WorldWideScience

Sample records for swine flu experts

  1. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Variant Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español Recommend on ... similar to outbreaks in humans. How many swine flu viruses are there? Like influenza viruses in humans ...

  2. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  3. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  4. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  5. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  6. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding Swine Flu among adult population

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    Harjot Kaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention is the most appropriate measure to control H1N1 flu pandemic and awareness of H1N1 flu is ranked very high in preventive measures. Keeping this in view, study was designed to assess the awareness level and to compare it among urban and rural participants. Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding swine flu among adult population, to assess whether there is any difference among rural and urban population and to assess the response generated by the media coverage and the Government efforts.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from April to July 2015 on 300 houses from the urban area and 150 houses from rural area, chosen from study population by random sampling. Mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for categorical were calculated. Results: 94% of urban and 91.3% of the rural participants had previously heard about swine flu, main source being TV. 46% of urban and 74% of rural participants had myth about spread of swine flu by eating pork. 41.3% of urban and 8.7% of rural population thought that government measures are sufficient for controlling swine flu. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding swine flu pandemic is good among study participants but role of health care providers is minimal and requires more dedicated effort. Lack of awareness among study population regarding some key focus areas like health promoting habits, vaccination and myths regarding the spread is of serious concern and needs to be addressed by the media, health workers and the Government efforts

  8. Swine flu panic shows how little we really care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford-Ball, Jason

    I have to confess that when the first reports of swine flu started circulating, I did have a strong sense of déjà vu - after all, we've been here before. Back in 2003, the world was under threat from another potentially lethal virus that began in an economically deprived part of the world among animal stocks and briefly (according to some anyway) threatened to turn into a global pandemic--Avian flu.

  9. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  10. Swine flu-have we learnt any lesson from the past ? | Yadav | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The world has suffered the pandemics due to swine flu in the past. The present epidemic in India has claimed many lives. Even, after the first outbreak of swine flu in 2009 no concrete efforts are done to prevent this infection. There is an urgent need to take radical steps to prevent such epidemics. Key words: Swine ...

  11. Pathogens gone wild? Medical anthropology and the "swine flu" pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill

    2009-07-01

    Beginning in April 2009, global attention began focusing on the emergence in Mexico of a potentially highly lethal new influenza strain of porcine origin that has successfully jumped species barriers and is now being transmitted around the world. Reported on extensively by the mass media, commented on by public health and government officials across the globe, and focused on with nervous attention by the general public, the so-called swine flu pandemic raises important questions, addressed here, concerning the capacity of medical anthropology to respond usefully to such disease outbreaks and their health and social consequences.

  12. Passive immunity to pandemic H1N1 2009 by swine flu parties.

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    Aggarwal, Nitish; Aggarwal, Pushkar

    2009-12-15

    The general population is concerned about the probable devastating effects of pandemic H1N1 2009. Based upon the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, scientific publications and theories, the idea of swine flu parties to achieve passive immunity against pandemic H1N1 2009 has been proposed. Public health officials have asked the general public not to resort to this method. However, no concrete evidence of the reasoning behind the recommendation has been given. In this paper, we have dynamically modeled the effect of swine flu parties on the immunity achieved and associated mortality for a period of two years. The simulations show that the public should not organize or participate in swine flu parties as they will likely increase swine flu-associated mortality.

  13. Swine flu- a serious pandeMic threat | Rachna | IMTU Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current review focuses on pathogenesis, transmission, role of pigs as reservoirs, diagnosis, symptoms and compares swine fl u with common cold. The outbreak of swine fl u in India, its possible impact in other countries as well as pandemic preparedness plans, vaccines as a preventive measure of swine flu infection ...

  14. Awareness, perception and myths towards swine flu in school children of Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh.

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    Chaudhary, Varsha; Singh, R K; Agrawal, V K; Agarwal, Ashok; Kumar, Rajeev; Sharma, Mahendra

    2010-01-01

    The deadly disease swine flu is, without a speck of doubt, causing a massive havoc among the common people of India and has created fear across the various strata of the society. The objective was to find out the awareness, perception, and myths of school going children of class 9 th to 12 th toward swine flu. The present cross-sectional study was carried out in two randomly selected (using random number table) senior secondary schools of Bareilly among 400 students of class 9 th to 12 th . A total of 200 students were selected from each school. Chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. Almost all the students (97.75%) have heard about of swine flu and are aware of it as a disease entity. Fever was found to be the main symptom while coughing and sneezing were main way of spread of swine flu known to them. About 97% of the students mention use of mask as most effective way to prevent them from swine flu. Knowledge of availability of medicine was present in less than half of the students. TV was found to be the main source from which they get knowledge (79%), and they are trying to get knowledge (53.2%) of swine flu. Among them, 74% students were taking precaution against swine flu.

  15. Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight

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    Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare…

  16. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Haque, Shamsul; Neto, Felix; Myers, Lynn B

    2009-10-06

    The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180) or Europe (N = 148). Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p immune compromised (mentioned by 87% respondents), pig farmers (70%), elderly (57%), prostitutes/highly sexually active (53%), and the homeless (53%). In data collected only in Europe, 64% greatly underestimated the mortality rates of seasonal flu, 26% believed seasonal flu vaccination gave protection against swine flu. 7% had reduced/stopped eating pork. 3% had purchased anti-viral drugs for use at home, while 32% intended to do so if the pandemic worsened. Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless) are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by

  17. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

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    Smith Emily

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  18. Red state, blue state, flu state: media self-selection and partisan gaps in Swine flu vaccinations.

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    Baum, Matthew A

    2011-12-01

    This study assesses the relationship between political partisanship and attitudes and behavior with respect to the H1N1 virus (swine flu) crisis of 2009 in general, and the U.S. mass vaccination program in particular. I argue that even seemingly nonpartisan political issues like public health are increasingly characterized by partisan polarization in public attitudes and that such polarization is attributable, at least partly, to the breakdown of the information commons that characterized the U.S. mass media from roughly the 1950s until the early 1990s. In its place has arisen an increasingly fragmented and niche-oriented media marketplace in which individuals are better able to limit their information exposure to attitudes and opinions that reinforce, rather than challenge, their preexisting beliefs. I test my argument against a variety of data sources, including opinion surveys and state-level swine flu vaccination rate data.

  19. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu"

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    Neto Felix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork. We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu" in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180 or Europe (N = 148. Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

  20. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: What is the concept?

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    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160Abstract: Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called “atypical infection”. These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.Keywords: swine flu, drug, vaccine, concept

  1. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

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    Narayana Manjunatha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19. The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ′PUBMED′ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND. Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson′s disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.

  2. Swine-Flu Scare Offers Lessons for Study-Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Reports of swine flu have led some colleges to pull students and faculty members out of Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak, and to cancel study-abroad programs there. But even as the number of new cases appears to be falling, the health scare offers some lasting lessons for colleges, says Gary Rhodes, director of the Center for Global Education…

  3. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: what is the concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2009-01-01

    Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called "atypical infection". These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.

  4. Flu Vaccine Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ... of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. Hundreds ...

  5. [Cognitive, affective and behavioral changes in crisis: preventing swine flu infection].

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    Oikawa, Haruka; Oikawa, Masanori

    2010-10-01

    Calling attention to potential risks does not always lead to preventative actions. To investigate changes in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses towards potential risks, longitudinal studies targeting nonclinical samples of undergraduate students were conducted at 4 time points (April, May, June, and July 2009) during the outbreak of swine flu in 2009, which eventually developed in to a global pandemic. During the course of the study, the risk of swine flu infection for the seventy-nine participants became more and more self-relevant as the situation developed in the news and as their university was temporarily closed off. The results indicate that despite increasing knowledge about the swine flu, the level of anxiety showed steady decrease as the time went by. Similarly, despite the expanding infection around the globe, the level of preventative behavior remained low. Moreover, participants reported perceiving their own risk to be significantly lower than that of average undergraduate students at all time points. These findings indicate that even when potential risks are clearly communicated, too much information, saturated emotions, and optimistic bias may obstruct people from taking appropriate preventative actions.

  6. UK newspapers' representations of the 2009-10 outbreak of swine flu: one health scare not over-hyped by the media?

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    Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate

    2011-10-01

    A/H1N1, more commonly referred to as swine flu, emerged in Mexico in spring 2009. It rapidly spread across the world and was classed as a global pandemic on 11 June 2009. To analyse UK newsprint coverage of the swine flu pandemic. Content analysis of 2374 newsprint articles published in eight UK national newspapers between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2010. Newsprint coverage of the swine flu epidemic was immense. The threat from swine flu was portrayed as greatest in the spring and summer of 2009 when scientific uncertainties about the impact on the UK and global population were at their height and when swine flu cases in the UK first peaked. Thereafter the number of news articles waned, failing to mirror the October peak in flu cases as the virus failed to be as virulent as first feared. Content analysis found little evidence of the media 'over-hyping' the swine flu pandemic. The news media's role as a disseminator of scientific information is particularly important in areas of risk perception. Despite a succession of health scares in recent years in which the media has been accused of exaggerating the risks and contributing to public misunderstandings of the issues, this analysis suggests that the UK newsprint reporting of swine flu in the 2009-10 outbreak was largely measured. The news media's role as disseminators of factual health information on swine flu is to be welcomed, particularly in relation to their handling and responsible reporting on scientific uncertainty.

  7. Flu

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    ... but thousands of people with the flu develop pneumonia or a brain infection. They need to stay ... weakened immune system Possible Complications Complications may include: Pneumonia Encephalitis (infection of the brain) Meningitis Seizures When ...

  8. E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis

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    Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

  9. Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine

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    ... Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend on ... or fungi from contaminating the vaccine. Do flu vaccines contain thimerosal? Flu vaccines in multi-dose vials ...

  10. CDC Recommendations to Reduce the Risk of H3N2v Flu Virus Infection for Fairgoers and Swine Exhibitors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-10

    In this podcast, Dr. Lyn Finelli discusses CDC’s recommendations for reducing the risk of infection with H3N2v flu viruses for fairgoers and swine exhibitors.  Created: 9/10/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/10/2012.

  11. The swine flu vaccine, public attitudes, and researcher interpretations: a systematic review of qualitative research.

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    Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire

    2016-06-24

    During pandemics, health authorities may be uncertain about the spread and severity of the disease and the effectiveness and safety of available interventions. This was the case during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010, and governments were forced to make decisions despite these uncertainties. While many countries chose to implement wide scale vaccination programmes, few accomplished their vaccination goals. Many research studies aiming to explore barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake have been conducted in the aftermath of the pandemic, including several qualitative studies. 1. To explore public attitudes to the swine flu vaccine in different countries through a review of qualitative primary studies. 2. To describe and discuss the implications drawn by the primary study authors. Systematic review of qualitative research studies, using a broadly comparative cross case-study approach. Study quality was appraised using an adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality assessment tool. The review indicates that the public had varying opinions about disease risk and prevalence and had concerns about vaccine safety. Most primary study authors concluded that participants were uninformed, and that more information about the disease and the vaccine would have led to an increase in vaccine uptake. We find these conclusions problematic. We suggest instead that people's questions and concerns were legitimate given the uncertainties of the situation at the time and the fact that the authorities did not have the necessary information to convince the public. Our quality assessment of the included studies points to a lack of reflexivity and a lack of information about study context. We suggest that these study weaknesses are tied to primary study authors' lack of acknowledgement of the uncertainties surrounding the disease and the vaccine. While primary study authors suggest that authorities could increase vaccine uptake through increased

  12. CLINICAL PRESENTATION, RADIOLOGICAL FEATURES AND COURSE OF THE DISEASE IN SWINE FLU POSITIVE PATIENTS ADMITTED IN THE RESPIRATORY INTENSIVE CARE UNIT OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Aruna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Since the 2009 pandemic of H1N1 or Swine Flu influenza , there have been respiratory emergencies every year throughout India , but in the early part of this year that is between January and April 2015 an explosion of cases was seen throughout the country , and so also in our state , Andhra Pradesh. The study of clinical presentation , radiological features and course of the disease helps in early suspicion , isolation , detection and institution of treatment in swine flu positive patients so that further spread of the disease can be co ntrolled and the patients saved . MATERIAL AND METHODS : This is a cross - sectional study conducted at the Department of Pulmonary Medicine , S.V.R.R. Govt. General Hospital , Tirupathi , between January 2015 and April 2015. Study sample was the total number of swine flu suspects who were admitted in the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit and swine flu wards of the Department of Pulmonary Medicine. SUMMARY : Out of 32 suspects admitted , 13 tested positive for swine flu. 8 of the 13 were females (61% and 5 were males (39%. Cold , cough and breathlessness were present in all the patients (100%. Sore throat was present in only 4 patients (30%. 11 out of the 13 patients were in respiratory failure (85%. 9 out of the 13 had comorbidities like diabetes , bronchial asthma and chronic kidney disease (70%. Chest X - ray and CT chest showed ARDS like pic ture and pneumonia in 11 out of the 13 patients (85%.

  13. Swine flu. Mexico's handling of A/H1N1 in comparative perspective.

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    Ear, Sophal

    2012-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. Despite the scale of this threat, there are inherent limitations in preventing and controlling EIDs, including the scope of current disease surveillance efforts. All of this leads to the following questions in the context of Mexico's recent swine flu experience: What were the cultural, political, and economic challenges to Influenza A/H1N1 virus response in Mexico? By way of comparison, what can we learn from the U.S. experience in 1976 with A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1N1), later referred to as H1N1? This article explores the comparative political economy of Mexico's handling of influenza virus A/H1N1 outbreak in 2009. Research provides notable observations-based on the strengths and weaknesses of each country's response--that can be used as a starting point of discussion for the design of effective EIDs surveillance programs in developing and middle-income countries. In the U.S., the speed and efficiency of the 1976 U.S. mobilization against H1N1 was laudable. Although the U.S. response to the outbreak is seldom praised, the unity of the scientific and political communities demonstrated the national ability to respond to the situation. Mexico's strongest characteristics were its transparency, as well as the cooperation the country exhibited with other nations, particularly the U.S. and Canada. While Mexico showed savvy in its effective management of public and media relations, as the article details, political, economic, and cultural problems persisted.

  14. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1

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    Blower Sally

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1, formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0. The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1 has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918–1919 pandemic strain (mean R0~2: range 1.4 to 2.8 and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1. By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza.

  15. A study of the swine flu (H1N1 epidemic among health care providers of a medical college hospital of Delhi

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    Om Prakash Rajoura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. Understanding the role of specific perceptions in motivating people to engage in precautionary behavior may help health communicators to improve their messages about outbreaks of new infectious disease generally and swine flu specifically. Objectives: To study the knowledge and practices of health care providers regarding swine flu and to study the attitudes and practices of health care providers toward the prevention of the swine flu epidemic. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional (descriptive study and was conducted in the month of September, 2009, among doctors and nurses. A maximum of 40% of the total health care providers of GTB Hospital were covered because of feasibility and logistics, and, therefore, the sample size was 334. Results: Around 75% of the health care providers were aware about the symptoms of swine flu. Mostly, all study subjects were aware that it is transmitted through droplet infection. Correct knowledge of the incubation period of swine flu was known to 80% of the doctors and 69% of the nurses. Knowledge about high-risk groups (contacts, travelers, health care providers was observed among 88% of the doctors and 78.8% of the nurses. Practice of wearing mask during duty hours was observed among 82.6% of doctors and 85% of nurses, whereas of the total study population, only 40% were correctly using mask during duty hours. Conclusions: Significant gaps observed between knowledge and actual practice of the Health Care Provider regarding swine flu need to be filled by appropriate training. Data indicate that the health care providers are very intellectual, but they do not themselves practice what they preach.

  16. Burden of pediatric influenza A virus infection post swine-flu H1N1 pandemic in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Adel; Shaheen, Malak; Kamel, Terez; El Faramay, Amel; El Rahman, Safaa Abd; Nabil, Dalia; Gouda, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    To screen children with influenza like illness or with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections for influenza A virus infection - post swine flu pandemic era - using rapid influenza diagnostic tests. During two years (2010 & 2011), 1 200 children with influenza like illness or acute respiratory tract infections (according to World Health Organization criteria) were recruited. Their ages ranged from 2-60 months. Nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens were collected from all children for rapid influenza A diagnostic test. Influenza A virus rapid test was positive in 47.5% of the children; the majority (89.6%) were presented with lower respiratory tract infections. Respiratory rate and temperature were significantly higher among positive rapid influenza test patients. Influenza A virus infection is still a major cause of respiratory tract infections in Egyptian children. It should be considered in all cases with cough and febrile episodes and influenza like symptoms even post swine flu pandemic. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Evaluations of Swine Flu Magnitudes in TV News: A Comparative Analysis of Paired Influenza Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Po-Lin; Meng, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how major TV news networks covered two flu pandemics in 1976 and 2009 in terms of news frames, mortality exemplars, mortality subject attributes, vaccination, evaluation approaches, and news sources. Results showed that the first pandemic was frequently framed with the medical/scientific and political/legal issues, while the second pandemic was emphasized with the health risk issue in TV news. Both flu pandemics were regularly reported with mortality exemplars, but the focus in the first pandemic was on the flu virus threat and vaccination side effects, while the vaccination shortage was frequently revealed in the second outbreak.

  18. Swine Flu, in the Spanish Press/La ‘gripe A’, en la prensa española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Idoia Camacho Markina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Mass media are faced with an exceptional challenge when they cover an epidemic, since the role of the media is to offer the most complete and accurate information in order to avoid spreading panic. However, many media outlets have been guided by financial reasons rather than public service criteria when they have covered the latest epidemic outbreak, which has resulted in a sensationalist coverage. The goal of this paper is to analyze the news coverage given by Spanish dailies to the outbreak and spread of the Novel H1N1 Virus, commonly known as the Swine Flu. This research points to the role played by print media in the coverage of this particular issue after a content analysis of the news articles published by the main five Spanish dailies during the first week after the Swine Flu outbreak.Resumen: Informar sobre epidemias constituye una situación excepcional para los medios de comunicación, cuya función debe ser ofrecer al público la información más completa posible para evitar que se extienda el pánico. Sin embargo, en las últimas epidemias muchos medios se han guiado más por criterios económicos, buscando el sensacionalismo, que por criterios de servicio público. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar el tratamiento informativo que la prensa escrita diaria española ha hecho del brote de epidemia del virus de influenza A (H1/N1. El análisis de contenido de las noticias publicadas por los cinco diarios españoles de mayor difusión en la primera semana desde que se conoció la epidemia nos indica qué papel ha adoptado la prensa en esta ocasión.

  19. Computational analysis and determination of a highly conserved surface exposed segment in H5N1 avian flu and H1N1 swine flu neuraminidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Ashesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catalytic activity of influenza neuraminidase (NA facilitates elution of progeny virions from infected cells and prevents their self-aggregation mediated by the catalytic site located in the body region. Research on the active site of the molecule has led to development of effective inhibitors like oseltamivir, zanamivir etc, but the high rate of mutation and interspecies reassortment in viral sequences and the recent reports of oseltamivir resistant strains underlines the importance of determining additional target sites for developing future antiviral compounds. In a recent computational study of 173 H5N1 NA gene sequences we had identified a 50-base highly conserved region in 3'-terminal end of the NA gene. Results We extend the graphical and numerical analyses to a larger number of H5N1 NA sequences (514 and H1N1 swine flu sequences (425 accessed from GenBank. We use a 2D graphical representation model for the gene sequences and a Graphical Sliding Window Method (GSWM for protein sequences scanning the sequences as a block of 16 amino acids at a time. Using a protein sequence descriptor defined in our model, the protein sliding scan method allowed us to compare the different strains for block level variability, which showed significant statistical correlation to average solvent accessibility of the residue blocks; single amino acid position variability results in no correlation, indicating the impact of stretch variability in chemical environment. Close to the C-terminal end the GSWM showed less descriptor-variability with increased average solvent accessibility (ASA that is also supported by conserved predicted secondary structure of 3' terminal RNA and visual evidence from 3D crystallographic structure. Conclusion The identified terminal segment, strongly conserved in both RNA and protein sequences, is especially significant as it is surface exposed and structural chemistry reveals the probable role of this stretch in

  20. Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy Questions & Answers Language: English (US) ... allergic conditions. How is the safety of flu vaccines in pregnant women monitored? CDC and FDA conduct ...

  1. STUDY OF FACTORS INFLUENCING EARLY SYMPTOMATIC IMPROVEMENT, RETURN TO NORMOXIA AND RADIOLOGICAL RESOLUTION IN SWINE FLU PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY FAILURE IN RICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsidhar Reddy Manne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since 2009, swine influenza outbreaks have been recorded virtually every year, although their extent and severity have varied widely. Localised outbreaks are taking place at variable intervals, usually every 1-3 years. The most recent outbreak has been from December 2016 through April 2017. We still are in the midst of one. This study of factors influencing early clinical and radiological improvement and reversion to normoxia in swine flu patients with respiratory failure helps in saving precious lives. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted at RICU, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, S.V.R.R. Government General Hospital/S.V. Medical College, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh, between January 2017 and April 2017. Study sample was the total number of swine flu patients admitted to the RICU of the Department of Pulmonary Medicine with respiratory failure. RESULTS Out of 42 patients who tested positive for swine flu, 37 had respiratory failure and were immediately admitted in RICU. Oxygen support, oseltamivir and higher antibiotics were immediately started, injectable steroids given where necessary. Comorbidities were meticulously managed. 19 were males and 18 were females. 21 patients (>50% were above 50 years. Cough and breathlessness were present in all patients (100%. At admission, all 37 showed SpO2 <85% and at discharge all of them were normoxic. 18 patients had either multilobar pneumonia or ARDS on CXR, which had resolved by the time of discharge. The shortest duration of stay was 7 days and the longest duration of stay was 11 days. 35 patients were discharged and 2 patients died. CONCLUSION Good oxygenation, starting of oseltamivir on day 1 of admission prevents further complications and hastens recovery. Swine flu patients with normal chest x-ray and no comorbidities can still end up with respiratory failure. Steroids decrease cough and breathlessness, but have no role in hastening recovery. No residual symptoms

  2. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation.

  3. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Information on Avian Influenza Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  4. The impact of communications about swine flu (influenza A H1N1v) on public responses to the outbreak: results from 36 national telephone surveys in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G J; Potts, H W W; Michie, S

    2010-07-01

    To assess the association between levels of worry about the possibility of catching swine flu and the volume of media reporting about it; the role of psychological factors in predicting likely uptake of the swine flu vaccine; and the role of media coverage and advertising in predicting other swine flu-related behaviours. Data from a series of random-digit-dial telephone surveys were analysed. A time series analysis tested the association between levels of worry and the volume of media reporting on the start day of each survey. Cross-sectional regression analyses assessed the relationships between likely vaccine uptake or behaviour and predictor variables. Thirty-six surveys were run at, on average, weekly intervals across the UK between 1 May 2009 and 10 January 2010. Five surveys (run between 14 August and 13 September) were used to assess likely vaccine uptake. Five surveys (1-17 May) provided data relating to other behaviours. Between 1047 and 1173 people aged 16 years or over took part in each survey: 5175 participants provided data about their likely uptake of the swine flu vaccine; 5419 participants provided data relating to other behaviours. All participants were asked to state how worried they were about the possibility of personally catching swine flu. Subsets were asked how likely they were to take up a swine flu vaccination if offered it and whether they had recently carried tissues with them, bought sanitising hand gel, avoided using public transport or had been to see a general practitioner, visited a hospital or called NHS Direct for a flu-related reason. The percentage of 'very' or 'fairly' worried participants fluctuated between 9.6% and 32.9%. This figure was associated with the volume of media reporting, even after adjusting for the changing severity of the outbreak [chi2(1) = 6.6, p = 0.010, coefficient for log-transformed data = 2.6]. However, this effect only occurred during the UK's first summer wave of swine flu. In total, 56.1% of

  5. Analyzing the interaction of a herbal compound Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata as a folklore against swine flu (H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrabhan Seniya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find new bioactive molecules for the treatment of swine flu. Methods: The present study is an attempt to elucidate inhibition potential of andrographolide and its derivatives along with an associated binding mechanism through virtual screening and molecular docking simulation studies. Results: Our findings revealed structural conformation changes in 150 loop, secondary sialic acid binding site residues of ACZ97474 {Neuraminidase (A/Blore/NIV236/2009(H1N1}. Andrographolide have been identified as the highest binging energy of -1 0.88 Kcal/mol, 3 hydrogen bond interactions (Arg152, Lys150, and Gly197, total intermolecular energy of -12.07 Kcal/mol with bioactivity value (Ki of 10.59 nmol/L, while the Food and Drug Admistraton approved drug Oseltamivir and Zanamivir have shown 2 and 4 hydrogen bond interactions with binding energies of -6.28 Kcal/mol and -7.73Kcal/mol, respectively, which is higher than andrographolide. The guanidine group of Arg152 has binding affinities to the hydrophilic nature of the inhibitors (-OH and =O groups, as identified by docking of andrographolide (CID: 5318517 on neuraminidase. Conclusions: Hence, andrographolide has the potential to inhibit neuraminidase activity of H1N1 and may be used as an alternative medicinal therapy for swine flu positive patient. With potent antiviral activity and a potentially new mechanism of action, andrographolide may warrant further evaluation as a possible therapy for influenza.

  6. Design and Performance of the CDC Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Swine Flu Panel for Detection of 2009 A (H1N1) Pandemic Influenza Virus▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10−1.3∼−0.7 50% infectious doses (ID50) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation. PMID:21593260

  7. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its

  8. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Flu and Heart Disease & Stroke Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Heart Disease* and Those Who Have Had a Stroke Are at High Risk of Developing Complications from ...

  9. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  10. Understanding Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Flu Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone seems to ...

  11. Flu Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. Most people with the flu get better on their own. But it can ... cause complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to ...

  12. Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ... Compartir Staphylococcus aureus , often referred to simply as “staph,” are bacteria commonly carried on the skin or ...

  13. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  14. Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs Language: English (US) ... her eyes, nose, or mouth. 6. Practice other good health habits. Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces at ...

  15. Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No, flu vaccines do not cause flu. Flu vaccine protects your child from flu illness. However, flu shots can sometimes ... will take about 2 weeks after getting his vaccine for your child to build protection against flu. Why does my ...

  16. Expert groups in Denmark with special reference to Classical and African swine fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    2012-01-01

    collaboration. In many later discussions our experiences then when we observed the problems in vivo. The obligations of the expert group are both to follow the progress of eradication but definitely also to take care of some of the more time consuming discussions that could otherwise burden the Veterinary...... Authorities. Questions like “Could we be allowed to vaccinate the pigs in Zoo if there is an outbreak”, or other things that may have a high interest in the press but which do not matter that much in the gross picture of the eradication could be handed over to the expert group. My presentation will give...

  17. FluView National Flu Activity Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FluView National Flu Activity Map is a complementary widget to the state-by-state flu map widget introduced in the 2007-2008 flu season. This interactive map...

  18. Pandemic Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Other Pandemic Influenza Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir An influenza pandemic is a global outbreak of a new influenza A virus. Pandemics happen when new (novel) influenza A viruses emerge which are able to ...

  19. Treating Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating Influenza (Flu) Information for People at High Risk for Flu Complications Do you have Asthma, Diabetes, or Chronic Heart Disease? ... risk of serious illness if you get the flu. Asthma, diabetes and chronic heart disease were among ...

  20. The nonadaptive nature of the H1N1 2009 Swine Flu pandemic contrasts with the adaptive facilitation of transmission to a new host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussamad Juwaeriah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic followed a multiple reassortment event from viruses originally circulating in swines and humans, but the adaptive nature of this emergence is poorly understood. Results Here we base our analysis on 1180 complete genomes of H1N1 viruses sampled in North America between 2000 and 2010 in swine and human hosts. We show that while transmission to a human host might require an adaptive phase in the HA and NA antigens, the emergence of the 2009 pandemic was essentially nonadaptive. A more detailed analysis of the NA protein shows that the 2009 pandemic sequence is characterized by novel epitopes and by a particular substitution in loop 150, which is responsible for a nonadaptive structural change tightly associated with the emergence of the pandemic. Conclusions Because this substitution was not present in the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus, we posit that the emergence of pandemics is due to epistatic interactions between sites distributed over different segments. Altogether, our results are consistent with population dynamics models that highlight the epistatic and nonadaptive rise of novel epitopes in viral populations, followed by their demise when the resulting virus is too virulent.

  1. Los encuadres sanitarios en prensa. Gripe A y bacteria e.coli. / The Sanitary framing in Spanish press: Swine flu virus and E. coli bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma López Villafranca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la siguiente investigación se analizan los encuadres sobre dos crisis sanitarias, gripe A y bacteria e.coli en prensa, en los diarios de mayor tirada; El País, El Mundo y ABC. En este estudio se refleja cómo se produce un enfoque muy distinto de ambas crisis y la influencia en estos encuadres e importancia de las fuentes institucionales como principales portadoras de información frente a las fuentes sanitarias o científicas, con escasa relevancia para la prensa española.AbstractThe following analysis is focused on the approach made by newspapers such as El País, El Mundo and ABC about the sanitary crisis of A Flu and E.coli bacteria. The methodology used is the analysis of content of a wide range of news samples generated during both crisis. As a result of this analysis it is made clear that both crises have been approached by Spanish press in different ways, giving more importance to government and official sources in opposition to the lack of relevance given to scientific or sanitary ones.

  2. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  3. Cancer, the Flu, and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You What Cancer Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Flu! Get a Flu Vaccine and Take Preventive Actions ...

  4. Avoiding the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  5. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  6. Guidance for Schools on the Recent Flu Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The document provides a transcript of a conference call moderated by Bill Modzeleski, Director of the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The focus of the call was the recent outbreak of swine flu in Mexico and the United States. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) actions and recommendations to the education community were discussed. A comparison…

  7. Storms and Water Usage; Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. C.; Muttiah, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a contemporary, authentic application of quantitative reasoning based on media clips. Students analyze items from the media to answer mathematical questions related to the article. Volumes, economics, and growth rates of a pandemic are featured in the two clips presented. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

  8. Are we ready for the avian flu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    It may be tempting to dismiss headlines about a potential avian flu pandemic as "the sky is falling" sensationalism, but experts continue to warn that the disease is likely to show up here in the not-too-distant future. What must hospitals do to prepare for a sudden influx of patients and other huge demands such a crisis would create?

  9. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  10. Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. Fighting the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-08

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, urges Native peoples to know the facts about the flu.  Created: 3/8/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/8/2011.

  12. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  13. American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Emails American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Flu Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccination against ... the flu. Protect Indian Country by Getting Your Flu Vaccine A flu vaccine not only protects you ...

  14. Flu Vaccine Skin Patch Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Subscribe September 2017 Print this issue Flu Vaccine Skin Patch Tested En español Send us ... Each year, millions of people nationwide catch the flu. The best way to protect yourself is to ...

  15. College students and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007446.htm College students and the flu To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Every year, the flu spreads across college campuses nationwide. Close living quarters, ...

  16. Flu & You: Preventive Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Preventive Steps Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... for infants should be vaccinated instead. Take everyday preventive actions to stop the spread of germs. Try ...

  17. Oseltamivir-Resistant Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-13

    Dr. Aaron Storms, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer at CDC, discusses his paper about oseltamivir-resistant H1N1flu.  Created: 4/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/17/2012.

  18. Warning Signs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of seasonal flu and when it is serious enough to seek medical help.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  19. Take Three: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting seasonal flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  20. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  1. Colds and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be contagious?I’m pregnant. Is there any danger to my baby from the flu?Will steam ... affect you or your baby through your breast milk.December 2017December 2017familydoctor.org editorial staff AboutSupport UsCopyright & ...

  2. Flu and Holiday Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-13

    This podcast explains the ways people can stay healthy and avoid the flu when traveling this winter.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/13/2010.

  3. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  4. Flu season and trehalose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of us who are practicing medicine know that we are in a very active flu season. This was brought home to me when last week trying to admit a patient to the hospital from the office. She was a bone marrow transplant patient who had severe diarrhea and dehydration probably secondary to C. difficile. Hospital admissions said the patient had to be sent to the Emergency Room because the hospital was full due to the flu epidemic. Nationwide there has been a dramatic increase in the number of hospitalizations due to influenza over the past week from 13.7 to 22.7 per 100,000 (1. Influenza A(H3N2 has been the most common form of influenza reported this season. These viruses are often linked to more severe illness, especially in children and people age 65 years and older. Fortunately, the CDC also says that the flu cases may be peaking. However, at ...

  5. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... can spread through that community. How do flu vaccines work? Flu vaccines cause antibodies to develop in ...

  6. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnant? You Need a Flu Shot! Information for pregnant women Because you are pregnant, CDC and your ob- ... more likely to get severely ill from flu. Pregnant women who get flu are at high risk of ...

  7. Mitigation approaches to combat the flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Chawla

    2009-01-01

    The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA, Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies, nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels.

  8. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  9. The Spanish flu in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths...

  10. Your child and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe or life-threatening flu infection. WILL THE VACCINE HARM MY CHILD? A small amount of mercury (called thimerosal) is ... have concerns about mercury, all of the routine vaccines are also ... TO PROTECT MY CHILD FROM THE FLU? Everyone who comes in close ...

  11. La méningite « prise en grippe » ? Meningitis versus Swine flu?An Ethnography of Decision-making at the Niger National Committee of Epidemic Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumy Thiongane

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La maîtrise des problèmes de santé publique au Niger est conditionnée aux exigences des institutions internationales compétentes dans le domaine sanitaire. Alors qu’on pourrait s’attendre à ce que ces exigences soient d’ordre pratique, elles façonnent également la représentation du risque épidémique. A travers l’ethnographie de prise de décision au sein d’un comité d’experts nigériens et européens au moment de la pandémie annoncée de grippe AH1N1, et pendant l’épidémie de méningite la plus importante connue au Niger depuis plus d’une décennie, cet article met en lumière les représentations différentes du risque. Il montre que des logiques conflictuelles président à la gestion des épidémies et que l’enjeu fondamental réside dans l’existence et la mise à disposition des ressources permettant de maîtriser les maladies infectieuses. Cette étape dépend fortement de la manière dont les institutions internationales se représentent le risque sanitaire. En outre, la question du paradigme de la préparation à l’épidémie de méningite est confrontée à des contingences souvent construites.The control of public health issues in Niger requires obeying the requirements of the international institutions for health. While we might expect that such requirements are practical, they also construct the representation of epidemic risk. Through an ethnography of decision-making within a Nigerian and European expert committee during the onset of the AH1N1 influenza pandemic and the most important meningitis epidemic in Niger for over a decade, this paper highlights the differences between the representations of risk. It shows that different and conflicting logics govern the management of epidemic and that the most important issue concerns the availability of resources and their provision that allow the control of infectious diseases. This step depends strongly on how international institutions represent the

  12. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Populations Antiviral Guidance Reference Material Guidance: Antiviral and Obstetric Health Care Antiviral Drug Supply Infection Control Guidelines ... associated with neural tube defects and other adverse outcomes for a developing baby. The Flu Shot is ...

  13. Bat Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 2010 by experts from CDC and the Universidad del Valle (University of the Valley) in Guatemala ( ... Pathogen Discovery Program, CDC’s Rabies program and the Universidad del Valle in Guatemala. A total of 316 ...

  14. FluBreaks: early epidemic detection from Google flu trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-10-04

    The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the region's population size

  15. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Get Your Flu Shot! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... failure, or lung disease "For the 2010–2011 flu season, the flu vaccine provides protection against the ...

  16. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents The ... vaccinated (for everyone six months or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use ...

  17. flu, a metastable gene controlling surface properties of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Diderichsen, B

    1980-01-01

    flu, a gene of Escherichia coli K-12, was discovered and mapped between his and shiA. It is shown that flu is a metastable gene that changes frequently between the flu+ and flu states. flu+ variants give stable homogeneous suspensions, are piliated, and form glossy colonies. flu variants aggregate, fluff and sediment from suspensions, are nonpiliated, and form frizzy colonies. flu+ and flu variants can be isolated from most strains. Implications of these observations are discussed, and it is ...

  18. Should we fear "flu fear" itself? Effects of H1N1 influenza fear on ED use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, William M; Nelson, Douglas S; Schunk, Jeff E

    2012-02-01

    Surges in patient volumes compromise emergency departments' (EDs') ability to deliver care, as shown by the recent H1N1 influenza (flu) epidemic. Media reports are important in informing the public about health threats, but the effects of media-induced anxiety on ED volumes are unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of widespread public concern about flu on ED use. We reviewed ED data from an integrated health system operating 18 hospital EDs. We compared ED visits during three 1-week periods: (a) a period of heightened public concern regarding flu before the disease was present ("Fear Week"), (b) a subsequent period of active disease ("Flu Week"), and (c) a week before widespread concern ("Control Week"). Fear Week was identified from an analysis of statewide Google electronic searches for "swine flu" and from media announcements about flu. Flu Week was identified from statewide epidemiological data. Data were reviewed from 22 608 visits during the study periods. Fear Week (n = 7712) and Flu Week (n = 7687) were compared to Control Week (n = 7209). Fear Week showed a 7.0% increase in visits (95% confidence interval, 6-8). Pediatric visits increased by 19.7%, whereas adult visits increased by 1%. Flu Week showed an increase over Control Week of 6.6% (95% confidence interval, 6-7). Pediatric visits increased by 10.6%, whereas adult visits increased by 4.8%. At a time of heightened public concern regarding flu but little disease prevalence, EDs experienced substantial increases in patient volumes. These increases were significant and comparable to the increases experienced during the subsequent epidemic of actual disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stomach Flu: How Long Am I Contagious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long am I contagious if I have the stomach flu? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M.D. You can ... more, depending on which virus is causing your stomach flu (gastroenteritis). A number of viruses can cause ...

  20. Caring for Your Child's Cold or Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Caring for Your Child’s Cold or Flu Page Content ​Unfortunately, there's no cure for the ... Liquid Medicine Safely for more information.​ Prevention & Treatment: Flu vaccine Children 6 months or older should get ...

  1. Bye-Bye Flu Shot, Hello Patch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166897.html Bye-Bye Flu Shot, Hello Patch? Early results look promising for ... TUESDAY, June 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental flu vaccine patch with dissolving microneedles appears safe and ...

  2. Can mothers who have swine flu continue to breastfeed? Yes!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    mother and baby), and other people by: ▫ Washing hands with soap frequently and thoroughly, especially after sneezing. ▫ Not sharing handkerchiefs with anyone. ▫ If possible, using paper handkerchiefs to cover the nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing, and then burning or burying them. ▫ Not putting their hands into ...

  3. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  4. FLUed: A Novel Four-Layer Model for Simulating Epidemic Dynamics and Assessing Intervention Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yuan Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic, to the 2009 swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 pandemic, to the projected highly pathogenic avian influenza A event, emerging infectious diseases highlight the importance of computational epidemiology to assess potential intervention policies. Hence, an important and timely research goal is a general-purpose and extendable simulation model that integrates two major epidemiological factors—age group and population movement—and substantial amounts of demographic, geographic, and epidemiologic data. In this paper, we describe a model that we have named FLUed for Four-layer Universal Epidemic Dynamics that integrates complex daily commuting network data into multiple age-structured compartmental models. FLUed has four contact structures for simulating the epidemic dynamics of emerging infectious diseases, assessing the potential efficacies of various intervention policies, and identifying the potential impacts of spatial-temporal epidemic trends on specific populations. We used data from the seasonal influenza A and 2009 swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 epidemics to validate model reliability and suitability and to assess the potential impacts of intervention policies and variation in initial outbreak areas for novel/seasonal influenza A in Taiwan. We believe that the FLUed model represents an effective tool for public health agencies responsible for initiating early responses to potential pandemics.

  5. Recent Flu Shot Shouldn't Prevent Vaccination During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167523.html Recent Flu Shot Shouldn't Prevent Vaccination During Pregnancy Study ... women and newborns are particularly vulnerable to the flu and its complications, guidelines recommend a flu shot ...

  6. Swine-Origin Influenza A Outbreak 2009 at Shinshu University, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washizuka Shinsuke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A worldwide outbreak of swine flu H1N1 pandemic influenza occurred in April 2009. To determine the mechanism underlying the spread of infection, we prospectively evaluated a survey implemented at a local university. Methods Between August 2009 and March 2010, we surveyed 3 groups of subjects: 2318 children in six schools attached to the Faculty of Education, 11424 university students, and 3344 staff members. Subjects with influenza-like symptoms who were diagnosed with swine flu at hospitals or clinics were defined as swine flu patients and asked to make a report using a standardized form. Results After the start of the pandemic, a total of 2002 patients (11.7% were registered in the survey. These patients included 928 schoolchildren (40.0%, 1016 university students (8.9%, and 58 staff members (1.7%. The incidence in schoolchildren was significantly higher than in the other 2 groups (P Conclusion Schoolchildren and university students are vulnerable to swine flu, suggesting that avoidance of close contact, especially among these young people, may be effective way in controlling future severe influenza pandemics, especially at educational institutions.

  7. MODEL SEIR UNTUK EPIDEMI FLU BABI PADA POPULASI BABI DENGAN LAJU KONTAK JENUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kharis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Babi merupakan inang alami dari virus influensa yang secara anatomis, fisiologis, dan imunitas mirip (similar dengan yang ada pada manusia. Virus influenza subtipe A yang ada pada manusia yaitu H1N1, H3N2 dan H1N2 merupakan enzootic pada populasi babi di dunia. babi dapat terinfeksi oleh turunan-turunan virus influenza tipe A dari manusia maupun dari burung dan dalam hal ini dianggap sebagai inang sementara (Intermediate hosts dari turunan-turunan virus flu babi yang berpotensi menyebabkan epidemi bahkan pandemi. Evolusi antigenik dari virus influenza pada babi terjadi dengan laju sekitar 6 kali lebih lambat dibandingkan dengan virus influenza pada manusia. Dalam tulisan ini akan dikaji model matematika untuk epidemi flu babi pada populasi babi. Model yang diberikan merupakan model deterministik dengan laju kontak jenuh yang merupakan perumuman dari laju kontak standar. Perumuman ini dinyatakan dengan adanya probabilitas suatu individu melakukan kontak yang dinyatakan sebagai suatu fungsi dari populasi. Pengkajian yang dilakukan meliputi penentuan titik ekuilibrium model matematika dan analisa kestabilannya. Diharapkan hasil kajian ini dapat bermanfaat dalam penanggulangan wabah flu babi pada sumber utama yaitu populasi babi sehingga dapat dilakukan pencegahan sebelum mewabah di populasi manusia. Pigs are a natural host of influenza virus that are similar anatomically, physiologically, and immunity which in humans. Influenza viruses of A subtype in humans are H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. They are enzootic in the swine population in the world. Pigs can be infected by strains of type A influenza viruses from humans or from birds. Pigs are considered as a temporary host (intermediate hosts of the derivatives of the swine flu virus that has the potential to cause epidemics and even pandemics. Antigenic evolution of influenza viruses in pigs occurred at rate about 6 times slower than the influenza viruses in humans. In this paper the mathematical model

  8. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  9. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials conducted ...

  10. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

  11. Surfing the web during pandemic flu: availability of World Health Organization recommendations on prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravà Lucilla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People often search for information on influenza A(H1N1v prevention on the web. The extent to which information found on the Internet is consistent with recommendations issued by the World Health Organization is unknown. Methods We conducted a search for "swine flu" accessing 3 of the most popular search engines through different proxy servers located in 4 English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, UK, USA. We explored each site resulting from the searches, up to 4 clicks starting from the search engine page, analyzing availability of World Health Organization recommendations for swine flu prevention. Results Information on hand cleaning was reported on 79% of the 147 websites analyzed; staying home when sick was reported on 77.5% of the websites; disposing tissues after sneezing on 75.5% of the websites. Availability of other recommendations was lower. The probability of finding preventative recommendations consistent with World Health Organization varied by country, type of website, and search engine. Conclusions Despite media coverage on H1N1 influenza, relevant information for prevention is not easily found on the web. Strategies to improve information delivery to the general public through this channel should be improved.

  12. Non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural L-carnosine peptide ("bioactivated Jewish penicillin") as a panacea of tomorrow for various flu ailments: signaling activity attenuating nitric oxide (NO) production, cytostasis, and NO-dependent inhibition of influenza virus replication in macrophages in the human body infected with the virulent swine influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2013-01-01

    Influenza (flu) is caused by a highly contagious virus that is spread by coughs and sneezes. Flu symptoms include high fever, chills and sweating, sore throat, weakness, headache, muscle and joint pains, and cough. Older people and those with an underlying medical condition are more likely to develop serious complications, including secondary bacterial pneumonia, primary influenza pneumonia, and inflammation of the brain or heart. There are three types of flu virus: A, B, and C. The flu virus has a unique ability to change its surface structure. This allows it to escape recognition by the body's immune system and cause widespread illness (epidemics and pandemics). Most cases of influenza occur within a 6- to 8-week period during winter and spring. Epidemics occur when there are minor changes in the nature of the virus so that more people within a community are susceptible. Influenza A is more likely to cause epidemics. Pandemics (worldwide epidemics) occur when there are major changes in the virus so that the disease affects a large proportion of people in a geographic region or on more than one continent. The findings presented in this article have many important implications for understanding the influenza A (H1N1) viral pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment. Direct viral cytotoxicity (referred cytopathic effect) is only a fraction of several types of events induced by virus infection. Nitric oxide and oxygen free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2-·) are generated markedly in influenza A (including H1N1) virus-infected host boosts, and these molecular species are identified as the potent pathogenic agents. The mutual interaction of nitric oxide (NO) with O2-· resulting in the formation of peroxynitrite is operative in the pathogenic mechanism of influenza virus pneumonia. Influenza virus infection involves pathological events in which oxygen free radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis. The toxicity and reactivity of oxygen radicals generated

  13. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Improving the flu vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health: NLM update Transcript Improving the flu vaccine : 11/13/2017 To use the sharing features ... are committed to developing a more effective flu vaccine, explains an interesting news article recently published in ...

  14. Flu Shot Falls Short More Often for Obese People: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166544.html Flu Shot Falls Short More Often for Obese People: ... 2017 TUESDAY, June 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A flu shot is the best way to avoid getting ...

  15. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe October 2014 Print this issue Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment ... Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Treatment depends on which you have. ...

  16. Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000250.htm Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - child To use ... Nasal congestion Sneezing Sore throat Cough Headache The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and ...

  17. FluShuffle and FluResort: new algorithms to identify reassorted strains of the influenza virus by mass spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lun, Aaron Tl; Wong, Jason Wh; Downard, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    ... pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. We have developed and tested new computer algorithms, FluShuffle and FluResort, which enable reassorted viruses to be identified by the most rapid and direct means possible...

  18. Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Confident Kids Is It a Cold or the Flu? KidsHealth > For Parents > Is It a Cold or the Flu? Print A A A en español ¿Es un ... cough, and high fever — could it be the flu that's been going around? Or just a common ...

  19. Avian Flu Epidemic 2003: Public health consequences. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman A; Mulder YM; Leeuw JRJ de; Meijer A; Du Ry van Beest Holle M; Kamst RA; Velden PG van der; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Koopmans MPG; Ruijten MWMM; Instituut voor Psychotrauma; CIE; MGO; LIS

    2004-01-01

    Executive summary Avian flu epidemic 2003: public health consequences.Risk factors, health, well-being, health care needs and preventive measures during the H7N7 avian flu outbreak control in the Netherlands.An estimated thousand people, possibly more have been infected with avian flu during the

  20. [Differentiation of influenza (Flu) type A, type B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohiyama, Risa; Miyazawa, Takashi; Shibano, Nobuko; Inano, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Because it is not easy to differentiate Influenza virus (Flu) from RS virus (RSV) just by clinical symptoms, to accurately diagnose those viruses in conjunction with patient's clinical symptoms, rapid diagnostic kits has been used separately for each of those viruses. In our new study, we have developed a new rapid diagnostic kit, QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV. The kit can detect Flu A, Flu B, and RSV antigens with a single sample collection and an assay. Total of 2,873 cases (including nasopharyngeal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens) in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons were evaluated with QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV and a commercially available kit. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Flu type A, type B, and RSV were above 95% when compared to commercially available kits (QuickNavi™-Flu and QuickNavi™-RSV) and considered to be equivalent to the commercially available kits. In 2011/2012 season, RSV infections increased prior to Flu season and continued during the peak of the Flu season. The kit can contribute to accurate diagnosis of Flu and RSV infections since co-infection cases have also been reported during the 2011/2012 season. QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV is useful for differential diagnosis of respiratory infectious diseases since it can detect Flu type A, type B, and RSV virus antigens with a single sample collection.

  1. Personal Stories: Why Flu Vaccination Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-08

    In this podcast, moving personal stories help inform parents about the dangers of flu to children and the benefits of vaccination.  Created: 12/8/2008 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/8/2008.

  2. Deck Yourself with Flu Protection Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-22

    This song (sung to the tune of Deck the Halls) describes actions you can take to protect yourself and others from the flu. Sing along!  Created: 12/22/2009 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 12/22/2009.

  3. Influenza forecasting with Google Flu Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004-2011) divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM), and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA) methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. A GARMA(3,0) forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and flexible forecast model can be used by

  4. Influenza A virus infections in swine: pathogenesis and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, B H

    2014-03-01

    Influenza has been recognized as a respiratory disease in swine since its first appearance concurrent with the 1918 "Spanish flu" human pandemic. All influenza viruses of significance in swine are type A, subtype H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 viruses. Influenza viruses infect epithelial cells lining the surface of the respiratory tract, inducing prominent necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and variable interstitial pneumonia. Cell death is due to direct virus infection and to insult directed by leukocytes and cytokines of the innate immune system. The most virulent viruses consistently express the following characteristics of infection: (1) higher or more prolonged virus replication, (2) excessive cytokine induction, and (3) replication in the lower respiratory tract. Nearly all the viral proteins contribute to virulence. Pigs are susceptible to infection with both human and avian viruses, which often results in gene reassortment between these viruses and endemic swine viruses. The receptors on the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract are major determinants of infection by influenza viruses from other hosts. The polymerases, especially PB2, also influence cross-species infection. Methods of diagnosis and characterization of influenza viruses that infect swine have improved over the years, driven both by the availability of new technologies and by the necessity of keeping up with changes in the virus. Testing of oral fluids from pigs for virus and antibody is a recent development that allows efficient sampling of large numbers of animals.

  5. Expert Witness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    discipline that permits them to testify to an opinion that will aid a judge or jury in resolving a question that is beyond the understanding or competence of laypersons. An expert witness is an expert who makes his or her knowledge available to a court (a tribunal or any other forum where formal rules of evidence apply) to help ...

  6. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  7. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Swine Influenza Vaccine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjot Basra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1 and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR chains, known as the “shared epitope”, which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the “shared epitope” may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.

  8. The failure of the 1976 swine influenza immunization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, S L

    1977-01-01

    The program to immunize 210 million Americans against swine flu failed. It set back the Federal government's relations with state health agencies, private physicians, pharmaceutical manufacturers, and the insurance industry. It increased mistrust of immunization programs and of government health programs in general.The well-intentioned plan had far-reaching consequences because its scope and the speed with which it was implemented were overreactions to the threat. Its size magnified every one of its faults, legal, medical and political. Organizational and scientific capacity were less than expected. Local health agencies could not administer the program with the inadequate funds from HEW and pharmaceutical companies could not produce a safe, effective children's vaccine.Because of the urgency given the program, Congress neglected the opposition of consumer advocates and state health officials, and did not spend time trying to include immunization against childhood disease in the swine flu program.The failure illustrates the dangers of hasty decisions, of considering only direct medical costs and benefits and not social and political effects on health policy, of launching a public health program whose scientific basis is weak and whose administrative requirements are untested.

  9. Piezoresistive measurement of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding with microcantilever arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bajwa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective detection of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide is crucial as it could be used as a positive control to screen for highly infectious flu strains such as Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1. Piezoresistive microcantilever arrays present a pathway towards highly sensitive and label-free detection of biomolecules by transducing the antigen-antibody binding into change in resistivity via induced surface stress variation. We demonstrate a mechanical transduction of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding and suggest the employed technique may offer a potential platform for detection of the H1N1 virus, which could be clinically used to diagnose and provide subsequent relief.

  10. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. The seasonal flu vaccination is the best way to protect both mother and baby. In this podcast Dr. Stacie Greby discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  11. Continue to Vaccinate Patients and Staff Against the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-08

    This podcast is a reminder to health care providers about the importance of annual flu vaccination—it’s not too late! Health care providers should get their flu vaccine and continue offering and encouraging flu vaccination among their staff, colleagues, and patients.  Created: 2/8/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  12. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a

  13. It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Vaccination It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu ... older should get the flu vaccine each year. It usually takes two weeks after you are vaccinated ...

  14. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Past Issues / ... able to infect others for an even longer time. How serious is the flu? Certain people are ...

  15. Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context--analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as "swine flu", since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term "swine flu" to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: "Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them," wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt.

  16. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  17. Freshman Flu Vaccination Behavior and Intention During a Nonpandemic Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Kendra L; Norrenberns, Ryan; Turner, J Austin; Kunerth, Allison

    2017-09-01

    To examine predictors of flu vaccination and vaccination intention among college freshmen during a nonpandemic influenza season using the health belief model (HBM). A total of 184 college freshmen at a single institution participated in a mixed-mode (paper or online) survey in October-November 2015. Flu vaccination and intention to vaccinate were predicted using binomial logistic regression on HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, cues to action, and availability), prior flu vaccination history, family and peer reference behaviors, and demographics. Overall, 31.5% of participants received the seasonal flu vaccine by mid-November, and 25% intended to receive it. In full models, history of past flu vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.55-24.49) was significant for vaccination while availability (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.32-3.01) and family intention (aOR = 250.59; 95% CI = 3.77 to >999) were positively associated with intent to vaccinate. Significant confounding by past behavior and family intentions existed for both outcomes. Past flu vaccination behavior and family member intentions to vaccinate were better predictors of annual flu vaccination behavior and intention than HBM constructs among college freshmen. College campuses may enhance flu vaccine coverage by highlighting benefits and availability to students and families.

  18. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. This podcast discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  19. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  20. Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohskopf, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu…

  1. OHS Helps Protect Employees During Flu Season | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flu season is in full swing, bringing a host of symptoms like congestion, coughs, fever, chills, muscle aches, and fatigue. To help NCI at Frederick employees stay healthy this year, Occupational Health Services (OHS) is offering two types of flu vaccines for free.

  2. EDITORIAL Avian Flu Pandemic Threat: Why is Ethiopia considered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Many zoonotic diseases have affected human beings with serious impact. Among those pandemic flu originated from birds have caused millions of human deaths at different times. The so called Spanish flu that caused about 50 million people worldwide in 1918-19 is the most devastating. That pandemic was refereed as.

  3. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  4. ExpertFOAF recommends experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iofcu, Tereza; Diederich, Joerg; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    the GrowBag approach [1]. The main assumption is that such user profiles can provide good hints about users' expertise. Such extended FOAF files (called ExpertFOAF) can be published on a user's home page, on web pages of institutions or conferences to characterize them. They can be crawled by distributed...

  5. Bird flu, influenza and 1918: the case for mutant Avian tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxmeyer, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Influenza is Italian for "influence", Latin: influentia. It used to be thought that the disease was caused by a bad influence from the heavens. Influenza was called a virus long, long before it was proven to be one. In 2005, an article in the New England Journal of Medicine estimated that a recurrence of the 1918 influenza epidemic could kill between 180 million and 360 million people worldwide. A large part of the current bird-flu hysteria is fostered by a distrust among the lay and scientific community regarding the actual state of our knowledge regarding the bird flu or H5N1 and the killer "Influenza" Pandemic of 1918 that it is compared to. And this distrust is not completely unfounded. Traditionally, "flu" does not kill. Experts, including Peter Palese of the Mount School of Medicine in Manhattan, remind us that even in 1992, millions in China already had antibodies to H5N1, meaning that they had contracted it and that their immune system had little trouble fending it off. Dr. Andrew Noymer and Michel Garenne, UC Berkely demographers, reported in 2000 convincing statistics showing that undetected tuberculosis may have been the real killer in the 1918 flu epidemic. Aware of recent attempts to isolate the "Influenza virus" on human cadavers and their specimens, Noymer and Garenne summed that: "Frustratingly, these findings have not answered the question why the 1918 virus was so virulent, nor do they offer an explanation for the unusual age profile of deaths". Bird flu would certainly be diagnosed in the hospital today as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Roger and others favor suspecting tuberculosis in all cases of acute respiratory failure of unknown origin. By 1918, it could be said, in so far as tuberculosis was concerned, that the world was a supersaturated sponge ready to ignite and that among its most vulnerable parts was the very Midwest where the 1918 unknown pandemic began. It is theorized that the lethal pig epidemic that began in Kansas

  6. Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... the Northern Hemisphere. What is influenza (also called flu)? The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused ...

  7. Implementation of Flu (Influenza) Vaccination into Armenian Armed Forces Pre-Emptive Vaccination Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT IMPLEMENTATION OF FLU (INFLUENZA) VACCINATION INTO ARMENIAN ARMED...DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IMPLEMENTATION OF FLU (INFLUENZA) VACCINATION INTO ARMENIAN ARMED FORCES PRE-EMPTIVE...Service of the Armed Forces conducts flu vaccinations . The flu is always highly prevalent in the Armenian Armed Forces personnel morbidity ranking. An

  8. Strategi Pesan Promosi Kesehatan Cegah Flu Burung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Widiastuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza health disaster has attacked many countries in the world, includes Indonesia. An effort have been done by government through Health Department RI publish health promotion communication on public services advertising (PSA version “Cegah Flu Burung dengan B3K”. In a way to criticize this PSA is used theoretical framework social construction of reality and health promotion. This research use descriptive qualitative method, whereas data is collected with literature review from television PSA, and data analysis technique is used framing analysis from Zhondang Pan and Gerald M. Kosicki. Based on research finding has been found that avian influenza prevention health promotion message not yet “enabling” (ability people to act healthy life, but it only “desiring” (willingness. From this we can say that health promotion still prioritize in giving information, whereas message toward new attitude and behavior changes through learning process still not visible.

  9. BFluenza: A Proteomic Database on Bird Flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Parveen; Khan, Asad U

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as "bird flu" has been documented to cause an outbreak of respiratory diseases in humans. The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza type A is a threat to veterinary and human health. The BFluenza is a relational database which is solely devoted to proteomic information of H5N1 subtype. Bfluenza has novel features including computed physico-chemical properties data of H5N1 viral proteins, modeled structures of viral proteins, data of protein coordinates, experimental details, molecular description and bibliographic reference. The database also contains nucleotide and their decoded protein sequences data. The database can be searched in various modes by setting search options. The structure of viral protein could be visualized by JMol viewer or by Discovery Studio. The database is available for free at http://www.bfluenza.info.

  10. Parvoviral Infections in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge on epizootiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and prophylaxis of this diseases.

  11. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This article ... should patients with immune deficiency be given the vaccine? Immune deficient patients have a decreased resistance to ...

  12. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... flulive.html . CDC review information for Live, Intranasal Influenza VIS: Vaccine Information Statement Influenza Page last reviewed: ...

  13. Sharp claims new technology can combat bird flu virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

      Tests byjapanese electronics maker Sharp Corp. have found an air-purifier using plasmacluster ion technology was 99 percent effective in killing off the bird flu virus in a controlled environment, a company spokeswoman said...

  14. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  15. Supersize my identity: when thoughts of contracting swine flu boost one's patriotic identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bélanger, J.J.; Faber, T.; Gelfand, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Pandemics are socially threatening situations that rapidly spread across large regions. Thinking of contracting dangerous diseases can potentially evoke fear and death-related thoughts. The aim of the present work was to investigate how individuals respond to fear associated with contracting a

  16. Focus on pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza (swine flu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, M; Capretti, M G; Decembrino, L; Natale, F; Pedicino, R; Pugni, L; Serra, L

    2010-06-01

    At the moment of the onset of the pandemic there were few data about the transmission of the 2009 H1N1 virus infection from the mother to the newborn. Nevertheless neonates born to an ill mother from 2 days before through 7 days after illness onset in the mother were thought to be exposed and potentially infected. In October 2009 the Infectious Disease Group of the Italian Society of Neonatology provided a guide regarded the management of suspected or confirmed maternal infection with 2009 H1N1 influenza virus within labor and delivery, postpartum, and newborn care settings in hospitals. It was based on the available scientific information, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Italian Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Policy recommendations in order to protect the infant from exposure to respiratory secretion during or immediately after delivery. Moreover, we published 300,000 copies of a more popular pamphlet for parents. Rigorous attention to Standard Precautions and Droplet Precautions is required to reduce the opportunities for the transmission of the infection in the health-care setting.

  17. Credibility of the Printed Media: The Swine Flu as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Žlof

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of credibility becomes especially pronounced in times of crises, which characteristically abound in the unknown, uncertainty, and doubt. Such crises are mostly sudden, often complex, andsometimes mired in controversial events. The public subsequently craves more information in times of crises, such that they may obtain more precise guidance, and ease their ability to cope. Given the relatively low frequency of crisis situations, most people lack actual experience relevant to a given predicament. The appearance of Virus A (H1N1 at the onset of 2009 is one such case. Despite H1N1’s classification as a broad-scale, serious health hazard, preventive vaccinations failed to reach a large segment of the population. We contend that the lack of credibility in informing the public through the media contributed considerably to this failure. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine the level of credible information provided by the print media from which the general public could have taken an informed position on the crisis in question. Quantitative research and content analysis ascertained from a body of print media sources with national coverage reveals that the Croatian print media, contrary to our expectations, largely rely on official sources and transparently cite authors, which contributes to a higher degree of credibility. Yet further analysis of the number of sources suggests that most journalists used on average only one or no named sources, which significantly reduces the credibility of the published articles.

  18. Swine flu outbreak 2015-Paediatric Experience in a Tertiary Care Centre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Anuya Chauhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: To study and analyse the clinical profile and outcome of children admitted with Influenza A positive cases at our Tertiary Care Centre in 2015. Materials & Methods: Prospective study conducted in a tertiary care centre (Civil Hospital B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad from Jan 2015 to March 2015. 340 Children presenting with clinical features compatible with category C were admitted and 199 patients having laboratory confirmed influenza A (H1N1 were included in our study. Details regarding clinical features, examination findings, investigations, complications and treatment were recorded and analysed in a systemic manner. Results: Study showed that highest incidence of influenza A was seen in 1-3 years age group (41.7% Male-female ratio was 1.18:1 indicating similar affection of both sexes. Maximum patients presented within first 3 days of illness (53.2% with fever (82.9% followed by dry cough (74.6% and sore throat (52.7% as presenting symptoms. Leucopenia (79.4% was the most common laboratory finding and lobar pneumonia (81.1% was the most common radiological finding followed by bronchopneumonia (18.9%. Conjunctivitis (20.1% and otitis media (6.03% were the common complications. Mortality rate in our set up was 6.5% (13 out of 199; with maximum from 1-3 year age group (46.1%, most common cause being ARDS (46.1%. Conclusion: The outbreak of influenza A (H1N1 2015 predominantly affected young population with significant morbidity and mortality. With the efforts of healthcare authorities worldwide, we have still not lost the race against fighting this virus.

  19. Assessment of H1N1 influenza: A swine flu vaccination in Kumasi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess H1N1 vaccination in the Kumasi metropolis of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Questionnaires on the subject were administered to 504 individuals compris-ing of 254 health personnel and 250 from the general public (in a cross-sectional survey) after an initial interview of 1,686 individuals.

  20. [Miller Fisher syndrome, internal and external ophthalmoplegia after flu vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Marchite, C I; Buznego-Suárez, L; Fagúndez-Vargas, M A; Méndez-Llatas, M; Pozo-Martos, P

    2008-07-01

    Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS) is the most frequent variant of the Guillain-Barré Syndrome. It is characterised by the classic triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. We present a case of a patient who developed these clinical findings 5 days after flu vaccination. Miller Fisher Syndrome is an unusual condition seen in ophthalmologic clinical practice. Although respiratory and digestive infections have been reported as antecedent infectious agents in MFS, it has not previously been described in relation to the flu vaccine.

  1. FluShuffle and FluResort: new algorithms to identify reassorted strains of the influenza virus by mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Aaron TL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is one of the oldest and deadliest infectious diseases known to man. Reassorted strains of the virus pose the greatest risk to both human and animal health and have been associated with all pandemics of the past century, with the possible exception of the 1918 pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. We have developed and tested new computer algorithms, FluShuffle and FluResort, which enable reassorted viruses to be identified by the most rapid and direct means possible. These algorithms enable reassorted influenza, and other, viruses to be rapidly identified to allow prevention strategies and treatments to be more efficiently implemented. Results The FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms were tested with both experimental and simulated mass spectra of whole virus digests. FluShuffle considers different combinations of viral protein identities that match the mass spectral data using a Gibbs sampling algorithm employing a mixed protein Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method. FluResort utilizes those identities to calculate the weighted distance of each across two or more different phylogenetic trees constructed through viral protein sequence alignments. Each weighted mean distance value is normalized by conversion to a Z-score to establish a reassorted strain. Conclusions The new FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms can correctly identify the origins of influenza viral proteins and the number of reassortment events required to produce the strains from the high resolution mass spectral data of whole virus proteolytic digestions. This has been demonstrated in the case of constructed vaccine strains as well as common human seasonal strains of the virus. The algorithms significantly improve the capability of the proteotyping approach to identify reassorted viruses that pose the greatest pandemic risk.

  2. The 1918 "Spanish flu" in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilla, Antoni; Trilla, Guillem; Daer, Carolyn

    2008-09-01

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic was the most devastating epidemic in modern history. Here, we review epidemiological and historical data about the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic in Spain. On 22 May 1918, the epidemic was a headline in Madrid's ABC newspaper. The infectious disease most likely reached Spain from France, perhaps as the result of the heavy railroad traffic of Spanish and Portuguese migrant workers to and from France. The total numbers of persons who died of influenza in Spain were officially estimated to be 147,114 in 1918, 21,235 in 1919, and 17,825 in 1920. However, it is likely that >260,000 Spaniards died of influenza; 75% of these persons died during the second period of the epidemic, and 45% died during October 1918 alone. The Spanish population growth index was negative for 1918 (net loss, 83,121 persons). Although a great deal of evidence indicates that the 1918 A(H1N1) influenza virus unlikely originated in and spread from Spain, the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic will always be known as the Spanish flu.

  3. Development of a rapid automated influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus A/B multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay and its use during the 2009 H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus epidemic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Eric T; Jurgens, Lisa A; Kehl, Sue C; Bose, Michael E; Patitucci, Teresa; LaGue, Elizabeth; Darga, Patrick; Wilkinson, Kimberly; Witt, Lorraine M; Fan, Jiang; He, Jie; Kumar, Swati; Henrickson, Kelly J

    2010-01-01

    Rapid, semiautomated, and fully automated multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays were developed and validated for the detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from nasopharyngeal specimens. The assays can detect human H1N1, H3N2, and swine-origin (S-OIV) H1N1 Flu A viruses and were effectively used to distinguish Flu A infections (of all subtypes) from Flu B and RSV infections during the current S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI. The analytical limits of detection were 10(-2) to 10(1) TCID(50)/ml depending on the platform and analyte and showed only one minor cross-reaction among 23 common respiratory pathogens (intermittent cross-reaction to adenovirus at >10(7) TCID(50)/ml). A total of 100 clinical samples were tested by tissue culture, both automated assays, and the US Food and Drug Administration-approved ProFlu+ assay. Both the semiautomated and fully automated assays exhibited greater overall (Flu A, Flu B, and RSV combined) clinical sensitivities (93 and 96%, respectively) and individual Flu A sensitivities (100%) than the Food and Drug Administration-approved test (89% overall sensitivity and 93% Flu A sensitivity). All assays were 99% specific. During the S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI, the fully automated assay was used to test 1232 samples in 2 weeks. Flu A was detected in 134 clinical samples (126 H1N1 S-OIV, 5 H1N1 [human], and 1 untyped) with 100% positive agreement compared with other "in-house" validated molecular assays, with only 2 false-positive results. Such accurate testing using automated high-throughput molecule systems should allow clinicians and public health officials to react quickly and effectively during viral outbreaks.

  4. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  5. High-Dose Flu Shot May Help Nursing Home Residents Avoid Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167348.html High-Dose Flu Shot May Help Nursing Home Residents Avoid Hospital ... July 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Nobody wants the flu, but it can prove deadly for frail residents ...

  6. How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2012-01-01

    Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

  7. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they get a flu shot. What types of vaccine should my child receive and how many doses? Children with or ... with chronic health conditions, get a seasonal flu vaccine. Additional Information & Resources: Preventing the Flu: Resources for Parents & Child Care Providers Preventing the Spread of Illness in ...

  8. FluTE, a publicly available stochastic influenza epidemic simulation model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao, Dennis L; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Obenchain, Valerie J; Longini, Jr, Ira M

    2010-01-01

    ..., FluTE. FluTE is an individual-based model capable of simulating the spread of influenza across major metropolitan areas or the continental United States. The model's structure is based on previously published work [3,6], but FluTE incorporates a more sophisticated natural history of influenza, more realistic intervention strategies, and ...

  9. Expert witness perceptions of bias in experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, Michael Lamport; Miller, Patrice Marie; Gutheil, Thomas G

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study of perceptions of different sources of expert bias, as well as of personal investment in case outcomes, was performed among attendees at a workshop at an annual meeting of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. Participants were asked to rate hypothetical responses by experts to various case outcomes and the biasing potential of different kinds of situations for opposing or other experts. A factor analysis produced two factors. Factor 1 included questions about situations that were obviously biasing (such as working only for the defense). Factor 2 included questions assessing the potential of certain situations to cause bias in experts, or how likely experts thought other experts were to be biased. In general, experts identified only four areas to be overtly biasing. All occurred within situations in which experts worked only for one or the other side of civil or criminal cases. Experts otherwise thought other experts were reasonably bias free and well able to compensate for any bias when it occurred. The data suggest that experts may deal with bias by turning down cases that may cause them personal discomfort.

  10. Too Late for a Flu Shot (For Parents)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regularly and are at risk for developing Reye syndrome if they get the flu caregivers or household contacts of anyone in a high- ... currently recommended. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that ... Guillain-Barré syndrome (a rare condition that affects the immune system ...

  11. Mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission | Yusuf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bird flu (Avian influenza) is a contagious disease of animals caused by viruses that normally infect only birds and, less commonly, pigs. These viruses are highly species-specific, but have, on rare occasions, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. The world at large never considered it a serious threat to mankind until ...

  12. Colds and flu – an overview of the management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: colds, flu, rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, influenza, upper respiratory tract infections, herbal medicine, antivirals, .... the nose, removing bacterial products, and improving sinonasal function. Nasal irrigations can be used prior to the administration of topical therapies to ensure true sinus distribution1, 10.

  13. mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory. The analysis of the ...

  14. Mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory . The analysis of the ...

  15. Editorial Avian flu pandemic threat: why is Ethiopia considered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Avian flu pandemic threat: why is Ethiopia considered at risk. Yemane Berhane, Admas Tefera. Abstract. No Abstract. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 19(3) 2005: 165-166. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics.

  16. Pandemics and networks : The case of the Mexican flu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omic, J.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    The recent widespread of the new Mexican flu and SARS show the high dependency on contemporary traveling patterns. The air transport network is recognized as an important channel of epidemic propagation for different diseases. In order to predict epidemic spreading and the influence of protection

  17. Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

  18. Flu Shots, Mammogram, and the Perception of Probabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carman, K.G.; Kooreman, P.

    2010-01-01

    We study individuals’ decisions to decline or accept preventive health care interventions such as flu shots and mammograms. In particular, we analyze the role of perceptions of the effectiveness of the intervention, by eliciting individuals' subjective probabilities of sickness and survival, with

  19. Don't Get, Don't Spread: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting the seasonal flu and spreading it to others.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  20. Outbreak of a New Strain of Flu at a Fair

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-28

    Dr. Karen Wong, an EIS officer with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, discusses her study about flu outbreaks at agricultural fairs.  Created: 2/28/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  1. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ∆fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ∆fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion.

  2. Analysing Twitter and web queries for flu trend prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Carlos; Matos, Sérgio

    2014-05-07

    Social media platforms encourage people to share diverse aspects of their daily life. Among these, shared health related information might be used to infer health status and incidence rates for specific conditions or symptoms. In this work, we present an infodemiology study that evaluates the use of Twitter messages and search engine query logs to estimate and predict the incidence rate of influenza like illness in Portugal. Based on a manually classified dataset of 2704 tweets from Portugal, we selected a set of 650 textual features to train a Naïve Bayes classifier to identify tweets mentioning flu or flu-like illness or symptoms. We obtained a precision of 0.78 and an F-measure of 0.83, based on cross validation over the complete annotated set. Furthermore, we trained a multiple linear regression model to estimate the health-monitoring data from the Influenzanet project, using as predictors the relative frequencies obtained from the tweet classification results and from query logs, and achieved a correlation ratio of 0.89 (p<0.001). These classification and regression models were also applied to estimate the flu incidence in the following flu season, achieving a correlation of 0.72. Previous studies addressing the estimation of disease incidence based on user-generated content have mostly focused on the english language. Our results further validate those studies and show that by changing the initial steps of data preprocessing and feature extraction and selection, the proposed approaches can be adapted to other languages. Additionally, we investigated whether the predictive model created can be applied to data from the subsequent flu season. In this case, although the prediction result was good, an initial phase to adapt the regression model could be necessary to achieve more robust results.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of novel swine origin influenza virus (S-OIV from Gwalior, India, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Jyoti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The H1N1pandemic virus is a newly emergent human influenza A virus that is closely related to a number of currently circulating pig viruses in the 'classic North American' and 'Eurasian' swine influenza virus lineages and thus referred as S-OIV. Since the first reports of the virus in humans in April 2009, H1N1 virus has spread to 168 countries and overseas territories. India also witnessed severe H1N1 pandemic virus epidemic with considerable morbidity and mortality in different parts starting from May 2009. Findings The suspected swine flu outbreak from Gwalior India during October- December 2009 was confirmed through S-OIV HA gene specific RT-LAMP and real time RT-PCR. Positive samples through CDC real time and Lamp assay were further processed for isolation of the virus. Full HA gene sequencing of the H1N1 isolates of Gwalior, India revealed 99% homology with California and other circulating novel swine flu viruses. Three major changes were observed at nucleotide level, while two major amino acid shifts were observed at the position C9W and I30M corresponding to the ORF with prototype strain. The HA gene sequence phylogeny revealed the circulation of two genetically distinct lineages belonging to Clade VII and Clade I of S-OIV. Conclusions Our findings also supported the earlier report about circulation of mixed genogroups of S-OIV in India. Therefore continuous monitoring of the genetic makeup of this newly emergent virus is essential to understand its evolution within the country.

  4. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  5. Microbiome overview in swine lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; P?rez-Wohlfeil, Esteban; de Carvalho, Fab?ola Marques; Trelles, Oswaldo; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libra...

  6. Regional Differences in Pathogen Prevalence and Defensive Reactions to the “Swine Flu” Outbreak among East Asians and Westerners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hamamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  7. Vaksin Polivalen Untuk Mencegah Penyakit Flu Burung (POLIVALEN VACCINE TO PREVENT BIRD FLU DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suartha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the use of bird flu polyvalent vaccines containing two or threeor more virus isolates representating of circulating viruses in the region. Three seed isolates of avianinfluenza H5N1 virus were used in this experiment. The isolates were Chicken/Denpasar/Unud-01/2004,Chicken/Klungkung/Unud-12/2006, and Chicken/Jembrana/Unud-17/2006. The seeds were inactivatedusing 0.01% formaldehide than mixed (AI3G alumunium hidroxide adjuvant and then injectedintramuscularly to Isa Brown layer chicken at 3 weeks of age and repeated at the age of 5 weeks. The doseof each seed virus was 27 HA units. Sera were collected at one and two weeks after the second vaccination.The result showed that the arithmetic meant titer (AMT of sera that tested with homologous isolate washigher than the test using a heterologous isolates, in the standard haemaglutination inhibition (HI assay.The mixed AI3G vaccine produced a uniform AMT against the constituent isolates, while vaccines withindividual isolate yielded a lower and more variation in AMT. Further experiments using a commercialhomologous H5N1 and heterologous H5N2 commercial vaccines has resulted AMT that 1-4 log lower thanAI3G vaccine. It is concluded that polyvalent vaccine with field seed isolates is recommended to be appliedin the poultry farm in Indonesia.

  8. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Medical Expert Systems Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Nasser, Bassem S.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; There is an increase interest in the area of Artificial Intelligence in general and expert systems in particular. Expert systems are rapidly growing technology. Expert system is a branch of Artificial Intelligence which is having a great impact on many fields of human life. Expert systems use human expert knowledge to solve complex problems in many fields such as Health, science, engineering, business, and weather forecasting. Organizations employing the technology of ...

  10. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  11. Canadian Acute Respiratory Illness and Flu Scale (CARIFS) for clinical detection of influenza in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jason B; Prasad, Priya A; Coffin, Susan E; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Mistry, Rakesh D

    2014-10-01

    Validated clinical scales, such as the Canadian Acute Respiratory Illness and Flu Scale (CARIFS), have not been used to differentiate influenza (FLU) from other respiratory viruses. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an influenza-like infection from 2008 to 2010. Subjects were children aged 0 to 19 years who had a venipuncture and respiratory virus polymerase chain reaction. Demographics and CARIFS items were assessed during the ED visit; comparisons were made between FLU and non-FLU subjects. The 203 subjects had median age 30.5 months; 61.6% were male. Comorbid conditions (51.2%) were common. FLU was identified in 26.6%, and were older than non-FLU patients (69.7 vs 47.9 months, P = .02). Demographic, household factors, and mean CARIFS score did not differ between FLU (33.7), and non-FLU (32.0) (mean difference 1.6, 95% CI: -2.0 to 5.2) groups. CARIFS cannot discriminate between FLU and non-FLU infection in ED children with influenza-like infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, and seasonal influenza in Japan under social and demographic influence: review and analysis using the two-population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    When cumulative numbers of patients (X) and deaths (Y) associated with an influenza epidemic are plotted using the log-log scale, the plots fall on an ascending straight line generally expressed as logY = k(logX - logN0). For the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the slope k was ~0.6 for Mexico and ~2 for other countries. The two-population model was proposed to explain this phenomenon (Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:279-88; Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:411-2; and Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:482-4). The current article reviews and analyzes previous influenza epidemics in Japan to examine whether the two-population model is applicable to them. The slope k was found to be ~2 for the Spanish flu during 1918-1920 and the Asian flu during 1957-1958, and ~1 for the Hong Kong flu and seasonal influenza prior to 1960-1961; however, k was ~0.6 for seasonal influenza after 1960-1961. This transition of the slope k of seasonal influenza plots from ~1 to ~0.6 corresponded to the shift in influenza mortality toward the older age groups and a drastic reduction in infant mortality rates due to improvements in the standard of living during the 1950s and 1960s. All the above observations could be well explained by reconstitution of the influenza epidemic based on the two-population model.

  13. Novel Isoprene Sensor for a Flu Virus Breath Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelagia-Irene Gouma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of the inflammatory response in patients who have actually contracted influenza is the generation of a number of volatile products of the alveolar and airway epithelium. These products include a number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and nitric oxide (NO. These may be used as biomarkers to detect the disease. A portable 3-sensor array microsystem-based tool that can potentially detect flu infection biomarkers is described here. Whether used in connection with in-vitro cell culture studies or as a single exhale breathalyzer, this device may be used to provide a rapid and non-invasive screening method for flu and other virus-based epidemics.

  14. Amantadine: the journey from fighting flu to treating Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubsher, G; Haider, M; Okun, M S

    2012-04-03

    To explore how amantadine transitioned from an anti-flu drug to antiparkinsonian agent. A review of the historical literature on the use of amantadine from 1966 to the present was performed. Amantadine was originally introduced and utilized as an antiviral medication. A single patient noticed relief in her Parkinson disease (PD) symptoms after taking amantadine for a flu infection, and this observation sparked an interest, and several important studies that eventually led to a new drug indication. Amantadine has over the years fallen out of favor as a drug to address influenza infection; however, it has become part of the arsenal utilized for early symptomatic treatment of PD, as well an option for treating dyskinesia.

  15. Targeting a metabolic pathway to fight the flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boergeling, Yvonne; Ludwig, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Our antiviral arsenal to fight influenza viruses is limited and we need novel anti-flu drugs. Recently, cellular drug targets came into focus and omics analysis were instrumental to suggest candidate factors. In this issue of The FEBS Journal, Kainov and colleagues used transcriptome data to investigate virus-induced changes in tryptophan metabolism that may serve as immunomodulatory approach against viruses. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-04

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.  Created: 3/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/4/2009.

  17. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  18. Use of Protective Gear in Bird Flu Outbreak Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-29

    CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses how the use of masks and other protective gear impacted whether workers dealing with an outbreak of bird flu in England became sick. The paper is published in the January 2009 issue of CDC’s journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 12/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2008.

  19. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  20. Movement patterns of exhibition swine and associations of influenza A virus infection with swine management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Nola; Stull, Jason W; Moeller, Steven J; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Bowman, Andrew S

    2017-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To identify the geographic distribution of exhibition swine in the Midwestern United States, characterize management practices used for exhibition swine, and identify associations between those practices and influenza A virus (IAV) detection in exhibition swine arriving at county or state agricultural fairs. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 480 swine exhibitors and 641 exhibition swine. PROCEDURES Inventories of swine exhibited at fairs in 6 selected Midwestern states during 2013 and of the total swine population (including commercial swine) in these regions in 2012 were obtained and mapped. In 2014, snout wipe samples were collected from swine on arrival at 9 selected fairs in Indiana (n = 5) and Ohio (4) and tested for the presence of IAV. Also at fair arrival, swine exhibitors completed a survey regarding swine management practices. RESULTS Contrary to the total swine population, the exhibition swine population was heavily concentrated in Indiana and Ohio. Many swine exhibitors reported attending multiple exhibitions within a season (median number, 2; range, 0 to 50), with exhibited swine often returned to their farm of origin. Rearing of commercial and exhibition swine on the same premises was reported by 13.3% (56/422) of exhibitors. Hosting an on-farm open house or sale was associated with an increased odds of IAV detection in snout wipe samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The exhibition swine population was highly variable and differed from the commercial swine population in terms of pig density across geographic locations, population integrity, and on-farm management practices. Exhibition swine may be important in IAV transmission, and identified biosecurity deficiencies may have important public and animal health consequences.

  1. Insights from investigating the interactions of adamantane-based drugs with the M2 proton channel from the H1N1 swine virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing-Fang [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wei, Dong-Qing, E-mail: dqwei@gordonlifescience.org [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gordon Life Science Institute, 13784 Torrey Del Mar Drive, San Diego, CA 92130 (United States); Chou, Kuo-Chen [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gordon Life Science Institute, 13784 Torrey Del Mar Drive, San Diego, CA 92130 (United States)

    2009-10-16

    The M2 proton channel is one of indispensable components for the influenza A virus that plays a vital role in its life cycle and hence is an important target for drug design against the virus. In view of this, the three-dimensional structure of the H1N1-M2 channel was developed based on the primary sequence taken from a patient recently infected by the H1N1 (swine flu) virus. With an explicit water-membrane environment, molecular docking studies were performed for amantadine and rimantadine, the two commercial drugs generally used to treat influenza A infection. It was found that their binding affinity to the H1N1-M2 channel is significantly lower than that to the H5N1-M2 channel, fully consistent with the recent report that the H1N1 swine virus was resistant to the two drugs. The findings and the relevant analysis reported here might provide useful structural insights for developing effective drugs against the new swine flu virus.

  2. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic...... resulted in marginal improvements to the control of the epidemics. However, adding testing of dead animals in the protection and surveillance zones was predicted to be the optimal control scenario for an ASF epidemic in industrialized swine populations without contact to wild boar. This optimal scenario...

  3. Expert auditors’ services classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Wisniewska

    2013-01-01

    The profession of an expert auditor is a public trust occupation with a distinctive feature of taking responsibility for actions in the public interest. The main responsibility of expert auditors is performing financial auditing; however, expert auditors are prepared to carry out different tasks which encompass a wide plethora of financial and auditing services for different kinds of institutions and companies. The aim of the article is first of all the description of expert auditors’ service...

  4. Comparison: Flu prescription sales data from a retail pharmacy in the US with Google Flu trends and US ILINet (CDC) data as flu activity indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') for five years' aggregate data (2007-2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98).

  5. Comparison: Flu prescription sales data from a retail pharmacy in the US with Google Flu trends and US ILINet (CDC data as flu activity indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Patwardhan

    Full Text Available The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r' for five years' aggregate data (2007-2011 was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94. The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r' was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98.

  6. [Mexican flu: public reaction to news coverage measured using an internet panel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bults, Marloes; Beaujean, Desirée J M A

    2009-01-01

    To determine the reaction of the general public on the information regarding the Mexican flu. Online panel interview. From April 30 to May 4 2009, 572 people filled out an online questionnaire. 88% of the respondents had sufficient general knowledge about the Mexican flu. This information was mostly acquired by watching television (69%). More information was desired regarding the symptoms of the flu and those personal measures that could be taken to avoid infection.

  7. Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See www. immunize. ...

  8. Expert status and performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Burgman

    Full Text Available Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback.

  9. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  10. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Holland Jones

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1, generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced by behavioral changes (e.g., social distancing during the early phase of an epidemic, but data on risk perception and behavioral response to a novel virus is usually collected with a substantial delay or after an epidemic has run its course.Here, we report the results from an online survey that gathered data (n = 6,249 about risk perception of the Influenza A(H1N1 outbreak during the first few days of widespread media coverage (April 28-May 5, 2009. We find that after an initially high level of concern, levels of anxiety waned along with the perception of the virus as an immediate threat. Overall, our data provide evidence that emotional status mediates behavioral response. Intriguingly, principal component analysis revealed strong clustering of anxiety about swine flu, bird flu and terrorism. All three of these threats receive a great deal of media attention and their fundamental uncertainty is likely to generate an inordinate amount of fear vis-a-vis their actual threat.Our results suggest that respondents' behavior varies in predictable ways. Of particular interest, we find that affective variables, such as self-reported anxiety over the epidemic, mediate the likelihood that respondents will engage in protective behavior. Understanding how protective behavior such as social distancing varies and the specific factors that mediate it may help with the design of epidemic control strategies.

  11. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James Holland; Salathé, Marcel

    2009-12-03

    Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1), generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced by behavioral changes (e.g., social distancing) during the early phase of an epidemic, but data on risk perception and behavioral response to a novel virus is usually collected with a substantial delay or after an epidemic has run its course. Here, we report the results from an online survey that gathered data (n = 6,249) about risk perception of the Influenza A(H1N1) outbreak during the first few days of widespread media coverage (April 28-May 5, 2009). We find that after an initially high level of concern, levels of anxiety waned along with the perception of the virus as an immediate threat. Overall, our data provide evidence that emotional status mediates behavioral response. Intriguingly, principal component analysis revealed strong clustering of anxiety about swine flu, bird flu and terrorism. All three of these threats receive a great deal of media attention and their fundamental uncertainty is likely to generate an inordinate amount of fear vis-a-vis their actual threat. Our results suggest that respondents' behavior varies in predictable ways. Of particular interest, we find that affective variables, such as self-reported anxiety over the epidemic, mediate the likelihood that respondents will engage in protective behavior. Understanding how protective behavior such as social distancing varies and the specific factors that mediate it may help with the design of epidemic control strategies.

  12. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered...

  13. Forensic experts' perceptions of expert bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, Michael Lamport; Miller, Patrice Marie; Li, Eva Yujia; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    How do expert witnesses perceive the possible biases of their fellow expert witnesses? Participants, who were attendees at a workshop at the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law were asked to rate for their biasing potential a number of situations that might affect the behavior of an opposing expert. A Rasch analysis produced a linear scale as to the perceived biasing potential of these different kinds of situations from the most biasing to the least biasing. Working for only one side in both civil and criminal cases had large scaled values and also were the first factor. In interesting contrast, a) an opposing expert also serving as the litigant's treater and b) an opposing expert being viewed as a "hired gun" (supplying an opinion only for money) were two situations viewed as not very biasing. Order of Hierarchical Complexity also accounted for items from the 1st, 2nd and 3rd factors. The result suggests that the difficulty in understanding the conceptual basis of bias underlies the perception of how biased a behavior or a situation is. The more difficult to understand the questionnaire item, the less biasing its behavior or situation is perceived by participants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PANDEMIC SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS: PREPAREDNESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    pandemic planning. Keywords: Pandemic, swine, influenza, virus, preparedness. INTRODUCTION. Effective pandemic preparedness and response should involve .... disaster. Academy of Emerging Medicine 2006;. 13: 1118-1129. 11. Coker R.J, Mounier-Jack S. Pandemic influenza preparedness in the Asia- pacific region.

  15. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Pérez-Wohlfeil, Esteban; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Trelles, Oswaldo; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  16. Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, FEB 17 (2017), s. 255-279 ISSN 2165-8102 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09296S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : swine * pre-immune antibody repertoire * ileal Peyer's patches Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2016

  17. Introduction to expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.

    1986-01-01

    Expert systems have become one of the most exciting applications within the domain of artificial intelligence. Further interest has been provoked by Japan's Fifth Generation Project, which identifies expert or knowledge-based systems as a key element in the computer systems of the future. This book presents an introduction to expert systems at a level suited to the undergraduate student and the interested layman. It surveys the three main techniques for knowledge representation - rules, frames and logic. and describes in detail the expert systems which employ them. Contents: Expert systems and artificial intelligence; Formalisms for knowledge representation; MYCIN; Medical diagnosis using rules. MYCIN derivatives; TEIRESIAS, EMYCIN, and GUIDON; RI: recognition as a problem-solving strategy; CENTAUR: a combination of frames metalevel inference and commonsense reasoning in MECHO; Tools for building expert systems; Summary and conclusions; Exercises.

  18. An econometric analysis of SARS and Avian flu on international tourist arrivals to Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); B-W. Huang (Bing-Wen); H-I. Kuo (Hsiao-I); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper compares the impacts of SARS and human deaths arising from Avian Flu on international tourist arrivals to Asia. The effects of SARS and human deaths from Avian Flu will be compared directly according to human deaths. The nature of the short run and long run relationship is

  19. ‘Tis the Season for Flu Vaccine (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-12-10

    Flu season typically runs from late fall through early spring. In this podcast, Dr. Lisa Grohskopf discusses the importance of getting vaccinated against the flu.  Created: 12/10/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/10/2015.

  20. Ethnic differences in susceptibilities to A(H1N1) flu: An epidemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current A(H1N1) flu has showed sub-population dependent susceptibility and fatality as early as April and May of 2009 in its first wave of spreading. After the pandemic outbreak spreads globally for more than seven months, the subpopulation dependence of this flu, including ethnicity, age and gender selectivity, has ...

  1. Who Takes Advantage of Free Flu Shots? Examining the Effects of an Expansion in Coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carman, K.G.; Mosca, I.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the high risk of costly complications (including death) and the externalities of contagious diseases, many countries provide free flu shots to certain populations free of charge. This paper examines the expansion of the free flu shot program in the Netherlands. This program expanded in

  2. Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their…

  3. Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Lila

    2005-01-01

    Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

  4. Colds and flu – an overview of the management | Ismail | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The common cold and flu are two very different viruses that share very similar symptoms. The common cold is a self-limiting upper respiratory tract infection and it is caused by the rhinovirus, coronavirus or the adenovirus. It usually resolves within 7-10 days. The flu is caused by the influenza virus and usually presents with ...

  5. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans...

  6. THE AVIAN FLU IMPACT ON THE ROMANIAN POULTRY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius Stanciu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat represents one of the most dynamic branches of the local meat production. The poultry sector represents a good quality protein source, at an acceptable price as compared to other animal production domains. There has been an ascending evolution of the sector after the year 2000, although there appeared a series of discontinuities that affected agricultural production, mainly on a short-term basis. The Avian Flu led to 190 million euros’ worth losses at the level of Romanian national economy. Low consumption due to the impact was a short-term consequence, being rapidly amortized by the Romanian producers. The lack of some business continuity insurance measures can further affect the poultry meat sector, which does not have the necessary robustness needed in case of larger shocks. The following article proposes an analysis of the Avian Flu crisis economic effects on the Romanian meat sector, and it is part of a general framework of research regarding the Romanian food chain resilience to critical situations.

  7. How Expert Designers Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Peter Sloep; J. van Merrienboer; C. Carr; P. Kirschner

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses two studies - the one in a business context, the other in a university context - carried out with expert educational designers. The studies aimed to determine the priorities experts claim to employ when designing competence-based learning environments. Designers in both contexts

  8. Expert Systems in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartschuh, Wayne

    This paper argues that the concepts and techniques used in the development of expert systems should be expanded and applied to the field of education, particularly in the area of intelligent tutoring systems. It is noted that expert systems are a well known area of artificial intelligence and have been proven effective in well-defined topic areas.…

  9. Antibody repertoire development in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John E; Sun, Jishan; Wertz, Nancy; Sinkora, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Swine belong to the Order Artiodactyla and like mice and humans, express IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE and IgA antibodies but a larger number of IgG subclasses. Like rabbits and chickens, expressed V(H) genes belong to the ancestral V(H)3 family and only 5 comprise >80% of the pre-immune repertoire. Since they use primarily two D(H) segments and have a single J(H) like chickens, junctional diversity plays a relatively greater role in repertoire formation than in humans and mice. Proportional light chain usage surprisingly resembles that in humans and is therefore distinctly different from the predominant kappa chain usage (>90%) of lab rodents and predominant lambda chain usage in other ungulates (>90%). The pre-immune V(kappa) repertoire also appears restricted since >95% of V(kappa)J(kappa) rearrangements use only a few members of the IGKV2 family and only J(kappa)2. Two V(lambda) families (IGLV3 and IGLV8) are used in forming the pre-immune repertoire. Antibodies that do not utilize light chains as in camelids, or the lengthy CDR3 regions seen in cattle that use V(H)4 family genes, have not been reported in swine. B cell lymphogenesis first occurs in the yolk sac but early VDJ rearrangements differ from mice and humans in that nearly 100% are in-frame and N-region additions are already present. Swine possess ileal Peyers patches like sheep which may be important for antigen-independent B cell repertoire diversification. The presence of pro B-like cells in interlobular areas of thymus and mature B cells in the thymic medulla that have switched to especially IgA in early gestation, is so far unique among mammals. The offspring of swine are believed to receive no passive immunity in utero and are precosial. Thus, they are a useful model for studies on fetal-neonatal immunological development. The model has already shown that: (a) colonization of the gut is required for responsiveness to TD and TI-2 antigens, (b) responsiveness due to colonization depends on bacterial PAMPs

  10. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  11. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tommy’s Story Ludacris Talks About HIV Influenza Fighting Flu Fighting Flu (3:35) Fighting Flu (:60) Fighting Flu (:30) H1N1 (Swine Flu) I Never Get The Flu Influenza Round Table ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tommy’s Story Ludacris Talks About HIV Influenza Fighting Flu Fighting Flu (3:35) Fighting Flu (:60) Fighting Flu (:30) H1N1 (Swine Flu) I Never Get The Flu Influenza Round Table ...

  13. Swine flu and hype: a systematic review of media dramatization of the H1N1 influenza pandemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, C.; Das, E.; Hartmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highly disconcerting at the time, in retrospective, the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic looks like much ado about nothing. As a consequence, many accused the media of having created an artificial hype or hysteria around the new virus, thus contributing to unwarranted public fear. The current paper set

  14. Expert F# 20

    CERN Document Server

    Syme, Don; Cisternino, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Expert F# 2.0 is about practical programming in a beautiful language that puts the power and elegance of functional programming into the hands of professional developers. In combination with .NET, F# achieves unrivaled levels of programmer productivity and program clarity. Expert F# 2.0 is * The authoritative guide to F# by the inventor of F# * A comprehensive reference of F# concepts, syntax, and features * A treasury of expert F# techniques for practical, real-world programming F# isn't just another functional programming language. It's a general-purpose language ideal for real-world develop

  15. Benchmarking expert system tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  16. OPPORTUNITIES FOR APPLICATION OF THE NEURAMINIDASE INHIBITORS IN TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF THE FLU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.B. Belan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Flu viruses cause yearly epidemics with the lesion of approximately 20% of population. during the increase of the flu sickness rate, it is necessary to take urgent anti epidemic and treatment steps aimed to reduce the spread of an infection as soon as possible and incorporating the application of the specific antiviral medications. The major aims for prescription of the specific antiviral medications in flu treatment are to reduce the duration and severity of the leading disease symptoms, risks of complications, as well as to prevent the lethal out comes. There were developed medications, effectively inhibiting the replication of B flu virus. At present, there are the 1st generation medications available — adamantane derivatives (amantadine and rimantadine and the 2nd generation medications — neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir. The fast increase of the flu virus resistance towards adamantanes determine the necessity of a wider application of neuraminidase inhibitors, which are highly effective in respect flu viruses of A and B, as well as avian flu virus (h5n1.Key words: neuraminidase inhibitors, adamantanes, oseltamivir, zanamivir, h3n2, h5n1.

  17. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Rachel E; Mediratta, Rishi P; Xie, James; Kambhampati, Swetha; Hills-Evans, Kelsey; Montacute, Tamara; Zhang, Michael; Zaw, Catherine; He, Jimmy; Sanchez, Magali; Pischel, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful servicelearning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students' attitudes about population health, highlights the program's outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians.

  18. Planning for avian flu disruptions on global operations: a DMAIC case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    The author aims to assess the spread of avian flu, its impact on businesses operating in the USA and overseas, and the measures required for corporate preparedness. Six Sigma DMAIC process is used to analyze avian flu's impact and how an epidemic could affect large US business operations worldwide. Wal-Mart and Dell Computers were chosen as one specializes in retail and the other manufacturing. The study identifies avian flu pandemic risks including failure modes on Wal-Mart and Dell Computers global operations. It reveals the factors that reinforce avian-flu pandemic's negative impact on company global supply chains. It also uncovers factors that balance avian-flu pandemic's impact on their global supply chains. Avian flu and its irregularity affect the research outcomes because its spread could fluctuate based on so many factors that could come into play. Further, the potential cost to manufacturers and other supply chain partners is relatively unknown. As a relatively new phenomenon, quantitative data were not available to determine immediate costs. In this decade, the avian influenza H5N1 virus has killed millions of poultry in Asia, Europe and Africa. This flu strain can infect and kill humans who come into contact with this virus. An avian influenza H5N1 outbreak could lead to a devastating effect on global food supply, business services and business operations. The study provides guidance on what global business operation managers can do to prepare for such events, as well as how avian flu progression to a pandemic can disrupt such operations. This study raises awareness about avian flu's impact on businesses and humans and also highlights the need to create contingency plans for corporate preparedness to avoid incurring losses.

  19. [How do we catch flu? Beliefs in France in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, P; Gautier, A; Verger, P; Raude, J; Constant, A; Beck, F

    2015-02-01

    Our goals were to describe beliefs held by French people concerning the contagiosity of influenza and analyze the relationship of these beliefs with vaccination against seasonal flu. A subsample (4749 people aged 15-79) of the Health Barometer 2010 responded to questions dealing with influenza. Responses were analyzed using clustering analysis and logistic regression. Overall, observed beliefs were quite good, but also socially differentiated. 'False' beliefs were more frequent among people with a lower socioeconomic status. Those who overestimated the contagiosity of influenza were less likely to have been vaccinated against seasonal influenza in 2008. The beliefs analyzed here were associated with vaccination behaviors. 'False' beliefs may be difficult to change as they are nevertheless coherent. These beliefs also exhibit social inequalities that should be taken into account when determining preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction (early recognition) of emerging flu strain clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Phillips, J. C.

    2017-08-01

    Early detection of incipient dominant influenza strains is one of the key steps in the design and manufacture of an effective annual influenza vaccine. Here we report the most current results for pandemic H3N2 flu vaccine design. A 2006 model of dimensional reduction (compaction) of viral mutational complexity derives two-dimensional Cartesian mutational maps (2DMM) that exhibit an emergent dominant strain as a small and distinct cluster of as few as 10 strains. We show that recent extensions of this model can detect incipient strains one year or more in advance of their dominance in the human population. Our structural interpretation of our unexpectedly rich 2DMM involves sialic acid, and is based on nearly 6000 strains in a series of recent 3-year time windows. Vaccine effectiveness is predicted best by analyzing dominant mutational epitopes.

  1. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 206 RIN 0580-AB06 Swine Contract Library AGENCY: Grain... (1999 Act) by establishing the Swine Contract Library (SCL). The statutory authority for the library... creation and maintenance of a library of marketing contracts offered by certain packers to producers for...

  2. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... swine contract library will be made available to the public? GIPSA will summarize the information it has...

  3. Completion of the swine genome will simplify the production of swine as a large animal biomedical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters Eric M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomic and physiological similarities to the human make swine an excellent large animal model for human health and disease. Methods Cloning from a modified somatic cell, which can be determined in cells prior to making the animal, is the only method available for the production of targeted modifications in swine. Results Since some strains of swine are similar in size to humans, technologies that have been developed for swine can be readily adapted to humans and vice versa. Here the importance of swine as a biomedical model, current technologies to produce genetically enhanced swine, current biomedical models, and how the completion of the swine genome will promote swine as a biomedical model are discussed. Conclusions The completion of the swine genome will enhance the continued use and development of swine as models of human health, syndromes and conditions.

  4. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  5. Health and social care workers: don't risk flu infection

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet explains why health and social care workers should receive the new flu vaccine. It provides a range of information, including how to get vaccinated, how the vaccine works, how effective it is and possible side effects.

  6. JouFLU: upgrades to the fiber linked unit for optical recombination (FLUOR) interferometric beam combiner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, N. J.; Lhomé, E.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.

    2014-07-01

    The Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination (FLUOR) is a precision interferometric beam combiner operating at the CHARA Array on Mt. Wilson, CA. It has recently been upgraded as part of a mission known as "Jouvence of FLUOR" or JouFLU. As part of this program JouFLU has new mechanic stages and optical payloads, new alignment systems, and new command/control software. Furthermore, new capabilities have been implemented such as a Fourier Transform Spectrograph (FTS) mode and spectral dispersion mode. These upgrades provide new capabilities to JouFLU as well as improving statistical precision and increasing observing efficiency. With these new systems, measurements of interferometric visibility to the level of 0.1% precision are expected on targets as faint as 6th magnitude in the K band. Here we detail the upgrades of JouFLU and report on its current status.

  7. 1918 Flu Pandemic: Implications for Homeland Security in the New Millennium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkland, Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    ... event. Studying the 1918 pandemic will assist modern day planners in mitigating the effects of pandemic flu and the contingency planning will have widespread applicability to other events, both natural...

  8. ClassyFlu: classification of influenza A viruses with Discriminatively trained profile-HMMs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Van der Auwera

    Full Text Available Accurate and rapid characterization of influenza A virus (IAV hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA sequences with respect to subtype and clade is at the basis of extended diagnostic services and implicit to molecular epidemiologic studies. ClassyFlu is a new tool and web service for the classification of IAV sequences of the HA and NA gene into subtypes and phylogenetic clades using discriminatively trained profile hidden Markov models (HMMs, one for each subtype or clade. ClassyFlu merely requires as input unaligned, full-length or partial HA or NA DNA sequences. It enables rapid and highly accurate assignment of HA sequences to subtypes H1-H17 but particularly focusses on the finer grained assignment of sequences of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 according to the cladistics proposed by the H5N1 Evolution Working Group. NA sequences are classified into subtypes N1-N10. ClassyFlu was compared to semiautomatic classification approaches using BLAST and phylogenetics and additionally for H5 sequences to the new "Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Clade Classification Tool" (IRD-CT proposed by the Influenza Research Database. Our results show that both web tools (ClassyFlu and IRD-CT, although based on different methods, are nearly equivalent in performance and both are more accurate and faster than semiautomatic classification. A retraining of ClassyFlu to altered cladistics as well as an extension of ClassyFlu to other IAV genome segments or fragments thereof is undemanding. This is exemplified by unambiguous assignment to a distinct cluster within subtype H7 of sequences of H7N9 viruses which emerged in China early in 2013 and caused more than 130 human infections. http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/ClassyFlu is a free web service. For local execution, the ClassyFlu source code in PERL is freely available.

  9. ClassyFlu: classification of influenza A viruses with Discriminatively trained profile-HMMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Auwera, Sandra; Bulla, Ingo; Ziller, Mario; Pohlmann, Anne; Harder, Timm; Stanke, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and rapid characterization of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sequences with respect to subtype and clade is at the basis of extended diagnostic services and implicit to molecular epidemiologic studies. ClassyFlu is a new tool and web service for the classification of IAV sequences of the HA and NA gene into subtypes and phylogenetic clades using discriminatively trained profile hidden Markov models (HMMs), one for each subtype or clade. ClassyFlu merely requires as input unaligned, full-length or partial HA or NA DNA sequences. It enables rapid and highly accurate assignment of HA sequences to subtypes H1-H17 but particularly focusses on the finer grained assignment of sequences of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 according to the cladistics proposed by the H5N1 Evolution Working Group. NA sequences are classified into subtypes N1-N10. ClassyFlu was compared to semiautomatic classification approaches using BLAST and phylogenetics and additionally for H5 sequences to the new "Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Clade Classification Tool" (IRD-CT) proposed by the Influenza Research Database. Our results show that both web tools (ClassyFlu and IRD-CT), although based on different methods, are nearly equivalent in performance and both are more accurate and faster than semiautomatic classification. A retraining of ClassyFlu to altered cladistics as well as an extension of ClassyFlu to other IAV genome segments or fragments thereof is undemanding. This is exemplified by unambiguous assignment to a distinct cluster within subtype H7 of sequences of H7N9 viruses which emerged in China early in 2013 and caused more than 130 human infections. http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/ClassyFlu is a free web service. For local execution, the ClassyFlu source code in PERL is freely available.

  10. Soft Expert Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. Many researchers have studied this theory, and they created some models to solve problems in decision making and medical diagnosis, but most of these models deal only with one expert. This causes a problem with the user, especially with those who use questionnaires in their work and studies. In our model, the user can know the opinion of all experts in one model. So, in this paper, we introduce the concept of a soft expert set, which will more effective and useful. We also define its basic operations, namely, complement, union intersection AND, and OR. Finally, we show an application of this concept in decision-making problem.

  11. Expert Oracle application express

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, John Edward

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle Application Express brings you groundbreaking insights into developing with Oracle's enterprise-level, rapid-development tool from some of the best practitioners in the field today. Oracle Application Express (APEX) is an entirely web-based development framework that is built into every edition of Oracle Database. The framework rests upon Oracle's powerful PL/SQL language, enabling power users and developers to rapidly develop applications that easily scale to hundreds, even thousands of concurrent users. The 13 authors of Expert Oracle Application Express build their careers aro

  12. Isoniazid-induced flu-like syndrome: A rare side effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Pandit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced flu-like syndrome is very rare. It is mainly produced by rifampicin. We report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB that developed isoniazid-induced flu-like syndrome, but could be cured with a modified regimen replacing isoniazid with levofloxacin. A 10-year-old girl with PTB was treated with isoniazid (H, rifampicin (R, ethambutol (E, and pyrazinamide (Z. She developed features of flu from the sixth day. Symptoms recurred everyday within 1 h of drug ingestion and subsided automatically by next 12 h. After admission, HREZ were continued. She developed symptoms of flu after 1 h of drug ingestion. Antitubercular therapy (ATT was stopped and symptoms subsided automatically. Individual drug was started one by one after three days. Severe symptoms of flu developed after taking isoniazid, while other drugs were tolerated well. Levofloxacin was used as an alternative to isoniazid. She was cured after 6 months of chemotherapy. Isoniazid can possibly cause flu-like syndrome and the treating physician should be aware of this possible side effect when using ATT.

  13. Waiting for the flu: cognitive inertia and the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This study looks at public awareness and understanding of the Spanish flu in the United States between June 1918, when the flu became "Spanish," and the end of September when the deadly second wave reached the majority of the country. Based on an extensive reading of local newspapers, it finds a near universal lack of preparation or panic or other signs of personal concern among those in the unaffected areas, despite extensive and potentially worrying coverage of the flu's progress. The normal reaction to news of the inexorable approach of a pandemic of uncertain virulence is anxiety and action. The Spanish flu produced neither in the uninfected areas for a month. The most likely reason appears to be cognitive inertia-the tendency of existing beliefs or habits of thought to blind people to changed realities. This inertia grew out of the widespread understanding of flu as a seasonal visitor that while frequently unpleasant almost never killed the strong and otherwise healthy. This view of the flu was powerful enough that it blinded many in the unaffected regions to the threat for weeks even in the face of daily or near daily coverage of the pandemic's spread. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Capital Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  15. Prisons' preparedness for pandemic flu and the ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Hoff, G; Fedosejeva, R; Mihailescu, L

    2009-06-01

    In Europe at any given time there are about 1,8 million people imprisoned in penal institutions. About 1 million personnel are working in prisons. With prisons, from the start there are fundamental problems in many parts of Europe. Poor housing conditions in prisons and a high proportion of prisoners who already suffer from severe health problems mean the chance of an outbreak in prison during a pandemic must be quite high. We expect it can be up to 90%. In this article we explain what the characteristics are of the prison population from a health point of view. A high rate of detainees suffers from mental health disorders and/or addiction. A high prevalence of communicable and infectious diseases is the rule, not an exception. According to the European Prison Rules and many other international rules, statements and documents prison health care should be an integral part of the public health system of any country. However, it has to be accepted that the prison population is the least popular in society and in politics. In reality in many countries in Europe the situation in prison cannot meet the level strived for by the European Prison Rules. We compare preparedness on pandemic flu in The Netherlands, Latvia and Romania. We explore the problems and ethical issues that may arise if a pandemic breaks out. There are three ethical dilemmas that require consideration: equivalence of care and prisoners' right to health care; prisoners' interests verses society's interests; countries in need and calls for bilateral help.

  16. Solar heated swine farrowing shed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    A swine farrowing shed that uses energy for heat is described. The design of the shed incorporates solar collector glazing, a rock bed storage, and two ventilation fans. The results of solar calculations are presented.

  17. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aline Félix Schneider; Otavio Fernando Zimmermann; Clóvis Eliseu Gewehr

    .... Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues...

  18. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Commercial Swine Farms Fair Organizers & Exhibitors In Humans Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses Interim Guidance for Clinicians on Human Infections Background, Risk Assessment & Reporting Reported Infections with ...

  19. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  20. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal RE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rachel E Rizal,1,* Rishi P Mediratta,1,* James Xie,1 Swetha Kambhampati,1 Kelsey Hills-Evans,1 Tamara Montacute,1 Michael Zhang,1 Catherine Zaw,2 Jimmy He,2 Magali Sanchez,2 Lauren Pischel1 1Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 2Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful service-learning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students' attitudes about population health, highlights the program’s outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians. Keywords: immunizations, vaccine delivery, vaccinations 

  1. Expert Script Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Nancy E.; Cooper, Eric G.

    1991-01-01

    Program provides additional level of interface to facilitate use of telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is software package automatically generating high-level task objective commands from complex menu-driven language of the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL). Makes telerobotics laboratory accessible to researchers not familiar with comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with various systems of ISRL test bed. Incorporates expert-system technology to capture typical rules of operation that skilled operator uses. Result: operator interfact optimizing ability of system to perform task remotely in hazardous environment, in timely manner, and without undue stress to operator, while minimizing change for operator erros that damage equipment. Written in CLIPS.

  2. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  3. Expert PLSQL Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Beresniewicz, John

    2011-01-01

    Expert PL/SQL Practices is a book of collected wisdom on PL/SQL programming from some of the best and the brightest in the field. Each chapter is a deep-dive into a specific problem, technology, or feature set that you'll face as a PL/SQL programmer. Each author has chosen their topic out of the strong belief that what they share can make a positive difference in the quality and scalability of code that you write. The path to mastery begins with syntax and the mechanics of writing statements to make things happen. If you've reached that point with PL/SQL, then let the authors of Expert PL/SQL

  4. Evolution of expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biancoli, L.

    1984-03-01

    A brief exposition of the nature and functions of expert systems (knowledge based systems) and some remarks upon the way in which they resemble, but fall far short of, the very largely intuitive action of the human brain are given. The remainder of the article consists of summaries of the work being done in this field by organisations in Italy, namely: ISPRA; Delphi Electronic Design Systems, VIAREGGIO; SPL Italia SPA, (VA), Milan; Italservice Srl, Milan; and Artificial Intelligence Software, Rovigo.

  5. ALICE Expert System

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, C

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in dierent system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by reg...

  6. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  7. [Expert Opinions in Court: Liability of the Expert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltenwolf, Marcus; Beckmann, Nickolas; Gaidzik, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Experts in criminal, civil and, increasingly, in social court cases have to present their expert opinions in court. This should be regarded not only as a burden, even if this may at times appear superfluous to the expert, perhaps because the discussion is mere repetition of the opinion he has already written, or because the questions appear to be biased against the expert. Nonetheless, the expert is always advised to appear calm and objective during the interrogation by judges and parties or participants and their legal representatives, and should not allow himself or herself to be provoked by questioning. Furthermore, it may be necessary to correct the written expert statement in the course of the interrogation, but this can be a sign of a truly competent medical expert. The expert consulted can be held liable for adverse health effects resulting from the interrogation and investigation, as well as for deliberate or grossly faulty reports. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration.A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product.International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while

  9. Risky Zoographies: The Limits of Place in Avian Flu Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Porter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Global anxieties about avian influenza stem from a growing recognition that highly-virulent, highly-mobile disease vectors infiltrate human spaces in ways that are difficult to perceive, and even more difficult to manage. This article analyses a participatory health intervention in Việt Nam to explore how avian influenza threats challenge long-held understandings of animals’ place in the environment and society. In this intervention, poultry farmers collaborated with health workers to illustrate maps of avian flu risks in their communities. Participant-observation of the risk-mapping exercises shows that health workers treated poultry as commodities, and located these animals in environments that could be transformed and dominated by humans. However, these maps did not sufficiently represent the physical and social landscapes where humans and poultry coexist in Việt Nam. As such, farmers located poultry in environments dominated by risky nonhuman forces such as winds, waterways, and other organisms. I argue that these divergent risk maps demonstrate how ecological factors, interpersonal networks, and global market dynamics combine to engender a variety of interspecies relationships, which in turn shape the location of disease risks in space. I develop the term risky zoographies to signal the emergence of competing descriptions of animals and their habitats in zoonotic disease contexts. This concept suggests that as wild animals, livestock products, and microbial pathogens continue to globalise, place-based health interventions that limit animals to particular locales are proving inadequate. Risky zoographies signal the inextricability of nonhuman animals from human spaces, and reveal interspecies interactions that transect and transcend environments.

  10. Bipolar Neutrosophic Soft Expert Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Mehmet; Deli, İrfan; Uluçay, Vakkas

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce concept of bipolar neutrosophic soft expert set and its some operations. Also, we propose score, certainty and accuracy functions to compare the bipolar neutrosophic soft expert sets. We give examples for these concepts. 

  11. Limitations of Expert Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil Salaçin

    1997-01-01

    Limitations of Expert Evidence Edited by Stephen Leadbeatter MB ChB MCRPath ISBN 1 86016 029 8 Printed in Great Britain by Cathedral Print Services Ltd, Salisbury, 1996 Kitap 25 Ekim 1994 te The Royal College of Physicians ve The Royal College of Pathologists tarafından düzenlenen konferanstan sonra hekimlere ve avukatlara konuyu tartışmaya açmak için basılmış. Bilirkişi görüşünün temel filozofisinin, bu görevi yapanlar ve bu hizmeti alanların yapabileceklerin...

  12. Expert Oracle Exadata

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history, advances in technology have come in spurts. A single great idea can often spur rapid change as the idea takes hold and is propagated, often in totally unexpected directions. Exadata embodies such a change in how we think about and manage relational databases. The key change lies in the concept of offloading SQL processing to the storage layer. That concept is a huge win, and its implementation in the form of Exadata is truly a game changer. Expert Oracle Exadata will give you a look under the covers at how the combination of hardware and software that comprise Exadata actua

  13. Anticipating crisis: towards a pandemic flu vaccination strategy through alignment of public health and industrial policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daems, Rudi; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

    2005-12-30

    Flu pandemics (worldwide epidemics) have occurred at irregular and unpredictable intervals, and have been associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and economic cost. In response to the emerging potential for a new pandemic to occur, national and international preparedness plans are being drawn up specifying the use of antivirals and vaccines. A number of challenges to pandemic vaccine development, large-scale production and the timing of distribution have also been highlighted. This article reviews the rationale and consequential policy for aligned public- and private sector planning in the present inter-pandemic period despite the prevalent risks and uncertainties. We propose a model for product development of pandemic flu vaccine based on public-private partnership, including push and pull incentive mechanisms for stimulating work in this therapeutic area. In addition, we argue that innovative vaccination strategies, together with special vaccine formulations which may offer cross-protection against multiple flu pandemic strains might avert the worse effects of an influenza infection.

  14. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Meng-Kin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu – winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued.

  15. Expert Systems - A Natural History

    OpenAIRE

    Shadbolt, N. R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the origins, current state and future prospects for expert systems. The origins are traced from the schism with classic Artificial Intelligence. The characteristics of early expert systems are described and contrasted with more recent developments. A number of influential forces operating on present day systems are reviewed. The future trends in the evolution of expert systems are discussed.

  16. Towards an improved understanding of African swine fever virus transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso de Carvalho Ferreira, H.

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease of swine caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Estimates of virus transmission (direct or indirect) parameters for ASFV are necessary in order to model the spread of the virus, and to design more efficient control measures. Results presented on

  17. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513 Section 93.513 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or...

  18. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter...

  19. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a...

  20. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  1. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 35) Fighting Flu (:60) Fighting Flu (:30) H1N1 (Swine Flu) I Never Get The Flu Influenza Round ... Antivirals (:60) Wes Studi: Antivirals (:30) Why Flu Vaccination Matters Lifestyle Healthy Swimming Is No Accident No ...

  2. Comparison of Directigen Flu A+B with Real Time PCR in the Diagnosis of Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosevska, Golubinka; Panovski, Nikola; Janceska, Elizabeta; Mikik, Vladimir; Topuzovska, Irena Kondova; Milenkovik, Zvonko

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of patients with influenza is the reason why physicians need rapid high-sensitivity influenza diagnostic tests that require no complex lab equipment and can be performed and interpreted within 15 min. The Aim of this study was to compare the rapid Directigen Flu A+B test with real time PCR for detection of influenza viruses in the Republic of Macedonia. One-hundred-eight respiratory samples (combined nose and throat swabs) were routinely collected for detection of influenza virus during influenza seasons. Forty-one patients were pediatric cases and 59 were adult. Their mean age was 23 years. The patients were allocated into 6 age groups: 0-4 yrs, 5-9 yrs, 10-14 yrs, 15-19 yrs, 20-64 yrs and > 65 yrs. Each sample was tested with Directigen Flu A+B and CDC real time PCR kit for detection and typisation/subtypisation of influenza according to the lab diagnostic protocol. Directigen Flu A+B identified influenza A virus in 20 (18.5%) samples and influenza B virus in two 2 (1.9%) samples. The high specificity (100%) and PPV of Directigen Flu A+B we found in our study shows that the positive results do not need to be confirmed. The overall sensitivity of Directigen Flu A+B is 35.1% for influenza A virus and 33.0% for influenza B virus. The sensitivity for influenza A is higher among children hospitalized (45.0%) and outpatients (40.0%) versus adults. Directigen Flu A+B has relatively low sensitivity for detection of influenza viruses in combined nose and throat swabs. Negative results must be confirmed.

  3. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  4. Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermarco Aroldi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by the Italian Ministry of Rural Affairs, which was based on the skills and knowledge acquired during the avian flu emergency.

  5. Let the Experts Decide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    in information quality is large, we find that voting groups largely coordinate on the SVC equilibrium which is also Pareto Optimal. However, we find that when the asymmetry in information quality is not large and the Pareto Optimal equilibrium is for all to participate, significant numbers of voters with low...... quality information abstain. Furthermore, we find that information asymmetry induces voters with low quality information to coordinate on a non-equilibrium outcome. This suggests that coordination on "letting the experts" decide is a likely voting norm that sometimes validates SVC equilibrium predictions......We examine abstention when voters in standing committees are asymmetrically informed and there are multiple pure strategy equilibria-swing voter's curse (SVC) equilibria where voters with low quality information abstain and equilibria when all participants vote their information. When the asymmetry...

  6. Reassortment patterns in Swine influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khiabanian

    Full Text Available Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, isolated in Mexico and the United States. Pigs are documented to allow productive replication of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses. Thus it has been conjectured that pigs are the "mixing vessel" that create the avian-human reassortant strains, causing the human pandemics. Hence, studying the process and patterns of viral reassortment, especially in pigs, is a key to better understanding of human influenza pandemics. In the last few years, databases containing sequences of influenza A viruses, including swine viruses, collected since 1918 from diverse geographical locations, have been developed and made publicly available. In this paper, we study an ensemble of swine influenza viruses to analyze the reassortment phenomena through several statistical techniques. The reassortment patterns in swine viruses prove to be similar to the previous results found in human viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, that the surface glycoprotein coding segments reassort most often. Moreover, we find that one of the polymerase segments (PB1, reassorted in the strains responsible for the last two human pandemics, also reassorts frequently.

  7. Accurate PCR Detection of Influenza A/B and RSV Using the Cepheid Xpert Flu+RSV Xpress Assay in Point-of-Care Settings: Comparison to Prodesse ProFlu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel M; Kline, Jennifer; May, Larissa S; Harnett, Glenn Eric; Gibson, Jane; Liang, Stephen Y; Rafique, Zubaid; Rodriguez, Carina A; McGann, Kevin M; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Mayne, Donna; Phillips, David; Cohen, Jason

    2017-11-15

    The Xpert Flu+RSV Xpress Assay is a fast, automated in vitro diagnostic test for qualitative detection and differentiation of influenza A, B, and RSV performed on the Cepheid GeneXpert Xpress System. The objective of this study was to establish performance characteristics of the Xpert Flu+RSV Xpress Assay compared to the Prodesse ProFlu+ real-time RT-PCR assay (ProFlu+) for the detection of influenza A and B as well as RSV in a CLIA-waived (CW) setting. Overall, the assay, using fresh and frozen nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs, demonstrated high concordance with ProFlu+ in the combined CW and non-CW settings with Positive Percent Agreements (PPA) (100%, 100%, 97.1%) and Negative Percent Agreements (NPA) (95.2%, 99.5%, 99.6%) for influenza A, B, and RSV, respectively. In conclusion, this multi-center study using the Cepheid Xpert Flu+RSV Xpress Assay demonstrated high sensitivities and specificities for Flu A, B, and RSV in ∼60 minutes for use at the point-of-care in the CW setting. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Procedures to eliminate H3N2 swine influenza virus from a pig herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torremorell, M; Juarez, A; Chavez, E; Yescas, J; Doporto, J M; Gramer, M

    2009-07-18

    A three-site pig herd infected with a H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) underwent a herd SIV elimination programme using herd closure and partial depopulation. The herd consisted of sow, nursery and finishing units, 1 to 2 km apart. Disease was noted in the sow unit and then the nursery unit. The herd temporarily stopped introduction of replacement animals, and replacement gilt introductions in the breeding herd was changed from monthly to quarterly. Gilts from a serologically negative source were also introduced and monitored. Virus elimination from growing pigs was attempted by totally depopulating the nursery and finishing sites once there was evidence that shedding in site 1 had stopped. Sentinel gilts remained serologically negative by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test (0 of 69 animals negative) for at least 20 months after the initial disease. After restoring the pig flow in site 2, pigs did not experience flu-like clinical signs and HI serology results remained negative (0 of 30 animals tested) for the six months following repopulation of sites 2 and 3. In addition, nursery mortality was improved by 2.2 per cent, the growth rate was improved by 0.123 kg/day and feed efficiency was improved 0.26 points. Based on these results, SIV elimination was considered successful.

  9. ESG - EXPERT SCRIPT GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Automation Technology Branch of NASA's Langley Research Center is employing increasingly complex degrees of operator/robot cooperation (telerobotics). A good relationship between the operator and computer is essential for smooth performance by a telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is a software package that automatically generates high-level task objective commands from the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Lab's (ISRL's) complex menu-driven language. ESG reduces errors and makes the telerobotics lab accessible to researchers who are not familiar with the comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with the various systems of the ISRL testbed. ESG incorporates expert system technology to capture the typical rules of operation that a skilled operator would use. The result is an operator interface which optimizes the system's capability to perform a task remotely in a hazardous environment, in a timely manner, and without undue stress to the operator, while minimizing the chance for operator errors that may damage equipment. The intricate menu-driven command interface which provides for various control modes of both manipulators and their associated sensors in the TeleRobotic System Simulation (TRSS) has a syntax which is both irregular and verbose. ESG eliminates the following two problems with this command "language": 1) knowing the correct command sequence to accomplish a task, and 2) inputting a known command sequence without typos and other errors. ESG serves as an additional layer of interface, working in conjunction with the menu command processor, not supplanting it. By specifying task-level commands, such as GRASP, CONNECT, etc., ESG will generate the appropriate menu elements to accomplish the task. These elements will be collected in a script file which can then be executed by the ISRL menu command processor. In addition, the operator can extend the list of task-level commands to include customized tasks composed of sub

  10. The effects of a hot drink on nasal airflow and symptoms of common cold and flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanu, A; Eccles, R

    2008-12-01

    Hot drinks are a common treatment for common cold and flu but there are no studies reported in the scientific and clinical literature on this mode of treatment. This study investigated the effects of a hot fruit drink on objective and subjective measures of nasal airflow, and on subjective scores for common cold/flu symptoms in 30 subjects suffering from common cold/flu. The results demonstrate that the hot drink had no effect on objective measurement of nasal airflow but it did cause a significant improvement in subjective measures of nasal airflow. The hot drink provided immediate and sustained relief from symptoms of runny nose, cough, sneezing, sore throat, chilliness and tiredness, whereas the same drink at room temperature only provided relief from symptoms of runny nose, cough and sneezing. The effects of the drinks are discussed in terms of a placebo effect and physiological effects on salivation and airway secretions. In conclusion the results support the folklore that a hot tasty drink is a beneficial treatment for relief of most symptoms of common cold and flu.

  11. An academic-community partnership to address the flu vaccination rates of the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Sharon Elizabeth; Sexton, Elizabeth Hilliard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot research study was to explore the beliefs and barriers to flu vaccination from a sample homeless population in a small metropolitan community. In a collaborative academic-community partnership of a university undergraduate nursing education program, a local health department, and nonprofit agencies, a social marketing education program was developed by nursing students which included surveying the homeless for perceptions regarding flu vaccinations. There were a total of 87 homeless subjects that were surveyed. The measurements were obtained from various questions regarding flu vaccinations on a Qualtrics survey examining the barriers, beliefs, and practices of the homeless population. The focus addressed health disparities and barriers with nursing students serving as the catalyst to reach the homeless in an educational service-learning project. This project demonstrated a positive impact in meeting health care needs of homeless persons as the rate of flu vaccination was doubled from the previous year at one community day shelter. Nursing students developed their ability to impact a hard-to-reach population with positive changes in their attitudes by increased understanding of the health needs of the homeless.

  12. The Role of the Department of Defense During A Flu Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    improves immunity to a particular disease. The Role of the Department of Defense During A Flu Pandemic Congressional Research Service 6 immunization ...recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices consistent with requirements and...or Military Assistance to Civil Authorities ( MACA ).27 This report will follow the NRF terminology unless otherwise specified

  13. CAN FLU-LIKE ILLNESS BE AN INDICATION OF RECENT ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can flu-like illness be an indication of recent organophosphate pesticide exposure in preschool children? P Mendola*, D Barr, D Walsh, S Hern, S Rhoney, L Needham, E Hilborn, M Gonzales, C Carty, G Robertson, J Creason (US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)<...

  14. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  15. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  16. Long term serious olfactory loss in colds and/or flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro-Licer, Josep; Roura-Moreno, Jordi; Vizitiu, Anabella; González-Fernández, Adela; González-Ares, Josep Antón

    2013-01-01

    In the general population, we can find 2-3% of lifelong olfactory disorders (from hyposmia to anosmia). Two of the most frequent aetiologies are the common cold and flu. The aim of this study was to show the degree of long-term olfactory dysfunction caused by a cold or flu. This study was based on 240 patients, with olfactory loss caused only by flu or a cold. We excluded all patients with concomitant illness (66 patients), the rest of patients (n=174) consisted of 51 men (29.3%) and 123 women (70.7%). They all underwent olfactometry study (i and v cranial nerve) and a nasal sinus computed tomography scan, as well as magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Results were compared with a control group (n=120). Very significant differences in levels of olfactory impairment for the olfactory nerve (P<.00001) and trigeminal nerve (P<.0001) were confirmed. People that suffer olfactory dysfunction for more than 6 months, from flu or a cold, present serious impairment of olfactory abilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. The bird flu campaign in Kwara state of Nigeria: a critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The graphic encoding choices employed to communicate development messages to target audiences during the Bird Flu (Avian Influenza) campaign in Kwara State, Nigeria, is loaded with several types of uncertainty that potentially hindered its communication efficacy and invariably the achievement of the overall desired ...

  18. Parameter values for epidemiological models of foot-and-mouth disease in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Kinsley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD incursion, response strategies are required to control, contain and eradicate the pathogen as efficiently as possible. Infectious disease simulation models are widely used tools that mimic disease dispersion in a population and that can be useful in the design and support of prevention and mitigation activities. However, there are often gaps in evidence-based research to supply models with quantities that are necessary to accurately reflect the system of interest. The objective of this study was to quantify values associated with the duration of the stages of FMD infection (latent period, subclinical period, incubation period, and duration of infection, probability of transmission (within-herd and between-herd via spatial spread, and diagnosis of a vesicular disease within a herd using a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion. The latent period ranged from 1 to 7 days and incubation period ranged from 1 to 9 day; both were influenced by strain. In contrast, the subclinical period ranged from 0 to 6 days and was influenced by sampling method only. The duration of infection ranged from 1 to 10 days. The probability of spatial spread between an infected and fully susceptible swine farm was estimated as greatest within 5 km of the infected farm, highlighting the importance of possible long-range transmission through the movement of infected animals. Lastly, while most swine practitioners are confident in their ability to detect a vesicular disease in an average sized swine herd, a small proportion expect that up to half of the herd would need to show clinical signs before detection via passive surveillance would occur. The results of this study will be useful in within- and between-herd simulation models to develop efficient response strategies in the event an FMD in swine populations of disease-free countries or regions.

  19. Comparison of Cepheid Xpert Flu/RSV XC and BioFire FilmArray for Detection of Influenza A, Influenza B, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrenbrock, Mark G; Matushek, Scott; Boonlayangoor, Sue; Tesic, Vera; Beavis, Kathleen G; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella

    2016-07-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC was compared to the FilmArray respiratory panel for detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), using 128 nasopharyngeal swabs. Positive agreements were 100% for Flu A and RSV and 92.3% for Flu B. The Xpert may be useful in clinical situations when extensive testing is not required and may serve an important role in laboratories already performing broader respiratory panel testing. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Expert systems for satellite stationkeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaru, M. M.; Wright, M. A.

    The feasibility of implementing artificial intelligence on satellites is evaluated, with the aim of using an onboard expert system to perform effective stationkeeping functions without assistance from the ground. The Defense Satellite Communication System (DSCS III) is used as an example. The cost for implementing a satellite stationkeeping expert system is analyzed. A ground-based expert system could reduce the current number of support personnel for the stationkeeping task. Results of analyzing a possible flight system are quite promising. An expert system for satellite stationkeeping seems feasible, appears cost-effective, and offers increased satellite endurance through autonomous operations.

  1. Prospective and Retrospective Evaluation of the Performance of the FDA-Approved Cepheid Xpert Flu/RSV XC Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbefeville, Sophie; Thonen-Kerr, Elizabeth; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2017-11-08

    Rapid and accurate detection of respiratory viruses is important in patient care and in guiding therapy and infection prevention policy. Rapid viral antigen assays are simple to perform and provide results within 15 to 30 minutes but are limited by their modest-to-moderate sensitivity. Molecular assays are more sensitive and specific but require more technical time and expertise and are more expensive. We verified the performance of the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay prospectively, using patient respiratory samples from the 2014-2015 respiratory season, and, retrospectively, with frozen patient samples from the previous respiratory season. A total of 60 specimens were assayed on the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay and by the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor Respiratory Viral Panel. The sensitivity of the Xpert Flu/RSV XC for Flu A was 100% (23/23), for Flu B, 80% (8/10), and for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), 94.1% (16/17), compared to the reference assay (GenMark). The specificity was 100%. Eight specimens were positive for viruses other than Flu A/B or RSV, and this did not interfere with detection of targets in the Xpert assay. We demonstrated that the performance of the Xpert Flu/RSV XC was comparable to the more comprehensive molecular respiratory assay. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Standard regulation of obligatory immunoprevention of flu in a control system of incidence of health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Zobov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the interconnected provisions of the federal legislation and regulations of federal executive authorities regulating a question of obligatory immunization of health workers against flu in aspect of legal consequences of refusal of her are considered. The analysis of the existing regulations and materials of jurisprudence concerning carrying out obligatory vaccination of health workers against flu is carried out. By results of the analysis it is shown that today a problematic issue is absence of the accurate standardly consolidated criteria of reference of these or those categories of medical personnel to group of the subjects of obligatory immunization performing works with sick infectious diseases and, respectively, against flu. It doesn’t allow the management of the medical organizations to differentiate specifically mentioned professions and positions owing to what the requirement about obligatory carrying out preventive inoculations against flu of those health workers whose obligatory vaccination isn’t provided actually is compulsion to vaccination. Therefore, the subsequent discharge from work in case of refusal it работни from carrying out an inoculation strikes at his rights (as in this case, for example, time of discharge isn’t subject to payment and inclusion in the length of service granting the right for the annual paid vacation and is illegal.It is offered to accept as such criterion the labor function fixed by the statutory act of authorized federal executive authority for concrete positions of employees of the medical organizations providing performance of work with sick infectious diseases. The recommendations to heads of the medical organizations concerning the publication of local acts on the organization of vaccinal prevention of flu and adoption of administrative decisions after written refusals of vaccination are provided.

  3. [The seasonal flu vaccination among caregivers in geriatric units: Up-to-date].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contal, E; Putot, A; Dipanda, M; Perrin, S; Asgassou, S; Sordet-Guépet, H; Manckoundia, P

    2016-12-01

    Flu vaccinations for healthcare professionals seems to be one of the most effective preventive actions in the face of a disease that carries a high risk of a potentially serious nosocomial epidemic in a geriatric environment. The aim of this study was to take stock of the flu vaccination status among caregivers in the geriatric units and to understand the reasons for their reluctance to be vaccinated, in order to put forward proposals to improve vaccination coverage. A literature search of articles published since 2000 in the area of geriatrics, infectious diseases or pneumology was mainly conducted on PubMed using the keywords "caregivers", "elderly", "flu", "influenza", "nosocomial" and "vaccination". After reading all abstracts in English or French and ruling out irrelevant articles, only 64 relevant articles have been listed in bibliography section. Despite official recommendations, the literature reveals insufficient vaccination coverage of healthcare personnel at both the national and international level. Vaccination coverage seems to be lower among younger female non-medical staff. The factors that determine the likelihood of vaccination are the wish to protect one's self, one's family and patients/residents, as well as the experience of earlier bouts of flu. Factors that oppose vaccination are complex and related to the fear of side effects, the use of other preventive measures, the feeling that vaccination is ineffective, poor understanding of the disease and the vaccine, forgetfulness and problems of organization. Campaigns to promote vaccination that target healthcare professionals must be multidimensional and very incentive. The pedagogical message must be centered on the benefits to the individual and adjusted to socio-professional categories. Mobile strategies in the different departments to encourage staff are a pragmatic solution to this challenge. The referring doctor has an essential role to play, as does the occupational doctor in association

  4. Swine MRSA isolates form robust biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Measures to prevent, control, or eliminate MRSA in swine is of considerable public health concern. Bacterial colonization ...

  5. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  6. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  7. USMARC update on swine reproduction research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine research at USMARC has continued to focus on meat quality, improvement of genomic resources and reproduction, specifically estrus traits, sow longevity and lifetime productivity. This report will focus on research in behavioral anestrus in gilts. Gilts that reach puberty at an earlier age are ...

  8. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cohen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts. We calculate at most a 20-day reduction in life expectancy for flu cohorts; likely values are much smaller. Estimates of influenza incidence during the pandemic suggest that exposure was high enough for this to be a robust negative result.

  9. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Alan; Tillinghast, J; Canudas-Romo, V

    2010-01-01

    We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual...... mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts. We calculate at most a 20-day reduction in life expectancy for flu cohorts; likely values are much smaller. Estimates of influenza incidence during the pandemic suggest that exposure was high enough...

  10. Adjuvant effects of invariant NKT cell ligand potentiates the innate and adaptive immunity to an inactivated H1N1 swine influenza virus vaccine in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Dhakal, Santosh; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Ouyang, Kang; Hiremath, Jagadish; Khatri, Mahesh; Hague, Jacquelyn Gervay; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-04-15

    Pigs are considered as the source of some of the emerging human flu viruses. Inactivated swine influenza virus (SwIV) vaccine has been in use in the US swine herds, but it failed to control the flu outbreaks. The main reason has been attributed to lack of induction of strong local mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell is a unique T cell subset, and activation of iNKT cell using its ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) has been shown to potentiate the cross-protective immunity to inactivated influenza virus vaccine candidates in mice. Recently, we discovered iNKT cell in pig and demonstrated its activation using α-GalCer. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated H1N1 SwIV coadministered with α-GalCer intranasally against a homologous viral challenge. Our results demonstrated the potent adjuvant effects of α-GalCer in potentiating both innate and adaptive immune responses to SwIV Ags in the lungs of pigs, which resulted in reduction in the lung viral load by 3 logs compared to without adjuvant. Immunologically, in the lungs of pigs vaccinated with α-GalCer an increased virus specific IgA response, IFN-α secretion and NK cell-cytotoxicity was observed. In addition, iNKT cell-stimulation enhanced the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and reduced the production of immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) in the lungs of pigs⋅ In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time iNKT cell adjuvant effects in pigs to SwIV Ags through augmenting the innate and adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  12. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential....... Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds...

  13. How has the flu virus infected the Web? 2010 influenza and vaccine information available on the Internet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Covolo, Loredana; Mascaretti, Silvia; Caruana, Anna; Orizio, Grazia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    .... The Internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information and advice. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of websites providing information about flu vaccine and the quality of the information provided...

  14. A simple stochastic model with environmental transmission explains multi-year periodicity in outbreaks of avian flu

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, R.H; Jin, Z; Liu, Q.X; Van de Koppel, J; Alonso, D

    2012-01-01

    .... In this paper, we argue that a fully stochastic theory based on environmental transmission provides a simple, plausible explanation for the phenomenon of multi-year periodic outbreaks of avian flu...

  15. Association of IFITM3 rs12252 polymorphisms, BMI, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia with mild flu in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Eybpoosh, Sana; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Shokouhi Targhi, Hadiseh; Mazaheri, Vahideh; Farahmand, Behrokh

    2017-11-09

    IFITM3 has been suggested to be associated with infection in some ethnic groups. Diabetes and hypercholesterolemia are also important clinical conditions that can predispose individuals to infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of rs12252 C polymorphism, BMI, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia with mild flu in an Iranian population. We conducted a case-control study, including 79 mild flu and 125 flu-negative individuals attending primary care centers of three provinces of Iran (i.e, Markazi, Semnan, and Zanjan). Pharyngeal swab specimens were collected from all participants, and were subjected to RNA and DNA extractions for Real-time PCR and PCR tests. All PCR products were then sequenced to find T/C polymorphisms in the rs12252 region. Data on demographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables were collected from participants' medical records available in the primary care centers. The data was analyzed using DNASIS (v. 2.5) and Stata (v.11) software. All participants were of Fars ethnic background. The allele frequency for rs12252-C was found to be 9.49% among cases and 2.40% among controls. Carriers of the rs12252 C allele (CT + CC genotypes) showed 5.92 folds increase in the risk of mild flu comparing to the T allele homozygotes (P value: 0.007). We also found a significant positive association between rs12252 C allele heterozygote and mild flu (OR: 7.62, P value: 0.008), but not in C allele homozygote group (OR: 2.71, P value: 0.406). Similarly, we did not find a significant association between mild flu and BMI (OR: 1.06, P value: 0.087), diabetes (OR: 0.61, P value: 0.392), and hypercholesterolemia (OR: 0.50, P value: 0.393) in multivariable logistic regression. This is the first study evaluating the association between rs12252 polymorphisms, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and BMI and susceptibility to mild flu in an Iranian population. Our results suggest a significant positive association between mild flu and rs12252 C

  16. History of ‘swine fever’ in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The histories of the two swine fevers in southern Africa differ widely. Classical swine fever (hog cholera has been known in the northern hemisphere since 1830 and it is probable that early cases of ‘swine fever’ in European settlers’ pigs in southern Africa were accepted to be that disease. It was only in 1921 that the first description of African swine fever as an entity different from classical swine fever was published after the disease had been studied in settlers’ pigs in Kenya. Shortly after that, reports of African swine fever in settlers’ pigs emerged from South Africa and Angola. In South Africa, the report related to pigs in the north-eastern part of the country. Previously (in 1905 or earlier a disease assumed to be classical swine fever caused high mortality among pigs in the Western Cape and was only eradicated in 1918. African swine fever was found over the following years to be endemic in most southern African countries. Classical swine fever, however, apart from an introduction with subsequent endemic establishment in Madagascar and a number of introductions into Mauritius, the last one in 2000, had apparently remained absent from the region until it was diagnosed in the Western and subsequently the Eastern Cape of South Africa in 2005. It was eradicated by 2007. The history of these diseases in the southern African region demonstrates their importance and their potential for spread over long distances, emphasising the need for improved management of both diseases wherever they occur.

  17. Medicinal plants indicated for flu and colds in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoriê da Costa Mendieta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to know the medicinal plants used for flu and colds by farmers from the South of Rio Grande do Sul State and to compare it with scientific evidence. This descriptive study was conducted with 12 farmers living at Ilha dos Marinheiros, in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We used descriptive analysis, comparing the results with the scientific literature. Thirteen plants were cited as used for cold and flu: Achyrocline satureioides, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Gochnatia polymorpha, Illicium verum, Mentha piperita, Mikania sp., Ocimum selloi, Origanum majorana and Verbena sp. Results show popular knowledge meeting scientific evidence for most indications, seen that 84,6% of cited plants are in agreement with the literature. Thus, we emphasize the richness of popular knowledge, the need of its appreciation and constant approximation of health professionals to this knowledge, integrated with science.

  18. VACCINATION AGAINST THE FLU AMONG CHILDREN WITH DISTURBANCES IN STATES OF HEALTH AND CHRONIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present textbook for the doctors highlights the latest data on the flu spread, its clinical manifestations, as well as opportunities for its prevention and treatment. The authors especially carefully described the methods of immunoprophylaxis, including specific like type. They listed all the registered vaccines and vaccines of local and foreign origin to be registered in the Russian federation, methods of their injection, probable undesirable phenomena. Specific stress was laid onto the own personal data of the authors as to application of the vaccines against the flu among both healthy children and those, who suffer from various disturbances or chronic diseases, including pernicious run. The textbook was approved at the meeting of the scientific council of the general directorate, scientific center of children's health, Russian academy of medical sciences, on September 14, 2006.

  19. VACCINATION AGAINST THE FLU AMONG CHILDREN WITH DISTURBANCES IN STATES OF HEALTH AND CHRONIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present textbook for the doctors highlights the latest data on the flu spread, its clinical manifestations, as well as opportunities for its prevention and treatment. The authors especially carefully described the methods of immunoprophylaxis, including specific like type. They listed all the registered vaccines and vaccines of local and foreign origin to be registered in the russian federation, methods of their injection, probable undesirable phenomena. Specific stress was laid onto the own personal data of the authors as to application of the vaccines against the flu among both healthy children and those, who suffer from various disturbances or chronic diseases, including pernicious run. The textbook was approved at the meeting of the scientific council of the general directorate, scientific center of children's health, Russian academy of medical sciences, on September 14, 2006.

  20. Xpert Flu for point-of-care diagnosis of human influenza in industrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Nicolas; Nougairede, Antoine; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory infections, particularly those caused by influenza viruses, represent the third-most important cause of death in the world due to infectious diseases. Nevertheless, despite the enormous publicity attracted by epidemics due to these viruses, laboratory diagnosis, documentation and recording of respiratory diseases is still unsatisfactory. Available diagnostic tests capable of providing results rapidly are either limited and insufficiently sensitive or highly sensitive and specific but insufficiently rapid. Considerable investment and research efforts have been made towards the development of new diagnostics for influenza A and B viruses and the Xpert(®) Flu assay (Cepheid(®), CA, USA) has emerged as one of the most promising. In this article, we review current knowledge of the Xpert Flu test, discuss its potential value as a point-of-care test and outline the potential leads for future development.

  1. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Éric A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interactions, antiviral defenses, drugs and vaccinations, and epidemiological aspects were discussed for HIV and HCV. Old and recent data on the flu epidemics ended this meeting.

  2. A Content Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the Seasonal Flu Vaccine in Ontario, Canada, October 2001 to March 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Lu, Stephanie K; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Smale, Bryan; MacDougall, Heather; Pearce, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal flu vaccine uptake has fallen dramatically over the past decade in Ontario, Canada, despite promotional efforts by public health officials. Media can be particularly influential in shaping the public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. We therefore sought to identify the nature of the relationship between risk messages about getting the seasonal flu vaccine in newspaper coverage and the uptake of the vaccine by Ontarians between 2001 and 2010. A content analysis was conducted to quantify risk messages in newspaper content for each year of analysis. The quantification allowed us to test the correlation between the frequency of risk messages and vaccination rates. During the time period 2001-2010, vaccination rates were positively and significantly related to the frequency of risk messages in newspaper coverage (r = .691, p vaccine being ineffective, the flu vaccine being poorly understood by science, and the flu vaccine causing harm. Newspaper coverage plays an important role in shaping public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. Public health officials should work alongside media to ensure that the public are exposed to information necessary for making informed decisions regarding vaccination.

  3. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2012-12-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute health problems in industrial production of swine and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagrčin Mladen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristic of swine herds in the territory of the Republic of Serbia is an unsatisfactory health status accompanied by increased incidence of contagious parasitic, genetic and other disorders. All this is a consequence of long-term unfavorable production conditions (maintenance of animals, diet, treatment, prevention, etc, which to a large extent altered the course and outcome of the mentioned diseases, and which had direct impact on the parameters which determine the health status of animals in a population. The health status of swine populations in our country are mostly determined by the presence of swine plague, but also diseases of pluricausal character, such as coli in fections, actinobđcillosis, atrophic rhinitis dysentery, and others. One must also not forget the presence of diseases which can be maintained in herds for a long time as enzootic diseases (Aujeszkyi, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, etc. Among parasitic diseases trichinellosis deserves special attention since it endangers the health of humans more and more every day. Most of the mentioned diseases are exhibited in very different clinical forms, so that their timely detection is very difficult and their control complex. That is why swine production in our country is characterized by a low percentage of fertilization, small number of live and large number of still-born piglets, and a high level of mortality in all categories. A logical consequence of this is a small number of produced porkers per sow, mostly of poor quality. In conditions where there are many diseases of different etiology, their control is complex and consequences always connected to a reduction or complete annulment of the expected benefits from an animal of high genetic potential veterinary-medical protection must cede its place to health protection as a technology which is based on a policy of disease prevention. This implies the establishment and maintenance of a high health status in swine

  5. Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu)

    OpenAIRE

    Piermarco Aroldi; Simone Carlo; Fausto Colombo

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by ...

  6. Perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cheryl R; Ge, Yongchao; Wolff, Mary S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Kraus, Thomas; Moran, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals. There is some epidemiological evidence that PFAS exposure is inversely associated with vaccine-induced antibody concentration. We examined immune response to vaccination with FluMist intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in relation to four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate) serum concentrations among 78 healthy adults vaccinated during the 2010-2011 influenza season. We measured anti-A H1N1 antibody response and cytokine and chemokine concentrations in serum pre-vaccination, 3 days post-vaccination, and 30 days post-vaccination. We measured cytokine, chemokine, and mucosal IgA concentration in nasal secretions 3 days post-vaccination and 30 days post-vaccination. Adults with higher PFAS concentrations were more likely to seroconvert after FluMist vaccination as compared to adults with lower PFAS concentrations. The associations, however, were imprecise and few participants seroconverted as measured either by hemagglutination inhibition (9%) or immunohistochemical staining (25%). We observed no readily discernable or consistent pattern between PFAS concentration and baseline cytokine, chemokine, or mucosal IgA concentration, or between PFAS concentration and change in these immune markers between baseline and FluMist-response states. The results of this study do not support a reduced immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults in relation to serum PFAS concentration. Given the study's many limitations, however, it does not rule out impaired vaccine response to other vaccines or vaccine components in either children or adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors associated with acceptance of pandemic flu vaccine by healthcare professionals in Spain, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Villa, Tania; Molina, Antonio J; Torner, Nuria; Castilla, Jesus; Astray, Jenaro; García-Gutiérrez, Susana; Mayoral, José María; Tamames, Sonia; Domínguez, Ángela; Martín, Vicente

    2017-10-01

    The A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus reached pandemic level in Spain in 2009, prompting a national vaccination campaign. To avoid transmission to patients, healthcare professionals' vaccination against pandemic influenza is crucial. The main objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with the failure by healthcare professionals to accept the pandemic vaccination in 2009. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of healthcare professionals in seven of Spain's autonomous regions. A questionnaire was used to collect information about personal and professional details, the respondents' flu vaccination status in the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons (seasonal and pandemic vaccines), and their knowledge and attitudes. A total of 1,661 professionals completed the survey. In the 2009-2010 season, 38.2% had both the seasonal and the pandemic vaccine, 22.1% had had only the seasonal, and 4.7% only the pandemic vaccine. The strongest predictor of not receiving the pandemic vaccine was not having had seasonal vaccinations in that year or the previous year. Those who had not received the pandemic vaccine were more often female; nurses; under 45; denied contact with at-risk groups; and had negative beliefs about the vaccine effectiveness and little concern for getting the disease, being infected at work, or passing it on to patients. It would be prudent to direct preventive campaigns not only at individuals at risk of catching flu but also at health professionals with a negative view of flu vaccine, with a particular focus on nurses, who have a key role in recommending flu vaccine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Der Abbau von Fluorbenzol und seinen Homologen durch Burkholderia fungorum FLU 100

    OpenAIRE

    Strunk, Niko

    2007-01-01

    Der Stamm Burkholderia fungorum FLU 100 besitzt die unter den Bakterien äußerst selten zu findende Eigenschaft, Fluorbenzol als alleinige Kohlenstoff- und Energiequelle nutzen zu können. Außerdem kann der Stamm auch die anderen Monohalogenbenzole sowie Benzol und Toluol - als Reinstoff oder in beliebigen Mischungen - vollständig produktiv verwerten. In dieser Arbeit wurden ein Teil des Abbauweges sowie die Einsatzmöglichkeiten des Stammes im Rahmen der biologischen Abluftreinigung erforscht. ...

  9. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Harold O.; Burford, Anna Marie

    1990-01-01

    Delineates artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts; provides an exposition of some business application areas; relates progress; and creates an awareness of the benefits, limitations, and reservations of AI/ES. (Author)

  10. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  11. Experts views' on Digital Competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, José; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2013-01-01

    Janssen, J., & Stoyanov, S. (2012, 20 November). Online Consultation for a Digital Competence Framework: Experts' views on Digital Competence. Workshop presentation at the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville, Spain.

  12. The performance of Luminex ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV and Cepheid Xpert(®) Flu/RSV XC for the detection of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus in prospective patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Phillip; Boonlayangoor, Sue; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella; Beavis, Kathleen G; Tesic, Vera

    2017-10-01

    The demand for rapid, accurate viral testing has increased the number of assays available for the detection of viral pathogens. One of the newest FDA cleared platforms is the Luminex ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV, which is a fully automated, real-time PCR-based assay used for detection of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We sought to compare the performance of Luminex ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV assay to the Cepheid Xpert(®) Flu/RSV XC assay for rapid Flu and RSV testing. A series of consecutive nasopharyngeal specimens received in the clinical microbiology laboratory during peak influenza season at a major academic center in Chicago, IL, were prospectively tested, using both the ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV and Xpert(®) Flu/RSV XC assays, side by side. Discrepant results were tested on the BioFire FilmArray(®) Respiratory Panel for resolution. A total of 143 consecutive nasopharyngeal specimens, obtained from patients ranging from six months to ninety-three years in age were received between January 1st, 2017 and March 21st, 2017. There was 96.6% agreement between the two assays for detection influenza A, 100% agreement for detection influenza B and RSV, and 98.9% agreement for negative results. The Xpert(®) Flu/RSV XC performed with an average turn-around time of approximately 60min, compared to the ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV of approximately 120min. Both assays were equally easy to perform, with a similar amount of hands-on technologist time for each platform. Overall, these results indicate that both tests are comparable in terms of result agreement and technical ease-of-use. The Xpert(®) Flu/RSV XC assay did produce results with less turn-around-time, approximately 60min quicker than the ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A theory of expert leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Goodall, Amanda H.

    2012-01-01

    How much knowledge should leaders have of their organization's core business? This is an important question but not one that has been addressed in the management literature. In a new 'theory of expert leadership' (TEL), this paper blends conceptual work with recent empirical evidence. It suggests that organizations perform more effectively when led by individuals who have a deep understanding of the core business of their organization. Being a capable general manager is not sufficient. Expert...

  14. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Rod A.; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years sp...

  15. Degradation of toluene by ortho cleavage enzymes in Burkholderia fungorum FLU100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobslaw, Daniel; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia fungorum FLU100 simultaneously oxidized any mixture of toluene, benzene and mono-halogen benzenes to (3-substituted) catechols with a selectivity of nearly 100%. Further metabolism occurred via enzymes of ortho cleavage pathways with complete mineralization. During the transformation of 3-methylcatechol, 4-carboxymethyl-2-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (2-methyl-2-enelactone, 2-ML) accumulated transiently, being further mineralized only after a lag phase of 2 h in case of cells pre-grown on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes. No lag phase, however, occurred after growth on toluene. Cultures inhibited by chloramphenicol after growth on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes were unable to metabolize 2-ML supplied externally, even after prolonged incubation. A control culture grown with toluene did not show any lag phase and used 2-ML as a substrate. This means that 2-ML is an intermediate of toluene degradation and converted by specific enzymes. The conversion of 4-methylcatechol as a very minor by-product of toluene degradation in strain FLU100 resulted in the accumulation of 4-carboxymethyl-4-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (4-methyl-2-enelactone, 4-ML) as a dead-end product, excluding its nature as a possible intermediate. Thus, 3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol, 3-methylcatechol, 2-methyl muconate and 2-ML were identified as central intermediates of productive ortho cleavage pathways for toluene metabolism in B. fungorum FLU100. PMID:25130674

  16. The 2014 French health campaign reminds us that “flu must be taken seriously”

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The fact is that 5-10% of the global adult population and 20-30% of children worldwide catch the flu every year. The illness can lead to hospitalisation and death, mainly in people who are considered high-risk (infants, the elderly, and those with chronic illnesses). According to the WHO, every year, flu epidemics are responsible for approximately three to five million cases of serious illness and for 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. Safe and effective vaccines are available and have been used for more than 60 years. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccinat...

  17. Genetic monitoring in contemporary swine production

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Mila S.; Jovanović Slobodan J.; Trailović Ružica D.; Dimitrijević Vladimir M.

    2002-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques for genome studies has led to qualitative progress in the selection of domestic animals by enabling the use of genetic markers, in addition to phenotypic selection parameters in choosing an animal. Genetic montoring has a wide application in contemporary swine production. Namely, genetic control is in the basis of all procedures pertaining to the selection of parent couples. Genetic monitoring is thus used in the genetic characterization of breeds, line...

  18. Experts in science and society

    CERN Document Server

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In today's complex world, we have come to rely increasingly on those who have expertise in specific areas and can bring their knowledge to bear on crucial social, political and scientific questions. Taking the viewpoint that experts are consulted when there is something important at stake for an individual, a group, or society at large, Experts in Science and Society explores expertise as a relational concept. How do experts balance their commitment to science with that to society? How does a society actually determine that a person has expertise? What personal traits are valued in an expert? From where does the expert derive authority? What makes new forms of expertise emerge? These and related questions are addressed from a wide range of areas in order to be inclusive, as well as to demonstrate similarities across areas. Likewise, in order to be culturally comparative, this volume includes examples and discussions of experts in different countries and even in different time periods. The topics include the r...

  19. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd – either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd......, a randomly selected herd or in multiple herds simultaneously. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on input parameters. Given the inputs and assumptions of the model, epidemics of ASF in Denmark are predicted to be small, affecting about 14 herds in the worst-case scenario. The duration of an epidemic...

  20. Limitations of Expert Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Salaçin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of Expert Evidence Edited by Stephen Leadbeatter MB ChB MCRPath ISBN 1 86016 029 8 Printed in Great Britain by Cathedral Print Services Ltd, Salisbury, 1996 Kitap 25 Ekim 1994 te The Royal College of Physicians ve The Royal College of Pathologists tarafından düzenlenen konferanstan sonra hekimlere ve avukatlara konuyu tartışmaya açmak için basılmış. Bilirkişi görüşünün temel filozofisinin, bu görevi yapanlar ve bu hizmeti alanların yapabileceklerinin sınırlarının tartışılması amaçlanmış.Seksen altı sayfadan oluşan kitabın fiatı on iki İngiliz Sterlini. Kitap üç bölüm ve bunların altında toplanan on ana başlıktan oluşmakta. Elinize aldığınızda küçük boyutu ve anlaşılır dili ile hemen okunup bitirelecek kitaplardan sanılıyor. En azından ben böyle düşünmüştüm. Ancak daha L A Tuınberg ve A J Bellinham’ın ön yazısında ben çarpıldım. Değerli yazarların kaleme aldığı başlıklar ve gündeme getirdiği tartışmaların tüm Adli Bilimlerle uğraşanların dikkatle okuması gereken cinsten olduğu kanısındayım. Birinci bölüm The Legal Perspective iki anabaşlıktan oluşuyor, The Criminal legal perspective Honour Judje Martin Stephens tarafından yazılmış,bilirkişi olarak görev yapabilmek için belgelenmiş bir eğitim olması gerektiği, mahkemelerde ya da yazılı raporlarda verilebilecek görüşlerin incelikleri tartışılmış. Bu bölümün ikinci anabaşlığı The civil legal perspective avukat Jennifer Cummin tarafından yazılmış. Toplum gözünde bilirkişinin anlamı ve mahkemenin bilirkişi görüşünü değişmez bilimsel doğru gibi algılayarak düştüğü bilimsel yanılgı ve raporlardaki kavram farkı dile getirilmiş. İkinci Bölüm The Medical And Scientific Perspective başlığı altında Roger C Evans MD Clinical evidence başlığında toplumun hasta tedavisi ve bilirkişilik hizmetinden beklentilerinin unrealistik olduğu ve

  1. Prospective and retrospective evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert® Flu/RSV XC assay for rapid detection of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Nicolas; Nougairede, Antoine; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Remi N

    2015-04-01

    A total of 281 clinical specimens (nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates) were tested with the Xpert® Flu/RSV XC. The results were compared to those obtained with the real-time retro transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays routinely used in our laboratory. The Xpert® Flu/RSV XC showed sensitivity/specificity of 97.8%/100% and 97.9%/100% for flu and respiratory syncytial virus, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The first announcement about the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic in Greece through the writings of the pioneer newspaper "Thessalia" almost a century ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karachaliou, Fotini; Kalogirou, Vasiliki; Gatos, Giorgos; Mavrogiannaki, Eirini; Antoniou, Antonios; Gatos, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    A local pioneer newspaper, "Thessalia", was the first to announce the arrival of "Spanish Flu" in Greece. It was July 19th 1918 when an epidemic outbreak occurred in the city of Patras. Until then, "Thessalia" had dealt in depth with the flu pandemic in the Greek district of Thessaly, informing the readers of the measures taken, as well as the social and economic aspects of the flu.

  3. Oxygen radical-scavenging capacities of peptides from swine blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In China, about five hundred million swine are slaughtered yearly, which represents about 45% of the world´s production. Swine blood is generally discarded except for the small amount that is used in soybean curd and other food products. This not only wastes resources, but also contaminates the environment. In this study ...

  4. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscores the importance of understanding how influenza A viruses evolve in swine on a global scale. To reveal the frequency, patterns and drivers of the spread of swine influenza virus globally, we conducted the largest phylogenetic analysis of swin...

  5. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal and economically significant disease of domestic pigs in Uganda where outbreaks regularly occur. There is neither a vaccine nor treatment available for ASF control. Twenty two African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotypes (I - XXII) have been identified based on partial sequencing ...

  6. Genotyping of African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples from infected domestic pigs associated with an outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) in three districts of central Uganda in 2007 were confirmed as being infected with African swine fever virus (ASFV) using a P72 gene-based polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) assay combined with restriction analysis.

  7. Economic losses to Iberian swine production from forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Ramon Molina Martinez; Miguel Herrera Machuca; Ricardo Zamora Diaz; Fancisco Rodriguez y Silva; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2011-01-01

    Most forestry property in Andalusia is privately held. One of the most important possibilities for economic development of rural areas is the use of pasture lands (dehesa in Spanish). During the spring–summer season, swine grazing takes advantage of grasses between the trees, and during winter (harsher times), they use Quercus tree fruit. Swine production has a direct...

  8. Transmission rate of African swine fever virus under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Backer, J.A.; Weesendorp, E.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal, viral disease of swine. No vaccine is available, so controlling an ASF outbreak is highly dependent on zoosanitary measures, such as stamping out infected herds and quarantining of affected areas. Information on ASF transmission parameters could allow

  9. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in swine abattoir workers. | Ukuli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis E (HE) caused by Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging global public health threat. It has been identified as potentially zoonotic and swine act as main reservoirs. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with HEV in swine abattoir workers ...

  10. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Lewis (Nicola); C.A. Russell (Colin); P. Langat (Pinky); T.K. Anderson (Tavis); K. Berger (Kathryn); F. Bielejec (Filip); D.F. Burke (David); G. Dudas (Gytis); J.M. Fonville (Judith); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); P. Kellam (Paul); B.F. Koel (Björn); P. Lemey (Philippe); T. Nguyen (Tung); B. Nuansrichy (Bundit); J.S. Malik Peiris; T. Saito (Takehiko); G. Simon (Gaelle); E. Skepner (Eugene); N. Takemae (Nobuhiro); R.J. Webby (Richard J.); K. van Reeth; S.M. Brookes (Sharon M.); L. Larsen (Lars); S.J. Watson (Simon J.); I.H. Brown (Ian); A.L. Vincent (Amy L.); S. Reid (Scott); M.A. Garcia (Montserrat Auero); T.C. Harder (Timm); E. Foni (Emanuela); I. Markowska-Daniel (Iwona)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSwine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds

  11. Economic Analysis Of Private Sector Participation In Swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the analysis of the economics of private sector participation in swine production in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, was conducted. Data were collected from sixty private operators of swine farms, who were randomly selected from the study area between March and October, 2002. Descriptive statistics and ...

  12. Production system dynamism and parasitic interac- tion of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jimma University, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 307 ... they are prone to number of diseases and also various internal and external ... Ethiop. Vet. J., 2010, 14 (1), 71-81 identify the major internal and external parasite of swine in Holetta, which is the main swine production area of the country.

  13. 78 FR 9028 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Swine brucellosis and pseudorabies have been eliminated from commercial swine herds within the United States, but...

  14. Galactooligosaccharide supplementation reduces stress-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction and days of cold or flu: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in healthy university students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Christine; Davoodi-Semiromi, Yalda; Colee, James C; Culpepper, Tyler; Dahl, Wendy J; Mai, Volker; Christman, Mary C; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi

    2011-01-01

    .... We examined whether supplementation with galactooligosaccharides reduced gastrointestinal dysfunction and the percentage of days with cold or flu in academically stressed undergraduate students...

  15. Exploring racial influences on flu vaccine attitudes and behavior: Results of a national survey of White and African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Jamison, Amelia; Freimuth, Vicki S; An, Ji; Hancock, Gregory R; Musa, Donald

    2017-02-22

    Racial disparities in adult flu vaccination rates persist with African Americans falling below Whites in vaccine acceptance. Although the literature has examined traditional variables including barriers, access, attitudes, among others, there has been virtually no examination of the extent to which racial factors including racial consciousness, fairness, and discrimination may affect vaccine attitudes and behaviors. We contracted with GfK to conduct an online, nationally representative survey with 819 African American and 838 White respondents. Measures included risk perception, trust, vaccine attitudes, hesitancy and confidence, novel measures on racial factors, and vaccine behavior. There were significant racial differences in vaccine attitudes, risk perception, trust, hesitancy and confidence. For both groups, racial fairness had stronger direct effects on the vaccine-related variables with more positive coefficients associated with more positive vaccine attitudes. Racial consciousness in a health care setting emerged as a more powerful influence on attitudes and beliefs, particularly for African Americans, with higher scores on racial consciousness associated with lower trust in the vaccine and the vaccine process, higher perceived vaccine risk, less knowledge of flu vaccine, greater vaccine hesitancy, and less confidence in the flu vaccine. The effect of racial fairness on vaccine behavior was mediated by trust in the flu vaccine for African Americans only (i.e., higher racial fairness increased trust in the vaccine process and thus the probability of getting a flu vaccine). The effect of racial consciousness and discrimination for African Americans on vaccine uptake was mediated by perceived vaccine risk and flu vaccine knowledge. Racial factors can be a useful new tool for understanding and addressing attitudes toward the flu vaccine and actual vaccine behavior. These new concepts can facilitate more effective tailored and targeted vaccine communications

  16. Expert system application education project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  17. Analyses of swine tissue samples for evidence of African swine fever ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the current situation of African swine fever (ASF) that devastated the pig production enterprise of Nigeria. The disease was confirmed through laboratory tests in 18 States of Nigeria covering of the southeast, southwest, southsouth and central states of the country. The samples were derived from the ...

  18. A Phenomenology of Expert Musicianship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon

    This dissertation develops a phenomenology of expert musicianship through an interdisciplinary approach that integrates qualitative interviews with the Danish String Quartet with philosophical analyses drawing on ideas and theses found in phenomenology, philosophy of mind, cognitive science...... and psychology of music. The dissertation is structured through the asking, analyzing and answering of three primary questions, namely: 1) What is it like to be an expert? 2) What is the general phenomenology of expert musicianship? 3) What happens to the self in deep musical absorption? The first question...... targets a central debate in philosophy and psychology on whether reflection is conducive for, or detrimental to, skillful performance. My analyses show that the concepts assumed in the literature on this question are poorly defined and gloss over more important features of expertise. The second question...

  19. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390......, reasoning and learning, network management and mobile systems, expert systems and decision support, and information modelling.......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML...

  20. 9 CFR 93.504 - Import permits for swine and for swine specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; individual swine identification which includes a description of the swine, name, age, markings, if any, registration number, if any, and tattoo or eartag; the region of origin; the name and address of the exporter... (including but not limited to procedures for animal identification, record keeping, and veterinary care) that...

  1. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML......, reasoning and learning, network management and mobile systems, expert systems and decision support, and information modelling....

  2. A Phenomenology of Expert Musicianship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon

    targets a central debate in philosophy and psychology on whether reflection is conducive for, or detrimental to, skillful performance. My analyses show that the concepts assumed in the literature on this question are poorly defined and gloss over more important features of expertise. The second question...... and psychology of music. The dissertation is structured through the asking, analyzing and answering of three primary questions, namely: 1) What is it like to be an expert? 2) What is the general phenomenology of expert musicianship? 3) What happens to the self in deep musical absorption? The first question...

  3. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study......, and empirically supports the claim that facilitation skills can be taught to participants to enable them to self-facilitate workshops. Differences were also found, which led to the introduction of a new dimension—‘internal versus external’ facilitation. The implications of our findings for effective training...

  4. A Phenomenology of Expert Musicianship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon

    and psychology of music. The dissertation is structured through the asking, analyzing and answering of three primary questions, namely: 1) What is it like to be an expert? 2) What is the general phenomenology of expert musicianship? 3) What happens to the self in deep musical absorption? The first question...... targets a central debate in philosophy and psychology on whether reflection is conducive for, or detrimental to, skillful performance. My analyses show that the concepts assumed in the literature on this question are poorly defined and gloss over more important features of expertise. The second question...

  5. Flu in 15: a novel 15-minute education program to promote acceptance of the influenza vaccine among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butteri, Matthew J; Radu, Charlotte; Huq, Fawzia; Wiglesworth, Aileen; Durso, Samuel C; Bellantoni, Michele

    2010-09-01

    A performance improvement project was undertaken to increase health care worker (HCW) influenza vaccination acceptance rates in the long-term care setting by using a novel 15-minute education intervention called the "Flu in 15." As a core principle, we taught that more Americans die from complications of influenza than hepatitis B, yet there remains individual reluctance and barriers to achieve high acceptance rates of influenza vaccination among HCWs. During chance encounters we offered the Flu in 15 in-service to all HCWs at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Care Center including certified nursing assistants (also called geriatric nursing assistants), registered nurses, registered dieticians, environment staff, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, respiratory therapists, social workers, and administrators. Of the 106 of 347 HCWs who participated in the Flu in 15 in-service, 58 were by chance encounters selected to be surveyed based on convenience. We surveyed 68 of 241 HCWs who did not attend the Flu in 15 in-service as a comparison. Of the 58 participants who were asked if the in-service helped them understand why a flu vaccine is needed yearly, we found that 15% responded "tremendously," 48% "a lot," 26% "some," 7% "a little," and 2% "no." We had 24% report that the program was effective in changing their behavior to accept the flu vaccination for the first time. We found that 49% responded that the in-service was effective in either changing their behavior to accept the flu vaccination for the first time or reaccept it if recently declined in previous years. With respect to motivation, 42% of the certified nursing assistants stated that the in-service made them think more about returning to school to get a license in some area of health care. Although not cause and effect, we observed an increase in the HCW acceptance rate of the influenza vaccine from 65% in 2006-2007 to 73% in 2007-2008. We noticed a decreased trend in patient deaths

  6. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 35) Fighting Flu (:60) Fighting Flu (:30) H1N1 (Swine Flu) I Never Get The Flu Influenza Round ... Operations Center (EOC) 101 Emergency Operations Center CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental ...

  7. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 35) Fighting Flu (:60) Fighting Flu (:30) H1N1 (Swine Flu) I Never Get The Flu Influenza Round ... Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your ...

  8. FluTyper-an algorithm for automated typing and subtyping of the influenza virus from high resolution mass spectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwahn Alexander B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High resolution mass spectrometry has been employed to rapidly and accurately type and subtype influenza viruses. The detection of signature peptides with unique theoretical masses enables the unequivocal assignment of the type and subtype of a given strain. This analysis has, to date, required the manual inspection of mass spectra of whole virus and antigen digests. Results A computer algorithm, FluTyper, has been designed and implemented to achieve the automated analysis of MALDI mass spectra recorded for proteolytic digests of the whole influenza virus and antigens. FluTyper incorporates the use of established signature peptides and newly developed naïve Bayes classifiers for four common influenza antigens, hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, nucleoprotein, and matrix protein 1, to type and subtype the influenza virus based on their detection within proteolytic peptide mass maps. Theoretical and experimental testing of the classifiers demonstrates their applicability at protein coverage rates normally achievable in mass mapping experiments. The application of FluTyper to whole virus and antigen digests of a range of different strains of the influenza virus is demonstrated. Conclusions FluTyper algorithm facilitates the rapid and automated typing and subtyping of the influenza virus from mass spectral data. The newly developed naïve Bayes classifiers increase the confidence of influenza virus subtyping, especially where signature peptides are not detected. FluTyper is expected to popularize the use of mass spectrometry to characterize influenza viruses.

  9. Swine Outbreak of Pandemic Influenza A Virus on a Canadian Research Farm Supports Human-to-Swine Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenliside, Julia; Wilkinson, Craig; Webby, Richard; Lu, Patricia; Sorensen, Ole; Fonseca, Kevin; Barman, Subrata; Rubrum, Adam; Stigger, Evelyn; Marrie, Thomas J.; Marshall, Frank; Spady, Donald W.; Hu, Jia; Loeb, Mark; Russell, Margaret L.; Babiuk, Lorne A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Swine outbreaks of pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) suggest human introduction of the virus into herds. This study investigates a pH1N1 outbreak occurring on a swine research farm with 37 humans and 1300 swine in Alberta, Canada, from 12 June through 4 July 2009. Methods. The staff was surveyed about symptoms, vaccinations, and livestock exposures. Clinical findings were recorded, and viral testing and molecular characterization of isolates from humans and swine were performed. Human serological testing and performance of the human influenza-like illness (ILI) case definition were also studied. Results. Humans were infected before swine. Seven of 37 humans developed ILI, and 2 (including the index case) were positive for pH1N1 by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Swine were positive for pH1N1 by RT-PCR 6 days after contact with the human index case and developed symptoms within 24 h of their positive viral test results. Molecular characterization of the entire viral genomes from both species showed minor nucleotide heterogeneity, with 1 amino acid change each in the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes. Sixty-seven percent of humans with positive serological test results and 94% of swine with positive swab specimens had few or no symptoms. Compared with serological testing, the human ILI case definition had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 33.3%. The only factor associated with seropositivity was working in the swine nursery. Conclusions. Epidemiologic data support human-to-swine transmission, and molecular characterization confirms that virtually identical viruses infected humans and swine in this outbreak. Both species had mild illness and recovered without sequelae. PMID:21148514

  10. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ibatá, Diana María; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Quijada, Darla; Burton, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs). Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF) and Classical swine fever (CSF) introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine) to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10−3). Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10−3 for ASF, and 2.5*10−3 for CSF) higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10−4 for ASF, and 1.56*10−3 for CSF). This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products). The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products), is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US. PMID:28797058

  11. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML......, reasoning and learning, network management and mobile systems, expert systems and decision support, and information modelling....

  12. QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perre, M.

    1991-01-01

    TNO Physics and Electronics laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Limburg and the Research Institute for Knowledge Systems, worked on a technology project named 'QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems' [FEL90]. QUEST was carried out under commision of the Dutch Ministry of Defence. A strong

  13. Computers that Think Like Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnucan, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of expert systems, including various techniques they use to represent knowledge (such as production rules, semantic networks, frames, first-order logic, and others), system interactions, and such problem domains as science, medicine, computer configuration, trouble-shooting/repair, and oil/mineral exploration. Also discusses…

  14. Laserjet Printer Troubleshooting Expert System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOFTLINKS DIGITAL

    This paper model an expert system called LAPTEX for troubleshooting LaserJet printers' faults. Today, with the innumerable advances in information technologies, computerizing printer's fault troubleshooting and identifying faults is far becoming so vital. Also, printers' fault detection is a complicated process that requires a ...

  15. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Félix Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Zeolites are minerals that have intriguing properties such as water absorption, ion adsorption and cation exchange capacity. There are approximately 80 species of natural zeolites recognized and hundreds of artificial zeolites, which have been researched in several fields. Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues, with direct and indirect effects on performance, yield and quality of carcass, ambience of farm sheds and reduction of environmental pollution.

  16. The Naive Expert and the Gifted Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpson, William M.; Jones, Christine

    1989-01-01

    Mentorship programs are described which involve gifted students and subject experts with no prior knowledge about students' personalities or preconceptions about their abilities, known as "naive experts." The students are challenged by the experts' high expectations and respond to the experts' enthusiasm for sharing their knowledge and…

  17. Diagnosing swine flu: the inaccuracy of case definitions during the 2009 pandemic, an attempt at refinement, and the implications for future planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahony, Andrew A; Cheng, Allen C; Olsen, Karen L; Aboltins, Craig A; Black, James F. P; Johnson, Paul D. R; Lindsay Grayson, M; Torresi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background  At the onset of the pandemic H1N1/09 influenza A outbreak in Australia, health authorities devised official clinical case definitions to guide testing and access to antiviral therapy. Objectives...

  18. During the summer 2009 outbreak of "swine flu" in Scotland what respiratory pathogens were diagnosed as H1N1/2009?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carman William F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the April-July 2009 outbreak of H1N1/2009 in scotland the West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre (WoSSVC in Glasgow tested > 16 000 clinical samples for H1N1/2009. Most were from patients clinically diagnosed with H1N1/2009. Out of these, 9% were positive. This study sought to determine what respiratory pathogens were misdiagnosed as cases of H1N1/2009 during this time. Methods We examined the results from 3247 samples which were sent to the laboratory during April-July 2009. All were from patients clinically diagnosed as having H1N1/2009 (based on accepted criteria and all were given a full respiratory screen using real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR assays. Results In total, respiratory pathogens were detected in 27.9% (95% confidence interval, 26.3-29.5% of the samples submitted. Numerous pathogens were detected, the most common of which were rhinovirus (8.9% (95% confidence interval, 7.9-9.9%, parainfluenza 1 (1.9% (95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.4% and 3 (4.1% (95% confidence interval, 3.3-4.9%, and adenovirus ((3.5% (95% confidence interval, 2.9-4.2%. Conclusions This study highlights the problems of using a clinical algorithm to detect H1N1/2009. Clinicians frequently misdiagnosed common respiratory pathogens as H1N1/2009 during the spring/summer outbreak in Scotland. Many undesirable consequences would have resulted, relating to treatment, infection control, and public health surveillance.

  19. Assessing the Effectiveness of the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) for Early Event Detection of the H1N1 ("Swine Flu") Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    symptoms file: • “NOSE BLEEDS” maps to COLD because of keyword “NOSE” • “ VAGINAL DISCHARGE ” maps to COLD because of keyword “DISCH” • “4 YEAR...quarantines for infected individuals and/or regions. Modern biosurveillance systems are intended to drastically shorten the time it takes to analyze and... INFECT PAP CHDP COUGH,DXd W/ ASTHMA WI C/O HA//MM CHDP PAP per Kennedy DEPO BOOK PER MD ROB 4WK FU OB ..OVBK COLD ABD PAIN CONJESTION WALK IN BURN

  20. Degradation of toluene by ortho cleavage enzymes in Burkholderia fungorum FLU100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobslaw, Daniel; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia fungorum FLU100 simultaneously oxidized any mixture of toluene, benzene and mono-halogen benzenes to (3-substituted) catechols with a selectivity of nearly 100%. Further metabolism occurred via enzymes of ortho cleavage pathways with complete mineralization. During the transformation of 3-methylcatechol, 4-carboxymethyl-2-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (2-methyl-2-enelactone, 2-ML) accumulated transiently, being further mineralized only after a lag phase of 2 h in case of cells pre-grown on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes. No lag phase, however, occurred after growth on toluene. Cultures inhibited by chloramphenicol after growth on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes were unable to metabolize 2-ML supplied externally, even after prolonged incubation. A control culture grown with toluene did not show any lag phase and used 2-ML as a substrate. This means that 2-ML is an intermediate of toluene degradation and converted by specific enzymes. The conversion of 4-methylcatechol as a very minor by-product of toluene degradation in strain FLU100 resulted in the accumulation of 4-carboxymethyl-4-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (4-methyl-2-enelactone, 4-ML) as a dead-end product, excluding its nature as a possible intermediate. Thus, 3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol, 3-methylcatechol, 2-methyl muconate and 2-ML were identified as central intermediates of productive ortho cleavage pathways for toluene metabolism in B. fungorum FLU100. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. JouFLU: an upgraded FLUOR beam combiner at the CHARA Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomé, E.; Scott, N.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Mollier, B.; Reess, J. M.; Chapron, F.; Buey, T.; Sevin, A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2012-07-01

    FLUOR, which has been operational on CHARA since 2002, is an infrared fiber beam combiner. The telescope array will soon be fitted with an adaptive optics system, which will enhance the interferometer performance. In this framework, FLUOR has been entirely redeveloped and will be able to measure visibilities with higher accuracy and better sensitivity. The technical upgrades consist of improving some existing systems and developing new features. The bench, which is now remotely operable, primarily offers spectral dispersion (long fringes scanning), a more sensitive camera and a Fourier Transform Spectrometer mode. This paper presents the detailed opto-mechanical design of JouFLU (FLUOR rejuvenation), and the current instrument status.

  2. In-situ pyrogenic production of biodiesel from swine fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-11-01

    In-situ production of fatty acid methyl esters from swine fat via thermally induced pseudo-catalytic transesterification on silica was investigated in this study. Instead of methanol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor to achieve environmental benefits and economic viability. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of swine fat reveals that swine fat contains 19.57wt.% of water and impurities. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles obtained under various conditions (extracted swine oil+methanol+NaOH, extracted swine oil+DMC+pseudo-catalytic, and swine fat+DMC+pseudo-catalytic) were compared. These profiles were identical, showing that the introduced in-situ transesterification is technically feasible. This also suggests that in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification has a high tolerance against impurities. This study also shows that FAME yield via in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification of swine fat reached up to 97.2% at 380°C. Therefore, in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification can be applicable to biodiesel production of other oil-bearing biomass feedstocks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwyer, Dominic E; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    that experience clinically significant outcomes and to study factors related to these outcomes. Enrollment commenced in October 2009 and will continue until August 2011: as of the end of 2010, 62 sites in 14 countries in Australasia (12 sites), Europe (37) and North America (13) have enrolled 1365 adult patients......, with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These 'in progress' INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks....

  4. Clinical accuracy of a PLEX-ID flu device for simultaneous detection and identification of influenza viruses A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Lowery, Kristin S; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Schaefer, Virginia C; Chappell, James D; White-Abell, Jill; Quinn, Criziel D; Li, Haijing; Washington, Cicely A; Cromwell, Jenna; Giamanco, Chantel M; Forman, Michael; Holden, Jeffery; Rothman, Richard E; Parker, Michelle L; Ortenberg, Elaine V; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Yea-Lin; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections caused by influenza A and B viruses often present nonspecifically, and a rapid, high-throughput laboratory technique that can identify influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. The PLEX-ID Flu assay (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL) incorporates multilocus PCR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to detect and differentiate influenza A 2009 H1N1 (H1N1-p), seasonal H1N1 (H1N1-s), influenza A H3N2, and influenza B viruses in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens. The clinical performance characteristics of the PLEX-ID Flu assay in symptomatic patients were determined in this multicenter trial. A total of 2,617 prospectively and retrospectively collected NPS specimens from patients with influenza-like illness between February 2008 and 28 May 2010 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Each specimen was tested in parallel by the PLEX-ID Flu assay and by the Prodesse ProFLU+ assay (Prodesse Inc., Madison, WI), to detect influenza A and B viruses. Specimens testing positive for influenza A virus by ProFLU+ were subtyped as H1N1-p, H1N1-s, or H3N2 by using the ProFAST+ assay (Gen-Probe Prodesse Inc.). The reproducibility of the PLEX-ID Flu assay ranged from 98.3 to 100.0%, as determined by testing a nine-specimen panel at three clinical sites on each of 5 days. Positive percent agreements (PPAs) and negative percent agreements (NPAs) of the PLEX-ID Flu assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for influenza A virus and 96.0% and 99.9% for influenza B virus, respectively. For the influenza A virus subtyping characterization, the PLEX-ID Flu assay had PPAs and NPAs of 98.3% and 97.5% for H1N1-p, 88.6% and 100.0% for H1N1-s, and 98.0% and 99.9% for H3N2, respectively. The overall agreements between the PLEX-ID and Prodesse ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were 97.1 to 100.0%. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing analysis revealed that 87.5% of 96 discrepant results between the PLEX-ID Flu and ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were found upon

  5. Making a team of experts into an expert team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charney, Carol

    2011-10-01

    Health care has traditionally been delivered primarily by experts working individually in a decentralized system lacking cohesive organization among professional disciplines. Only recently have the advantages of teamwork training been acknowledged in health care. This article explores the history, benefits, and recommendations for team training in neonatal care. TeamSTEPPS (Rockville, MD) and the revised Neonatal Resuscitation Program are cited as promising models for improved neonatal outcomes through professional teamwork.

  6. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone on the swine reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly

  7. Chimerism in Myeloid Malignancies following Stem Cell Transplantation Using FluBu4 with and without Busulfan Pharmacokinetics versus BuCy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatha Farhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of precision medicine, the impact of personalized dosing of busulfan is not clear. We undertook a retrospective analysis of 78 patients with myeloid malignancies who received fludarabine and busulfan (FluBu4 with or without measuring Bu pharmacokinetics (Bu PK and those who received busulfan with cyclophosphamide (BuCy. Fifty-five patients received FluBu4, of whom 21 had Bu PK measured, and 23 patients received BuCy. Total donor cell chimerism showed that the percentage of patients maintaining 100% donor chimerism on day 100 was 66.7%, 38.2%, and 73.9% in the FluBu4 with PK, FluBu4 with no PK, and BuCy, respectively (P = .001. Patients who had decreasing donor chimerism by day 100 were 23.8%, 52.9%, and 26.1% in the FluBu4 with PK, FluBu4 with no PK, and BuCy, respectively (P = .04. Bu PK group had fewer patients with less than 95% donor chimerism on day 30, which was not statistically significant, 5% (FluBu4 PK, 31% (FluBu4 with no PK, and 21% (BuCy (P = .18. Survival distributions were not statistically significant (P = .11. Thus, personalized drug dosing can impact donor chimerism in myeloid malignancies. This will need to be examined in larger retrospective multicenter studies and prospective clinical trials.

  8. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  9. Coagulation in Treatment of Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Bui Manh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wastewater taken from the Nam Phong swine slaughterhouse, Ho Chi Minh City, was used to evaluate the treatment efficiency of common coagulants, including Alum (Aluminum Sulfate - Al2(SO43.18H2O, Poly-Aluminum Chloride (PAC, and Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O, using a jar-test system. The experiments were conducted using the one-factor-at-a-time method to examine three variables which are pH, stirring speed, and coagulant dosage. The results showed that both Alum and PAC perform over 90% removal of colour, turbidity, COD, and total phosphorus (TP from slaughterhouse wastewater at pH 7 with a stirring speed of 75 revolutions per minute (RPM and average coagulant dosages of 450 mg/L for Alum and 550 mg/L for PAC. Meanwhile, under the appropriate conditions of pH equal to 10 and 75 RPM with a chemical dosage of 350 mg/L, COD and TP removal efficiencies by Ferrous Sulfate exceed 87%, but those of turbidity and colour only reach 25%. This finding could be a promising coagulation method as a pre-treatment for the swine slaughterhouse wastewater.

  10. Metabolic disposition of ivermectin in swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Shuething Lee; Sestokas, E.; Taub, R.; Green, M.L.; Baylis, F.P.; Jacob, T.A.; Lu, A.Y.H. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Tissue residue distribution and metabolism of tritium-labeled ivermectin have been studied in swine dosed subcutaneously at 0.4 mg/kg of body weight. The residue distribution pattern among edible tissues (liver, kidney, muscle, and fat) was similar to those found in cattle, sheep, and rats, with highest levels in fat and liver tissues ranging between 78 and 654 ppb within ppb within 7 days after dosing. The parent drug was the major radioactive residue in liver and fat, accounting for >50% of total radioactivity up to 7 days and {approximately}30% after 14 days. The major liver metabolites were identified as 3{double prime}-O-desmethyl-H{sub 2}B{sub 1a} and 3{double prime}-O-desmethyl-H{sub 2}B{sub 1b} by chemical derivatization and mixed-sample HPLC cochromatography with in vitro metabolites from swine liver microsomal incubations. As in other species studied, good correlation has been observed between in vitro and in vivo metabolism. The drug was essentially eliminated by fecal and biliary excretion.

  11. Binding characteristics of swine erythrocyte insulin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieberg, G.; Bryan, G.S.; Sartin, J.L.; Williams, J.C.; Prince, T.J.; Kemppainen, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    Crossbred gilts had 8.8 +/- 1.1% maximum binding of ( SVI)insulin to insulin receptors on erythrocytes. The number of insulin-binding sites per cell was 137 +/- 19, with a binding affinity ranging from 7.4 X 10(7)M-1 to 11.2 X 10(7)M-1 and mean of 8.8 X 10(7)M-1. Pregnant sows had a significant increase in maximum binding due to an increase in number of receptor sites per cell. Lactating sows fed a high-fiber diet and a low-fiber diet did not develop a significant difference in maximum binding of insulin. Sows fed the low-fiber diet had a significantly higher number of binding sites and a significantly lower binding affinity than did sows fed a high-fiber diet. Receptor-binding affinity was lower in the low-fiber diet group than in cycling gilts, whereas data from sows fed the high-fiber diet did not differ from data for cycling gilts. Data from this study indicated that insulin receptors of swine erythrocytes have binding characteristics similar to those in other species. Pregnancy and diet will alter insulin receptor binding in swine.

  12. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence with...... type CSFV-Paderborn strain, as judged by qRT-PCR, was picked as the candidate and could potentially be useful as a tool for further downstream applications including investigation of CSFV non-structural proteins involvement in viral replication....... cells can be achieved using autonomously replicating genome constructs (replicons) containing a reporter gene that expresses a readily quantifiable enzyme. Here, a newly implemented cloning technique was applied to genome modification of the full-length CSFV cDNA previously inserted into a single......-copy bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). This technique, the Red/ET counter-selection method, is based upon homologous recombination, thus obviating the need for internal restriction sites. Several CSFV replicons with deletions in regions encoding structural viral proteins considered non-essential for RNA...

  13. Classical Swine Fever-An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-04-21

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities.

  14. It'll only hurt a second? Microeconomic determinants of who gets flu shots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullahy, J

    1999-02-01

    Appreciating how the propensity to be immunized against the flu depends on individual characteristics and environments is essential for policies regarding influenza control to be formulated sensibly. To this point, the literature has offered little documentation on the determinants of influenza immunization. Beyond epidemiology, there are important economic issues that must be addressed to understand this form of preventive care. One concerns the relationship between labour supply and immunization propensity: While it is relatively costly (in terms of time costs) for workers to obtain immunizations, workers also have relatively more to lose from being ill with the flu. Another concern not generally appreciated is the extent to which individuals' perceived risks of infection may affect their propensities to be immunized. The paper also attempts to shed light on these issues. The analysis uses data from the 1991 National Health Interview Survey. Immunization propensity displays expected patterns by age and health status, while the results with respect to race, household structure, income and insurance are somewhat more surprising and/or novel. The estimated labour supply and perceived risk effects suggest that some aspects of the economics of preventive care generally not considered in empirical work are important and merit further consideration.

  15. O Carnaval, a peste e a 'espanhola' Carnival, the plague, and the Spanish flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto dos Santos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este texto apresenta algumas imagens (fotografias, pinturas relativas às epidemias de Peste e Gripe Espanhola. Procuramos demonstrar como fenômenos históricos analisados comparativamente revelam semelhanças em distintas formações sociais. Apesar das diferenças de tempo e espaço, existem manifestações simbólicas coletivas invariáveis nas epidemias. Por exemplo, em várias ocorrências de peste, gripe ou cólera, a associação entre doença e castigo divino está presente. De forma análoga, indivíduos de comportamento "suspeito" foram e são apontados como propagadores das enfermidades, sejam pobres, judeus, irlandeses ou negros.The article presents photographic and painted images related to epidemics of the plague and Spanish flu. Comparative analyses of this type of historical phenomena reveal similarities between diverse social formations. Despite differences in time and space, epidemics display certain invariable symbolic collective expressions. For example, disease and divine punishment have been linked during a number of plague, flu, or cholera epidemics. Similarly, individuals whose behavior is 'suspicious' have been accused of spreading illness - for instance, the poor, Jews, Irish, or blacks.

  16. Estimation of basic reproductive number of flu-like syndrome in a primary school in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AliAkbar Haghdoost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran, similar to other countries, had faced H1N1 flu outbreak in 2009. In order to assess its transmission dynamic, we estimated its force of infection (β and basic reproductive number (R 0 . Methods: Within a middle size primary school in Iran, we actively followed students and detected flu-like syndrome among students and their families in the first three months of academic year; October through December 2009. We estimated the probability of disease transmission within families (β fitting random effects Poisson regression model. Moreover, R 0 within the school was computed based on the number of detected cases. Results: In 452 students, 204 influenza-like syndromes were detected. The estimated β within families was 0.10; increasing one infectious member within each family was associated with 30% increase in this number. The estimated R 0 for the first month was 1.21 (95% C.I.: 0.99, 1.47; corresponding numbers for the first two and first three months were 1.28 (95% C.I.: 1.05, 1.54 and 1.32 (95% C.I.: 1.11, 1.59, respectively. Conclusion: It seems that the dynamic transmission of H1N1 virus was more or less comparable with that in other seasonal species. Our findings showed that the virus mainly circulated among students within schools. In addition, it seems that the transmission rate within families was relatively high.

  17. Assessing and responding in real time to online anti-vaccine sentiment during a flu pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Neil; Ing, Alton; Rizo, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The perceived safety of vaccination is an important explanatory factor for vaccine uptake and, consequently, for rates of illness and death. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate Canadian attitudes around the safety of the H1N1 vaccine during the fall 2009 influenza pandemic and (2) to consider how public health communications can leverage the Internet to counteract, in real time, anti-vaccine sentiment. We surveyed a random sample of 175,257 Canadian web users from October 27 to November 19, 2009, about their perceptions of the safety of the HINI vaccine. In an independent analysis, we also assessed the popularity of online flu vaccine-related information using a tool developed for this purpose. A total of 27,382 unique online participants answered the survey (15.6% response rate). Of the respondents, 23.4% considered the vaccine safe, 41.4% thought it was unsafe and 35.2% reported ambivalence over its safety. Websites and blog posts with anti-vaccine sentiment remained popular during the course of the pandemic. Current public health communication and education strategies about the flu vaccine can be complemented by web analytics that identify, track and neutralize anti-vaccine sentiment on the Internet, thus increasing perceived vaccine safety. Counter-marketing strategies can be transparent and collaborative, engaging online "influencers" who spread misinformation.

  18. [The Spanish flu in Iceland 1918. Lessons in medicine and history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredsson, Magnus

    2008-11-01

    Pandemic influenza has emerged 1-3 times each century. The pandemic in 1918, or the "Spanish flu" was caused by a novel influenza strain which caused the death of 21-50 million people world wide. Descriptions of the epidemic in Iceland give a detailed account on how and when the virus was introduced to the population of Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, by the crew of two ships, "Botnía". and "Willemoes" on October 19th 1918. The spread of the illness was extremely rapid and peaked 3 weeks later. It caused significant morbidity and mortality among inhabitants of the southern and western part of Iceland. Within 6 weeks, close to 500 individuals had died, thereof more than 50% in Reykjavik. The attack rate in Reykjavik was at least 63% and the case fatality proportion was close to 2.6%. The age-specific mortality was highest among young children, people 20-40 years of age and the elderly. In addition, pregnant women had extremely poor prognosis (37% case fatality). Attempts to halt the spread of the epidemic to the northern and eastern parts of the island were successful. By identifying the individuals who died from the Spanish flu using historical data, it has recently been shown that genetic factors probably did not play a major role in the pathogenesis of fatal cases. These historical data can be used to assist in planning for new pandemics of influenza, which are believed to be inevitable.

  19. Register data suggest lower intelligence in men born the year after flu pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2009-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to the Hong Kong flu, an influenza pandemic that haunted Europe during winter 1969 to 1970, was associated with reduced intelligence in adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the National Conscript Service. The sample comprised all registered boys born alive in single birth after 37 to 43 weeks' gestation during 1967 to 1973 (n = 205,634). Intelligence test scores, recorded at military conscription, were available for 182,913 individuals. The mean intelligence score increased from one birth year to another, except for a downturn in 1970. The birth year 1970 was inversely associated with intelligence score (-0.03 standard deviation [SD]; p intelligence score was significant only among men born in July (-0.04 SD; p = 0.049), August (-0.05 SD; p = 0.013), September (-0.09 SD; p intelligence scores of the men born 6 to 9 months after the epidemic were lower than the mean values for the men born in the same months a few years before or after. Early prenatal exposure to the Hong Kong flu may have interfered with fetal cerebral development and caused reduced intelligence in adulthood.

  20. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expert System for ASIC Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shri N.; Arshak, Khalil I.; McDonnell, Pearse; Boyce, Conor; Duggan, Andrew

    1989-07-01

    With the developments in the techniques of artificial intelligence over the last few years, development of advisory, scheduling and similar class of problems has become very convenient using tools such as PROLOG. In this paper an expert system has been described which helps lithographers and process engineers in several ways. The methodology used is to model each work station according to its input, output and control parameters, combine these work stations in a logical sequence based on past experience and work out process schedule for a job. In addition, all the requirements vis-a-vis a particular job parameters are converted into decision rules. One example is the exposure time, develop time for a wafer with different feature sizes would be different. This expert system has been written in Turbo Prolog. By building up a large number of rules, one can tune the program to any facility and use it for as diverse applications as advisory help, trouble shooting etc. Leitner (1) has described an advisory expert system that is being used at National Semiconductor. This system is quite different from the one being reported in the present paper. The approach is quite different for one. There is stress on job flow and process for another.

  2. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER... § 94.17 Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

  3. A pig growth model for assessment of environmental footprint from swine operations: Effect of dietary energy and lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Jørgensen, Henry

    2011-01-01

    In swine operations, greenhouse gas emissions are mostly from stored manure. Accurate prediction of manure composition is required to estimate environmental footprint from swine operations. Pig growth models are often used to optimize profitability of swine production facilities; however, their a......In swine operations, greenhouse gas emissions are mostly from stored manure. Accurate prediction of manure composition is required to estimate environmental footprint from swine operations. Pig growth models are often used to optimize profitability of swine production facilities; however...

  4. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  5. Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolated from commercial swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR) for the analysis of genetic diversity among Escherichia coli strains isolated from commercial swine farms in Sichuan province of China. Thirty four strains of E. coli were selected by selective medium and conventional biochemical test from ...

  6. Acquisition of Expert/Non-Expert Vocabulary from Reformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Edwige; Grabar, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Technical medical terms are complicated to be correctly understood by non-experts. Vocabulary, associating technical terms with layman expressions, can help in increasing the readability of technical texts and their understanding. The purpose of our work is to build this kind of vocabulary. We propose to exploit the notion of reformulation following two methods: extraction of abbreviations and of reformulations with specific markers. The segments associated thanks to these methods are aligned with medical terminologies. Our results allow to cover over 9,000 medical terms and show precision of extractions between 0.24 and 0.98. The results and analyzed and compared with the existing work.

  7. Diagnosing Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  8. Flu Widget

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  9. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  10. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  11. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  12. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  13. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  14. Mitochondrial adaptations within chronically ischemic swine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFalls, Edward O; Sluiter, Wim; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; Manintveld, Olivier C; Lamers, Jos M J; Bezstarosti, Karel; van Beusekom, Heleen M; Sikora, Joseph; Ward, Herbert B; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2006-12-01

    Experimental evidence has emerged that myocardial ischemic preconditioning can prime the mitochondria into a "stress-resistant state", so that cell death is reduced following prolonged severe ischemia and reperfusion. Using a swine model of chronically ischemic myocardium, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondria within the ischemic territory have also acquired a protective phenotype. Eleven swine underwent a left thoracotomy with placement of an external constrictor around the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery. By 10 weeks, a severe stenosis of the LAD artery was documented by quantitative coronary angiography (92 +/- 2%). Animals were sacrificed and myocardium was extracted from the LAD and remote regions. Mitochondria were isolated from subendocardium and subepicardium from LAD and remote regions and state 2 (substrate alone) and state 3 (+ADP) respiration were assessed with a Clark electrode. Within the LAD subendocardium, the respiratory control index was 2.68 +/- 0.17 and was lower than the remote subendocardium (3.64 +/- 0.08; P < 0.05). When exposed to 20 min anoxia with reoxygenation, the LAD region demonstrated a more preserved state 3 respiration compared with the remote region (99 +/- 14 versus 65 +/- 9 nmol O2/mg, respectively; P < 0.05). In parallel mitochondrial experiments, chemiluminescence was detected with the probe coelenterazine and superoxide generation in the LAD region in the presence of antimycin A was 574 +/- 108 RLU/30 s/microg and was nearly 50% lower than the remote region (979 +/- 175 RLU/30 s/microg; P < 0.05). Within the mitochondria, the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) 2 by western gels was 20% higher in the LAD region compared with the remote region (P < 0.05) with no differences noted in UCP-3. In this swine model of chronic myocardial ischemia, isolated mitochondria from the ischemic tissue demonstrate preserved state 3 respiration following anoxia/reoxygenation, consistent with a stress-resistant state

  15. Cardiac Ischemia Model for +Gz Using Miniature Swine and Baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    held closed by two radio- paque tantalum clips. The nylon tubing was bored to various diameters to achieve an approximate 30 – 40% constriction of...and posterior left ventricular wall ischemia. Apical ischemia was masked by apical thinning, seen in both control and diseased swine and, therefore...interpretations of apical ischemia. The thorax of the baboon is smaller than the human or the swine thorax. Thus, the gall bladder, which collects

  16. Experimental infection of pregnant gilts with swine hepatitis E virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Thacker, Brad J.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Guenette, Denis K.; Buitenwerf, Ryan M.; Royer, Ryan L.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection on pregnant gilts, their fetuses, and offspring, 12 gilts were intravenously inoculated with swine HEV. Six gilts, who were not inoculated, served as controls. All inoculated gilts became actively infected and shed HEV in feces, but vertical transmission was not detected in the fetuses. There was no evidence of clinical disease in the gilts or their offspring. Mild multifocal lymphohistiocytic hepatitis was observed in 4 of 12...

  17. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Mejicanos, G.; Sanjayan, N.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances i...

  18. Expert – Non-expert differences in visual behaviour during alpine slalom skiing

    OpenAIRE

    Decroix, Marjolein; Wazir, Mohd Rozilee Wazir Norjali; Zeuwts, Linus; Deconinck, Frederik; Lenoir, Matthieu; Vansteenkiste, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate visual behaviour of expert and non-expert ski athletes during an alpine slalom. Fourteen non-experts and five expert slalom skiers completed an alpine slalom course in an indoor ski slope while wearing a head-mounted eye tracking device. Experts completed the slalom clearly faster than non-experts, but no significant difference was found in timing and position of the turn initiation. Although both groups already looked at future obstacles approximately...

  19. Genetic parameters in a Swine Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Popa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the variance-covariance components is a very important step in animal breeding because these components are necessary for: estimation of the genetic parameters, prediction of the breeding value and design of animal breeding programs. The estimation of genetic parameters is the first step in the development of a swine breeding program, using artificial insemination. Various procedures exist for estimation of heritability. There are three major procedures used for estimating heritability: analysis of variance (ANOVA, parents-offspring regression and restricted maximum likelihood (REML. By using ANOVA methodology or regression method it is possible to obtain aberrant values of genetic parameters (negative or over unit value of heritability coefficient, for example which can not be interpreting because is out of biological limits.

  20. Treatment of Edema Disease of Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I. C.; Chen, H. C.; Morter, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    Antihistamine (Allermin) was used sucessfully in the treatment of naturally occurring edema disease of swine under the field and laboratory conditions. A high recovery rate (88.8%) was obtained in the group of pigs with mild clinical signs. The intravenous route of Allermin administration had definite beneficial value. The release of histamine induced by circulating immune-complexes may be responsible for the clinical signs characteristic of edema disease. Three pigs that recovered clinically following the Allermin treatment were examined histologically. Fibrinoid persisted in the vascular walls at least 30 days after the initiation of the treatment. The fibrinoid vasculitis, generalized eosinophilia at the tissue level, and favorable response of pigs to antihistamine treatment suggest that edema disease may be caused by allergy. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4392719

  1. Flu Outbreaks Force Schools to Adjust Plans: Classes Canceled in Some Places to Prevent Spread of Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda; Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    A flu outbreak at Madison Junior High School in Ohio prompted school officials to close the building for two days. At Webber Junior High School in Fort Collins, Colorado, where absenteeism recently hit 20 percent for two bad weeks, educators were forced to slow the pace of schoolwork so sick students did not fall behind. This article reports on…

  2. The impact of the bird flu on public willingness to pay for the protection of migratory birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.; van Beukering, P.J.H.; Sultanian, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a unique time series analysis of contingent values and models for migratory bird protection based on an identical contingent valuation (CV) survey carried out over a three year time period since the first bird flu outbreak in 2003. Although there exists no

  3. Lessons from the past: familial aggregation analysis of fatal pandemic influenza (Spanish flu) in Iceland in 1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredsson, Magnús; Halldórsson, Bjarni V; Jónsson, Stefán; Kristjánsson, Már; Kristjánsson, Kristleifur; Kristinsson, Karl G; Löve, Arthur; Blöndal, Thorsteinn; Viboud, Cécile; Thorvaldsson, Sverrir; Helgason, Agnar; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Stefánsson, Kári; Jónsdóttir, Ingileif

    2008-01-29

    The pandemic influenza of 1918 (Spanish flu) killed 21-50 million people globally, including in Iceland, where the characteristics and spread of the epidemic were well documented. It has been postulated that genetic host factors may have contributed to this high mortality. We identified 455 individuals who died of the Spanish flu in Iceland during a 6-week period during the winter of 1918, representing >92% of all fatal domestic cases mentioned by historical accounts. The highest case fatality proportion was 2.8%, and peak excess mortality was 162/100,000/week. Fatality proportions were highest among infants, young adults, and the elderly. A genealogical database was used to study relatedness and relative risk (RR) of the fatal influenza victims and relatives of their unaffected mates. The significance of these RR computations was assessed by drawing samples randomly from the genealogical database matched for age, sex, and geographical distribution. Familial aggregation of fatalities was seen, with RRs for death ranging from 3.75 for first-degree relatives (P flu was similar within families of patients who succumbed to the illness and within families of their mates who survived. Our data do not provide conclusive evidence for the role of genetic factors in susceptibility to the Spanish flu.

  4. Expert SQL Server 2008 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Machanic, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Expert SQL Server 2008 Development is aimed at SQL Server developers ready to move beyond Books Online. Author and experienced developer Alastair Aitchison shows you how to think about SQL Server development as if it were any other type of development. You'll learn to manage testing in SQL Server and to properly deal with errors and exceptions. The book also covers critical, database-centric topics such as managing concurrency and securing your data and code through proper privileges and authorization. Alastair places focus on sound development and architectural practices that will help you be

  5. Expert Oracle RAC 12c

    CERN Document Server

    Shamsudeen, Riyaj; Yu, Kai; Farooq, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Expert Oracle RAC 12c is a hands-on book helping you understand and implement Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), and to reduce the total-cost-of-ownership (TCO) of a RAC database. As a seasoned professional, you are probably aware of the importance of understanding the technical details behind the RAC stack. This book provides deep understanding of RAC concepts and implementation details that you can apply toward your day-to-day operational practices. You'll be guided in troubleshooting and avoiding trouble in your installation. Successful RAC operation hinges upon a fast-performing netwo

  6. Expert Systems for auditing management information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheroghe Popescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.

  7. Enhancing the Learning Process with Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karake, Zeinab A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of artificial intelligence and expert system shells to enhance the learning process of graduate or undergraduate statistics students. A student exercise is described using STAT-EXPERT, an expert system designed to help students select the appropriate statistical analysis technique. (25 references) (LRW)

  8. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  9. Fire Effects, Education, and Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Martin

    1987-01-01

    Predicting the effects of fires in the year 2000 and beyond will be enhanced by the use of expert systems. Although our predictions may have broad confidence limits, expert systems should help us to improve the predictions and to focus on the areas where improved knowledge is most needed. The knowledge of experts can be incorporated into previously existing knowledge...

  10. Evaluating Econometric Models and Expert Intuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Legerstee (Rianne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about forecasting situations which involve econometric models and expert intuition. The first three chapters are about what it is that experts do when they adjust statistical model forecasts and what might improve that adjustment behavior. It is investigated how expert

  11. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    -seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts...

  12. Multicenter Clinical Evaluation of the Luminex Aries Flu A/B & RSV Assay for Pediatric and Adult Respiratory Tract Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, James; Buller, Richard S.; Manji, Ryhana; Dunbar, Sherry; Walker, Kimberly; Rao, Arundhati

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A and B viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are three common viruses implicated in seasonal respiratory tract infections and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults and children worldwide. In recent years, an increasing number of commercial molecular tests have become available to diagnose respiratory viral infections. The Luminex Aries Flu A/B & RSV assay is a fully automated sample-to-answer molecular diagnostic assay for the detection of influenza A, influenza B, and RSV. The clinical performance of the Aries Flu A/B & RSV assay was prospectively evaluated in comparison to that of the Luminex xTAG respiratory viral panel (RVP) at four North American clinical institutions over a 2-year period. Of the 2,479 eligible nasopharyngeal swab specimens included in the prospective study, 2,371 gave concordant results between the assays. One hundred eight specimens generated results that were discordant with those from the xTAG RVP and were further analyzed by bidirectional sequencing. Final clinical sensitivity values of the Aries Flu A/B & RSV assay were 98.1% for influenza A virus, 98.0% for influenza B virus, and 97.7% for RSV. Final clinical specificities for all three pathogens ranged from 98.6% to 99.8%. Due to the low prevalence of influenza B, an additional 40 banked influenza B-positive specimens were tested at the participating clinical laboratories and were all accurately detected by the Aries Flu A/B & RSV assay. This study demonstrates that the Aries Flu A/B & RSV assay is a suitable method for rapid and accurate identification of these causative pathogens in respiratory infections. PMID:28539342

  13. Evaluating Google Flu Trends in Latin America: Important Lessons for the Next Phase of Digital Disease Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollett, Simon; Boscardin, W John; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Tinoco, Yeny O; Soto, Giselle; Romero, Candice; Kok, Jen; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Viboud, Cecile; Rutherford, George W

    2017-01-01

     Latin America has a substantial burden of influenza and rising Internet access and could benefit from real-time influenza epidemic prediction web tools such as Google Flu Trends (GFT) to assist in risk communication and resource allocation during epidemics. However, there has never been a published assessment of GFT's accuracy in most Latin American countries or in any low- to middle-income country. Our aim was to evaluate GFT in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay.  Weekly influenza-test positive proportions for the eight countries were obtained from FluNet for the period January 2011-December 2014. Concurrent weekly Google-predicted influenza activity in the same countries was abstracted from GFT. Pearson correlation coefficients between observed and Google-predicted influenza activity trends were determined for each country. Permutation tests were used to examine background seasonal correlation between FluNet and GFT by country.  There were frequent GFT prediction errors, with correlation ranging from r = -0.53 to 0.91. GFT-predicted influenza activity best correlated with FluNet data in Mexico follow by Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay. Correlation was generally highest in the more temperate countries with more regular influenza seasonality and lowest in tropical regions. A substantial amount of autocorrelation was noted, suggestive that GFT is not fully specific for influenza virus activity.  We note substantial inaccuracies with GFT-predicted influenza activity compared with FluNet throughout Latin America, particularly among tropical countries with irregular influenza seasonality. Our findings offer valuable lessons for future Internet-based biosurveillance tools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Monitoring influenza activity in the United States: a comparison of traditional surveillance systems with Google Flu Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Ortiz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections.Influenza activity data from 2003-04 through 2007-08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance, and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79. The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89. Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003-04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87 or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90.This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003-04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior.

  15. Impact of pandemic flu training on ability of medical personnel to recognize an index case of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, Bruria; Goldberg, Avishay; Cohen, Robert; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between training programmes for pandemic flu and level of knowledge of health-care professionals with performance in an avian flu exercise. Training programmes of all general hospitals in Israel for managing a pandemic influenza were evaluated. Spearman's ρ correlation was used to analyse the relationship between training scores and level of knowledge of medical personnel with performance in an avian flu exercise. Hospital preparedness levels were evaluated at two time points and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine if overall preparedness scores improved over time. Evaluation of training programmes for pandemic influenza showed high to very high scores in most hospitals (mean 85, SD 22). Significant correlations between training and performance in the exercise were noted for: implementation of training programmes 0.91, P = 0.000; designating personnel for training 0.87, P = 0.000; content of training 0.61, P = 0.001; and training materials 0.36, P = 0.05. Overall reliability of the evaluation scores was 0.82 and reliability for two of the sub-scales was: implementation of the programme 0.78; and designating personnel for training 0.37. No significant correlation was found between level of knowledge and performance in the exercise. Training programmes for hospital personnel for pandemic flu have a significant role in improving performance in case of pandemic flu. The key component of the training programme appears to be the implementation of the programme. Use of knowledge tests should be further investigated, as they do not appear to correlate with the level of emergency preparedness for pandemic influenza.

  16. Development of the Flu-PRO: a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument to evaluate symptoms of influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, John H; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Fairchok, Mary P; Rosenberg, Alice; Hernández, Andrés; Stringer, Sonja; Schofield, Christina; Rodríguez-Zulueta, Patricia; Kim, Katherine; Danaher, Patrick J; Ortega-Gallegos, Hilda; Bacci, Elizabeth Dansie; Stepp, Nathaniel; Galindo-Fraga, Arturo; St Clair, Kristina; Rajnik, Michael; McDonough, Erin A; Ridoré, Michelande; Arnold, John C; Millar, Eugene V; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M

    2016-01-05

    To develop content validity of a comprehensive patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure following current best scientific methodology to standardize assessment of influenza (flu) symptoms in clinical research. Stage I (Concept Elicitation): 1:1 telephone interviews with influenza-positive adults (≥18 years) in the US and Mexico within 7 days of diagnosis. Participants described symptom type, character, severity, and duration. Content analysis identified themes and developed the draft Flu-PRO instrument. Stage II (Cognitive Interviewing): The Flu-PRO was administered to a unique set of influenza-positive adults within 14 days of diagnosis; telephone interviews addressed completeness, respondent interpretation of items and ease of use. Samples: Stage I: N = 46 adults (16 US, 30 Mexico); mean (SD) age: 38 (19), 39 (14) years; % female: 56%, 73%; race: 69% White, 97% Mestizo. Stage II: N = 34 adults (12 US, 22 Mexico); age: 37 (14), 39 (11) years; % female: 50%, 50%; race: 58% White, 100% Mestizo. Symptoms identified by >50%: coughing, weak or tired, throat symptoms, congestion, headache, weakness, sweating, chills, general discomfort, runny nose, chest (trouble breathing), difficulty sleeping, and body aches or pains. No new content was uncovered during Stage II; participants easily understood the instrument. Results show the 37-item Flu-PRO is a content valid measure of influenza symptoms in adults with a confirmed diagnosis of influenza. Research is underway to evaluate the suitability of the instrument for children and adolescents. This work can form the basis for future quantitative tests of reliability, validity, and responsiveness to evaluate the measurement properties of Flu-PRO for use in clinical trials and epidemiology studies.

  17. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  18. Expert system validation in prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Todd; Stachowitz, Rolf; Chang, Chin-Liang; Combs, Jacqueline

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the Expert System Validation Assistant (EVA) is being implemented in Prolog at the Lockheed AI Center. Prolog was chosen to facilitate rapid prototyping of the structure and logic checkers and since February 1987, we have implemented code to check for irrelevance, subsumption, duplication, deadends, unreachability, and cycles. The architecture chosen is extremely flexible and expansible, yet concise and complementary with the normal interactive style of Prolog. The foundation of the system is in the connection graph representation. Rules and facts are modeled as nodes in the graph and arcs indicate common patterns between rules. The basic activity of the validation system is then a traversal of the connection graph, searching for various patterns the system recognizes as erroneous. To aid in specifying these patterns, a metalanguage is developed, providing the user with the basic facilities required to reason about the expert system. Using the metalanguage, the user can, for example, give the Prolog inference engine the goal of finding inconsistent conclusions among the rules, and Prolog will search the graph intantiations which can match the definition of inconsistency. Examples of code for some of the checkers are provided and the algorithms explained. Technical highlights include automatic construction of a connection graph, demonstration of the use of metalanguage, the A* algorithm modified to detect all unique cycles, general-purpose stacks in Prolog, and a general-purpose database browser with pattern completion.

  19. Contribution of the Bordetella Bps Polysaccharide to Biofilm Formation and Respiratory Disease in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is pervasive in swine populations and plays multiple roles in respiratory disease. Additionally, B. bronchiseptica is capable of establishing long-term or chronic infections in swine. Bacterial biofilms are increasingly recognized as important contributors to chronic bacter...

  20. Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

  1. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay for rapid identification and differentiation of influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Weekley, S M; Marlowe, E M; Poulter, M; Dwyer, D; Speers, D; Rawlinson, W; Baleriola, C; Robinson, C C

    2012-05-01

    The Xpert Flu Assay cartridge is a next-generation nucleic acid amplification system that provides multiplexed PCR detection of the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses in approximately 70 min with minimal hands-on time. Six laboratories participated in a clinical trial comparing the results of the new Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay to those of culture or real-time PCR with archived and prospectively collected nasal aspirate-wash (NA-W) specimens and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from children and adults. Discrepant results were resolved by DNA sequence analysis. After discrepant-result analysis, the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for prospective NA-W specimens containing the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses compared to those of culture were 90.0%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the assay for prospective NP swabs compared to those of culture were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NA-W specimens compared to those of Gen-Probe ProFlu+ PCR for the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses were 99.4%, 98.4%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NP swabs compared to those of ProFlu+ were 98.1%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay with archived NP specimens compared to those of culture for the three targets were 97.5%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. We conclude that the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay is an accurate and rapid method that is suitable for on-demand testing for influenza viral infection.

  2. VACCINATION AGAINST FLU, PNEUMOCOCCAL, MENINGOCOCCAL AND HIB INFECTION OF THE SICKLY CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This manual for doctors contains modern information about the spread of pneumotropic infections, their participation in the pathogenesis of acute diseases among children, possibilities for their prevention and treatment. Special detailed description is given to the methods of immune prevention, including specific one. The authors indicate all the registered and to be registered in russia russian and foreign vaccines, methods of their injection, possible unfavourable events. especially interesting are the authors' information on application of vaccines against flu, pneumococcal, meningococcal and hemophilic infections, bacterial vaccines, including those among the sickly children. On November 22, 2005, the manual was approved at the session of the scientific council of scientific center of children's health, Russian academy of medical sciences.

  3. Emergency department and 'Google flu trends' data as syndromic surveillance indicators for seasonal influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L H; Malik, M T; Gumel, A; Strome, T; Mahmud, S M

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated syndromic indicators of influenza disease activity developed using emergency department (ED) data - total ED visits attributed to influenza-like illness (ILI) ('ED ILI volume') and percentage of visits attributed to ILI ('ED ILI percent') - and Google flu trends (GFT) data (ILI cases/100 000 physician visits). Congruity and correlation among these indicators and between these indicators and weekly count of laboratory-confirmed influenza in Manitoba was assessed graphically using linear regression models. Both ED and GFT data performed well as syndromic indicators of influenza activity, and were highly correlated with each other in real time. The strongest correlations between virological data and ED ILI volume and ED ILI percent, respectively, were 0·77 and 0·71. The strongest correlation of GFT was 0·74. Seasonal influenza activity may be effectively monitored using ED and GFT data.

  4. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  5. GET POKED: Comparing an Incentive-Based Flu Campaign with Vaccinate-or-Mask Policies to Boost Influenza Vaccination Rates Among Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Seema; Lorv, Bailey; Henseleit, Susanne; Iroanyah, Ngozi

    2016-01-01

    The median influenza vaccination rate for Toronto acute care facilities in 2013/14 was only 44%, well below the target rate of 90%. While many Toronto hospitals adopted a vaccinate-or-mask policy, Trillium Health Partners (THP) opted to create a multimodal incentives-based flu campaign entitled GET POKED. This campaign, which required significant additional resourcing, only increased our vaccination rate by 10%. While having some modest success, we believe it is unlikely that non-policy based interventions will efficiently and sustainably raise flu vaccine rates. Vaccinate-or-mask policies, while having some inherent challenges, may be worth exploring as part of THP's larger flu-prevention strategy.

  6. Vesicular exanthema of swine virus: isolation and serotyping of field samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, J F; Yedloutschnig, R J; Dardiri, A H; Callis, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Virus isolation was attempted from 262 field samples of vesicular material collected during the outbreaks of vesicular exanthema of swine in the U.S.A. from 1952-54. Using primary swine kidney culture, viral cytopathogenic agents were isolated from 76.3% of the samples. However, an overall recovery rate of 82.1% was obtained after samples negative in tissue culture were inoculated intradermally in susceptible swine. All vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolates were identified as serotype B...

  7. The making of expert witness: the valuers' perspective | Babawale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the role of the expert witness in the process of justice administration. As the saying goes, not all 'experts' make good 'expert witness' as there is more to being an 'expert witness' than there is to being an 'expert'. That is, being an 'expert witness' does not necessarily connote that the witness is an expert ...

  8. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  9. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing... brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action will facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by eliminating the need...

  10. Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    Objective-To evaluate changes in antimicrobial consumption and productivity by Danish swine farms during 1992 to 2008. Sample Population-All Danish swine farms for antimicrobial consumption data and a representative sample of Danish swine herds for productivity data. Procedures-Antimicrobial cons...

  11. Surveillance programs in Denmark has revealed the circulation of novel reassortant influenza A viruses in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza is a respiratory disease caused by multiple subtypes of influenza A virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is enzootic in swine populations in Europe, Asia, North and South America. The influenza A virus genome consist of eight distinct gene segments and SIV subtypes are defined by th...

  12. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  13. Development of a fluorescent ASFV strain that retains the ability to cause disease in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact for the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double strain DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment ar...

  14. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. This action will allow... a potential new approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review...

  15. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    schemata, query evaluation, semantic processing, information retrieval, temporal and spatial databases, querying XML, organisational aspects of databases, natural language processing, ontologies, Web data extraction, semantic Web, data stream management, data extraction, distributed database systems......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML...

  16. Consumer versus expert hazard identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit S.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Novel foods have been the object of intense public debate in recent years. Despite efforts to communicate the outcomes of risk assessments to consumers, public confidence in the management of potential risks has been low. Various reasons behind this have been identified, chiefly a disagreement...... between technical experts and consumers over the nature of the hazards on which risk assessments should focus, and perceptions of insufficient openness about uncertainties in risk assessment. Whilst previous research has almost exclusively focused on genetically modified foods, the present paper...... of uncertainty. Furthermore, a number of misconceptions became apparent in the study of laypeople's mental models, often related to the regulatory system governing risk assessments of novel foods. Critical issue are outlined and communication needs are discussed....

  17. Language theory and expert systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Agodi

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available Some remarks on the problem of knowledge representation and processing, as recognized in connection with the use of computers in the scientific research work, emphasizes the relevance of these problems for the studies on both the theory of languages and the expert system. A consideration of the common traits in the recent history of these studies, with reference to the use of computers on texts in natural language motivates the introduction of set theoretic and algebraic methods, suitable for applications in the analysis and in the automatic treatment of languages, based on the concept of model sets and on relational structures suggested from the connections between syntax and semantics evidenced in some example of sub-languages corresponding to theories of different classes of physical phenomena. Some details of these methods are evidenced, which have already successfully used or whose applications appears suggestive of interesting development.

  18. Novel reassortant swine influenza viruses are circulating in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    The Danish surveillance program for influenza A virus in pigs has revealed that two novel reassortant swine influenza viruses may now be circulating in the Danish swine population, since they each have been detected in at least two submissions from different herds in 2011 as well as in 2012. One...... of the reassortant viruses comprised a HA gene similar to H1 of H1N1 avian-like swine influenza virus (SIV) and a NA gene most closely related to N2 gene of human H3N2 influenza virus that circulated in humans in the mid 1990s. The internal genes of this reassortant virus with the subtype H1avN2hu all belonged......1pdm09 influenza virus lineage. Swine influenza virus with a similar subtype to H1pdm09N2sw has previously been found in pigs in Italy and Germany. Detailed analyses of viral genes will further elucidate the relationship between these new swine influenza viruses found in the different countries...

  19. The perfused swine uterus model: long-term perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisler Klaudija

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has previously been shown that the viability of swine uteri can be maintained within the physiological range in an open perfusion model for up to 8 hours. The aim of this study was to assess medium- to long-term perfusion of swine uteri using a modified Krebs–Ringer bicarbonate buffer solution (KRBB in the established open perfusion model. Methods In an experimental study at an infertility institute, 30 swine uteri were perfused: group 1: n = 11, KRBB; group 2: n = 8, modified KRBB with drainage of perfusate supernatant; group 3: n = 11, modified KRBB with drainage of perfusate every 2 h and substitution with fresh medium. Modified and conventional KRBB were compared with regard to survival and contraction parameters: intrauterine pressure (IUP, area under the curve (AUC, and frequency of contractions (F. Results Modified KRBB showed significantly higher IUP, AUC, and F values than perfusion with conventional KRBB. In group 3, the organ survival time of up to 17 h, with a 98% rate of effective contraction time, differed significantly from group 1 (P  Conclusions Using modified KRBB in combination with perfusate substitution improves the open model for perfusion of swine uteri with regard to survival time and quality of contraction parameters. This model can be used for medium- to long-term perfusion of swine uteri, allowing further metabolic ex vivo studies in a cost-effective way and with little logistic effort.

  20. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil’s swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009–2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of swine influenza viruses recently isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C S; Kang, B K; Kim, H K; Park, S J; Park, B K; Jung, K; Song, D S

    2008-10-01

    Several influenza A viral subtypes were isolated from pigs during a severe outbreak of respiratory disease in Korea during 2005 and 2006. They included a classical swine H1N1 subtype, two swine-human-avian triple-recombinant H1N2 subtypes, and a swine-human-avian triple-recombinant H3N2 subtype. In the current study, genetic characterization to determine the probable origin of these recent isolates was carried out for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the recent Korean isolates of H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 influenza are closely related to viruses from the United States. Serologic and genetic analysis indicated that the Korean H1N2 viral subtypes were introduced directly from the United States, and did not arise from recombination between Korean H1N1 and H3N2. We suggest that the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 viral subtypes that were isolated from the Korean swine population originated in North America, and that these viruses are currently circulating in the Korean swine population.

  2. Swine farm wastewater and mineral fertilization in corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela A. M. Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles, on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 100, 200, 300 m3 ha-1 during the cycle. The effects of the association between mineral fertilization at sowing and swine wastewater were evaluated simultaneously. Swine wastewater at the dose of 100 m3 ha-1 promoted availability and absorption of P, K+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ without causing toxicity to plants or damage to the soil, constituting a viable, low-cost alternative of water reuse and fertilization for farmers. The nutrients N, P, K+ and B must be complemented with mineral fertilization. Special attention should be directed to the accumulation of Zn2+ in the soil along the time of swine wastewater application.

  3. Molecular diagnostics of swine infection caused by Mycoplasma suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .

  4. Methods for combining experts' probability assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R A

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews statistical techniques for combining multiple probability distributions. The framework is that of a decision maker who consults several experts regarding some events. The experts express their opinions in the form of probability distributions. The decision maker must aggregate the experts' distributions into a single distribution that can be used for decision making. Two classes of aggregation methods are reviewed. When using a supra Bayesian procedure, the decision maker treats the expert opinions as data that may be combined with its own prior distribution via Bayes' rule. When using a linear opinion pool, the decision maker forms a linear combination of the expert opinions. The major feature that makes the aggregation of expert opinions difficult is the high correlation or dependence that typically occurs among these opinions. A theme of this paper is the need for training procedures that result in experts with relatively independent opinions or for aggregation methods that implicitly or explicitly model the dependence among the experts. Analyses are presented that show that m dependent experts are worth the same as k independent experts where k < or = m. In some cases, an exact value for k can be given; in other cases, lower and upper bounds can be placed on k.

  5. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the regulations in § 327.2 of this title; (2) The pork... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine...

  6. PERILAKU BERISIKO PETERNAK UNGGAS DAN KEJADIAN FLU BURUNG DI DESA MOJOTAMPING KECAMATAN BANGSAL KABUPATEN MOJOKERTO PROVINSI JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Edi Widya Sukoco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Avian influenza infection can occur when there is contact with birds dead/sick, poultry manure (dung and a polluted environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of farmers (owners of poultry infected with avian influenza virus (H5N1 by the method of behavior approach and observation participatory in society Methods: The research method applied is participatory observation and in-depth interviews. The purpose of in-depth interview is to determine factors under/ying AI related behavior, such as social factors and cultural factors. Results: There are many risk behaviors such as not reporting any incidence of sudden deaths of poultry, handling dead birds incorrectly, eating a sick chicken, eating raw egg yolk, never used protection (gloves, masks, boots when interacting with their poultry There has found the case of a resident who died with a positive indication of H5N1 virus infection at the sites. Conclusion: Breeders, sellers, and buyers who do not use personal protective equipment (PPE and are reluctant to report any suddenly dead birds can accelerate the spread of bird flu virus. Key words: Avian influenza, risk behaviors, poultry ABSTRAK Penularan flu burung dapat terjadi bila ada kontak dengan unggas mati atau unggas sakit, kotoran unggas (pupuk kandang dan lingkungan yang tercemar. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui risiko peternak (pemilik unggas terinfeksi virus flu burung (H5N1 dengan metode pendekatan perilaku dan obserwasi partisipatif di masyarakat. Metode penelitian yang diterapkan adalah observasi partisipatif dan wawancara mendalam. Wawancara mendalam dimaksudkan untuk menentukan faktor yang mendasari perilaku terkait flu burung, seperti faktor sosial dan budaya. Masih banyak perilaku berisiko dari penduduk yaitu tidak melaporkan adanya kejadian unggas mati mendadak, penanganan unggas mati yang salah, mengkonsumsi ayam sakit, mengkonsumsi kuning telur mentah, tidak pernah

  7. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwyer, Dominic E; Nielsen, Henrik Ib

    2011-01-01

    The novel pandemic influenza A (H1H1) 2009 virus spread rapidly around the world in 2009. The paucity of prospective international epidemiologic data on predictors of clinical outcomes with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection stimulated the INSIGHT network, an international network of community...... that experience clinically significant outcomes and to study factors related to these outcomes. Enrollment commenced in October 2009 and will continue until August 2011: as of the end of 2010, 62 sites in 14 countries in Australasia (12 sites), Europe (37) and North America (13) have enrolled 1365 adult patients......, with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These 'in progress' INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks....

  8. FluKB: A Knowledge-Based System for Influenza Vaccine Target Discovery and Analysis of the Immunological Properties of Influenza Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Christian; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Sun, Jing

    2015-01-01

    FluKB is a knowledge-based system focusing on data and analytical tools for influenza vaccine discovery. The main goal of FluKB is to provide access to curated influenza sequence and epitope data and enhance the analysis of influenza sequence diversity and the analysis of targets of immune...... responses. FluKB consists of more than 400,000 influenza protein sequences, known epitope data (357 verified T-cell epitopes, 685 HLA binders, and 16 naturally processed MHC ligands), and a collection of 28 influenza antibodies and their structurally defined B-cell epitopes. FluKB was built using amodular...... framework allowing the implementation of analytical workflows and includes standard search tools, such as keyword search and sequence similarity queries, as well as advanced tools for the analysis of sequence variability.The advanced analytical tools for vaccine discovery include visual mapping of T- and B...

  9. Mutation rate at swine microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Gen Hua; Beeckmann, Petra; Geldermann, Hermann

    2002-03-01

    During genotyping of 38 microsatellites for QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping in three F2 swine populations, five mutant alleles were detected in a total of 66,436 parent-offspring transfers of microsatellite alleles, which gives an overall mutation rate of 7.52 x 10(-5) per locus per generation. No significant (P > 0.05) association between mutation rates and other factors (i.e., GC contents in the flanking regions, heterozygosity, and repeat number) was revealed. Detailed sequencing showed that four out of five mutant alleles were caused by insertions of one to five repeats, respectively. The other mutant allele was produced by either an insertion of three repeats or a change of 30 base pairs (a deletion of 16 CT repeats and an insertion of one CA repeat). An insertion of one base pair in the flanking region of a microsatellite was also detected. Together, these data indicate that expansions are more common than contractions among microsatellites and that the mutation processes are very complicated, do not fit with the strict stepwise mutation model and may vary from locus to locus.

  10. Small intestinal absorption during endotoxemia in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, S; Emil, S; Kosi, M; Monforte-Munoz, H; Atkinson, J

    1996-10-01

    We studied the effects of systemic endotoxemia on small intestinal absorption in an in vivo animal model. Seven adolescent Yorkshire swine underwent creation of 25 cm distal ileal Thiry-Vella fistulae. After 1 week recovery, the fistulae were perfused with a solution of glucose and electrolytes labeled with 14C-PEG, and net absorption of water, Na+, Cl-, and glucose was calculated. Animals were studied under three different conditions: (1) Basal fasting state, (2) immediately after intravenous injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 micrograms/kg), and (3) 24 hours after LPS. Water, Na+, and Cl- absorption was significantly reduced 2 hours after LPS, but recovered to baseline values by the third hour after LPS. Twenty-four hours after LPS water, Na+, and Cl- absorption was significantly decreased below baseline values. Glucose absorption after LPS paralleled that of water and electrolytes, except that the transient early recovery was not observed. Histological studies of the ileum after LPS showed marked epithelial inflammation at 6 hours, villous atrophy at 24 hours, and signs of recovery at 7 days. Intestinal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose is adversely affected in the immediate and early periods after an endotoxemic episode, but the histological epithelial injury secondary to endotoxemia is reversible.

  11. Swine wastewater treatment by media filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szögi, A A; Humenik, F J; Rice, J M; Hunt, P G

    1997-09-01

    A media filter was constructed to treat swine wastewater after anaerobic lagoon treatment. The media filter consisted of a tank (1.5-m-diameter x 0.6-m-height) filled with marl gravel. The marl gravel had a carbonate content of 300 g kg-1. Gravel particle size distributions were 85 and 14% in the 4.7- to 12.7-mm and 12.7- to 19-mm size classes, respectively. Pore space of the filtration unit was 57%. Wastewater flow rate was 606 L m-2 d-1, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) load was 198 g m-2 d-1. The media filter removed 54% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) content after one cycle, but increased cycling did not produce additional COD reduction. Total suspended solids (TSS) removal after one cycle was 50% of initial levels, and additional cycling reduced TSS levels at a much lower rate of 7% per cycle. Removal efficiencies for total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 37% to 52% (one to four cycles), but long-term phosphorus removal would be limited by the sorption capacity of the gravel. Up to 24% of TKN was converted to nitrate-plus-nitrite-N (NO3+NO2-N). Effluents with high NO3+NO2-N levels can be treated further for denitrification with constructed wetlands or anaerobic lagoon. This is important in cases where land is limited for wastewater application.

  12. Expert Meeting Report: Foundations Research Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.

  13. Influenza-Like-Illness and Clinically Diagnosed Flu: Disease Burden, Costs and Quality of Life for Patients Seeking Ambulatory Care or No Professional Care at All

    OpenAIRE

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents so...

  14. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejicanos, G; Sanjayan, N; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-01-01

    Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances in genetic improvements of canola that have led to production of cultivars with significantly lower ANF content and improved processing procedures, canola meal with a superior nutritive value for non-ruminant animals is now available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the recent studies in the use of canola meal as feedstuff for swine, the factors influencing its use and the strategies to overcome them. First a historical overview of the development of canola is provided.

  15. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mejicanos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates in canola meal. However, due to advances in genetic improvements of canola that have led to production of cultivars with significantly lower ANF content and improved processing procedures, canola meal with a superior nutritive value for non-ruminant animals is now available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the recent studies in the use of canola meal as feedstuff for swine, the factors influencing its use and the strategies to overcome them. First a historical overview of the development of canola is provided.

  16. Eliciting expert knowledge in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tara G; Burgman, Mark A; Fidler, Fiona; Kuhnert, Petra M; Low-Choy, Samantha; McBride, Marissa; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-02-01

    Expert knowledge is used widely in the science and practice of conservation because of the complexity of problems, relative lack of data, and the imminent nature of many conservation decisions. Expert knowledge is substantive information on a particular topic that is not widely known by others. An expert is someone who holds this knowledge and who is often deferred to in its interpretation. We refer to predictions by experts of what may happen in a particular context as expert judgments. In general, an expert-elicitation approach consists of five steps: deciding how information will be used, determining what to elicit, designing the elicitation process, performing the elicitation, and translating the elicited information into quantitative statements that can be used in a model or directly to make decisions. This last step is known as encoding. Some of the considerations in eliciting expert knowledge include determining how to work with multiple experts and how to combine multiple judgments, minimizing bias in the elicited information, and verifying the accuracy of expert information. We highlight structured elicitation techniques that, if adopted, will improve the accuracy and information content of expert judgment and ensure uncertainty is captured accurately. We suggest four aspects of an expert elicitation exercise be examined to determine its comprehensiveness and effectiveness: study design and context, elicitation design, elicitation method, and elicitation output. Just as the reliability of empirical data depends on the rigor with which it was acquired so too does that of expert knowledge. ©2011 Australian Governmemt Conservation Biology©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Succession planning for technical experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cain, Ronald A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dewji, Shaheen A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Agreda, Carla L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes a methodology for identifying, evaluating, and mitigating the loss of key technical skills at nuclear operations facilities. The methodology can be adapted for application within regulatory authorities and research and development organizations, and can be directly applied by international engagement partners of the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The resultant product will be of direct benefit to two types of NNSA missions: (1) domestic human capital development programs tasked to provide focused technical expertise to succeed an aging nuclear operations workforce, and (2) international safeguards programs charged with maintaining operational safeguards for developing/existing nuclear power program in nations where minimal available resources must be used effectively. This report considers succession planning and the critical skills necessary to meet an institution’s goals and mission. Closely tied to succession planning are knowledge management and mentorship. In considering succession planning, critical skill sets are identified and are greatly dependent on the subject matter expert in question. This report also provides examples of critical skills that are job specific.

  18. Operational expert system applications in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    1992-01-01

    Operational Expert System Applications in Europe describes the representative case studies of the operational expert systems (ESs) that are used in Europe.This compilation provides examples of operational ES that are realized in 10 different European countries, including countries not usually examined in the standard reviews of the field.This book discusses the decision support system using several artificial intelligence tools; expert systems for fault diagnosis on computerized numerical control (CNC) machines; and expert consultation system for personal portfolio management. The failure prob

  19. Expert systems to improve plant operability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopocy, D.M.; Glazer, A.R. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (USA)); Jonas, O. (Jonas, Inc., Wilmington, DE (US)); Rice, J.K. (James K. Rice, Chartered, Olney, MD (US))

    1988-01-01

    Prospective expert system applications in the power industry generally are in one of the following categories:esign, information management, plant operations, and equipment diagnostics. Many power facility expert system efforts are four plant operations. Several of these applications help optimize plant operation and also detect developing problems and suggest remedial action before the occurrence of any serious consequences. Many types of plant processes and equipment can benefit from routine trending and evaluation of operating data by this type of expert system. This paper discusses a variety of special considerations for the development and implementation of expert systems for plant operations, both in general and as exemplified by CYCLEXPRT.

  20. Using probiotics to improve swine gut health and nutrient utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfa F. Liao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To maintain a healthy gut is definitely key for a pig to digest and absorb dietary nutrients efficiently. A balanced microbiota (i.e., a healthy micro-ecosystem is an indispensable constituent of a healthy gut. Probiotics, the live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer good health benefits onto the host, are a category of feed additives that can be used to replenish the gut microbial population while recuperating the host immune system. Besides their antitoxin and diarrhea reduction effects, dietary supplementation of probiotics can improve gut health, nutrient digestibilities and, therefore, benefit nutrient utilization and growth performance of pigs. Current knowledge in the literature pertinent to the beneficial effects of utilizing various probiotics for swine production has been comprehensively reviewed, and the safety and the risk issues related to probiotic usage have also been discussed in this paper. Considering that the foremost cost in a swine operation is feed cost, feed efficiency holds a very special, if not the paramount, significance in commercial swine production. Globally, the swine industry along with other animal industries is moving towards restricting and eventually a total ban on the usage of antibiotic growth promoters. Therefore, selection of an ideal alternative to the in-feed antibiotics to compensate for the lost benefits due to the ban on the antibiotic usage is urgently needed to support the industry for profitable and sustainable swine production. As is understood, a decision on this selection is not easy to make. Thus, this review paper aims to provide some much needed up-to-date knowledge and comprehensive references for swine nutritionists and producers to refer to before making prudent decisions and for scientists and researchers to develop better commercial products.

  1. New health risks and sociocultural contexts: bird flu impacts on consumers and poultry businesses in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Gabriele; Inthavong, Saynakhone

    2008-02-01

    Avian flu has been identified as one of the most challenging new risks, global in impact due to the "highly interconnected and integrated world economy along with other unpredictable events such as the Asian financial crisis and global terrorism." We have chosen the case of Lao PDR to shed light on an area in which local people consume chicken as one of their staple foods. Our research analyzes consumer behavior, poultry business modification patterns in a high-risk country, and government reaction for business resilience. The geographic choice is motivated by the 2006 EIU report on Catastrophe Risk Management that indicated that Asian-Pacific companies are better prepared for such risks as bird flu than European business is, despite the many cases found in both regions.

  2. Pandemic flu knowledge among dormitory housed university students: a need for informal social support and social networking strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Susan L; Huttlinger, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The declaration of a Phase 6 pandemic of influenza A (H1N1) by the World Health Organization in June 2009, triggered the activation of preparedness responses worldwide. During 2009 spring and fall, many US universities actuated their emergency pandemic preparedness plans. This article describes a research study that used a modified community based participatory research (CBPR) approach between August and November 2009 at New Mexico State University's main Las Cruces campus to determine influenza (pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal influenza knowledge, attitudes, and health communication (informal support networks and social networking) strategies specifically related to influenza among dormitory housed (on-campus living) undergraduate students. The goal was to produce data for use in the university's pandemic illness/disaster preparedness and response plans. Following activation of the university's campus-wide efforts to educate students about pandemic flu, university community partners were asked for input regarding information for flu preparedness for the university's undergraduate students. Student participants were recruited for the present study from those housed in four campus dormitories. A purposive convenience sample was used to collect survey data from 175 students during the peak week of reported flu cases on campus. Each participant was given an anonymous, face-to-face, self-administered survey and 167 surveys were able to be analyzed. A χ² goodness of fit test was used to determine whether observed proportions of categorical variables differed from hypothesized proportions. Four categorical data were analyzed by topics: (1) demographics; (2) flu awareness; (3) flu immunization knowledge and practices; and (4) communication and health information practices. The average age was 19.6 years (SD = 1.8), with no significant differences by sex (86 males and 76 females, 5 undisclosed) or race/ethnicity (57 White, 43 Hispanic, 44 Other). All

  3. Synthetic Influenza vaccine (FLU-v) stimulates cell mediated immunity in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled Phase I trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleguezuelos, Olga; Robinson, Stuart; Stoloff, Gregory A; Caparrós-Wanderley, Wilson

    2012-06-29

    Current Influenza vaccines elicit antibody mediated prophylactic immunity targeted to viral capsid antigens. Despite their global use these vaccines must be administered yearly to the population, cannot be manufactured until the circulating viral strain(s) have been identified and have limited efficacy. A need remains for Influenza vaccines addressing these issues and here we report the results of a Phase Ib trial of a novel synthetic Influenza vaccine (FLU-v) targeting T cell responses to NP, M1 and M2. Forty-eight healthy males aged 18-40 were recruited for this single-centre, randomised, double blind study. Volunteers received one single low (250 μg) or high (500 μg) dose of FLU-v, either alone or adjuvanted. Safety, tolerability and basic immunogenicity (IgG and IFN-γ responses) parameters were assessed pre-vaccination and for 21 days post-vaccination. FLU-v was found to be safe and well tolerated with no vaccine associated severe adverse events. Dose-dependent IFN-γ responses >2-fold the pre-vaccination level were detected in 80% and 100% of volunteers receiving, respectively, the low and high dose adjuvanted FLU-v formulations. No formulation tested induced any significant FLU-v antibody response. FLU-v is safe and induces a vaccine-specific cellular immunity. Cellular immune responses are historically known to control and mitigate infection and illness during natural infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eurotium spp. and echinulin in feed refused by swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesonder, R F; Lambert, R; Wicklow, D T; Biehl, M L

    1988-03-01

    Feed refused by swine contained a high-propagule density of Eurotium chevalieri Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus chevalieri (Mangin) Thom and Church), Eurotium amstelodami Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus amstelodami (Mangin Thom and Church), and Aspergillus candidus Link. Echinulin (8 micrograms/g of feed) was detected in the feed. Isolates of E. chevalieri and E. amstelodami but not A. candidus produced echinulin on rice or cracked corn. Mice refused to drink water containing 90 micrograms of echinulin per ml. This is the first report of the alkaloid echinulin in feed refused by swine.

  5. Pork and Carcasses Quality in Swine Exploited in Family Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Heber; Cornelia Petroman; Ioan Petroman; Ioana Bălan; Diana Marin; Gabriela Ivaşcu; Călin Popovici

    2010-01-01

    Maximum values of dry matter and fat (% of the carcass weight) is achieved in swine exploited on small private family farms at 137 kg of dry matter and 115 kg of protein. Slaughtering swine at higher weight results in an increase of the dry matter and of the caloric value because of the increase of the amount of fat in the muscular fibber; thus, pork is of low quality because of the massive accumulation fat substance and the economic efficiency of producing pork is improper, with supplementar...

  6. Lumbricidae as transitory hosts in Metastrongylus infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastrongylidosis or lungworm disease in swine is a disease caused by several types of nematodes of the genus Metastrongylus. Metastrongylidae are biohelminths whose causes use transitory hosts for their development and maintaining their biological cycle, and in this case they are numerous species of Lumbricidae (earthworms. Depending on the geographic environment, numerous representatives of Lumbricidae persist as transitory hosts. In our environment, these are dominant earthworm species of the genus Eisenia spp, Dandreobena spp, Allopbophora spp, Lubricus spp, Octoiasium spp, Bimastus spp, and rarely those from the genus Heledrillus spp. Swine are infected perorally with Metastrongylidae when they ingest infected earthworms.

  7. MP-AzeFlu provides rapid and effective allergic rhinitis control in real life: A pan-European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Bachert, Claus; Stjärne, Par; Dollner, Ralph; Larsen, Petter; Haahr, Peter; Agache, Ioana; Scadding, Glenis; Price, David

    2016-09-01

    The European Union has prioritized allergic rhinitis (AR) control. Contre les Maladies Chronique pour un Vieillissement Actif Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma has endorsed the visual analog scale (VAS) as the AR control language and incorporated it into a new AR treatment algorithm. Concurrently, the Respiratory Effectiveness Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology are striving to improve the quality of published real-life AR research. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of MP-AzeFlu by using a VAS in a well-designed, real-life, pan-European study. A total of 2988 patients (aged ≥ 12 years) with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma defined moderate-to-severe AR from Germany, Sweden, Romania, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway were included. Patients (except from the United Kingdom) assessed symptom severity by using a VAS from 0 mm (not at all bothersome) to 100 mm (very bothersome) on days 0, 1, 3, 7, and the last visit (∼day 14) in the morning before MP-AzeFlu use. Patients' perceived level of disease control was assessed on day 3. A VAS score cutoff on day 3 for "well controlled" was determined, and the proportion of patients who achieved this response was calculated. MP-AzeFlu was associated with a mean VAS score reduction from 73.7 mm at baseline to 23.4 mm by the last visit. This reduction was significant (p Vieillissement Actif Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma, the Respiratory Effectiveness Group, and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology objectives, supporting MP-AzeFlu as the drug of choice for the treatment of moderate-to-severe AR.

  8. PRODUCTION OF HYBRID RECOMBINANT PROTEIN Flu-Chim, CONTAINING INFLUENZA VIRUSES A AND B MAJOR EPITOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Dukhovlinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influenza virus is highly contagious diseases of people, birds and mammals. Approximately 250 000– 500 000 deaths are caused by influenza epidemics worldwide yearly, and the death number may be up to millions in a possible influenza pandemic. Vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the development and production of pandemic influenza vaccines are response time and production capacity as well as vaccine efficacy and safety. Reverse genetics techniques can speed up the generation of seed viruses and new mathematical modelling methods improve vaccine strain selection. Using vaccines based on recombinant proteins, we avoid the risks associated with the introduction of the virus into the body, even inactivated. In this paper, we have got a highly purified recombinant fusion protein composed of fragments of the hemagglutinin of influenza viruses A and B. As adjuvant we used components of flagellin. We used the most immunogenic and conserved areas of hemagglutinin H1, H3, H5 and B, which cause the formation of specific antibodies which can cross-react with homologous epitopes among the various strains of influenza A and B. Vaccine efficacy is increased by using multiple epitopes of various proteins. The aim of this study was to clone and express the hybrid recombinant protein Flu-Chim, containing immunogenic epitopes of influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, A/H5N1 and B fused with fragments of flagellin in Escherichia coli expression system and its subsequent purification. During the study was created high-yield E. coli strain, which produces the recombinant protein Flu-Chim, selected the optimal protocol of induction of the gene encoding the protein. The protein was purified using metal affinity chromatography. The

  9. Novel Use of Flu Surveillance Data: Evaluating Potential of Sentinel Populations for Early Detection of Influenza Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughton, Ashlynn R; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2-8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009-2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we compare pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. This study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.

  10. FluMob: Enabling Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections in Health-care Workers via Mobile Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May Oo; Yung, Chee Fu; Yap, Peiling; Jayasundar, Karthikayen; Sheldenkar, Anita; Subasinghe, Kosala; Foo, Schubert; Jayasinghe, Udeepa Gayantha; Xu, Huarong; Chai, Siaw Ching; Kurlye, Ashwin; Chen, Jie; Ang, Brenda Sze Peng

    2017-01-01

    Singapore is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases and faces a constant risk of pandemic outbreaks as a major travel and health hub for Southeast Asia. With an increasing penetration of smart phone usage in this region, Singapore's pandemic preparedness framework can be strengthened by applying a mobile-based approach to health surveillance and control, and improving upon existing ideas by addressing gaps, such as a lack of health communication. FluMob is a digitally integrated syndromic surveillance system designed to assist health authorities in obtaining real-time epidemiological and surveillance data from health-care workers (HCWs) within Singapore, by allowing them to report influenza incidence using smartphones. The system, integrating a fully responsive web-based interface and a mobile interface, is made available to HCW using various types of mobile devices and web browsers. Real-time data generated from FluMob will be complementary to current health-care- and laboratory-based systems. This paper describes the development of FluMob, as well as challenges faced in the creation of the system.

  11. Explosion probability of unexploded ordnance: expert beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacqueline Anne; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M G

    2008-08-01

    This article reports on a study to quantify expert beliefs about the explosion probability of unexploded ordnance (UXO). Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with UXO and are slated for cleanup, at an estimated cost of $15-140 billion. Because no available technology can guarantee 100% removal of UXO, information about explosion probability is needed to assess the residual risks of civilian reuse of closed military bases and to make decisions about how much to invest in cleanup. This study elicited probability distributions for the chance of UXO explosion from 25 experts in explosive ordnance disposal, all of whom have had field experience in UXO identification and deactivation. The study considered six different scenarios: three different types of UXO handled in two different ways (one involving children and the other involving construction workers). We also asked the experts to rank by sensitivity to explosion 20 different kinds of UXO found at a case study site at Fort Ord, California. We found that the experts do not agree about the probability of UXO explosion, with significant differences among experts in their mean estimates of explosion probabilities and in the amount of uncertainty that they express in their estimates. In three of the six scenarios, the divergence was so great that the average of all the expert probability distributions was statistically indistinguishable from a uniform (0, 1) distribution-suggesting that the sum of expert opinion provides no information at all about the explosion risk. The experts' opinions on the relative sensitivity to explosion of the 20 UXO items also diverged. The average correlation between rankings of any pair of experts was 0.41, which, statistically, is barely significant (p= 0.049) at the 95% confidence level. Thus, one expert's rankings provide little predictive information about another's rankings. The lack of consensus among experts suggests that empirical studies

  12. Practical problems in aggregating expert opinions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, J.M.; Picard, R.R.; Meyer, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    Expert opinion is data given by a qualified person in response to a technical question. In these analyses, expert opinion provides information where other data are either sparse or non-existent. Improvements in forecasting result from the advantageous addition of expert opinion to observed data in many areas, such as meteorology and econometrics. More generally, analyses of large, complex systems often involve experts on various components of the system supplying input to a decision process; applications include such wide-ranging areas as nuclear reactor safety, management science, and seismology. For large or complex applications, no single expert may be knowledgeable enough about the entire application. In other problems, decision makers may find it comforting that a consensus or aggregation of opinions is usually better than a single opinion. Many risk and reliability studies require a single estimate for modeling, analysis, reporting, and decision making purposes. For problems with large uncertainties, the strategy of combining as diverse a set of experts as possible hedges against underestimation of that uncertainty. Decision makers are frequently faced with the task of selecting the experts and combining their opinions. However, the aggregation is often the responsibility of an analyst. Whether the decision maker or the analyst does the aggregation, the input for it, such as providing weights for experts or estimating other parameters, is imperfect owing to a lack of omniscience. Aggregation methods for expert opinions have existed for over thirty years; yet many of the difficulties with their use remain unresolved. The bulk of these problem areas are summarized in the sections that follow: sensitivities of results to assumptions, weights for experts, correlation of experts, and handling uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sources of these problems and describe their effects on aggregation.

  13. The Assessment of African Swine Fever Virus Risk to Belgium Early 2014, using the Quick and Semiquantitative Pandora Screening Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelandt, S; Van der Stede, Y; D'hondt, B; Koenen, F

    2017-02-01

    A risk assessment was organized during the early EU ASF outbreaks of early 2014 (February-April) and performed in cooperation with 15 Belgian and European experts on ASFV and its epidemiology in pigs/wild boar. African swine fever (ASF) is considered as one of the most dangerous infectious pig diseases, causing many outbreaks. Since the end of 2013 - early 2014, several outbreaks within the European Union (Lithuania, Poland, Estonia and Latvia) were reported to OIE, which prompted several risk assessments by (inter)national bodies and scientists. In this study, the open source, semiquantitative Pandora risk assessment tool was used for a quick overall screening of the risk posed by ASF to Belgium early 2014. A set of integrated risk scores was calculated within the Pandora framework. Experts scored the questions and uncertainty levels in the Pandora modules individually, after which the calculations were performed and averaged scores were used within pre-defined risk scales to define and visualize the ASF risk to Belgium. Emergence risk was considered low (Pandora score 0.29), while disease consequences were deemed high (0.93); the resulting multiplicative overall risk of ASFV for Belgium was low (0.27). The Belgian experts tended to give lower risk scores than the European experts, especially for entry risk and trade/public opinion consequences. These risk scores are further interpreted with a due consideration of the qualitative data in the expert remarks and of other ASF risk assessments. The results are similar to more extensive and elaborate risk assessment models/procedures which may require more time and resources. The Pandora tool allows sequential updates to monitor (rates of) increasing risk and provides information for risk managers to organize targeted control. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. African swine fever virus replication and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Linda K; Chapman, David A G; Netherton, Christopher L; Upton, Chris

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large icosahedral DNA virus which replicates predominantly in the cytoplasm of infected cells. The ASFV double-stranded DNA genome varies in length from about 170 to 193 kbp depending on the isolate and contains between 150 and 167 open reading frames. These are closely spaced and read from both DNA strands. The virus genome termini are covalently closed by imperfectly base-paired hairpin loops that are present in two forms that are complimentary and inverted with respect to each other. Adjacent to the termini are inverted arrays of different tandem repeats. Head to head concatemeric genome replication intermediates have been described. A similar mechanism of replication to Poxviruses has been proposed for ASFV. Virus genome transcription occurs independently of the host RNA polymerase II and virus particles contain all of the enzymes and factors required for early gene transcription. DNA replication begins in perinuclear factory areas about 6h post-infection although an earlier stage of nuclear DNA synthesis has been reported. The virus genome encodes enzymes required for transcription and replication of the virus genome and virion structural proteins. Enzymes that are involved in a base excision repair pathway may be an adaptation to enable virus replication in the oxidative environment of the macrophage cytoplasm. Other ASFV genes encode factors involved in evading host defence systems and modulating host cell function. Variation between the genomes of different ASFV isolates is most commonly due to gain or loss of members of multigene families, MGFs 100, 110, 300, 360, 505/530 and family p22. These are located within the left terminal 40kbp and right terminal 20kbp. ASFV is the only member of the Asfarviridae, which is one of the families within the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus superfamily. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40... judgment elicitation processes and the reasoning behind those results. Documentation of interviews used to... and technical views to expert panels as input to any expert elicitation process. ...

  16. Knowledge acquisition for a simple expert controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, B.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for process control which has the properties of being incremental, cyclic and top-down. It is described on the basis of the development of an expert controller for a simple, but nonlinear control route. A quality comparison between expert controller and process operator shows the ability of the method for knowledge acquisition.

  17. Experts' Opinion: A Powerful Evaluation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, David

    Experts' opinion is proposed as a valuable evaluation tool. Advantages of this method include the relative cost effectiveness when compared with other data collection methods. It is a time-saving method important in formative evaluation when a decision must be made concerning implementation of a course of action. When experts are carefully…

  18. [How to expose fraudulent expert witnesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, W

    1990-01-01

    In our courtrooms you can meet, up to this day, experts of dubious qualities if not mere shams and deceivers. They are found in all sciences, but also in pseudo-sciences as paramedicine and parapsychology. In any case such expert pretenders must be exposed by the judge to prevent dangerous miscarriage of justice. Examples are given how to unmask the fraudulent rascals.

  19. Contextual factors for finding similar experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Balog, K.; Bogers, T.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Expertise-seeking research studies how people search for expertise and choose whom to contact in the context of a specific task. An important outcome are models that identify factors that influence expert finding. Expertise retrieval addresses the same problem, expert finding, but from a

  20. Scientific triumphalism and learning from facts: bacteriology and the "Spanish flu" challenge of 1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognotti, Eugenia

    2003-04-01

    The devastating influenza pandemic known as 'Spanish flu', which killed at least 20 million people all over the world in 1918, was responsible for the first bitter blow inflicted on triumphant bacteriology, fortified by the series of resounding successes achieved in identifying the pathogenic agents of terrible diseases such as anthrax, cholera, tuberculosis, plague, and syphilis. Over-confidence and the idea, born of the Pasteur revolution, that every infectious disease was caused by a bacterium, had led the scientific community to accept the theory put forward by the German bacteriologist, Richard Pfeiffer, who, in 1892, believed he had identified the pathogenic influenza agent in a bacterium, Haemophilus influenzae. But, while the most appalling epidemic ever to sweep through the world since the 'Black Death' of the 1300s was still raging, the scientific community had to admit that influenza originated not from a microbe, but from a virus. This article aims to reconstruct the enlightening and little-known cultured/scientific events and issues of the dramatic crisis that bacteriology experienced in the autumn of 1918, with the consequent simultaneous collapse of both the 'Pfeiffer doctrine' on the microbial origin of influenza and the illusion of a world free of infectious diseases. This was an illusion destined to surface again at the end of the century and collapse with the advent of AIDS.