M. hyopneumoniae-host interactions in the context of PEP is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mycoplasmas and their host: emerging and re-emerging minimal pathogens.

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    Citti, Christine; Blanchard, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Commonly known as mycoplasmas, bacteria of the class Mollicutes include the smallest and simplest life forms capable of self replication outside of a host. Yet, this minimalism hides major human and animal pathogens whose prevalence and occurrence have long been underestimated. Owing to advances in sequencing methods, large data sets have become available for a number of mycoplasma species and strains, providing new diagnostic approaches, typing strategies, and means for comprehensive studies. A broader picture is thus emerging in which mycoplasmas are successful pathogens having evolved a number of mechanisms and strategies for surviving hostile environments and adapting to new niches or hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel Vaccine Against Mycoplasma Hyosynoviae: The Immunogenic Effect of Iscom-Based Vaccines in Swine

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    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Vinther Heydenreich, Annette; Riber, Ulla

    Arthritis in swine is frequently caused by Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (Mhs). For the development of an effective vaccine we investigated the immunogenic effect of three vaccine preparations with the ISCOM adjuvant Posintro™ from Nordic Vaccine. A: formalin fixed whole-cells Mhs (300 µg/dose) mixed...... with Posintro, B: Deoxycholate extracted lipoproteins from Mhs organisms (DOC-antigen, 300 μg/dose) in Posintro and C: DOC-antigen (50 μg/dose) in Posintro. Each vaccine-group contained three pigs. Vaccinations (i.m.) were performed at 12 and 15 weeks of age. The development of specific IgG and secretion...... of IFNγ were measured. Three weeks after the second vaccination, pigs were euthanised and autopsied. Vaccine B induced a high level of specific serum IgG in all pigs a week after boost. Vaccine C gave a variable response after boost, with two pigs seroconverting, while no response was seen by vaccine A...

  19. Swine mycoplasmoses

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    Kobisch, M.; Friis, N.F.

    1996-01-01

    /tonsillar samples and can induce antibodies in blood and joint fluid. Predisposing factors play an important role. M. flocculare is widely distributed in swine, in normal and pneumonic lungs and in nasal cavities, but no pathogenic capability has been described. There is great interest in this mycoplasma because......Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. The lung lesions, generally observed in young pigs, are characterised by a hyperplasia of the epithelial cells and an increased perivascular and peribronchiolar accumulation of mononuclear cells. Following M. hyopneumoniae...

  20. Neglected intravascular pathogens, Babesia vulpes and haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population.

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    Koneval, Martina; Miterpáková, Martina; Hurníková, Zuzana; Blaňarová, Lucia; Víchová, Bronislava

    2017-08-30

    Wild animals, especially canids, are important reservoirs of vector-borne pathogens, that are transmitted by the ticks and other bloodsucking arthropods. In total, 300 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), shot by the hunters in eastern and northern Slovakia, were screened for the presence of vector-borne pathogens by PCR-based methods Blood samples were obtained from nine red foxes and tissue samples originated from 291 animals (the liver tissue samples from 49 foxes and spleen samples from 242 red foxes). Babesia vulpes and haemotropic Mycoplasma species were identified by amplification and sequencing of 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene fragments, respectively. Overall, the presence of these pathogens was recorded in 12.3% of screened DNA samples. Altogether 9.7% (29/300) of investigated foxes carried DNA of Babesia spp. In total, 12 out of 29 Babesia spp. PCR - positive amplicons were further sequenced and identified as B. vulpes (41.4%; 12/29), remaining 17 samples are referred as Babesia sp. (58.6%; 17/29). Overall prevalence of B. vulpes reached 4.0% (n=300). Thirteen (4.3%) samples tested positive for distinct Mycoplasma species. To the best of our knowledge, this study brings the first information on B. vulpes infection in red foxes in Slovakia, and the first data on the prevalence and diversity of haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in European red fox population. Moreover, co-infections with B. vulpes and Mycoplasma spp. were confirmed in 1.7% of tested DNA samples. The relatively high rates of blood pathogen' prevalence and species diversity in wild foxes indicate the role of the fox population in the maintenance of the parasites in sylvatic cycles and strengthen the assumption that foxes play an important role in spreading of infectious microorganisms within and outside the natural foci. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and host compatibility of plasmids for two important ruminant pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae.

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    Shukriti Sharma

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae.

  2. Pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae modifies outcomes of infection with European swine influenza virus of H1N1, but not H1N2, subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblanc, C; Gorin, S; Quéguiner, S; Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Ferré, S; Amenna, N; Cariolet, R; Simon, G

    2012-05-25

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) are widespread in farms and are major pathogens involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). The aim of this experiment was to compare the pathogenicity of European avian-like swine H1N1 and European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 viruses in naïve pigs and in pigs previously infected with Mhp. Six groups of SPF pigs were inoculated intra-tracheally with either Mhp, or H1N1, or H1N2 or Mhp+H1N1 or Mhp+H1N2, both pathogens being inoculated at 21 days intervals in these two last groups. A mock-infected group was included. Although both SIV strains induced clinical signs when singly inoculated, results indicated that the H1N2 SIV was more pathogenic than the H1N1 virus, with an earlier shedding and a greater spread in lungs. Initial infection with Mhp before SIV inoculation increased flu clinical signs and pathogenesis (hyperthermia, loss of appetite, pneumonia lesions) due to the H1N1 virus but did not modify significantly outcomes of H1N2 infection. Thus, Mhp and SIV H1N1 appeared to act synergistically, whereas Mhp and SIV H1N2 would compete, as H1N2 infection led to the elimination of Mhp in lung diaphragmatic lobes. In conclusion, SIV would be a risk factor for the severity of respiratory disorders when associated with Mhp, depending on the viral subtype involved. This experimental model of coinfection with Mhp and avian-like swine H1N1 is a relevant tool for studying the pathogenesis of SIV-associated PRDC and testing intervention strategies for the control of the disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The occurrence of mycoplasmas in the lungs of swine in Gran Canaria (Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assuncao, P.; De la Fe, C.; Kokotovic, Branko

    2005-01-01

    identified as Mycoplasma species. Using different species-specific PCRs, 40, 27, 11 and 7 of the isolates were identified as M hyorhinis, M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare, respectively. Nine of the M. hyopneumoniae cultures were found to be in mixed culture with M. flocculare...... as demonstrated by PCR. By use of a M. flocculare antiserum it was possible to eliminate M. flocculare from M. hyopneumoniae mixed cultures. This study is the first report on isolation of porcine mycoplasmas at Gran Canaria (Spain)....

  4. Effect of feed restriction on performance and postprandial nutrient metabolism in pigs co-infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, Nathalie; Deblanc, Céline; Cariolet, Roland; Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V; Merlot, Elodie; Simon, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    As nutritional status and inflammation are strongly connected, feeding and nutritional strategies could be effective to improve the ability of pigs to cope with disease. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of a feed restriction on the ability of pigs to resist and be tolerant to a coinfection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and the European H1N1 swine influenza virus, and the consequences for nutrient metabolism, with a focus on amino acids. Two groups of specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated with Mhp and H1N1 21 days apart. One group was fed ad libitum, the other group was subjected to a two-week 40% feed restriction starting one week before H1N1 infection. The two respective mock control groups were included. Three days post-H1N1 infection, 200 g of feed was given to pigs previously fasted overnight and serial blood samples were taken over 4 hours to measure plasma nutrient concentrations. Throughout the study, clinical signs were observed and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Feed-restricted pigs presented shorter hyperthermia and a positive mean weight gain over the 3 days post-H1N1 infection whereas animals fed ad libitum lost weight. Both infection and feed restriction reduced postprandial glucose concentrations, indicating changes in glucose metabolism. Post-prandial plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, arginine and threonine were lower in co-infected pigs suggesting a greater use of those amino acids for metabolic purposes associated with the immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that modifying feeding practices could help to prepare animals to overcome an influenza infection. Connections with metabolism changes are discussed.

  5. Effect of feed restriction on performance and postprandial nutrient metabolism in pigs co-infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Le Floc'h

    Full Text Available As nutritional status and inflammation are strongly connected, feeding and nutritional strategies could be effective to improve the ability of pigs to cope with disease. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of a feed restriction on the ability of pigs to resist and be tolerant to a coinfection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp and the European H1N1 swine influenza virus, and the consequences for nutrient metabolism, with a focus on amino acids. Two groups of specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated with Mhp and H1N1 21 days apart. One group was fed ad libitum, the other group was subjected to a two-week 40% feed restriction starting one week before H1N1 infection. The two respective mock control groups were included. Three days post-H1N1 infection, 200 g of feed was given to pigs previously fasted overnight and serial blood samples were taken over 4 hours to measure plasma nutrient concentrations. Throughout the study, clinical signs were observed and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Feed-restricted pigs presented shorter hyperthermia and a positive mean weight gain over the 3 days post-H1N1 infection whereas animals fed ad libitum lost weight. Both infection and feed restriction reduced postprandial glucose concentrations, indicating changes in glucose metabolism. Post-prandial plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, arginine and threonine were lower in co-infected pigs suggesting a greater use of those amino acids for metabolic purposes associated with the immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that modifying feeding practices could help to prepare animals to overcome an influenza infection. Connections with metabolism changes are discussed.

  6. Prevalence, serotype, virulence characteristics, clonality and antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from swine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Swine are the only known animal reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE), a human pathogen. Since YE is a fecal organism of swine, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, serotype, virulence plasmid (pYV)-associated characteristics, clonality, and antibiotic su...

  7. High occurrence of Mycoplasma suis infection in swine herds from non-technified farms in Mossoró, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil

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    Mariana Aparecida Toledo

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycoplasma suis, the etiological agent of swine hemoplasmosis, has been neglected in swine herds around the world. Swine hemoplasmosis is frequently associated with hemolytic anemia, disgalacty, infertility and immunosuppression, and it results in significant economic losses. This study investigates the occurrence of M. suis in non-technified swine herds in the northeastern region of Brazil using quantitative PCR (qPCR based on the 16S rRNA gene. Between March and August 2013, blood samples from 147 swine were collected during slaughter in the city of Mossoró, state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. One hundred and twelve samples (76.19% were positive for M. suis by qPCR assays. The range of Cqs and quantification (copies of a M. suis-16S rRNA gene fragment/µL was 20.86–37.89 and 1.64×101–6.64×107, respectively. One can conclude that M. suis infection have high occurrence (76,19% in non-technified swine-rearing systems in Mossoró in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

  8. Secretomes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare reveal differences associated to pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Jéssica A; Lorenzatto, Karina R; de Moraes, Sofia N; Moura, Hercules; Barr, John R; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2017-02-10

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare cohabit the porcine respiratory tract. However, M. hyopneumoniae causes the porcine enzootic pneumonia, while M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Comparative analyses demonstrated high similarity between these species, which includes the sharing of all predicted virulence factors. Nevertheless, studies related to soluble secretomes of mycoplasmas were little known, although they are important for bacterial-host interactions. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis between the soluble secreted proteins repertoires of the pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and its closely related commensal Mycoplasma flocculare. For that, bacteria were cultured in medium with reduced serum concentration and secreted proteins were identified by a LC-MS/MS proteomics approach. Altogether, 62 and 26 proteins were identified as secreted by M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare, respectively, being just seven proteins shared between these bacteria. In M. hyopneumoniae secretome, 15 proteins described as virulence factors were found; while four putative virulence factors were identified in M. flocculare secretome. For the first time, clear differences related to virulence were found between these species, helping to elucidate the pathogenic nature of M. hyopneumoniae to swine hosts. For the first time, the secretomes of two porcine respiratory mycoplasmas, namely the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae and the commensal M. flocculare were compared. The presented results revealed previously unknown differences between these two genetically related species, some of which are associated to the M. hyopneumoniae ability to cause porcine enzootic pneumonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of the GTPase superfamily in Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

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    Clayton Luiz Borges

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are the smallest known prokaryotes with self-replication ability. They are obligate parasites, taking up many molecules of their hosts and acting as pathogens in men, animals, birds and plants. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the infective agent of swine mycoplasmosis and Mycoplasma synoviae is responsible for subclinical upper respiratory infections that may result in airsacculitis and synovitis in chickens and turkeys. These highly infectious organisms present a worldwide distribution and are responsible for major economic problems. Proteins of the GTPase superfamily occur in all domains of life, regulating functions such as protein synthesis, cell cycle and differentiation. Despite their functional diversity, all GTPases are believed to have evolved from a single common ancestor. In this work we have identified mycoplasma GTPases by searching the complete genome databases of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, J (non-pathogenic and 7448 (pathogenic strains. Fifteen ORFs encoding predicted GTPases were found in M. synoviae and in the two strains of M. hyopneumoniae. Searches for conserved G domains in GTPases were performed and the sequences were classified into families. The GTPase phylogenetic analysis showed that the subfamilies were well resolved into clades. The presence of GTPases in the three strains suggests the importance of GTPases in 'minimalist' genomes.

  10. The linear chromosome of the plant-pathogenic mycoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'

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    Migdoll Alexander M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted, uncultivable bacterial plant pathogens that cause diseases in hundreds of economically important plants. They represent a monophyletic group within the class Mollicutes (trivial name mycoplasmas and are characterized by a small genome with a low GC content, and the lack of a firm cell wall. All mycoplasmas, including strains of 'Candidatus (Ca. Phytoplasma asteris' and 'Ca. P. australiense', examined so far have circular chromosomes, as is the case for almost all walled bacteria. Results Our work has shown that 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali', the causative agent of apple proliferation disease, has a linear chromosome. Linear chromosomes were also identified in the closely related provisional species 'Ca. P. pyri' and 'Ca. P. prunorum'. The chromosome of 'Ca. P. mali' strain AT is 601,943 bp in size and has a GC content of 21.4%. The chromosome is further characterized by large terminal inverted repeats and covalently closed hairpin ends. Analysis of the protein-coding genes revealed that glycolysis, the major energy-yielding pathway supposed for 'Ca. P. asteris', is incomplete in 'Ca. P. mali'. Due to the apparent lack of other metabolic pathways present in mycoplasmas, it is proposed that maltose and malate are utilized as carbon and energy sources. However, complete ATP-yielding pathways were not identified. 'Ca. P. mali' also differs from 'Ca. P. asteris' by a smaller genome, a lower GC content, a lower number of paralogous genes, fewer insertions of potential mobile DNA elements, and a strongly reduced number of ABC transporters for amino acids. In contrast, 'Ca. P. mali' has an extended set of genes for homologous recombination, excision repair and SOS response than 'Ca. P. asteris'. Conclusion The small linear chromosome with large terminal inverted repeats and covalently closed hairpin ends, the extremely low GC content and the limited metabolic capabilities reflect unique features of 'Ca

  11. Correlated response of peripheral blood cytokines with selection for reduced mycoplasma pneumonia of swine lesions in Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takumi; Okamura, Toshihiro; Kojima-Shibata, Chihiro; Kadowaki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Eisaku; Uenishi, Hirohide; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) is responsible for significant economic losses in the swine industry. We selected Landrace pigs for reduced MPS pulmonary lesions over five generations, and measured concentrations of the following cytokines: interleukin (IL)-10, IL-13, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ to estimate their correlation with MPS lesions. Sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were injected twice intramuscularly at 70 and 95 kg body weight. Blood serum samples were collected after 1 week of secondary SRBC inoculation and cytokine concentrations were analyzed by ELISA. Genetic parameters and breeding values were estimated. The heritability estimates of IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ were 0.20 ± 0.06, 0.12 ± 0.06, 0.27 ± 0.07, 0.20 ± 0.10 and 0.05 ± 0.03, respectively. Genetic correlations of IL-17 and TNF-α with pulmonary MPS lesions were high (-0.86 ± 0.13 and 0.69 ± 0.29, respectively) and those of IFN-γ and IL-13 with MPS lesions were moderately negative (-0.45). Through selection, the breeding values of IL-17 and IFN-γ increased substantially and those of TNF-α decreased. These results suggest that innate and cellular immunity are more important for the suppression of pulmonary lesions in MPS than humoral-mediated immunity, such as antibody response. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Florfenicol feed supplemented decrease the clinical effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae experimental infection in swine in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprián, A; Palacios, J M; Quintanar, D; Batista, L; Colmenares, G; Cruz, T; Romero, A; Schnitzlein, W; Mendoza, S

    2012-04-01

    The therapeutic value of Florfenicol feed supplemented was evaluated in conventional pigs to eliminate consequences of chronic infection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The experimental animals were pigs with an average of 16 kg, after intratracheally inoculation with M. hyopneumoniae they were divided in two experimental groups: (a) the non-medicated; and (b) the feed supplemented group (20 g Florfenicol/ton of feed) during the ensuing 35 days. The average daily weight gain of the Florfenicol-treated pigs (0.33±0.14 kg/day) was significantly higher than that of the non-treated ones (0.21±0.10 kg/day). In medicated animals was still impaired relative to that of the uninfected ones control group (0.39±0.02 kg/day). The average percentage of pneumonic gross lesions extensions' of the pigs groups was: 13.99% for M. hyopneumoniae infected non-medicated group; 1.79% M. hyopneumoniae infected, Florfenicol-treated group and, 0.56% of the uninfected control group. M. hyopneumoniae; colonization was detected at these levels in 7 and 9 members of the respective infected groups. The extent of the pneumonic lesions and M. hyopneumoniae generally was greater in the non-medicated pigs. Therefore, oral administration of Florfenicol via feed ingestion seemed to be somewhat effective in ameliorating the clinical effects of M. hyopneumoniae infection of swine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of pathogens from Mollicutes class in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of Mycoplasma bovis field strains

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    Szacawa Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycoplasma bovis is one of the main pathogens involved in cattle pneumonia. Other mycoplasmas have also been directly implicated in respiratory diseases in cattle. The prevalence of different Mycoplasma spp. in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of M. bovis field strains were evaluated. Material and Methods: In total, 713 nasal swabs from 73 cattle herds were tested. The uvrC gene fragment was amplified by PCR and PCR products were sequenced. PCR/DGGE and RAPD were performed. Results: It was found that 39 (5.5% samples were positive for M. bovis in the PCR and six field strains had point nucleotide mutations. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis of 20 M. bovis field strains tested with RAPD showed two distinct groups of M. bovis strains sharing only 3.8% similarity. PCR/DGGE analysis demonstrated the presence of bacteria belonging to the Mollicutes class in 79.1% of DNA isolates. The isolates were identified as: Mycoplasma bovirhinis, M. dispar, M. bovis, M. canis, M. arginini, M. canadense, M. bovoculi, M. alkalescens, and Ureaplasma diversum. Conclusion: Different Mycoplasma spp. strains play a crucial role in inducing respiratory diseases in cattle.

  14. Dileclion of pathogenic bacteria and mycoplasmas from pneumonic lungs of pigs and histopalhological finding

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    Siti Chotiah

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 104 pig's lung samples with pneumonic lesions were collected from Kapuk abattoir in West Jakarta and piggeries in Tangerang, West Java. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria and mycoplasmas of the lung were carried out and Mycoplarma sp . was isolated from 9 (8.7% samples, Pacteurella multocida from 5 (4.8%samples, and Bordetella brornrhiseptica from 2 (1 .9% samples while the test of the samples were negative . Histopathological examination were also carried out and the lesions were found on 30 (28.8% samples for Bordetella sp., 6 (5 .8% samples for Mycoplarma sp ., 16 (15.4% samples for Mycoplarma sp . in combination with Bordetella sp ., 25 (24.0% samples for Mycoplavma sp . in combination with Pacteurella sp. and 27 (26.0 % samples were judged to be normal . All microorganisms were found 68 .7% and 72.7% from apical lobes of the lung by bacteriological and histopathological examinations respectively .

  15. Evaluation of tulathromycin for the treatment of pneumonia following experimental infection of swine with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jo; Morgan, Jeremy H; Nanjiani, Ian A; Sherington, John; Rowan, Tim G; Sunderland, Simon J

    2005-01-01

    Tulathromycin was evaluated in the treatment of pneumonia in weaned pigs inoculated intranasally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Five days postchallenge, the pigs were randomized to treatment with a single IM administration of saline, a single IM administration of tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg; day 0), or three IM administrations of enrofloxacin (5.0 mg/kg; days 0, 1, 2). Pigs were necropsied on day 12 or 13. Unchallenged controls remained healthy with no lung pathology. Compared with saline, coughing, mean lung lesion score, and proportional lung weight were significantly reduced and weight gain was significantly greater for tulathromycin-treated pigs (P pigs (P treatment of pneumonia following experimental infection with M. hyopneumoniae.

  16. Comparative genomic analyses of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic 168 strain and its high-passaged attenuated strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L and carried out comparative genomic analyses. Results We performed the first comprehensive analysis of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated strain and made a preliminary survey of coding sequences (CDSs) that may be related to virulence. The 168-L genome has a highly similar gene content and order to that of 168, but is 4,483 bp smaller because there are 60 insertions and 43 deletions in 168-L. Besides these indels, 227 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified. We further investigated the variants that affected CDSs, and compared them to reported virulence determinants. Notably, almost all of the reported virulence determinants are included in these variants affected CDSs. In addition to variations previously described in mycoplasma adhesins (P97, P102, P146, P159, P216, and LppT), cell envelope proteins (P95), cell surface antigens (P36), secreted proteins and chaperone protein (DnaK), mutations in genes related to metabolism and growth may also contribute to the attenuated virulence in 168-L. Furthermore, many mutations were located in the previously described repeat motif, which may be of primary importance for virulence. Conclusions We studied the virulence attenuation mechanism of M. hyopneumoniae by comparative genomic analysis of virulent strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L. Our findings provide a preliminary survey of CDSs that may be related to virulence. While these include reported virulence-related genes, other novel virulence determinants were also detected. This new information will form

  17. Effect of low-pathogenicity influenza virus H3N8 infection on Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, Laszlo; Egyed, Laszlo; Palfi, Vilmos; Beres, Andrea; Pitlik, Ervin; Somogyi, Maria; Szathmary, Susan; Denes, Bela

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma infection is still very common in chicken and turkey flocks. Several low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are circulating in wild birds that can be easily transmitted to poultry flocks. However, the effect of LPAI on mycoplasma infection is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the infection of LPAI virus H3N8 (A/mallard/Hungary/19616/07) in chickens challenged with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Two groups of chickens were aerosol challenged with M. gallisepticum. Later one of these groups and one mycoplasma-free group were aerosol challenged with the LPAI H3N8 virus. The birds were observed for clinical signs for 8 days, then euthanized, and examined for the presence of M. gallisepticum in the trachea, lung, air sac, liver, spleen, kidney and heart, and for developing anti-mycoplasma and anti-viral antibodies. The LPAI H3N8 virus did not cause any clinical signs but M. gallisepticum infection caused clinical signs, reduction of body weight gain and colonization of the inner organs. These parameters were more severe in the birds co-infected with M. gallisepticum and LPAI H3N8 virus than in the group challenged with M. gallisepticum alone. In addition, in the birds infected with both M. gallisepticum and LPAI H3N8 virus, the anti-mycoplasma antibody response was reduced significantly when compared with the group challenged with M. gallisepticum alone. Co-infection with LPAI H3N8 virus thus enhanced pathogenesis of M. gallisepticum infection significantly.

  18. Survey of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, haemotropic mycoplasmas and other arthropod-borne pathogens in cats from Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Albania is a country on the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. The Mediterranean climate is favourable for the stable development of many arthropod species, which are incriminated as vectors for various agents. Recently, several papers have reported on epidemiological aspects of parasitic diseases including vector-borne disease agents of dogs with zoonotic characteristics in Albania. However, data on the epidemiology of feline parasitic and bacterial agents in Albania is scarce. Methods Serum and EDTA-blood samples collected from 146 domestic cats from Tirana during 2008 through 2010 were examined for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania infantum, and Anaplasma spp. with IFAT, for infection with L. infantum, A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. and haemotropic mycoplasmas with conventional PCR and real-time PCR and for Dirofilaria immitis with antigen ELISA. Additionally blood smear microscopy was carried out for detection of blood-borne pathogens. Results Antibodies to T. gondii (titre ≥1:100) were demonstrated in 91 cats (62.3%). Antibodies to N. caninum (titre ≥1:100), L. infantum (titre ≥1:64) and Anaplasma spp. (titre ≥1:100) were found in the serum of 15 (10.3%), 1 (0.7%) or 3 (2.1%) cats, respectively. DNA of haemotropic mycoplasmas was detected in the blood of 45 cats (30.8%), namely Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum (21.9%), Mycoplasma haemofelis (10.3%), and Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis (5.5%), with ten cats harbouring co-infections of two mycoplasmas each; blood from one cat was PCR positive for Bartonella henselae. No DNA of Leishmania spp. and A. phagocytophilum or circulating D. immitis antigen was detected in any cat sample. The overall prevalence of haemotropic mycoplasmas was significantly higher in male compared to female cats (40.6% vs. 24.1%, p = 0.0444); and age was associated positively with the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii (p = 0.0008) and the percentage of haemotropic

  19. Detection, quantification and genetic variability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from apparently healthy and pneumonic swine

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    Yaima Burgher Pulgarón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As diferenças moleculares entre as estirpes de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae presentes em pulmões de suínos com pneumonia tem sido estudadas. Porém, estudos comparativos relativos as estirpes presentes nos suínos aparentemente saudáveis não foram levados a cabo. O objetivo do estudo foi a detecção, quantificação e analise molecular de M. hyopneumoniae nos pulmões suínos com e sem lesões pneumônicas. Para a detecção de M. hyopneumoniae usaramse o PCR Multiplo (YAMAGUTI, 2008, o PCR a Tempo Real (STRAIT et al., 2008 e a amplificação de múltiplo VNTR (VRANCKX et al., 2011. A caracterização molecular das estirpes foi realizada mediante a análise do número de copias de VNTR em P97R1, P146R3, H2R1 e H4. O M. hyopneumoniae foi detectado em amostras de suínos saudáveis e pneumônicos e a quantidade de M. hyopneumoniae nas amostras positivas variou com o tipo de ensaio. O maior número de amostras positivas foi identificado pela amplificação de múltiplas VNTR combinado com a eletroforese de capilares. Usando o PCR a Tempo Real, 4.9*104 copias de genoma/mL de M. hyopneumoniae foram detectadas em pulmões aparentemente saudáveis. Uma quantidade média de 3.9*106 copias de genoma/mL de M. hyopneumoniae foi detectada em pulmões pneumônicos. A análise do número de copias de VNTR demonstrou uma elevada variabilidade.

  20. Mycoplasma hyorhinis infection in early cases of mycoplasmal pneumonia in swine and evaluation of diagnostic assays

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    Carlos E.R. Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mycoplasmal pneumonia is an important disease in the pig industry. Due to the controversial role of Mycoplasma hyorhinis in this disease, confirmation of the presence of this bacterium and the identification of its roles in respiratory disease remain major challenges. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of M. hyorhinis in early cases of mycoplasmal pneumonia and to determine the usefulness of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH for the diagnosis of respiratory mycoplasmosis in naturally infected pigs. Ninety M. hyopneumoniae and/or M. hyorhinis-infected lung tissue samples based on diagnostic mosaic (DM were used. The average age of the animals was 116 and 57 days (P<0.01 for groups 1 (positive-M. hyopneumoniae only and 2 (positive-M. hyorhinis only, respectively. These findings suggest that development of lesions caused by M. hyorhinis occurs earlier than for M. hyopneumoniae. Using the DM as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of FISH for M. hyopneumoniae were 75 and 100%, respectively, and were 40 and 73.3% for the immunohistochemistry (IHC. The sensitivity and specificity of FISH for M. hyorhinis were 76.7 and 100%, respectively. These findings demonstrate that FISH can be a useful tool for diagnosing mycoplasmosis. Viral antigens (PCV2 or influenza A were detected in 53.3% (16/30 of the samples in group 2 (M. hyorhinis-PCR positive and 13.3% (4/30 of the samples in group 1 (M. hyopneumoniae-PCR positive. This finding indicates that the association of M. hyorhinis and viral infection in nursery pigs likely starts due to a viral immunosuppressive condition.

  1. Mycoplasmas and bovine respiratory disease: studies related to pathogenicity and the immune response--a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, C J

    1983-01-01

    Three species of mycoplasma have been established as being of importance as causes of pneumonia in housed calves, based on pathogenicity studies and frequency of association with the disease. These three species are Mycoplasma bovis, M. dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum. M. bovis is the most pathogenic of these species but the disease outbreaks with which it is associated are sporadic. M. dispar is regularly isolated from pneumonic calves but is also found causing mild superficial and asymptomatic infections of the respiratory mucosa. The bovine ureaplasmas are serologically complex. They are distinct from ureaplasmas isolated from other non-ruminants by PAGE analysis, G + C content of DNA, and serology. A second species within the genus ureaplasma has been proposed to accommodate the bovine ureaplasmas, U. diversum. Control of mycoplasma respiratory infections of cattle based on immunization might be possible. Calves have been immunized against M. bovis and immunity has been related to antibody in the lung. M. dispar appears less immunogenic in calves than M. bovis and this may contribute to its pathogenicity.

  2. Mycoplasma suis infection results endothelial cell damage and activation: new insight into the cell tropism and pathogenicity of hemotrophic mycoplasma

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    Sokoli Albina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM are highly specialized red blood cell parasites that cause infectious anemia in a variety of mammals, including humans. To date, no in vitro cultivation systems for HM have been available, resulting in relatively little information about the pathogenesis of HM infection. In pigs, Mycoplasma suis-induced infectious anemia is associated with hemorrhagic diathesis, and coagulation dysfunction. However, intravasal coagulation and subsequent consumption coagulopathy can only partly explain the sequence of events leading to hemorrhagic diathesis manifesting as cyanosis, petechial bleeding, and ecchymosis, and to disseminated coagulation. The involvement of endothelial activation and damage in M. suis-associated pathogenesis was investigated using light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and cell sorting. M. suis interacted directly with endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial activation, widespread endothelial damage, and adherence of red blood cells to the endothelium were evident in M. suis-infected pigs. These alterations of the endothelium were accompanied by hemorrhage, intravascular coagulation, vascular occlusion, and massive morphological changes within the parenchyma. M. suis biofilm-like microcolonies formed on the surface of endothelial cells, and may represent a putative persistence mechanism of M. suis. In vitro analysis demonstrated that M. suis interacted with the endothelial cytoskeletal protein actin, and induced actin condensation and activation of endothelial cells, as determined by the up-regulation of ICAM, PECAM, E-selectin, and P-selectin. These findings demonstrate an additional cell tropism of HM for endothelial cells and suggest that M. suis interferes with the protective function of the endothelium, resulting in hemorrhagic diathesis.

  3. Genes indicative of zoonotic and swine pathogens are persistent in stream water and sediment following a swine manure spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Johnson, Heather E.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Foreman, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Manure spills to streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB); the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol; 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viable cells; one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII) by quantitative PCR (qPCR); and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR, or reverse-transcriptase qPCR. Twelve days post-spill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli, were detected in water or sediment. STII increased from undetectable before, or above the spill, to 105 copies/100 mL water 12 days post-spill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells post-spill. Eighteen days post-spill porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. Sediment FIB concentrations (per gram wet weight) were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals post-spill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days post-spill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes, and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences.

  4. Evaluation of the egg transmission and pathogenicity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates genotyped as ts-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Natalie K; Ferguson-Noel, Naola

    2015-01-01

    Live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines are used for the control of respiratory disease, egg production losses and egg transmission associated with M. gallisepticum infection in long-lived poultry. The first field case of apparent increased virulence and vertical transmission of ts-11, a live M. gallisepticum vaccine, has been reported. In that study a M. gallisepticum isolate from the broiler progeny of ts-11-vaccinated breeders was genotyped as ts-11 by sequence analysis of four different genetic targets and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and found to be significantly more virulent than ts-11 vaccine. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the rate of egg transmission and pathogenicity of ts-11 vaccine and isolates recovered from ts-11-vaccinated breeders (K6222B) and their broiler progeny (K6216D) which had been genotyped as ts-11. Groups of 28-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens at 87% average weekly egg production were inoculated with sterile broth media (negative controls), ts-11 vaccine, K6222B, K6216D or R strain (positive controls) by eye-drop and aerosol. K6216D transmitted via the egg at an average rate of 4.0% in the third and fourth weeks post-infection, while egg transmission of K6222B and ts-11 vaccine was not detected. M. gallisepticum was isolated from the air sacs, ovaries and oviducts of hens infected with K6216D and K6222B, but not from those infected with ts-11 vaccine. K6216D and K6222B both induced respiratory signs and significantly more tracheal colonization and more severe tracheal and air sac lesions than ts-11 vaccine (P ≤ 0.05). There were no substantial differences in the egg production of ts-11, K6216D and K6222B infected groups. These results provide the first conclusive evidence of transovarian transmission of an isolate genotyped as ts-11 and indicate that isolates genotyed as ts-11 vary in their virulence and ability to transmit via the egg.

  5. Commercial bacterins did not induce detectable levels of antibodies in mice against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens strongly recognized by swine immune system

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    Andressa Fisch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae results in major economic losses to the swine industry. Hence, the identification of factors that provide protection against EP could help to develop effective vaccines. One such factor that provides partial protection are bacterins. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the induction of antibodies against fifteen M. hyopneumoniae antigens, strongly recognized by the swine immune system during natural infection, in mice vaccinated with six commercial bacterins. Each group of mice was inoculated with one bacterin, and seroconversion was assessed by indirect ELISA using recombinant antigens and M. hyopneumoniae 7448 whole cell extract. Sera from one inoculated group recognized antigen MHP_0067, and sera from four inoculated groups recognized antigens MHP_0513 and MHP_0580. None of the bacterins was able to induce seroconversion against the twelve remaining antigens. This absence of a serological response could be attributed to the lack of antigen expression in M. hyopneumoniae strains used in bacterin production. Additionally the partial protection provided by these vaccines could be due to low expression or misfolding of antigens during vaccine preparation. Therefore, the supplementation of bacterins with these recombinant antigens could be a potential alternative in the development of more effective vaccines.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

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    Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, tubal factor infertility (TFI, and ectopic pregnancy (EP are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health.

  7. Genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian and swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jeong, Jipseol; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Choi, Eun-Jin; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the potential for cross-species transmission of influenza viruses by comparing the genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with different host origins in Korea. Antigenic and phylogenetic analyses of H1 AIVs circulating in Korea provided evidence of genetic similarity between viruses that infect domestic ducks and those that infect wild birds, although there was no relationship between avian and swine viruses. However, there were some relationships between swine and human viral genes. The replication and pathogenicity of the H1 viruses was assessed in chickens, domestic ducks and mice. Viral shedding in chickens was relatively high. Virus was recovered from both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs up to 5-10 days post-inoculation. The titres of domestic duck viruses in chickens were much higher than those of wild-bird viruses. Both domestic duck and wild-bird viruses replicated poorly in domestic ducks. None of the swine viruses replicated in chickens or domestic ducks; however, six viruses showed relatively high titres in mice, regardless of host origin, and induced clinical signs such as ruffled fur, squatting and weight loss. Thus, although the phylogenetic and antigenic analyses showed no evidence of interspecies transmission between birds and swine, the results suggest that Korean H1 viruses have the potential to cause disease in mammals. Therefore, we should intensify continuous monitoring of avian H1 viruses in mammals and seek to prevent interspecies transmission. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. A novel pathogenic Mammalian orthoreovirus from diarrheic pigs and Swine blood meal in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmasandra Narayanappa, Athmaram; Sooryanarain, Harini; Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Cao, Dianjun; Ammayappan Venkatachalam, Backiyalakshmi; Kambiranda, Devaiah; LeRoith, Tanya; Heffron, Connie Lynn; Lindstrom, Nicole; Hall, Karen; Jobst, Peter; Sexton, Cary; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2015-05-19

    Since May 2013, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea have devastated the U.S. swine industry, causing immense economic losses. Two different swine enteric coronaviruses (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Delta coronavirus) have been isolated from the affected swine population. The disease has been reported from at least 32 states of the United States and other countries, including Mexico, Peru, Dominican Republic, Canada, Columbia, Ecuador, and Ukraine, with repeated outbreaks in previously infected herds. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a novel mammalian orthoreovirus 3 (MRV3) from diarrheic feces of piglets from these outbreaks in three states and ring-dried swine blood meal from multiple sources. MRV3 could not be isolated from healthy or pigs that had recovered from epidemic diarrhea from four states. Several MRV3 isolates were obtained from chloroform-extracted pig feces or blood meal in cell cultures or developing chicken embryos. Biological characterization of two representative isolates revealed trypsin resistance and thermostability at 90°C. NextGen sequencing of ultrapurified viruses indicated a strong homology of the S1 segment to mammalian and bat MRV3. Neonatal piglets experimentally infected with these viruses or a chloroform extract of swine blood meal developed severe diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis with 100% mortality within 3 days postinfection. Therefore, the novel porcine MRV3 may contribute to enteric disease along with other swine enteric viruses. The role of MRV3 in the current outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea in the United States remains to be determined, but the pathogenic nature of the virus warrants further investigations on its epidemiology and prevalence. Porcine orthoreoviruses causing diarrhea have been reported in China and Korea but not in the United States. We have isolated and characterized two pathogenic reassortant MRV3 isolates from swine fecal samples from porcine epidemic diarrhea outbreaks

  9. Pathogenicity and transmissibility of North American triple reassortant swine influenza A viruses in ferrets.

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    Subrata Barman

    Full Text Available North American triple reassortant swine (TRS influenza A viruses have caused sporadic human infections since 2005, but human-to-human transmission has not been documented. These viruses have six gene segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, and NS closely related to those of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses. Therefore, understanding of these viruses' pathogenicity and transmissibility may help to identify determinants of virulence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses and to elucidate potential human health threats posed by the TRS viruses. Here we evaluated in a ferret model the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three groups of North American TRS viruses containing swine-like and/or human-like HA and NA gene segments. The study was designed only to detect informative and significant patterns in the transmissibility and pathogenicity of these three groups of viruses. We observed that irrespective of their HA and NA lineages, the TRS viruses were moderately pathogenic in ferrets and grew efficiently in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. All North American TRS viruses studied were transmitted between ferrets via direct contact. However, their transmissibility by respiratory droplets was related to their HA and NA lineages: TRS viruses with human-like HA and NA were transmitted most efficiently, those with swine-like HA and NA were transmitted minimally or not transmitted, and those with swine-like HA and human-like NA (N2 showed intermediate transmissibility. We conclude that the lineages of HA and NA may play a crucial role in the respiratory droplet transmissibility of these viruses. These findings have important implications for pandemic planning and warrant confirmation.

  10. PA-X protein decreases replication and pathogenicity of swine influenza virus in cultured cells and mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Qian; Sun, Ying-Feng; Ruan, Bao-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Min; Wang, Qi; Yang, Hai-Ming; Wang, Shuai-Yong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Shan, Tong-Ling; Tong, Wu; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Guo-Xin; Zheng, Hao; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Yu, Hai

    2017-06-01

    Swine influenza viruses have been circulating in pigs throughout world and might be potential threats to human health. PA-X protein is a newly discovered protein produced from the PA gene by ribosomal frameshifting and the effects of PA-X on the 1918 H1N1, the pandemic 2009 H1N1, the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and the avian H9N2 influenza viruses have been reported. However, the role of PA-X in the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus is still unknown. In this study, we rescued the H1N1 wild-type (WT) classical swine influenza virus (A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2011 (H1N1)) and H1N1 PA-X deficient virus containing mutations at the frameshift motif, and compared their replication properties and pathogenicity of swine influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that the expression of PA-X inhibits virus replication and polymerase activity in cultured cells and decreases virulence in mouse models. Therefore, our study demonstrates that PA-X protein acts as a negative virulence regulator for classical H1N1 swine influenza virus and decreases virulence by inhibiting viral replication and polymerase activity, deepening our understanding of the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pathogenic characteristics of a novel triple-reasserted H1N2 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huili; Tao, Jie; Zhang, Pengchao; Yin, Xiuchen; Ha, Zhuo; Zhang, Chunling

    2016-07-01

    A novel triple reasserted H1N2 virus A/swine/Shanghai/1/2007 (SH07) was isolated from nasal swabs of weaned pig showing clinical symptoms of coughing and sneezing. To explore the virus characteristics, mice, chickens and pigs were selected for pathogenicity study. Pigs inoculated intranasally with 10(6) TCID50 SH07 showed clinical symptoms with coughing and sneezing, but no death. The virus nuclear acid was detected in many tissues using real-time PCR, which was mainly distributed in respiratory system particularly in the lungs. The virus was low-pathogenic to chickens with 10(6) TCID50 dose inoculation either via intramuscular or intranasal routes. However virus nuclear acid detection and virus isolation confirmed that the virus can also be found in nasal and rectum. When virus was inoculated into mice by intramuscular or intranasal routes we observed 100% and 80% lethality respectively. The third generation of samples passaged on MDCK cell were SIV positive in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using antiserum against H1N2 SIV. Furthermore, the lungs of mice showed obvious lesion with interstitial pneumonia. Data in our study suggest that SH07 is preferentially pathogenic to mammals rather than birds although it is a reasserting virus with the fragments from swine, human and avian origin. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Insight into the specific virulence related genes and toxin-antitoxin virulent pathogenicity islands in swine streptococcosis pathogen Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC35246

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Jianing; Yi, Li; Xu, Bin; Jia, Ruoyu; Li, Yue; Meng, Qingshu; Fan, Hongjie; Hu, Songnian

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an important pathogen causing swine streptococcosis in China. Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) of S. zooepidemicus have been transferred among bacteria through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and play important roles in the adaptation and increased virulence of S. zooepidemicus. The present study used comparative genomics to examine the different pathogenicities of S. zooepidemicus. Results Genome of S. zooepidemicus ATCC35246 ...

  13. Use of polymerase chain reactions to detect Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma imitans, Mycoplasma iowae, Mycoplasma meleagridis and Mycoplasma synoviae in birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, M; Hagen, N; Lueschow, D; Hafez, H M

    2008-10-01

    Certain Mycoplasma spp. are pathogens of poultry, but little is known of the role of mycoplasmas in disease of birds of prey. Species-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) for the detection of the poultry pathogens Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma imitans, Mycoplasma iowae, Mycoplasma meleagridis and Mycoplasma synoviae were therefore evaluated for use in birds of prey. The specificities of the PCR methods were established using avian and other mycoplasmas and also selected walled bacteria. The sensitivities of the different PCR assays varied between 100 fg and 10 pg DNA. Fifty-three tracheal swabs from healthy captive and free-ranging birds of prey were then investigated using these PCRs, and in no case was an amplicon obtained for M. gallisepticum/M. imitans, M. iowae or M. synoviae. Species-specific primers for M. meleagridis amplified a product from eight birds of prey but restriction enzyme analysis as well as sequencing of PCR products demonstrated these results to be false positives. Alignment studies of the sequenced products with the 16S rRNA gene sequence of various Mycoplasma species in GenBank demonstrated an identity of 91% to M. meleagridis but of 98% to Mycoplasma buteonis or Mycoplasma gallopavonis. Isolation and attempted identification of these mycoplasmas suggested it may be a previously unrecognized species.

  14. Survey of surface proteins from the pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 7448 using a biotin cell surface labeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reolon, Luciano Antonio; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the repertoire of proteins exposed on the cell surface by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae), the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, is critical to understand physiological processes associated with bacterial infection capacity, survival and pathogenesis. Previous in silico studies predicted that about a third of the genes in the M. hyopneumoniae genome code for surface proteins, but so far, just a few of them have experimental confirmation of their expression and surface localization. In this work, M. hyopneumoniae surface proteins were labeled in intact cells with biotin, and affinity-captured biotin-labeled proteins were identified by a gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach. A total of 20 gel slices were separately analyzed by mass spectrometry, resulting in 165 protein identifications corresponding to 59 different protein species. The identified surface exposed proteins better defined the set of M. hyopneumoniae proteins exposed to the host and added confidence to in silico predictions. Several proteins potentially related to pathogenesis, were identified, including known adhesins and also hypothetical proteins with adhesin-like topologies, consisting of a transmembrane helix and a large tail exposed at the cell surface. The results provided a better picture of the M. hyopneumoniae cell surface that will help in the understanding of processes important for bacterial pathogenesis. Considering the experimental demonstration of surface exposure, adhesion-like topology predictions and absence of orthologs in the closely related, non-pathogenic species Mycoplasma flocculare, several proteins could be proposed as potential targets for the development of drugs, vaccines and/or immunodiagnostic tests for enzootic pneumonia.

  15. Survey of surface proteins from the pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 7448 using a biotin cell surface labeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Antonio Reolon

    Full Text Available The characterization of the repertoire of proteins exposed on the cell surface by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, is critical to understand physiological processes associated with bacterial infection capacity, survival and pathogenesis. Previous in silico studies predicted that about a third of the genes in the M. hyopneumoniae genome code for surface proteins, but so far, just a few of them have experimental confirmation of their expression and surface localization. In this work, M. hyopneumoniae surface proteins were labeled in intact cells with biotin, and affinity-captured biotin-labeled proteins were identified by a gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach. A total of 20 gel slices were separately analyzed by mass spectrometry, resulting in 165 protein identifications corresponding to 59 different protein species. The identified surface exposed proteins better defined the set of M. hyopneumoniae proteins exposed to the host and added confidence to in silico predictions. Several proteins potentially related to pathogenesis, were identified, including known adhesins and also hypothetical proteins with adhesin-like topologies, consisting of a transmembrane helix and a large tail exposed at the cell surface. The results provided a better picture of the M. hyopneumoniae cell surface that will help in the understanding of processes important for bacterial pathogenesis. Considering the experimental demonstration of surface exposure, adhesion-like topology predictions and absence of orthologs in the closely related, non-pathogenic species Mycoplasma flocculare, several proteins could be proposed as potential targets for the development of drugs, vaccines and/or immunodiagnostic tests for enzootic pneumonia.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide production and myo-inositol metabolism as important traits for virulence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, M G; Mucha, S G; Parrot, D; Meiffren, G; Bachega, J F R; Comte, G; Zaha, A; Sagot, M F

    2018-04-06

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia. In our previous work, we reconstructed the metabolic models of this species along with two other mycoplasmas from the respiratory tract of swine: Mycoplasma hyorhinis, considered less pathogenic but which nonetheless causes disease and Mycoplasma flocculare, a commensal bacterium. We identified metabolic differences that partially explained their different levels of pathogenicity. One important trait was the production of hydrogen peroxide from the glycerol metabolism only in the pathogenic species. Another important feature was a pathway for the metabolism of myo-inositol in M. hyopneumoniae. Here, we tested these traits to understand their relation to the different levels of pathogenicity, comparing not only the species but also pathogenic and attenuated strains of M. hyopneumoniae. Regarding the myo-inositol metabolism, we show that only M. hyopneumoniae assimilated this carbohydrate and remained viable when myo-inositol was the primary energy source. Strikingly, only the two pathogenic strains of M. hyopneumoniae produced hydrogen peroxide in complex medium. We also show that this production was dependent on the presence of glycerol. Although further functional tests are needed, we present in this work two interesting metabolic traits of M. hyopneumoniae that might be directly related to its enhanced virulence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction in swine presenting respiratory problems Detecção do mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pela reação em cadeia da polimerase em suínos apresentando problemas respiratórios

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    M. Yamaguti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Since Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae isolation in appropriate media is a difficult task and impractical for daily routine diagnostics, Nested-PCR (N-PCR techniques are currently used to improve the direct diagnostic sensitivity of Swine Enzootic Pneumonia. In a first experiment, this paper describes a N-PCR technique optimization based on three variables: different sampling sites, sample transport media, and DNA extraction methods, using eight pigs. Based on the optimization results, a second experiment was conducted for testing validity using 40 animals. In conclusion, the obtained results of the N-PCR optimization and validation allow us to recommend this test as a routine monitoring diagnostic method for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in swine herds.A Nested-PCR (N-PCR tem como objetivo melhorar a sensibilidade do diagnóstico direto da Pneumonia Enzoótica Suína, pois o isolamento do Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae é trabalhoso tornando-se inviável na rotina. Neste trabalho, foi realizado um projeto piloto para a otimização da técnica de N-PCR, utilizando três variáveis: tipo de amostra biológica, meio de transporte da amostra e método de extração do DNA, utilizando oito animais. Os resultados obtidos foram empregados no segundo experimento para a validação do teste utilizando 40 animais. Os resultados obtidos, pela otimização da N-PCR, neste trabalho, permite sugerir esta prova como método de diagnóstico de rotina no monitoramento das infecções por Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae em granjas de suínos.

  18. In vitro evaluation of various quinolone antibacterial agents against veterinary mycoplasmas and porcine respiratory bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, P C; O'Hanlon, P J; Rogers, N H

    1989-03-01

    The in vitro activities of 12 quinolones and four antibiotics were determined against 15 veterinary mycoplasmal species and four species of bacteria commonly involved in respiratory infections in pigs. The newer quinolones were markedly more active in vitro against a wide range of mycoplasmas than nalidixic acid and the earlier quinolones. Against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae ciprofloxacin was the most active quinolone with a geometric mean minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against 16 strains of 0.01 microgram ml-1 compared with 0.04 microgram ml-1 for tiamulin, 0.06 microgram ml-1 for tylosin, 0.17 microgram ml-1 for oxytetracycline and 0.23 microgram ml-1 for gentamicin. M hyosynoviae was less sensitive to the quinolones with mean MICs of 0.6 microgram ml-1 for ofloxacin and 0.7 microgram ml-1 for ciprofloxacin compared with 0.034 microgram ml-1, or less, for tiamulin. Norfloxacin and its 6-chloro analogue were both mycoplasmacidal in vitro at five or 10 times their MICs against M hyopneumoniae UCD4. Tiamulin was mycoplasmastatic. The quinolones were also active against porcine Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida strains and Haemophilus species. Ciprofloxacin was the most active quinolone with mean MICs of 0.58 microgram ml-1 against B bronchiseptica (nine strains), 0.026 microgram ml-1 against P multocida (five strains) and 0.01 microgram ml-1, or less, against Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae (nine strains) and H parasuis (two strains) compared with mean MICs of from 0.5 microgram ml-1 to 64 micrograms ml-1, or more, for the antibiotics. This combination of excellent mycoplasmacidal activity against M hyopneumoniae and good antibacterial activity, suggests that the quinolones have great potential for treating respiratory infections in pigs, including enzootic pneumonia.

  19. Ultrafast evolution and loss of CRISPRs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

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    Nigel F Delaney

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus, a common North American songbird. For the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in House Finch isolates of MG, as well as in poultry outgroups. Using whole-genome sequences of 12 House Finch isolates across a 13-year serial sample and an additional four newly sequenced poultry strains, we estimate a nucleotide diversity in House Finch isolates of only ∼2% of ancestral poultry strains and a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.8-1.2×10(-5 per site per year both in poultry and in House Finches, an exceptionally fast rate rivaling some of the highest estimates reported thus far for bacteria. We also found high diversity and complete turnover of CRISPR arrays in poultry MG strains prior to the switch to the House Finch host, but after the invasion of House Finches there is progressive loss of CRISPR repeat diversity, and recruitment of novel CRISPR repeats ceases. Recent (2007 House Finch MG strains retain only ∼50% of the CRISPR repertoire founding (1994-95 strains and have lost the CRISPR-associated genes required for CRISPR function. Our results suggest that genome evolution in bacterial pathogens of wild birds can be extremely rapid and in this case is accompanied by apparent functional loss of CRISPRs.

  20. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and characterization of potential probiotic strains with antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán-Vega, Sandra Rayén; Villena, Julio; Valdebenito, José; Salas, María José; Parra, Cristian; Ruiz, Alvaro; Kitazawa, Haruki; García, Apolinaria

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. The search of probiotics in human milk is a recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. To our knowledge, no reports regarding the potential probiotic effect of bacteria from swine milk have been published. In this work, we isolated several lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and evaluated them for them potential as probiotics. Among the isolated strains, Lactobacillus curvatus TUCO-5E showed antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens. TUCO-5E was able to reduce the growth of enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains as well as pathogenic salmonella. In vitro exclusion and displacement assays in intestinal epithelial cells showed a remarkable antagonistic effect for L. curvatus TUCO-5E against Salmonella sp. strain TUCO-I7 and Salmonella enterica ATCC 13096. Moreover, by using a mouse model of Salmonella infection, we were able to demonstrate that preventative administration of L. curvatus TUCO-5E for 5 consecutive days was capable of decreasing the number of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the liver and spleen of treated mice, compared with the controls, and prevented dissemination of the pathogen to the blood stream. Therefore, we have demonstrated here that swine milk is an interesting source of beneficial bacteria. In addition, the results of this work suggest that L. curvatus TUCO-5E is a good candidate to study in vivo the protective effect of probiotics against intestinal infection and damage induced by Salmonella infection in the porcine host.

  1. Cystic fibrosis swine fail to secrete airway surface liquid in response to inhalation of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xiaojie; Belev, George; Tam, Julian S; Jagadeeshan, Santosh; Hassan, Noman; Gioino, Paula; Grishchenko, Nikolay; Huang, Yanyun; Carmalt, James L; Duke, Tanya; Jones, Teela; Monson, Bev; Burmester, Monique; Simovich, Tomer; Yilmaz, Orhan; Campanucci, Veronica A; Machen, Terry E; Chapman, L Dean; Ianowski, Juan P

    2017-10-05

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel, which can result in chronic lung disease. The sequence of events leading to lung disease is not fully understood but recent data show that the critical pathogenic event is the loss of the ability to clear bacteria due to abnormal airway surface liquid secretion (ASL). However, whether the inhalation of bacteria triggers ASL secretion and whether this is abnormal in cystic fibrosis has never been tested. Here we show, using a novel synchrotron-based in vivo imaging technique, that wild-type pigs display both a basal and a Toll-like receptor-mediated ASL secretory response to the inhalation of cystic fibrosis relevant bacteria. Both mechanisms fail in CFTR -/- swine, suggesting that cystic fibrosis airways do not respond to inhaled pathogens, thus favoring infection and inflammation that may eventually lead to tissue remodeling and respiratory disease.Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the CFTR chloride channel, leading to reduced airway surface liquid secretion. Here the authors show that exposure to bacteria triggers secretion in wild-type but not in pig models of cystic fibrosis, suggesting an impaired response to pathogens contributes to infection.

  2. Regional Differences in Pathogen Prevalence and Defensive Reactions to the “Swine Flu” Outbreak among East Asians and Westerners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hamamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  3. Prevalence of swine viral and bacterial pathogens in rodents and stray cats captured around pig farms in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Lam; Seo, Tae Won; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Han, Jeong Hee; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2013-12-30

    In 2008, 102 rodents and 24 stray cats from the areas around 9 pig farms in northeast South Korea were used to determine the prevalence of the following selected swine pathogens: ten viral pathogens [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), rotavirus, classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)] and four bacterial pathogens (Brucella, Leptospira, Salmonella and Lawsonia intracellularis). In total, 1,260 tissue samples from 102 rodents and 24 stray cats were examined by specific PCR and RT-PCR assays, including tissue samples of the brain, tonsils, lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, small intestine, large intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes. The percentages of PCR-positive rodents for the porcine pathogens were as follows: 63.7% for Leptospira, 39.2% for Brucella, 6.8% for Salmonella, 15.7% for L. intracellularis, 14.7% for PCV2 and 3.9% for EMCV. The percentages of PCR-positive stray cats for the swine pathogens were as follows: 62.5% for Leptospira, 25% for Brucella, 12.5% for Salmonella, 12.5% for L. intracellularis and 4.2% for PEDV. These results may be helpful for developing control measures to prevent the spread of infectious diseases of pigs.

  4. Characterization and virulence clustering analysis of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from swine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinchu; Dong, Wenyang; Ma, Jiale; Yuan, Lvfeng; Hejair, Hassan M A; Pan, Zihao; Liu, Guangjin; Yao, Huochun

    2017-04-08

    Swine extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is an important pathogen that leads to economic and welfare costs in the swine industry worldwide, and is occurring with increasing frequency in China. By far, various virulence factors have been recognized in ExPEC. Here, we investigated the virulence genotypes and clonal structure of collected strains to improve the knowledge of phylogenetic traits of porcine ExPECs in China. We isolated 64 Chinese porcine ExPEC strains from 2013 to 14 in China. By multiplex PCR, the distribution of isolates belonging to phylogenetic groups B1, B2, A and D was 9.4%, 10.9%, 57.8% and 21.9%, respectively. Nineteen virulence-related genes were detected by PCR assay; ompA, fimH, vat, traT and iutA were highly prevalent. Virulence-related genes were remarkably more prevalent in group B2 than in groups A, B1 and D; notably, usp, cnf1, hlyD, papA and ibeA were only found in group B2 strains. Genotyping analysis was performed and four clusters of strains (named I to IV) were identified. Cluster IV contained all isolates from group B2 and Cluster IV isolates had the strongest pathogenicity in a mouse infection model. As phylogenetic group B2 and D ExPEC isolates are generally considered virulent, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis was performed for these isolates to further investigate genetic relationships. Two novel sequence types, ST5170 and ST5171, were discovered. Among the nine clonal complexes identified among our group B2 and D isolates, CC12 and CC95 have been indicated to have high zoonotic pathogenicity. The distinction between group B2 and non-B2 isolates in virulence and genotype accorded with MLST analysis. This study reveals significant genetic diversity among ExPEC isolates and helps us to better understand their pathogenesis. Importantly, our data suggest group B2 (Cluster IV) strains have the highest risk of causing animal disease and illustrate the correlation between genotype and virulence.

  5. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae does not affect the interferon-related anti-viral response but predisposes the pig to a higher level of inflammation following swine influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblanc, Céline; Delgado-Ortega, Mario; Gorin, Stéphane; Berri, Mustapha; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Berthon, Patricia; Herrler, Georg; Meurens, François; Simon, Gaëlle

    2016-10-01

    In pigs, influenza A viruses and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) are major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex. Pre-infection with Mhp was previously shown experimentally to exacerbate the clinical outcomes of H1N1 infection during the first week after virus inoculation. In order to better understand the interactions between these pathogens, we aimed to assess very early responses (at 5, 24 and 48 h) after H1N1 infection in pigs pre-infected or not with Mhp. Clinical signs and macroscopic lung lesions were similar in both infected groups at early times post-H1N1 infection; and Mhp pre-infection affected neither the influenza virus replication nor the IFN-induced antiviral responses in the lung. However, it predisposed the animals to a higher inflammatory response to H1N1 infection, as revealed by the massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the lungs and the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α). Thus, it seems it is this marked inflammatory state that would play a role in exacerbating the clinical signs subsequent to H1N1 infection.

  6. Mycoplasma pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walking pneumonia; Community-acquired pneumonia - mycoplasma; Community-acquired pneumonia - atypical ... Mycoplasma pneumonia usually affects people younger than 40. People who live or work in crowded areas such as schools ...

  7. Development of a L-rhamnose and D-arabitol supplemented MacConkey agar to identify pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica among environmental Yersinias in swine production wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehee, M W; Sobsey, M D

    2004-05-01

    Supplemented MacConkey agar with L-rhamnose and D-arabitol distinguishes pathogenic from environmental strains of Yersinia enterocolitica recovered from swine production wastes. This medium has a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 97.4%.

  8. Comparison of pathological signs of disease in specific-pathogen-free calves after inoculation of the respiratory tract with Ureaplasma diversum or Mycoplasma canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, E A; van Dijk, J E; Noordergraaf, J H

    1993-02-01

    To confirm the pathogenic role of Ureaplasma diversum in respiratory disease of calves, we inoculated caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived calves intranasally with a dose of 10(7) colour-changing units (CCU) or endobronchially with a dose of 10(10) CCU. Clinical signs of respiratory disease were not observed, but in the endobronchially inoculated calves, thick cuffs of round cells surrounded the bronchi, bronchioli and blood vessels, and a lobular catarrhal pneumonia developed. It was concluded that the pathogenicity of U. diversum can be demonstrated after endobronchial but not after intranasal inoculation. Similar calves were inoculated endobronchially with a dose of 2 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Mycoplasma canis. Clinical signs of respiratory disease were not observed. At day 2 after inoculation, only slight pathological signs of respiratory disease were detected, and these disappeared at day 9. M. canis was not recovered from the lungs. Hence, M. canis could not be clearly identified as a pathogen in respiratory disease of calves. By comparing the results of the various experiments, we concluded that thin cuffs of round cells in the lungs can indicate mycoplasma infections, but that these are not necessarily pathognomonic.

  9. Use of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance in Veterinary Medicine as Exemplified by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Willenborg, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is essential to control infectious diseases, thereby keeping animals healthy and animal products safe for the consumer. On the other hand, development and spread of antimicrobial resistance is of major concern for public health. Streptococcus (S.) suis reflects a typical bacterial pathogen in modern swine production due to its facultative pathogenic nature and wide spread in the pig population. Thus, in the present review we focus on certain current aspects and problems related to antimicrobial use and resistance in S. suis as a paradigm for a bacterial pathogen affecting swine husbandry worldwide. The review includes (i) general aspects of antimicrobial use and resistance in veterinary medicine with emphasis on swine, (ii) genetic resistance mechanisms of S. suis known to contribute to bacterial survival under antibiotic selection pressure, and (iii) possible other factors which may contribute to problems in antimicrobial therapy of S. suis infections, such as bacterial persister cell formation, biofilm production, and co-infections. The latter shows that we hardly understand the complexity of factors affecting the success of antimicrobial treatment of (porcine) infectious diseases and underlines the need for further research in this field.

  10. Transposon mutagenesis in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a novel mariner-based system for generating random mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglennon, Gareth A; Cook, Beth S; Deeney, Alannah S; Bossé, Janine T; Peters, Sarah E; Langford, Paul R; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N

    2013-12-21

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the cause of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, a chronic respiratory disease associated with significant economic losses to swine producers worldwide. The molecular pathogenesis of infection is poorly understood due to the lack of genetic tools to allow manipulation of the organism and more generally for the Mycoplasma genus. The objective of this study was to develop a system for generating random transposon insertion mutants in M. hyopneumoniae that could prove a powerful tool in enabling the pathogenesis of infection to be unraveled. A novel delivery vector was constructed containing a hyperactive C9 mutant of the Himar1 transposase along with a mini transposon containing the tetracycline resistance cassette, tetM. M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 was electroporated with the construct and tetM-expressing transformants selected on agar containing tetracycline. Individual transformants contained single transposon insertions that were stable upon serial passages in broth medium. The insertion sites of 44 individual transformants were determined and confirmed disruption of several M. hyopneumoniae genes. A large pool of over 10 000 mutants was generated that should allow saturation of the M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 genome. This is the first time that transposon mutagenesis has been demonstrated in this important pathogen and could be generally applied for other Mycoplasma species that are intractable to genetic manipulation. The ability to generate random mutant libraries is a powerful tool in the further study of the pathogenesis of this important swine pathogen.

  11. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Properties of Membrane Vesicles Produced by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

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    Bruno Haas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis, more particularly serotype 2, is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent worldwide that mainly causes meningitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. Although several potential virulence factors produced by S. suis have been identified in the last decade, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections is still not fully understood. In the present study, we showed that S. suis produces membrane vesicles (MVs that range in diameter from 13 to 130 nm and that appear to be coated by capsular material. A proteomic analysis of the MVs revealed that they contain 46 proteins, 9 of which are considered as proven or suspected virulence factors. Biological assays confirmed that S. suis MVs possess active subtilisin-like protease (SspA and DNase (SsnA. S. suis MVs degraded neutrophil extracellular traps, a property that may contribute to the ability of the bacterium to escape the host defense response. MVs also activated the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway in both monocytes and macrophages, inducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may in turn contribute to increase the permeability of the blood brain barrier. The present study brought evidence that S. suis MVs may play a role as a virulence factor in the pathogenesis of S. suis infections, and given their composition be an excellent candidate for vaccine development.

  12. Clonal analysis and virulent traits of pathogenic extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolates from swine in China

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    Ding Yi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC can cause a variety of infections outside the gastrointestinal tract in humans and animals. Infections due to swine ExPECs have been occurring with increasing frequency in China. These ExPECs may now be considered a new food-borne pathogen that causes cross-infections between humans and pigs. Knowledge of the clonal structure and virulence genes is needed as a framework to improve the understanding of phylogenetic traits of porcine ExPECs. Results Multilocus sequence typing (MLST data showed that the isolates investigated in this study could be placed into four main clonal complexes, designated as CC10, CC1687, CC88 and CC58. Strains within CC10 were classified as phylogroup A, and these accounted for most of our porcine ExPEC isolates. Isolates in the CC1687 clonal complex, formed by new sequence types (STs, was classified as phylogroup D, with CC88 isolates considered as B2 and CC58 isolates as B1. Porcine ExPECs in these four clonal complexes demonstrated significantly different virulence gene patterns. A few porcine ExPECs were indentified in phylogroup B2, the phylogroup in which human ExPECs mainly exist. However some STs in the four clonal groups of porcine ExPECs were reported to cause extraintestinal infections in human, based on data in the MLST database. Conclusion Porcine ExPECs have different virulence gene patterns for different clonal complexes. However, these strains are mostly fell in phylogenentic phylogroup A, B1 and D, which is different from human ExPECs that concentrate in phylogroup B2. Our findings provide a better understanding relating to the clonal structure of ExPECs in diseased pigs and indicate a need to re-evaluate their contribution to human ExPEC diseases.

  13. Intrinsic terminators in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-04-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogen of swine, exhibits a low guanine and cytosine (GC) content genome. M. hyopneumoniae genome is organised in long transcriptional units and promoter sequences have been mapped upstream of all transcription units. These analysis provided insights into the gene organisation and transcription initiation at the genome scale. However, the presence of transcriptional terminator sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is poorly understood. In silico analyses demonstrated the presence of putative terminators in 82% of the 33 monocistronic units (mCs) and in 74% of the 116 polycistronic units (pCs) considering different classes of terminators. The functional activity of 23 intrinsic terminators was confirmed by RT-PCR and qPCR. Analysis of all terminators found by three software algorithms, combined with experimental results, allowed us to propose a pattern of RNA hairpin formation during the termination process and to predict the location of terminators in the M. hyopneumoniae genome sequence. The stem-loop structures of intrinsic terminators of mycoplasma diverge from the pattern of terminators found in other bacteria due the low content of guanine and cytosine. In M. hyopneumoniae, transcription can end after a transcriptional unit and before its terminator sequence and can also continue past the terminator sequence with RNA polymerases gradually releasing the RNA.

  14. Role of Vpma phase variation in Mycoplasma agalactiae pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Baumgartner, Martina; Gamper, Erika; Innerebner, Carmen; Zimmermann, Martina; Schilcher, Franz; Tichy, Alexander; Winter, Petra; Jechlinger, Wolfgang; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Compared with other bacterial pathogens, the molecular mechanisms of mycoplasma pathogenicity are largely unknown. Several studies in the past have shown that pathogenic mycoplasmas are equipped with sophisticated genetic systems that allow them to undergo high-frequency surface antigenic variations. Although never clearly proven, these variable mycoplasma surface components are often implicated in host immune evasion and adaptation. Vpma surface lipoproteins of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplas...

  15. Susceptibility of swine to H5 and H7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzli, Charles; Lager, Kelly; Vincent, Amy; Gauger, Phillip; Brockmeier, Susan; Miller, Laura; Richt, Juergen A; Ma, Wenjun; Suarez, David; Swayne, David E

    2016-07-01

    The ability of pigs to become infected with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and then generate mammalian adaptable influenza A viruses is difficult to determine. Yet, it is an important link to understanding any relationship between LPAI virus ecology and possible epidemics among swine and/or humans. Assess susceptibility of pigs to LPAI viruses found within the United States and their direct contact transmission potential. Pigs were inoculated with one of ten H5 or H7 LPAI viruses selected from seven different bird species to test infectivity, virulence, pathogenesis, and potential to transmit virus to contact pigs through histological, RRT-PCR and seroconversion data. Although pigs were susceptible to infection with each of the LPAI viruses, no clinical disease was recognized in any pig. During the acute phase of the infection, minor pulmonary lesions were found in some pigs and one or more pigs in each group were RRT-PCR-positive in the lower respiratory tract, but no virus was detected in upper respiratory tract (negative nasal swabs). Except for one group, one or more pigs in each LPAI group developed antibody. No LPAI viruses transmitted to contact pigs. LPAI strains from various bird populations within the United States are capable of infecting pigs. Although adaptability and transmission of individual strains seem unlikely, the subclinical nature of the infections demonstrates the need to improve sampling and testing methods to more accurately measure incidence of LPAI virus infection in pigs, and their potential role in human-zoonotic LPAI virus dynamics. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Third wave of African swine fever infection in Armenia: Virus demonstrates the reduction of pathogenicity

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    M. A. Sargsyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: First cases of clinically uncommon African swine fever (ASF, caused by virus genotype II are described in this article. These cases occurred in Armenia, Tavush region, Dilijan municipality in 2011. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the new pathogenic forms of ASF in Armenia. Materials and Methods: The isolation and identification of ASF virus (ASFV were carried out using conventional techniques. Clinical signs of infection were recorded daily. Gross anatomical pathology characteristics were observed during routine postmortem examinations. Blood and serum were obtained by puncture of the jugular vein using a vacutainer system. Results: The presence of ASFV DNA in the spleens was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Sequenced sections of p72 showed phylogenetic identity to genotype 2. The pathology exhibits unusual manifestations of the main disease. The unusual form of ASF demonstrates characteristics of a subacute form of the disease, with the possibility of conversion to a chronic form. Decreased lethality, low level of hemorrhages, and absence of severe pancytopenia in smears from spleen, lymph nodes, and blood are common features of the new form of ASF. Unlike severe thrombocytopenia in the typical ASF, the unusual form exhibited moderate or minor decrease of this feature. Despite a moderate decrease in hemadsorption titers, the unusual pattern of the disease was characterized by viremia and the presence of the virus in the visceral organs, including the brain. Conclusion: Our data allow assuming that new nosological form of ASF (genotype II may present as a transitional form of the disease with the possibility of chronization.

  17. Species-specific polymerase chain reactions for the detection of Mycoplasma buteonis, Mycoplasma falconis, Mycoplasma gypis, and Mycoplasma corogypsi in captive birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, Michael; Hagen, Nils; Lueschow, Doerte; Hafez, Hafez M

    2008-03-01

    Mycoplasmas are pathogens of different avian species, but the role of Mycoplasma in raptors is not yet completely determined. As Mycoplasma isolation and identification present several difficulties, species-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) for the detection of mycoplasmas found in birds of prey (Mycoplasma buteonis, Mycoplasma corogypsi, Mycoplasma falconis, and Mycoplasma gypis) were established. The specificity of the PCR methods were investigated using known avian Mycoplasma reference strains and isolates as well as related bacteria and was found to be specific. Amplificons obtained with these PCRs from field samples showed no false-positive results in restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing. The sensitivities of the different PCR assays varied between 50 fg and 1 pg DNA. Twenty-five tracheal swabs from healthy captive birds of prey were investigated by culture and immunobinding assay as comparison to the PCRs. Mycoplasmal DNA was detected in 88% of the samples, with negative results only from vultures. Mycoplasma falconis and M. buteonis were regularly found in falcons, and M. gypis was found in a common buzzard. Mycoplasma corogypsi was not demonstrated. Several isolates could not be differentiated using an immunobinding assay as well as the described PCR methods.

  18. Development of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Recombinant Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Simionatto, Simone; Dellagostin, Odir

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that affects swine production worldwide. Vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for the control and prevention of the disease. Research using genome-based approach has the potential to elucidate the biology and pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and contribute to the development of more effective vaccines. Here, we describe the protocol for developing M. hyopneumoniae recombinant vaccines using reverse vaccinology approaches.

  19. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of pigs by PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, A.K.; Runge, M.; Ganter, Martin

    1998-01-01

    In the present investigation we developed a method for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs by PCR with a primer pair flanking a DNA fragment of 853 bp specific for M. hyopneumoniae. Several methods were tested to eliminate the amplification...... other mycoplasma species and 17 cell-walled bacterial species colonizing the respiratory tracts of pigs was not amplified. In a field study BALFs from 40 pigs from farms with a history of chronic pneumonia were tested for M. hyopneumoniae by cultivation and by PCR (i) with BALFs incubated in Frus medium...... inhibitors present in BALFs. The best results were obtained by the extraction of the DNA from the BALFs. By the PCR performed with the extracted DNA, 10(2) CFU of M. hyopneumoniae could be detected in 1 ml of BALF from specific-pathogen-free swine experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae. DNA from 11...

  20. The Phospholipid Profile of Mycoplasmas

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    Jonathan D. Kornspan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The de novo synthesized polar lipids of Mycoplasma species are rather simple, comprising primarily of the acidic glycerophospholipids PG and CL. In addition, when grown in a medium containing serum, significant amounts of PC and SPM are incorporated into the mycoplasma cell membrane although these lipids are very uncommon in wall-covered bacteria. The exogenous lipids are either incorporated unchanged or the PC incorporated is modified by a deacylation-acylation enzymatic cycle to form disaturated PC. Although their small genome, in some Mycoplasma species, other genes involved in lipid biosynthesis were detected, resulting in the synthesis of a variety of glycolipis, phosphoglycolipids and ether lipids. We suggest that analyses and comparisons of mycoplasma polar lipids may serve as a novel and useful tool for classification. Nonetheless, to evaluate the importance of polar lipids in mycoplasma, further systematic and extensive studies on more Mycoplasma species are needed. While studies are needed to elucidate the role of lipids in the mechanisms governing the interaction of mycoplasmas with host eukaryotic cells, the finding that a terminal phosphocholine containing glycolipids of M. fermentans serves both as a major immune determinants and as a trigger of the inflammatory responses, and the findings that the fusogenicity of M. fermentans with host cells is markedly stimulated by lyso-ether lipids, are important steps toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of M. fermentans pathogenicity.

  1. Infection of growing swine with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae — Effects on growth, serum metabolites, and insulin-like growth factor-I.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, N. Elizabeth; Almond, Glen W.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of concomitant infections with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on growth performance, serum metabolite concentrations, and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in growing pigs. Twenty-two barrows (10 weeks of age) were treated with either an intranasal administration of PRRSV and an intratracheal infusion of M. hyopneumoniae (treatment; n = 8) or a sham inoculation with medium (sham; n = 8), or w...

  2. Detección de Mycoplasma suis en casos clínicos de síndrome del desmedro multisistémico posdestete en porcinos Detection of Mycoplasma suis in clinical cases with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Pereyra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma suis es un parásito obligado de los eritrocitos del cerdo. Produce anemia aguda o crónica y afecta a distintas categorías de animales. El síndrome del desmedro multisistémico posdestete (PMWS se considera causado por el circovirus porcino tipo 2 (PCV-2, aunque muchos aspectos de la patogenia del síndrome permanecen sin aclarar. Se manifiesta a través de retraso del crecimiento, anemia e ictericia en cerdos de 5 a 12 semanas de edad, en los que se produce una inmunosupresión que deriva en coinfecciones bacterianas. Se estudiaron tres granjas porcinas con sintomatología asociada a la presencia de estos dos agentes etiológicos. Se observaron formas compatibles con M. suis en extendidos de sangre y en lesiones histopatológicas indicativas de PMWS, en cortes de tejidos. Esta es la primera comunicación acerca de la asociación clínica entre las dos entidades mencionadas.Mycoplasma suis is a swine erythrocyte obligatory parasite. Its presence may result in chronic or acute anaemia in different pig categories. It is considered that the postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS is caused by porcine circovirus type 2, but some aspects of the pathogenesis remain unknown. PMWS signs are impaired weight gain, anaemia and jaundice in 5 to 12 week-old pigs that suffer from immunosuppression and bacterial co-infections. The pigs with signs of these diseases on three porcine farms were studied. Compatible M. suis forms in blood smears and typical PMWS lesions in tissue cuts were seen. This is the first communication of the clinical association between these two entities.

  3. No overall relationship between average daily weight gain and the serological response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in eight chronically infected Danish swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Margit; Mousing, Jan; Thomsen, Lars Krogsgård

    2001-01-01

    approximately 4 weeks of age), and sera were analyzed for antibodies to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7 and 12. Mixed analysis of covariance analyzed the relationship between the average daily weight gain and a categorical variable defining seroconversion as none...... most pigs included in the study were subclinically infected, or because a temporary negative influence of the infections is hidden due to an increased growth in the period following infection. In conclusion. at least in these eight herds, seroresponses to M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae could...

  4. Nested-PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchial alveolar swabs, frozen tissues and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded swine lung samples: comparative evaluation with immunohistochemical findings and histological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection is often performed through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR or a combination of these techniques. PCR can be performed on samples using several conservation methods, including swabs, frozen tissue or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. However, the formalin fixation process often inhibits DNA amplification. To evaluate whether M. hyopneumoniae DNA could be recovered from FFPE tissues, 15 lungs with cranioventral consolidation lesions were collected in a slaughterhouse from swine bred in herds with respiratory disease. Bronchial swabs and fresh lung tissue were collected, and a fragment of the corresponding lung section was placed in neutral buffered formalin for 48 hours. A PCR assay was performed to compare FFPE tissue samples with samples that were only refrigerated (bronchial swabs or frozen (tissue pieces. M. hyopneumoniae was detected by PCR in all 15 samples of the swab and frozen tissue, while it was detected in only 11 of the 15 FFPE samples. Histological features of M. hyopneumoniae infection were presented in 11 cases and 7 of these samples stained positive in IHC. Concordance between the histological features and detection results was observed in 13 of the FFPE tissue samples. PCR was the most sensitive technique. Comparison of different sample conservation methods indicated that it is possible to detect M. hyopneumoniae from FFPE tissue. It is important to conduct further research using archived material because the efficiency of PCR could be compromised under these conditions.

  5. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare differential domains from orthologous surface proteins induce distinct cellular immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Fernanda Munhoz Dos Anjos; Virginio, Veridiana Gomes; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Paes, Jéssica Andrade; Borges, Thiago J; Jaeger, Natália; Bonorino, Cristina; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2016-07-15

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare are two genetically close species found in the swine respiratory tract. Despite their similarities, while M. hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Genomic and transcriptional comparative analyses so far failed to explain the difference in pathogenicity between these two species. We then hypothesized that such difference might be, at least in part, explained by amino acid sequence and immunological or functional differences between ortholog surface proteins. In line with that, it was verified that approximately 85% of the ortholog surface proteins from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and M. flocculare present one or more differential domains. To experimentally assess possible immunological implications of this kind of difference, the extracellular differential domains from one pair of orthologous surface proteins (MHP7448_0612, from M. hyopneumoniae, and MF_00357, from M. flocculare) were expressed in E. coli and used to immunize mice. The recombinant polypeptides (rMHP61267-169 and rMF35767-196, respectively) induced distinct cellular immune responses. While, rMHP61267-169 induced both Th1 and Th2 responses, rMF35767-196 induced just an early pro-inflammatory response. These results indicate that immunological properties determined by differential domains in orthologous surface protein might play a role in pathogenicity, contributing to elicit specific and differential immune responses against each species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance of two swine manure treatment systems on chemical composition and on the reduction of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viancelli, A; Kunz, A; Steinmetz, R L R; Kich, J D; Souza, C K; Canal, C W; Coldebella, A; Esteves, P A; Barardi, C R M

    2013-01-01

    Swine effluents must be correctly handled to avoid negative environmental impacts. In this study, the profiles of two swine manure treatment systems were evaluated: a solid-liquid separation step, followed by an anaerobic reactor, and an aerobic step (System 1); and a biodigester followed by serial lagoons (System 2). Both systems were described by the assessment of chemical, bacterial and viral parameters. The results showed that in System 1, there was reduction of chemicals (COD, phosphorus, total Kjeldhal nitrogen - TKN - and NH(3)), total coliforms and Escherichia coli; however, the same reduction was not observed for Salmonella sp. Viral particles were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated from the effluent. In System 2, there was a reduction of chemicals, bacteria and viruses with no detection of Salmonella sp., circovirus, parvovirus, and torque teno virus in the effluent. The chemical results indicate that the treated effluent can be reused for cleaning swine facilities. However, the microbiological results show a need of additional treatment to achieve a complete inactivation for cases when direct contact with animals is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Insight into the specific virulence related genes and toxin-antitoxin virulent pathogenicity islands in swine streptococcosis pathogen Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC35246.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhe; Geng, Jianing; Yi, Li; Xu, Bin; Jia, Ruoyu; Li, Yue; Meng, Qingshu; Fan, Hongjie; Hu, Songnian

    2013-06-07

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an important pathogen causing swine streptococcosis in China. Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) of S. zooepidemicus have been transferred among bacteria through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and play important roles in the adaptation and increased virulence of S. zooepidemicus. The present study used comparative genomics to examine the different pathogenicities of S. zooepidemicus. Genome of S. zooepidemicus ATCC35246 (Sz35246) comprises 2,167,264-bp of a single circular chromosome, with a GC content of 41.65%. Comparative genome analysis of Sz35246, S. zooepidemicus MGCS10565 (Sz10565), Streptococcus equi. ssp. equi. 4047 (Se4047) and S. zooepidemicus H70 (Sz70) identified 320 Sz35246-specific genes, clustered into three toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems PAIs and one restriction modification system (RM system) PAI. These four acquired PAIs encode proteins that may contribute to the overall pathogenic capacity and fitness of this bacterium to adapt to different hosts. Analysis of the in vivo and in vitro transcriptomes of this bacterium revealed differentially expressed PAI genes and non-PAI genes, suggesting that Sz35246 possess mechanisms for infecting animals and adapting to a wide range of host environments. Analysis of the genome identified potential Sz35246 virulence genes. Genes of the Fim III operon were presumed to be involved in breaking the host-restriction of Sz35246. Genome wide comparisons of Sz35246 with three other strains and transcriptome analysis revealed novel genes related to bacterial virulence and breaking the host-restriction. Four specific PAIs, which were judged to have been transferred into Sz35246 genome through HGT, were identified for the first time. Further analysis of the TA and RM systems in the PAIs will improve our understanding of the pathogenicity of this bacterium and could lead to the development of diagnostics and vaccines.

  8. Capsular Polysaccharide is a Main Component of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in the Pathogen-Induced Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in Sheep Airway Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongjia; Song, Fuyang; Li, Yanan; Xue, Di; Deng, Guangcun; Li, Min; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae ( M. ovipneumoniae ) is characterized as an etiological agent of primary atypical pneumonia that specifically infects sheep and goat. In an attempt to better understand the pathogen-host interaction between the invading M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells, we investigated the host inflammatory responses against capsular polysaccharide (designated as CPS) of M. ovipneumoniae using sheep bronchial epithelial cells cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI) model. Results showed that CPS derived from M. ovipneumoniae could activate toll-like receptor- (TLR-) mediated inflammatory responses, along with an elevated expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κ B), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) as well as various inflammatory-associated mediators, representatively including proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL1 β , TNF α , and IL8, and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL10 and TGF β of TLR signaling cascade. Mechanistically, the CPS-induced inflammation was TLR initiated and was mediated by activations of both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signaling pathways. Of importance, a blockage of CPS with specific antibody led a significant reduction of M. ovipneumoniae -induced inflammatory responses in sheep bronchial epithelial cells. These results suggested that CPS is a key virulent component of M. ovipneumoniae , which may play a crucial role in the inflammatory response induced by M. ovipneumoniae infections.

  9. Capsular Polysaccharide is a Main Component of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in the Pathogen-Induced Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in Sheep Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjia Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae is characterized as an etiological agent of primary atypical pneumonia that specifically infects sheep and goat. In an attempt to better understand the pathogen-host interaction between the invading M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells, we investigated the host inflammatory responses against capsular polysaccharide (designated as CPS of M. ovipneumoniae using sheep bronchial epithelial cells cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI model. Results showed that CPS derived from M. ovipneumoniae could activate toll-like receptor- (TLR- mediated inflammatory responses, along with an elevated expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, activator protein-1 (AP-1, and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 as well as various inflammatory-associated mediators, representatively including proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL1β, TNFα, and IL8, and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL10 and TGFβ of TLR signaling cascade. Mechanistically, the CPS-induced inflammation was TLR initiated and was mediated by activations of both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signaling pathways. Of importance, a blockage of CPS with specific antibody led a significant reduction of M. ovipneumoniae-induced inflammatory responses in sheep bronchial epithelial cells. These results suggested that CPS is a key virulent component of M. ovipneumoniae, which may play a crucial role in the inflammatory response induced by M. ovipneumoniae infections.

  10. Comparison of 3 vaccination strategies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 on a 3 pathogen challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Kim, Seeun; Park, Kee Hwan; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical, microbiologic, immunologic, and pathologic parameters in pigs each concurrently administered porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine from 1 of 2 commercial sources at 21 days of age and challenged with field strains of each of the 3 pathogens. Pigs were challenged with PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae at 42 days of age (-14 days post-challenge, dpc) followed by a challenge with PCV2 at 56 days of age (0 dpc). Significant differences were observed between vaccinated challenged and unvaccinated challenged groups in clinical (average daily gain and clinical signs), microbiologic (viremia and nasal shedding), immunologic (antibodies and interferon-γ secreting cells), and pathologic (lesions) outcomes. Significant differences were observed among the 3 vaccinated challenged groups in microbiologic (nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and viremia of PCV2) and immunologic ( M. hyopneumoniae - and PCV2-specific interferon-γ secreting cells) outcomes. The vaccination regimen for PRRSV vaccine, M. hyopneumoniae vaccine, and PCV2 vaccine is efficacious for controlling triple challenge with PRRSV, M. hyopneumoniae, and PCV2 from weaning to finishing period.

  11. Unveiling Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Promoters: Sequence Definition and Genomic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Shana de Souto; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Several Mycoplasma species have had their genome completely sequenced, including four strains of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Nevertheless, little is known about the nucleotide sequences that control transcriptional initiation in these microorganisms. Therefore, with the objective of investigating the promoter sequences of M. hyopneumoniae, 23 transcriptional start sites (TSSs) of distinct genes were mapped. A pattern that resembles the σ70 promoter −10 element was found upstream of the TSSs. However, no −35 element was distinguished. Instead, an AT-rich periodic signal was identified. About half of the experimentally defined promoters contained the motif 5′-TRTGn-3′, which was identical to the −16 element usually found in Gram-positive bacteria. The defined promoters were utilized to build position-specific scoring matrices in order to scan putative promoters upstream of all coding sequences (CDSs) in the M. hyopneumoniae genome. Two hundred and one signals were found associated with 169 CDSs. Most of these sequences were located within 100 nucleotides of the start codons. This study has shown that the number of promoter-like sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is more frequent than expected by chance, indicating that most of the sequences detected are probably biologically functional. PMID:22334569

  12. Potential pathogens, antimicrobial patterns and genotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates in constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A M; Murinda, Shelton E; DebRoy, Chitrita; Reddy, Gudigopura B

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli populations originating from swine houses through constructed wetlands were analyzed for potential pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and genotypic diversity. Escherichia coli isolates (n = 493) were screened for the presence of the following virulence genes: stx1, stx2 and eae (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) genes and heat stable toxin STa and STb (enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), cytotoxin necrotizing factors 1 and 2 (cnf1 and cnf2 [necrotoxigenic E. coli- NTEC]), as well as O and H antigens, and the presence of the antibiotic resistance genes blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCMY-2, tet A, tet B, tet C, mph(A), aadA, StrA/B, sul1, sul2 and sul3. The commensal strains were further screened for 16 antimicrobials and characterized by BOX AIR-1 PCR for unique genotypes. The highest antibiotic resistance prevalence was for tetracycline, followed by erythromycin, ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and kanamycin. Our data showed that most of the isolates had high distribution of single or multidrug-resistant (MDR) genotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of MDR E. coli in the wetland is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistance genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains or vice versa in the environment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Remarkable sequence similarity between the dinoflagellate-infecting marine girus and the terrestrial pathogen African swine fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heterocapsa circularisquama DNA virus (HcDNAV; previously designated as HcV is a giant virus (girus with a ~356-kbp double-stranded DNA (dsDNA genome. HcDNAV lytically infects the bivalve-killing marine dinoflagellate H. circularisquama, and currently represents the sole DNA virus isolated from dinoflagellates, one of the most abundant protists in marine ecosystems. Its morphological features, genome type, and host range previously suggested that HcDNAV might be a member of the family Phycodnaviridae of Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDVs, though no supporting sequence data was available. NCLDVs currently include two families found in aquatic environments (Phycodnaviridae, Mimiviridae, one mostly infecting terrestrial animals (Poxviridae, another isolated from fish, amphibians and insects (Iridoviridae, and the last one (Asfarviridae exclusively represented by the animal pathogen African swine fever virus (ASFV, the agent of a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine. In this study, we determined the complete sequence of the type B DNA polymerase (PolB gene of HcDNAV. The viral PolB was transcribed at least from 6 h post inoculation (hpi, suggesting its crucial function for viral replication. Most unexpectedly, the HcDNAV PolB sequence was found to be closely related to the PolB sequence of ASFV. In addition, the amino acid sequence of HcDNAV PolB showed a rare amino acid substitution within a motif containing highly conserved motif: YSDTDS was found in HcDNAV PolB instead of YGDTDS in most dsDNA viruses. Together with the previous observation of ASFV-like sequences in the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling metagenomic datasets, our results further reinforce the ideas that the terrestrial ASFV has its evolutionary origin in marine environments.

  14. Occurrence of mycoplasmas in semen samples of birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, M; Hafez, H M

    2008-10-01

    Mycoplasmas are well-known pathogens in a variety of animals. In poultry it is known that some species can be transmitted by semen and infect the uterus of females. As the prevalence of mycoplasmas in birds of prey is very high and artificial insemination is a commonly used technique for reproduction, the possibility of transmission Mycoplasma spp. by contaminated semen in birds of prey was investigated. Isolation of mycoplasmas was possible in five out of 32 (15.6%) semen samples of different bird of prey species. Two additional semen samples were positive for mycoplasma DNA using a Mycoplasma-genus-specific polymerase chain reaction. The isolation of mycoplasmas from a testicular sample indicates the testis as the possible source of contamination. Sequencing of large parts (>90%) of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolated mycoplasmas suggests that all isolates belong to the same species. Alignment of the sequenced products with the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma species in GenBank demonstrated a similarity of 97% to Mycoplasma verecundum, but serological testing by immunobinding assay failed to identify it as such. It is recommended that the semen of donor birds of prey is examined for mycoplasmas before its use in artificial insemination.

  15. A Systematic Review of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma in Urogynaecology

    OpenAIRE

    Combaz-Söhnchen, Nina; Kuhn, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma species relevant to the urogenital tract include mycoplasma hominis, mycoplasma genitalia and ureaplasma urealyticum. Their occurrence in the context of urogynaecological disease has been demonstrated in urethritis, cystitis and upper renal tract infections. Their role in hyperactive bladder and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is controversial. All the above-mentioned microorganisms can occur as commensals or as potential pathogens. In most cases their role in any pa...

  16. A Systematic Review of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma in Urogynaecology.

    OpenAIRE

    Combaz-Söhnchen, Nina; Kuhn, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma species relevant to the urogenital tract include mycoplasma hominis, mycoplasma genitalia and ureaplasma urealyticum. Their occurrence in the context of urogynaecological disease has been demonstrated in urethritis, cystitis and upper renal tract infections. Their role in hyperactive bladder and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is controversial. All the above-mentioned microorganisms can occur as commensals or as potential pathogens. In most cases their role in any pa...

  17. Bullous Skin Manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Bhoopalan, Senthil Velan; Chawla, Vonita; Hogan, Mary Beth; Wilson, Nevin W.; Das, Samrat U.

    2017-01-01

    Bullous skin lesions are uncommon in children. While it is well known that Mycoplasma infections are associated with papular skin manifestations, bullous skin lesions are not commonly reported. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very common bacterial pathogen causing respiratory tract infection in children and adults. We report 2 children with serology-confirmed Mycoplasma infection who were hospitalized for blistering skin lesions. Both of our patients responded well to corticosteroids and one of th...

  18. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins induce inflammation and apoptosis in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fangfang; Ni, Bo; Liu, Maojun; Feng, Zhixin; Xiong, Qiyan; Shao, Guoqing

    2015-01-30

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that causes considerable economic losss in swine industry. Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) of mycoplasma play important roles in causing mycoplasma diseases. The present study explores the pathogenic mechanisms of M. hyopneumoniae LAMPs by elucidating their role in modulating the inflammation, apoptosis, and relevant signaling pathways of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of pig. LAMP treatment inhibited the growth of PBMCs. Up-regulation of cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-1β, as well as increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion were all detected in the supernatant of LAMPs-treated PBMCs. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis using dual staining with annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) showed that LAMPs of M. hyopneumoniae induced a time-dependent apoptosis in lymphocyts and monocytes from PBMCs, which was blocked by NOS inhibitor or antioxidant. In addition, LAMPs induced the phosphorylation of p38, the ratio of pro-apoptotic Bax protein to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage in PBMCs. These findings demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae LAMPs induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines, NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis of PBMCs in vitro through p38 MAPK and Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathways, as well as caspase activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation of Mycoplasma species from bronchoalveolar lavages of patients positive and negative for human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, L D; Finelli, M R; Johnson, S C

    1994-01-01

    The rates of isolation of Mycoplasma species from bronchoalveolar lavages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and HIV-negative patients were compared. Mycoplasma species were more frequently isolated from HIV-positive patients. In most cases, a known pulmonary pathogen was also identified. All samples tested negative for Mycoplasma fermentans by PCR. PMID:8051276

  20. Molecular study and phylogenetic analysis of Mycoplasma synoviae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is one of the important pathogens in chicken and turkey which cause great economic losses in poultry industry. M. synoviae has one serotype but there is heterogeneity among MS strains. The aim of this study was to analyze the DNA sequence of Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from Mazandran ...

  1. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in eggs from birds of prey using culture and a genus-specific mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, M; Hagen, N; Harcourt-Brown, N; Hernandez-Divers, S J; Lüschow, D; Hafez, H M

    2007-04-01

    Mycoplasmas are commensals and pathogens of different avian species, especially poultry and passeriforms. The role of mycoplasmas in raptors has not yet been completely determined, and especially not the possibility of vertical transmission. Therefore 424 raptor eggs were examined for the occurrence of mycoplasmas using culture, and 155 of these eggs with a Mycoplasma genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. This PCR was tested for its sensitivity and specificity, especially for use in a bird population of unknown mycoplasma status (prevalence and species). The size of the amplified PCR product was large (1013 base pairs) to enable use of the product for species differentiation by sequencing. Culture and PCR yielded only one positive result, in an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). The isolate was identified as Mycoplasma lipofaciens using an immunobinding assay, as well as by sequencing part of its 16S rRNA gene.

  2. Comparative genomics of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola isolated from swine and human in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Z Moreno

    Full Text Available Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola is one of the most important pathogenic serovars for the maintenance of urban leptospirosis. Even though it is considered highly adapted to dogs, serovar Canicola infection has already been described in other animals and even a few human cases. Here, we present the genomic characterisation of two Brazilian L. interrogans serovar Canicola strains isolated from slaughtered sows (L0-3 and L0-4 and their comparison with human strain Fiocruz LV133. It was observed that the porcine serovar Canicola strains present the genetic machinery to cause human infection and, therefore, represent a higher risk to public health. Both human and porcine serovar Canicola isolates also presented sequences with high identity to the Chinese serovar Canicola published plasmids pGui1 and pGui2. The plasmids identification in the Brazilian and Chinese serovar Canicola strains suggest that extra-chromosomal elements are one more feature of this serovar that was previously unnoticed.

  3. Establishment of a Pathogenicity Index for One-day-old Broilers to Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Clinical Cases in Poultry and Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM Pilatti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although Pasteurella multocida is a member of the respiratory microbiota, under some circumstances, it is a primary agent of diseases , such as fowl cholera (FC, that cause significant economic losses. Experimental inoculations can be employed to evaluate the pathogenicity of strains, but the results are usually subjective and knowledge on the pathogenesis of this agent is still limited. The objective of this study was to establish a new methodology for classifying the pathogenicity of P. multocida by formulating a standard index. Strains isolated from FC cases and from swine with respiratory problems were selected. One hundred mL of a bacterial culture of each strain, containing 106 CFU, was inoculated in 10 one-day-old broilers. Mortality after inoculation, time of death (TD, and the presence of six macroscopic lesions were evaluated over a period of seven days post-inoculation (dpi. A Pathogenicity Index Per Bird (IPI, ranging 0 to 10, was calculated. Liver and heart fragments were collected to reisolate the bacteria. Blood was collected from the surviving birds, and an ELISA test was carried out to detect specific antibodies. The median of the pathogenicity indices, the number of lesions and the rate of bacteria reisolation were significantly different (p<0.05 among the origins of the isolates (p<0.05. The pathogenicity index developed in this study allows the classification of Pasteurella multocida pathogenicity and may be an alternative to the pathogenicity models currently used for screening.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of nisin against the swine pathogen Streptococcus suis and its synergistic interaction with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Geneviève; Piché, Fanny; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections in pigs, including meningitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Furthermore, this bacterium is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Recently, increased antibiotic resistance in S. suis has been reported worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of nisin, a bacteriocin of the lantibiotic class, as an antibacterial agent against the pathogen S. suis serotype 2. In addition, the synergistic activity of nisin in combination with conventional antibiotics was assessed. Using a plate assay, the nisin-producing strain Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454 proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of S. suis (n=18) belonging to either sequence type (ST)1, ST25, or ST28. In a microdilution broth assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of purified nisin ranged between 1.25 and 5 μg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 5 and 10 μg/mL toward S. suis. The use of a capsule-deficient mutant of S. suis indicated that the presence of this polysaccharidic structure has no marked impact on susceptibility to nisin. Following treatment of S. suis with nisin, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed lysis of bacteria resulting from breakdown of the cell membrane. A time-killing curve showed a rapid bactericidal activity of nisin. Lastly, synergistic effects of nisin were observed in combination with several antibiotics, including penicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and ceftiofur. This study brought clear evidence supporting the potential of nisin for the prevention and treatment of S. suis infections in pigs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Extracellular Actin Is a Receptor for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. A. Raymond

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an agriculturally important porcine pathogen, disrupts the mucociliary escalator causing ciliostasis, loss of cilial function, and epithelial cell death within the porcine lung. Losses to swine production due to growth rate retardation and reduced feed conversion efficiency are severe, and antibiotics are used heavily to control mycoplasmal pneumonia. Notably, little is known about the repertoire of host receptors that M. hyopneumoniae targets to facilitate colonization. Here we show, for the first time, that actin exists extracellularly on porcine epithelial monolayers (PK-15 using surface biotinylation and 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM, and that M. hyopneumoniae binds to the extracellular β-actin exposed on the surface of these cells. Consistent with this hypothesis we show: (i monoclonal antibodies that target β-actin significantly block the ability of M. hyopneumoniae to adhere and colonize PK-15 cells; (ii microtiter plate binding assays show that M. hyopneumoniae cells bind to monomeric G-actin in a dose dependent manner; (iii more than 100 M. hyopneumoniae proteins were recovered from affinity-chromatography experiments using immobilized actin as bait; and (iv biotinylated monomeric actin binds directly to M. hyopneumoniae proteins in ligand blotting studies. Specifically, we show that the P97 cilium adhesin possesses at least two distinct actin-binding regions, and binds monomeric actin with nanomolar affinity. Taken together, these observations suggest that actin may be an important receptor for M. hyopneumoniae within the swine lung and will aid in the future development of intervention strategies against this devastating pathogen. Furthermore, our observations have wider implications for extracellular actin as an important bacterial receptor.

  6. Extracellular Actin Is a Receptor for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Benjamin B A; Madhkoor, Ranya; Schleicher, Ina; Uphoff, Cord C; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Rohde, Manfred; Padula, Matthew P; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2018-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , an agriculturally important porcine pathogen, disrupts the mucociliary escalator causing ciliostasis, loss of cilial function, and epithelial cell death within the porcine lung. Losses to swine production due to growth rate retardation and reduced feed conversion efficiency are severe, and antibiotics are used heavily to control mycoplasmal pneumonia. Notably, little is known about the repertoire of host receptors that M. hyopneumoniae targets to facilitate colonization. Here we show, for the first time, that actin exists extracellularly on porcine epithelial monolayers (PK-15) using surface biotinylation and 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM), and that M. hyopneumoniae binds to the extracellular β-actin exposed on the surface of these cells. Consistent with this hypothesis we show: (i) monoclonal antibodies that target β-actin significantly block the ability of M. hyopneumoniae to adhere and colonize PK-15 cells; (ii) microtiter plate binding assays show that M. hyopneumoniae cells bind to monomeric G-actin in a dose dependent manner; (iii) more than 100 M. hyopneumoniae proteins were recovered from affinity-chromatography experiments using immobilized actin as bait; and (iv) biotinylated monomeric actin binds directly to M. hyopneumoniae proteins in ligand blotting studies. Specifically, we show that the P97 cilium adhesin possesses at least two distinct actin-binding regions, and binds monomeric actin with nanomolar affinity. Taken together, these observations suggest that actin may be an important receptor for M. hyopneumoniae within the swine lung and will aid in the future development of intervention strategies against this devastating pathogen. Furthermore, our observations have wider implications for extracellular actin as an important bacterial receptor.

  7. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious extra...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma.......Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...

  8. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for detecting Mycoplasma hyosynoviae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis in pen-based oral, tonsillar, and nasal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Neto, João Carlos; Bower, Leslie; Erickson, Barbara Z; Wang, Chong; Raymond, Matthew; Strait, Erin L

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) hyorhinis and M. hyosynoviae are pathogens known to cause disease in pigs post-weaning. Due to their fastidious nature, there is increased need for culture-independent diagnostic platforms to detect these microorganisms. Therefore, this study was performed to develop and optimize quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to rapidly detect M. hyorhinis and M. hyosynoviae in pen-based oral fluids as well as nasal and tonsillar fluids as proxies for samples used in swine herd surveillance. Two methods of genomic DNA extraction, automated versus manual, were used to compare diagnostic test performance. A wean-to-finish longitudinal study was also carried out to demonstrate the reproducibility of using pen-based oral fluids. Overall, pen-based oral and tonsillar fluids were more likely to be positive for both types of bacteria whereas only M. hyorhinis was detected in nasal fluids. DNA extraction protocols were shown to significantly influence test result. Although the initial detection time somewhat differed, both organisms were repeatedly detected in the longitudinal study. Overall, this study evaluated two qPCR methods for rapid and specific detection of either mycoplasma. Results from the present investigation can serve as a foundation for future studies to determine the prevalence of the two microorganisms, environmental load, and effectiveness of veterinary interventions for infection control.

  9. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for detecting Mycoplasma hyosynoviae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis in pen-based oral, tonsillar, and nasal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Leslie; Erickson, Barbara Z.; Wang, Chong; Raymond, Matthew; Strait, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) hyorhinis and M. hyosynoviae are pathogens known to cause disease in pigs post-weaning. Due to their fastidious nature, there is increased need for culture-independent diagnostic platforms to detect these microorganisms. Therefore, this study was performed to develop and optimize quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to rapidly detect M. hyorhinis and M. hyosynoviae in pen-based oral fluids as well as nasal and tonsillar fluids as proxies for samples used in swine herd surveillance. Two methods of genomic DNA extraction, automated versus manual, were used to compare diagnostic test performance. A wean-to-finish longitudinal study was also carried out to demonstrate the reproducibility of using pen-based oral fluids. Overall, pen-based oral and tonsillar fluids were more likely to be positive for both types of bacteria whereas only M. hyorhinis was detected in nasal fluids. DNA extraction protocols were shown to significantly influence test result. Although the initial detection time somewhat differed, both organisms were repeatedly detected in the longitudinal study. Overall, this study evaluated two qPCR methods for rapid and specific detection of either mycoplasma. Results from the present investigation can serve as a foundation for future studies to determine the prevalence of the two microorganisms, environmental load, and effectiveness of veterinary interventions for infection control. PMID:25643803

  10. Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Kumaraguruparan; Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Manickam, Krishnan; Pandranki, Lavanya; Taylor, Alexander B; Hart, P John; Baseman, Joel B; Kannan, T R

    2018-01-23

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterium that causes respiratory illnesses in humans, including pharyngitis, tracheobronchitis, and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It has also been directly linked to reactive airway disease, asthma, and extrapulmonary pathologies. During its colonization, M. pneumoniae expresses a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin designated c ommunity- a cquired r espiratory d istress s yndrome (CARDS) toxin. CARDS toxin persists and localizes in the airway in CAP patients, asthmatics, and trauma patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Although CARDS toxin binds to specific cellular receptors, is internalized, and induces hyperinflammation, histopathology, mucus hyperplasia, and other airway injury, the intracellular trafficking of CARDS toxin remains unclear. Here, we show that CARDS toxin translocates through early and late endosomes and the Golgi complex and concentrates at the perinuclear region to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Using ER-targeted SNAP-tag, we confirmed the association of CARDS toxin with the ER and determined that CARDS toxin follows the retrograde pathway. In addition, we identified a novel CARDS toxin amino acid fingerprint, KELED, that is required for toxin transport to the ER and subsequent toxin-mediated cytotoxicity. IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma pneumoniae , a leading cause of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among children and adults in the United States, synthesizes a 591-amino-acid ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating protein, designated c ommunity- a cquired r espiratory d istress s yndrome (CARDS) toxin. CARDS toxin alone is sufficient to induce and mimic major inflammatory and histopathological phenotypes associated with M. pneumoniae infection in rodents and primates. In order to elicit its ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating activities, CARDS toxin must bind to host cell receptors, be internalized via clathrin-mediated pathways, and subsequently be transported to specific

  11. Swine Influenza Virus PA and Neuraminidase Gene Reassortment into Human H1N1 Influenza Virus Is Associated with an Altered Pathogenic Phenotype Linked to Increased MIP-2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugolenski, Daniel; Jones, Les; Howerth, Elizabeth; Wentworth, David; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A

    2015-05-01

    Swine are susceptible to infection by both avian and human influenza viruses, and this feature is thought to contribute to novel reassortant influenza viruses. In this study, the influenza virus reassortment rate in swine and human cells was determined. Coinfection of swine cells with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (huH1N1) and an endemic swine H1N2 (A/swine/Illinois/02860/09) virus (swH1N2) resulted in a 23% reassortment rate that was independent of α2,3- or α2,6-sialic acid distribution on the cells. The reassortants had altered pathogenic phenotypes linked to introduction of the swine virus PA and neuraminidase (NA) into huH1N1. In mice, the huH1N1 PA and NA mediated increased MIP-2 expression early postinfection, resulting in substantial pulmonary neutrophilia with enhanced lung pathology and disease. The findings support the notion that swine are a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortants independent of sialic acid distribution. These results show the potential for continued reassortment of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with endemic swine viruses and for reassortants to have increased pathogenicity linked to the swine virus NA and PA genes which are associated with increased pulmonary neutrophil trafficking that is related to MIP-2 expression. Influenza A viruses can change rapidly via reassortment to create a novel virus, and reassortment can result in possible pandemics. Reassortments among subtypes from avian and human viruses led to the 1957 (H2N2 subtype) and 1968 (H3N2 subtype) human influenza pandemics. Recent analyses of circulating isolates have shown that multiple genes can be recombined from human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, leading to triple reassortants. Understanding the factors that can affect influenza A virus reassortment is needed for the establishment of disease intervention strategies that may reduce or preclude pandemics. The findings from this study show that swine cells provide a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortment

  12. Swine Influenza Virus PA and Neuraminidase Gene Reassortment into Human H1N1 Influenza Virus Is Associated with an Altered Pathogenic Phenotype Linked to Increased MIP-2 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugolenski, Daniel; Jones, Les; Howerth, Elizabeth; Wentworth, David; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Swine are susceptible to infection by both avian and human influenza viruses, and this feature is thought to contribute to novel reassortant influenza viruses. In this study, the influenza virus reassortment rate in swine and human cells was determined. Coinfection of swine cells with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (huH1N1) and an endemic swine H1N2 (A/swine/Illinois/02860/09) virus (swH1N2) resulted in a 23% reassortment rate that was independent of α2,3- or α2,6-sialic acid distribution on the cells. The reassortants had altered pathogenic phenotypes linked to introduction of the swine virus PA and neuraminidase (NA) into huH1N1. In mice, the huH1N1 PA and NA mediated increased MIP-2 expression early postinfection, resulting in substantial pulmonary neutrophilia with enhanced lung pathology and disease. The findings support the notion that swine are a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortants independent of sialic acid distribution. These results show the potential for continued reassortment of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with endemic swine viruses and for reassortants to have increased pathogenicity linked to the swine virus NA and PA genes which are associated with increased pulmonary neutrophil trafficking that is related to MIP-2 expression. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses can change rapidly via reassortment to create a novel virus, and reassortment can result in possible pandemics. Reassortments among subtypes from avian and human viruses led to the 1957 (H2N2 subtype) and 1968 (H3N2 subtype) human influenza pandemics. Recent analyses of circulating isolates have shown that multiple genes can be recombined from human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, leading to triple reassortants. Understanding the factors that can affect influenza A virus reassortment is needed for the establishment of disease intervention strategies that may reduce or preclude pandemics. The findings from this study show that swine cells provide a mixing vessel for influenza

  13. Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma capricolum Subspecies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tv.v22i1.4549 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  14. Efficacy of combined vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in dually infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourry, Olivier; Fablet, Christelle; Simon, Gaëlle; Marois-Créhan, Corinne

    2015-11-18

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is one of the main causes of economic losses for swine producers. This complex is due to a combination of different pathogens and their interactions. Two major pathogens involved in PRDC are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objectives of this study were (i) to develop an experimental model of dual Mhp/PRRSV infection in SPF pigs with European strains of Mhp and PRRSV and (ii) to assess and compare the effects of single Mhp, single PRRSV or combined Mhp/PRRSV vaccination against this dual infection. Pigs dually infected with Mhp and PRRSV showed a combination of symptoms characteristic of each pathogen but no significant exacerbation of pathogenicity. Thus, the co-infected pigs displayed coughing and pneumonia typical of Mhp infection in addition to PRRSV-related hyperthermia and decrease in average daily gain (ADG). Hyperthermia was reduced in PRRSV vaccinated animals (single or combined vaccination), whereas ADG was restored in Mhp/PRRSV vaccinated pigs only. Regarding respiratory symptoms and lung lesions, no vaccine decreased coughing. However, all vaccines reduced the pneumonia score but more so in animals receiving the Mhp vaccine, whether single or combined. This vaccine also decreased the Mhp load in the respiratory tract. In conclusion, combined vaccination against both Mhp and PRRSV efficiently pooled the efficacy of each single PRRSV and Mhp vaccination and could be an interesting tool to control PRDC in European swine production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The action of certain antibiotics and ether on swine enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, R G

    1971-01-01

    The susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to the action of three antibiotics and diethyl ether was determined. Infected swine were used in an in vivo sensitivity detection system. The parameter of susceptibility was lesion prophylaxis. In vivo, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae appeared to be resistant to diethyl ether, tylosin tartrate, and erythromycin, but was susceptible to the action of chlortetracycline. Chlortetracycline was effective in preventing the development of lesions when given at levels which would be practical in commercial swine operations.

  16. Bullous Skin Manifestations ofMycoplasma pneumoniaeInfection: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoopalan, Senthil Velan; Chawla, Vonita; Hogan, Mary Beth; Wilson, Nevin W; Das, Samrat U

    2017-01-01

    Bullous skin lesions are uncommon in children. While it is well known that Mycoplasma infections are associated with papular skin manifestations, bullous skin lesions are not commonly reported. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very common bacterial pathogen causing respiratory tract infection in children and adults. We report 2 children with serology-confirmed Mycoplasma infection who were hospitalized for blistering skin lesions. Both of our patients responded well to corticosteroids and one of them required intravenous immunoglobulin. The aim of this case report is to raise awareness that Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection can present with bullous skin lesions, and to briefly review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of the skin manifestation of Mycoplasma infection.

  17. Role of Vpma phase variation in Mycoplasma agalactiae pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Baumgartner, Martina; Gamper, Erika; Innerebner, Carmen; Zimmermann, Martina; Schilcher, Franz; Tichy, Alexander; Winter, Petra; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Compared with other bacterial pathogens, the molecular mechanisms of mycoplasma pathogenicity are largely unknown. Several studies in the past have shown that pathogenic mycoplasmas are equipped with sophisticated genetic systems that allow them to undergo high-frequency surface antigenic variations. Although never clearly proven, these variable mycoplasma surface components are often implicated in host immune evasion and adaptation. Vpma surface lipoproteins of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae are encoded on a genomic pathogenicity island–like locus and are considered as one of the well-characterized model systems of mycoplasma surface antigenic variation. The present study assesses the role of these phase-variable Vpmas in the molecular pathogenesis of M. agalactiae by testing the wild-type strain PG2 in comparison with the xer1-disrupted Vpma ‘phase-locked’ mutants in sheep infection models. The data clearly illustrate that although Xer1 recombinase is not a virulence factor of M. agalactiae and Vpma phase variation is not necessary for establishing an infection, it might critically influence the survival and persistence of the pathogen under natural field conditions, mainly due to a better capacity for dissemination and evoking systemic responses. This is the first study where mycoplasma ‘phase-locked’ mutants are tested in vivo to elucidate the role of phase variation during infection. PMID:22809092

  18. The functions of the variable lipoprotein family of Mycoplasma hyorhinis in adherence to host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiyan; Wang, Jia; Ji, Yan; Ni, Bo; Zhang, Bixiong; Ma, Qinghong; Wei, Yanna; Xiao, Shaobo; Feng, Zhixin; Liu, Maojun; Shao, Guoqing

    2016-04-15

    Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) is a swine pathogen that is associated with various human cancers and contamination in cell cultures. However, no studies on the adhesion molecules of this pathogen have yet been reported. The variable lipoprotein (Vlp) family is an important surface component of M. hyorhinis. Herein, we performed several experiments to identify the function of the Vlp family in adherence to host cells. Seven recombinant Vlp (rVlp) proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. The potential role of rVlp adherence to pig kidney (PK-15) and swine tracheal epithelial (STEC) cells was then studied by indirect immunofluorescence assay and microtiter plate adherence assay. Adhesion of M. hyorhinis to PK-15 and STEC cells was specifically inhibited by the addition of a cocktail of rVlp proteins. The rVlp protein mixture was shown to bind to both PK-15 and STEC cells. The binding increased in a dose-dependent manner and could be blocked by antisera against the rVlp proteins. Most of the rVlp proteins could bind individually to both PK-15 and STEC cells except for rVlpD and rVlpF, which bound only to STEC cells. Because Vlp members vary in size among different strains and generations, they may vary in their cytoadhesion capabilities in various strains. In summary, the present results indicate that the Vlp family functions as adhesins of M. hyorhinis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Mycoplasma gallisepticum: Control by live attenuated vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercially available attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are commonly used within the layer industry to control MG-induced mycoplasmosis. Among these are two live MG vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic MG “chick F” strain. In the present study, the commercially availa...

  20. Mycoplasma genitalium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sunil; Zaman, Kamran; Jain, Neha

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the important causes of non-gonococcal urethritis. Rising incidence and emerging antimicrobial resistance are a major concern these days. The poor clinical outcomes with doxycycline therapy led to the use of azithromycin as the primary drug of choice. Single-dose azithromycin regimen over a period of time was changed to extended regimen following studies showing better clinical cures and less risk of resistance development. However, emerging macrolide resistance, either due to transmission of resistance or drug pressure has further worsened the management of this infection. The issues of drug resistance and treatment failures also exist in cases of M. genitalium infection. At present, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. genitalium strains is an alarming sign for its treatment and the associated public health impact due to its complications. However, newer drugs like pristinamycin, solithromycin, sitafloxacin, and others have shown a hope for the clinical cure, but need further clinical trials to optimize the therapeutic dosing schedules and formulate appropriate treatment regimens. Rampant and inappropriate use of these newer drugs will further sabotage future attempts to manage MDR strains. There is currently a need to formulate diagnostic algorithms and etiology-based treatment regimens rather than the syndromic approach, preferably using combination therapy instead of a monotherapy. Awareness about the current guidelines and recommended treatment regimens among clinicians and local practitioners is of utmost importance. Antimicrobial resistance testing and global surveillance are required to assess the efficacy of current treatment regimens and for guiding future research for the early detection and management of MDR M. genitalium infections.

  1. Etiopatogenia e imunoprofilaxia da pneumonia enzoótica suína Etiopathogenesis and immunoprofilaxis of Swine Enzootic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Rochedo Conceição

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Pneumonia Enzoótica Suína (PES, causada pela bactéria fastidiosa Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, é a doença respiratória mais importante dos suínos, responsável por enormes prejuízos à suinocultura brasileira e mundial. A elevada prevalência e o fato de pré-dispor os suínos à patógenos oportunistas tornam esta doença o alvo central de um programa de saúde de rebanho para doenças respiratórias. O conhecimento das características do agente etiológico bem como dos seus fatores de patogenicidade pode ajudar na elaboração de novas estratégias de controle da PES. O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir alguns aspectos da etiopatogenia da PES que têm implicação na imunoprofilaxia da doença e os principais resultados obtidos com vacinas de última geração avaliadas experimentalmente.Swine Enzootic Pneumonia (SEP, caused by fastidious bacterium Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is the most important respiratory disease of swines, responsible for high losses to Brazilian and worldwide swine breeding. The high prevalence and the fact to predis-pose the swines to secondary pathogens make this disease the central target of a herd health program to respiratory diseases. The knowledge of the characteristics and pathogenicity factors of etiologic agent could help in the development of new strategies to control SEP. The aim of this review was to discuss some aspects of the etiopathogenesis of the SEP that have implications in the immunoprofilaxis of disease and the main results obtained with new generation vaccines evaluated experimentally.

  2. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Pérez-Wohlfeil, Esteban; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Trelles, Oswaldo; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  3. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  4. Regulation of gene expression in Mycoplasmas: contribution from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae genome sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Maciel França Madeira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the transcription apparatus of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (strains J and 7448 and Mycoplasma synoviae, using a comparative genomics approach to summarize the main features related to transcription and control of gene expression in mycoplasmas. Most of the transcription-related genes present in the three strains are well conserved among mycoplasmas. Some unique aspects of transcription in mycoplasmas and the scarcity of regulatory proteins in mycoplasma genomes are discussed.

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and convenient detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahe; Minion, F Chris; Petersen, Andrew C; Jiang, Fei; Yang, Sheng; Guo, Panpan; Li, Jinxiang; Wu, Wenxue

    2013-04-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a novel method of gene amplification, was employed in this study for detecting Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in the respiratory tract or lungs of swine. The pathogen can be detected in LAMP reactions containing as few as 10 fg purified target DNA (10 copies of M. hyopneumoniae genome) within 30 min, which was comparable to real-time PCR. After 30-min reaction at 63 °C, the addition of a certain amount of dye (SYBR Green I and hydroxyl naphthol blue at a proper ratio) into the LAMP reaction system makes the results easily determined as positive or negative by visual inspection. In addition, the LAMP was able to distinguish between M. hyopneumoniae and other closely-related mycoplasma strains, indicating a high degree of specificity. The LAMP assay was more simple and cheap, since the reaction could be completed under isothermal conditions and less laboratorial infrastructure are required. And, it was proven reliable for M. hyopneumoniae diagnosis of nasal swab and lung samples from the field.

  6. Mycoplasma pneumonia: Clinical features and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Surender

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is a common respiratory pathogen that produces diseases of varied severity ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infection to severe atypical pneumonia. Apart from respiratory tract infections, this organism is also responsible for producing a wide spectrum of non-pulmonary manifestations including neurological, hepatic, cardiac diseases, hemolytic anemia, polyarthritis and erythema multiforme. This review focuses on molecular taxonomy, biological characteristics, epidemiology, clinical presentation, radiology and various laboratory tools in diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mycoplasma pneumonia.

  7. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  8. Effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on porcine nasal cavity dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yumeng; Hu, Weiwei; Wei, Yanna; Feng, Zhixin; Yang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) is the primary etiological agent responsible for swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that cause tremendous economic losses all over the swine industry. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most effective antigen-presenting cells, are widely distributed beneath respiratory epithelium. DCs uptake and present antigens to T cells, to initiate protective immune responses or generate immune-mediated pathology in different infections. In this study, we investigated the changes in the different DCs subpopulations, T cells and SIgA positive cells counts in porcine nasal cavity after long time Mhp infection. We further evaluated the role of porcine DCs in Mhp exposure. Our results showed that the number of SLA-II-DR + SWC3a + DCs, SLA-II-DR + CD11b + DCs, T cells, SIgA positive cells in nasal cavity were decreased after Mhp 28 days infection in vivo experiment. The antigen presenting ability of DCs were inhibited by Mhp exposure. DCs couldn't activate T-cell proliferation by down-regulating the antigen presenting molecule CD1a expression and promoting high level of IL-10 production. Further more, the expression levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ in DCs were decreased, suggesting that DCs favour for Th2 immune response development after Mhp exposure in vitro. Taken together, Mhp infection impairs the immune function which allows the persistence of Mhp and cause predispose pigs to secondary infections. The decline of DCs presentation ability is the reason why dysfunction and persistence in Mhp infection. These findings are benefit for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms of Mhp in pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mycoplasma suppression of THP-1 Cell TLR responses is corrected with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Ekaterina; Grandhi, Jaykumar; Wewers, Mark D; Gavrilin, Mikhail A

    2010-03-25

    Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is a serious problem in research, altering cellular response to different stimuli thus compromising experimental results. We found that chronic mycoplasma contamination of THP-1 cells suppresses responses of THP-1 cells to TLR stimuli. For example, E. coli LPS induced IL-1 beta was suppressed by 6 fold and IL-8 by 10 fold in mycoplasma positive THP-1 cells. Responses to live F. novicida challenge were suppressed by 50-fold and 40-fold respectively for IL-1beta and IL-8. Basal TLR4 expression level in THP-1 cells was decreased by mycoplasma by 2.4-fold (p = 0.0003). Importantly, cell responses to pathogen associated molecular patterns are completely restored by mycoplasma clearance with Plasmocin. Thus, routine screening of cell lines for mycoplasma is important for the maintenance of reliable experimental data and contaminated cell lines can be restored to their baseline function with antibiotic clearance of mycoplasma.

  10. Mycoplasma suppression of THP-1 Cell TLR responses is corrected with antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Zakharova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is a serious problem in research, altering cellular response to different stimuli thus compromising experimental results. We found that chronic mycoplasma contamination of THP-1 cells suppresses responses of THP-1 cells to TLR stimuli. For example, E. coli LPS induced IL-1 beta was suppressed by 6 fold and IL-8 by 10 fold in mycoplasma positive THP-1 cells. Responses to live F. novicida challenge were suppressed by 50-fold and 40-fold respectively for IL-1beta and IL-8. Basal TLR4 expression level in THP-1 cells was decreased by mycoplasma by 2.4-fold (p = 0.0003. Importantly, cell responses to pathogen associated molecular patterns are completely restored by mycoplasma clearance with Plasmocin. Thus, routine screening of cell lines for mycoplasma is important for the maintenance of reliable experimental data and contaminated cell lines can be restored to their baseline function with antibiotic clearance of mycoplasma.

  11. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins induce apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophage via increasing nitric oxide production, oxidative stress, and caspase-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fangfang; Ni, Bo; Liu, Maojun; Feng, Zhixin; Xiong, Qiyan; Xiao, Shaobo; Shao, Guoqing

    2013-09-15

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in swine. Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) of mycoplasma are the main pathogenicity factors in mycoplasma diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of M. hyopneumoniae LAMP on porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) 3D4/21 cell line. Apoptotic features, such as chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies, were observed in LAMP-treated PAM 3D4/21 cells. Moreover, LAMP significantly increased the number of TUNEL positive apoptotic cells in PAM 3D4/21 cells compared with the untreated control. In addition, flow cytometric analysis using dual staining with annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) showed that LAMP of M. hyopneumoniae induced a time-dependent apoptosis in PAM 3D4/21 cells. Moreover, increased levels of superoxide anion production and activated caspase-3 in PAM 3D4/21 cells were observed after exposure to LAMP. Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) was also confirmed in the cell supernatants. Besides, apoptotic rates increase and caspase-3 activation were suppressed by NOS inhibitor or antioxidant. It is suggested that LAMP of M. hyopneumoniae induced apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophage via NO production, superoxide anion production, and caspase-3 activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  13. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...

  14. Molecular biology of Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Jensen, Lise T.; Boesen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are the smallest free living microorganisms with the smallest genome. The G+C content is in general low (25-33%) and the coding capacity is about 600 proteins. Mycoplasma species are phylogenetically related, they use the genetic codon UGA for tryptophan, and show rapid evolution, wit...

  15. Swine torque teno virus detection in pig commercial vaccines, enzymes for laboratory use and human drugs containing components of porcine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekarainen, Tuija; Martínez-Guinó, Laura; Segalés, Joaquim

    2009-03-01

    Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are vertebrate infecting, single-stranded circular DNA viruses. Two genetically distinct TTV genogroups (TTV1 and TTV2) infect swine worldwide with high prevalence. Currently, swine TTVs are considered non-pathogenic, although TTV2 has been linked to post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, a porcine circovirus disease. On the other hand, pig materials are an important source of components used in porcine vaccine manufacturing, human drugs and commercial enzyme products. However, there is little information about the possible existence of extraneous viruses in products containing porcine-derived components. In the present study, 26 commercial swine vaccines, seven human drugs and three enzyme products from porcine origin were tested for the presence of TTV1 and TTV2 genomes by PCR. Four vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were positive for TTV2 by PCR. Three M. hyopneumoniae, one porcine parvovirus and one porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines were PCR positive for TTV1. One human drug contained TTV1 DNA as well as a trypsin enzyme; a porcine-derived elastase product was positive for both TTV genogroups. These results show that swine TTVs are contaminants not only of swine vaccines but also of human drugs containing porcine components and enzymes for laboratory use.

  16. Morphology of human Fallopian tubes after infection with Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis--in vitro organ culture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Funch, Peter; Fedder, Jens

    2007-01-01

    that mycoplasmas can cause tubal factor infertility. We analysed the effects of infections with Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium on the HFT epithelium and compared them with the effects of infections with genital pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. METHODS: We used an in vitro...... against the C-terminal part of the adhesion protein MgPa before infection of HFT organ culture. CONCLUSION: We have shown that the presence of M. genitalium, but not M. hominis, in the HFT organ culture affected the epithelium and resulted in cilia damage. The effect of infection with M. genitalium...

  17. Morphology of human Fallopian tupes after infection with Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis - in vitro organ culture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Funch, P.; Fedder, J.

    2006-01-01

    that mycoplasmas can cause tubal factor infertility. We analysed the effects of infections with Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium on the HFT epithelium and compared them with the effects of infections with genital pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. METHODS We used an in vitro......-terminal part of the adhesion protein MgPa before infection of HFT organ culture. CONCLUSION We have shown that the presence of M. genitalium, but not M. hominis, in the HFT organ culture affected the epithelium and resulted in cilia damage. The effect of infection with M. genitalium on the HFT was, however...

  18. Npro of classical swine fever virus contributes to pathogenicity in pigs by preventing type I interferon induction at local replication sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tomokazu; Nagashima, Naofumi; Ruggli, Nicolas; Summerfield, Artur; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2014-04-17

    Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by CSF virus (CSFV) is a highly contagious disease of pigs. The viral protein Npro of CSFV interferes with alpha- and beta-interferon (IFN-α/β) induction by promoting the degradation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). During the establishment of the live attenuated CSF vaccine strain GPE-, Npro acquired a mutation that abolished its capacity to bind and degrade IRF3, rendering it unable to prevent IFN-α/β induction. In a previous study, we showed that the GPE- vaccine virus became pathogenic after forced serial passages in pigs, which was attributed to the amino acid substitutions T830A in the viral proteins E2 and V2475A and A2563V in NS4B. Interestingly, during the re-adaptation of the GPE- vaccine virus in pigs, the IRF3-degrading function of Npro was not recovered. Therefore, we examined whether restoring the ability of Npro to block IFN-α/β induction of both the avirulent and moderately virulent GPE--derived virus would enhance pathogenicity in pigs. Viruses carrying the N136D substitution in Npro regained the ability to degrade IRF3 and suppress IFN-α/β induction in vitro. In pigs, functional Npro significantly reduced the local IFN-α mRNA expression in lymphoid organs while it increased quantities of IFN-α/β in the circulation, and enhanced pathogenicity of the moderately virulent virus. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that functional Npro influences the innate immune response at local sites of virus replication in pigs and contributes to pathogenicity of CSFV in synergy with viral replication.

  19. Kinases of two strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of Mycoplasma synoviae: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Melo Bailão

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are wall-less eubacteria belonging to the class of Mollicutes. These prokaryotes have a reduced genome size and reduced biosynthetic machinery. They cause great losses in animal production. M. synoviae is responsible for an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens and turkeys. M. hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. The complete genomes of these organisms showed 17 ORFs encoding kinases in M. synoviae and 15 in each of the M. hyopneumoniae strain. Four kinase genes were restricted to the avian pathogen while three were specific to the pig pathogen when compared to each other. All deduced kinases found in the non pathogenic strain (J[ATCC25934] were also found in the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae strain. The enzymes were classified in nine families composing five fold groups.

  20. Development and validation of an attenuated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Xin; Wei, Yan-Na; Li, Gui-Lan; Lu, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Pharr, G Todd; Wang, Zhan-Wei; Kong, Meng; Gan, Yuan; Bai, Fang-Fang; Liu, Mao-Jun; Xiong, Qi-Yan; Wu, Xu-Su; Shao, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-27

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) causes a chronic respiratory disease with high morbidity and low mortality in swine, and has been presented as a major cause of growth retardation in the swine industry. Aerosol vaccination presents a needle free, high throughput, and efficient platform for vaccine delivery, and has been widely applied in poultry vaccination. However, aerosol vaccines have rarely been used in swine vaccination primarily because the long and curving respiratory track of swine presents a barrier for vaccine particle delivery. To develop an effective M. hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine, three major barriers need to be overcome: to optimize particle size for aerosol delivery, to maintain the viability of mycoplasma cells in the vaccine, and to optimize the environmental conditions for vaccine delivery. In this study, an aerosol mycoplasma vaccine was successfully developed based on a conventional live attenuated M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. Specifically, the Pari LCD nebulizer was used to produce an aerosol vaccine particle size less than 5 μm; and a buffer with 5% glycerol was developed and optimized to prevent inactivation of M. hyopneumoniae caused by aerosolization and evaporation. Before nebulization, the room temperature and relative humidity were control to 20-25 °C and 70-75%, respectively, which helped maintain the viability of aerosol vaccine. Animal experiments demonstrated that this newly developed aerosol vaccine was effectively delivered to swine low respiratory track, being confirmed by nested-PCR, in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscope. Moreover, M. hyopneumoniae specific sIgA secretion was detected in the nasal swab samples at 14 days post-immunization. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a live M. hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the respiratory tracts of pneumonic calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Dieltjes, R P

    1992-10-01

    The prevalence of mycoplasmas in the respiratory tracts of 148 pneumonic calves originating from 25 herds in the Netherlands is reported. Four types of culture media were used to isolate mycoplasmas: solid modified Edward medium, 2 types of Friis media, and A7B differential agar medium. Mycoplasmas were isolated both from nasal swab specimens and lung lavage fluids collected from live calves and from nasal mucosa and lung tissue specimens collected post mortem. All of the mycoplasma strains isolated could be identified as either Ureaplasma diversum (isolated from 80% of 25 herds), Mycoplasma dispar (92%), M. bovirhinis (88%), M. bovis (20%), M. bovigenitalium (4%), M. arginini (16%), or M. canis (12%). Isolation rates of M. dispar and U. diversum were considerably higher from lung lavage fluids than from nasal swab specimens. M. bovis was detected only in fattening herds and not in dairy herds. The respiratory tracts of 75% of the calves examined contained at least 2 mycoplasma species. In total, 25 different combinations of mycoplasma species were detected in specimens collected from noses and lungs. The pathogenic species U. diversum and M. dispar had not been isolated before in the Netherlands.

  2. Occurrence of mycoplasmas in free-ranging birds of prey in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, M; Hagen, N; Hernadez-Divers, S J; Hafez, H M

    2008-10-01

    Mycoplasmas are well-known avian pathogens of poultry and some passerines. Although reported in birds of prey, their role as pathogens is still unclear. Healthy, free-ranging raptor nestlings sampled during a routine ringing (banding) program, and birds of prey from rehabilitation centers, tested positive for Mycoplasma spp. by culture and a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Given the lack of clinical signs and disease, we suggest that mycoplasmas in raptors may be commensal rather than pathogenic. Using immunobinding assay and species-specific PCR tests, Mycoplasma buteonis, M. falconis, and M. gypis were identified; M. falconis was only detected in falcons. Additionally, some isolates could not be identified. This is the first report of Mycoplasma spp. isolations from Western Marsh Harriers (Circus aeroginosus), a Eurasian Hobby (Falco subbuteo), and a Barn Owl (Tyto alba).

  3. Efficacy of vaccines against bacterial diseases in swine: what can we expect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Chiers, Koen; Maes, Dominiek; Ducatelle, Richard; Decostere, Annemie

    2004-06-03

    This paper discusses what can be expected with regard to efficacy of antibacterial vaccines used in swine, based on the present knowledge of pathogen-host interactions. First, vaccination against bacteria that mainly cause disease by production of exotoxins is considered. Vaccines containing the inactivated toxin or a non-toxic but antigenic recombinant protein derived from the exotoxin can be expected to provide protection against disease. The degree of protection induced by such vaccines varies, however, depending amongst other things on the pathogenesis of the disease. Vaccination against clostridial infections, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections, progressive atrophic rhinitis and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, is considered. The second part of the article deals with vaccination against extracellular bacteria. Protection against these bacteria is generally mediated by antibodies against their surface antigens and certain secreted antigens, but cellular immunity may also play a role. Efficacy of vaccines against swine erysipelas, Streptococcus suis infections, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections and swine dysentery is discussed. Finally, vaccination against facultatively intracellular bacteria is considered. For protection against these bacteria cell-mediated immunity plays an important role, but antibodies may also be involved. It is generally accepted that live-attenuated vaccines are more suitable for induction of cell-mediated immunity than inactivated vaccines, although this also depends on the adjuvant used in the vaccine. As an example, vaccination against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is discussed.

  4. Isolation of mycoplasma species from the lower respiratory tract of healthy cattle and cattle with respiratory disease in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A; Ball, H; Dizier, I; Trolin, A; Bell, C; Mainil, J; Linden, A

    2002-10-19

    Between 1997 and 2000, a total of 150 healthy cattle and 238 animals with respiratory disease were examined for six Mycoplasma species. Attempts were made to detect Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma dispar and Ureaplasma diversum in calves with recurrent disease, and all three of these species were identified in calves with recurrent disease and in healthy lungs. In healthy calves, 84 per cent of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were mycoplasma free; when cultures were positive, Mycoplasma bovirhinis was the only species isolated. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 78 per cent of animals suffering recurrent respiratory disease and from 65 per cent of acute respiratory cases. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavages from 35 per cent of calves suffering recurrent respiratory disease, and from 50 per cent of acute cases, and from 20 per cent of pneumonic cases examined postmortem. M bovis was associated with other Mycoplasma species in 44 per cent of cases. M dispar was also isolated from 45.5 per cent of calves suffering recurrent respiratory disease, often in association with M bovis. M canis was identified for the first time in diseased Belgian cattle. Other mycoplasmas, including Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma alkalescens and U diversum, were isolated less frequently. Associations between mycoplasmas and other pathogens were often observed. Among lungs infected with Pasteurella and/or Mannheimia species, more than 50 per cent were mixed infections with M bovis.

  5. Evaluation of the biofilm formation capacity of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from cases of fowl cholera and swine lungs and its relationship with pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunna D. de Emery

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative bacillus that causes economic losses due to the development of respiratory diseases in several animal species. Among the mechanisms of virulence, the formation of biofilms is an important factor for bacterial survival in hostile environments. Studies of biofilm formation by P. multocida are needed because P. multocida is an important pathogen involved in respiratory infections. However, in contrast to other microorganisms, few studies of biofilm formation have examined P. multocida. Studies comparing the pathogenicity of microbial strains as a function of their biofilm production capacity are also rare. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biofilm formation capacity of 94 P. multocida strains isolated from cases of fowl cholera and from swine lungs on polystyrene plates. The associations of the biofilm formation capacity with the pathogenicity index (PI in vivo and with the presence of four genes (screened by PCR of the tad locus (tadB, tadD, tadE and tadG, described as adhesion markers, were also determined. Strains from both animal origins were able to form biofilms. However, most of the specimens (52.13% were classified as weak producers, and more than 40% of the strains of P. multocida (40.42% did not produce biofilms. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 in the degree of biofilm production between the two sources of isolation. Of the analyzed strains, 56.52% contained all four genes (tadB, tadD, tadE and tadG. The PI arithmetic mean of the strains classified as non-biofilm producers was significantly different (p0.05 with the production of biofilms and with the origin of a given strain. Finally, low virulence strains may suggest a higher biofilm formation capacity on polystyrene plates.

  6. [Identification of species of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma diversum from Argentinian dairy herds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Camila; Tirante, Liliana; Chaves, Javier; Pol, Martín; Ambrogi, Arnaldo; Giraudo, José Angel; Tamiozzo, Pablo

    Several species of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma diversum can cause diseases in dairy cattle, which can be associated or not with clinical manifestations. In our country, the presence of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma californicum and Mycoplasma canadense has been detected, being the only mycoplasma species identified so far. The objective of this study was to identify other species of the Mycoplasmataceae family. Thirty-five Mycoplasma spp.-like isolates obtained from different samples from cattle, with or without clinical symptoms, from eight herds located in the provinces of Santa Fe, Cordoba, Buenos Aires and San Luis were utilized in the present study. Through the use of species-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR) Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma bovirhinis and U. diversum were identified and through amplification and further sequencing of the 16-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions, Mycoplasma arginine and M. californicum were identified. The identification of these species represents an important advance in knowledge in order to include these pathogens in the differential diagnosis of certain clinical and pathological entities of cattle from Argentina. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Jessian L.; Goje, Oluwatosin Jaiyeoba

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium has been recognized as a cause of male urethritis, and there is now evidence suggesting that it causes cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. M. genitalium is a slow growing organism, and, with the advent of nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), more studies are being performed, and knowledge about the pathogenicity of this organism elucidated. With NAAT detection, treatment modalities have been studied, and the next challenge is to determine the most eff...

  8. Emergence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) in medium-scale swine farms in southeastern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornimbene, B; Frossard, J-P; Chhim, V; Sorn, S; Guitian, J; Drew, T W

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006, reports from China and Viet Nam have alerted of an emergent highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) in that region. The frequent occurrence of outbreaks in these countries puts Cambodian pig farms at high risk of infection, but no study had been conducted to investigate the presence of HP-PRRS in Cambodian farms. We investigated the presence of HP-PRRS in medium-scale (semi-commercial) swine farms in the Cambodian southeastern region. Specifically, one province bordering Viet Nam (Takeo) was selected due to the concentration of most semi-commercial farms in that province. A cross-sectional study was carried out, between July and September 2010 to assess whether the prevalence of infection in these farms was indicative of recent spread of PPRSV and to identify risk factors for infection. The number of farms to be sampled was established using methods for Lot Quality Assurance Surveys (LQAS), in order to achieve a pre-established ability to discriminate between two different prevalence settings. The target population comprised all semi-commercial farms in Takeo province from which a random sample of 35 farms was selected. Selected farms were visited and questionnaires administered to gather information on farm characteristics and husbandry practices. Blood samples from individual pigs were collected in each of the study farms and tested for PRRSV, along with a number of other swine respiratory pathogens in order to investigate potential interactions. Our results showed that the virus was already present in Takeo semi-commercial pig population (LQAS herd prevalence ≥85%) at the time of sampling. The presence of sows in the farm and farm density were significantly associated (PPRRS - but this was an unadjusted association as small sample size precluded multivariate analysis. Spatiotemporal description of the supposed pattern of infection revealed that the 1st farms infected were closely located to major

  9. Disposal of Hospital Wastes Containing Pathogenic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    virus African swine fever virus Besnoitia besnoiti Borna disease virus Bovine infectious petechial fever virus Camel pox virus Ephemeral fever virus...Asiatic strains) Mycoplasma mycoides (contagious bovine pleuro-pneumonia) iMycoplasma sgalacti~e (contagious agalactia of shcep) Rickettsia ruminatium...materials fre’:, vewet inary lhcispitals. In facr, the litilug of such infectious agents as Q Fcý jr, Aznthrax, Tuleiculosis, Brucellosis ind Tularemia as

  10. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in vitro peptidase activities: identification and cleavage of kallikrein-kinin system-like substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Kondo, Marcia Y; Oliveira, Lilian C G; Okamoto, Debora N; Paes, Jéssica A; Machado, Mauricio F M; Veronez, Camila L; Motta, Guacyara; Andrade, Sheila S; Juliano, Maria A; Ferreira, Henrique B; Juliano, Luiz; Gouvea, Iuri E

    2013-05-03

    Bacterial proteases are important for metabolic processes and pathogenesis in host organisms. The bacterial swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has 15 putative protease-encoding genes annotated, but none of them have been functionally characterized. To identify and characterize peptidases that could be relevant for infection of swine hosts, we investigated the peptidase activity present in the pathogenic 7448 strain of M. hyopneumoniae. Combinatorial libraries of fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptides, specific inhibitors and pH profiling were used to screen and characterize endopeptidase, aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase activities in cell lysates. One metalloendopeptidase, one serine endopeptidase, and one aminopeptidase were detected. The detected metalloendopeptidase activity, prominent at neutral and basic pH ranges, was due to a thimet oligopeptidase family member (M3 family), likely an oligoendopeptidase F (PepF), which cleaved the peptide Abz-GFSPFRQ-EDDnp at the F-S bond. A chymotrypsin-like serine endopeptidase activity, possibly a subtilisin-like serine protease, was prominent at higher pH levels, and was characterized by its preference for a Phe residue at the P1 position of the substrate. The aminopeptidase P (APP) activity showed a similar profile to that of human membrane-bound APP. Genes coding for these three peptidases were identified and their transcription was confirmed in the 7448 strain. Furthermore, M. hyopneumoniae cell lysate peptidases showed effects on kallikrein-kinin system-like substrates, such as bradykinin-derived substrates and human high molecular weight kininogen. The M. hyopneumoniae peptidase activities, here characterized for the first time, may be important for bacterial survival strategies and thus represent possible targets for drug development against M. hyopneumoniae swine infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... visit the CDC seasonal flu website . What is Swine Influenza? Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory ...

  12. MHJ_0461 is a multifunctional leucine aminopeptidase on the surface of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarocki, Veronica M; Santos, Jerran; Tacchi, Jessica L; Raymond, Benjamin B A; Deutscher, Ania T; Jenkins, Cheryl; Padula, Matthew P; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Aminopeptidases are part of the arsenal of virulence factors produced by bacterial pathogens that inactivate host immune peptides. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a genome-reduced pathogen of swine that lacks the genetic repertoire to synthesize amino acids and relies on the host for availability of amino acids for growth. M. hyopneumoniae recruits plasmin(ogen) onto its cell surface via the P97 and P102 adhesins and the glutamyl aminopeptidase MHJ_0125. Plasmin plays an important role in regulating the inflammatory response in the lungs of pigs infected with M. hyopneumoniae. We show that recombinant MHJ_0461 (rMHJ_0461) functions as a leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) with broad substrate specificity for leucine, alanine, phenylalanine, methionine and arginine and that MHJ_0461 resides on the surface of M. hyopneumoniae. rMHJ_0461 also binds heparin, plasminogen and foreign DNA. Plasminogen bound to rMHJ_0461 was readily converted to plasmin in the presence of tPA. Computational modelling identified putative DNA and heparin-binding motifs on solvent-exposed sites around a large pore on the LAP hexamer. We conclude that MHJ_0461 is a LAP that moonlights as a multifunctional adhesin on the cell surface of M. hyopneumoniae.

  13. Development of a self-replicating plasmid system for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglennon, Gareth A; Cook, Beth S; Matthews, Dominic; Deeney, Alannah S; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N

    2013-07-29

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a prevalent swine respiratory pathogen that is a major cause of economic loss to pig producers. Control is achieved by a combination of antimicrobials, vaccination and management practices, but current vaccines offer only partial control and there is a need for improved preventative strategies. A major barrier to advances in understanding the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and in developing new vaccines is the lack of tools to genetically manipulate the organism. We describe the development and optimisation of the first successful plasmid-based system for the genetic manipulation of M. hyopneumoniae. Our artificial plasmids contain the origin of replication (oriC) of M. hyopneumoniae along with tetM, conferring resistance to tetracycline. With these plasmids, we have successfully transformed M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 by electroporation, generating tetracycline resistant organisms. The persistence of extrachromosomal plasmid and maintenance of plasmid DNA over serial passages shows that these artificial plasmids are capable of self-replication in M. hyopneumoniae. In addition to demonstrating the amenability of M. hyopneumoniae to genetic manipulation and in optimising the conditions necessary for successful transformation, we have used this system to determine the minimum functional oriC of M. hyopneumoniae. In doing so, we have developed a plasmid with a small oriC that is stably maintained over multiple passages that may be useful in generating targeted gene disruptions. In conclusion, we have generated a set of plasmids that will be valuable in studies of M. hyopneumoniae pathogenesis and provide a major step forward in the study of this important swine pathogen.

  14. Spray application of live attenuated F Strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Live attenuated vaccines (LAVs) are commonly utilized to protect commercial table egg producers from economic losses associated with challenges by the respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). Currently there are four MG LAVs commercially available within the United States. Consistent am...

  15. Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Marie Rosendahl; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) is a sexually transmitted pathogen associated with urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Previous studies have shown a strong association between M. genitalium and HIV infection, therefore screening and treatment for M. genitalium...

  16. Purification of a Mycoplasma pneumoniae adhesin by monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Leith, D K; Baseman, J B

    1984-01-01

    A 165,000-dalton surface protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, designated protein P1, appears to be the major attachment ligand of the pathogen. We employed monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography to obtain purified protein P1.

  17. Dissecting the energy metabolism in Mycoplasma pneumoniae through genome-scale metabolic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wodke, J.A.; Puchalka, J.; Lluch-Senar, M.; Marcos, J.; Yus, E.; Godinho, M.; Gutierrez-Gallego, R.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Serrano, L.; Klipp, E.; Maier, T.

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a threatening pathogen with a minimal genome, is a model organism for bacterial systems biology for which substantial experimental information is available. With the goal of understanding the complex interactions underlying its metabolism, we analyzed and characterized the

  18. PB1-F2 Protein Does Not Impact the Virulence of Triple-Reassortant H3N2 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs but Alters Pathogenicity and Transmission in Turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Kumar, Sandeep R. P.; Raghunath, Shobana; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT PB1-F2 protein, the 11th influenza A virus (IAV) protein, is considered to play an important role in primary influenza virus infection and postinfluenza secondary bacterial pneumonia in mice. The functional role of PB1-F2 has been reported to be a strain-specific and host-specific phenomenon. Its precise contribution to the pathogenicity and transmission of influenza virus in mammalian host, such as swine, and avian hosts, such as turkeys, remain largely unknown. In this study, we explored the role of PB1-F2 protein of triple-reassortant (TR) H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) in pigs and turkeys. Using the eight-plasmid reverse genetics system, we rescued wild-type SIV A/swine/Minnesota/1145/2007 (H3N2) (SIV 1145-WT), a PB1-F2 knockout mutant (SIV 1145-KO), and its N66S variant (SIV 1145-N66S). The ablation of PB1-F2 in SIV 1145 modulated early-stage apoptosis but did not affect the viral replication in swine alveolar macrophage cells. In pigs, PB1-F2 expression did not affect nasal shedding, lung viral load, immunophenotypes, and lung pathology. On the other hand, in turkeys, SIV 1145-KO infected poults, and its in-contacts developed clinical signs earlier than SIV 1145-WT groups and also displayed more extensive histopathological changes in intestine. Further, turkeys infected with SIV 1145-N66S displayed poor infectivity and transmissibility. The more extensive histopathologic changes in intestine and relative transmission advantage observed in turkeys infected with SIV 1145-KO need to be further explored. Taken together, these results emphasize the host-specific roles of PB1-F2 in the pathogenicity and transmission of IAV. IMPORTANCE Novel triple-reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus emerged in 1998 and spread rapidly among the North American swine population. Subsequently, it showed an increased propensity to reassort, generating a range of reassortants. Unlike classical swine influenza virus, TR SIV produces a full-length PB1-F2 protein, which is

  19. PB1-F2 Protein Does Not Impact the Virulence of Triple-Reassortant H3N2 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs but Alters Pathogenicity and Transmission in Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Kumar, Sandeep R P; Raghunath, Shobana; Leroith, Tanya; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2016-01-01

    PB1-F2 protein, the 11th influenza A virus (IAV) protein, is considered to play an important role in primary influenza virus infection and postinfluenza secondary bacterial pneumonia in mice. The functional role of PB1-F2 has been reported to be a strain-specific and host-specific phenomenon. Its precise contribution to the pathogenicity and transmission of influenza virus in mammalian host, such as swine, and avian hosts, such as turkeys, remain largely unknown. In this study, we explored the role of PB1-F2 protein of triple-reassortant (TR) H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) in pigs and turkeys. Using the eight-plasmid reverse genetics system, we rescued wild-type SIV A/swine/Minnesota/1145/2007 (H3N2) (SIV 1145-WT), a PB1-F2 knockout mutant (SIV 1145-KO), and its N66S variant (SIV 1145-N66S). The ablation of PB1-F2 in SIV 1145 modulated early-stage apoptosis but did not affect the viral replication in swine alveolar macrophage cells. In pigs, PB1-F2 expression did not affect nasal shedding, lung viral load, immunophenotypes, and lung pathology. On the other hand, in turkeys, SIV 1145-KO infected poults, and its in-contacts developed clinical signs earlier than SIV 1145-WT groups and also displayed more extensive histopathological changes in intestine. Further, turkeys infected with SIV 1145-N66S displayed poor infectivity and transmissibility. The more extensive histopathologic changes in intestine and relative transmission advantage observed in turkeys infected with SIV 1145-KO need to be further explored. Taken together, these results emphasize the host-specific roles of PB1-F2 in the pathogenicity and transmission of IAV. Novel triple-reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus emerged in 1998 and spread rapidly among the North American swine population. Subsequently, it showed an increased propensity to reassort, generating a range of reassortants. Unlike classical swine influenza virus, TR SIV produces a full-length PB1-F2 protein, which is considered an important

  20. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluids of Pigs by PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, A. Katrin; Runge, Martin; Ganter, Martin; Feenstra, Anne A.; Delbeck, Friedrich; Kirchhoff, Helga

    1998-01-01

    In the present investigation we developed a method for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs by PCR with a primer pair flanking a DNA fragment of 853 bp specific for M. hyopneumoniae. Several methods were tested to eliminate the amplification inhibitors present in BALFs. The best results were obtained by the extraction of the DNA from the BALFs. By the PCR performed with the extracted DNA, 102 CFU of M. hyopneumoniae could be detected in 1 ml of BALF from specific-pathogen-free swine experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae. DNA from 11 other mycoplasma species and 17 cell-walled bacterial species colonizing the respiratory tracts of pigs was not amplified. In a field study BALFs from 40 pigs from farms with a history of chronic pneumonia were tested for M. hyopneumoniae by cultivation and by PCR (i) with BALFs incubated in Friis medium and (ii) with DNA extracted from the BALFs. In addition, PCR was performed with postmortem lung washings from 19 of the 40 pigs, and immunofluorescence tests were carried out with sections of lungs from 18 of the 40 pigs. M. hyopneumoniae could not be detected in 18 of the 40 pigs by any of the five methods tested. The remaining 22 pigs showed a positive reaction by the PCR with DNA extracted from the BALFs and variable positive reactions by the other tests. A complete correspondence could be observed between the immunofluorescence test result and the result of PCR with DNA. The investigation shows that the PCR with DNA extracted from BALFs is a suitable technique for the sensitive and specific in vivo detection of M. hyopneumoniae. PMID:9650949

  1. Frequency of urogenital mycoplasma detection in women of Dnipropetrovsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Bubalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of urogenital mycoplasmas detection in women of different ages was studied in culture with the help of DUO test-system in order to determine their etiological significance in the development of inflammatory processes of women urogenital tract. We identified the researched cultures Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum in the diagnostic titer >104 TEM/ml indicating severe contamination by microorganisms, and in the titer 104 TEM/ml, 104 TEM/ml was observed in 55 women (46% and 20 women (17%, respectively, and the titer of <103 CFU/ml U. urealyticum was observed in 20 women (17%, and M. hominis in 18 women (15%. Analysis of genital mycoplasmas distribution among women of different ages has shown that there was the certain correlation between the patient age and frequency of genital mycoplasmas detection: the highest detection rate was observed in women age of 24–29. The dominant pathogen of urogenital tract inflammatory processes in women in 24–29 age group is U. urealyticum. The comparison of DUO test-system and PCR data has shown that DUO test-system in culture allowed more sensitive quantitave characterization of mycoplasmas, however, for the more effective laboratory diagnostics it was necessary to use complex methods to increase the probability of pathogen detection. Incidence of mycoplasmas in women with the presence of inflammation was higher than in women having the inflammation in the genital tract. In this case, potential symptom-free carriers exist for the development of inflammation of urogenital tract of women. Scientists have proved that mycoplasma could cause vulvovaginitis, urethritis, paraurethritis, bartholinitis, adnexitis, salpingitis, endometritis, and ovaritis.

  2. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...

  3. Systems analysis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to improve vaccine production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Tjerko

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a bacterial pathogen that has evolved from a gram-positive ancestor and specifically colonizes the lower respiratory tract of pigs where it causes enzootic pneumonia and plays a major role in the development of respiratory disease

  4. Advances in diagnostics and molecular typing of Mycoplasma synoviae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Remco

    2016-01-01

    The increased clinical and economic relevance of M. synoviae a poultry pathogen causing arthritis and eggshell apex abnormalities and egg production drops prompted the Dutch poultry industry to launch a mandatory control and eradication programme for this mycoplasma species in 2013 This programme is

  5. Mycoplasma genitalium Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-08

    Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.  Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2018.

  6. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND SEQUENCE CHARACTERIZATION OF MYCOPLASMAS IN FREE-LIVING BIRDS OF PREY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecis, Roberta; Secci, Fabio; Mandas, Lucio; Muzzeddu, Marco; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberti

    2016-09-01

    Mycoplasma spp. have been detected in birds of prey, but their prevalence in free living raptors and their significance to birds' health need further investigation. Molecular techniques have been increasingly used to identify mycoplasmas in various avian species, due to the fastidious nature of these pathogens hampering traditional bacteriologic tests. This study reports the identification of 23 novel mycoplasma sequences during the monitoring of 62 birds of prey on admission to wildlife centers in Sardinia, Italy. Molecular investigation performed on pharyngeal swabs revealed 26 birds positive to Mycoplasma (42%). Sequence analysis based on 16S rRNA, 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer, and RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) gene highlighted cluster assignment and phylogenetic relationships among the identified types, classified within the hominis group. Additionally, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale , associated with respiratory disease in poultry, was identified in 17 birds (27%). Potential coinfection and mycoplasma opportunistic nature present implications for raptor species conservation.

  7. Determinants for swine mycoplasmal pneumonia reproduction under experimental conditions: A systematic review and recursive partitioning analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Morante, Beatriz; Segalés, Joaquim; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    One of the main Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) swine experimental model objectives is to reproduce mycoplasmal pneumonia (MP). Unfortunately, experimental validated protocols to maximize the chance to successfully achieve lung lesions induced by M. hyopneumoniae are not available at the moment. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify those factors that might have a major influence on the effective development of MP, measured as macroscopic lung lesions, under experimental conditions. Data from 85 studies describing M. hyopneumoniae inoculation experiments were compiled by means of a systematic review and analyzed thereafter. Several variables were considered in the analyses such as the number of pigs in the experiment, serological status against M. hyopneumoniae, source of the animals, age at inoculation, type of inoculum, strain of M. hyopneumoniae, route, dose and times of inoculation, study duration and co-infection with other swine pathogens. Descriptive statistics were used to depict M. hyopneumoniae experimental model main characteristics whereas a recursive partitioning approach, using regression trees, assessed the importance of the abovementioned experimental variables as MP triggering factors. A strong link between the time period between challenge and necropsies and lung lesion severity was observed. Results indicated that the most important factors to explain the observed lung lesion score variability were: (1) study duration, (2) M. hyopneumoniae strain, (3) age at inoculation, (4) co-infection with other swine pathogens and (5) animal source. All other studied variables were not relevant to explain the variability on M. hyopneumoniae lung lesions. The results provided in the present work may serve as a basis for debate in the search for a universally accepted M. hyopneumoniae challenge model. PMID:28742802

  8. Determinants for swine mycoplasmal pneumonia reproduction under experimental conditions: A systematic review and recursive partitioning analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Garcia-Morante

    Full Text Available One of the main Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae swine experimental model objectives is to reproduce mycoplasmal pneumonia (MP. Unfortunately, experimental validated protocols to maximize the chance to successfully achieve lung lesions induced by M. hyopneumoniae are not available at the moment. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify those factors that might have a major influence on the effective development of MP, measured as macroscopic lung lesions, under experimental conditions. Data from 85 studies describing M. hyopneumoniae inoculation experiments were compiled by means of a systematic review and analyzed thereafter. Several variables were considered in the analyses such as the number of pigs in the experiment, serological status against M. hyopneumoniae, source of the animals, age at inoculation, type of inoculum, strain of M. hyopneumoniae, route, dose and times of inoculation, study duration and co-infection with other swine pathogens. Descriptive statistics were used to depict M. hyopneumoniae experimental model main characteristics whereas a recursive partitioning approach, using regression trees, assessed the importance of the abovementioned experimental variables as MP triggering factors. A strong link between the time period between challenge and necropsies and lung lesion severity was observed. Results indicated that the most important factors to explain the observed lung lesion score variability were: (1 study duration, (2 M. hyopneumoniae strain, (3 age at inoculation, (4 co-infection with other swine pathogens and (5 animal source. All other studied variables were not relevant to explain the variability on M. hyopneumoniae lung lesions. The results provided in the present work may serve as a basis for debate in the search for a universally accepted M. hyopneumoniae challenge model.

  9. Pathogenicity and Transmission in Pigs of the Novel A(H3N2)v Influenza Virus Isolated from Humans and Characterization of Swine H3N2 Viruses Isolated in 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitikoon, Pravina; Gauger, Phillip C.; Schlink, Sarah N.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Gramer, Marie R.; Darnell, Daniel; Webby, Richard J.; Lager, Kelly M.; Swenson, Sabrina L.; Klimov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) H3N2 with triple reassorted internal genes (TRIG) has been enzootic in Unites States since 1998. Transmission of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus to pigs in the United States was followed by reassortment with endemic SIV, resulting in reassorted viruses that include novel H3N2 genotypes (rH3N2p). Between July and December 2011, 12 cases of human infections with swine-lineage H3N2 viruses containing the pandemic matrix (pM) gene [A(H3N2)v] were detected. Whole-genome analysis of H3N2 viruses isolated from pigs from 2009 to 2011 sequenced in this study and other available H3N2 sequences showed six different rH3N2p genotypes present in the U.S. swine population since 2009. The presence of the pM gene was a common feature among all rH3N2p genotypes, but no specific genotype appeared to predominate in the swine population. We compared the pathogenic, transmission, genetic, and antigenic properties of a human A(H3N2)v isolate and two swine H3N2 isolates, H3N2-TRIG and rH3N2p. Our in vivo study detected no increased virulence in A(H3N2)v or rH3N2p viruses compared to endemic H3N2-TRIG virus. Antibodies to cluster IV H3N2-TRIG and rH3N2p viruses had reduced cross-reactivity to A(H3N2)v compared to other cluster IV H3N2-TRIG and rH3N2p viruses. Genetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene indicated that although rH3N2p and A(H3N2)v are related to cluster IV of H3N2-TRIG, some recent rH3N2p isolates appeared to be forming a separate cluster along with the human isolates of A(H3N2)v. Continued monitoring of these H3N2 viruses is necessary to evaluate the evolution and potential loss of population immunity in swine and humans. PMID:22491461

  10. Mucopurulent cervicitis and Mycoplasma genitalium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Lisa E; Critchlow, Cathy W; Holmes, King K; Dutro, Susan M; Eschenbach, David A; Stevens, Claire E; Totten, Patricia A

    2003-02-15

    Many cases of mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC) are idiopathic and cannot be attributed to the known cervical pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or herpes simplex virus. Because Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with nongonoccocal urethritis in men, its role in MPC, the corresponding syndrome in women, was investigated. Archived cervical specimens from women recruited in the Harborview Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Seattle from 1984 to 1986 were tested, using polymerase chain reaction, in a study that identified other causes of and risk factors for MPC. M. genitalium was detected in 50 (7.0%) of 719 women. Young age, multiple recent partners, prior miscarriage, smoking, menstrual cycle, and douching were positively associated with M. genitalium, whereas bacterial vaginosis and cunnilingus were negatively associated. After adjustment for age, phase of menstrual cycle, and presence of known cervical pathogens, women with M. genitalium had a 3.3-fold greater risk (95% confidence interval, 1.7-6.4) of MPC, which suggests that this organism may be a cause of MPC.

  11. Exposure of extensively farmed wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa) to selected pig pathogens in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinou, K A; Papatsiros, V G; Gkotsopoulos, E K; Odatzoglou, P K; Athanasiou, L V

    2015-06-01

    Increased density and distribution of wild boar populations are likely to promote interactions and transmission of certain pathogens, not only among wild boar but also from wild boar to livestock or humans and vice versa. The purpose of this study was to determine seroprevalence against seven selected pathogens in wild boar living in four different areas in Greece. In total, 359 serum samples were collected from extensively farmed wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) originating from four distinct geographical areas throughout Greece from April 2012 to August 2013. Samples were tested for antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, African swine fever virus (ASFV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Prevalence was compared among the four regions using Fisher's exact test. Low overall seropositivities of 2.4% and 5.6% were detected for E. rhusiopathiae and PRRSV, respectively, higher ones for ADV (32.0%) and the highest (72.5% and 90.5%) for M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae, respectively. All sera tested were found negative for antibodies directed against CSFV and ASFV. This is the first report of exposure of wild boars to selected pig pathogens in Greece. These results are indicative of the circulation of these pathogens in Greece with the exception of CSFV and ASFV and suggestive of the potential role of wild boars on their maintenance and transmission to their domestic counterparts and vice versa.

  12. Cross-Genome Comparisons of Newly Identified Domains in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Domain Architectures with Other Mycoplasma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Reddy Chilamakuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate functional annotation of protein sequences is hampered by important factors such as the failure of sequence search methods to identify relationships and the inherent diversity in function of proteins related at low sequence similarities. Earlier, we had employed intermediate sequence search approach to establish new domain relationships in the unassigned regions of gene products at the whole genome level by taking Mycoplasma gallisepticum as a specific example and established new domain relationships. In this paper, we report a detailed comparison of the conservation status of the domain and domain architectures of the gene products that bear our newly predicted domains amongst 14 other Mycoplasma genomes and reported the probable implications for the organisms. Some of the domain associations, observed in Mycoplasma that afflict humans and other non-human primates, are involved in regulation of solute transport and DNA binding suggesting specific modes of host-pathogen interactions.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov. Strains Isolated from Alpine Ibex: A 4th Species in the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster Hosted by Non-domesticated Ruminants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Ambroset

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Mycoplasma, a group of free-living, wall-less prokaryotes includes more than 100 species of which dozens are primary pathogens of humans and domesticated animals. Mycoplasma species isolated from wildlife are rarely investigated but could provide a fuller picture of the evolutionary history and diversity of this genus. In 2013 several isolates from wild Caprinae were tentatively assigned to a new species, Mycoplasma (M. feriruminatoris sp. nov., characterized by an unusually rapid growth in vitro and close genetic proximity to ruminant pathogenic species. We suspected that atypical isolates recently collected from Alpine ibex in France belonged to this new species. The present study was undertaken to verify this hypothesis and to further characterize the French ibex isolates. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to identify the isolates and position them in trees containing several other mycoplasma species pathogenic to domesticated ruminants. Population diversity was characterized by genomic macrorestriction and by examining the capacity of different strains to produce capsular polysaccharides, a feature now known to vary amongst mycoplasma species pathogenic to ruminants. This is the first report of M. feriruminatoris isolation from Alpine ibex in France. Phylogenetic analyses further suggested that M. feriruminatoris might constitute a 4th species in a genetic cluster that so far contains only important ruminant pathogens, the so-called Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. A PCR assay for specific identification is proposed. These French isolates were not clonal, despite being collected in a restricted region of the Alps, which signifies a considerable diversity of the new species. Strains were able to concomitantly produce two types of capsular polysaccharides, β-(1→6-galactan and β-(1→6-glucan, with variation in their respective ratio, a feature never before described in mycoplasmas.

  14. Electron microscopic observation of the respiratory tract of SPF piglets inoculated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, B.; Vena, M.M.; Cavalier, A.; Lannic, J. Le; Gouranton, J.; Kobisch, M.

    1992-01-01

    Seven hysterectomy derived piglets were repeatedly challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during the first week of life. Samples of trachea, bronchi and lung tissue collected 2-11 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.) were examined using light and electron microscopy. Autoradiography was used to study in more detail the site of M. hyopneumoniae multiplication. Gross lesions were observed in lung tissue and were characterized by hyperplasia of the epithelium and an increased mononuclear cell accumulation in perivascular and peribronchiolar areas. Mild lesions of the trachea and the bronchi, including epithelial hyperplasia and infiltration of the lamina propria by inflammatory cells, were noted. Electron microscopy showed that, 2-6 weeks p.i., changes in the mid-trachea and bronchi surface consisted of the loss of cilia. Mycoplasmas covered tufts of cilia remaining on the epithelial cell surface. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs showed that they were predominantly found closely associated with the top of cilia. No specialized terminal structure could be seen and no mycoplasma cells were identified lying free in the lumen nor in close contact with the plasma membrane of cells or microvilli. Some fine fibrils radiating from one mycoplasma to another or to cilia were seen at higher magnification by scanning electron microscopy. Six to eleven weeks p.i., a disrupted epithelial surface lacking cilia was observed. Cells were desquamated and shed into the lumen with cellular remains containing droplets of mucus. Autoradiography revealed that label corresponded to the observed mycoplasma distribution. At the top of cilia, a high density of labeling was visible in the zone of high mycoplasma concentration. Therefore, incorporation of the label in the mycoplasma is proof or their multiplication in the trachea. The intimate association between the mycoplasma and cilia may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the disease caused by M. hyopneumoniae (swine

  15. Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Korinthenberg, R.; Fahrendorf, G.; Muenster Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical, CT and, in one case, autopsy findings indicated a diagnosis of a severe necrotising encephalitis in two patients. Although usually herpes simplex virus is blamed for this form of encephalitis, it was possible to prove in these two patients that mycoplasma was the causative agent of the disease. It is concluded that this organism can produce a serious disease in the central nervous system similar to that caused by herpes simplex. (orig.) [de

  16. Monitoramento da presença de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae em granjas de suínos durante a implementação de programas de erradicação Monitoring the presence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine farms during the implementation of eradication programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Jesús Tamiozzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi monitorar a presença de M. hyopneumoniae em granjas suínas durante a implementação de programas de erradicação utilizando diferentes técnicas de diagnóstico focalizando no PCR. Trabalhou-se com uma empresa que possuía três granjas, uma parto-terminação (390 matrizes, uma múltiplo-sítio (4100 matrizes e uma nova granja que povoava suas novas instalações. Nas duas primeiras, foi desenvolvido um programa de despovoamento parcial para erradicar a pneumonia enzoótica suína, a última foi povoada pelos suínos dos anteriores após a erradicação. Nos três rebanhos, os suínos foram monitorados por: sorologia (ELISA, PCR, lesões pulmonares macro e microscópicas e a presença de tosse não produtiva. A ausência de tosse, a baixa porcentagem de suínos soropositivos na fase de terminação e a baixa proporção de lesões pulmonares no abate sugerem que a pneumonia enzoótica suína foi erradicada, mas não o agente causativo -M. hyopneumoniae- cujo DNA foi detectado pela PCR, mostrando diferentes comportamentos de acordo com o rebanho.The aim of this study was to monitor the presence of M. hyopneumoniae in pig farms during the implementation of eradication programs using different diagnostic techniques focusing on PCR. They worked with a company owner of three farms, a farrow-to-finish (390 sows, a multiple-site (4100 sows and a new one that was populated its new facility. In the first two were developed a partial depopulation program to eradicate swine enzootic pneumonia, the latter one was populated with pigs after the previous eradication. In the three farms, the pigs were monitored by: serology (ELISA, PCR, macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions and the presence of non-productive cough. The absence of cough, low percentage of seropositive pigs in the finishing stage and the low proportion of lung lesions at slaughter suggest that swine enzootic pneumonia was eradicated, but not the causative agent

  17. Detection and differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviaeby PCR from tracheal swabs from birds with respiratory symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, Cesar E; Ramirez, Gloria; Vera, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are worldwide pathogens that affect the poultry industry causing respiratory illness which cause a negative economic impact. Two mycoplasmas species are the most important in the commercial poultry: mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and mycoplasma synoviae (MS). By its importance and necessity to know and differentiate between mycoplasmas species in local's poultry houses this study used the PCR technique like a diagnosis tool, using tracheal swabs from bird with respiratory symptoms. A total of 91 samples from broilers, layers and breeders farms located in the departments of Cundinamarca and Boyaca was processed. The punctual prevalence founded in this study was 39.6 % for mg and 47.3 % for MS. statistical differences for type of production and positive samples for mg y MS (p < 0.05) were founded, a bigger number of positive samples from layers and breeder in comparison to broilers were found. In the same way, the positive samples for the layers and breeder from the age group between 20 and 60 weeks was greater, while for the broilers group most of the positive samples were from five weeks old birds for mg and two weeks old birds for MS.

  18. Characterization of Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma fermentans immunodominant proteins Caracterização de proteinas imunodominantes de Mycoplasma penetrans e Mycoplasma fermentans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bruder

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are a heterogeneous group of the smallest organisms capable of self replication and are known to cause many detrimental diseases in both animals and humans. These wall-less prokaryotes are enveloped by a lipoprotein membrane and their small genomes are sufficient to synthesize molecules required for growth and self-replication. Among sixteen species isolated from humans, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, an agent of primary atypical pneumonia, and the urogenital tract species Mycoplasma hominis,Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum have been confirmed to be pathogenic. Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma fermentans, which are species associated with HIV, have been investigated mainly in research laboratories. In this study we have characterized lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMP of Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma fermentans, in view of the importance of mycoplasmas in human diseases and the peculiar antigenic variation observed in these species. To characterize proteins with possible diagnostic value, we used ELISA and Western blot in sera of pregnant women whose cervical samples were positive for these species of mycoplasmas when tested by PCR. ELISA showed IgG anti-LAMP-M. fermentans antibodies to be present in 57.5% of cases and IgM antibodies to be present in 74.5% of cases. The three samples that were PCR positive for M. penetrans showed IgG anti-LAMP-M. penetrans antibodies, and one sample was positive for IgM. No IgA antibodies against either species were detected in any of the samples. LAMP analysis by Western blot revealed the 35, 38, 42, 61 and 103 kDa proteins of M. penetrans and the 29, 38, 41, 61, 78 and 95 kDa proteins of M. fermentans. Among these, will be considered p35 to M. penetrans and 29 kDa protein to M. fermentans, the main immunoreactive proteins and therefore useful markers for further laboratory diagnosis.Micoplasmas são procariotos diminutos, desprovidos de parede celular e envoltos por uma membrana

  19. A Systematic Review of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma in Urogynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combaz-Söhnchen, Nina; Kuhn, Annette

    2017-12-01

    Mycoplasma species relevant to the urogenital tract include mycoplasma hominis, mycoplasma genitalia and ureaplasma urealyticum. Their occurrence in the context of urogynaecological disease has been demonstrated in urethritis, cystitis and upper renal tract infections. Their role in hyperactive bladder and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is controversial. All the above-mentioned microorganisms can occur as commensals or as potential pathogens. In most cases their role in any particular pathology cannot be proven, only presumed. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise current knowledge on the influence of mycoplasma and ureaplasma in urogynaecological pathology and to provide clinical guidance on diagnosis (when and how is pathogen detection indicated?) and treatment. 377 relevant articles were analysed. In summary: a urethral swab for PCR analysis of the three bacteria should be performed in the context of symptomatic sterile leukocyturia, chronic urethritis and suspected hyperactive bladder or interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Symptomatic women should be treated strictly according to results of the antibiogram.

  20. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Malvessi Cattani

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  1. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  2. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. The Phospholipid Profile of Mycoplasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Kornspan, Jonathan D.; Rottem, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    The de novo synthesized polar lipids of Mycoplasma species are rather simple, comprising primarily of the acidic glycerophospholipids PG and CL. In addition, when grown in a medium containing serum, significant amounts of PC and SPM are incorporated into the mycoplasma cell membrane although these lipids are very uncommon in wall-covered bacteria. The exogenous lipids are either incorporated unchanged or the PC incorporated is modified by a deacylation-acylation enzymatic cycle to form disatu...

  4. Rapid imaging of mycoplasma in solution using Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Manaka, Sachie [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Nakane, Daisuke [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo [Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Nishizaka, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan); Miyata, Makoto [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Maruyama, Yuusuke [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycoplasma mobile was observed in buffer with the Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer M. mobile attached to sialic acid on the SiN film surface within minutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells were observed at low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASEM should promote study and early-stage diagnosis of mycoplasma. -- Abstract: Mycoplasma is a genus of bacterial pathogen that causes disease in vertebrates. In humans, the species Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes 15% or more of community-acquired pneumonia. Because this bacterium is tiny, corresponding in size to a large virus, diagnosis using optical microscopy is not easy. In current methods, chest X-rays are usually the first action, followed by serology, PCR amplification, and/or culture, but all of these are particularly difficult at an early stage of the disease. Using Mycoplasma mobile as a model species, we directly observed mycoplasma in buffer with the newly developed Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM). This microscope features an open sample dish with a pressure-resistant thin film window in its base, through which the SEM beam scans samples in solution, from below. Because of its 2-3 {mu}m-deep scanning capability, it can observe the whole internal structure of mycoplasma cells stained with metal solutions. Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Cells were observed at low concentrations, because suspended cells concentrate in the observable zone by attaching to sialic acid on the silicon nitride (SiN) film surface within minutes. These results suggest the applicability of the ASEM for the study of mycoplasmas as well as for early-stage mycoplasma infection diagnosis.

  5. Mycoplasma edwardii peritonitis in a patient on maintenance peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalan, Shwetal P; Warady, Bradley A; Blowey, Douglas; Waites, Ken B; Selvarangan, Rangaraj

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma edwardii (M. edwardii) is an anthropozoonotic microorganism found in the upper respiratory and urogenital tracts of dogs. M. edwardii was one of the microbes isolated from peritoneal fluid of a 10-year-old child diagnosed with polymicrobial peritonitis following a puncture of dialysis tubing by a pet dog. Other unique pathogens representative of canine oral microflora isolated from this patient on peritoneal dialysis were Kingella denitrificans, Actinomycetes species and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi.

  6. Detection of infectious bronchitis virus 793B, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, S; Bettridge, J; Christley, R; Habte, T; Ganapathy, K

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted into respiratory infectious diseases of poultry on a chicken breeder farm run by the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), located in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 117 randomly selected birds, and blood was taken from a subset of 73 of these birds. A combination of serological and molecular methods was used for detection of pathogens. For the first time in Ethiopia, we report the detection of variant infectious bronchitis virus (793B genotype), avian metapneumovirus subtype B and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry. Mycoplasma gallisepticum was also found to be present; however, infectious laryngotracheitis virus was not detected by PCR. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was not detected by PCR, but variable levels of anti-NDV HI antibody titres shows possible exposure to virulent strains or poor vaccine take, or both. For the burgeoning-intensive industry in Ethiopia, this study highlights several circulating infectious respiratory pathogens that can impact on poultry welfare and productivity.

  7. Mycoplasma bovis infections and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. with different clinical manifestations in affected cattle herds in eastern region of Poland

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    Szacawa Ewelina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of Mycoplasma bovis infection and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle. The tested population was one in the eastern region of Poland containing 66 dairy cows and 23 calves showing different clinical signs and suffering from pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis. The incidence of M. bovis in co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. was examined using serological traditional mycoplasma culture methods, and the molecular methods - PCR and polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR/DGGE. The PCR/DGGE method for detecting Mycoplasma spp. in cattle was used for the first time in Poland. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the affected cattle herds in the eastern region of Poland was 47.8% in calves and 19.7% in dairy cows. The direct detection and identification of M. bovis from nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR revealed that 56.5% of calves were positive, but all of the dairy cows were negative. The PCR/DGGE identified eight (34.8% instances of M. arginini and eight (26.1% instances of M. bovirhinis co-infecting with M. bovis in ten calves. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the tested population was 33.7%. Any future attempts to control mycoplasma infections require an insight into the current epidemiological situation of M. bovis infection and its relationship to other mycoplasmas in causing clinical disease in cattle. Using these diagnostic methods we have demonstrated that mycoplasmal infections are often caused by multiple species of Mycoplasma and not just the primary M. bovis pathogen.

  8. MHJ_0125 is an M42 glutamyl aminopeptidase that moonlights as a multifunctional adhesin on the surface of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark W; Buchtmann, Kyle A; Jenkins, Cheryl; Tacchi, Jessica L; Raymond, Benjamin B A; To, Joyce; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Woolley, Lauren K; Labbate, Maurizio; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Padula, Matthew P; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2013-04-17

    Bacterial aminopeptidases play important roles in pathogenesis by providing a source of amino acids from exogenous proteins, destroying host immunological effector peptides and executing posttranslational modification of bacterial and host proteins. We show that MHJ_0125 from the swine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae represents a new member of the M42 class of bacterial aminopeptidases. Despite lacking a recognizable signal sequence, MHJ_0125 is detectable on the cell surface by fluorescence microscopy and LC-MS/MS of (i) biotinylated surface proteins captured by avidin chromatography and (ii) peptides released by mild trypsin shaving. Furthermore, surface-associated glutamyl aminopeptidase activity was detected by incubation of live M. hyopneumoniae cells with the diagnostic substrate H-Glu-AMC. MHJ_0125 moonlights as a multifunctional adhesin, binding to both heparin and plasminogen. Native proteomics and comparative modelling studies suggest MHJ_0125 forms a dodecameric, homopolymeric structure and provide insight into the positions of key residues that are predicted to interact with heparin and plasminogen. MHJ_0125 is the first aminopeptidase shown to both bind plasminogen and facilitate its activation by tissue plasminogen activator. Plasmin cleaves host extracellular matrix proteins and activates matrix metalloproteases, generating peptide substrates for MHJ_0125 and a source of amino acids for growth of M. hyopneumoniae. This unique interaction represents a new paradigm in microbial pathogenesis.

  9. In vitro susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones in current and archived Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from meat-type turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchman, Irina; Lysnyansky, Inna; Perk, Shimon; Levisohn, Sharon

    2008-10-15

    Monitoring of susceptibility to antibiotics in field isolates of pathogenic avian mycoplasmas is important for appropriate choice of treatment. Our study compared in vitro susceptibility to enrofloxacin and difloxacin in recent (2005-2006) isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae from meat-type turkey flocks with archived (1997-2003) isolates and reference strains. Comparison of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values determined by microtest, agar dilution and commercial Etest showed good agreement, but underscored the need for standardized methods for testing. Notably, while the commercial Etest was convenient and accurate for determining MICs for enrofloxacin in the range 0.002-0.094microg/ml, the endpoint of inhibition for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae strains with MIC values > or =1.0microg/ml could not be determined. A decrease in susceptibility to both fluoroquinolones was detected in archived strains but to a greater degree in recent isolates, most of which had MICs above the NCCLS susceptibility breakpoint for these antibiotics (meat-type turkeys suggests that these strains have become established in Israel, necessitating a reevaluation of antibiotic therapy. Periodic survey of MICs in field isolates of avian mycoplasmas to monitor for the possible appearance of resistant strains is recommended.

  10. Chronic "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" infection

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    Novacco Marilisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" infects felids. The pathogenesis of "Candidatus M. turicensis" chronic infection is poorly understood. The goals of the present study were to (1 induce reactivation of the infection in chronic carrier cats by attempted immunosuppression, (2 identify potential tissue sequestration using real-time TaqMan® PCR and (3 monitor the humoral immune response by DnaK enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Ten specified pathogen-free cats that had ostensibly recovered from experimental "Candidatus M. turicensis" infection were used: five cats (group 1 received high dose methylprednisolone (attempted immunosuppression, while five cats served as untreated controls (group 2. Besides weekly blood samples, tissue samples were collected from bone marrow, kidney, liver and salivary glands at selected time points. The cats in group 1 had significantly lower lymphocyte counts and higher blood glucose levels after methylprednisolone administration than the controls. After methylprednisolone administration one blood and three tissue samples from cats in group 1 tested PCR-positive; before the administration, only one sample was positive. All other samples tested PCR-negative. All cats stayed seropositive; the antibody levels of the cats in group 1 showed a significant transient decrease after methylprednisolone administration. This is the first study to report the presence of "Candidatus M. turicensis" in tissues of chronically infected cats and the persistence of anti-feline hemoplasma antibodies in the absence of detectable bacteremia. Methylprednisolone administration did not lead to a significant reactivation of the infection. Our results enhance the knowledge of "Candidatus M. turicensis" infection pathogenesis and are clinically relevant to the prognosis of hemoplasma-infected cats.

  11. A compendium for Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Lynn Parrott

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, atypical pneumonia was a term used to describe an unusual presentation of pneumonia. Currently, it is used to describe the multitude of symptoms juxtaposing the classic symptoms found in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Specifically, atypical pneumonia is a syndrome resulting from a relatively common group of pathogens including Chlamydophila sp., and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The incidence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in adults is less than the burden experienced by children. Transmission rates among families indicate children may act as a reservoir and maintain contagiousness over a long period of time ranging from months to years. In adults, M. pneumoniae typically produces a mild, walking pneumonia and is considered to be one of the causes of persistent cough in patients. M. pneumoniae has also been shown to trigger the exacerbation of other lung diseases. It has been repeatedly detected in patients with bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and cystic fibrosis. Recent advances in technology allow for the rapid diagnosis of M. pneumoniae through the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR or rapid antigen tests. With this, more effort has been afforded to identify the causative etiologic agent in all cases of pneumonia. However, previous practices, including the overprescribing of macrolide treatment in China and Japan, have created increased incidence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Reports from these countries indicate that >85% of M. pneumoniae pneumonia pediatric cases are macrolide-resistant. Despite its extensively studied past, the smallest bacterial species still inspires some of the largest questions. The developments in microbiology, diagnostic features and techniques, epidemiology, treatment and vaccines, and upper respiratory conditions associated with M. pneumoniae in adult populations are included within this review.

  12. Circoviral infections in swine

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    Ivetić Vojin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS and porcine dermatitis nephropathy syndrome (PDNS. Current investigations indicate that there is a causal connection between these two syndromes. These two new diseases, which have recently spread all over the world, cause serious losses, great concern and confusion, especially when they occur simultaneously or in a sequence in the same herd, or in parallel with other pathogenes, primarily with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and the porcine parvovirus (PPV. PMWS was first described in Canada in 1991. It most often affect pigs aged 5-12 weeks. The main clinical expression, depending on the stage of progression is diarrhea, delayed development or depressed growth, stuntedness, dyspnea ictherus, eyelid swelling, and lymphadenopathy. More rarely, there are neurological symptoms. Prominent suppression of the immune system is the main characteristic of PMWS, and a wave of secondary bacterial infection is also observed. PDNS is a new disease of economic importance, which mostly affects older swine, from 5 weeks to 5 months of age. The most prominent clinical symptoms in seriously ill piglets is extensive dermatitis, mostly on the chest, abdomen, haunches and forelegs, with the appearance of purple-red swellings of different shape and size. The swine are depressive febrile, anorectic, all of which leads to stunted growth. They are inactive. Mortality is often about 15%. PDNS is a differentially diagnostically

  13. Association of genital mycoplasmas including Mycoplasma genitalium in HIV infected men with nongonococcal urethritis attending STD & HIV clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhas, Ashwini; Sethi, Sunil; Sharma, Meera; Wanchu, Ajay; Kanwar, A J; Kaur, Karamjit; Mehta, S D

    2009-03-01

    Acute nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections affecting men. The role of genital mycoplasmas including Mycoplasma genitalium in HIV infected men with NGU is still not known. The aim of this study was to determine the isolation pattern/detection of genital mycoplasma including M. genitalium in HIV infected men with NGU and to compare it with non HIV infected individuals. One hundred male patients with NGU (70 HIV positive, 30 HIV negative) were included in the study. Urethral swabs and urine samples obtained from patients were subjected to semi-quantitative culture for Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasama urealyticum, whereas M. genitalium was detected by PCR from urine. The primers MgPa1 and MgPa3 were selected to identify 289 bp product specific for M. genitalium. Chalmydia trachomatis antigen detection was carried out by ELISA. M. genitalium and M. hominis were detected/isolated in 6 per cent of the cases. M. genitalium was more common amongst HIV positive cases (7.1%) as compared to HIV negative cases (3.3%) but difference was not statistically significant. Co-infection of C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum was found in two HIV positive cases whereas, C. trachomatis and M. hominis were found to be coinfecting only one HIV positive individual. M. genitalium was found to be infecting the patients as the sole pathogen. Patients with NGU had almost equal risk of being infected with M. genitalium, U. urealyticum or M. hominis irrespective of their HIV status. M.genitalium constitutes one of the important causes of NGU besides other genital mycoplasmas.

  14. Haemotropic mycoplasmas of cats and dogs: transmission, diagnosis, prevalence and importance in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, B; Novacco, M; Meli, M; Wolf-Jäckel, G; Boretti, F; Wengi, N; Lutz, H; Hofmann-Lehmann, R

    2010-05-01

    Haemotropic mycoplasmas (or haemoplasmas) are the causative agents of infectious anaemia in many mammalian species. They were previously known as Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon species. The development of sensitive, specific PCR assays has expanded our knowledge of these agents and PCR is the method of choice to diagnose and differentiate haemoplasma infections. In felids, Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' have been described. They vary strongly in their pathogenic potential and co-factors may influence the disease severity. In dogs, Mycoplasma haemocanis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' are known; clinical signs are mainly found in immunocompromised dogs. Transmission of haemoplasmas may occur via infected blood (aggressive interaction, transfusion) or blood-sucking arthropods. Infections can be treated with Doxycycline, although it is disputable whether the infection is completely eliminated. Feline haemoplasmas must be expected in cats all over Europe, while canine haemoplasmas are mainly encountered in dogs in Mediterranean countries but should also be considered in Swiss dogs with a travel history.

  15. A randomized controlled study on the efficacy of a novel combination vaccine against enzootic pneumonia (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae) and porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in the presence of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassis, Panagiotis D; Tsakmakidis, Ioannis; Papatsiros, Vassileios G; Koulialis, Dimitrios; Nell, Tom; Brellou, Georgia; Tzika, Eleni D

    2017-04-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) are major pathogens that cause significant health problems in swine worldwide. Maternal derived immunity (MDI) has been suggested as a significant immediate defence factor for newborn piglets and may interfere with piglet's vaccination-induced immunity. The study aimed to assess the efficacy of a novel combination vaccine (consisting of PCV2 subunits and inactivated M. hyo strain J), against PCV2 and M. hyo natural infection [Porcilis ® PCV M Hyo (MSD Animal Health, Boxmeer, the Netherlands)], in the presence of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity (antibody titre averaged 11.08 log 2 ), under field conditions. The study was performed according to a controlled, randomized and blinded design in a Greek swine unit with Enzootic Pneumonia (EP) and subclinical PCV2 infection. In total, 600 healthy three-week-old suckling piglets were allocated randomly, either to treatment (vaccinated with the test product) or control group (injected with sterile buffered saline). Vaccination significantly reduced the severity of lung lesions at slaughter (lesions of cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation) (P pigs. Furthermore, 25 g higher average daily weight gain (ADWG) was observed during the finishing phase (P < 0.001) and 18 g greater ADWG overall (P < 0.001). Results of LLS, PCV2 viremia and ADWG support the test product's efficacy in the face of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity.

  16. Differential and strain-specific triggering of bovine alveolar macrophage effector functions by mycoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungi, T W; Krampe, M; Sileghem, M; Griot, C; Nicolet, J

    1996-12-01

    Mycoplasma strains being considered as pathogenic or non-pathogenic for cattle were tested on their capacity to activate bovine alveolar macrophages in vitro. Of particular interest was the behaviour of Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides small colony type (M.m.m. SC), the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). Increases in procoagulant activity (PCA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha- (TNF-alpha) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) generation were tested. To minimize an influence of macrophage activation by mycoplasma growth media, mycoplasmas were cultured on embryonic calf nose epithelial cells. The three macrophage functions tested were not correlated, but were differentially induced in strain-specific manner. Four out of seven strains induced PCA, regardless of pathogenicity, and all strains promoted moderate NO generation at high concentrations. All tested M.m.m. SC strains (Afadé, L2 and PG1), and the pathogenic M. bovis, induced TNF-alpha production at low concentrations (10(6) colony forming units per ml). M.sp. serogroup 7 and the non-pathogenic M. bovirhinis and Acholeplasma laidlawii did not induce TNF-alpha up to 10(8) cfu/ml. Thus, strain-specific differences are reflected in differential macrophage activation patterns. The findings are consistent with an important role for TNF-alpha in pathogenesis of CBPP.

  17. Evidence of long distance airborne transport of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott; Otake, Satoshi; Oliveira, Simone; Deen, John

    2009-01-01

    The ability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to be transported over long distances via the airborne route was evaluated. A source population of 300 grow-finish pigs was experimentally inoculated with PRRSV MN-184 and M. hyopneumoniae 232 and over a 50-day period, air samples were collected at designated distances from the source herd using a liquid cyclonic collector. Samples were tested for the presence of PRRSV RNA and M. hyopneumoniae DNA by PCR and if positive, further characterized. Of the 306 samples collected, 4 (1.3%) were positive for PRRSV RNA and 6 (1.9%) were positive for M. hyopneumoniae DNA. The PRRSV-positive samples were recovered 4.7 km to the northwest (NW) of the source population. Four of the M. hyopneumoniae-positive samples were obtained at the NW sampling point; 2 samples at approximately 2.3 km and the other 2 samples approximately 4.7 km from the source population. Of the remaining 2 samples, one sample was obtained at the southeast sampling point and the other at the southwest sampling point, with both locations being approximately 4.7 km from the source. The four PRRSV-positive samples contained infectious virus and were ≥ 98.8% homologous to the MN-184 isolate used to inoculate the source population. All 6 of the M. hyopneumoniae-positive samples were 99.9% homologous to M. hyopneumoniae 232. These results support the hypothesis that long distance airborne transport of these important swine pathogens can occur. PMID:19379664

  18. Comparative analysis of mucosal immunity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and DLY piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, L Z; Wu, Y Z; Bai, F F; William, K K; Feng, Z X; Liu, M J; Yao, J T; Zhang, X; Shao, G Q

    2014-07-07

    The Jiangquhai porcine lean strain (JQHPL) is a new pork meat-type strain that has been developed in recent years from the parent lines Duroc, Fengjing, and Jiangquhai pigs (DurocxFengjing pigxJiangquhai pig). Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a chronic respiratory disease of pigs, generating high economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the degree of resistance to M. hyopneumoniae for the Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and the Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire (DLY) pigs, which are Western commercial pigs that have been introduced in China. A total of 209 DLY piglets and 221 JQHPL piglets from 19 Landrace x Yorkshire and 22 JQHPL M. hyopneumoniae positive gestating sows with different expected dates of confinement were selected and raised in the same M. hyopneumoniae positive farrowing barn. When the oldest suckling piglets were 37 days old, nasal swabs were collected from all the piglets (ranging from 4 to 37 days old) to detect the M. hyopneumoniae pathogen using n-PCR and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA using ELISA. Positive M. hyopneumoniae infection rates in both the strains increased with age; however, positive rates for JQHPL were lower compared to DLY at 14 to 35 days old. The level of the specific SIgA rose rapidly in JQHPL respiratory tracts, particularly in piglets 21 to 35 days in age compared to DLY piglets of the same age; however, the level of the specific SIgA in DLY also marginally increased. In conclusion, JQHPL pigs exhibits higher resistance to M. hyopneumoniae compared to DLY. It is possible that this characteristic is caused by the faster and stronger mucosal immunity phenotype of the JQHPL strain.

  19. Potentially pathogenic mycoplasmas in the external ear canal of clinically normal cattle in Southeast Brazil: first report Micoplasmas potencialmente patogênicos no canal auditivo de bovinos clinicamente sadios no Sul do Brasil: primeiro relato

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    Sandra Batista dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas were searched in the ear canal flushing of 60 bovine in Brazil. The prevalence obtained was 80%. The percentages of typified species were 12.5%, for M. alkalenses; 2.1%, M. arginini; 8.35%, M. bovirhinis; 2.1%, M. bovis; 25.0%, M. conjunctivae; 14.6%, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and 10.4% M. capricolum.Foram pesquisados micoplasmas no conduto auditivo de 60 bovinos no Brasil. A prevalência obtida foi de 80%. A porcentagem das espécies tipificadas foi de M. alkalenses, 12,5%; M. arginini, 2,1%; M. bovirhinis, 8,35%; M. bovis, 2,1%; M. conjunctivae, 25,0%; M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC, 14,6% e M. capricolum, 10,4%.

  20. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcription Unit Organization: Genome Survey and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is associated with swine respiratory diseases. Although gene organization and regulation are well known in many prokaryotic organisms, knowledge on mycoplasma is limited. This study performed a comparative analysis of three strains of M. hyopneumoniae (7448, J and 232), with a focus on genome organization and gene comparison for open read frame (ORF) cluster (OC) identification. An in silico analysis of gene organization demonstrated 117 OCs and 34 single ORFs in M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and J, while 116 OCs and 36 single ORFs were identified in M. hyopneumoniae 232. Genomic comparison revealed high synteny and conservation of gene order between the OCs defined for 7448 and J strains as well as for 7448 and 232 strains. Twenty-one OCs were chosen and experimentally confirmed by reverse transcription–PCR from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 genome, validating our prediction. A subset of the ORFs within an OC could be independently transcribed due to the presence of internal promoters. Our results suggest that transcription occurs in ‘run-on’ from an upstream promoter in M. hyopneumoniae, thus forming large ORF clusters (from 2 to 29 ORFs in the same orientation) and indicating a complex transcriptional organization. PMID:22086999

  1. Host Cell Responses to Persistent Mycoplasmas - Different Stages in Infection of HeLa Cells with Mycoplasma hominis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, René; Degrandi, Daniel; Köhrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of

  2. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J; Schougaard, H

    2007-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...

  3. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J.; Schougaard, H.

    2006-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ulrich; de Jong, Anno; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Leon, Rocio; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Rose, Markus; Maes, Dominiek; Pridmore, Andrew; Thomson, Jill R; Ayling, Roger D

    2017-05-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs and Mycoplasma bovis in cattle are major pathogens affecting livestock across Europe and are the focus of the MycoPath pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme. Fifty M. hyopneumoniae isolates from Belgium, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK), and 156 M. bovis isolates from France, Hungary, Spain and the UK that met specific criteria were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility in a central laboratory by using a microbroth dilution method. Specific isolate criteria included recovery from animals not recently treated with antimicrobials, isolates from different locations within each country and retaining only one isolate per farm. MIC 50/ MIC 90 values were 0.031/0.5, 0.031/0.5, 0.062/0.25, ≤0.001/0.004, 0.031/0.125, 0.25/0.5 and 0.062/0.25mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, spiramycin, tulathromycin, tylosin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline respectively against M. hyopneumoniae and 0.25/4, 1/4, 4/16, >64/ >64, 32/ >64, 2/4 and 4/64mg/L, respectively against M. bovis. MIC 50 /MIC 90 values for tiamulin and valnemulin against M. hyopneumoniae were 0.016/0.062 and ≤0.001/ ≤0.001mg/L respectively. The MIC 50 /MIC 90 values of danofloxacin and gamithromycin for M. bovis were 0.25/1 and >64/ >64mg/L respectively. The highest MIC 90 values for M. hyopneumoniae were found in the UK at 1.0mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and florfenicol. In contrast, for M. bovis the lowest MIC 90 value was 1.0mg/L, but ranged to >64mg/L. Specific laboratory standards and clinical breakpoints for veterinary Mycoplasma species are required as no independently validated clinical breakpoints are specified for veterinary Mycoplasma species, which makes data interpretation and correlation to in vivo efficacy difficult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Immunogenicity of attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strain expressing immunogenic genes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengying; Zou, Haoyong; He, Qigai

    2011-09-01

    The study was carried out to construct and characterize Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strain expressing immunogenic genes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and to test its immunogenicity in mice. We made p36, p46, p65 and p97R1-Nrdf, the main immunogenic genes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, to insert into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pYA3493. Then these recombinant plasmids and pYA3493 were electroporated into C500 asd-mutant, resulting in the recombinant Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strains C36 (pYA-36), C46 (pYA-46), C65 (pYA-65), C97R1-Nrdf(pYA-97R1-Nrdf) and CpYA(pYA3493). We characterized these recombinant Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strains and tested the immunogenicity in mice by intramuscular injection or orally immunized. The results of the immunogenicity in mice indicated that the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65, C97R1-Nrdf showed significantly higher Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody than both the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65 and the group intramuscular injected with the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin (M + PAC) (P Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin (M + PAC) (P 0.05). The highest level of IL-4 was found in the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65; higher levels of IL-4 was observed in the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65, C97R1-Nrdf than the group injected with the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin (M + PAC); and the lowest IL-4 level was found in the group injected with C36, C46, C65. There were no significant differences among them (P > 0.05). The Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody, IFN-gamma or IL-4 production of the each group was obviously higher than the control group (P Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae which has immunogenicity in mice especially by intramuscular injection could probably serve as a vaccine against mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine.

  6. Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila in elderly patients with stroke (C-PEPS, M-PEPS, L-PEPS): a case-control study on the infectious burden of atypical respiratory pathogens in elderly patients with acute cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeh, Joseph; Goodbourn, Colin

    2005-02-01

    Multiple studies have suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether the risk of cerebrovascular disease is associated with Legionella pneumophila infection and the aggregate number/infectious burden of these atypical respiratory pathogens. One hundred patients aged >65 years admitted with acute stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 87 control patients admitted concurrently with acute noncardiopulmonary, noninfective conditions were recruited prospectively. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, we previously reported the seroprevalences of C pneumoniae and M pneumoniae in these patients. We have now determined the seroprevalences of L pneumophila IgG and IgM in this cohort of patients using ELISA. The seroprevalences of L pneumophila IgG and IgM were 29% (n=91) and 12% (n=81) in the stroke/TIA group and 22% (n=86) and 10% (n=72) in the controls, respectively. Using logistic regression to adjust for age, sex, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic ECG, the odds ratios for stroke/TIA in relation to L pneumophila IgG and IgM were 1.52 (95% CI, 0.70 to 3.28; P=0.29) and 1.49 (95% CI, 0.45 to 4.90; P=0.51), respectively. The odds ratios in relation to IgG seropositivity for 1, 2, or 3 atypical respiratory pathogens after adjustment were 3.89 (95% CI, 1.13 to 13.33), 2.00 (95% CI, 0.64 to 6.21), and 6.67 (95% CI, 1.22 to 37.04), respectively (P=0.06). L pneumophila seropositivity is not significantly associated with stroke/TIA. However, the risk of stroke/TIA appears to be associated with the aggregate number of chronic infectious burden of atypical respiratory pathogens such as C pneumoniae, M pneumoniae, and L pneumophila.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of ?Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos,? a Hemotropic Mycoplasma Identified in Cattle in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mart?nez-Ocampo, Fernando; Rodr?guez-Camarillo, Sergio D.; Amaro-Estrada, Itzel; Quiroz-Casta?eda, Rosa Estela

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft genome sequence of the first ?Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos? strain found in cattle in Mexico. This hemotropic mycoplasma causes acute and chronic disease in animals. This genome is a starting point for studying the role of this mycoplasma in coinfections and synergistic mechanisms associated with the disease.

  8. High Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections from Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Del Valle-Mendoza

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections.A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were tested for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and clinical symptoms were registered by the attending physician.Mycoplasma pneumonia was detected in 25.19% (170/675 of nasopharyngeal samples and Chlamydia pneumonia in 10.52% (71/675. The most common symptoms in patients with these atypical pathogens were rhinorrhea, cough and fever. A higher prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cases were registered in summer, between December 2009 and March 2010.Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumonia are a significant cause of morbidity in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections (ARI. Further studies should evaluate the use of reliable techniques such as PCR in Peru in order to avoid underdiagnoses of these atypical pathogens.

  9. Clinical Mycoplasma sp. Infections in Free-living Three-toed Box Turtles ( Terrapene carolina triunguis) in Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jamie L; Blake, Stephen; Wellehan, James F X; Childress, April L; Deem, Sharon L

    2016-04-28

    Mycoplasma species, which can cause upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), are significant pathogens of birds, mammals, fish, and reptiles. Mycoplasmosis is of high concern for chelonian conservation, with the most well-documented cases in gopher and desert tortoises. Mycoplasma sp. infections have been reported in captive and free-living box turtles ( Terrapene spp.). We documented URTD associated with Mycoplasma sp. in two free-living, three-toed box turtles ( Terrapene carolina triunguis) in Missouri, US. Both turtles were Mycoplasma sp. positive by PCR and had URTD-like clinical signs, including nasal and ocular discharge, palpebral edema, lethargy, and weight loss, during a 6-8-wk period between June and September 2014.

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in Greek female outpatients, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Mavromanolaki, Viktoria Eirini; Nioti, Eleni; Stafylaki, Dimitra; Minadakis, George

    2017-11-28

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma species are opportunistic pathogens associated with urogenital infections, complications during pregnancy and postpartum infections. Appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment is necessary to achieve an optimal therapeutic outcome. This study evaluated the prevalence and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. isolated from 1,008 endocervical samples of outpatients in Crete, Greece, during a five-year period (2012-2016), using the commercially available Mycoview kit (Zeakon diagnostics, France). Ureaplasma spp. was isolated from 116 patients (11.5%), M. hominis from 6 (0.6%), while coinfection with both mycoplasmas was demonstrated in 17 (1.7%). All Ureaplasma strains were susceptible to josamycin and doxycycline. Doxycycline, minocycline and ofloxacin were the most potent antibiotics against M. hominis. Docycycline was proved the most active and is still the drug of choice for the treatment of genital mycoplasma infections. Local surveillance to monitor changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities is necessary to guide treatment strategies.

  11. Effect of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and fumonisin B1 toxin on the lung in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Kovács

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors examined the combined effect of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh and fumonisin B1 (FB1 mycotoxin in pigs. Computed tomography (CT was applied to follow up the pathological events in the lung. Piglets were infected with Mh, or treated with FB1, or both infected and treated with Mh and FB1. The Mh infection produced lung lesions in all piglets the severity of which was increased by FB1. The CT is a suitable method for studying the pathological conditions in the lower respiratory tract of swine.

  12. Mycoplasma infection of ducks and geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, L; Szathmary, S

    2012-11-01

    Production of ducks and geese in certain parts of the world is very important. Mycoplasma diseases cause significant losses to the duck and goose industry. This review summarizes the epidemiological, clinical, and pathomorphological characteristics of mycoplasma diseases of ducks and geese and the involvement of the various mycoplasma species in their pathogenesis. The role of mycoplasma infections in the development of clinical signs, pathological lesions, and mortality of challenged birds is demonstrated in challenge experiments. Transmission of mycoplasma in the ovary and eggs resulting in the reduction of egg production and an increase of embryo mortality has been shown in challenge experiments as well as in field studies. The susceptibility of many mycoplasma isolates of the most important mycoplasma species of duck and goose origin were tested and showed relatively high average minimum inhibitory concentrations of lincomycin, tilosin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and enrofloxacin but not for tiamulin. The successful treatment of mycoplasma infections with antibiotics in ducks and geese should be selected based on the minimum inhibitory concentration values against the mycoplasmas isolated from the flock.

  13. Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7 and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoop Roland

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus (IV infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors such as Tamiflu® (oseltamivir is a potential problem. Therefore the prospects for the control of IV by existing anti-viral drugs are limited. As an alternative approach to the common anti-virals we studied in more detail a commercial standardized extract of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®, EF in order to elucidate the nature of its anti-IV activity. Results Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1, were all inactivated in cell culture assays by the EF preparation at concentrations ranging from the recommended dose for oral consumption to several orders of magnitude lower. Detailed studies with the H5N1 HPAIV strain indicated that direct contact between EF and virus was required, prior to infection, in order to obtain maximum inhibition in virus replication. Hemagglutination assays showed that the extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, suggesting that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged, in contrast to Tamiflu®, which produced resistant viruses upon passaging. Furthermore, the Tamiflu®-resistant virus was just as susceptible to EF as the wild type virus. Conclusion As a result of these investigations, we believe that this standard Echinacea preparation, used at the recommended dose for oral consumption, could be a useful, readily available and affordable addition to existing control options

  14. Characterization of free exopolysaccharides secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.

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    Clothilde Bertin

    Full Text Available Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm. In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS, also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical β(1->6-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan and associated

  15. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Cause of Sexually Transmitted Disease in Women

    OpenAIRE

    McGowin, Chris L.; Anderson-Smits, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen. Over 27,000 women from 48 pub...

  16. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Risco

    Full Text Available Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa, a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes, or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs, was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV, swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures

  17. Microbiological identification and analysis of Swine lungs collected from carcasses in Swine farms, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yunfeng; Xie, Jiexiong; Chen, Ye; Wei, Chunya; Zhu, Wanjun; Chen, Jidang; Qi, Haitao; Zhang, Liangquan; Sun, Long; Zhang, Xiaozhan; Zhou, Pei; Cao, Zhenpeng; Qi, Wenbao; Zhang, Minze; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Guihong

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this 3 years study was to determine the prevalence of porcine pathogens of the lungs of swine in swine farms in southern China. A total of 5,420 samples were collected from 200 swine farms. The bacterium that was most commonly isolated was Streptococcus suis, with 10.24 % of the samples being positive, 114 lungs (2.1 %) were positive for pseudorabies virus and 263 (4.85 %) were positive for classical swine fever virus; much lower than positive for PRRSV (15.1 %, p = 0.023) and PCV2 (13.8 %, p = 0.038). lungs that were positive for PRRSV and/or PCV-2 have significantly increased odds of being positive for any of the S. suis (9.79 vs. 0.44 %, p = 0.003).

  18. Experimental infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae identify key factors involved in host-colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Baranowski

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i the development of a specific antibody response and (ii dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma, with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs.

  19. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved interstate for insemination of swine or implantation into swine shall be accompanied by a document issued by...

  20. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, Jens; Schougaard, Hans

    2007-01-01

    The reproduction rate of horses is one of the lowest within domestic livestock despite advances the veterinary medicine. Infertility in horses may be due mainly to the lack of suitable selection criteria in the breeding of horses. However, acquired infertility due to genital, bacterial infections...... may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  1. Mycoplasma bovoculi infection increases ocular colonization by Moraxella ovis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbusch, R F; Ostle, A G

    1986-06-01

    To determine whether infection with Mycoplasma bovoculi increases ocular colonization of cattle eyes with Moraxella bovis and other bacteria, colonization of ocular gram-negative bacteria were measured in eyes of cattle infected with Mycoplasma bovoculi. Strains of Moraxella ovis were chosen because these are among the most commonly isolated species of gram-negative bacteria from cattle eyes. Five strains of M ovis were characterized biochemically and by pilus structure, permitting the recognition of 2 biotypes. All strains were tested in a mouse corneal pathogenicity model. One strain of each biotype was selected for testing in calves. All 5 strains were apathogenic for mice, and the 2 strains tested in cattle did not induce keratitis. Infection of calves with Mycoplasma bovoculi increased the amount and persistence of colonization with the strains of M ovis.

  2. Genes involved in translation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Oliveira Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on the analysis of genes involved in translation of the complete genomes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J and 7448 and Mycoplasma synoviae. In both genomes 31 ORFs encoding large ribosomal subunit proteins and 19 ORFs encoding small ribosomal subunit proteins were found. Ten ribosomal protein gene clusters encoding 42 ribosomal proteins were found in M. synoviae, while 8 clusters encoding 39 ribosomal proteins were found in both M. hyopneumoniae strains. The L33 gene of the M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 presented two copies in different locations. The genes encoding initiation factors (IF-1, IF-2 and IF-3, elongation factors (EF-G, EF-Tu, EF-Ts and EF-P, and the genes encoding the ribosome recycling factor (frr and one polypeptide release factor (prfA were present in the genomes of M. hyopneumoniae and M. synoviae. Nineteen aminoacyl-tRNA synthases had been previously identified in both mycoplasmas. In the two strains of M. hyopneumoniae, J and 7448, only one set of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNAs had been identified. Two sets of 16S and 23S rRNA genes and three sets of 5S rRNA genes had been identified in the M. synoviae genome.

  3. Biofilm formation and determination of minimum biofilm eradication concentration of antibiotics in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassew, Dereje Damte; Mechesso, Abraham Fikru; Park, Na-Hye; Song, Ju-Beom; Shur, Joo-Woon; Park, Seung-Chun

    2017-10-20

    The study was aimed to investigate biofilm forming ability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and to determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentrations of antibiotics. Biofilm forming ability of six strains of M. hyopneumoniae was examined using crystal violet staining on coverslips. The results demonstrated an apparent line of biofilm growth in 3 of the strains isolated from swine with confirmed cases of enzootic pneumonia. BacLight bacterial viability assay revealed that the majority of the cells were viable after 336 hr of incubation. Moreover, M. hyopneumoniae persists in the biofilm after being exposed to 10 fold higher concentration of antibiotics than the minimum inhibitory concentrations in planktonic cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of biofilm formation in M. hyopneumoniae. However, comprehensive studies on the mechanisms of biofilm formation are needed to combat swine enzootic pneumonia caused by resistant M. hyopneumoniae.

  4. Occurrence of Mycoplasma synoviae on commercial poultry farms of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Mércia R. Barros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state of Pernambuco is the largest producer of eggs in the North and Northeast of Brazil and second one in the broiler production. Mycoplasmas are important avian pathogens, which cause respiratory and joint diseases that result in large economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS in broilers and commercial laying hens in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Tracheal fragments were analyzed from 55 healthy broilers, 35 broilers with respiratory signs and 30 commercial laying hens with respiratory signs, from 24 commercial poultry farms, each sample was composed of a pool of five birds. The bacteriological exam, PCR and nested PCR were used for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS. All samples were negative in bacteriological isolation. In the PCR analyses, seven samples from birds with respiratory signs were positive for MS and one was positive for MG, the latter of which was confirmed as the MG-F vaccine strain. The occurrence of MS in chickens with respiratory signs may indicate inadequate sanitary management on poultry farms, favoring the propagation of mycoplasmosis.

  5. Comparative genomics of Mycoplasma: analysis of conserved essential genes and diversity of the pan-genome.

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    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma, the smallest self-replicating organism with a minimal metabolism and little genomic redundancy, is expected to be a close approximation to the minimal set of genes needed to sustain bacterial life. This study employs comparative evolutionary analysis of twenty Mycoplasma genomes to gain an improved understanding of essential genes. By analyzing the core genome of mycoplasmas, we finally revealed the conserved essential genes set for mycoplasma survival. Further analysis showed that the core genome set has many characteristics in common with experimentally identified essential genes. Several key genes, which are related to DNA replication and repair and can be disrupted in transposon mutagenesis studies, may be critical for bacteria survival especially over long period natural selection. Phylogenomic reconstructions based on 3,355 homologous groups allowed robust estimation of phylogenetic relatedness among mycoplasma strains. To obtain deeper insight into the relative roles of molecular evolution in pathogen adaptation to their hosts, we also analyzed the positive selection pressures on particular sites and lineages. There appears to be an approximate correlation between the divergence of species and the level of positive selection detected in corresponding lineages.

  6. Biochemical and serological characterization of mycoplasma from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the mycoplasma species present in clinical cases of mastitic cows in Southwest and Northern Nigeria and to determine the prevalence of mycoplasma mastitis in dairy cows. Two hundred milk samples were collected from cases of clinical mastitic cows in ...

  7. Swine manure post-treatment technologies for pathogenic organism inactivation Tecnologias de pós-tratamento de dejetos suínos para inativar organismos patogênicos

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    Patrícia Bilotta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Swine manure agricultural use is a common practice in Brazil. Their physic-chemical characteristics favor its use as biofertilizer, but the presence of pathogens may become a risk to human health. This research presents a qualitative study of the main alternatives of pig manure disinfection, analyzing efficiency, advantages and limitations of each procedure. The disinfection studies reported in literature are based on the following treatments: alkaline, thermal, biological, chemical, and physical. The greater efficiencies are in thermal treatment (> 4 log: 60 °C, chemical treatment (3 to 4 log: 30mg Cl- L-1; 3 to 4 log: 40 mg O3 L-1 and physical treatment (3 a 4 log: 220 mJ UV radiation cm-2. The biological treatment (anaerobiosis also promotes the pathogen reduction of swine manure, however with lower efficiency (1 to 2 log. The selection of the treatment should consider: implementation and operation cost, necessity of preliminary treatment, efficiency obtained and destination of the treated manure (agricultural use, water reuse. Brazilian regulation does not have specific guidelines for the microbiological quality of animal production effluents that is very important to be considered due to confined animal feeding operation transformation in the last years in the country.O uso agrícola de dejetos suínos é uma prática comum no Brasil. Suas características físico-químicas favorecem seu aproveitamento como biofertilizante, porém a presença de patógenos pode representar um risco à saúde humana. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo qualitativo das principais alternativas de desinfecção de dejetos suínos, analisando eficiência, vantagens e limitações de cada procedimento. Os estudos de desinfecção reportados na literatura são baseados nos seguintes tratamentos: alcalino, térmico, biológico, químico e físico. As maiores eficiências de redução de patógenos estão no tratamento térmico (>4 log: 60 °C, tratamento químico (3

  8. Mycoplasma contamination of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, BS; Jensen, Lise Torp; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    We examined 6 C. pneumonia isolates from The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and 2 Finnish isolates for Mycoplasma contamination. Three of the ATCC isolates and both of the Finnish isolates were Mycoplasma-contaminated. The contaminants were characterized by means of growth in BEa and BEg...... media, immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two of the 6 ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1355 (TWAR strain 2043) and ATCC VR1356 (TWAR strain 2023)] were infected with Mycoplasma hominis and 1 isolate [ATCC VR2282 (TWAR strain TW183)] was contaminated with both...... Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma orale, whereas 3 of the ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1310, ATCC VR1360 (TWAR strain CM-1) and ATCC 53592 (TWAR strain AR39)] were not contaminated. The Finnish C. pneumoniae isolates Kajaani 6 and Parola were found to be contaminated with M. hominis and M. orale, respectively...

  9. Sinclair swine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, R.R.; Berkelhammer, J.; Hamby, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  10. Molecular prevalence of Bartonella, Babesia, and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in dogs with splenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanat, M; Maggi, R G; Linder, K E; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2011-01-01

    Among diseases that cause splenomegaly in dogs, lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH), splenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA), and fibrohistiocytic nodules (FHN) are common diagnoses. The spleen plays an important role in the immunologic control or elimination of vector-transmitted, blood-borne pathogens, including Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. To compare the prevalence of Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. DNA in spleens from dogs with LNH, HSA, and FHN. Paraffin-embedded, surgically obtained biopsy tissues from LNH (N = 50), HSA (N = 50), and FHN (N = 37) were collected from the anatomic pathology archives. Spleens from specific pathogen-free (SPF) dogs (N = 8) were used as controls. Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and Mycoplasma sp. DNA was amplified by PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. Bartonella sp. DNA was more prevalent in FHN (29.7%) and HSA (26%) as compared to LNH (10%) (P = .019, .0373, respectively) or control spleens (0.0%). The prevalence of Babesia sp. and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. DNA was significantly lower than Bartonella sp. DNA in HSA (P = .0005, .006, respectively) and FHN (P = .003, .0004, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in DNA prevalence among the 3 genera in the LNH group. The higher prevalence of Bartonella sp. in FHN and HSA warrants future investigations to determine if this bacterium plays a role in the development of these splenic diseases. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessian L. Munoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium has been recognized as a cause of male urethritis, and there is now evidence suggesting that it causes cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. M. genitalium is a slow growing organism, and, with the advent of nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT, more studies are being performed, and knowledge about the pathogenicity of this organism elucidated. With NAAT detection, treatment modalities have been studied, and the next challenge is to determine the most effective antimicrobial therapy. Doxycycline, the first-line antibiotic for urethritis, is largely ineffective in the treatment of M. genitalium and furthermore, resistance to macrolide has also emerged. The most effective drug is Moxifloxacin although there are emerging reports of resistance to it in various parts of the world. This paper not only highlights the current research and knowledge, but also reviews the diversity of health implications on the health of men and women infected with M. genitalium. Alternate antibiotics and the impact of M. genitalium on infertility are areas that require more studies as we continue to research into this microorganism.

  12. Selective medium for culture of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Beth S; Beddow, Jessica G; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Maglennon, Gareth A; Rycroft, Andrew N

    2016-11-15

    The fastidious porcine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has proven difficult to culture since it was first isolated in 1965. A reliable solid medium has been particularly challenging. Moreover, clinical and pathological samples often contain the fast-growing M. hyorhinis which contaminates and overgrows M. hyopneumoniae in primary culture. The aim of this study was to optimise the culture medium for recovery of M. hyopneumoniae and to devise a medium for selection of M. hyopneumoniae from clinical samples also containing M. hyorhinis. The solid medium devised by Niels Friis was improved by use of Purified agar and incorporation of DEAE-dextran. Addition of glucose or neutralization of acidity in liquid medium with NaOH did not improve the final yield of viable organisms or alter the timing of peak viability. Analysis of the relative susceptibility of M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis strains to four antimicrobials showed that M. hyopneumoniae is less susceptible than M. hyorhinis to kanamycin. This was consistent in all UK and Danish strains tested. A concentration of 2μg/ml of kanamycin selectively inhibited the growth of all M. hyorhinis tested, while M. hyopneumoniae was able to grow. This forms the basis of an effective selective culture medium for M. hyopneumoniae. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential metabolism of Mycoplasma species as revealed by their genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio B.M. Arraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The annotation and comparative analyses of the genomes of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumonie, as well as of other Mollicutes (a group of bacteria devoid of a rigid cell wall, has set the grounds for a global understanding of their metabolism and infection mechanisms. According to the annotation data, M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae are able to perform glycolytic metabolism, but do not possess the enzymatic machinery for citrate and glyoxylate cycles, gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Both can synthesize ATP by lactic fermentation, but only M. synoviae can convert acetaldehyde to acetate. Also, our genome analysis revealed that M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae are not expected to synthesize polysaccharides, but they can take up a variety of carbohydrates via the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS. Our data showed that these two organisms are unable to synthesize purine and pyrimidine de novo, since they only possess the sequences which encode salvage pathway enzymes. Comparative analyses of M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae with other Mollicutes have revealed differential genes in the former two genomes coding for enzymes that participate in carbohydrate, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism and host-pathogen interaction. The identification of these metabolic pathways will provide a better understanding of the biology and pathogenicity of these organisms.

  14. Detection of Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma californicum in dairy cattle from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J Tamiozzo

    Full Text Available Different species of Mycoplasma can affect bovine cattle, causing several diseases. PCR sequencing and further analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA ITS region have shown a significant interspecies variability among Mollicutes. Sixteen suspected isolates of Mycoplasma spp. obtained from milk samples from dairy herds were amplified (16S-23S rRNA ITS region. Fourteen out of those 16 suspected Mycoplasma spp. isolates were PCR-positive. To confirm the identity of Mycoplasma bovis, these 14 isolates were tested by another species-specific PCR. Seven of the isolates rendered a positive result. The products of 16S-23S rRNA ITS PCR from one isolate that was identified as M. bovis and from two other isolates, identified as non- M. bovis were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. The three sequences (A, B and C showed 100% similarity with M. bovis, Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma californicum respectively.

  15. Proteogenomic mapping of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae virulent strain 232.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendarvis, Ken; Padula, Matthew P; Tacchi, Jessica L; Petersen, Andrew C; Djordjevic, Steven P; Burgess, Shane C; Minion, F Chris

    2014-07-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes respiratory disease in swine and contributes to the porcine respiratory disease complex, a major disease problem in the swine industry. The M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 genome is one of the smallest and best annotated microbial genomes, containing only 728 annotated genes and 691 known proteins. Standard protein databases for mass spectrometry only allow for the identification of known and predicted proteins, which if incorrect can limit our understanding of the biological processes at work. Proteogenomic mapping is a methodology which allows the entire 6-frame genome translation of an organism to be used as a mass spectrometry database to help identify unknown proteins as well as correct and confirm existing annotations. This methodology will be employed to perform an in-depth analysis of the M. hyopneumoniae proteome. Proteomic analysis indicates 483 of 691 (70%) known M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 proteins are expressed under the culture conditions given in this study. Furthermore, 171 of 328 (52%) hypothetical proteins have been confirmed. Proteogenomic mapping resulted in the identification of previously unannotated genes gatC and rpmF and 5-prime extensions to genes mhp063, mhp073, and mhp451, all conserved and annotated in other M. hyopneumoniae strains and Mycoplasma species. Gene prediction with Prodigal, a prokaryotic gene predicting program, completely supports the new genomic coordinates calculated using proteogenomic mapping. Proteogenomic mapping showed that the protein coding genes of the M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 identified in this study are well annotated. Only 1.8% of mapped peptides did not correspond to genes defined by the current genome annotation. This study also illustrates how proteogenomic mapping can be an important tool to help confirm, correct and append known gene models when using a genome sequence as search space for peptide mass spectra. Using a gene prediction program which scans for a wide variety of

  16. Mycoplasmas and Non-gonococcal Urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 692 heterosexual males which included 130 men with non-gonoccal urethritis (NGU and 562 age-matched controls, were studied. Mycoplasmas were cultivated in liquid PPLO medium tubes containing arionine and urea. Mycoplasmas were isolated in 24 (18.59o of the 130 patients and 76 (13.60/o of the 562 controls. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in 18 (13.9% gatients with NGU and in 21 (3.8% controls. Mycoplasma hominiq was isolated in 6 (4.6% patientuft NGU and in 55 (9.8% controls. Ureaplasma urealyticurm has a definite in NGU.

  17. Structure-Guided Mutations in the Terminal Organelle Protein MG491 Cause Major Motility and Morphologic Alterations on Mycoplasma genitalium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinelli, Luca; García-Morales, Luis; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume; Fita, Ignacio; Calisto, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    The emergent human pathogen Mycoplasma genitalium, with one of the smallest genomes among cells capable of growing in axenic cultures, presents a flask-shaped morphology due to a protrusion of the cell membrane, known as the terminal organelle, that is involved in cell adhesion and motility and is

  18. The genetic diversity of contemporary swine influenza A viruses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Influenza A virus (IAV) is one of the most important respiratory pathogens of swine. It impacts mortality and causes significant financial losses through decreased production and the costs associated with vaccination and treatment. Further, due to the susceptibility of swine to transie...

  19. Genetic diversity of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae isolates of abattoir pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Audrey; Marois-Créhan, Corinne; Hélie, Pierre; Gagnon, Carl A; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Archambault, Marie

    2014-01-31

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, is present in swine herds worldwide. However, there is little information on strains infecting herds in Canada. A total of 160 swine lungs with lesions suggestive of enzootic pneumonia originating from 48 different farms were recovered from two slaughterhouses and submitted for gross pathology. The pneumonic lesion scores ranged from 2% to 84%. Eighty nine percent of the lungs (143/160) were positive for M. hyopneumoniae by real-time PCR whereas 10% (16/160) and 8.8% (14/160) were positive by PCR for M. hyorhinis and M. flocculare, respectively. By culture, only 6% of the samples were positive for M. hyopneumoniae (10/160). Among the selected M. hyopneumoniae-positive lungs (n=25), 9 lungs were co-infected with M. hyorhinis, 9 lungs with PCV2, 2 lungs with PRRSV, 12 lungs with S. suis and 10 lungs with P. multocida. MLVA and PCR-RFLP clustering of M. hyopneumoniae revealed that analyzed strains were distributed among three and five clusters respectively, regardless of severity of lesions, indicating that no cluster is associated with virulence. However, strains missing a specific MLVA locus showed significantly less severe lesions and lower numbers of bacteria. MLVA and PCR-RFLP analyses also showed a high diversity among field isolates of M. hyopneumoniae with a greater homogeneity within the same herd. Almost half of the field isolates presented less than 55% homology with selected vaccine and reference strains. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Meningitis in a Chinese adult patient caused by Mycoplasma hominis: a rare infection and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Menglan; Wang, Peng; Chen, Sharon; Du, Bin; Du, Jinlong; Wang, Fengdan; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hominis, a well known cause of neonatal infection, has been reported as a pathogen in urogenital infections in adults; however, central nervous system (CNS) infections are rare. We report here the first case of M. hominis meningitis in China, post neurosurgical treatment for an intracerebral haemorrhage in a 71-year-old male. Case presentation We describe a 71-year-old man who developed M. hominis meningitis after neurosurgical treatment and was successfully treated with...

  1. Development of a blocking ELISA for detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection based on a monoclonal antibody against protein P65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Maojun; DU, Gaimei; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Yuzi; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Bin; Bai, Yun; Feng, Zhixin; Xiong, Qiyan; Bai, Fangfang; Browning, Glenn F; Shao, Guoqing

    2016-09-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes porcine enzootic pneumonia, an economically important disease of swine. A more sensitive and reliable method for detection of serum antibodies is needed for epidemiological investigations and to evaluate the effect of immunization. We expressed the M. hyopneumoniae protein P65 in Escherichia coli and produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that bound specifically to recombinant P65. Using this mAb, a blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. The blocking ELISA had similar specificity to and sensitivity with the commercial ELISA produced by IDEXX. Thus, this blocking ELISA is a useful test for serological confirmation of M. hyopneumoniae infection.

  2. The detection of Mycoplasma (formerly Eperythrozoon) wenyonii by 16S rDNA PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Laura; Lawes, Joanna; Bell, Suzanna; Barlow, Alex; Ayling, Roger; Nicholas, Robin

    2006-10-31

    Although the role of Mycoplasma wenyonii in disease is still subject to some debate, infections have been reported to result in parasitaemia, anaemia, scrotal and hind limb oedema, tachycardia, pyrexia, infertility, swollen teats, prefemoral lymphadenopathy and decreased milk production. Previously, diagnosis of M. wenyonii has been based on blood smears but is not specific for M. wenyonii and can be difficult to interpret. We have previously described the use of PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for the detection and differentiation of Mycoplasma species. DGGE enables the rapid and specific identification of Mycoplasma species and is ideally suited to detecting both mixed infections and new and unusual species. In this study, we have used DGGE with universal primers to detect M. wenyonii DNA from blood samples. DGGE can be used on blood samples as a rapid and specific test for M. wenyonii and can also be used as a screening test for other blood borne pathogens.

  3. Vaccine development for protection against systemic infections with Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis are important invasive bacterial pathogens of swine, commonly causing meningitis, arthritis, polyserositis, and septicemia. Due to the presence of many serotypes and high genotypic variability, efficacious vaccines are not readily available. We are us...

  4. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by ELISA and nested PCR from blood samples and nasal swabs from pigs in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Prokeš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to map the situation of swine mycoplasmoses on four farms in the region of Eastern Slovakia. The primary agent of Enzootic pneumonia of swine is Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. After reviewing the health status of conventional herds and evaluation of clinical symptoms, paired samples of nasal swabs and venous blood samples were collected from 38 pigs with clinical signs of respiratory disease. Nasal swab samples were tested by nested PCR, while blood samples were used to detect antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae by blocking ELISA. The presence of M. hyopneumoniae was confirmed by nested PCR in four pigs (10.5% and by blocking ELISA in 16 pigs (42.1% of all four farms. This work presents for the first time comparison of different methods to diagnose M. hyopneumoniae infection on pig farms in Eastern Slovakia.

  5. EVIDENCE OF PSEUDORABIES VIRUS SHEDDING IN FERAL SWINE ( SUS SCROFA) POPULATIONS OF FLORIDA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Felipe A; Sayler, Katherine A; Bounds, Courtney; Milleson, Michael P; Carr, Amanda N; Wisely, Samantha M

    2018-01-01

    :  Feral swine ( Sus scrofa) are a pathogen reservoir for pseudorabies virus (PrV). The virus can be fatal to wildlife and contributes to economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. National surveillance efforts in the US use serology to detect PrV-specific antibodies in feral swine populations, but PrV exposure is not a direct indicator of pathogen transmission among conspecifics or to non-suid wildlife species. We measured antibody production and the presence of PrV DNA in four tissue types from feral swine populations of Florida, US. We sampled blood, nasal, oral, and genital swabs from 551 individuals at 39 sites during 2014-16. Of the animals tested for antibody production, 224 of 436 (51%) feral swine were antibody positive while 38 of 549 feral swine (7%) tested for viral shedding were quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-positive for PrV. The detection of PrV DNA across all the collected sample types (blood, nasal, oral, and genital [vaginal] swabs) suggested viral shedding via direct (oronasal or venereal), and potentially indirect (through carcass consumption), routes of transmission among infected and susceptible animals. Fourteen of 212 seronegative feral swine were qPCR-positive, indicating 7% false negatives in the serologic assay. Our findings suggest that serology may underestimate the actual infection risk posed by feral swine to other species and that feral swine populations in Florida are capable of shedding the virus through multiple routes.

  6. Control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, D; Segales, J; Meyns, T; Sibila, M; Pieters, M; Haesebrouck, F

    2008-01-25

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, occurs worldwide and causes major economic losses to the pig industry. The organism adheres to and damages the ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract. Affected pigs show chronic coughing, are more susceptible to other respiratory infections and have a reduced performance. Control of the disease can be accomplished in a number of ways. First, management practices and housing conditions in the herd should be optimized. These include all-in/all-out production, limiting factors that may destabilize herd immunity, maintaining optimal stocking densities, prevention of other respiratory diseases, and optimal housing and climatic conditions. Strategic medication with antimicrobials active against M. hyopneumoniae and, preferably, also against major secondary bacteria may be useful during periods when the pigs are at risk for respiratory disease. Finally, commercial bacterins are widely used to control M. hyopneumoniae infections. The main effects of vaccination include less clinical symptoms, lung lesions and medication use, and improved performance. However, bacterins provide only partial protection and do not prevent colonization of the organism. Different vaccination strategies (timing of vaccination, vaccination of sows, vaccination combined with antimicrobial medication) can be used, depending on the type of herd, the production system and management practices, the infection pattern and the preferences of the pig producer. Research on new vaccines is actively occurring, including aerosol and feed-based vaccines as well as subunit and DNA vaccines. Eradication of the infection at herd level based on age-segregation and medication is possible, but there is a permanent risk for re-infections.

  7. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest 'reverse zoonosis' of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human-animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. 9 CFR 113.28 - Detection of mycoplasma contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of mycoplasma contamination... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.28 Detection of mycoplasma contamination. The heart infusion test, using... for mycoplasma contamination is prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed...

  9. Identification of avian Mycoplasma species in commercial broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among many avian mycoplasmas, only the Mycoplasmas gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasmas synoviae (MS) are responsible for causing respiratory disease in commercial poultry. This study reported for the very first time the serological occurrence of M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae in blood samples (n = 600) from sixty ...

  10. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae type I signal peptidase: expression and evaluation of its diagnostic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Heineck, Bianca L; Reolon, Luciano A; Paes, Jéssica A; Klein, Cátia S; Rebelatto, Raquel; Schrank, Irene S; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2012-01-27

    Type I signal peptidase (SPase I) is a membrane-anchored protease of the general secretory pathway, which is encoded by the sipS gene in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). In this study, the expression of the M. hyopneumoniae SPase I (MhSPase I) was analyzed in virulent and avirulent strains, and the recombinant protein (rMhSPase I), expressed in Escherichia coli, was evaluated regarding its potential as an immunodiagnostic antigen. It was demonstrated that the sipS coding DNA sequence (CDS) is most likely part of an operon, being co-transcribed along with four other CDSs. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and immunoblot assays showed that MhSPase I is expressed by all three strains analyzed, with no transcriptional difference, but with evidence of a higher protein level in a pathogenic strain (7422), in comparison to another pathogenic (7448) and a non-pathogenic (J) strain. rMhSPase I was strongly immunogenic for mice, and the MhSPase I antigenicity was confirmed. Polyclonal serum anti-rMhSPase I presented no detectable cross-reaction with Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a low conservation between MhSPase I and orthologous proteins from other porcine respiratory disease complex-related bacteria, Firmicutes and other Mycoplasma species. The potential of an rMhSPase I-based ELISA for PEP immunodiagnosis was demonstrated. Overall, we investigated the expression of sipS and the encoded MhSPase I in three M. hyopneumoniae strains and showed that this protein is a good antigen for use in PEP serodiagnosis and possibly vaccination, as well as a potential target for antibiotic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Elongation Factor Tu of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Zhang, Yue-feng Chu, Ping Zhao, Peng-cheng Gao, Ying He, Nu Wang and Zhong-xin Lu*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is considered as an important pathogen of small ruminants, but its antigenic proteins are not well known so far. In this study, we cloned the EF-Tu gene of M. ovipneumoniae and analyzed the molecular features of the gene and its coding protein for the first time. The gene was then expressed in E.coli and the antigenicity of the coding protein was evaluated as well. The EF-Tu gene of M. ovipneumoniae is 1209 bp in length, encodes 402 amino acids, and shares the highest DNA sequence identity of 87.5% and deduced amino acid sequence identity of 97.8% with those of M. hyopneumoniae, respectively. The recombinant EF-Tu protein can react with the polyclonal antiserum of M. ovipneumoniae and can induce humoral immune responses in mice, which indicated that the EF-Tu may be used as a candidate protein in developing the technologies to control the disease.

  12. Genes involved in cell division in mycoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Alarcón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell division has been studied mainly in model systems such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, where it is described as a complex process with the participation of a group of proteins which assemble into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring. Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria presenting a reduced genome. Thus, it was important to compare their genomes to analyze putative genes involved in cell division processes. The division and cell wall (dcw cluster, which in E. coli and B. subtilis is composed of 16 and 17 genes, respectively, is represented by only three to four genes in mycoplasmas. Even the most conserved protein, FtsZ, is not present in all mycoplasma genomes analyzed so far. A model for the FtsZ protein from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae has been constructed. The conserved residues, essential for GTP/GDP binding, are present in FtsZ from both species. A strong conservation of hydrophobic amino acid patterns is observed, and is probably necessary for the structural stability of the protein when active. M. synoviae FtsZ presents an extended amino acid sequence at the C-terminal portion of the protein, which may participate in interactions with other still unknown proteins crucial for the cell division process.

  13. Serological and microbial survey of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from six western states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, B A; Thomas, C B; Yuill, T M

    1992-01-01

    antigen in the RPA test, but were negative by the HI assay. The RPA test was effective in identifying MG and MS infected turkeys despite lack of confirmation by the HI test. These data suggest that apparently healthy wild turkeys can carry pathogenic mycoplasmas and the currently used field test (RPA) can identify culture positive wild turkeys. Serological screening using the RPA test should be conducted on all wild turkeys prior to relocation.

  14. A model to investigate the optimal seeder-to-naïve ratio for successful natural Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae gilt exposure prior to entering the breeding herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Luiza R; Fano, Eduardo; Homwong, Nitipong; Payne, Brian; Pieters, Maria

    2016-02-29

    Due to the significance of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae as a swine respiratory pathogen, acclimation measures are taken into consideration when obtaining replacement gilts from negative sources to be introduced to endemically infected herds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimum seeder-to-naïve gilt ratio in a 4-week period for successful natural exposure to M. hyopneumoniae. Sixty gilts were divided in two groups, 21 2-week old seeder gilts were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae, and 39 aged-matched naïve gilts were exposed to the seeders during a 4-week period. The exposure was set by dividing the gilts into six groups of 10 with different ratios of seeder-to-naïve, from 1:9 until 6 seeders and 4 naïve gilts. Laryngeal swabs, oral fluids and blood samples were collected from all gilts prior to, during and after inoculation and exposure. Infection in seeders was confirmed by development of clinical signs, seroconversion post-inoculation, and detection of M. hyopneumoniae genetic material. Naïve were considered positive after 4 weeks if M. hyopneumoniae was detected on bronchial swab or fixed lung tissue. As result, 33% (3/9) naïve gilts were positive in the 1:9 ratio, 75% (6/8) in 2:8, 28% (2/7) in 3:7, 33% (2/6) in 4:6, 80% (4/5) in 5:5 and 100% (4/4) in the 6:4 ratio. The estimated transmission rate (β) and expected probability of infection (ψ) were 1.28 per pig/week and 0.6, respectively. In this study, six seeders were required in a group of 10 gilts for successful exposure to M. hyopneumoniae in a 4-week exposure period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In situ hybridisation for identification and differentiation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis in formalin-fixed porcine tissue sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ahrens, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S ribosomal RNA were designed for species-specific identification of the porcine mycoplasmas Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae using a fluorescent in situ hybridisation assay. The specificity of the probes was evaluated...... using pure cultures as well as porcine tissue sections with artificial presence of mycoplasma, and the probes were found specific for the target organisms. The assay was applied on sections of 28 tissue samples from pigs infected with one or more of the three Mycoplasma species as determined...... by cultivation. M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis were identified in accordance with cultivation in lung sections, from nine pigs affected by catarrhal to purulent bronchopneumonia. Likewise, in eight cases of fibrinous pericarditis, M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis and M. hyosynoviae were the infectious agents...

  16. A Review of Swine Influenza: An Emerging Pandemic | Adeola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An unprecedented epizootic swine Influenza A (H1N1) virus that is highly pathogenic has crossed the species barrier in Mexico to cause many human fatalities and poses an increasing pandemic threat. This summary describes the aetiopathogenesis of human infection with Influenza A (H1N1) and reviews ...

  17. Reassortment between swine H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 generated diverse genetic constellations in influenza A viruses currently circulating in pigs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Influenza A virus (IAV) is a significant pathogen to the swine industry. Since its introduction in 2009, the H1N1 pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09) has been repeatedly transmitted from humans to swine, but onward transmission in U.S. swine was mostly restricted to its internal genes. Reassortm...

  18. Mycoplasma infection followed by time-lapse microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Laszlo; Banfalvi, Gaspar; Fidrus, Eszter; Szigeti, Zsuzsa M; Nagy, Gabor

    2017-10-01

    Early detection of mycoplasma infection is crucial for saving precious often irreplaceable data from the tissues of patients. Mycoplasma infections cause diseases in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, urethritis in men resulting in painful dysuria, urgency and urethral discharge. Cough, fever, headache, urethritis may persist for several weeks and convalescence is slow. The symptoms of these diseases are aggravated by the detection of mycoplasma infections, that takes either a long time, besides being expensive or is specific and restricted to only a limited number of contaminant strains. Mycoplasmas are hard to detect visually but could be seen and followed by time-lapse microscopy. Our hypothesis is that one can detect mycoplasma infection irrespective of its origin and type of mycoplasma. Main lines of supporting evidence are provided by the time-lapse microscopy showing dynamic morphological alterations caused by mycoplasmas before changes in human cell cultures become visible. Morphometric measurements of mycoplasma infections revealed four subphases: i) detachment of infected cells, ii) aggregation, iii) biofilm formation and iv) shrinkage of infected cells. The applicability of time-lapse microscopy for the detection of mycoplasma infection was validated by a mycoplasma test Kit. Most important implications related to morphometric parameters include the observation of mycoplasma infected cultures for an extended period of time instead of applying static snap-shot microscopy. A reliable method is offered to estimate the time of mycoplasma exposure that elapsed during the cell growth. This microphotometric approach served a more economical detection of mycoplasma contamination at its early stage of cell growth and spread, irrespective of the origin of contaminated serum, without defining the type of mycoplasma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mycoplasma genitalium attaches to human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Helle Friis; Fedder, Jens; Abraham-Peskir, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    , M.genitalium was seen at the head but not at the tail. By X-ray microscopy, it was possible to observe the diffentiated structure of M.genitalium, and the attachment seemed to be mediated by the tip. CONCLUSIONS: Mycoplasma genitalium can bind to human spermatozoa and thus could be carried by motile...... to adhere to the head, midpiece and tail of the spermatozoa. The spermatozoa became immotile when many M.genitalium were attached. However, the motile spermatozoa were demonstrated to carry M.genitalium and in this case the mycoplasmas were seen to attach mostly to the midpiece or neck region. Occasionally...

  20. Polymerase discordance in novel swine influenza H3N2v constellations is tolerated in swine but not human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joshua D; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Nagy, Tamas; Gabbard, Jon; Lee, Christopher; Tompkins, Stephen M; Tripp, Ralph A

    2014-01-01

    Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA) segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA) showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.

  1. Spatial Dynamics of Human-Origin H1 Influenza A Virus in North American Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I.; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C.; Gramer, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003–2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens. PMID:21695237

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors for swine influenza zoonotic transmission in swine workers from northwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Robles, G; Montalvo-Corral, M; Caire-Juvera, G; Ayora-Talavera, G; Hernández, J

    2012-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the transmission of swine influenza through occupational exposure and to assess some risk factors for zoonotic transmission in workers from commercial farms in Mexico. Seroprevalence to swine influenza subtypes was determined by hemagglutinin inhibition assay and was higher in exposed (E), in comparison with unexposed (UE) participants (Pinfluenza virus (SIV) H3N2 and the exposition to swine [OR 3.05, 95% (CI) 1.65-5.64] and to geographic location [OR 8.15, 95% (CI) 1.41-47.05] was found. Vaccination appeared as a protective factor [OR 0.05, 95% (CI) 0.01-0.52]. Farms with high number of breeding herd were associated with increased anti-SIV antibodies in the E group [OR 3.98, 95% (CI) 1.00-15.86]. These findings are relevant and support the evidence of zoonoses in swine farms and point out the need to implement preventive measures to diminish the occurrence of the disease and the potential emergence of pathogenic reassortant strains. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The History of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraya, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    In the United States in the 1930s, although the pathogen was not known, atypical pneumonia was clinically distinguished from pneumococcal pneumonia by its resistance to sulfonamides. Reimann (1938) reported seven patients with an unusual form of tracheo bronchopneumonia and severe constitutional symptoms. He believed the clinical picture of this disease differed from that of the disease caused by influenza viruses or known bacteria and instead suspected "primary atypical pneumonia." For many years, the responsible infectious agent was tentatively classified as a filterable virus that could pass through a Seitz filter to remove bacteria and was reported to be a psittacosis-like or new virus. After that, Eaton et al. (1942, 1944, 1945) identified an agent that was the principal cause of primary atypical pneumonia using cotton rats, hamsters, and chick embryos. Eaton et al. (1942, 1944, 1945) did not perform an inoculation study in human volunteers. During the 1940s, there were three groups engaged in discovering the etiology of the primary atypical pneumonia. (1) Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases Diseases directed by John Dingle, (2) Dr. Monroe Eaton's group, the Virus Research Laboratory of the California State Public Health Department, (3) The Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research directed by Horsfall. During 1940s, the members of the Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases concluded that the bacteria-free filtrates obtained from the patients, presumably containing a virus, could induce primary atypical pneumonia in human volunteers via Pinehurst trials. During 1950s, serological approaches for identification of the Eaton agent developed such as Fluorescent-Stainable Antibody, and at the beginning of the1960s, the Eaton agent successfully grew in media, and finally accepted as a cause of primary atypical pneumonia. Thus, technical difficulties with visualizing the agent and failure to recognize the full significance of the Pinehurst

  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Sook Youn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP, the smallest self-replicating biological system, is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, leading to a wide range of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. MP pneumonia has been reported in 10 to 40% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia and shows an even higher proportion during epidemics. MP infection is endemic in larger communities of the world with cyclic epidemics every 3 to 7 years. In Korea, 3 to 4-year cycles have been observed from the mid-1980s to present. Although a variety of serologic assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques are available for the diagnosis of MP infections, early diagnosis of MP pneumonia is limited by the lack of immunoglobulin (Ig M antibodies and variable PCR results in the early stages of the infection. Thus, short-term paired IgM serologic tests may be mandatory for an early and definitive diagnosis. MP infection is usually a mild and self-limiting disease without specific treatment, and if needed, macrolides are generally used as a first-choice drug for children. Recently, macrolide-resistant MP strains have been reported worldwide. However, there are few reports of apparent treatment failure, such as progression of pneumonia to acute respiratory distress syndrome despite macrolide treatment. The immunopathogenesis of MP pneumonia is believed to be a hyperimmune reaction of the host to the insults from MP infection, including cytokine overproduction and immune cell activation (T cells. In this context, immunomodulatory treatment (corticosteroids or/and intravenous Ig, in addition to antibiotic treatment, might be considered for patients with severe infection.

  5. Encefalomielite aguda disseminada por Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gonzaga

    2016-09-01

    Conclusão: Pretende -se com este caso alertar para uma entidade clínico-imagiológica de diagnóstico crescente e salientar a importância das manifestações extrapulmonares do Mycoplasma pneumoniae em idade pediátrica.

  6. Azithromycin Failure in Mycoplasma genitalium Urethritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jorgen S.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Read, Timothy R.H.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Hopkins, Carol A.; Moss, Lorna M.; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2006-01-01

    We report significant failure rates (28%, 95% confidence interval 15%–45%) after administering 1 g azithromycin to men with Mycoplasma genitalium–positive nongonococcal urethritis. In vitro evidence supported reduced susceptibility of M. genitalium to macrolides. Moxifloxacin administration resulted in rapid symptom resolution and eradication of infection in all cases. These findings have implications for management of urethritis. PMID:16836839

  7. Reactive arthritis associated with Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisment, D; Machelart, I; Wirth, G; Lazaro, E; Greib, C; Pellegrin, J-L; Bébéar, C; Peuchant, O

    2013-11-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of sexually transmitted infections that is gaining recognition and is an independent cause of acute and chronic nongonococcal urethritis in men. M. genitalium has been implicated as a possible causative factor in reactive arthritis. We report a case of reactive arthritis complicating M. genitalium urethritis in an HLA-B27-positive patient. © 2013.

  8. Ekstrapulmonale komplikationer ved mycoplasma pneumoniae-infektioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anne-Mette Bay; Lebech, Anne-Mette K

    2002-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of atypical pneumonia in children and young adults. The infection is generally mild and only a very few patients are admitted to hospital. However, extrapulmonary complications are well recognised--mostly as manifestations from the central nervous system (C...

  9. Restriction-modification systems in Mycoplasma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brocchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction and Modification (R-M systems are present in all Mycoplasma species sequenced so far. The presence of these genes poses barriers to gene transfer and could protect the cell against phage infections. The number and types of R-M genes between different Mycoplasma species are variable, which is characteristic of a polymorphism. The majority of the CDSs code for Type III R-M systems and particularly for methyltransferase enzymes, which suggests that functions other than the protection against the invasion of heterologous DNA may exist. A possible function of these enzymes could be the protection against the invasion of other but similar R-M systems. In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J, three of the putative methyltransferase genes were clustered in a region forming a genomic island. Many R-M CDSs were mapped in the vicinity of transposable elements suggesting an association between these genes and reinforcing the idea of R-M systems as mobile selfish DNA. Also, many R-M genes present repeats within their coding sequences, indicating that their expression is under the control of phase variation mechanisms. Altogether, these data suggest that R-M systems are a remarkable characteristic of Mycoplasma species and are probably involved in the adaptation of these bacteria to different environmental conditions.

  10. Epidemiological survey on Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by multiplex PCR in commercial poultry Investigação epidemiológica de Mycoplasma gallisepticum e M. synoviae por PCR Multiplex em estabelecimentos comerciais de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Buim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are important avian pathogens, which cause respiratory and joint diseases that result in large economic losses in Brazilian and world-wide poultry industry. This investigation regarding the main species of mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and M. synoviae (MS, responsible for the above mentioned conditions, was carried out through PCR Multiplex analysis. One thousand and forty-six (1,046 samples of tracheal swabs and piped embryos were collected from 33 farms with laying hens, breeders, broilers or hatchery, located in the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Paraná and Pernambuco, where respiratory problems or drops in egg production had occurred. The MG and MS prevalence on the farms was 72.7%. These results indicated (1 high dissemination of mycoplasmas in the evaluated farms, with predominance of MS, either as single infectious agent or associated with other mycoplasmas in 20 farms (60.6%, and (2 an increase of MS and decrease of MG infection in Brazilian commercial poultry.Os Micoplasmas são importantes patógenos aviários que causam doenças respiratórias e de articulações que resultam em grandes perdas econômicas para a indústria avícola brasileira e mundial. O estudo das principais espécies de Mycoplasma, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG e M. synoviae (MS, responsáveis pelas doenças mencionadas acima, foram analisadas pela técnica de PCR Multiplex. Foram colhidas 1046 amostras de suabe traqueal e embriões bicados de 33 estabelecimentos de aves de postura, matrizes, frangos de corte e um incubatório, localizados nos Estados brasileiros de São Paulo, Paraná e Pernambuco, as quais apresentavam problemas respiratórios ou queda na produção de ovos. A prevalência de MS e MG nas granjas foi de 72,7%. Os resultados indicaram uma alta disseminação de Mycoplasma nas granjas avaliadas, com predominância de MS, como um único agente infeccioso ou associado com outros micoplasmas em 20 granjas (60,6%. Assim, este

  11. Functional analysis of replication determinantsin classical swine fever virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne

    and animal pathogens should facilitate finding new approaches for efficient disease control. The principal aim of this thesis is to characterise determinants involved in the replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Classical swine fever is a highly contagious virus disease of domestic pigs and wild...... in cell culture. Knowledge of these sequence variations and putative long-range interactions will provide valuable insights into mechanisms underlying virustranslation and replication. In manuscript 3, a selection marker has been inserted into a CSFV-based replicon making it suitable for screening...

  12. Comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction and serological tests for the confirmation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in children with clinical diagnosis of atypical pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Yu; Chang, Luan-Yin; Shao, Pei-Lan; Lee, Ping-Ing; Chen, Jong-Min; Lee, Chin-Yun; Lu, Chun-Yi; Huang, Li-Min

    2014-04-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common pathogen of respiratory tract infection in children, and its correct and rapid diagnosis is a clinical challenge. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used frequently for the detection of this pathogen. Medical records from all children with a clinical diagnosis of mycoplasma pneumonia and whose respiratory samples were tested for M. pneumoniae (using RT-PCR) during 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of serological assays versus those of RT-PCR for diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infections. We also reviewed retrospectively clinical characteristics, and laboratory and imaging findings of children with laboratory evidence of M. pneumoniae infection. In 2011, 290 children were diagnosed to have mycoplasma pneumonia clinically and had their respiratory samples tested for M. pneumoniae by RT-PCR. Fifty-four children (19%) had a positive result. Meanwhile, 63% (182/290) of these children also underwent serological tests, out of whom 44 (24%) were found to be positive for immunoglobulin M (IgM). Using PCR as a gold standard, M. pneumoniae IgM assay was found to show a sensitivity of 62.2% and a specificity of 85.5%. Positive and negative predictive values of IgM were 52.3% and 89.9%, respectively. In M. pneumoniae IgM-positive children, a negative PCR result was associated with more coinfection by other pathogens and longer duration of prehospitalization fever. Bacterial loads of M. pneumoniae were not correlated with clinical outcomes. The majority of clinically diagnosed mycoplasma pneumonia was unconfirmed. Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM has poor sensitivity and a positive predictive value. Interpretation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM should be done with caution. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Risk factors for intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify risk factors for infection with the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli and swine-pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups O138, O139, O141...

  14. A review of the occurrence of hemoplasmas (hemotrophic mycoplasmas in Brazil Uma revisão da ocorrência dos hemoplasmas (micoplasmas hemotróficos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Welker Biondo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have been conducted in Brazil using molecular techniques for the detection of hemotrophic mycoplasmas in several mammals. In domestic cats, Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus M. haemominutum', and 'Candidatus M. turicensis' infections have been identified. These species have also been found in free-ranging and captive neotropical felid species. Two canine hemoplasmas, Mycoplasma haemocanis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum', have been identified in dogs. In commercial swine populations, Mycoplasma suis was found to be highly prevalent, especially in sows. Moreover, novel mycoplasma species have been identified in Brazilian commercial pigs and domestic dogs. A hemoplasma infection in a human patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV was also recently documented. In conclusion, hemoplasma species are common and important infectious agents in Brazil. Further studies should be conducted to better understand their impact on pets, production animals, and wildlife fauna, as well as their role as zoonotic agents, particularly in immunocompromised patients.Estudos recentes utilizando técnicas moleculares para a detecção de micoplasmas hemotróficos em diferentes mamíferos têm sido conduzidos no Brasil. Em gatos domésticos, infecções por Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' e 'Candidatus M. turicensis' foram identificadas. Estas espécies também foram encontradas em felídeos neotropicais de vida livre e de cativeiro. Dois hemoplasmas caninos, Mycoplasma haemocanis e 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum', foram identificados em cães domésticos. Em populações comerciais de suínos, Mycoplasma suis possui alta prevalência, especialmente em porcas. Além disso, novas espécies de hemoplasmas foram detectadas em suínos comercias e cães. Infecção por um hemoplasma em um paciente humano infectado com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV foi recentemente documentada. Em conclusão, esp

  15. Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae in clinical samples by VlhA-PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ansari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As one of the major pathogens of avian species, Mycoplasma Synoviae causes significant economic losses to the poultry industry. The main purpose of this study was to detect Mycoplasma Synoviae in clinical samples using the VlhA-PCR method. For serological screening test, 373 serum samples were collected from 25 breeder farms and rapid serum agglutination test conducted which revealed that 143 samples equivalent to 19 breeder farms were positive. For VlhA-PCR assay, 20 of the previously mentioned breeder farms were selected and sterile swab were collected from the palatine cleft, trachea, air sacs and lungs. Three swabs from 3 birds were placed in a test tube containing 1 ml of PBS and transferred to the laboratory for PCR test. Specific primers for VIhA gene were employed in this study. The PCR product from specific primers showed 350-400 bp for all field isolated on electrophoresis gel in 8 farms. VlhA-PCR with high sensitivity could be employed in definitive diagnosis of Mycoplasma Synoviae infection in the laboratory.

  16. [First detection of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" in South American Camelids of Switzerland and evaluation of prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Christine; Meli, Marina L; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Zanolari, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Haemotrophic mycoplasmas (also known as haemoplasmas), small bacterias which parasite the surface of erythrocytes, have been described in several species. Recently, molecular methods were developed for the diagnosis of haemoplasma infection. The presented study describes the first detection and the investigation of prevalence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" in South American Camelids in Switzerland. A random sample of the latter population was tested for haemoplasma infections using real-time PCR. The infection was detected in 18.6% of the animals and was found both in indigenous and in imported camelids. Of the tested herds 39,1% harboured at least one animal positive for haemoplasmas in PCR. There was no difference in prevalence between male and female animals and llamas and alpacas, respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of infection was not significantly different in diseased animals compared to healthy camelids. From the latter observation and the fact that the high prevalence was accompanied by an undetectable incidence, we concluded that the pathogenicity of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" may be low.

  17. Molecular Variability of the Adhesin-Encoding Gene pvpA among Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strains and Its Application in Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, T.; García, M.; Levisohn, S.; Yogev, D.; Kleven, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important pathogen of chickens and turkeys that causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The reemergence of M. gallisepticum outbreaks among poultry, the increased use of live M. gallisepticum vaccines, and the detection of M. gallisepticum in game and free-flying song birds has strengthened the need for molecular diagnostic and strain differentiation tests. Molecular techniques, including restriction fragment length polymorphism of...

  18. Atrophic Rhinitis of Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter for the 8th edition of the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals describes the current state of knowledge regarding progressive atrophic rhinitis of swine. Topics covered include clinical signs and lesions, characteristics and methods of detection for...

  19. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  20. Soropositividade para Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae em suínos abatidos em frigoríficos da região central do estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Vicente

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs and causes large economic losses in the swine industry. There is little data on the positivity of this disease in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the seropositivity for this agent in 200 serum samples collected from pigs in a slaughterhouse located in the central region of São Paulo. A high percentage (52% of positivity was found indicating the presence of the agent and the need to implement control measures.

  1. Prevalence of Urogenital Mycoplasmas in Iran and Their Effects on Fertility Potential: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    AHMADI, Mohammad Hossein; MIRSALEHIAN, Akbar; BAHADOR, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urogenital mycoplasmas are potentially pathogenic species causing genitourinary tract infections that may be initially asymptomatic but can progress and lead to severe complications and threaten reproductive health. However, the overall prevalence rate of this bacterium and its probable impacts on fertility potential have yet to be determined. Methods: We searched both English and Persian electronic databases using key words such as “Mycoplasma,” “Ureaplasma,” “M. hominis,” “M. genitalium,” “U. urealyticum,” “U. parvum,” “prevalence,” and “Iran”. Finally, after some exclusion, 29 studies from different regions of Iran were included in our study, and a meta-analysis was performed on collected data. Results: Urogenital mycoplasmas prevalence for women and men was high and ranged from 2%–40.5% and 2%–44.3%, respectively. The pooled prevalence in the male population was 11.1% (95% CI, 7.4%–16.4%) and in female was 12.8% (95% CI, 9.8%–16.5%). The prevalence of these bacteria was significantly higher in infertile men compared with that in fertile men. A high level of heterogeneity was observed for both men (I2 = 92.4%; Purogenital mycoplasmas may play a role in male infertility, screening strategies, particularly for asymptomatic individuals, and treatment of infected ones, which can reduce consequent complications, looks to be necessary. PMID:27252910

  2. A simple method to eliminate mycoplasma from cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronato, S; Vullo, D; Coto, C E

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of several antibiotic treatments to eliminate mycoplasma from Vero cells contaminated chronically with Mycoplasma orale II were tested. Minocyclin, Kanamycin, Tylosine and Roxitromycin, at non cytotoxic concentrations, were assayed alone or in different combinations. Mycoplasma contamination was effectively eradicated without recurrence once the following regimen was applied: Incubation of contaminated cells with Tylosine (250 micrograms/ml) for 12 days followed by incubation with Minocycline (5 micrograms/ml) for 10 days. This treatment was not deleterious for cell growth, it was effective after only one application and it was successful to eradicate mycoplasma from other contaminated eukaryotic continuous cell lines.

  3. Pelvic abscess due to Mycoplasma hominis following caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Nobuaki; Takigawa, Aya; Kagawa, Narito; Kenri, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Shinji; Shibayama, Keigo; Aoki, Yasuko

    2016-08-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is associated with genito-urinary tract infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, whether the species is a true pathogen or part of the genito-urinary tracts natural flora remains unclear. A 41-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to our hospital at 38 weeks and 5 days of gestation owing to premature rupture of the membranes. The patient delivered by caesarean section. Subsequently, the patient complained of lower abdominal pain and had persistent fever. Enhanced computed tomography revealed pelvic abscesses. Gram staining of pus from the abscess and vaginal secretions indicated presence of polymorphonuclear leucocytes but no pathogens. Cultures on blood agar showed growth of pinpoint-sized colonies in an anaerobic environment within 48 h. Although administration of carbapenem and metronidazole was ineffective and we could not fully drain the abscess, administration of clindamycin led to clinical improvement. The isolates 16S rRNA gene and yidC gene sequences exhibited identity with those of M. hominis. Physicians should consider M. hominis in cases of pelvic abscesses where Gram staining yields negative results, small colonies are isolated from the abscess and treatment with β-lactam antibiotics is ineffective.

  4. Emergence of atypical Mycoplasma agalactiae strains harboring a new prophage and associated with an alpine wild ungulate mortality episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Florence; Baranowski, Eric; Nouvel, Laurent-Xavier; Mick, Virginie; Manso-Silvàn, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Thébault, Patricia; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Garnier, Alexandre; Gibert, Philippe; Game, Yvette; Poumarat, François; Citti, Christine

    2012-07-01

    The bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae is responsible for contagious agalactia (CA) in small domestic ruminants, a syndrome listed by the World Organization for Animal Health and responsible for severe damage to the dairy industry. Recently, we frequently isolated this pathogen from lung lesions of ibexes during a mortality episode in the French Alps. This situation was unusual in terms of host specificity and tissue tropism, raising the question of M. agalactiae emergence in wildlife. To address this issue, the ibex isolates were characterized using a combination of approaches that included antigenic profiles, molecular typing, optical mapping, and whole-genome sequencing. Genome analyses showed the presence of a new, large prophage containing 35 coding sequences (CDS) that was detected in most but not all ibex strains and has a homolog in Mycoplasma conjunctivae, a species causing keratoconjunctivitis in wild ungulates. This and the presence in all strains of large integrated conjugative elements suggested highly dynamic genomes. Nevertheless, M. agalactiae strains circulating in the ibex population were shown to be highly related, most likely originating from a single parental clone that has also spread to another wild ungulate species of the same geographical area, the chamois. These strains clearly differ from strains described in Europe so far, including those found nearby, before CA eradication a few years ago. While M. agalactiae pathogenicity in ibexes remains unclear, our data showed the emergence of atypical strains in Alpine wild ungulates, raising the question of a role for the wild fauna as a potential reservoir of pathogenic mycoplasmas.

  5. Identification of Bacterial and Viral Codetections With Mycoplasma pneumoniae Using the TaqMan Array Card in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Maureen H; Cross, Kristen E; Benitez, Alvaro J; Hicks, Lauri A; Kutty, Preeta; Bramley, Anna M; Chappell, James D; Hymas, Weston; Patel, Anami; Qi, Chao; Williams, Derek J; Arnold, Sandra R; Ampofo, Krow; Self, Wesley H; Grijalva, Carlos G; Anderson, Evan J; McCullers, Jonathan A; Pavia, Andrew T; Wunderink, Richard G; Edwards, Kathryn M; Jain, Seema; Winchell, Jonas M

    2016-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected in a number of patients with community-acquired pneumonia in a recent prospective study. To assess whether other pathogens were also detected in these patients, TaqMan Array Cards were used to test 216 M pneumoniae-positive respiratory specimens for 25 additional viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens. It is interesting to note that 1 or more codetections, predominantly bacterial, were identified in approximately 60% of specimens, with codetections being more common in children.

  6. Adaptation of Mycoplasmas to Fluoroquinolones: Modulation of Proteome and Genotoxicity of Extracellular Vesicles of Acholeplasma laidlawii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Medvedeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the comparative analysis of proteomic profiles and genotoxicity of extracellular vesicles produced by cells that differ in sensitivity to ciprofloxacin of Acholeplasma laidlawii strains – the mycoplasma, being a causative agent of mycoplasmoses of plants and animals, as well as the main contaminant of cell cultures. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that extracellular vesicles – nanostructures surrounded by a membrane mediating intercellular communication and pathogenesis in bacteria are involved in adaptation of A. laidlawii to antimicrobials and present a new type of infects, the study of which is associated with the prospects of determining the mechanisms of host-parasite systems and solution of problems of pathogen control. The present study has been performed with a view of elucidation of the proteome profile features and assessment of the genotoxicity of extracellular vesicles of A. laidlawii in the development of resistance of the mycoplasma to ciprofloxacin – a drug of fluoroquinolone group which is widely used for inhibiting mycoplasmas. To achieve this goal, we have used the standard microbiological methods, as well as the modern physical and chemical methods, including proteomic profiling with help of 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, PCR, automatic scanning, and karyotyping system for assessment of the genotoxicity of vesicles. It has been shown that a significant part of vesicular proteome of A. laidlawii strains with differential sensitivity to ciprofloxacin represents the bacterial virulence factors, as well as that the vesicles of all strains exhibit genotoxicity to lymphocytes of human peripheral blood in vitro. The most important of these results is the fact that the development of resistance of A. laidlawii to ciprofloxacin is accompanied by a significant modulation of vesicular proteome and the increase of mitotoxicity to eukaryotic cells. The obtained data are essential for fundamental

  7. Update on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs: Knowledge gaps for improved disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, D; Sibila, M; Kuhnert, P; Segalés, J; Haesebrouck, F; Pieters, M

    2017-08-23

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease in pigs. Infections occur worldwide and cause major economic losses to the pig industry. The present paper reviews the current knowledge on M. hyopneumoniae infections, with emphasis on identification and analysis of knowledge gaps for optimizing control of the disease. Close contact between infected and susceptible pigs is the main route of M. hyopneumoniae transmission. Management and housing conditions predisposing for infection or disease are known, but further research is needed to better understand M. hyopneumoniae transmission patterns in modern pig production systems, and to assess the importance of the breeding population for downstream disease control. The organism is primarily found on the mucosal surface of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. Different adhesins and lipoproteins are involved in the adherence process. However, a clear picture of the virulence and pathogenicity of M. hyopneumoniae is still missing. The role of glycerol metabolism, myoinositol metabolism and the Mycoplasma Ig binding protein-Mycoplasma Ig protease system should be further investigated for their contribution to virulence. The destruction of the mucociliary apparatus, together with modulating the immune response, enhances the susceptibility of infected pigs to secondary pathogens. Clinical signs and severity of lesions depend on different factors, such as management, environmental conditions and likely also M. hyopneumoniae strain. The potential impact of strain variability on disease severity is not well defined. Diagnostics could be improved by developing tests that may detect virulent strains, by improving sampling in live animals and by designing ELISAs allowing discrimination between infected and vaccinated pigs. The currently available vaccines are often cost-efficient, but the ongoing research on developing new vaccines that confer protective

  8. Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Selçuk Bektaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system is the most affected area in mycoplasma pneumoniae infections with exception of respiratory system. It is an important agent of childhood acute encephalitis and respiratory system infections in school-age children and young adults. Routine clinical and laboratory findings to identify spesific diagnosis is limited. Twelve-year-old female patient was admitted with fever, fatigue, sore throat, slipping the right eye, withdrawal of the mouth from the right and right hemiclonic seizures. Test of anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae IgM was positive and IgG antibodies were found to be 4-fold increase in the sera of follow-up. This article was presented with the aim of remembering M. pneumoniae to be an differential diagnosis in children with acute encephalitis.

  9. Genes involved in cell division in mycoplasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón, Frank; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de; Yim, Lucia; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial cell division has been studied mainly in model systems such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, where it is described as a complex process with the participation of a group of proteins which assemble into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring. Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria presenting a reduced genome. Thus, it was important to compare their genomes to analyze putative genes involved in cell division processes. The division and cell wall (dcw) cluster, which ...

  10. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Maria Rathmann

    2014-01-01

    of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly...... occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular...

  11. Atypical bacterial pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia in children: a hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Jyotsna; Awasthi, Shally; Rajput, Anuradha; Tiwari, Manoj; Jain, Amita

    2009-04-01

    A total of 243 children aged one month to five years with World Health Organization defined severe community acquired pneumonia were studied for the presence of atypical bacterial pathogens: 24 were found positive for mycoplasma infection. There was no significant association with any of the clinical, laboratory and radiological variables in children with pneumonia by the atypical pathogen.

  12. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  13. Structure-function features of a Mycoplasma glycolipid synthase derived from structural data integration, molecular simulations, and mutational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, Javier; Francisco, Carles; Biarnés, Xevi; Planas, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Glycoglycerolipids are structural components of mycoplasma membranes with a fundamental role in membrane properties and stability. Their biosynthesis is mediated by glycosyltransferases (GT) that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl units from a sugar nucleotide donor to diacylglycerol. The essential function of glycolipid synthases in mycoplasma viability, and the absence of glycoglycerolipids in animal host cells make these GT enzymes a target for drug discovery by designing specific inhibitors. However, rational drug design has been hampered by the lack of structural information for any mycoplasma GT. Most of the annotated GTs in pathogenic mycoplasmas belong to family GT2. We had previously shown that MG517 in Mycoplasma genitalium is a GT-A family GT2 membrane-associated glycolipid synthase. We present here a series of structural models of MG517 obtained by homology modeling following a multiple-template approach. The models have been validated by mutational analysis and refined by long scale molecular dynamics simulations. Based on the models, key structure-function relationships have been identified: The N-terminal GT domain has a GT-A topology that includes a non-conserved variable region involved in acceptor substrate binding. Glu193 is proposed as the catalytic base in the GT mechanism, and Asp40, Tyr126, Tyr169, Ile170 and Tyr218 define the substrates binding site. Mutation Y169F increases the enzyme activity and significantly alters the processivity (or sequential transferase activity) of the enzyme. This is the first structural model of a GT-A glycoglycerolipid synthase and provides preliminary insights into structure and function relationships in this family of enzymes.

  14. Analysis of the mycoplasma genome by recombinant DNA technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, C; Frydenberg, J; Christiansen, Gunna

    1984-01-01

    A library of DNA fragments from Mycoplasma sp. strain PG50 has been made in the vector pBR325. Analysis in Escherichia coli minicells of randomly picked clones from this library demonstrated that many plasmids can promote synthesis of mycoplasma protein in the E. coli genetic background. Screenin...

  15. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens...

  16. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ion concentration shall be determined with a pH meter which has been standardized with a pH buffer just prior to use. The pH of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Antigen shall be 6.0±0.2. The pH of Mycoplasma...

  17. Genital Mycoplasma Infections Among Women In An Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    those who presented with vaginal discharge were infected with Mycoplasma spp. (P< 0.05); also, the incidence of infection among the separated/divorce/widowed group was significantly higher than the married group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Mycoplasmas are common genital organisms, hence should be sought out for from ...

  18. Sensitive and rapid detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... The LAMP assay was able to detect MCCP in tissue. Key words: Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, rapid detection. INTRODUCTION. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a severe infectious disease of goats caused by Mycoplasma.

  19. Mycoplasma genitalium in male urethritis: diagnosis and treatment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi

    2013-07-01

    Male urethritis is a common disease for urologists, with the most common pathogens being, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. When the tests fail to detect these pathogens, the presented urethritis is called non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis. Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the pathogens for non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis. The test for detecting M. genitalium, which is commercially available in Japan, is not accepted by the Japanese insurance system now. The detection rate of M. genitalium from patients with non-gonococcal urethritis is 10-20% in Japan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for M. genitalium showed that macrolide has the strongest activity and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of tetracyclines were not substantially lower. Some kinds of fluoroquinolones, such as sitafloxacin and moxifloxacin, have stronger activities against M. genitalium. For non-gonococcal urethritis, macrolides and tetracycline are recommended in some guidelines. In clinical studies, tetracyclines are less effective against M. genitalium than azithromycin, and azithromycin regimens including 1 g stat or 2 g stat are now recommended for urethritis with M. genitalium. However, macrolide-resistant M. genitalium strains have recently emerged and are spreading worldwide. This macrolide-resistance is closely related to mutations on the 23S rRNA gene. Sitafloxacin and moxifloxacin have shown good efficacies for M. genitalium in some clinical studies. If the azithromycin regimens fail, we must consider the use of fluoroquinolones, such as sitafloxacin, in Japan. The most important issues include the acceptance of M. genitalium examinations by the national insurance system and the individual treatment of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium in the not-too-distant future. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Interspecies interactions and potential Influenza A virus risk in small swine farms in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCune Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent avian influenza epidemic in Asia and the H1N1 pandemic demonstrated that influenza A viruses pose a threat to global public health. The animal origins of the viruses confirmed the potential for interspecies transmission. Swine are hypothesized to be prime "mixing vessels" due to the dual receptivity of their trachea to human and avian strains. Additionally, avian and human influenza viruses have previously been isolated in swine. Therefore, understanding interspecies contact on smallholder swine farms and its potential role in the transmission of pathogens such as influenza virus is very important. Methods This qualitative study aimed to determine swine-associated interspecies contacts in two coastal areas of Peru. Direct observations were conducted at both small-scale confined and low-investment swine farms (n = 36 and in open areas where swine freely range during the day (n = 4. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders in swine farming. Results In both locations, the intermingling of swine and domestic birds was common. An unexpected contact with avian species was that swine were fed poultry mortality in 6/20 of the farms in Chancay. Human-swine contacts were common, with a higher frequency on the confined farms. Mixed farming of swine with chickens or ducks was observed in 36% of all farms. Human-avian interactions were less frequent overall. Use of adequate biosecurity and hygiene practices by farmers was suboptimal at both locations. Conclusions Close human-animal interaction, frequent interspecies contacts and suboptimal biosecurity and hygiene practices pose significant risks of interspecies influenza virus transmission. Farmers in small-scale swine production systems constitute a high-risk population and need to be recognized as key in preventing interspecies pathogen transfer. A two-pronged prevention approach, which offers educational activities for swine farmers about sound hygiene and

  1. Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes and Genital Mycoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kacerovský

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cervical colonization by genital mycoplasmas in patients with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM. Method: We studied 225 women between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation with PPROM. Cervical swabs were obtained for genital mycoplasmas and standard vaginal smears of bacterial culture were performed at the time of patients’ admission. In the control group were 225 women with a normal pregnancy. Results: Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 68 % (152/225 and Mycoplasma hominis was detected in 28 % (63/225 of the patients with PPROM between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation and. In the control group Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 17 % (38/225 and Mycoplasma hominis in 15 % (35/225 pregnant women. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of an association between cervical colonization with genital mycoplasmas and preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

  2. Treatment and control of mycoplasma contamination in Plasmodium falciparum culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shubhra; Puri, S K; Srivastava, Kumkum

    2008-12-01

    A comparative efficacy of four antibiotics, plasmocin (macrolid), Biomyc-1, -2, (tetracycline), and Biomyc-3, and Mycoplasma Removing Agent (quinolone derivatives) was determined for elimination of mycoplasma from Plasmodium falciparum culture. Presence of mycoplasma was detected using enzyme-PCR-based mycoplasma detection kit and survival of malaria parasite was determined in Giemsa's stained smear made from treated and untreated cultures. It was observed that a combination of Biomyc-1 and -2 killed malaria parasites within 24 h, whereas plasmocin and Biomyc-3 caused slow death of malaria parasite stretched over a period of 6 days. The only compound which did not kill malaria parasite and eradicated mycoplasma from P. falciparum culture was observed to be MRA.

  3. Mycoplasma removal: simple curative methods for viral supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronti, C; Pastorino, B; Charrel, R; de Lamballerie, X

    2013-02-01

    As a partner of the European Virus Archive (EVA) FP7 infrastructure, our research group is maintaining and developing a large virus collection. To meet the standards of the quality management system adopted by all European Virus Archive partners, the detection and eradication of mycoplasma in cell culture supernatants (stored at -80°C or freeze-dried) has to be improved. Although the methods for mycoplasma elimination from infected cell lines were largely described, the decontamination procedures of precious cell culture supernatants was poorly documented. In this study, a large panel of mycoplasma-contaminated virus stocks (enveloped and non enveloped, RNA and DNA viruses) was tested successfully for mycoplasma removal using two simple optimized methods. These easy-to-perform protocols, using respectively Plasmocin™ (InvivoGen, Cayla, France) and chloroform, were shown to remove mycoplasma completely from cell supernatant without incidence in viral infectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Tiamulin in an Experimental Intratracheal Infection Model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic Mycoplasma species. Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against M. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. However, the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD profiles of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum are not well understood. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo PK/PD profiles of tiamulin using a well-established experimental intratracheal infection model of M. gallisepticum. The efficacy of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum was studied in 8-day-old chickens after intramuscular (i.m. administration at 10 doses between 0-80 mg/kg. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used to evaluate the PK parameters of tiamulin following i.m. administration at doses of 5, 40 and 80 mg/kg in Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected neutropenic chickens. Real time PCR (RT-PCR was used for quantitative detection of M. gallisepticum. The MIC of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum strain S6 was 0.03 μg/mL. The PK/PD index, AUC24h/MIC, correlated well with the in vivo antibacterial efficacy. The in vivo data suggest that animal dosage regimens should supply AUC24h/MIC of tiamulin of 382.68 h for 2 log10 ccu equivalents M. gallisepticum reduction. To attain that goal, the administered dose is expected to be 45 mg/kg b.w. for treatment of M. gallisepticum infection with an MIC90 of 0.03 μg/mL.

  5. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  6. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Cause of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Haggerty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted pathogen that is increasingly identified among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID. Although Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae frequently cause PID, up to 70% of cases have an unidentified etiology. This paper summarizes evidence linking M. genitalium to PID and its long-term reproductive sequelae. Several PCR studies have demonstrated that M. genitalium is associated with PID, independent of gonococcal and chlamydial infection. Most have been cross-sectional, although one prospective investigation suggested that M. genitalium was associated with over a thirteenfold risk of endometritis. Further, a nested case-control posttermination study demonstrated a sixfold increased risk of PID among M. genitalium positive patients. Whether or not M. genitalium upper genital tract infection results in long-term reproductive morbidity is unclear, although tubal factor infertility patients have been found to have elevated M. genitalium antibodies. Several lines of evidence suggest that M. genitalium is likely resistant to many frequently used PID treatment regimens. Correspondingly, M. genitalium has been associated with treatment failure following cefoxitin and doxycycline treatment for clinically suspected PID. Collectively, strong evidence suggests that M. genitalium is associated with PID. Further study of M. genitalium upper genital tract infection diagnosis, treatment and long-term sequelae is warranted.

  7. Interaction between single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines on dually infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Jin; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and/or porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination on dually infected pigs. In total, 72 pigs were randomly divided into nine groups (eight pigs per group), as follows: five vaccinated and challenged groups, three non-vaccinated and challenged groups, and a negative control group. Single-dose vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone decreased the levels of PRRSV viremia and PRRSV-induced pulmonary lesions, whereas single-dose vaccination against PRRSV alone did not decrease nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and mycoplasma-induced pulmonary lesions in the dually infected pigs. The M. hyopneumoniae challenge impaired the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the PRRSV vaccine, whereas the PRRSV challenge did not impair the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study provides swine practitioners and producers with efficient vaccination regimes; vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae is the first step in protecting pigs against co-infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in genital samples collected over 6 years at a Serbian university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Skiljevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are implicated in a wide array of infectious diseases in adults and children. Since some species have innate or acquired resistance to certain types of antibiotics, antibiotic susceptibility testing of mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract assumes increasing importance. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in genital samples collected between 2007 and 2012. Methods: Three hundred and seventy three patients presenting with symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases, infertility or risky sexual behaviour, who had not taken antibiotics in the previous 6 weeks and had ≥10 WBC per high power field on genital smears were studied. Urethral samples were taken in men and endocervical samples in women. The mycoplasma IST-2 kit was used for organism identification and for testing susceptibility to doxycycline, josamycin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and pristinamycin. Results: U. urealyticum was isolated from 42 patients and M. hominis from 11 patients. From 9.8% of isolates, both organisms were grown. All M. hominis isolates were resistant to tetracycline, clarithromycin and erythromycin while U. urealyticum was highly resistant to clarithromycin (94.6%, tetracycline (86.5%, ciprofloxacin (83.8% and erythromycin (83.8%. M. hominis was sensitive to doxycycline (83.3% and ofloxacin (66.7% while most U. urealyticum strains were sensitive to doxycycline (94.6%. Limitations: Inability of the commercial kit used in the study to detect other potentially pathogenic urogenital mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma genitalium. Conclusion: There is significant resistance of U. urealyticum and M. hominis to tetracycline and macrolides. The most active tetracycline for genital mycoplasmas was found to be doxycycline, which continues to be the drug of first choice.

  9. Ny Mycoplasma Hyosynoviae vaccine forebygger ikke halthed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Jungersen, Gregers

    Vaccination af smågrise mod Mykoplasma-ledbetændelser viste sig ikke at kunne forebyggede halthed hos slagtesvin. Smitte med Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (M. hyosynoviae) er ofte årsag til ledbetændelse hos slagtesvin. Der er ingen kommerciel vaccine til grise, der beskytter mod mykoplasma......-ledbetændelse. I et forskningsprojekt har forskere på Danmarks Tekniske Universitet udviklet en vaccine mod M. hyosynoviae. Vaccinen indeholder et hjælpestof, der er udviklet af Statens Seruminstitut. Den nye vaccine er testet i en slagtesvinebesætning. I alt 399 smågrise blev vaccineret med enten vaccine eller...

  10. Enumeration of mycoplasmas after acridine orange staining.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosendal, S; Valdivieso-Garcia, A

    1981-01-01

    Samples of liquid mycoplasma cultures were mixed with equal part of a 0.01% solution of acridine orange and placed on agar plates. The number of fluorescing organisms per field was counted in an epifluorescence microscope at an X 1,000 magnification. When the number of fluorescing organisms per field was related to the number of colony-forming units per milliliter during the growth cycle, highly significant correlation was found in cultures with greater than or equal to 10(6) colony-forming u...

  11. Experimental evidence for transmission of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in house finches by fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, André A; Dhondt, Keila V; Hawley, Dana M; Jennelle, Christopher S

    2007-06-01

    Ever since Mycoplasma gallisepticum emerged among house finches in North America, it has been suggested that bird aggregations at feeders are an important cause of the epidemic of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis because diseased birds could deposit droplets of pathogen onto the feeders and thereby promote indirect transmission by fomites. In this paper we bring the first experimental evidence that such transmission (bird-to-feeder-to-bird) does actually take place. House finches infected via this route, however, developed only mild disease and recovered much more rapidly than birds infected from the same source birds but directly into the conjunctiva. While it is certainly probable that house finch aggregations at artificial feeders enhance pathogen transmission, to some degree transmission of M. gallisepticum by fomites may serve to immunize birds against developing more severe infections. Some such birds develop M. gallisepticum antibodies, providing indication of an immune response, although no direct evidence of protection.

  12. The role of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine respiratory disease outbreaks in veal calf feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangioli, Marie-Anne; Duet, Arnaud; Meyer, Gilles; Dernburg, Ann; Bézille, Pierre; Poumarat, François; Le Grand, Dominique

    2008-07-01

    To assess the prevalence and relative importance of Mycoplasma bovis among the pathological agents implicated in bovine respiratory disease (BRD), we surveyed 135 veal calves from nine feedlots in eastern France during naturally occurring outbreaks of respiratory disease. Occurrence of respiratory pathogens, M. bovis, bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus, bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus and parainfluenza-3 (PI3) virus was investigated by seroconversion and isolation of bacteria and viruses from broncho-alveolar fluids. M. bovis and pathogenic respiratory bacteria were isolated in eight of the nine feedlots, and from 106 and 32, respectively, of the 135 tested animals. Seroconversion to PI3 virus occurred in four lots. BVD and BRS viruses were detected in eight and one lot, respectively. M. bovis was the most frequently isolated aetiologic agent in these BRD outbreaks, spreading early and widely throughout the affected units (60-100% rate of isolation and seroconversion). These results stress the importance of M. bovis in the BRD complex.

  13. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-like Mycoplasma on the infection of HEp-2 cells by the TW-183 strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E A; Wadowsky, R M

    2000-02-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  14. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-Like Mycoplasma on the Infection of HEp-2 Cells by the TW-183 Strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, Elias A.; Wadowsky, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  15. Polymerase Discordance in Novel Swine Influenza H3N2v Constellations Is Tolerated in Swine but Not Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Nagy, Tamas; Gabbard, Jon; Lee, Christopher; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA) segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA) showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection. PMID:25330303

  16. Polymerase discordance in novel swine influenza H3N2v constellations is tolerated in swine but not human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Powell

    Full Text Available Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.

  17. Computed tomographic study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Koba, Hiroyuki; Mori, Takuji; Mori, Masaki; Tsunematsu, Kazunori; Natori, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Akira; Doi, Mikio.

    1985-01-01

    Serologically proven 21 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia that showed infiltrative shadows on chest radiograms were studied by computed tomography (CT). Localization of the lesion and the fashion of its progression through the lung were analyzed. Following 3 loci were defined on the basis of the investigations of critical analysis of the chest radiograms, and of radiopathological analysis of the experimental animal model of mycoplasmal pneumonia with soft X-ray image. I: Peribronchial and periarterial interstitium. II: Bronchiole and its surroundings. III: Lung parenchyma, on hilar area as IIIh, on marginal area as IIIm. Even in the early phase of this disease, radiopathological findings on CT have been distributed in all loci mentioned above. The Shadow disappeared from locus III approximately 14th day from the onset. The shadow have remained, however, loci I, II for a long period. Those findings suggest that locus I and II are one of the major focus of Mycoplasma neumoniae pneumonia. Volume loss in the locus III was observed 78 % of the cases at 28th day from the onset. The shadow on locus IIIh was more prominent than locus IIIm. Reported analytical method with CT could be widely applied to disclose a radiopathological details in other infectious diseases of the lung. (author)

  18. Comparative virulence of wild-type H1N1pdm09 influenza A isolates in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningson, Jamie N; Rajao, Daniela S; Kitikoon, Pravina; Lorusso, Alessio; Culhane, Marie R; Lewis, Nicola S; Anderson, Tavis K; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-03-23

    In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) influenza A virus (IAV) reached pandemic status and was soon after detected in pigs worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether differences in the HA protein can affect pathogenicity and antigenicity of H1N1pdm09 in swine. We compared lung pathology, viral replication and shedding and the antigenic relationships of four wild-type H1N1pdm09 viruses in pigs: one human (CA/09) and three isolated in swine after the pandemic (IL/09, IL/10, and MN/10). The swine strains were selected based upon unique amino acid substitutions in the HA protein. All selected viruses resulted in mild disease and viral shedding through nasal and oral fluids, however, viral replication and the degree of pathology varied between the isolates. A/Swine/IL/5265/2010 (IL/10), with substitutions I120M, S146G, S186P, V252M, had lower viral titers in the lungs and nasal secretions and fewer lung lesions. The other two swine viruses caused respiratory pathology and replicated to titers similar to the human CA/09, although MN/10 (with mutations D45Y, K304E, A425S) had lower nasal shedding. Swine-adapted H1N1pdm09 have zoonotic potential, and have reassorted with other co-circulating swine viruses, influencing the evolution of IAV in swine globally. Further, our results suggest that amino acid changes in the HA gene have the potential to alter the virulence of H1N1pdm09 in swine. Importantly, the limited clinical signs in pigs could result in continued circulation of these viruses with other endemic swine IAVs providing opportunities for reassortment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Antibody repertoire development in swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Sun, J.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, - (2006), s. 199-221 ISSN 0145-305X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : swine * b cells * immunoglobulins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.399, year: 2006

  20. Detecting asymptomatic rams infected with Mycoplasma agalactiae in ovine artificial insemination centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; Tatay-Dualde, Juan; de la Fe, Christian; Paterna, Ana; Sánchez, Antonio; Corrales, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Antonio; Gómez-Martín, Ángel

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is the main causative agent of ovine contagious agalactia, which is a serious disease of small ruminants. In endemic areas, its most common clinical situation consists of chronically infected herds, and asymptomatic infected individuals represent an epidemiological risk regarding the transmission of this disease. The aim of this work was to detect the presence of asymptomatic rams infected with Ma in different artificial insemination centers, and to determine the most effective way to identify these individuals so as to implement adequate surveillance protocols. For this purpose, 215 rams and 14 teaser sheep were sampled taking auricular, nasal, and vaginal swabs and serum samples. In addition, ejaculates from 147 rams were analyzed. These samples were subjected to specific culture and molecular techniques to isolate and identify mycoplasmas, and to a serological test to detect antibodies against Ma. Mycoplasma agalactiae was detected in 47 (4.4%) of the 1077 samples analyzed, and also one individual resulted seropositive. Thus, 37 (17.2%) of the 215 studied rams were infected with Ma. The specimens which proportionally yielded the greatest number of positive results for this pathogen were semen samples (13.6%), followed by nasal swabs (5.8%). In contrast, the sampling of the external auricular canal and the serological analyses resulted insufficient to effectively detect infected individuals. Asymptomatic rams infected with Ma were detected in all the analyzed artificial insemination centers, highlighting the need to implement adequate surveillance protocols to prevent the presence of these individuals in these centers, reducing the risk of transmitting contagious agalactia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term dynamics of Mycoplasma conjunctivae at the wildlife-livestock interface in the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Cabezón, Oscar; Frey, Joachim; Velarde, Roser; Serrano, Emmanuel; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Gelormini, Giuseppina; Marco, Ignasi; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Lavín, Santiago; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2017-01-01

    Functional roles of domestic and wild host populations in infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) epidemiology have been extensively discussed claiming a domestic reservoir for the more susceptible wild hosts, however, based on limited data. With the aim to better assess IKC epidemiology in complex host-pathogen alpine systems, the long-term infectious dynamics and molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma conjunctivae was investigated in all host populations from six study areas in the Pyrenees and one in the Cantabrian Mountains (Northern Spain). Detection of M. conjunctivae was performed by qPCR on 3600 eye swabs collected during seven years from hunted wild ungulates and sympatric domestic sheep (n = 1800 animals), and cluster analyses of the strains were performed including previous reported local strains. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was consistently detected in three Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) populations, as well as in sheep flocks (17.0% of sheep) and occasionally in mouflon (Ovis aries musimon) from the Pyrenees (22.2% in one year/area); statistically associated with ocular clinical signs only in chamois. Chamois populations showed different infection dynamics with low but steady prevalence (4.9%) and significant yearly fluctuations (0.0%- 40.0%). Persistence of specific M. conjunctivae strain clusters in wild host populations is demonstrated for six and nine years. Cross-species transmission between chamois and sheep and chamois and mouflon were also sporadically evidenced. Overall, independent M. conjunctivae sylvatic and domestic cycles occurred at the wildlife-livestock interface in the alpine ecosystems from the Pyrenees with sheep and chamois as the key host species for each cycle, and mouflon as a spill-over host. Host population characteristics and M. conjunctivae strains resulted in different epidemiological scenarios in chamois, ranging from the fading out of the mycoplasma to the epidemic and endemic long-term persistence. These findings

  2. Long-term dynamics of Mycoplasma conjunctivae at the wildlife-livestock interface in the Pyrenees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Fernández-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Functional roles of domestic and wild host populations in infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC epidemiology have been extensively discussed claiming a domestic reservoir for the more susceptible wild hosts, however, based on limited data. With the aim to better assess IKC epidemiology in complex host-pathogen alpine systems, the long-term infectious dynamics and molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma conjunctivae was investigated in all host populations from six study areas in the Pyrenees and one in the Cantabrian Mountains (Northern Spain. Detection of M. conjunctivae was performed by qPCR on 3600 eye swabs collected during seven years from hunted wild ungulates and sympatric domestic sheep (n = 1800 animals, and cluster analyses of the strains were performed including previous reported local strains. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was consistently detected in three Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica populations, as well as in sheep flocks (17.0% of sheep and occasionally in mouflon (Ovis aries musimon from the Pyrenees (22.2% in one year/area; statistically associated with ocular clinical signs only in chamois. Chamois populations showed different infection dynamics with low but steady prevalence (4.9% and significant yearly fluctuations (0.0%- 40.0%. Persistence of specific M. conjunctivae strain clusters in wild host populations is demonstrated for six and nine years. Cross-species transmission between chamois and sheep and chamois and mouflon were also sporadically evidenced. Overall, independent M. conjunctivae sylvatic and domestic cycles occurred at the wildlife-livestock interface in the alpine ecosystems from the Pyrenees with sheep and chamois as the key host species for each cycle, and mouflon as a spill-over host. Host population characteristics and M. conjunctivae strains resulted in different epidemiological scenarios in chamois, ranging from the fading out of the mycoplasma to the epidemic and endemic long-term persistence. These

  3. Mycoplasma salivarium as a dominant coloniser of Fanconi anaemia associated oral carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Henrich

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma salivarium belongs to the class of the smallest self-replicating Tenericutes and is predominantly found in the oral cavity of humans. In general it is considered as a non-pathogenic commensal. However, some reports point to an association with human diseases. M. salivarium was found e.g. as causative agent of a submasseteric abscess, in necrotic dental pulp, in brain abscess and clogged biliary stent. Here we describe the detection of M. salivarium on the surface of a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue of a patient with Fanconi anaemia (FA. FA is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome based on defective DNA-repair that increases the risk of carcinomas especially oral squamous cell carcinoma. Employing high coverage, massive parallel Roche/454-next-generation-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons we analysed the oral microbiome of this FA patient in comparison to that of an FA patient with a benign leukoplakia and five healthy individuals. The microbiota of the FA patient with leukoplakia correlated well with that of the healthy controls. A dominance of Streptococcus, Veillonella and Neisseria species was typically observed. In contrast, the microbiome of the cancer bearing FA patient was dominated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the healthy sites, which changed to a predominance of 98% M. salivarium on the tumour surface. Quantification of the mycoplasma load in five healthy, two tumour- and two leukoplakia-FA patients by TaqMan-PCR confirmed the prevalence of M. salivarium at the tumour sites. These new findings suggest that this mycoplasma species with its reduced coding capacity found ideal breeding grounds at the tumour sites. Interestingly, the oral cavity of all FA patients and especially samples at the tumour sites were in addition positive for Candida albicans. It remains to be elucidated in further studies whether M. salivarium can be used as a predictive biomarker for tumour development in these patients.

  4. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing: a Standardized Approach for Molecular Typing of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mostafa; Wang, Leyi; Zhang, Yan; Edwards, Scott; Lu, Amanda; Ley, David; El-Gazzar, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most virulent and economically important Mycoplasma species for poultry worldwide. Currently, M. gallisepticum strain differentiation based on sequence analysis of 5 loci remains insufficient for accurate outbreak investigation. Recently, whole-genome sequences (WGS) of many human and animal pathogens have been successfully used for microbial outbreak investigations. However, the massive sequence data and the diverse properties of different genes within bacterial genomes results in a lack of standard reproducible methods for comparisons among M. gallisepticum whole genomes. Here, we proposed the development of a core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme for M. gallisepticum strains and field isolates. For development of this scheme, a diverse collection of 37 M. gallisepticum genomes was used to identify cgMLST targets. A total of 425 M. gallisepticum conserved genes (49.85% of M. gallisepticum genome) were selected as core genome targets. A total of 81 M. gallisepticum genomes from 5 countries on 4 continents were typed using M. gallisepticum cgMLST. Analyses of phylogenetic trees generated by cgMLST displayed a high degree of agreement with geographical and temporal information. Moreover, the high discriminatory power of cgMLST allowed differentiation between M. gallisepticum strains of the same outbreak. M. gallisepticum cgMLST represents a standardized, accurate, highly discriminatory, and reproducible method for differentiation among M. gallisepticum isolates. cgMLST provides stable and expandable nomenclature, allowing for comparison and sharing of typing results among laboratories worldwide. cgMLST offers an opportunity to harness the tremendous power of next-generation sequencing technology in applied avian mycoplasma epidemiology at both local and global levels. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Biosecurity and geospatial analysis of mycoplasma infections in poultry farms at Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammon, Abdulwahab; Mulatti, Paolo; Lorenzetto, Monica; Ferre, Nicola; Sharif, Monier; Eldaghayes, Ibrahim; Dayhum, Abdunaser

    2017-01-01

    Geospatial database of farm locations and biosecurity measures are essential to control disease outbreaks. A study was conducted to establish geospatial database on poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya, to evaluate the biosecurity level of each farm and to determine the seroprevalence of mycoplasma and its relation to biosecurity level. A field team of 7 Veterinarians belongs to the National Center of Animal Health was assigned for data recording and collection of blood samples. Personal information of the producers, geographical locations, biosecurity measures and description of the poultry farms were recorded. The total number of poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi Region is 461 farms distributed in 13 cities. Out of these, 102 broiler farms and one broiler breeder farm (10 houses) which were in operation during team visit were included in this study. Following collection of blood, sera were separated and tested by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies against Mycoplasma (General antigen for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae). The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma in the region was 28% (29 poultry farms out of 103 were infected). About 50% (23 out of 47) of poultry farms located in Garian city were infected with Mycoplasma and one significant cluster of Mycoplasma infection in the city was identified. Low level of biosecurity was found in poultry farms of the region. Out of the 103 farms included, 63% of poultry houses has a ground of soil and 44% of them has uncoated walls which may influence the proper cleaning and disinfection. Almost 100% of the farms are at risk of exposure to diseases transmitted by wild birds such as avian influenza and Newcastle disease due to absence of wild birds control program. Although, 81% of the farms have entry restrictions, only 20% have disinfectants at entry which increase the risk of exposure to pathogens. The results of this study highlight the weakness points of biosecurity

  6. Mycoplasma hominis Induces Mediastinitis after a Tonsillar Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grancini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hominis is commonly involved in genitourinary tract infections. We report a 59-year-old man who developed a M. hominis-associated mediastinitis following acute tonsillar infection.

  7. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine......Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...

  8. Association of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection with Henoch-Schonlein Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yiallouros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  We present a  child with Henoch-Schonlein purpura and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, an association that was rarely described in  the literature. The infection was confirmed serologically and by using PCR.

  9. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  10. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis among Danish patients requesting abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Hvid, Malene; Lamy, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    . There was no correlation between the presence of genital infection with C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas and no correlation between the presence of antibodies to these bacteria. In conclusion, in Danish patients it is not necessary to test for M. genitalium before abortion since less than 1% were found positive....... The prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infections was high among the abortion-seeking patients....

  11. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline.

  12. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum at Batna Commercial poultry farms in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouzha Heleili

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG in broiler and layer chickens in the area of Batna, eastern Algeria. This investigation was conducted during the period from 2008 to 2011. Materials and Methods: A total of 505 sera samples were collected and tested by serum plate agglutination (SPA test using Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antigens (Soleil Diagnostic to detect the presence of antibodies against MS and MG. Results: The overall prevalence of MS and MG infection in the 27 flocks visited in this investigation were recorded as 66.33% and 69.90% respectively. Seroprevalence of MG infection was found significantly (p<0.05 higher during winter season (61.48% than in summer (47.74% while MS infection is more dominant in summer (91.25% against 46.69%. Again this was recorded in different age groups, with significantly higher occurrence in young compared to adult with 85.14% in layer hens and 90.73% in broiler chickens. On the other hand, the seroprevalence of MG and MS infection was found little (p>0.05 higher in large flocks (76.97% in comparison to small flocks (63.63%. The highest prevalence (76.59% of mycoplasmal infection in layer hens was found in Lohman strain. Conclusion: It has been found that MG and MS infections are still important disease problems in poultry farms in Algeria. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 709-712

  13. Swine Flu: Prevention to Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Padda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Swine flu, also known as swine influenza, pig influenza, hog flu and pig flu, is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behaviour. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Mostly people who are closely associated with pigs (for example, pork processors and farmers acquire the infection and similarly pigs get infected occasionally human flu infection. The cross-species infections (swine virus to man; human flu virus to pigs have always been confined to local areas and have not spread across borders in either pigs or humans. Unfortunately, this cross-species situation with influenza viruses has had the potential to change and cause epidemics and pandemics. Most recent pandemic has been reported in 2009,  where "swine flu" strain, first seen in Mexico, was termed as H1N1 as it was mainly infecting people and exhibited two main surface antigens, H1 (hemagglutinin type 1 and N1 (neuraminidase type1. This unique eight RNA strands from novel H1N1 flu have one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird strains, and five from swine strains. Since then it has been infecting people here and there. 

  14. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis in urogenital tract of Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Guilherme Barreto; Lobão, Tássia Neves; Selis, Nathan Neves; Amorim, Aline Teixeira; Martins, Hellen Braga; Barbosa, Maysa Santos; Oliveira, Thiago Henrique Caldeira; dos Santos, Djanilson Barbosa; Figueiredo, Tiana Baqueiro; Miranda Marques, Lucas; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2015-02-14

    The role of Mycoplasma hominis and M. genitalium in urogenital tract infections remains unknown. Furthermore these mollicutes present a complex relationship with the host immune response. The role of inflammatory cytokines in infections also makes them good candidates to investigate bacterial vaginosis and mycoplasma genital infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect the above-mentioned mollicutes by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) methodologies in vaginal swabs and dosage of cytokines. Vaginal swabs and peripheral blood were collected from 302 women, including healthy individuals. The molecular findings were correlated with some individual behavioral variables, clinical and demographic characteristics, presence of other important microorganisms in vaginal swabs, and levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. M. hominis and M. genitalium were detected in 31.8% and 28.1% of samples, respectively. The qPCR results were associated with clinical signs and symptoms of the infections studied. The frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis was 3.0%, 21.5%, 42.4%, and 1.7% respectively. Increased levels of IL-1β were associated with the presence of M. hominis and signs and/or symptoms of the genital infection of women studied. IL-1β production was associated with the detection of M. hominis by qPCR. The sexual behavior of women studied was associated with the detection of mycoplasma and other agents of genital infections.

  15. Mycoplasma insons sp. nov., a twisted mycoplasma from green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Meghan; Ortiz, G Javier; Wendland, Lori D; Rotstein, David S; Relich, Ryan F; Balish, Mitchell F; Brown, Daniel R

    2007-09-01

    Mycoplasma insons sp. nov., first cultured from the choanae and tracheae of healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana) from El Salvador, was readily distinguished from all previously described mollicutes and assigned to the Mycoplasma fastidiosum phylogenetic cluster by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Growth inhibition assays distinguished the isolates serologically from the other two members of that cluster. Many M. insons cells exhibit a remarkable twisted rod morphology despite lacking a cell wall. The organism is nonmotile, produces acid from glucose, but does not hydrolyze arginine, esculin, or urea. Mycoplasma insons 16S rRNA gene was also detected by PCR in packed blood cells from culture-negative iguanas. The type strain I17P1(T) has been deposited with the Mollicutes Collection at Purdue University and with the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC BAA-1435) in the USA. A limited number of cultures generated by the authors have also been deposited with the Culture Collection, University of Göteborg, in Sweden (CCUG 53461).

  16. Fatal septicemia due to Mycoplasma arginini: a new human zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechouron, A; Lefebvre, J; Robson, H G; Rose, D L; Tully, J G

    1992-09-01

    A 64-year-old slaughterhouse worker with advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma developed septicemia and pneumonia. Mycoplasma arginini, a wall-free prokaryote found in a variety of domestic animal hosts, was repeatedly isolated from blood and bronchial washings from the patient. Immunosuppression, in part caused by hypogammaglobulinemia, probably played a key role in predisposing the patient to a fatal infection. This case suggests that animal mycoplasmas should be considered in the list of infectious agents acquired by immunosuppressed hosts.

  17. Mycoplasma removal : simple curative methods for viral supernatants

    OpenAIRE

    Baronti, Cécile; Pastorino, B.; Charrel, R.; De Lamballerie, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    As a partner of the European Virus Archive (EVA) FP7 infrastructure, our research group is maintaining and developing a large virus collection. To meet the standards of the quality management system adopted by all European Virus Archive partners, the detection and eradication of mycoplasma in cell culture supernatants (stored at -80 degrees C or freeze-dried) has to be improved. Although the methods for mycoplasma elimination from infected cell lines were largely described, the decontaminatio...

  18. Biochemical composition liquid medium for cultivation of Mycoplasma

    OpenAIRE

    GLEBOVA K.V.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the biochemical composition of nutrient media for cultivation of mycoplasmas isolated from animals. In liquid media for cultivation of mycoplasmas on the basis of tryptic digest of the heart of cattle with serum albumin of cattle and horse blood, blood serum of cattle, broiler chickens, horses and the environment were identified as Edward biochemical parameters: total protein and its fractions, cholesterol, triglycerides, amino nitrogen, grain size distribution of lipopr...

  19. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  20. Infecção por Mycoplasma synoviae na vacinação da doença de Newcastle em galinhas

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rita de Cássia Figueira; Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo do; Pereira, Virgínia Léo de Almeida; Barreto, Maria Lúcia; Nascimento, Maria da Graça Fichel do

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains) and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved du...

  1. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED...

  2. A Mycoplasma species of Emydidae turtles in the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Niederriter, Holly; Zarate, Brian; Newton, Alisa L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in captive and wild chelonians. As part of a health assessment of endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in the northeastern US, choanal and cloacal swabs from these and other sympatric species, including spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata), eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina), wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta), and common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from 10 sampling sites in the states (US) of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma. Of 108 turtles tested, 63 (58.3%) were PCR positive for Mycoplasma including 58 of 83 bog turtles (70%), three of three (100%) eastern box turtles, and two of 11 (18%) spotted turtles; all snapping turtles (n = 7) and wood turtles (n = 4) were negative. Sequence analysis of portions of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed a single, unclassified species of Mycoplasma that has been previously reported in eastern box turtles, ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata), western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), and red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). We document a high incidence of Mycoplasma, in the absence of clinical disease, in wild emydid turtles. These findings, along with wide distribution of the identified Mycoplasma sp. across a broad geographic region, suggest this bacterium is likely a commensal inhabitant of bog turtles, and possibly other species of emydid turtles, in the northeastern US.

  3. Role of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the swine production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ercoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC can cause severe clinical diseases in humans, such as haemorrhagic colitis (HC and haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS. Although ruminants, primarily cattle, have been suggested as typical reservoirs of STEC, many food products of other origins, including pork products, have been confirmed as vehicles for STEC transmission. Only in rare cases, pork consumption is associated with severe clinical symptoms caused by high pathogenic STEC strains. However, in these outbreaks, it is unknown whether the contamination of food products occurs during swine processing or via cross-contamination from foodstuffs of different sources. In swine, STEC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of oedema disease. In particular a Shiga toxin subtype, named stx2e, it is considered as a key factor involved in the damage of swine endothelial cells. On the contrary, stx2e-producing Escherichia coli has rarely been isolated in humans, and usually only from asymptomatic carriers or from patients with mild symptoms, such as uncomplicated diarrhoea. In fact, the presence of gene stx2e, encoding for stx2e, has rarely been reported in STEC strains that cause HUS. Moreover, stx2e-producing STEC isolated from humans and pigs were found to differ in serogroup, their virulence profile and interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. Because of the limited epidemiologic data of STEC in swine and the increasing role of non-O157 STEC in human illnesses, the relationship between swine STEC and human disease needs to be further investigated.

  4. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Other Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

  5. Incidence and risk factors of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in broiler breeder farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Seifi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae (MS is an important pathogen of poultry worldwide, causing respiratory tract infection and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors (age, size of flock, locale, sex and strain of Mycoplasma synoviae in broiler breeder farms in Iran. The study was based on Rapid Serum Plate Agglutination (SPA and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests. The prevalence was highest (44% in winter and lowest (34% in summer. Ross, Cobb, Arian, Hubbard and Arbor Acres strains had 40%, 44%, 32%, 27% and 45% infection, respectively. The prevalence was recorded highest in above 60 weeks of age (47.8%, but at 10-20 weeks it was lowest (14.2%. No significant difference was seen in flocks up to 30,000 population (41.9%, 30,000-40,000 (52% and upper 40,000 (57%. The prevalence of Mycoplasmosis in foothills was significantly (p<0.05 higher (41% than coastal area (34.5%. The results showed that occurrence of MS have a significant relationship with the age and zone of sampling. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 265-268

  6. Novel hemotropic mycoplasmas are widespread and genetically diverse in vampire bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokhov, D V; Becker, D J; Bergner, L M; Camus, M S; Orton, R J; Chizhikov, V E; Altizer, S M; Streicker, D G

    2017-11-01

    Bats (Order: Chiroptera) have been widely studied as reservoir hosts for viruses of concern for human and animal health. However, whether bats are equally competent hosts of non-viral pathogens such as bacteria remains an important open question. Here, we surveyed blood and saliva samples of vampire bats from Peru and Belize for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (hemoplasmas), bacteria that can cause inapparent infection or anemia in hosts. 16S rRNA gene amplification of blood showed 67% (150/223) of common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were infected by hemoplasmas. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed three novel genotypes that were phylogenetically related but not identical to hemoplasmas described from other (non-vampire) bat species, rodents, humans, and non-human primates. Hemoplasma prevalence in vampire bats was highest in non-reproductive and young individuals, did not differ by country, and was relatively stable over time (i.e., endemic). Metagenomics from pooled D. rotundus saliva from Peru detected non-hemotropic Mycoplasma species and hemoplasma genotypes phylogenetically similar to those identified in blood, providing indirect evidence for potential direct transmission of hemoplasmas through biting or social contacts. This study demonstrates vampire bats host several novel hemoplasmas and sheds light on risk factors for infection and basic transmission routes. Given the high frequency of direct contacts that arise when vampire bats feed on humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, the potential of these bacteria to be transmitted between species should be investigated in future work.

  7. Swine Influenza Viruses – Evolution and Zoonotic Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina

    the establishment of a reverse genetics system based on a backbone from the Danish H1N2 SIV, which is one of the two most prevalent subtypes in Denmark. Recently, a variant of a North American swine H3N2 virus containing a pandemic M gene was transmitted to humans in the US and on few occasions human......-to-human transmission was observed. These events underline the need for a reverse genetics system to be used for an analysis of the behavior of a pandemic M gene in a Danish SIV.......Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important respiratory pathogen with a broad host range. The natural reservoir for IAV is waterfowls, but both human and swine are considered natural hosts. During the past century IAV has caused severe pandemics as well as seasonal epidemics in the human population...

  8. Major membrane surface proteins of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae selectively modified by covalently bound lipid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise K.S.; Kim, M.F.

    1987-12-01

    Surface protein antigens of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were identified by direct antibody-surface binding or by radioimmunoprecipitation of surface /sup 125/I-labeled proteins with a series of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Radioimmunoprecipitation of TX-114-phase proteins from cells labeled with (/sup 35/S) methionine, /sup 14/C-amino acids, or (/sup 3/H) palmitic acid showed that proteins p65, p50, and p44 were abundant and (with one other hydrophobic protein, p60) were selectively labeled with lipid. Alkaline hydroxylamine treatment of labeled proteins indicated linkage of lipids by amide or stable O-linked ester bonds. Proteins p65, p50, and p44 were highly immunogenic in the natural host as measured by immunoblots of TX-114-phase proteins with antisera from swine inoculated with whole organisms. These proteins were antigenically and structurally unrelated, since hyperimmune mouse antibodies to individual gel-purified proteins were monospecific and gave distinct proteolytic epitope maps. Intraspecies size variants of one surface antigen of M. hyopneumoniae were revealed by a MAb to p70 (defined in strain J, ATCC 25934), which recognized a large p73 component on strain VPP11 (ATCC 25617). In addition, MAb to internal, aqueous-phase protein p82 of strain J failed to bind an analogous antigen in strain VPP11.

  9. Occurrence and severity of lung lesions in slaughter pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with different strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Sonja; von Berg, Stephan; Köhler, Kernt; Reinacher, Manfred; Willems, Hermann; Reiner, Gerald

    2014-03-01

    Different vaccination strategies against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae have been adopted worldwide. Reports from the field indicate varying levels of protection among currently available vaccines. The goal of the present study was to compare the efficacies of three widespread commercial vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae under field conditions. 20 farms were included. 14 farms used different single dose vaccines (vaccine 1 [V1], 8 herds; vaccine 2 [V2], 6 herds); another 6 farms (V3) used a two dose vaccination strategy. Gross lesions of 854 lungs and histopathology from 140 lungs were quantified, and a quantitative PCR was applied to detect M. hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) DNA in lung tissue (n=140). In addition, porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida were tested by qualitative PCR. 53% of lungs were positive for M. hyopneumoniae. 55.9% of lungs showed macroscopic enzootic pneumonia (EP)-like lesions. Lung lesion scores (Phyopneumoniae-loads (Phyopneumoniae indicating that the applied diagnostic tools are valuable in confirming the prevalence and severity of M. hyopneumoniae infections. Comparing different vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae indicates varying levels of protection. M. hyopneumoniae is still a major problem despite the widely applied vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-induced Pneumonia using Different Lung Lesion Scoring Systems: a Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Morante, B; Segalés, J; Fraile, L; Pérez de Rozas, A; Maiti, H; Coll, T; Sibila, M

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary aetiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP) and one of the major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Gross lung lesions in pigs affected by EP consist of cranioventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC), usually distributed bilaterally in the apical, intermediate, accessory and cranial parts of the diaphragmatic lobes. Several lung scoring methods are currently in place for the evaluation of CVPC. The aims of this study were (1) to review the lung lesion scoring systems used to assess pneumonia associated with M. hyopneumoniae infection, and (2) to evaluate eight of these scoring systems by applying them to the lungs of 76 pigs with experimentally-induced M. hyopneumoniae pneumonia. A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was observed and the coefficients of determination in a regression analysis were very high between each pair-wise comparison, except for a unique scoring system based on image analysis. A formula of equivalence between lung scoring methods was developed in order to compare the results obtained with these methods. The present review provides a basis for comparison (even retrospectively) of lesions evaluated using different lung scoring systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Major membrane surface proteins of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae selectively modified by covalently bound lipid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.S.; Kim, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Surface protein antigens of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were identified by direct antibody-surface binding or by radioimmunoprecipitation of surface 125 I-labeled proteins with a series of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Radioimmunoprecipitation of TX-114-phase proteins from cells labeled with [ 35 S] methionine, 14 C-amino acids, or [ 3 H] palmitic acid showed that proteins p65, p50, and p44 were abundant and (with one other hydrophobic protein, p60) were selectively labeled with lipid. Alkaline hydroxylamine treatment of labeled proteins indicated linkage of lipids by amide or stable O-linked ester bonds. Proteins p65, p50, and p44 were highly immunogenic in the natural host as measured by immunoblots of TX-114-phase proteins with antisera from swine inoculated with whole organisms. These proteins were antigenically and structurally unrelated, since hyperimmune mouse antibodies to individual gel-purified proteins were monospecific and gave distinct proteolytic epitope maps. Intraspecies size variants of one surface antigen of M. hyopneumoniae were revealed by a MAb to p70 (defined in strain J, ATCC 25934), which recognized a large p73 component on strain VPP11 (ATCC 25617). In addition, MAb to internal, aqueous-phase protein p82 of strain J failed to bind an analogous antigen in strain VPP11

  12. In vitro protective efficacy of Lithium chloride against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishag, Hassan Z A; Wu, Yu-Zi; Liu, Mao-Jun; Xiong, Qi-Yan; Feng, Zhi-Xin; Yang, Ruo-Song; Shao, Guo-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) infection affects the swine industry. Lithium chloride (LiCl), is a drug used to treat bipolar disorder and has also shown activity against bacterial and viral infections. Herein, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of LiCl on PK-15 cells infected with M. hyopneumoniae. Incubation of LiCl (40mM) with cells for 24h, did not significantly affect the cell viability. The qRT-PCR showed ~80% reduction in M. hyopneumoniae genome when LiCl added post-infection. A direct effect of LiCl on bacteria was also observed. However, treatment of cells with LiCl prior infection, does not protect against the infection. Anti-bacterial activity of LiCl was further confirmed by IFA, which demonstrated a reduction in the bacterial protein. With 40mM LiCI, the apoptotic cell death, production of nitric oxide and superoxide anion induced by M. hyopneumoniae, were prevented by ~80%, 60% and 58% respectively. Moreover, caspase-3 activity was also reduced (82%) in cells treated with 40mM LiCl. LiCl showed activity against various strains of M. hyopneumoniae examined in our study. Collectively, our data showed that LiCl inhibited the infection of M. hyopneumoniae through anti-apoptotic mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma fermentans induce cell apoptosis and changes in gene expression profiles of 32D cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of mycoplasmas has been linked to various human diseases including arthritis, pneumonia, infertility and cancer. While Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma fermentans have been detected in gastric adenocarcinomas, the mechanisms underlyine the pathogenesis are unknown. In this study, cell growth kinetics, Hoechst 33258 staining, DNA ladder assays, Western blotting analysis and cDNA microarray assays were performed to investigate the roles of M. hyorhinis and M. fermentans during infection of mammalian cells. Our data demonstrated that these mycoplasmas inhibid the growth of immortalised cell lines (32D and COS-7 ane tumor cell lines (HeLa and AGS. In addition, the infection of the 32D cell line with M. hyorhinis and M. fermentans induced compression of the nucleus, degradation of the cell genome and dysregulation of the expression of genes related to proliferation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, signaling pathway and metabolism. Apoptosis related proteins Bcl-2, Bid and p53 were down-regulated, Fas was up-regulated and Bax was dysregulated in mycoplasma-infected 32D cells. Together, our data demonstrated that infection of mycoplasmas inhibitd cele growts through modification of gene expression profiles and post-translation modification of proliferation and apoptosis related proteins.

  14. Antimicrobial growth promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in poultry and swine, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, M. C.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers, swine, pork, and chicken meat and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter in...

  15. Antimicrobial growth promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in poultry and swine, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, M. C.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers, swine, pork, and chicken meat and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter...

  16. Comparative Fecal Metagenomics Unveils Unique Functional Capacity of the Swine Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health and to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Limited information on the physiological...

  17. Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Koike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp sometimes causes immunological complications in children. We present a rare case of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS caused by Mp in a previously healthy 7-year-old Japanese girl. A chest radiograph obtained to evaluate the source of her fever showed infiltration in the lower right lung with mild splenomegaly. We could diagnose the patient with HPS on the basis of the hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis- (HLH 2004 criteria. She met the criteria for fever, splenomegaly, neutrophil count (265 mg/dL, and ferritin level (>500 ng/mL. Furthermore, a peripheral blood smear showed an increased number of monocytes/macrophages with erythrophagocytosis. Treatment with clarithromycin and prednisolone, which was initiated soon after the diagnosis, was successful. Mp infection might partly progress to HPS in certain conditions. Clinicians should be aware of HPS caused by Mp and start appropriate treatment as soon as possible if the disease is suspected.

  18. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Eperythrozoon suis antibodies in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, F S; Liu, M C; Chou, S M; Zachary, J F; Smith, A R

    1992-03-01

    An ELISA was developed and tested to detect antibodies to Eperythrozoon suis in swine. Results were compared with those of the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Antigen isolated from swine heavily infected with E suis was used for both tests. Comparison of the ELISA with the IHA test revealed a significant (P less than 0.001) correlation between results. Of 114 samples obtained from 9 swine infected with E suis, 87.7% were seropositive (titer greater than or equal to 200) via the ELISA, and 80.7% were seropositive (titer greater than or equal to 20) via the IHA test. The sensitivity of the ELISA was greater than that of the IHA test. All blood samples obtained from specific-pathogen-free swine tested negative for E suis antibody. Cross-reactions were not observed between E suis antigen and antisera against various swine and cattle disease agents using ELISA. We concluded that the ELISA may be used for rapid and effective diagnosis of infection with E suis in swine.

  19. Apparent effect of chronic Plasmodium infections on disease severity caused by experimental infections with Mycoplasma gallisepticum in house finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A. Dhondt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An epidemic caused by a successful host jump of the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum from poultry to house finches in the 1990s has by now spread across most of North America. M. gallisepticum causes severe conjunctivitis in house finches. We experimentally show that M. gallisepticum transmission to birds with or without chronic Plasmodium infection does not differ. However, once infected with M. gallisepticum house finches chronically infected with Plasmodium develop more severe clinical disease than birds without such infection. We speculate as to possible effects of coinfection.

  20. Survey of immunoglobulin A protease activity among selected species of Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma: specificity for host immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapatais-Zoumbos, K; Chandler, D K; Barile, M F

    1985-03-01

    Because immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the predominant immunoglobulin at mucosal surfaces, IgA proteases produced by pathogenic bacteria are considered potential virulence factors for organisms that cause disease or gain entry at mucous membranes. To determine the role of IgA protease in the pathogenicity of mycoplasmal disease, a variety of human and animal mycoplasma and ureaplasma species were examined for IgA protease activity with human, murine, porcine, and canine IgA. None of the mycoplasma species examined showed detectable IgA protease activity with any of the IgAs tested. Twenty-eight strains of Ureaplasma urealyticum isolated from human urogenital tissues cleaved human IgA1, but no cleavage of human IgA2 or murine, porcine, or canine IgA was observed. Ureaplasmas isolated from nonhuman hosts (feline, canine, avian, and bovine [Ureaplasma diversum]) did not cleave human IgA1. Two strains of canine ureaplasmas were able to cleave canine IgA, but not murine IgA. Thus, ureaplasmas from other species can produce IgA protease, but the specificity of the enzyme was restricted to the IgA of the appropriate host. This finding suggests that IgA proteases could play a role in the selective host specificity of mucosal pathogens.

  1. Mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures treated with ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Soltanian

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that 20 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin was the dilution of choice for mycoplasma elimination followed by 200 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin. Concentrations of 3, 30 and 300 of enrofloxacin, respectively, are appropriate for mycoplasma removal. More detailed works would be needed to verify the authenticity of the proposed simple and affordable way of mycoplasma elimination.

  2. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  3. Prediction of the persistence of Mycoplasma genitalium after antimicrobial chemotherapy by quantification of leukocytes in first-void urine from patients with non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Mizutani, Kohsuke; Seike, Kensaku; Sugawara, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is regarded as another pathogen of male non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). Failure to eradicate this mycoplasma is associated with persistent or recurrent NGU, but this mycoplasma is not routinely examined in clinical practice. In cases of M. genitalium-positive NGU, therefore, some criteria are needed to assess the success or failure of antimicrobial chemotherapy other than microbiological outcomes. We enrolled 49 men with M. genitalium-positive non-chlamydial NGU. At successive visits after treatment, we inquired about their symptoms, observed their urethral meatus for urethral discharge, and examined their first-void urine (FVU) for quantification of leukocytes and for the persistence of M. genitalium. M. genitalium was eradicated in 34 patients after treatment, whereas the mycoplasma persisted in 15. Urethritis symptoms and urethral discharges were not found to be predictors of the persistence of M. genitalium up to the 25th day after the start of treatment. Leukocyte counts in FVU from the patients with persistence of M. genitalium were significantly higher than those from the patients with eradication of the mycoplasma. Leukocyte counts of 10 leukocytes/μl or more between the 18th and 24th day after the start of treatment were most significantly associated with the persistence of M. genitalium. Quantification of leukocytes in FVU would appear to be crucial to judge the outcome of treatment in patients with non-chlamydial NGU and could be helpful to predict the persistence of M. genitalium after treatment when M. genitalium is not routinely examined in clinical specimens in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications.

  5. Serological investigation of five diseases; Influenza, Newcastle disease, Salmonella, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in native hens of Eghlid, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mokhtari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to determine seroprevalence of the five diseases influenza, Newcastle, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and salmonella, among around native hens of Eghlid in Iran, on spring 2011. Materials and Methods: On the basis of native Hens distribution, this region divided into four parts of Eghlid, Doskord, Sedeh and Hasan-abad. Fifty unvaccinated native Hens randomly selected from each part. Blood samples were aseptically collected from the wing veins using 5-ml sterile syringe. Serum from hens was tested for detection and titration for Mycoplasma and Salmonella by the rapid slide agglutination method, and was tested for influenza and Newcastle by the Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay. The data was analyzed completely in randomized design with four treatments, 50 repetitions for each disease. Results: 34 out of 200 samples (17% were positive for influenza. There were significant differences between regions (p<0.01. 38 out of 200 samples (19% were positive for Newcastle. The maximum infectious rate obtained from Eghlid. There were significant differences between regions (p <0.05. 170 out of 200 samples (85% were positive for Mycoplasma gallisepticum. 4 from 200 samples (2% were positive for Mycoplasma synoviae. The results do not show a significant difference for salmonella (p <0.05. Conclusion: Contamination of Influenza, Newcastle and Mycoplasma gallisepticum was high, and the highest contamination rate was related to Mycoplasma gallisepticum. It is usually recommended that preventive strategies, such as appropriate husbandry and hygiene, sanitary handling of chicks and eggs, routine health monitoring and vaccination of Native hens should be emphasized. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 126-130

  6. Interaction between the P1 protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and receptors on HEp-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drasbek, Mette; Christiansen, Gunna; Drasbek, Kim Ryun

    2007-01-01

    The human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause atypical pneumonia through adherence to epithelial cells in the respiratory tract. The major immunogenic protein, P1, participates in the attachment of the bacteria to the host cells. To investigate the adhesion properties of P1, a recombinant...... protein (rP1-II) covering amino acids 1107-1518 of the P1 protein was produced. This protein inhibited the adhesion of M. pneumoniae to human HEp-2 cells, as visualized in a competitive-binding assay using immunofluorescence microscopy. Previous studies have shown that mAbs that recognize two epitopes...... in this region of P1 also reduce M. pneumoniae adhesion. Therefore, peptides covering these epitopes, of 8 and 13 aa, respectively, were synthesized to further investigate the adhesion region. None of these synthetic peptides reduced the binding of M. pneumoniae to the receptors on the host cells. Instead, 10...

  7. Mycoplasma bovis pathogenesis, diagnostic methods and epidemiology of relevance for control and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    Mycoplasma bovis introduction to and spread within cattle herds is difficult to predict, and no vaccines provide efficient prevention today despite the fact that this infection severely affects animal welfare and leads to economic losses in cattle farms worldwide. The most common transmission...... from infected bulls and perhaps long-distance airborne pathogens being spread between outbreaks and susceptible farms. Prevention and control methods have to focus on management and biosecurity measures that maximise resilience of the farm system and the animals’ resistance against the disease in case...... the herd becomes exposed to M. bovis - or new strains of M. bovis. Luckily this also has great benefits on the general health and production in cattle farms. The general prevention measures can to some extent be supported by diagnostic testing prior to movement of cattle, even though it is not possible...

  8. Cloning, Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Mycoplasma Genitalium Protein MG289

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippel, K.; Boehlein, S; Sakai, Y; Quirit, J; Agbandje-McKenna, M; Rosser, C; McKenna, R

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen that is associated with nongonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis in women. The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the protein MG289 from M. genitalium strain G37 are reported here. Crystals of MG289 diffracted X-rays to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.7, b = 90.9, c = 176.1 {angstrom}. The diffraction data after processing had an overall R{sub merge} of 8.7%. The crystal structure of Cypl, the ortholog of MG289 from M. hyorhinis, has recently been determined, providing a reasonable phasing model; molecular replacement is currently under way.

  9. Protein and Antigenic Profile among Mycoplasma bovis Field Strains Isolated in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maid Rifatbegović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a serious, worldwide-spread but often overlooked pathogen causing respiratory disease, mastitis, and arthritis in cattle. In this study we characterize the protein and antigenic profiles of M. bovis field strains isolated in Bosnia and Herzegovina by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, and analyze possible variations among these strains. Greater differences occurred when comparing field strains with the reference strain PG45. One field strain isolated from lung samples of a heifer was markedly different from strains isolated from nasal swabs taken from cattle raised in another geographic region. A possible correlation may exist between protein and antigen profiles of M. bovis field strains, geographic regions and anatomical sites of isolation.

  10. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the United Kingdom shows two genetically distinct clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAuliffe, Laura; Kokotovic, Branko; Ayling, Roger D.

    2004-01-01

    polymorphism (AFLP), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. In addition, the influence of variable surface protein (Vsp) profiles on the profiles generated with molecular typing techniques was studied. Both AFLP and RAPD separated the isolates into two distinct groups, but PFGE showed less......Mycoplasma bovis is an important veterinary pathogen causing pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in infected cattle. We investigated the genetic diversity of 53 isolates collected in the United Kingdom between 1996 and 2002 with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length...... congruence with the other techniques. There was no clear relationship between the geographic origin or year of isolation of the isolates and the profiles produced. No correlation between Vsp profiles and any of the molecular typing techniques was observed. We propose that RAPD and AFLP provide valuable tools...

  11. Inorganic pyrophosphatase in uncultivable hemotrophic mycoplasmas: identification and properties of the enzyme from Mycoplasma suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittenbrink Max M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma suis belongs to a group of highly specialized hemotrophic bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes. Hemotrophic mycoplasmas are uncultivable and the genomes are not sequenced so far. Therefore, there is a need for the clarification of essential metabolic pathways which could be crucial barriers for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system for these veterinary significant bacteria. Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPase are important enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate PPi to inorganic phosphate Pi. PPases are essential and ubiquitous metal-dependent enzymes providing a thermodynamic pull for many biosynthetic reactions. Here, we describe the identification, recombinant production and characterization of the soluble (sPPase of Mycoplasma suis. Results Screening of genomic M. suis libraries was used to identify a gene encoding the M. suis inorganic pyrophosphatase (sPPase. The M. suis sPPase consists of 164 amino acids with a molecular mass of 20 kDa. The highest identity of 63.7% was found to the M. penetrans sPPase. The typical 13 active site residues as well as the cation binding signature could be also identified in the M. suis sPPase. The activity of the M. suis enzyme was strongly dependent on Mg2+ and significantly lower in the presence of Mn2+ and Zn2+. Addition of Ca2+ and EDTA inhibited the M. suis sPPase activity. These characteristics confirmed the affiliation of the M. suis PPase to family I soluble PPases. The highest activity was determined at pH 9.0. In M. suis the sPPase builds tetramers of 80 kDa which were detected by convalescent sera from experimentally M. suis infected pigs. Conclusion The identification and characterization of the sPPase of M. suis is an additional step towards the clarification of the metabolism of hemotrophic mycoplasmas and, thus, important for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system. As an antigenic and conserved

  12. Swine in biomedical research. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: hemodynamic characteristics of the conscious resting pig; cardiovascular and metabolic responses to acute and chronic exercise in swine (ILLEGIBLE) a large animal model for studies (ILLEGIBLE) effects of heparin-protamine interaction in swine - intravenous vs. intraarterial; swine as animal models in cardiovascular research; studies of coronary thrombosis in swine with von Willebrand's disease; role of plasma intermediate and low density lipoproteins in early atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic swine; swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology; the pig as a model for studying kidney disease in man; hypertension of renal origin and the effects of Captopril in miniature pigs; porcine natural killer/killer cell system; the behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo; a review of spontaneous and experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis; and Sinclair swine melanoma.

  13. Mycoplasma Clearance and Risk Analysis in a Model Bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie; Johnson, Sarah; Brown, Matthew; Lute, Scott; Agarabi, Cyrus; Dabrazhynetskaya, Alena; Chizhikov, Vladimir; Brorson, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are a type of bacteria that lack cell walls and are occasional cell culture contaminants. In a biotechnology setting, because they can pass through 0.2 μm filters, mycoplasmas could pose a potential patient safety hazard if undetected contaminants from the production culture were not completely removed by downstream biotechnology manufacturing. In this study we investigated the ability of typical commercial monoclonal antibody purification operations to clear and kill mycoplasmas, using Acholeplasma laidlawii as a model organism. Our spike/removal studies have shown that protein A column chromatography clears about 4-5 log 10 Column regeneration effectively prevents A. laidlawii column carryover between chromatography runs. Moreover, low-pH hold steps, typically implemented after protein A purification, effectively kill A. laidlawii using either pH 3.8 glycine or acetate solutions (LRV ≥5.30 and ≥4.57, respectively). Solvent/detergent treatment, used in some processes instead of low-pH hold, also completely kills highly concentrated A. laidlawii (LRV ≥5.95). LAY ABSTRACT: Biotechnology medicines need to be free from contaminating microorganisms such as mycoplasmas, a type of bacteria that can cause disease in humans (e.g., walking pneumonia). Here we show that some monoclonal antibody manufacturing steps can effectively clear and/or kill Acholeplasma laidlawii , a model mycoplasma species used in our study. This provides an additional level of safety assurance of biotechnology medicines for patients. © PDA, Inc. 2017.

  14. Data on genome analysis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum during intracellular infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Matyushkina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Mycoplasma relates to Gram-positive bacteria that lack a cell wall and are capable to cause chronic disease in humans and animals. Among the agents of infection and disease in domestic poultry and wild birds, Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important mycoplasma species, causing considerable losses in the poultry industry. In the present paper, we provide data on adaptation of M. gallisepticum to the eukaryotic host cells on the genomic level. The major changes were predominantly localized in the VlhA-hemagglutinin genes which are important components of pathogenesis. The ability of mycoplasmas to change dramatically the repertoire of surface antigens and to vary the immunogenicity of these components allows them to remain undetected by the immune system of the host. The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled “Phase Transition of the Bacterium upon Invasion of a Host Cell as a Mechanism of Adaptation: a Mycoplasma gallisepticum Model.” (Matyushkina et al., 2016 [1]. Data posted in repository https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/315515. Bioproject ID: PRJNA315515.

  15. Treatment of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures with Plasmocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, Cord C; Denkmann, Sabine-A; Drexler, Hans G

    2012-01-01

    A high percentage of cell lines are chronically infected with various mycoplasma species. The addition of antibiotics that are particularly effective against these contaminants to the culture medium during a limited period of time is a simple, inexpensive, and very practical approach for decontaminating cell cultures. Here, we examined the effectiveness of the new antimycoplasma compound Plasmocin that has been employed routinely to cleanse chronically infected cell lines. In a first round of treatment 45 out of 58 (78%) mycoplasma-positive cell lines could be cured. In a second attempt using back-up cryopreserved original cells, four additional cell lines were cured; thus, the overall cure rate was 84%. Even if the mycoplasma contamination was not eradicated by Plasmocin, the parallel treatment with several other antibiotics (Baytril, BM-Cyclin, Ciprobay, MRA, or MycoZap) led to the cure of all 58 cell lines. The successful decontamination was permanent as mycoplasmas were no longer detected at day +14 posttreatment and at later time points as examined by PCR which is the most sensitive and specific mycoplasma detection method. Collectively, our results highlight certain antibiotics as effective antimycoplasma reagents and support the therapeutic rationale for their use in the eradication of this notorious cell culture contaminant.

  16. Treatment of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cell Cultures with Plasmocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cord C. Uphoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high percentage of cell lines are chronically infected with various mycoplasma species. The addition of antibiotics that are particularly effective against these contaminants to the culture medium during a limited period of time is a simple, inexpensive, and very practical approach for decontaminating cell cultures. Here, we examined the effectiveness of the new antimycoplasma compound Plasmocin that has been employed routinely to cleanse chronically infected cell lines. In a first round of treatment 45 out of 58 (78% mycoplasma-positive cell lines could be cured. In a second attempt using back-up cryopreserved original cells, four additional cell lines were cured; thus, the overall cure rate was 84%. Even if the mycoplasma contamination was not eradicated by Plasmocin, the parallel treatment with several other antibiotics (Baytril, BM-Cyclin, Ciprobay, MRA, or MycoZap led to the cure of all 58 cell lines. The successful decontamination was permanent as mycoplasmas were no longer detected at day +14 posttreatment and at later time points as examined by PCR which is the most sensitive and specific mycoplasma detection method. Collectively, our results highlight certain antibiotics as effective antimycoplasma reagents and support the therapeutic rationale for their use in the eradication of this notorious cell culture contaminant.

  17. Early Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection presenting as multiple pulmonary masses: an unusual presentation in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Edward; Altes, Talissa; Anupindi, Sudha A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Because most children are not imaged prior to onset of clinical symptoms, the appearance of early Mycoplasma infection has not been extensively studied. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with large pulmonary masses incidentally detected during spine MRI evaluation for scoliosis. Eight days later, the patient developed acute respiratory symptoms, and the masses seen previously had evolved into a diffuse bronchiolitis. Diagnostic testing identified Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the likely etiology. We briefly review chest CT findings of infection by Mycoplasma and compare them to this unusual presentation of Mycoplasma pneumonia with subclinical imaging findings. (orig.)

  18. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  19. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    resulted in marginal improvements to the control of the epidemics. However, adding testing of dead animals in the protection and surveillance zones was predicted to be the optimal control scenario for an ASF epidemic in industrialized swine populations without contact to wild boar. This optimal scenario...

  20. Ultrastructural Changes during the Life Cycle of Mycoplasma salivarium in Oral Biopsies from Patients with Oral Leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Mizuki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in genus Mycoplasma spp. are the smallest and simplest form of freely replicating bacteria, with 16 species known to infect humans. In the mouth, M. salivarium is the most frequently identified species. Mycoplasma spp. are parasites with small genomes. Although most of the Mycoplasma spp. that infect humans remain attached to the host cell surface throughout their life cycle, we have previously reported the presence of Mycoplasma salivarium in the epithelial cells of oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogenicity of M. salivarium has remained unclear. Further studies are needed to identify the process of infection of human cells and the stages in the life cycle of M. salivarium. Electron microscopy (EM is the method of choice for morphological investigation of Mycoplasma spp. in cells or tissues. This study was performed to clarify and detail the ultrastructure of M. salivarium in tissue biopsies of oral mucosal leukoplakia, using three EM methods: (1 a standard EM processing method; (2 an ultracryotomy and immunolabeling method; and (3 the LR White resin post-embedding and immunolabeling method. This study included five oral leukoplakia tissue samples showing hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis. Although there was some variation in ultrastructural appearances between the three EM methods used, there were four ultrastructural appearances that are believed to reflect the stages of the M. salivarium life cycle in the epithelial cells of the oral mucosa: (1 small, electron-dense cellular-like structures or elementary bodies of M. salivarium; (2 large structures of M. salivarium; (3 M. salivarium organisms in cell division; (4 the sequence of events in the life cycle of M. salivarium that includes: (a elementary bodies of M. salivarium deep in the oral mucosal epithelium; (b replication by binary fission and daughter cell division from the elementary bodies; (c maturation or degeneration of M

  1. Ultrastructural Changes during the Life Cycle ofMycoplasma salivariumin Oral Biopsies from Patients with Oral Leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, Harumi; Abe, Ryosuke; Mikami, Toshinari

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria in genus Mycoplasma spp. are the smallest and simplest form of freely replicating bacteria, with 16 species known to infect humans. In the mouth, M. salivarium is the most frequently identified species. Mycoplasma spp. are parasites with small genomes. Although most of the Mycoplasma spp. that infect humans remain attached to the host cell surface throughout their life cycle, we have previously reported the presence of Mycoplasma salivarium in the epithelial cells of oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogenicity of M. salivarium has remained unclear. Further studies are needed to identify the process of infection of human cells and the stages in the life cycle of M. salivarium . Electron microscopy (EM) is the method of choice for morphological investigation of Mycoplasma spp. in cells or tissues. This study was performed to clarify and detail the ultrastructure of M. salivarium in tissue biopsies of oral mucosal leukoplakia, using three EM methods: (1) a standard EM processing method; (2) an ultracryotomy and immunolabeling method; and (3) the LR White resin post-embedding and immunolabeling method. This study included five oral leukoplakia tissue samples showing hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis. Although there was some variation in ultrastructural appearances between the three EM methods used, there were four ultrastructural appearances that are believed to reflect the stages of the M. salivarium life cycle in the epithelial cells of the oral mucosa: (1) small, electron-dense cellular-like structures or elementary bodies of M. salivarium ; (2) large structures of M. salivarium ; (3) M. salivarium organisms in cell division; (4) the sequence of events in the life cycle of M. salivarium that includes: (a) elementary bodies of M. salivarium deep in the oral mucosal epithelium; (b) replication by binary fission and daughter cell division from the elementary bodies; (c) maturation or degeneration of M. salivarium

  2. 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemodidelphidis' sp. nov., 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemolamae' sp. nov. and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., haemotrophic parasites from a naturally infected opossum (Didelphis virginiana), alpaca (Lama pacos) and dog (Canis familiaris): phylogenetic and secondary structural relatedness of their 16S rRNA genes to other mycoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Joanne B; Walker, Pamela G; Raphael, William; Berent, Linda; Shi, Xun

    2002-05-01

    The 16S rRNA sequence of newly characterized haemotrophic bacteria in an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and alpaca (Lama pacos) was determined. In addition, the 16S rRNA sequence of a haemotrophic parasite in the dog (Canis familiaris) was determined. Sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis as well as secondary structural similarity and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of their 16S rRNA genes, positioned these organisms in the genus Mycoplasma. The highest scoring sequence similarities were 16S rRNA genes from haemotrophic mycoplasma species (Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon spp.). However, the lack of several higher-order structural idiosyncrasies used to define the pneumoniae group, suggests that these organisms and related haemotrophic mycoplasmas represent a new group of mycoplasmas. It is recommended that the organisms be named 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphidis', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae' and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., to provide some indication of the target cell and host species of these parasites, and to reflect their phylogenetic affiliation.

  3. In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of six Jordanian medicinal plants against three Mycoplasma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Momani, W; Abu-Basha, E; Janakat, S; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

    2007-10-01

    The in vitro effect of six Jordanian traditional medicine plant methanolic extracts were tested against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species; Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions in Jordan. All Mycoplasma species showed susceptibility to Artemisia herba-alba and Artemisia arborescens with MIC ranges from 3.125-12.5 mg/ml. Allium sativum and Punica grantum showed limited activity against some Mycoplasma isolates. Olea europea and Citrullus colocynthis showed no in vitro activity against any of the Mycoplasma species tested. Artemisia herba-alba and Artemisia arborescens may therefore be useful for the treatment of mycoplasma infections.

  4. Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Fresh Look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Larsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work on the Molicutes that associate with genital tract tissues focuses on four species that may be of interest in potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal infection and in contributing to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum have historically been the subject of attention, but Mycoplasma genitalis which causes male urethritis in addition to colonizing the female genital tract and the division of Ureaplasma into two species, urealyticum and parvum, has also added new taxonomic clarity. The role of these genital tract inhabitants in infection during pregnancy and their ability to invade and infect placental and fetal tissue is discussed. In particular, the role of some of these organisms in prematurity may be mechanistically related to their ability to induce inflammatory cytokines, thereby triggering pathways leading to preterm labor. A review of this intensifying exploration of the mycoplasmas in relation to pregnancy yields several questions which will be important to examine in future research.

  5. A PCR survey of vector-borne pathogens in different dog populations from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huanping; Sevinc, Ferda; Ceylan, Onur; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ince, Ege; Gao, Yang; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Liu, Mingming; Efstratiou, Artemis; Wang, Guanbo; Cao, Shinuo; Zhou, Mo; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Ringo, Aaron Edmond; Zheng, Weiqing; Xuan, Xuenan

    2017-09-26

    In the present study, a total of 192 blood samples were collected from pet dogs, kennel dogs and shepherd dogs in Konya district, Turkey, and tested by specific PCR for the presence of vector-borne pathogens. Several pathogens were identified, most of which can cause substantial morbidity in dogs. PCR results revealed that 54 (28.1%) dogs were infected with one or more pathogens. Positive results were obtained for Babesia spp. in 4 dogs (2.1%), Hepatozoon spp. in 8 dogs (4.2%) and Mycoplasma spp. in 46 dogs (24%). Three dogs (1.6%) were infected with two or three pathogens. The sequence analysis of the positive DNA samples revealed the presence of Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Hepatozoon sp. MF, Mycoplasma haemocanis and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys were not detected. Regardless of ownership status, vector-borne diseases were common in these dog populations. There was significant difference of pathogen prevalence among the different dog populations. Mycoplasma spp. was more frequent in the kennel dogs (31.9%) than in the pet (21.4%) and shepherd dogs (13.8%). Additionally, the frequency of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. was higher in the shepherd dogs which account for three quarters and half of the total number of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp., respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Mycoplasma infection in dogs in Turkey. The results of the present study provide a foundation for understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs), and for strategies to control these diseases in Turkey.

  6. Study of the role of Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and other microaerophilic and aerobic bacteria in uterine infections of mares with reproductive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeredi, L; Tenk, M; Schiller, I; Révész, T

    2003-01-01

    In six healthy mares and 24 mares showing reproductive disorders swab samples were taken from the fossa clitoridis to isolate Taylorella equigenitalis, and from the uterus to isolate mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and other aerobic bacteria. Swab samples were also taken from the uterus for Chlamydia antigen ELISA and Chlamydia PCR studies. The uterus of 27 mares was examined cytologically, and biopsy samples were taken from the endometrium for histological examinations and for immunohistochemical examinations aimed at the detection of chlamydiae. T. equigenitalis, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and chlamydiae could not be detected from any of the mares examined. Aerobic facultative pathogenic bacteria were isolated from mares with endometritis in four cases. In 18 out of 22 mares with endometritis (82%) no infective agents could be demonstrated. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relative importance of non-infectious causes of endometritis and of anaerobic bacteria often detectable in the uterus in the aetiology of the reproductive disorders observed.

  7. Atypical pathogen infection in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun; Fei, Aihua

    2016-02-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a world wide cause of morbidity and mortality. The etiology of CAP is different between countries and changes over time. With the increasing incidence, atypical pathogens are attracting more and more attention all over the world. In many countries, atypical pathogens are one of the main pathogens of CAP, and even could be the most prevalent etiology in China. Atypical pathogen infections can cause multi-system complications, which leads to a worse prognosis. Although still controversial, empirical antibiotic coverage of atypical pathogens in CAP may improve outcomes, shorten length of hospitalization, reduce mortality and lower total hospitalization costs. The macrolide resistance rate of atypical pathogens, especially Mycoplasma Pneumoniae (M. Pneumoniae) is high, so fluoroquinolones or tetracyclines should be considered as alternative therapy.

  8. Mycoplasma genitalium: Should We Treat and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, Jennifer M.; Golden, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with acute and chronic urethritis in men. Existing data on infection in women are limited and inconsistent but suggest that M. genitalium is associated with urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and possibly female infertility. Data are inconclusive regarding the role of M. genitalium in adverse pregnancy outcomes and ectopic pregnancy. Available data suggest that azithromycin is superior to doxycycline in treating M. genitalium infection. However, azithromycin-resistant infections have been reported in 3 continents, and the proportion of azithromycin-resistant M. genitalium infection is unknown. Moxifloxacin is the only drug that currently seems to uniformly eradicate M. genitalium. Detection of M. genitalium is hampered by the absence of a commercially available diagnostic test. Persons with persistent pelvic inflammatory disease or clinically significant persistent urethritis or cervicitis should be tested for M. genitalium, if possible. Infected persons who have not previously received azithromycin should receive that drug. Persons in whom azithromycin therapy fails should be treated with moxifloxicin. PMID:22080266

  9. Mycoplasma hominis in cervicitis and endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, J; Miettinen, A; Stevens, C E; Kiviat, N; Kuo, C C; Stamm, W E; Holmes, K K

    1983-01-01

    The presence of serum IgG antibody to Mycoplasma hominis was studied by enzyme immunoassay in 150 women with suspected cervicitis at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Positive levels of antibody were associated with gravidity and parity but not with age, method of birth control, or sexual behavior. Women from whom M. hominis was isolated had higher antibody levels than those from whom M. hominis was not isolated, regardless of the presence or absence of mucopurulent cervicitis. In women with mucopurulent cervicitis, M. hominis did not interact synergistically with Chlamydia trachomatis to affect the severity of cervicitis or the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on gram-stained cervical tissue. A striking association was found between plasma cell endometritis and the prevalence and level of serum antibody to M. hominis. Similarly, clinical findings suggesting endometritis were associated with the prevalence and level of this antibody. In contrast, endometritis was not associated with the isolation of M. hominis from the cervix, although it was associated with the isolation of C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Urethritis in male sexual partners of women with mucopurulent cervicitis was associated with the isolation of C. trachomatis but not of M. hominis from the women.

  10. Molecular analysis of an integrative conjugative element, ICEH, present in the chromosome of different strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Pinto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of bacterial species and pathotypes is largely caused by lateral gene transfer (LGT of diverse mobile DNA elements such as plasmids, phages, transposons and genomic islands. Thus, acquisition of new phenotypes by LGT is very important for bacterial evolution and relationship with hosts. This paper reports a 23 kb region containing fourteen CDSs with similarity to the previous described Integrative Conjugal Element of Mycoplasma fermentans (ICEF. This element, named ICEH, is present as one copy at distinct integration sites in the chromosome of 7448 and 232 pathogenic strains and is absent in the type strain J (non-pathogenic. Notable differences in the nucleotide composition of the insertion sites were detected, and could be correlated to a lack of specificity of the ICEH integrase. Although present in strains of the same organism, the ICEH elements are more divergent than the typical similarity between other chromosomal locus of Mycoplasma hyopneunomiae, suggesting an accelerated evolution of these constins or an ongoing process of degeneration, while maintaining conservation of the tra genes. An extrachromosomal form of this element had been detected in the 7448 strain, suggesting a possible involvement in its mobilization and transference of CDSs to new hosts.

  11. Mycoplasma genitalium: an emerging cause of sexually transmitted disease in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L McGowin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen. Over 27,000 women from 48 published reports have been screened for M. genitalium urogenital infection in high- or low-risk populations worldwide with an overall prevalence of 7.3% and 2.0%, respectively. M. genitalium was present in the general population at rates between those of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Considering more than 20 studies of lower tract inflammation, M. genitalium has been positively associated with urethritis, vaginal discharge, and microscopic signs of cervicitis and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge in seven of 14 studies. A consistent case definition of cervicitis is lacking and will be required for comprehensive understanding of these associations. Importantly, evidence for M. genitalium PID and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that a significant proportion of upper tract inflammation may be attributed to this elusive pathogen. Collectively, M. genitalium is highly prevalent in high- and low-risk populations, and should be considered an etiologic agent of select reproductive tract disease syndromes in women.

  12. Mycoplasma genitalium: an emerging cause of sexually transmitted disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowin, Chris L; Anderson-Smits, Colin

    2011-05-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen. Over 27,000 women from 48 published reports have been screened for M. genitalium urogenital infection in high- or low-risk populations worldwide with an overall prevalence of 7.3% and 2.0%, respectively. M. genitalium was present in the general population at rates between those of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Considering more than 20 studies of lower tract inflammation, M. genitalium has been positively associated with urethritis, vaginal discharge, and microscopic signs of cervicitis and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge in seven of 14 studies. A consistent case definition of cervicitis is lacking and will be required for comprehensive understanding of these associations. Importantly, evidence for M. genitalium PID and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that a significant proportion of upper tract inflammation may be attributed to this elusive pathogen. Collectively, M. genitalium is highly prevalent in high- and low-risk populations, and should be considered an etiologic agent of select reproductive tract disease syndromes in women.

  13. Nanotransformation of the haemotrophic Mycoplasma suis during in vitro cultivation attempts using modified cell free Mycoplasma media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Sabrina A; Hoelzle, Katharina; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hamburger, Anja; Wittenbrink, Max M; Kramer, Manuela M; Sokoli, Albina; Felder, Kathrin M; Groebel, Katrin; Hoelzle, Ludwig E

    2012-11-09

    Mycoplasma suis belongs to haemotrophic mycoplasmas (HMs) which cause infectious anaemia in a large variety of mammals. To date, no in vitro cultivation system for M. suis or other HMs has been established. We hypothesised that M. suis could grow in classical Mycoplasma media supplemented with nutrients (e.g. glucose, iron-binding proteins) which are naturally available from its host environment, the porcine blood. Blood from experimentally M. suis-infected pigs was used to inoculate either standard SP-4 Mycoplasma medium supplemented with iron-binding proteins (transferrin, haemin, and haemoglobin) or glucose-enriched Hayflick Mycoplasma medium. A quantitative M. suis-specific real-time PCR assay was applied to determine and quantify M. suis loads weekly during 12 week-incubation. The first 2 weeks after inoculation M. suis loads decreased remarkably and then persisted at a stationary level over the observation time of 12 weeks in iron-binding protein- or glucose supplemented media variants. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of liquid M. suis sub-cultures on Hayflick agar showed small, densely-packed microcolonies of irregular M. suis cells of reduced size (0.2-0.6μm) indicating nanotransformation. The partial 16S rDNA sequence of these cultured M. suis nanocells was 99.9% identical to M. suis. M. suis cells derived from liquid cultures interact in vitro with porcine erythrocytes by fibril-like structures. We conclude, that the modified Mycoplasma media used for M. suis cultivation are obviously unfavourable for growth but lead to culture persistence. M. suis adapt to inappropriate culture conditions by alteration into nanoforms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms in culture media and in bovine semen by photosensitive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaglesome, M D; Bielanski, A; Hare, W C; Ruhnke, H L

    1994-01-01

    The application of three photosensitive agents for disinfection of bovine semen was investigated. Bovine microbial pathogens suspended in tissue culture medium and/or PBS and also added to bovine semen were exposed to the photosensitive agents followed by irradiation. Hematoporphyrin, hematoporphyrin derivative and thiopyronine were effective against bovine herpes virus-1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Mycoplasma canadense, and Ureaplasma diversum in culture media. In addition, thiopyronine was effective against Leptospira pomona. Similar treatments were not effective against Leptospira hardjo, Mycoplasma bovis, or Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. When microorganisms were added to bovine semen, only bovine herpes virus-1 was controlled by the photosensitive agents used at concentrations which did not appear harmful to sperm cells.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the potential of highly pathogenic PRRS virus to modulate immune system activation related to host-pathogen and damage associated signaling in infected porcine monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the largest risks to the continued stability of the swine industry is by pathogens like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that can decimate production as it spreads among individuals. These infections can be low or highly pathogenic, and because it infects monocytic ...

  16. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  17. Outer membrane proteins of pathogenic spirochetes

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Paul A.; Haake, David A.; Adler, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes are the causative agents of several important diseases including syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, periodontal disease and some forms of relapsing fever. Spirochetal bacteria possess two membranes and the proteins present in the outer membrane are at the site of interaction with host tissue and the immune system. This review describes the current knowledge in the field of spirochetal outer membrane protein (OMP) biology. What is known concerning bi...

  18. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats from Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Lima, Clara; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Colella, Vito; Ravagnan, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico

    2017-06-20

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) have been increasingly reported in dogs and cats worldwide. However, no data are currently available regarding canine and feline VBDs in Qatar and limited information is available from other Persian Gulf countries. Blood samples from 98 client-owned animals (i.e. 64 dogs and 34 cats) living in Doha (Qatar) were collected and the presence of genomic DNA of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Dirofilaria spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time-PCR (rt-PCR) and sequence analysis. Of the 64 dogs, 12 (18.8%) were infected with at least one pathogen (i.e. 7.8% with Mycoplasma spp., 4.7% with Babesia vogeli, 3.1% with Ehrlichia canis, and 1.6% with Anaplasma platys, Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis, each). One of the 12 dogs was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis. Of the 34 cats, seven (20.6%) animals were infected with at least one pathogen (i.e. 5.9% were positive for Mycoplasma spp., and 2.9% for Babesia felis, B. vogeli, E. canis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" and Mycoplasma haemofelis, each). No dogs or cats were positive for Dirofilaria spp. or Rickettsia spp. Although the sample sizes of dogs and cats herein analysed was moderately small, data from this study report the occurrence of A. platys, B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, E. canis, H. canis and Mycoplasma spp. in domestic dogs and of B. felis, B. vogeli, "Candidatus M. haemominutum", E. canis and M. haemofelis in domestic cats from Qatar. Further investigations along with prophylactic measures are strongly recommended in order to reduce the risk of dogs and cats acquiring VBDs in Qatar.

  19. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  20. Mycoplasma haemocanis: Sub-clinical and haematological findings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the appearance of Mycoplasma haemocanis in a mongrel dog, which has been documented previously in different parts of the world, yet never in Nigeria. An apparently and clinically healthy mongrel was presented for Distemper, Hepatitis, Leptospirosis, Parvoviral enteritis, Parainfluenza (DHLPP) vaccination in ...

  1. Genomic and gene variation in Mycoplasma hominis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend

    1987-01-01

    DNAs from 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from various habitats, including strain PG21, were analyzed for genomic heterogeneity. DNA-DNA filter hybridization values were from 51 to 91%. Restriction endonuclease digestion patterns, analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, revealed no ide...

  2. Antigenic and genomic homogeneity of successive Mycoplasma hominis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, LT; Thorsen, P; Møller, B

    1998-01-01

    Sixty Mycoplasma hominis isolates were obtained from the cervices of pregnant women and from the ears or pharynges of their newborn babies. The isolates were examined by SDS-PAGE and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Antigenic and genomic profiles were obtained for 16 series with two or more...

  3. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Bo Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report one case of a three-year-old boy infected with Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP and presenting concomitant multiple organ damage of the heart, kidney, lung and liver, among others, together with a brief review for the diagnosis and treatment of MP infection with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS.

  4. The gram stain smear: A screening test for genital mycoplasmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result of 168 vaginal specimens from women examined for genital mycoplasmas showed that more of these organisms were isolated from specimens whose Gram stain smears were devoid of Gram positive bacilli (GPB) (43%) as against those whose smears contain GPB (22.1%). This result was found to be statistically ...

  5. Biosecurity and geospatial analysis of mycoplasma infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geospatial database of farm locations and biosecurity measures are essential to control disease outbreaks. A study was conducted to establish geospatial database on poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya, to evaluate the biosecurity level of each farm and to determine the seroprevalence of mycoplasma and ...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...

  7. Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae : A cause for community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality among the pediatric age group. Objectives: Our study was designed to know the prevalence of M. pneumoniae in children with community‑acquired pneumonia and the involvement in the cytoadherence to the respiratory ...

  8. Atypical pneumonia associated with a Mycoplasma isolate in a kitten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongrand, Yannick; Blais, Marie-Claude; Alexander, Kate

    2012-10-01

    An atypical case of Mycoplasma pneumonia with an unusual radiographic and computed tomographic pattern was diagnosed in a Siamese kitten. The cat showed no response to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy including enrofloxacin. The administration of doxycycline led to a dramatic clinical and radiographic improvement.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of genital Mycoplasmas among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to assess the infection rate of genital Mycoplasmas (MH and UU) among pregnant females and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to provide a provisional idea about the effectiveness of antibiotics used empirically to treat cases of genital infections in pregnant women. High vaginal swabs of 50 ...

  10. Mycoplasma mastitis in cattle: To cull or not to cull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Robin A J; Fox, Larry K; Lysnyansky, Inna

    2016-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma bovis, is a major problem for milk production and animal welfare in large dairy herds in the USA and a serious, although sporadic, disease in Europe and the Middle East. It causes severe damage to the udder of cattle and is largely untreatable by chemotherapy. Mycoplasma mastitis has a distinct epidemiology and a unique set of risk factors, the most important of which is large herd size. The disease is often self-limiting, disappearing within months of outbreaks, sometimes without deliberate intervention. Improved molecular diagnostic tests are leading to more rapid detection of mycoplasmas. Typing tests, such as multi-locus sequence typing, can help trace the source of outbreaks. An approach to successful control is proposed, which involves regular monitoring and rapid segregation or culling of infected cows. Serious consideration should be given by owners of healthy dairy herds to the purchase of M. bovis-free replacements. Increased cases of disease could occur in Europe and Israel if the trend for larger dairy herds continues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides (SC) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the isolation of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides (SC) in small ruminants and its implication on disease control was carried out in the Sahel zone of Nigeria. This was achieved by the examination of pneumonic lesions in apparently normal and affected lungs of sheep and goats slaughtered at ...

  12. Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by PCR-mediated DNA fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursi, D; Ieven, M; van Bever, H; Quint, W; Niesters, H G; Goossens, H

    1994-01-01

    PCR fingerprinting was used to characterize clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Among 24 strains tested, two types were distinguished. Nineteen strains belonged to type 1, whereas only 5 strains belonged to type 2. The majority of strains isolated since 1991 in Belgium belong to type 1. No

  13. Neuroinvasion by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschopulos, Michael; Hungerbuehler, Hansjoerg; Guarner, Jeannette; Genrich, Gillian L.; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2008-01-01

    We report the autopsy findings for a 45-year-old man with polyradiculoneuropathy and fatal acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after having Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. M. pneumoniae antigens were demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue, indicating neuroinvasion as an additional pathogenetic mechanism in central neurologic complications of M. pneumoniae infection. PMID:18394283

  14. In Vitro Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma putrefaciens Field Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, N. T.; Tavío, M. M.; Mercier, P.; Ayling, R. D.; Al-Momani, W.; Assunção, P.; Rosales, R. S.; Poveda, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    MICs were determined for 15 antimicrobial agents against 37 Mycoplasma putrefaciens isolates. The most effective antimicrobial drug classes were the fluoroquinolones, the tetracyclines, the lincosamide lincomycin, and the macrolides. The susceptibility profile of the isolates correlated with the geographic origin. This is the first report of decreased susceptibility to the macrolides, lincomycin, and the tetracyclines in M. putrefaciens strains. PMID:17638695

  15. Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: A cause for community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality among the pediatric age group. Objectives: Our study was designed to know the prevalence of M. pneumoniae in children with community‑acquired pneumonia and the involvement in the cytoadherence to the respiratory ...

  16. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China. ... Dairy cows with the history of 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (33.3%). However, no statistically significant association was found between M. bovis infection and age or number of pregnancies (p > 0.05). All the ...

  17. Massive empyema caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in an adult: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Merav

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae is responsible for more than 20% of community acquired pneumonia cases, and capable of causing upper respiratory illness as well. Complications of M.pneumoniae infections include CNS involvement but other as pericarditis were also reported. The lack of feasible culture methods and under appreciation of the pathogens ability to cause invasive disease leads to reduced number of diagnosed M.pneumoniae related complications. In contrast to many other respiratory pathogens causing pneumonia, M. pneumoniae related severe pleural complications were almost never reported. Case presentation We report a previously healthy 57 years old woman presented with indolent massive right pleural effusion, leukocytosis and elevated ESR. Extensive microbiological evaluation didn't reveal any pathogen in the pus even before antibiotic treatment was started. Surprisingly, M.pneumoniae DNA was detected in the pus from the empyema using PCR designed to detect M.pneumoniae. A serological assay (Serodia-Myco II using convalescent serum was indeterminate with a titer of 1:80. The patient responded well to a treatment that included right thoracotomy with pleural decortication and a combination of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medications. Conclusion M.pneumoniae related empyema was never reported before in adult patients and was reported in only a few pediatric patients. In our patient there was no evidence to any common pathogens even before initiating antibiotic treatment. The only pathogen detected was M.pneumoniae. In this patient, serology was not helpful in establishing the diagnosis of M.pneumoniae related diseases, as was suggested before for older patients. We suggest that M.pneumoniae related empyema is probably under-diagnosed complication due to insensitivity of serology in older patients and under use of other diagnosis methods.

  18. Occurrence, quantification, and genotyping of Mycoplasma conjunctivae in wild Caprinae with and without infectious keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrot, Fabien; Vilei, Edy M; Marreros, Nelson; Signer, Claudio; Frey, Joachim; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Mycoplasma conjunctivae, the causative agent of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC), was recently detected in asymptomatic Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). This suggested that an external source of infection may not be required for an IKC outbreak in wildlife but might be initiated by healthy carriers, which contradicted previous serologic investigations in chamois. Our aims were to 1) assess the prevalence of M. conjunctivae among asymptomatic ibex and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra) and its frequency in IKC-affected animals, 2) determine mycoplasma loads in different disease stages, and 3) characterize the M. conjunctivae strains involved. Eye swabs from 654 asymptomatic and 204 symptomatic animals were collected in diverse Swiss regions between 2008 and 2010, and tested by TaqMan real-time PCR. Data analysis was performed considering various patterns of IKC occurrence in the respective sampling regions. Strains from 24 animals were compared by cluster analysis. Prevalence of M. conjunctivae was 5.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-8.1%) in asymptomatic ibex and 5.8% (CI: 3.0-9.9%) in asymptomatic chamois, with significant differences between years and regions in both species. Detection frequency in symptomatic animals was significantly higher during IKC outbreaks than in nonepidemic situations (i.e., regular but low incidence or sporadic occurrence). Mycoplasma load was significantly lower in eyes from healthy carriers and animals with mild signs than from animals with moderate and severe signs. Although some strains were found in both asymptomatic and diseased animals of the same species, others apparently differed in their pathogenic potential depending on the infected species. Overall, we found a widespread occurrence of M. conjunctivae in wild Caprinae with and without IKC signs. Our results confirm the central role of M. conjunctivae in outbreaks but suggest that other infectious agents may be involved in IKC cases in nonepidemic

  19. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  20. Comparison of detection procedures of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis in lungs, tonsils, and synovial fluid of slaughtered pigs and their distributions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhanon, Metta; Tummaruk, Padet; Thongkamkoon, Pacharee; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct PCR (DP) gave similar results to culture prior to PCR (CPP) for detecting mycoplasmas in different types of pig tissues. A total of 724 samples obtained from lungs, tonsils, or synovial fluids from 270 slaughtered pigs were used. The history of clinical signs, lung score, and the presence of joint lesions were recorded during sample collection. The rates of detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis using both procedures were evaluated. The overall prevalences of M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyosynoviae, and M. hyorhinis were 40.3%, 12.3%, and 64.6%, respectively, and the detection rate depended on the sample type and the procedure used. With lung tissue, DP gave a higher detection rate for M. hyopneumoniae (77.4%) than CPP (38.5%). M. hyorhinis was detected by CPP at 15.6% and 18.1% and by DP at 31.5% and 5.2%, respectively. The positive rate derived from tonsil from CPP was closed to that of DP. Using synovial fluid could not yield any positive M. hyorhinis from CPP whereas 37.2% was positive from DP. In contrast, using sample tissue from lung and tonsil by CPP could show much higher positive number than that of DP. There was a significant relationship between joint lesion and M. hyorhinis detection by DP (P hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis detection by DP and CPP, respectively. Tonsil was likely the community of persistent M. hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis with highly detection by CPP. Synovial fluid was apparently unsuitable for mycoplasmal culture. The accuracy of mycoplasmal detection may depend upon the type of sample relevant to the detection procedure used.

  1. [Rapid identification of meningitis due to bacterial pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Kimiko

    2013-01-01

    We constructed a new real-time PCR method to detect causative pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patient due to bacterial meningitis. The eight pathogens targeted in the PCR are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aurues, Neisseria meningitides, Listeria monocytogenes, Esherichia coli, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The total time from DNA extraction from CSF to PCR analysis was 1.5 hour. The pathogens were detected in 72% of the CSF samples (n=115) by real-time PCR, but in only 48% by culture, although the microorganisms were completely concordant. The detection rate of pathogens with PCR was significantly better than that with cultures in patients with antibiotic administration.In conclusion, detection with real-time PCR is useful for rapidly identifying the causative pathogens of meningitis and for examining the clinical course of chemotherapy.

  2. [Validation of the Kit for Detecting Mycoplasma Genitalium from the Male Urethritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Thi LE, Phuong; Fujimoto, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the pathogenic microorganisms in male urethritis as a sexually transmitted infection (STI). M.genitalium is detected in the urine specimens of 15-25% male patients with urethritis. The emergence of macrolide- or fluoroquinolone-resistant M.genitalium has become a serious problem in the treatment of male urethritis worldwide, but there is no commercial-based detecting kits accepted by the national insurance in Japan. In this study, we tested the validity of a molecular kit for detecting seven microorganisms related to STI (Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection which detects Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, M.genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Trichomonas vaginalis) produced by Seegene company in Korea. Seventeen M.genitalium strains were used to determine the detection limit of M.genitalium. M.genitalium DNA samples were extracted from M.genitalium strains and the diluted DNA samples were reacted to detect M.genitalium by the Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection. The detection limit was determined as the maximum dilution of DNA samples and the number of M.genitalium DNA copies calculated. In this study, the minimum DNA copies to detect M.genitalium by the Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection was determined to be around 50 per reaction. The detection rates of M.genitalium in urine specimens were compared between MgPa gene PCR and the Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection. The positive and negative concordant rates were high as 96.4% (27/28) and 98.6% (71/72), respectively. The validity of the kit for detecting seven microorganisms related to STI (Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection) was high and thought to be useful for clinical uses.

  3. The immune response of bovine mammary epithelial cells to live or heat-inactivated Mycoplasma bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, Christina; Pilo, Paola; Frey, Joachim; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Wellnitz, Olga

    2015-09-30

    Mycoplasma bovis is an emerging bacterial agent causing bovine mastitis. Although these cell wall-free bacteria lack classical virulence factors, they are able to activate the immune system of the host. However, effects on the bovine mammary immune system are not yet well characterized and detailed knowledge would improve the prevention and therapy of mycoplasmal mastitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenic effects of M. bovis on the mammary gland in an established primary bovine mammary epithelial cell (bMEC) culture system. Primary bMEC of four different cows were challenged with live and heat-inactivated M. bovis strain JF4278 isolated from acute bovine mastitis, as well as with the type strain PG45. The immune response was evaluated 6 and 24h after mycoplasmal challenge by measuring the relative mRNA expression of selected immune factors by quantitative PCR. M. bovis triggered an immune response in bMEC, reflected by the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, lactoferrin, Toll-like receptor-2, RANTES, and serum amyloid A mRNA. Interestingly, this cellular reaction was only observed in response to live, but not to heat-inactivated M. bovis, in contrast to other bacterial pathogens of mastitis such as Staphylococcus aureus. This study provides evidence that bMEC exhibit a strong inflammatory reaction in response to live M. bovis. The lack of a cellular response to heat-inactivated M. bovis supports the current hypothesis that mycoplasmas activate the immune system through secreted secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in broiler breeder farms of Tehran province using PCR and culture methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhamnia, F.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae (MS is an important avian pathogen that can cause both respiratory disease and joint inflammation synovitis in poultry, inducing economic losses to the Iranian chicken industry especially breeder farms. The aim of this study was to use the MS specific PCR and culture methods in order to detect of M. synoviae from breeder farms where located in Tehran province. A total of 475 samples including choanal cleft, trachea, ovary and /or joint cavities from 23 broiler breeder farms of Tehran area were collected. Samples were cultured in PPLO broth media supplemented for MS isolation. The bacteria DNAs were extracted by phenol/chloroform method. Specific published primers amplify a 207 bp region of the 16S rRNA gene of MS were used for PCR method. Out of 475 samples, 146 cultures were shown positive and typical Mycoplasma colonies, 85 samples were also identified MS based on agglutination test with specific MS antiserum and the PCR method. A total of 122 samples, a band with 207 bp was shown as MS specific PCR product in electrophoresis. In addition to these 85 samples that were positives in both culture and PCR, 37 samples that had not grown in Mycoplasma media were positive in MS specific PCR. A total of 292 samples were negatives in both culture and PCR methods. 122 positive samples out of 475 samples (25.7% were belonged to 7 breeder farms (30.4%. On conclusions, the MS infection of broiler breeder farms of Tehran area was confirmed truly. From the results, as the PCR method reduces the time consuming, an effectiveness and efficient for detection of M. synoviae infection of chicken breeder. It is then suggested that the PCR method could be an alternative method for culturing.

  5. Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, FEB 17 (2017), s. 255-279 ISSN 2165-8102 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09296S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : swine * pre-immune antibody repertoire * ileal Peyer's patches Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2016

  6. Pathogenesis and transmission of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus in ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J. Munster (Vincent); E. de Wit (Emmie); J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); S. Herfst (Sander); E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe swine-origin A(H1N1) influenza virus that has emerged in humans in early 2009 has raised concerns about pandemic developments. In a ferret pathogenesis and transmission model, the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus was found to be more pathogenic than a seasonal A(H1N1) virus, with more

  7. Evaluation of a PCR multiplex for detection and differentiation of Mycoplasma synoviae, M. gallisepticum, and M. gallisepticum strain F-vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mettifogo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS are the mycoplasma infections of most concern for commercial poultry industry. MG infection is commonly designated as chronic respiratory disease (CRD of chickens and infections sinusitis of turkeys. MS causes sub clinical upper respiratory infection and tenosynovitis or bursitis in chickens and turkeys. The multiplex PCR was standardized to detect simultaneously the MS, MG field strains and MG F-vaccine strain specific. The generic PCR for detection of any species of Mollicutes Class was performed and compared to the multiplex PCR and to PCR using species-specific primers. A total of 129 avian tracheal swabs were collected from broiler-breeders, layer hens and broilers in seven different farms and were examined by multiplex PCR methods. The system (multiplex PCR demonstrated to be very rapid, sensitive, and specific. Therefore, the results showed a high prevalence of MS in the flocks examined (27.9%, and indicate that the MS is a recurrent pathogen in Brazilian commercial poultry flocks.

  8. Antibody levels to hepatitis E virus in North Carolina swine workers, non-swine workers, swine, and murids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mark R; Correa, Maria T; Morrow, Morgan; Stebbins, Martha E; Seriwatana, Jitvimol; Webster, W David; Boak, Marshall B; Vaughn, David W

    2002-04-01

    In a cross-sectional serosurvey, eastern North Carolina swine workers (n = 165) were compared with non-swine workers (127) for the presence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus as measured by a quantitative immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using a cutoff of 20 Walter Reed U/ml, swine-exposed subjects had a 4.5-fold higher antibody prevalence (10.9%) than unexposed subjects (2.4%). No evidence of past clinical hepatitis E or unexplained jaundice could be elicited. Swine (84) and mice (61), from farm sites in the same region as exposed subjects, were also tested. Antibody prevalence in swine (overall = 34.5%) varied widely (10.0-91.7%) according to site, but no antibody was detected in mice. Our data contribute to the accumulating evidence that hepatitis E may be a zoonosis and specifically to the concept of it as an occupational infection of livestock workers.

  9. Mycoplasma Suppression of THP-1 Cell TLR Responses Is Corrected with Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharova, Ekaterina; Grandhi, Jaykumar; Wewers, Mark D.; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is a serious problem in research, altering cellular response to different stimuli thus compromising experimental results. We found that chronic mycoplasma contamination of THP-1 cells suppresses responses of THP-1 cells to TLR stimuli. For example, E. coli LPS induced IL-1 beta was suppressed by 6 fold and IL-8 by 10 fold in mycoplasma positive THP-1 cells. Responses to live F. novicida challenge were suppressed by 50-fold and 40-fold respective...

  10. Detection of hepatitis E virus and other livestock-related pathogens in Iowa streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Carrie E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Duris, Joseph W.; Moorman, Thomas B.; Spencer, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    Manure application is a source of pathogens to the environment. Through overland runoff and tile drainage, zoonotic pathogens can contaminate surface water and streambed sediment and could affect both wildlife and human health. This study examined the environmental occurrence of gene markers for livestock-related bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens and antibiotic resistance in surface waters within the South Fork Iowa River basin before and after periods of swine manure application on agricultural land. Increased concentrations of indicator bacteria after manure application exceeding Iowa's state bacteria water quality standards suggest that swine manure contributes to diminished water quality and may pose a risk to human health. Additionally, the occurrence of HEV and numerous bacterial pathogen genes for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus in both manure samples and in corresponding surface water following periods of manure application suggests a potential role for swine in the spreading of zoonotic pathogens to the surrounding environment. During this study, several zoonotic pathogens were detected including Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, pathogenic enterococci, and S. aureus; all of which can pose mild to serious health risks to swine, humans, and other wildlife. This research provides the foundational understanding required for future assessment of the risk to environmental health from livestock-related zoonotic pathogen exposures in this region. This information could also be important for maintaining swine herd biosecurity and protecting the health of wildlife near swine facilities.

  11. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  12. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... swine contract library will be made available to the public? GIPSA will summarize the information it has...

  13. Common sulfoglycolipid receptor for mycoplasmas involved in animal and human infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingwood, C A; Quinn, P A; Wilansky, S; Nutikka, A; Ruhnke, H L; Miller, R B

    1990-10-01

    Sulfoglycolipids are ubiquitous components of the male germ cell membrane. Sulfogalactoglycerolipid (SGG) is restricted to mammalian cells and has recently been implicated in sperm/egg interactions. Mycoplasma infections have been implicated in infertility in a variety of species, including humans. Four such species-specific mycoplasmas, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis (humans), Mycoplasma pulmonis (rodents), and Ureaplasma diversum (cattle) are not shown to specifically recognize SGG and the sphingolipid counterpart, sulfogalactosyl ceramide. This glycolipid receptor binding may relate to the reproductive pathogenesis of these organisms.

  14. The distribution of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas in the genital tract of normal artificial insemination bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, N A; Rosendal, S; Miller, R B

    1985-01-01

    Bull semen is commonly contaminated with mycoplasmas. To determine the source of contamination, semen and the genital tracts of 45 artificial insemination bulls were cultured for these organisms. The results indicate that mycoplasmas colonize the prepuce and the distal part of the urethra. Only rarely were they found in the ampullae or seminal vesicles. In 92% of the bulls with contaminated semen the same Mycoplasma species or Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from the prepuce and urethral orifice as was found in the semen. This suggests that the prepuce and distal urethra is the source of contamination. Colonization of the genital tracts with Mycoplasmas or U. diversum was not associated with histological changes.

  15. Meningitis in a Chinese adult patient caused by Mycoplasma hominis: a rare infection and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Menglan; Wang, Peng; Chen, Sharon; Du, Bin; Du, Jinlong; Wang, Fengdan; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Yingchun

    2016-10-12

    Mycoplasma hominis, a well known cause of neonatal infection, has been reported as a pathogen in urogenital infections in adults; however, central nervous system (CNS) infections are rare. We report here the first case of M. hominis meningitis in China, post neurosurgical treatment for an intracerebral haemorrhage in a 71-year-old male. We describe a 71-year-old man who developed M. hominis meningitis after neurosurgical treatment and was successfully treated with combined azithromycin and minocycline therapy of 2 weeks duration, despite delayed treatment because the Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) yielded no visible organisms. The diagnosis required 16S rDNA sequencing analysis of the cultured isolate from CSF. Literature review of M. hominis CNS infections yielded 19 cases (13 instances of brain abscess, 3 of meningitis, 1 spinal cord abscess and 1 subdural empyema each). Delay in diagnosis and initial treatment failure was evident in all cases. With appropriate microbiological testing, antibiotic therapy (ranging from 5 days to 12 weeks) and often, multiple surgical interventions, almost all the patients improved immediately. Both our patient findings and the literature review, highlighted the pathogenic potential of M. hominis together with the challenges prompted by rare infectious diseases in particular for developing countries laboratories with limited diagnostic resources.

  16. Post-translational processing targets functionally diverse proteins in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchi, Jessica L; Raymond, Benjamin B A; Haynes, Paul A; Berry, Iain J; Widjaja, Michael; Bogema, Daniel R; Woolley, Lauren K; Jenkins, Cheryl; Minion, F Chris; Padula, Matthew P; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2016-02-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a genome-reduced, cell wall-less, bacterial pathogen with a predicted coding capacity of less than 700 proteins and is one of the smallest self-replicating pathogens. The cell surface of M. hyopneumoniae is extensively modified by processing events that target the P97 and P102 adhesin families. Here, we present analyses of the proteome of M. hyopneumoniae-type strain J using protein-centric approaches (one- and two-dimensional GeLC-MS/MS) that enabled us to focus on global processing events in this species. While these approaches only identified 52% of the predicted proteome (347 proteins), our analyses identified 35 surface-associated proteins with widely divergent functions that were targets of unusual endoproteolytic processing events, including cell adhesins, lipoproteins and proteins with canonical functions in the cytosol that moonlight on the cell surface. Affinity chromatography assays that separately used heparin, fibronectin, actin and host epithelial cell surface proteins as bait recovered cleavage products derived from these processed proteins, suggesting these fragments interact directly with the bait proteins and display previously unrecognized adhesive functions. We hypothesize that protein processing is underestimated as a post-translational modification in genome-reduced bacteria and prokaryotes more broadly, and represents an important mechanism for creating cell surface protein diversity. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. Attenuated Phenotype of a Recent House Finch-Associated Mycoplasma gallisepticum Isolate in Domestic Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, K; Tulman, E R; Beaudet, J; Liao, X; Dhondt, K V; Dhondt, A A; Hawley, D M; Ley, D H; Kerr, K M; Geary, S J

    2017-06-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum , known primarily as a respiratory pathogen of domestic poultry, has emerged since 1994 as a significant pathogen of the house finch ( Haemorhous mexicanus ) causing severe conjunctivitis and mortality. House finch-associated M. gallisepticum (HFMG) spread rapidly and increased in virulence for the finch host in the eastern United States. In the current study, we assessed virulence in domestic poultry with two temporally distant, and yet geographically consistent, HFMG isolates which differ in virulence for house finches-Virginia 1994 (VA1994), the index isolate of the epidemic, and Virginia 2013 (VA2013), a recent isolate of increased house finch virulence. Here we report a significant difference between VA1994 and VA2013 in their levels of virulence for chickens; notably, this difference correlated inversely to the difference in their levels of virulence for house finches. VA1994, while moderately virulent in house finches, displayed significant virulence in the chicken respiratory tract. VA2013, while highly virulent in the house finch, was significantly attenuated in chickens relative to VA1994, displaying less-severe pathological lesions in, and reduced bacterial recovery from, the respiratory tract. Overall, these data indicate that a recent isolate of HFMG is greatly attenuated in the chicken host relative to the index isolate, notably demonstrating a virulence phenotype in chickens inversely related to that in the finch host. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Clinico-pathological study of atypical pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Goda, Tarek

    2009-04-30

    Atypical respiratory pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella species, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are isolated with increasing frequency from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study highlights the importance of organisms responsible for CAP. One hundred consecutive patients with clinically and radiographically diagnosed CAP were evaluated from October 2005 to October 2006. Sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, and blood samples were collected for microbiological culture. Determination was performed for specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) for Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Coxiella burnettii, adenovirus, and influenza virus. The most common isolated bacteria was Streptococcus pneumoniae (22%) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (18%). Mycoplasma pneumoniae was isolated from 5% and Legionella pneumophila was isolated from 5% of patients. The most common positive serological reaction was for Chlamydia pneumoniae (30%) and Adenovirus (30%). In the study of accuracy of determination of specific IgM for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila compared to culture, the sensitivity was 60% and 80% respectively, specificity was 93.7 %, and 98.9 % respectively, and accuracy was 92 % and 97 % respectively. This study highlights the prominence of mixed bacterial/viral infections in lower respiratory tract infection diagnosis. Our data showed that at least 30% of our patients had concurrent infections. This observation raises two important questions: 1) whether sequential or concurrent viral and bacterial infections have a synergistic impact on the evolution of disease in children; and 2) should diagnostic batteries for any patient with CAP include methods for detecting both the typical and atypical bacterial or viral pathogens.

  19. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Main Porcine Infectious Pathogens in Wild Boars in Some Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABORENKO, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of testing 107 serum samples from wild boars (Sus scrofa L., 1758 for thepresence of antibodies to six economically significant porcine infectious disease agents (porcinereproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS virus, porcine parvovirus (PPV, swine influenza virus(SIV of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes, Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV, porcine transmissiblegastroenteritis virus (TGEV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are presented in the paper. Wild boarwere sampled in seven regions of Russia for diagnostic purposes. The obtained results showed thepresence of antibodies to ADV in 32.5% of samples (83/27, to PPV – in 62% of samples (92/57, toMycoplasma hyopneumoniae – in 52% of samples (98/51. All samples were seronegative to PRRSvirus (107/0, TGEV (91/0 and SIV of H1N1 (89/0 and H3N2 (58/0 subtypes. The researchesdemonstrated the extensive circulation of porcine parvovirus, Aujeszky’s disease virus andMycoplasma hyopneumoniae among Wild boar in some regions of Russia.

  20. Detection and antibiotic treatment of Mycoplasma arginini contamination in a mouse epithelial cell line restore normal cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslett, Brianna; Nag, Subhra; Resnick, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is difficult to detect by routine observation. Infected cells can display normal morphology and the slow growth rate of mycoplasma can delay detection for extended periods of time, compromising experimental results. Positive identification of mycoplasma typically requires cells to be either fixed and stained for DNA or processed with PCR. We present a method to detect mycoplasma using live-cell optical microscopy typically used for routine observation of cell cultures. Images of untreated mycoplasma-infected epithelial cells alongside images of infected cells treated with Plasmocin, a commercially available antibiotic targeted to mycoplasma, are shown. We found that optical imaging is an effective screening tool for detection of mycoplasma contamination. Importantly, we found that cells regained normal function after the contamination was cleared. In conclusion, we present a technique to diagnose probable mycoplasma infections in live cultures without fixation, resulting in faster response times and decreased loss of cell material.

  1. Detection and Antibiotic Treatment of Mycoplasma arginini Contamination in a Mouse Epithelial Cell Line Restore Normal Cell Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Boslett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is difficult to detect by routine observation. Infected cells can display normal morphology and the slow growth rate of mycoplasma can delay detection for extended periods of time, compromising experimental results. Positive identification of mycoplasma typically requires cells to be either fixed and stained for DNA or processed with PCR. We present a method to detect mycoplasma using live-cell optical microscopy typically used for routine observation of cell cultures. Images of untreated mycoplasma-infected epithelial cells alongside images of infected cells treated with Plasmocin, a commercially available antibiotic targeted to mycoplasma, are shown. We found that optical imaging is an effective screening tool for detection of mycoplasma contamination. Importantly, we found that cells regained normal function after the contamination was cleared. In conclusion, we present a technique to diagnose probable mycoplasma infections in live cultures without fixation, resulting in faster response times and decreased loss of cell material.

  2. Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in wild felines from Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mello Ribeiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoplasma infections are emerging and wild fauna can represent an important reservoir of these pathogens. However, there are very few epidemiological studies about the occurrence of hemoplasmas in wild cats around the world. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1 evaluate the occurrence and phylogeny of hemoplasmas in captive wild felines at a zoo in the state of Paraná, Brazil, and (2 verify the correlation between subpopulations of these bacteria and the hematological and biochemical parameters of the animals. PCR was used to detect hemoplasmas in the blood of three cougars (Puma concolor, a jaguar (Panthera onca, a tiger (Panthera tigris and a lion (Panthera leo, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The cougars and jaguar were found to be hemoplasma-positive by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences enabled the identification of genotypes of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ circulating in this zoo. The identified sequences were closely related to hemoplasma sequences originating from domestic cats and other wild cats, but the infected cougars and jaguar were healthy and showed no hematological or biochemical changes. It was concluded that P. concolor and P. onca are exposed to ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in Paraná, but further research is suggested to assess the resistance of wild cats to different hemoplasma subpopulations.

  3. Relevant prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum serogroups in HIV-1 infected men without urethritis symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORDOVA Caio Mauricio Mendes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available M. hominis and U. urealyticum are the better-known mycoplasma species pathogenic to the human genitourinary tract, causing mainly urethritis, bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy complications. In HIV-infected patients, the prevalence and role of these species is still not well known. The aim of this work was to determinate the prevalence of these species in this group of male patients (HIV group, in comparison to a group of men with clinical symptoms of urethritis (STD group. M. hominis was isolated from 7.5% patients (8/106 and U. urealyticum from 18.9% patients (20/106 from the HIV group, being among these 62.5% and 85% in significant concentrations, respectively. In the STD group these rates were 0.9% (1/110 for M. hominis and 13.6% (15/110 for U. urealyticum, being 100% and 93.3% in significant concentrations, respectively. We could demonstrate infection rates by these mycoplasma species in the HIV group as high as the one found in the STD one, what may indicate the occurrence of opportunistic infections in our population. This fact is discussed here because in immunosuppressed patients, specially M. hominis has been reported causing severe infections, even systemically.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from clinically healthy swine in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Megid, Jane; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. This study is the first to report on the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis isolated from clinically healthy pigs in Brazil; the fourth major pork producer in the world. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 260 strains was determined by disc diffusion method. Strains were commonly susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, and florfenicol, with more than 80% of the strains being susceptible to these antimicrobi...

  5. The Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae recombinant heat shock protein P42 induces an immune response in pigs under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Sérgio; de Oliveira, Natasha Rodrigues; Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Fisch, Andressa; Gomes, Charles Klazer; Hartleben, Cláudia Pinho; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP), resulting from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection is one of the most prevalent diseases in pigs and is a major cause of economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. EP is often controlled by vaccination with inactivated, adjuvanted whole-cell bacterin. However, these bacterins provide only partial protection and do not prevent M. hyopneumoniae colonization. Attempts to develop vaccines that are more efficient have made use of the recombinant DNA technology. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of recombinant M. hyopneumoniae heat shock protein P42 in vaccine preparations against EP, using piglets housed under field conditions in a M. hyopneumoniae-positive farm. The cellular and humoral immune responses were elicited after a single intramuscular inoculation of rP42 in an oil-based adjuvant, or in conjunction with whole-cell vaccine preparation. The production of INF-γ and IL-10 cytokines was quantified in the supernatant of the cultured mononuclear cells. The rP42 emulsified in oil-based adjuvant was able to trigger a strong humoral immune response. Further, it induced a cellular immune response, accompanied by the production of antibodies that reacted with the native M. hyopneumoniae protein. The rP42 mediated induction of cellular and humoral immune response in the host suggests that rP42 emulsified in an oil-based adjuvant holds promise as an effective recombinant subunit vaccine against EP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic evolution of recently emerged novel human-like swine H3 influenza A viruses (IAV) in United States swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in swine. IAV transmission from humans to swine is a major contributor to swine IAV diversity. In 2012, a novel H3N2 with an HA (hu-H3) and NA derived from human seasonal H3N2 was detected in United States (US) swine. The h...

  7. Mastite bovina por Mycoplasma bovis em rebanhos leiteiros Mastitis caused by Mycoplasma bovis in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne G. Pretto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinadas 713 vacas de três rebanhos leiteiros localizados na região norte do Estado do Paraná e sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, das quais 137 apresentaram mastite. Nas três propriedades foram detectados oito animais (1,12% com mastite clínica por Mycoplasma bovis. Destes animais, quatro tratados com oxitetraciclina e tilosina e três com enrofloxacina, não responderam ao tratamento e foram descartados no decorrer da lactação. Uma vaca medicada com enrofloxacina recuperou quase que totalmente a secreção láctea mas a eliminação de M. bovis persistiu por toda lactação. Esta vaca apresentou cura bacteriológica na lactação seguinte. O descarte dos animais positivos, monitora-mento bacteriológico e a aplicação correta das medidas de prevenção para as mastites contagiosas controlaram a disseminação de M. bovis nos rebanhos.In this study 713 cows were examined. The animals were from three dairy farms in northern Paraná and the southwest of the State of São Paulo. From these cows, 137 had mastitis. On the three farms, 8 cows (1.12% with Mycoplasma bovis mastitis were detected. Four were treated with tylosin and oxytetracyclin and three with enrofloxacin. There was no response to the treatments, and these animals were culled during the lactation period. One cow treated with enrofloxacin almost totally recovered milk production, but elimination of M. bovis continued during the lactation, and there was no bacteriological cure. This cow had a normal milk production in the next lactation period, without elimination of M. bovis. Culling of positive animals, the bacteriological study and correct application of preventive practices for contagious mastitis controlled the dissemination of M. bovis to other animals.

  8. Detection and Antibiotic Treatment of Mycoplasma arginini Contamination in a Mouse Epithelial Cell Line Restore Normal Cell Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Boslett, Brianna; Nag, Subhra; Resnick, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is difficult to detect by routine observation. Infected cells can display normal morphology and the slow growth rate of mycoplasma can delay detection for extended periods of time, compromising experimental results. Positive identification of mycoplasma typically requires cells to be either fixed and stained for DNA or processed with PCR. We present a method to detect mycoplasma using live-cell optical microscopy typically used for routine obser...

  9. Co-infections with Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis in a human immunodeficiency virus positive woman with vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Dhawan, Benu

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected woman presented with vaginal discharge and associated vulval irritation. The vaginal swabs tested positive for Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis by both culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The specimen also tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by cryptic plasmid and omp1 gene PCR assays. The patient was successfully treated with azithromycin based on the antibiotic susceptibility testing results of U. parvum and M. hominis by microbroth dilution. Since sexually transmitted infections enhance the transmission of HIV, HIV-positive patients should be screened routinely for these pathogens.

  10. Apoptosis induced by lipid-associated membrane proteins from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in a porcine lung epithelial cell line with the involvement of caspase 3 and the MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, B; Bai, F F; Wei, Y; Liu, M J; Feng, Z X; Xiong, Q Y; Hua, L Z; Shao, G Q

    2015-09-25

    Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) are important in the pathogenicity of the Mycoplasma genus of bacteria. We investigated whether Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae LAMPs have pathogenic potential by inducing apoptosis in a St. Jude porcine lung epithelial cell line (SJPL). LAMPs from a pathogenic strain of M. hyopneumoniae (strain 232) were used in the research. Our investigation made use of diamidino-phenylindole (DAPI) and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, and Annexin-V-propidium iodide staining. After LAMP treatment for 24 h, typical changes were induced, chromosomes were concentrated, apoptotic bodies were observed, the 3'-OH groups of cleaved genomes were exposed, and the percentage of apoptotic cells reached 36.5 ± 11.66%. Caspase 3 and caspase 8 were activated and cytochrome c (cyt c) was released from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm; poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) was digested into two fragments; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was phosphorylated; and the expression of pro-apoptosis protein Bax increased while the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 decreased. LAMPs also stimulated SJPL cells to produce nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide. This study demonstrated that LAMPs from M. hyopneumoniae can induce apoptosis in SJPL cells through the activation of caspase 3, caspase 8, cyt c, Bax, and p38 MAPK, thereby contributing to our understanding of the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae, which should improve the treatment of M. hyopneumoniae infections.

  11. Risk for interspecies transmission of zoonotic pathogens during poultry processing and pork production in Peru: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, A M; Kitayama, K; Diaz, D A; Garvich, M; Angulo, N; Cama, V A; Gilman, R H; Bayer, A M

    2018-03-30

    Interspecies transmission of pathogens is an unfrequent but naturally occurring event and human activities may favour opportunities not previously reported. Reassortment of zoonotic pathogens like influenza A virus can result from these activities. Recently, swine and birds have played a central role as "mixing vessels" for epidemic and pandemic events related to strains like H1N1 and H5N1. Unsafe practices in poultry markets and swine farms can lead to interspecies transmission, favouring the emergence of novel strains. Thus, understanding practices that lead to interspecies interactions is crucial. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate poultry processing practices in formal and informal markets and the use of leftovers by swine farmers in three Peruvian cities: Lima (capital), Tumbes (coastal) and Tarapoto (jungle). We conducted 80 direct observations at formal and informal markets and interviewed 15 swine farmers. Processors slaughter and pluck chickens and vendors and/or processors eviscerate chickens. Food safety and hygiene practices were suboptimal or absent, although some heterogeneity was observed between cities and chicken vendors versus processors. Both vendors (76%) and processors (100%) sold the chicken viscera leftovers to swine farmers, representing the main source of chicken viscera for swine farms (53%). Swine farmers fed the chicken viscera to their swine. Chicken viscera cooking times varied widely and were insufficient in some cases. Non-abattoired poultry leads to the sale of poultry leftovers to small-scale swine farms, resulting in indirect but frequent interspecies contacts that can lead to interspecies transmission of bacterial pathogens or the reassortment of influenza A viruses. These interactions are exacerbated by suboptimal safety and hygiene conditions. People involved in these activities constitute an at-risk population who could play a central role in preventing the transmission of pathogens between species. Educational

  12. Acute pancreatitis caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: an unusual etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Lacasa, Teresa; Duarte Borges, María Alejandra; García Marín, Alicia; Gómez Cuervo, Covadonga

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that the most important etiologies of acute pancreatitis are gallstones and alcohol consumption. Once these causes have been ruled out, especially in young adults, it is important to consider less frequent etiologic factors such as drugs, trauma, malformations, autoimmunity or systemic diseases. Other rare and less well studied causes of this pathology are infections, among which Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been reported to cause acute pancreatitis as an unusual extrapulmonary manifestation. Here, we report the case of a 21-year-old patient who had acute idiopathic pancreatitis associated with an upper respiratory tract infection. After an in-depth study, all other causes of pancreatitis were ruled out and Mycoplasma was established as the clinical etiology.

  13. [Detection of antibodies to mycoplasmas using an immunoenzyme method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájková, M; Jurmanová, K

    1986-08-01

    Detection of the antibodies to the species Mycoplasma bovis in the serum and milk of dairy cows coming from a mastitis-infected herd is a good example of utilization of the ELISA immunoenzymologic method in the mycoplasmology. Examining the samples from 75 dairy cows and applying the indirect hemagglutination test, good correlation of the results of the two tests was determined. The antibodies to the species Ureaplasma diversum were demonstrated by the ELISA method both in the bovine serum and in the milk of dairy cows infected slightly with mastitis. We chosen that strain which detected the maximum titres in the selected samples of the sera out of four antigens prepared from various strains of U. diversum. Rabbit sera hyperimmune to 26 strains of the mycoplasmas of various species were used to identify two antigens (after removing the antibodies to the components of the media). Specific reaction was obtained with the antisera to M. hyorhinis and M. arginini.

  14. [The sorption of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides by Mycoplasma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, O V; Panchenko, L P; Skripal', I G

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with kinetics of binding of antisense oligodesoxyribonucleotides, complementary to certain sequences 16 S RNA of mollicutes, by the cells of three representatives of class Mollicutes: Acholeplasma laidlawii PG-8. Mycoplasma pneumoniae FH and M. fermentans PG-18. It is shown that binding of antisense oligonucleotides by the mollicute cells depends on temperature and age of cultures. The highest level of sorption of labelled antisense oligodesoxyribonucleotides by the cells of mycoplasmas corresponded to the phase of logarithmic growth of each of the studied mollicute strains. The lengthening of nucleotide chain from 5 to 15 nucleotide bases did not result in the decrease of sorption of the studied oligodesoxyribonucleotides by the mollicute cells.

  15. Epidemic of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Denmark, 2010 and 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldum, S A; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Denmark experienced two waves of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection during autumn and early winter in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Both affected the whole country. The proportion of positive results was almost the same for both, indicating that the two waves were probably of equal size. High macroli...... consumption during the epidemics did not seem to affect levels of macrolide resistance in M. pneumoniae, which remain low in Demark (1% to 3%)....

  16. Isolation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae from the human urogenital tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Goulet, M; Dular, R; Tully, J G; Billowes, G; Kasatiya, S

    1995-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common etiologic agent of lower respiratory tract infections in humans. However, it has been reported previously that the organism has occasionally been isolated from sites other than the oropharynx and respiratory tract. We report the isolation of 24 strains of M. pneumoniae from urogenital specimens obtained from 22 female patients. Most isolates were of cervical origin from patients attending several local gynecological clinics over a 2-year period. Strains were ...

  17. The effect of antibiotics against bovine mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, R B; Ruhnke, H L

    1984-04-01

    A combination of lincomycin-spectinomycin-tylosin was tested against several strains of mycoplasmas and acholeplasmas as might be encountered in bovine semen and shown to be effective against them. This combination as well as minocin , rosaramicin, rosoxacin, tiamulin, gentamicin and declomycin were tested in vitro against 58 isolates of ureaplasma from the bovine urogenital tract. The lincomycin-spectinomycin-tylosin combination, minocin , rosaramicin, tiamulin and declomycin were quite active, while rosoxacin and gentamicin were much less active against the test strains.

  18. Atypical Pneumonia: Updates on Legionella, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lokesh; Losier, Ashley; Tolbert, Thomas; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Marion, Chad R

    2017-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has multiple causes and is associated with illness that requires admission to the hospital and mortality. The causes of atypical CAP include Legionella species, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma. Atypical CAP remains a diagnostic challenge and, therefore, likely is undertreated. This article reviews the advancements in the evaluation and treatment of patients and discusses current conflicts and controversies of atypical CAP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cell Cultures with Plasmocin

    OpenAIRE

    Uphoff, Cord C.; Denkmann, Sabine-A.; Drexler, Hans G.

    2012-01-01

    A high percentage of cell lines are chronically infected with various mycoplasma species. The addition of antibiotics that are particularly effective against these contaminants to the culture medium during a limited period of time is a simple, inexpensive, and very practical approach for decontaminating cell cultures. Here, we examined the effectiveness of the new antimycoplasma compound Plasmocin that has been employed routinely to cleanse chronically infected cell lines. In a first round of...

  20. [Mycoplasma sp. isolation in sick and normal cats (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campedelli Filho, O

    1977-01-01

    This paper deals with the presence of mycoplasmosis in sick and normal cats lodged by U.I.P.A. (União Internacional de Proteçäo aos Animais) São Paulo, Brazil. In a group of 78 cats, 10.41% of mycoplasma was found in sick cats and 0% in normal cats, in a total of 6,41% of positive cases.

  1. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vienna R. Brown

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV, which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.

  2. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Vienna R.; Bevins, Sarah N.

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar) densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation. PMID:29468165

  3. Hemotropic mycoplasma infection in wild black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Takehiro; Suzuki, Jin; Sasaoka, Fumina; Sashida, Hinako; Watanabe, Yusaku; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Nagai, Kazuya; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-04-12

    This is the first report on Mycoplasma infection in wild bears. We report a novel hemotropic Mycoplasma (also called hemoplasma) detected in a free-ranging black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) in Japan. We then used real-time PCR to look for hemoplasma DNA in blood samples collected from 15 bears and found that eight (53%) were positive. Among these eight PCR samples, seven showed a melting temperature of around 85.5°C, while the remaining one showed a single peak at 82.26°C. Almost the entire region of the 16S rRNA gene as well as the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region from the sample that showed a melting temperature of 82.26°C was successfully amplified by means of end-point PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the ITS region were then determined and compared with those of authentic Mycoplasma species. Our examinations revealed the presence of a novel hemoplasma in Japanese black bears. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hemotropic Mycoplasmas in Stray Cats in Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Hosseini Hooshyar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:     Feline haemotropic mycoplasma are a group of pleomorphic bacteria causing hemolytic anemia along with anorexia, lethargy, dehydration, weight loss and in many cases sudden death in infected animal. However, there is a limited data on the prevalence of these organisms in Iranian cats. Methods:    We investigated the presence of feline haemotropic mycoplasma and probable risk factors for these infections among 60 ectoparasite-infested stray cats in southeast of Iran using PCR assay. Results:     The overall prevalence of haemotropic mycoplasma was estimated 18.3%. Pallor mucous membrane, anorexia, weight loss and splenomegaly were the most common signs and the infection rate was significantly higher in symptomatic cats in comparison with apparently healthy ones (P = 0.001. Age, gender and hematological alterations were not significantly associated with infection status while the level of BUN, creatinine, total protein and globulin were significantly higher among infected animals.Conclusion:    The prevalence of feline hemoplasma infection in stray cats seems to be considerable in our study. More investigations are needed to obtain further information on epidemiological aspects of hemoplasmas in cats in Iran.

  5. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water sa...

  6. The cholesterol system of the swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, Jocelyne

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic system of adult female Large White swine. The content of this system and its relationships with both the external environment and between the different parts of the system were explained. The analysis of these results in terms of compared physiology showed that the structure of the cholesterol system was the same in man and in the swine. Consequently, the swine constitutes a good biological tool to study human cholesterol indirectly and to foresee the changes that might be induced in various physio-pathological cases. (author) [fr

  7. Heterogeneity of Mycoplasma hominis as detected by a probe for atp genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, C; Christiansen, Gunna; Rasmussen, OF

    1987-01-01

    Use of a plasmid containing part of the atp operon of Mycoplasma PG50 as a probe in Southern blots show that this region can be used to detect the presence of Mycoplasma species in general. DNA from 14 different strains of M. hominis was analyzed for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP...

  8. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of cattle and goats in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A microbiological study of the mycoplasma flora in the respiratory tracts of cattle and goats in selected regions of Tanzania is described. In the examination of cattle, mycoplasmas were isolated from 60 (17.8%) of the 338 examined lung samples, 8 (47.1%) of the 17 lymph nodes, 4 (13.3%) of the 30...

  9. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  10. Prevalence of canine infectious respiratory pathogens in asymptomatic dogs presented at US animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavan, R; Knesl, O

    2015-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of nine canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) pathogens in asymptomatic dogs presented at animal shelters across the United States. Ocular and oronasal swabs from asymptomatic dogs (n = 503) were tested using qPCR assay for Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus type 1 (CHV), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Mycoplasma cynos and Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus. A total of 240 (47.7%) asymptomatic dogs were PCR-positive for at least one CIRD pathogen. Prevalence of two-, three-, four-, and five-pathogen cases was 12.7, 3.8, 1.8, and 0.4%, respectively. Mycoplasma cynos (29.2%), B. bronchiseptica (19.5%), CAV-2 (12.5%), CDV (7.4%) and CPIV (3.2%) were the most commonly detected pathogens. The prevalence of traditional and newly emerging pathogens associated with CIRD is poorly defined in clinically healthy dogs. This study determined that a high percentage of asymptomatic shelter dogs harbor CIRD pathogens, including the newly emerging pathogen M. cynos and the historically prevalent pathogen B. bronchiseptica. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Clinical Features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections in the 2010 Epidemic Season: Report of Two Cases with Unusual Presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Takei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp is one of the main pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in young individuals. Host immune response appears to play an important role in prolonged symptoms, as well as in the recent increasing prevalence of drug-resistant Mp isolated from patients. Case 1 had a prolonged clinical course caused by drug-resistant Mp and received steroid therapy despite Mp susceptibility to some antimicrobial agents. Serum cytokine profiles revealed elevation of interleukin-6/-10 and interferon-γ in acute phase. Case 2 had mycoplasmal myocarditis without any respiratory symptoms, which resolved spontaneously without the administration of any antimicrobial agent. These observations suggest that host immune response probably contributes to the etiology of Mp-associated complications.

  12. Efficacy of tulathromycin in the treatment of bovine respiratory disease associated with induced Mycoplasma bovis infections in young dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Kevin S; Rae, Al; Windsor, G David; Tilt, Nicola; Rowan, Tim G; Sunderland, Simon J

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of tulathromycin in the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) due to Mycoplasma bovis was determined following experimental infection. Two highly pathogenic strains of M. bovis (with minimum inhibitory concentration values for tulathromycin of 1 and >64 microg/ml) were inoculated into 145 calves. Four days after inoculation, calves with clinical BRD were treated subcutaneously with saline or tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg). Compared with saline, BRD-related withdrawals, peak rectal temperatures, and lung lesion scores were significantly lower for tulathromycin-treated calves (P BRD due to M. bovis in calves regardless of the minimum inhibitory concentration of the challenge strain (1 or >64 microg/ml).

  13. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  14. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  15. Prior infection of pigs with a genotype 3 swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) protects against subsequent challenges with homologous and heterologous genotypes 3 and 4 human HEV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Brenton J; Dryman, Barbara A; Huang, Yao-Wei; Feagins, Alicia R; Leroith, Tanya; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen. At least four recognized and two putative genotypes of mammalian HEV have been reported: genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic. The current experimental vaccines are all based on a single strain of HEV, even though multiple genotypes of HEV are co-circulating in some countries and thus an individual may be exposed to more than one genotype. Genotypes 3 and 4 swine HEV is widespread in pigs and known to infect humans. Therefore, it is important to know if prior infection with a genotype 3 swine HEV will confer protective immunity against subsequent exposure to genotypes 3 and 4 human and swine HEV. In this study, specific-pathogen-free pigs were divided into 4 groups of 6 each. Pigs in the three treatment groups were each inoculated with a genotype 3 swine HEV, and 12 weeks later, challenged with the same genotype 3 swine HEV, a genotype 3 human HEV, and a genotype 4 human HEV, respectively. The control group was inoculated and challenged with PBS buffer. Weekly sera from all pigs were tested for HEV RNA and IgG anti-HEV, and weekly fecal samples were also tested for HEV RNA. The pigs inoculated with swine HEV became infected as evidenced by fecal virus shedding and viremia, and the majority of pigs also developed IgG anti-HEV prior to challenge at 12 weeks post-inoculation. After challenge, viremia was not detected and only two pigs challenged with swine HEV had 1-week fecal virus shedding, suggesting that prior infection with a genotype 3 swine HEV prevented pigs from developing viremia and fecal virus shedding after challenges with homologous and heterologous genotypes 3 and 4 HEV. The results from this study have important implications for future development of an effective HEV vaccine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Virulence-associated genes, antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing of Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from swine from 2000 to 2012 in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F; Medeiros, M I C; Kich, J D; Falcão, J P

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the pathogenic potential, antimicrobial resistance and genotypic diversity of Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated in Brazil from swine (22) and the surrounding swine environment (5) from 2000 to 2012 and compare them to the profiles of 43 human strains isolated from 1983 to 2010, which had been previously studied. The presence of 12 SPI-1, SPI-2 and plasmid genes was assessed by PCR, the antimicrobial susceptibility to 13 antimicrobials was determined by the disc diffusion assay and genotyping was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and ERIC-PCR. More than 77·8% of the swine strains carried 10 or more of the virulence markers. Ten (37%) strains isolated from swine were multi-drug resistant (MDR). All the molecular typing techniques grouped the strains in two main clusters. Some strains isolated from swine and humans were allocated together in the PFGE-B2, MLVA-A1, MLVA-B and ERIC-A1 clusters. The genotyping results suggest that some strains isolated from swine and humans may descend from a common subtype and may indicate a possible risk of MDR S. Typhimurium with high frequency of virulence genes isolated from swine to contaminate humans in Brazil. This study provided new information about the pathogenic potential, antimicrobial resistance and genotypic diversity of S. Typhimurium isolates from swine origin in Brazil, the fourth largest producer of pigs worldwide. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. A multi-laboratory profile of Mycoplasma contamination in Lawsonia intracellularis cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Jeong-Min

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the routine laboratory cultivation of Lawsonia intracellularis, Mycoplasma contamination has been a frequent problem. When Mycoplasma contamination occurs in laboratories that study L. intracellularis, the cultures must be discarded for 4 reasons: 1 Mycoplasma is inevitably concentrated along with L. intracellularis during the passage of L. intracellularis; 2 Mycoplasma inhibits the growth of L. intracellularis; and 3 it is impossible to selectively eliminate Mycoplasma in L. intracellularis cultures. In this study, we observed the contamination of Mycoplasma species during L. intracellularis cultivation among multiple laboratories. Results The presence of a Mycoplasma infection in the L. intracellularis cultures was verified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and a sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes was performed. A PCR-based assay using genus-specific universal primers revealed that 29 (85.3% of the 34 cultures were contaminated with Mycoplasma, including 26 with M. hyorhinis (89.2%, 2 with M. orale (6.9%, and 1 with M. fermentans (3.4%. The Mycoplasma contamination was not the result of infection with material of pig origin. McCoy cells, which are required for the cultivation of L. intracellularis, were also ruled out as the source of the Mycoplasma contamination. Conclusions In this study, M. hyorhinis was identified as the most common mollicute that contaminated L. intracellularis cultures. Whether L. intracellularis enhances the biological properties of Mycoplasma to promote infection in McCoy cells is not known. Because the McCoy cell line stocks that were used simultaneously were all negative for Mycoplasma, and the same worker handled both the McCoy cells to maintain the bacteria and the L. intracellularis cultures, it is possible that the L. intracellularis cultures are more vulnerable to Mycoplasma contamination. Taken together, these results suggest that continuous cultures of L

  18. The microbial load with genital mycoplasmas correlates with the degree of histologic chorioamnionitis in preterm PROM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Pliskova, Lenka; Bolehovska, Radka; Musilova, Ivana; Hornychova, Helena; Tambor, Vojtech; Jacobsson, Bo

    2011-09-01

    We sought to determine whether there is an association between bacterial load of genital mycoplasmas and histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). A total of 103 women with PPROM between 24-36 weeks of gestation were included in the study. Amniocenteses were performed, and the amounts of target genital mycoplasma DNA in amniotic fluid samples were evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The bacterial load of the genital mycoplasmas was relatively assessed using the threshold cycle value. The presence of genital mycoplasmas in amniotic fluid was found in 38% (39/103) of the women. The presence of HCA was associated with lower threshold cycle values (median 21.3, interquartile range, 16.5-28.5, vs median 29.4, interquartile range, 27.0-30.5; P = .005). HCA in PPROM is associated with a higher bacterial load of genital mycoplasmas. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Atypical pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Zafar, Afia; Salahuddin, Nawal; Haque, Ahmed Suleman; Waheed, Shahan; Khan, Javaid Ahmed

    2012-07-01

    To determine the frequency of community-acquired respiratory pathogens with special focus on atypical organisms in patients presenting to a tertiary care facility with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The descriptive study on adult patients was conducted from February 2007 to March 2008 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. It comprised 124 consenting patients of age 16 and above who presentd with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. The diagnostic modalities used were based on significant changes in antibody titer or persisting high antibody titers in the case of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chalmydia pneumoniae infections, or bacterial antigen in urine, in the case of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 infection. Pyogenic bacteria were identified on the results of respiratory secretions or blood cultures. Continuous data and categorical variables were worked out using SPSS version 15. Among the 124 patients enrolled, an etiologic agent was identified in 44 (35.4%) patients. The most common organism was Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 21, 17%), followed by Chlamydia pneumoniae (n = 15, 12%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 9, 7%), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 2, 1.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 2, 1.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 1, 0.8%). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common organism isolated from blood cultures. No cases of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 were identified. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chalmydia pneumoniae are significant etiologic agents for community-acquired pneumonia occurring in Karachi. Local treatment guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia should include therapy directed specifically at these agents.

  20. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley C Henderson

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains.

  1. Species-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies to Escherichia coli-Expressed p36 Cytosolic Protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, J.; Sawyer, N.; Moumen, B. Ben Abdel; Bouh, K. Cheikh Saad; Dea, S.

    2000-01-01

    The p36 protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a cytosolic protein carrying species-specific antigenic determinants. Based on the genomic sequence of the reference strain ATCC 25934, primers were designed for PCR amplification of the p36-encoding gene (948 bp). These primers were shown to be specific to M. hyopneumoniae since no DNA amplicons could be obtained with other mycoplasma species and pathogenic bacteria that commonly colonize the porcine respiratory tract. The amplified p36 gene was subcloned into the pGEX-4T-1 vector to be expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST). The GST-p36 recombinant fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and cut by thrombin, and the enriched p36 protein was used to immunize female BALB/c mice for the production of anti-p36 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The polypeptide specificity of the nine MAbs obtained was confirmed by Western immunoblotting with cell lysates prepared from the homologous strain. Cross-reactivity studies of the anti-p36 MAbs towards two other M. hyopneumoniae reference strains (ATCC 25095 and J strains) and Quebec field strains that had been isolated in culture suggested that these anti-p36 MAbs were directed against a highly conserved epitope, or closely located epitopes, of the p36 protein. No reactivity was demonstrated against other mycoplasma species tested. Clinical signs and lesions suggestive of enzootic pneumonia were reproduced in specific-pathogen-free pigs infected experimentally with a virulent Quebec field strain (IAF-DM9827) of M. hyopneumoniae. The bacteria could be recovered from lung homogenates of pigs that were killed after the 3-week observation period by both PCR and cultivation procedures. Furthermore, the anti-p36 MAbs permitted effective detection by indirect immunofluorescence of M. hyopneumoniae in frozen lung sections from experimentally infected pigs. However, attempts to use the recombinant p36 protein as an antigen in an

  2. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  3. Isolation of Mycoplasma gallopavonis from free-ranging wild turkeys in coastal North Carolina seropositive and culture-negative for Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, D T; Ley, D H; Doerr, P D

    1992-01-01

    Serum samples and choanal cleft swabs were collected from livetrapped and hunter killed wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from Martin and Bertie counties, North Carolina (USA). Sera were tested for antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma meleagridis by hemagglutination inhibition (HI). Sera from 33% (five of 15) of livetrapped turkeys were positive for antibodies to M. gallisepticum by HI, and all were negative for antibodies to M. synoviae and M. meleagridis. Choanal cleft swabs from 22 livertrapped and five hunter killed wild turkeys cultured in Frey's broth medium resulted in 23 mycoplasma isolations. Using direct immunofluorescence, 74% (17/23) were M. gallopavonis, and 26% (six of 23) were unidentified; no isolate was identified as M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae or M. meleagridis.

  4. Identification of peptides from foot‐and‐mouth disease virus structural proteins bound by class I swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) alleles, SLA‐1*0401 and SLA‐2*0401

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Harndahl, M.; Nielsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the peptide‐binding specificity of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I and II molecules is critical to the understanding of adaptive immune responses of swine toward infectious pathogens. Here, we describe the complete binding motif of the SLA‐2*0401 molecule based on a posi......Characterization of the peptide‐binding specificity of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I and II molecules is critical to the understanding of adaptive immune responses of swine toward infectious pathogens. Here, we describe the complete binding motif of the SLA‐2*0401 molecule based...... within the structural proteins of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV), strain A24 were analyzed as candidate T‐cell epitopes. Peptides predicted by the NetMHCpan were tested in ELISA for binding to the SLA‐1*0401 and SLA‐2*0401 major histocompatibility complex class I proteins. Four of the 10 predicted...

  5. Nosocomial pathogens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    remains an important problem in intensive care units. Hospital wards had been shown to act as reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms associated with infection. To assess the prevalence of pathogenic organisms in the environment of the neonatal unit, 92 swabs were randomly collected from cots, incubators and various ...

  6. Chitosan-adjuvanted Mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin via intraocular administration enhances Mycoplasma gallisepticum protection in commercial layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsatanun, A; Sasipreeyajan, J; Pakpinyo, S

    2018-02-15

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) causes respiratory signs and economic losses in the poultry industry. MG vaccination is one of the effective prevention and control measures that have been used around the world. Our previous study demonstrated that chitosan-adjuvanted MG bacterin could effectively reduce pathological lesions induced by MG and that chitosan could be used as an adjuvant in MG bacterin. The present study determining the efficacy of MG bacterins against the Thai MG strain was based on vaccine programs. Seven groups (25 layers/group) were received MG bacterins containing 0.5% chitosan or a commercial bacterin via intramuscular (IM) or intraocular (IO) route at 6 and 10 wk of age. Sham-negative and sham-positive controls were groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group 3: IM route of chitosan bacterin followed by IM route of chitosan bacterin; group 4: commercial bacterin via IM route followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route; group 5: commercial bacterin via IM route followed by commercial bacterin via IM route; group 6: chitosan bacterin via IM followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route; and group 7: chitosan bacterin via IO route followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route were determined. At 16 wk of age, all groups, excluding group 1, were challenged intratracheally with 0.1 mL containing Thai MG strain 107 colony-forming unit. At 17, 18, and 20 wk of age, 5 birds in each group were bled for serological testing and swabbed at the choanal cleft for the quantitative real-time PCR assay, the euthanized and necropsied. The results showed that birds vaccinated with a commercial intramuscular bacterin followed by an intraocularly chitosan adjuvant bacterin showed the best protection against the MG challenge. The study indicated that chitosan could be the effective mucosal adjuvant and increased the effectiveness of MG bacterin.

  7. Results of Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay to Identify Urethritis Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sarıer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR test applied to identify the pathogens in male patients who attended our urology clinic with a pre-diagnosis of urethritis related with sexual intercourse. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included a total of 91 male patients, who sought medical advice in our clinic between August 2015 and October 2016 due to complaints of urethral discharge, dysuria and urethral itching, having a visible urethral discharge during the physical examination or a positive leukocyte esterase test (Combur-Test®-Roche in the first urine sample. In the urethral swab samples of these patients, urethritis pathogens were searched with a multiplex PCR test. The multiplex PCR kit, which is able to identify nine pathogens and produced by PathoFinder® (Holland, was used in the process. The pathogens that could be detected by the kit were Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, and Candida albicans. Results: The average age of the subjects was 35.1 (19-57 years. Sixty one out of 91 patients (67% were found to have a pathogen in the urethral swab sample. In 45 patients (49.4%, only one pathogen, in 12 (13.1% - two different pathogens and in 4 (4.3% patients, 3 different pathogens were detected. The pathogens found were as follows: Ureaplasma urealyticum in 22 patients (27.1%, Gardnerella vaginalis in 15 (18.6%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 13 (16.1%, Mycoplasma genitalium (10 patients; 12.3%, Mycoplasma hominis (8 patients; 9.9%, Chlamydia trachomatis (8 patients; 9.9%, Trichomonas vaginalis (3 patients; 3.8%, and Candida albicans (2 patients; 2.4%. None of the patients were identified with Treponema pallidum. None of the pathogens were identified in 30 patients (32.9% whose samples were examined by PCR method. Conclusion

  8. 1998 BUSINESS ANALYSIS SUMMARY FOR SWINE FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Nott, Sherrill B.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a summary of the financial and production records kept by swine farmers enrolled in the Telfarm/MicroTel record program through Michigan State University Extension. This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on swine farms during 1997; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide information on the trends in resource use, income and costs during the last few years.

  9. Swine plasma immunoglobulins for prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea: Optimizing stability towards gut conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Ballegaard, Anne-Sofie; Røjel, Nanna

    immunisation) prevent and treat post-weaning diarrhoea. Our challenge is to find a suitable method for stabilising the immunoglobulins for oral provision in order for the immunoglobulins to pass as unharmed as possible through the digestive system and still retaining their anti-pathogenic properties. What we...... immunity towards these pathogens, which include pathogen-specific immunoglobulins (antibodies). We hypothesis that by harvesting natural immunoglobulins from porcine blood plasma, a waste product from swine slaughter, and feeding these immunoglobulins to the piglets this can subsequently (by passive...

  10. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  11. Development and application of a multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection of 4 major bacterial pathogens in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, B; Cha, S-Y; Kang, M; Park, I-J; Moon, O-K; Park, C-K; Jang, H-K

    2013-05-01

    Infections with Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella enterica, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Escherichia coli result in high morbidity and mortality, which cause significant economic loss in the poultry industry. It can be difficult to distinguish these pathogens based on clinical signs because these pathogens can cause similar clinical signs and coinfections can occur. Thus, rapid and sensitive detection of these 4 major bacterial pathogens are important in ducks. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay for simultaneously detecting and identifying these 4 pathogenic bacteria in a single tube reaction. The target genes used were KMT1 of P. multocida, the invasion protein gene of S. enterica, 16S rDNA of R. anatipestifer, and the alkaline phosphatase gene of E. coli. The detection limit of the assay for all bacterial DNA was 10 pg. The mPCR did not produce any nonspecific amplification products when tested against other related pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Mycoplasma gallinarum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum, which can also infect ducks. We applied mPCR to field samples, and the results were the same as the single PCR results. These results suggest that mPCR for the 4 bacteria is a useful and rapid technique to apply to field samples.

  12. Characteristics of Yorkshire swine natural killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.; Botticelli, G.; Confer, F.L.; Pinto, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Since natural killer (NK) cells have a role in immune surveillance, they are important to consider in disease pathogenesis and resistance. We examined cell aspects responsible for NK cell mediated cytotoxicity in Yorkshire swine. Using cell separation procedures, peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined for reactivity to a panel of tumor targets, kinetics of lysis, morphology, surface receptor characteristics and response to immunoregulators. YAC-1 lymphoma and K-562 myeloid leukemia cells were sensitive to swine NK cells; whereas, several other tumor lines were not. In kinetic studies, swine NK cells were slower in initiation of the lytic process than cells responsible for NK activity in other species; small agranular lymphocytes are responsible for this activity in swine. These cells were examined for the presence of a surface marker, asialo GM1, which is common to NK cells in several other species. Swine NK cells respond to an interferon inducer, poly I:C, with enhanced NK activity. Cells in Yorkshire swine have characteristics which are unique but also have characteristics common to NK cells in other species

  13. Feral Swine in the United States Have Been Exposed to both Avian and Swine Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brigitte E; Sun, Hailiang; Carrel, Margaret; Cunningham, Fred L; Baroch, John A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Young, Sean G; Schmit, Brandon; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lutman, Mark W; Pedersen, Kerri; Lager, Kelly; Bowman, Andrew S; Slemons, Richard D; Smith, David R; DeLiberto, Thomas; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During the period from 2010 to 2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 U.S. states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4.9%) samples were IAV antibody positive. Among 294 serum samples selected for antigenic characterization, 271 cross-reacted with ≥1 tested virus, whereas the other 23 did not cross-react with any tested virus. Of the 271 IAV-positive samples, 236 cross-reacted with swine IAVs, 1 with avian IAVs, and 16 with avian and swine IAVs, indicating that feral swine had been exposed to both swine and avian IAVs but predominantly to swine IAVs. Our findings suggest that feral swine could potentially be infected with both avian and swine IAVs, generating novel IAVs by hosting and reassorting IAVs from wild birds and domestic swine and facilitating adaptation of avian IAVs to other hosts, including humans, before their spillover. Continued surveillance to monitor the distribution and antigenic diversities of IAVs in feral swine is necessary to increase our understanding of the natural history of IAVs. IMPORTANCE There are more than 5 million feral swine distributed across at least 35 states in the United States. In contrast to domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have unique opportunities for contact with wildlife, livestock, and their habitats. Our serological results indicate that feral swine in the United States have been exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs) consistent with those found in both domestic swine and wild birds, with the predominant infections consisting of swine-adapted IAVs

  14. Proteomic analysis of tylosin-resistant Mycoplasma gallisepticum reveals enzymatic activities associated with resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xi; Wu, Congming; Cui, Yaowen; Kang, Mengjiao; Li, Xiaowei; Ding, Shuangyang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2015-11-20

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a significant pathogenic bacterium that infects poultry, causing chronic respiratory disease and sinusitis in chickens and turkeys, respectively. M. gallisepticum infection poses a substantial economic threat to the poultry industry, and this threat is made worse by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. The mechanisms of resistance are often difficult to determine; for example, little is known about antibiotic resistance of M. gallisepticum at the proteome level. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic analyses of an antibiotic (tylosin)-resistant M. gallisepticum mutant and a susceptible parent strain using a combination of two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Thirteen proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the resistant strain compared to the susceptible strain. Most of these proteins were related to catalytic activity, including catalysis that promotes the formylation of initiator tRNA and energy production. Elongation factors Tu and G were over-expressed in the resistant strains, and this could promote the binding of tRNA to ribosomes and catalyze ribosomal translocation, the coordinated movement of tRNA, and conformational changes in the ribosome. Taken together, our results indicate that M. gallisepticum develops resistance to tylosin by regulating associated enzymatic activities.

  15. Efficacy of early Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination against mixed respiratory disease in older fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo Sacristán, R; Sierens, A; Marchioro, S B; Vangroenweghe, F; Jourquin, J; Labarque, G; Haesebrouck, F; Maes, D

    2014-02-22

    The present field study investigated the efficacy of early Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination in a farrow-to-finish pig herd with respiratory disease late in the fattening period due to combined infections with M hyopneumoniae and viral pathogens. Five hundred and forty piglets were randomly divided into three groups of 180 piglets each: two groups were vaccinated (Stellamune Once) at either 7 (V1) or 21 days of age (V2), and a third group was left non-vaccinated (NV). The three treatment groups were housed in different pens within the same compartment during the nursery period, and were housed in different but identical compartments during the fattening period. The efficacy was evaluated using performance and pneumonia lesions. The average daily weight gain during the fattening period was 19 (V1) and 18 g/day (V2) higher in both vaccinated groups when compared with the NV group. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The prevalence of pneumonia was significantly lower in both vaccinated groups (V1: 71.5 and V2: 67.1 per cent) when compared with the NV group (80.2 per cent) (Ppneumonia lesions were significantly reduced and growth losses numerically (not statistically significant) decreased by both vaccination schedules.

  16. Effect of gatifloxacin against Mycoplasma genitalium-related urethritis: an open clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Hayami, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Soichi; Tomono, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis are the primary pathogens detected from non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). In this study, the efficacy of gatifloxacin was examined against M genitalium-related urethritis. Methods The study was an open clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of gatifloxacin with 200 mg doses twice a day for 7 days against male NGU. Results Between March and September 2008, 169 male patients were enrolled, and microbiological and clinical cure rates could be evaluated in 86 patients detected with C trachomatis or M genitalium and in 135 with NGU, respectively. Microbiological cure rates of gatifloxacin against C trachomatis and M genitalium were 100% and 83%, respectively, and the total clinical cure rate was 99%. Conclusion Analysis of in-vivo and in-vitro data from the literature of fluoroquinolone efficacies against M genitalium suggests that a MIC90 of 0.125 μg/ml or less may be useful for optimal activity against M genitalium infection. PMID:21531704

  17. In silico Structural and Functional Annotation of Mycoplasma genitalium Hypothetical Protein MG_377

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Paul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium, a Gram-positive sexually transmitted pathogen, has been associated with urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. The complete sequence of the M. genitalium G37 genome revealed that it consists of 94 hypothetical proteins with unknown function in addition to functional proteins. In the present study, the MG_377 hypothetical protein of M. genitalium was selected for analyzing and modeling by different bioinformatics tools and databases. According to primary and secondary structure analyses, MG_377 is a stable hydrophilic protein containing a significant proportion of α-helices; besides, it is a cytoplasmic protein based on subcellular localization predictions. Homology modeling method was applied to generate its 3D structure using SWISS-MODEL server where the template PDB 1ZXJ with 84.4% sequence identity with the hypothetical protein was exploited. Several evaluations of quality assessment and validation parameters specified the generated protein model as reliable with fairly good quality. Functional genomics analysis carried out by InterProScan, Pfam and NCBI-CDD suggested that the hypothetical protein may contain Trigger factor/SurA domain. Moreover, comparative genomics analysis recommended MG_377 as a non-homologous protein essential for the organism. Further experimental validation would help to identify the actual function of MG_377 as well as to confirm the utility of the protein as drug targets.

  18. Mycoplasma genitalium in Spain: prevalence of genital infection and frequency of resistance to macrolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, Alejandra; Kusters, Johannes G; Severs, Tim T; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infection and the resistance to macrolides within a general population in Madrid in 2015. We collected 359 urine samples from a general population with symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). All samples underwent a real-time PCR. For the detection of macrolide resistance, a 283bp fragment of region V of the 23S rRNA gene of M. genitalium was amplified and sequenced. We found a prevalence of 3.34% of M. genitalium and a macrolide resistance rate of 20%. In males, the prevalence was 6.62% and in women 0.96%, being significantly higher in males. The prevalence obtained shows that it is a pathogen to consider in our environment. These findings stress the need for routine testing of M. genitalium infections and would seem to suggest the advisability of resistance testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Dissecting the energy metabolism in Mycoplasma pneumoniae through genome-scale metabolic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodke, Judith A H; Puchałka, Jacek; Lluch-Senar, Maria; Marcos, Josep; Yus, Eva; Godinho, Miguel; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo; dos Santos, Vitor A P Martins; Serrano, Luis; Klipp, Edda; Maier, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a threatening pathogen with a minimal genome, is a model organism for bacterial systems biology for which substantial experimental information is available. With the goal of understanding the complex interactions underlying its metabolism, we analyzed and characterized the metabolic network of M. pneumoniae in great detail, integrating data from different omics analyses under a range of conditions into a constraint-based model backbone. Iterating model predictions, hypothesis generation, experimental testing, and model refinement, we accurately curated the network and quantitatively explored the energy metabolism. In contrast to other bacteria, M. pneumoniae uses most of its energy for maintenance tasks instead of growth. We show that in highly linear networks the prediction of flux distributions for different growth times allows analysis of time-dependent changes, albeit using a static model. By performing an in silico knock-out study as well as analyzing flux distributions in single and double mutant phenotypes, we demonstrated that the model accurately represents the metabolism of M. pneumoniae. The experimentally validated model provides a solid basis for understanding its metabolic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23549481

  20. Peptide-based Polyclonal Antibody Production against P110 Protein of Mycoplasma genitalium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Omid; Irajian, Gholam Reza; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili; Emami, Shaghayegh; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjattallah

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium (M.genitalium) is a sexually transmitted pathogen. Detection of this microorganism in clinical specimens by culture is rather difficult and time consuming. The aim of this study was to produce polyclonal antibody against a synthetic peptide from P110 protein of M.genitalium in order to develop a diagnostic tool for detection of this microorganism in clinical specimens. A synthetic peptide from P110 protein was conjugated to Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) and used for immunization of a white New Zealand rabbit. The produced antibody was purified by affinity chromatography and its specific interaction with immunizing peptide was determined by ELISA. Immunoreactivity of the antibody was also tested by Western blotting in bacterial cell lysate prepared from M.genitalium G-37. To confirm its application as a diagnostic tool, indirect immunofluorescent staining method was performed on M.genitalium-infected PBMC using anti-P110 as the primary antibody. The results showed that produced antibody has excellent reactivity with immunizing peptide and also detected a single band of 110 kDa corresponding to P110 protein. M.genitalium-infected PBMC showed a bright fluorescent signal in IF staining. This antibody might be used as a tool in diagnostic applications. PMID:23408484