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Sample records for swine erysipelas

  1. ERYSIPELAS PENIS

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    Ilko Bakardzhiev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Erysipelas is an acute streptococcal skin infection. The most common localizations of the disease are the lower extremities, face and trunk. Venous insufficiency, stasis ulcerations, inflammatory dermatitis, dermatophyte infections, insect bites and surgical incisions are the most common points of entry. We present a case report of a 28 year old male with erysipelas penis, combined with non-gonococcal urethritis, treated successfully with Moxifloxacin.

  2. The immunosuppressive impact of PRRS virus on the immune response following anti - erysipelas vaccination in swine from various farms

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    Viorica Chiurciu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PRRS virus, the etiologic agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome by immunosuppressive action can significantly affect the immune response after vaccination. It was intended the following of the immunological reaction induced by the Erysipelothrix rhusopathiae vaccination from pigs from intensive system and from households. The biological material studied was provided from clinically healthy pigs of different ages. The animals were from four different locations. Serological examinations were performed by blood sampling [gathered from the confluence of jugular vein] before and after the vaccination. The investigations were performed by ELISA method. In the industrial breeding system, seroprevalence of anti PRRS presented high levels, in contrast to the low level of postvaccinal E. rhusopathiae antibodies. In households the incidence of PRRS virus was low and the seroconversion after the vaccination was raised. The morphopathological and bacteriological examinations performed from the lesions in various organs [lungs, lymph nodes, liver, spleen and intestine] has revealed the presence of germ association, pathogenic or potentially pathogenic. The results point the link between the existence of PRRS virus in the swine populations and post-vaccinal response, its presence interfering significantly with the vaccination protocols efficacy.

  3. [An erysipelas revealing infection by Dermatobia hominis].

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    Elsendoorn, A; Landron, C; Goudet, V; Pénin, G; Roblot, F

    2010-01-01

    Myiases are parasitic infections by larvae of flies. The development of intercontinental travels increases the incidence of tropical myiasis in travellers. We report the case of a patient, having recently stayed in Peru, presenting with an inflammatory plate of the right shoulder, covered with small papules with a hole inside. The initial aspect seemed like an erysipelas. Considering the resistance to the antibiotic treatment, the diagnosis of myiase was suspected. The local application of petroleum jelly allowed the exit of nine larvae of Dermatobia hominis and a fast good outcome. In human beings, the number of larvae usually infecting the same individual varies from one to four. This observation is original because of the number of implied larvae, which explains the intensity and the extent of the local inflammatory signs, which first looked like erysipelas. This diagnosis must be suspected in cases of erysipelas resistant to antibiotics in patients back from an endemic area.

  4. CHARACTERISTIC OF CLINIC AND DIAGNOSTICS OF ERYSIPELAS. REVIEW

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    N. F. Plavunov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Erysipelas is one of the first places on the prevalence of infectious disease after acute respiratory and intestinal infections, viral hepatitis. Currently, in most cases erysipelas is caused by beta-hemolytic group A Streptococcus bacterium, but in some cases could be due to co-infection with Staphylococcus aureus. The pathogenesis of erysipelas is characterized by impaired tissue immunity, cellular and humoral immunity deficiency, hypersensivity to hemolytic streptococci group A (Lansfeld. Chronic recurrent erysipelas refers to endogenous infection caused by intradermal and intra-macrophage maintaining L-forms of Streptococcus, and biological damage caused by excess production of cytokines by T-lymphocytes and mononuclear cells. The disease is characterized by increased cases with primary and severe hemorrhagic forms (over 60%, a tendency to develop recurrent erysipelas (30 to 40%, slow regenerative process in the focus of inflammation, the multiplicity of the differential diagnosis. Risk factors of the erysipelas are the disruption of the skin barrier, fungal skin infections, emotional stress, body hypothermia or overheating. Women suffer from erysipelas more often than men. Adults over age 40 years and older are more likely to develop erysipelas in more than 60% of cases. Erysipelas is characterized by seasonality- rise in the incidence observed in spring and autumn than other streptococcal infections. Depending on the lack of treatment efficacy in resolving symptoms of erysipelas, impaired prevention of disease recurrence, recommended treatment by scientists involves antibiotics with immunomodulation therapy and laser therapy. 

  5. A NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION MANIFESTED AS ERYSIPELAS IN PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS PATIENT UNDER INTRAVENOUS DEXAMETHASONE TREATMENT

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    Achmad Yudha Pranata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Puncture wound in diagnostic interventions permits the entry of bacteria into the skin or soft tissue, thus precipitating nosocomial infection, such as erysipelas. There are other risk factors of nosocomial infections including old age, immunosuppressive drugs, and underlying diseases. Pemphigus foliaceus (PF is an autoimmune disease with corticosteroid treatment as the mainstay therapy, which could cause immunosuppression and predispose patients to infection. The objective of this paper was to report erysipelas as one of the manifestations of nosocomial infection in patients under immunosuppressive therapy. Case: A case of erysipelas acquired on the 9th day of hospitalization in a PF patient underwent intravenous dexamethasone injection, with history of puncture wounds on the previous day on the site of erysipelas was reported. The clinical findings of erysipelas were well defined, painful erythema and edema that felt firm and warm on palpation, with blisters and pustules on top. Gram staining from the pustules and blisters fluid revealed Gram (+ cocci. Patient was given 2 grams intravenous ceftriaxone for 7 days and saline wet compress. Improvement on the erysipelas was seen the day after ceftriaxone injection. The patient was discharged after 12 days of hospitalization with improvement both on the PF and the erysipelas. On the next visit 7 days later, the erysipelas lesion disappeared. Conclusion: Puncture wound and immunosuppresive treatment are the factors that could cause erysipelas as a nosocomial infection, and an appropriate treatment of the infection would decrease the functional disability of the patient.

  6. Beware erysipelas: renal disease is just around the corner

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    Alfonso Lagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of erysipelas caused by Streptococcus Group G to draw attention to organ and systemic complications that may be associated with this disease. Group G streptococcal infection affected a 70-year old woman following a small skin wound at the base of her second left toe. On admittance to the emergency department, the patient’s urine was dark from macrohematuria. She later developed septic shock. Cutaneous and renal symptoms were kept in check with antibiotic therapy, and she fully recovered from the septic shock after receiving specific therapies. This case shows that erysipelas is not just a disease of the skin and soft tissues, but one that may be associated with organ diseases and systemic complications. The patient completely recovered from both the cutaneous and kidney pathologies after antibiotic therapy.

  7. [Comparative investigations of a combined vaccine against parvovirus and erysipelas and corresponding monovaccines in different vaccination schedules. 1: Field trial].

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    Ritzmann, M; Gerbermann, H; Gyra, H; Eichinger, H M; Heinritzi, K

    1999-05-01

    In a field trial, the development of antibodies of a combined vaccine against the porcine parvovirus (PPV) as well as against swine erysipelas was compared with corresponding mono vaccines. Furthermore, these vaccines were used in different vaccination schedules. The tests were carried out on 109 gilts in three closed farms. In all gilts, a basic immunization repeated twice was carried out at the age of six months and at intervals of three weeks. The revaccination was carried out four months after the basic immunization with half of the animals, and six months after the basic immunization with the remaining gilts. Between the combined vaccine and the mono vaccine no significant differences in the development of antibodies against PPV could be found according to different vaccination schedules. The gilts having been vaccinated with the mono vaccine and boostered six months later showed significantly higher antibody titers against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Between the remaining vaccination groups no significant difference in the development of the antibodies against swine erysipelas could be found. On only one farm, a continuous decrease of antibody titers against PPV in case of altogether 238 non-vaccinated piglets until the sixth month of life could be observed. On the two other farms, an increase of antibody titers against PPV could be found at different points of time, which indicates an infection of the piglets. Between the individual vaccination groups no significant antibody titers against PPV could be measured in milk tests. With regard to the number of piglets born alive per litter, the number of piglets born dead per litter and the number of mummies, a significant difference could neither be found between the vaccination groups 1-4.

  8. [Charcot foot masked by erysipelas and peripheral arterial disease].

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    Haep, A; Murday, S; Risse, A; Nashan, D; Ständer, H F

    2018-04-01

    Charcot foot is also known as Charcot disease or Charcot arthropathy. The associated aseptic destruction of the bones and joints of the foot results due to peripheral neuropathy accompanied by impaired pain perception, impaired vasomotricity with increased vasodilation, and an unequal weight distribution. Because it is frequently diagnosed late and, thus, incorrectly treated, serious complications often result. An 86-year-old man in poor health was diagnosed with erysipelas of the right foot. The foot was glossy and edematously swollen, showing necrosis of the distal phalanx of the third toe. The patient experienced pain after a walking distance of approximately 20 m. In addition to erysipelas, confirmed neuropathic arthropathy and radiological indicators for Charcot foot established peripheral artery disease (PAD) as a third diagnosis. Despite multiple systemic antibiotic therapies, there was a progressive disease pattern marked by increasing inflammation parameters with an increasing decline of the patient's overall health. The patient suffered severe deterioration in spite of vascular surgical measures, ultimately leading to his death. In the present case, the indicators and respective confirmation of the three overlapping diagnoses erysipelas, Charcot foot and PAD are elaborated.

  9. Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma (acroangiodermatitis): occurring after bullous erysipelas.

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    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Yardimci, Gürkan; Engin, Burhan; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Aydin, Övgü; Khatib, Rashid; Tuzun, Yalçın

    2015-05-18

    Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma is a benign reactive vascular proliferative disorder, which can be seen at any age. It occurs when the chronic venous pressure changes result in vascular proliferation in the upper and mid dermis. This disease is divided into two subtypes: the most frequent subtype is the Mali type and seen in early ages. The Mali type is seen in chronic venous insufficiency and in those patients with arteriovenous shunts. The rare subtype is the Stewart-Bluefarb type. This disease must be distinguished from Kaposi sarcoma because of their clinical resemblance. Herein, we present a patient with pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma, which developed after bullous erysipelas.

  10. Probability of developing severe sepsis in patients of elderly and senile age with necrotic erysipelas

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    Shapkin Yu.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the probable determination of severe sepsis in patients of elderly and senile age with necrotic erysipelas based on a comprehensive assessment (clinical examination using systems — scales and determination of the level markers of SIRS. Material and methods. The analysis of peculiarities of necrotic erysipelas clinical course in 59 patients. The first group consisted of 17 patients with severe sepsis, the second — 18 patients with sepsis without multiple organ failure, in the comparison group —22 patients with local infection. We determined albumin, urea, creatinine, pro-calcitonin of plasma. The scale SAPS III was used to quantify SIRS, scale SOFA —to determine the extent of damage to organs and systems. Results. The most sensitive marker of developing sepsis in patients with necrotic erysipelas was procalcitonin. The second important indicator of SIRS severity in patients with necrotic erysipelas was the blood albumin. Scale SAPS III also allows to select a group of patients with high risk of developing severe sepsis. Use of the SOFA to predict the scale has been found out to be less important. Conclusion. A comprehensive assessment of the severity of the condition by scale SAPS III in combination with determining the levels of procalcitonin and plasma albumin is advisable to apply for prediction the probability of developing severe sepsis in patients of elderly and senile age with necrotic erysipelas. For the last indicator it is important to assess of absolute values and the decrease of its concentration.

  11. Erysipelas in a free-range layer flock with conjunctival oedema as an unusual clinical sign.

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    Schmitt, Ferdinand; Schade, Benjamin; Böhm, Brigitte; Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Pfahler, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Erysipelas was diagnosed in a free-range laying flock with a high mortality of up to 7% per day and a severe decrease in egg production to 45%. The disease had a short course and unusual clinical features for erysipelas, including swollen, lacrimating and encrusted eyes. Bacteriologically, trapped poultry red mites and affected animals were culture-positive for Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Isolates from layers and mites were both serotype 1b. Histopathology revealed disseminated intravasal coagulopathy in conjunctival small vessels as the cause of the oedema of the eye adnexes. After treatment with penicillin, mortality and egg production returned to normal levels. Although erysipelas in laying hens is rarely reported, it can develop as an emerging disease in alternative rearing systems and should always be considered if mortality increases in an older flock, especially with a high infestation of poultry red mites.

  12. High Incidence of Erysipelas After Surgical Treatment for Vulvar Carcinoma: An Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leermakers, M.E.; Pleunis, N.; Boll, D.; Hermans, R.H.; Ezendam, N.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Vulvar carcinoma is mainly treated surgically and has an overall good prognosis. Despite the development of minimally invasive surgical procedures in recent years, morbidity remains significant. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of erysipelas after

  13. Erysipelas of the leg (cellulitis in sub-Saharan Africa: A multicentric study of 562 cases

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    Bayaki Saka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erysipelas of the leg is a common and serious infection. We carried out this study aiming at describing the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and assessing the risks factors associated with the local complications of erysipelas of the leg in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: This was a prospective multicentric study carried out in the dermatology units of Hospitals located in seven sub-Saharan African countries during a period of 12 months. Patients aged 15 and above with a first episode of erysipelas of the leg were recruited. Results: In this study, 562 patients were recruited, having a mean age of 43.7±16.9 years and a sex-ratio (M/F of 0.67. Patients infected on one leg were 562 while those infected with two were 27. Bullous forms of the disease were observed in 95 patients, while purpuric forms were observed in 167 patients. The existence of a point of entry (485 cases, obesity (230, lymph edema (130 and the use of bleaching agents (97 were the mains risk factors. Complications during the course of the infection such as necrotizing fasciitis (34 cases and abscesses (63 cases were observed. They were due to the use of antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory treatments, and the use of cataplasm. Conclusion: This study reveals that existence of a point of entry, obesity and lymph edema, and the use of bleaching agents were the mains risk factors influencing the local complications of erysipelas of the leg. Necrotizing fasciitis and abscesses were influenced by the use of antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory treatments, and the use of cataplasm.

  14. The management of cellulitis and erysipelas at an academic emergency department: current practice versus the literature

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    Jeffrey W. Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulitis and erysipelas are common presentations to emergency departments and family physicians. Evidence-based guidelines for appropriate management of these infections exist in Canada, but inconsistent practices persist. Our objective was to determine the level of adherence to current evidence and guidelines by emergency physicians at the two hospitals in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. We identified all of the electronic medical records of patients who were seen at Kingston General Hospital or Hotel Dieu Hospital between January 1, 2015 and June 30, 2015 and given a diagnosis of cellulitis or erysipelas. We randomly selected 182 charts and conducted a retrospective chart review, manually collecting data for patient demographics, medical history, and medical management. Oral cephalexin alone was given to 44% of our sample, and it was the most common form of therapy for uncomplicated cellulitis. 36% of patients given any antibiotics at all received at least one dose of parenteral antibiotics, despite only 6.7% of these patients showing systemic signs of illness. 88% of those receiving parenteral antibiotics received ceftriaxone, a broad-spectrum, third generation cephalosporin. We found wide variation in antibiotic selection and route of administration for patients presenting to the emergency department with cellulitis or erysipelas. Overuse of antibiotics is common, and we believe the use of parenteral antibiotics may have been unnecessary for some patients in our sample. Emergency physicians should align their management plans more closely with the current guidelines to improve practice and reduce unnecessary administration of broad-spectrum parenteral antibiotics.

  15. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

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    ... Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... visit the CDC seasonal flu website . What is Swine Influenza? Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory ...

  16. Interventions for the prevention of recurrent erysipelas and cellulitis.

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    Dalal, Adam; Eskin-Schwartz, Marina; Mimouni, Daniel; Ray, Sujoy; Days, Walford; Hodak, Emmilia; Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical

    2017-06-20

    Erysipelas and cellulitis (hereafter referred to as 'cellulitis') are common bacterial skin infections usually affecting the lower extremities. Despite their burden of morbidity, the evidence for different prevention strategies is unclear. To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of antibiotic prophylaxis or other prophylactic interventions for the prevention of recurrent episodes of cellulitis in adults aged over 16. We searched the following databases up to June 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched five trials registry databases, and checked reference lists of included studies and reviews for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We searched two sets of dermatology conference proceedings, and BIOSIS Previews. Randomised controlled trials evaluating any therapy for the prevention of recurrent cellulitis. Two authors independently carried out study selection, data extraction, assessment of risks of bias, and analyses. Our primary prespecified outcome was recurrence of cellulitis when on treatment and after treatment. Our secondary outcomes included incidence rate, time to next episode, hospitalisation, quality of life, development of resistance to antibiotics, adverse reactions and mortality. We included six trials, with a total of 573 evaluable participants, who were aged on average between 50 and 70. There were few previous episodes of cellulitis in those recruited to the trials, ranging between one and four episodes per study.Five of the six included trials assessed prevention with antibiotics in participants with cellulitis of the legs, and one assessed selenium in participants with cellulitis of the arms. Among the studies assessing antibiotics, one study evaluated oral erythromycin (n = 32) and four studies assessed penicillin (n = 481). Treatment duration varied from six to 18 months, and two studies

  17. Particular features of the immune status in microbial eczema and erysipelas patients: a therapeutic method

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    G. M. Zinatulina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the study. To study particular features of the immune status in microbial eczema and erysipelas patients in the process of a complex immune modulating therapy with Xymedone®. Materials and methods. the study involved 45 microbial eczema patients and 31 patients with a combined form of microbial eczema and erysipelas (the study group and healthy subjects (60 and 50 subjects. All of the subjects underwent immunology examinations of their cell and humoral immunity prior to and after the pathogenetic treatment with Xymedone®. The traditional therapy of a combined course of microbial eczema and erysipelas comprised the following basic treatment: third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone: 1.0 g a day for 10 days; second-generation antihistamine drugs (peroral loratadine 10 mg once a day for 10 days and ascorbic acid 0.5 g a day for 14 days. topical treatment comprised antiseptic agents (furacilin solution 1:1000 at the acute stage, emulsions and creams (depending on the disease stage: topical mometasone furoate 0.1% twice a day for 14 days. The patients receiving Xymedone were treated in the dose of 0.25 g, one pill tree times a day for 14 days. The patients underwent an immunology study using the Sysmex Corporation XT2000 automated analyzer at the CityLab laboratory centers in the city of Kazan. Key findings. Prior to the pathogenic therapy, a high level of CD4 (T helpers and reduced level of the immunoregulatory index (T helpers to T suppressors ratio (IRI was revealed in the microbial eczema patients. Ig А and Ig G concentrations were reliably increased. According to a study of immunology indices, the pathogenic therapy using Xymedone® normalized the number of peripheral blood leucocytes and reliably increased the IRI (p < 0.001 in 45 microbial eczema patients. Prior to the pathogenic therapy, a reduced level of CD3 and CD4 cells was revealed in patients with a combined form of microbial eczema and erysipelas; the levels of CD8 and

  18. Analysis of Serum Cytokines and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of SOD1, SOD2, and CAT in Erysipelas Patients

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    Charles C. Emene

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased free radical production had been documented in group A (β-hemolytic streptococcus infection cases. Comparing 71 erysipelas patients to 55 age-matched healthy individuals, we sought for CAT, SOD1, and SOD2 single polymorphism mutation (SNPs interactions with erysipelas’ predisposition and serum cytokine levels in the acute and recovery phases of erysipelas infection. Whereas female patients had a higher predisposition to erysipelas, male patients were prone to having a facial localization of the infection. The presence of SOD1 G7958, SOD2 T2734, and CAT C262 alleles was linked to erysipelas’ predisposition. T and C alleles of SOD2 T2734C individually were linked to patients with bullous and erythematous erysipelas, respectively. G and A alleles of SOD1 G7958A individually were associated with lower limbs and higher body part localizations of the infection, respectively. Serum levels of IL-1β, CCL11, IL-2Rα, CXCL9, TRAIL, PDGF-BB, and CCL4 were associated with symptoms accompanying the infection, while IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, G-CSF, and VEGF were associated with predisposition and recurrence of erysipelas. While variations of IL-1β, IL-7, IL-8, IL-17, CCL5, and HGF were associated with the SOD2 T2734C SNP, variations of PDFG-BB and CCL2 were associated with the CAT C262T SNP.

  19. [Risk factors associated with leg erysipelas (cellulitis) in sub-Saharan Africa: A multicentre case-control study].

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    Pitché, P; Diatta, B; Faye, O; Diané, B-F; Sangaré, A; Niamba, P; Mandengue, C; Kobengue, L; Saka, B; Diop, A; Ly, F; Dieng, M-T; Dicko, A; Soumah, M-M; Cissé, M; Kourouma, S-H; Kouassi, Y-I; Boukari, T; Akakpo, S; Tchangaï-Walla, K

    2015-11-01

    Acute bacterial cellulitis of the leg (erysipelas) is a common problem involving considerable morbidity in dermatology practice in Africa. Previous studies conducted in Europe and North Africa have highlighted lymphoedema and toe-web intertrigo as independent factors associated with leg erysipelas. The aim of this case-control study was to identify risk factors associated with leg erysipelas in sub-Saharan Africa, within a different socio-economic and culture context. We conducted a prospective case-control study in hospital dermatology departments in 8 sub-Saharan African countries over a 12-month period (October 2013 to September 2014). Each case of acute leg cellulitis was matched with 2 controls for age (±5 years) and sex. We analysed the general and local factors. During the study period, 364 cases (223 female, 141 male) were matched with 728 controls. The mean age was 42.15±15.15 years for patients and 42.11±36 years for controls. Multivariate analysis showed the following to be independent risk factors associated with leg erysipelas in our study: obesity (odds ratio [OR]=2.82 ; 95% confidence interval: 2.11-3.76), lymphoedema (OR=3.87, 95%CI: 2.17-6.89), voluntary cosmetic depigmentation (OR=4.29, 95%CI: 2.35-7.83), neglected traumatic wound (OR=37.2, 95%CI: 24.9-57.72) and toe-web intertrigo (OR=37.86, 95%CI: 22.27-64.5). The results of this study confirms the major role of local risk factors (toe-web intertrigo, lymphoedema) previously identified in other geographical settings. However, the originality of our study consists of the identification of voluntary cosmetic depigmentation as a risk factor for leg erysipelas in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [The potential of general magnetic therapy for the rehabilitation of the patients presenting with hemorrhagic forms of erysipelas].

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    Kuzovleva, E V

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibility and effectiveness of the application of general magnetic therapy for the combined treatment and rehabilitation of the patients presenting with hemorrhagic forms of erysipelas. A total of 102 patients were examined and treated; they were divided into two (control and study) groups matched for age and the main clinical manifestations of the disease. All the patients were given basal therapy, those in the study group were additionally treated using general magnetic therapy. It was shown that the inclusion of this procedure in the combined treatment of hemorrhagic forms of erysipelas promoted rapid and well-apparent elimination of the local inflammatory process, reduced oedema of the affected extremity, improved tissue trophicity, and stimulated microcirculation.

  1. Swine mycoplasmoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobisch, M.; Friis, N.F.

    1996-01-01

    /tonsillar samples and can induce antibodies in blood and joint fluid. Predisposing factors play an important role. M. flocculare is widely distributed in swine, in normal and pneumonic lungs and in nasal cavities, but no pathogenic capability has been described. There is great interest in this mycoplasma because......Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. The lung lesions, generally observed in young pigs, are characterised by a hyperplasia of the epithelial cells and an increased perivascular and peribronchiolar accumulation of mononuclear cells. Following M. hyopneumoniae...

  2. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved interstate for insemination of swine or implantation into swine shall be accompanied by a document issued by...

  3. Efficacy of vaccines against bacterial diseases in swine: what can we expect?

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    Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Chiers, Koen; Maes, Dominiek; Ducatelle, Richard; Decostere, Annemie

    2004-06-03

    This paper discusses what can be expected with regard to efficacy of antibacterial vaccines used in swine, based on the present knowledge of pathogen-host interactions. First, vaccination against bacteria that mainly cause disease by production of exotoxins is considered. Vaccines containing the inactivated toxin or a non-toxic but antigenic recombinant protein derived from the exotoxin can be expected to provide protection against disease. The degree of protection induced by such vaccines varies, however, depending amongst other things on the pathogenesis of the disease. Vaccination against clostridial infections, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections, progressive atrophic rhinitis and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, is considered. The second part of the article deals with vaccination against extracellular bacteria. Protection against these bacteria is generally mediated by antibodies against their surface antigens and certain secreted antigens, but cellular immunity may also play a role. Efficacy of vaccines against swine erysipelas, Streptococcus suis infections, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections and swine dysentery is discussed. Finally, vaccination against facultatively intracellular bacteria is considered. For protection against these bacteria cell-mediated immunity plays an important role, but antibodies may also be involved. It is generally accepted that live-attenuated vaccines are more suitable for induction of cell-mediated immunity than inactivated vaccines, although this also depends on the adjuvant used in the vaccine. As an example, vaccination against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is discussed.

  4. Sinclair swine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, R.R.; Berkelhammer, J.; Hamby, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  5. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

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    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  6. Atrophic Rhinitis of Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter for the 8th edition of the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals describes the current state of knowledge regarding progressive atrophic rhinitis of swine. Topics covered include clinical signs and lesions, characteristics and methods of detection for...

  7. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  8. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  9. Circoviral infections in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Vojin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS and porcine dermatitis nephropathy syndrome (PDNS. Current investigations indicate that there is a causal connection between these two syndromes. These two new diseases, which have recently spread all over the world, cause serious losses, great concern and confusion, especially when they occur simultaneously or in a sequence in the same herd, or in parallel with other pathogenes, primarily with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and the porcine parvovirus (PPV. PMWS was first described in Canada in 1991. It most often affect pigs aged 5-12 weeks. The main clinical expression, depending on the stage of progression is diarrhea, delayed development or depressed growth, stuntedness, dyspnea ictherus, eyelid swelling, and lymphadenopathy. More rarely, there are neurological symptoms. Prominent suppression of the immune system is the main characteristic of PMWS, and a wave of secondary bacterial infection is also observed. PDNS is a new disease of economic importance, which mostly affects older swine, from 5 weeks to 5 months of age. The most prominent clinical symptoms in seriously ill piglets is extensive dermatitis, mostly on the chest, abdomen, haunches and forelegs, with the appearance of purple-red swellings of different shape and size. The swine are depressive febrile, anorectic, all of which leads to stunted growth. They are inactive. Mortality is often about 15%. PDNS is a differentially diagnostically

  10. Antibody repertoire development in swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Sun, J.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, - (2006), s. 199-221 ISSN 0145-305X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : swine * b cells * immunoglobulins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.399, year: 2006

  11. Swine Flu: Prevention to Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Padda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Swine flu, also known as swine influenza, pig influenza, hog flu and pig flu, is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behaviour. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Mostly people who are closely associated with pigs (for example, pork processors and farmers acquire the infection and similarly pigs get infected occasionally human flu infection. The cross-species infections (swine virus to man; human flu virus to pigs have always been confined to local areas and have not spread across borders in either pigs or humans. Unfortunately, this cross-species situation with influenza viruses has had the potential to change and cause epidemics and pandemics. Most recent pandemic has been reported in 2009,  where "swine flu" strain, first seen in Mexico, was termed as H1N1 as it was mainly infecting people and exhibited two main surface antigens, H1 (hemagglutinin type 1 and N1 (neuraminidase type1. This unique eight RNA strands from novel H1N1 flu have one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird strains, and five from swine strains. Since then it has been infecting people here and there. 

  12. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED...

  13. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Other Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

  14. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  15. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications.

  16. Swine in biomedical research. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: hemodynamic characteristics of the conscious resting pig; cardiovascular and metabolic responses to acute and chronic exercise in swine (ILLEGIBLE) a large animal model for studies (ILLEGIBLE) effects of heparin-protamine interaction in swine - intravenous vs. intraarterial; swine as animal models in cardiovascular research; studies of coronary thrombosis in swine with von Willebrand's disease; role of plasma intermediate and low density lipoproteins in early atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic swine; swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology; the pig as a model for studying kidney disease in man; hypertension of renal origin and the effects of Captopril in miniature pigs; porcine natural killer/killer cell system; the behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo; a review of spontaneous and experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis; and Sinclair swine melanoma.

  17. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  18. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    resulted in marginal improvements to the control of the epidemics. However, adding testing of dead animals in the protection and surveillance zones was predicted to be the optimal control scenario for an ASF epidemic in industrialized swine populations without contact to wild boar. This optimal scenario...

  19. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Pérez-Wohlfeil, Esteban; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Trelles, Oswaldo; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  20. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  1. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  2. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  3. Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, FEB 17 (2017), s. 255-279 ISSN 2165-8102 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09296S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : swine * pre-immune antibody repertoire * ileal Peyer's patches Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2016

  4. Antibody levels to hepatitis E virus in North Carolina swine workers, non-swine workers, swine, and murids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mark R; Correa, Maria T; Morrow, Morgan; Stebbins, Martha E; Seriwatana, Jitvimol; Webster, W David; Boak, Marshall B; Vaughn, David W

    2002-04-01

    In a cross-sectional serosurvey, eastern North Carolina swine workers (n = 165) were compared with non-swine workers (127) for the presence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus as measured by a quantitative immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using a cutoff of 20 Walter Reed U/ml, swine-exposed subjects had a 4.5-fold higher antibody prevalence (10.9%) than unexposed subjects (2.4%). No evidence of past clinical hepatitis E or unexplained jaundice could be elicited. Swine (84) and mice (61), from farm sites in the same region as exposed subjects, were also tested. Antibody prevalence in swine (overall = 34.5%) varied widely (10.0-91.7%) according to site, but no antibody was detected in mice. Our data contribute to the accumulating evidence that hepatitis E may be a zoonosis and specifically to the concept of it as an occupational infection of livestock workers.

  5. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...

  6. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  7. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... swine contract library will be made available to the public? GIPSA will summarize the information it has...

  8. Genetic evolution of recently emerged novel human-like swine H3 influenza A viruses (IAV) in United States swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in swine. IAV transmission from humans to swine is a major contributor to swine IAV diversity. In 2012, a novel H3N2 with an HA (hu-H3) and NA derived from human seasonal H3N2 was detected in United States (US) swine. The h...

  9. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water sa...

  10. The cholesterol system of the swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, Jocelyne

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic system of adult female Large White swine. The content of this system and its relationships with both the external environment and between the different parts of the system were explained. The analysis of these results in terms of compared physiology showed that the structure of the cholesterol system was the same in man and in the swine. Consequently, the swine constitutes a good biological tool to study human cholesterol indirectly and to foresee the changes that might be induced in various physio-pathological cases. (author) [fr

  11. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  12. 1998 BUSINESS ANALYSIS SUMMARY FOR SWINE FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Nott, Sherrill B.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a summary of the financial and production records kept by swine farmers enrolled in the Telfarm/MicroTel record program through Michigan State University Extension. This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on swine farms during 1997; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide information on the trends in resource use, income and costs during the last few years.

  13. Characteristics of Yorkshire swine natural killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.; Botticelli, G.; Confer, F.L.; Pinto, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Since natural killer (NK) cells have a role in immune surveillance, they are important to consider in disease pathogenesis and resistance. We examined cell aspects responsible for NK cell mediated cytotoxicity in Yorkshire swine. Using cell separation procedures, peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined for reactivity to a panel of tumor targets, kinetics of lysis, morphology, surface receptor characteristics and response to immunoregulators. YAC-1 lymphoma and K-562 myeloid leukemia cells were sensitive to swine NK cells; whereas, several other tumor lines were not. In kinetic studies, swine NK cells were slower in initiation of the lytic process than cells responsible for NK activity in other species; small agranular lymphocytes are responsible for this activity in swine. These cells were examined for the presence of a surface marker, asialo GM1, which is common to NK cells in several other species. Swine NK cells respond to an interferon inducer, poly I:C, with enhanced NK activity. Cells in Yorkshire swine have characteristics which are unique but also have characteristics common to NK cells in other species

  14. Feral Swine in the United States Have Been Exposed to both Avian and Swine Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brigitte E; Sun, Hailiang; Carrel, Margaret; Cunningham, Fred L; Baroch, John A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Young, Sean G; Schmit, Brandon; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lutman, Mark W; Pedersen, Kerri; Lager, Kelly; Bowman, Andrew S; Slemons, Richard D; Smith, David R; DeLiberto, Thomas; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During the period from 2010 to 2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 U.S. states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4.9%) samples were IAV antibody positive. Among 294 serum samples selected for antigenic characterization, 271 cross-reacted with ≥1 tested virus, whereas the other 23 did not cross-react with any tested virus. Of the 271 IAV-positive samples, 236 cross-reacted with swine IAVs, 1 with avian IAVs, and 16 with avian and swine IAVs, indicating that feral swine had been exposed to both swine and avian IAVs but predominantly to swine IAVs. Our findings suggest that feral swine could potentially be infected with both avian and swine IAVs, generating novel IAVs by hosting and reassorting IAVs from wild birds and domestic swine and facilitating adaptation of avian IAVs to other hosts, including humans, before their spillover. Continued surveillance to monitor the distribution and antigenic diversities of IAVs in feral swine is necessary to increase our understanding of the natural history of IAVs. IMPORTANCE There are more than 5 million feral swine distributed across at least 35 states in the United States. In contrast to domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have unique opportunities for contact with wildlife, livestock, and their habitats. Our serological results indicate that feral swine in the United States have been exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs) consistent with those found in both domestic swine and wild birds, with the predominant infections consisting of swine-adapted IAVs

  15. Assessment of swine-specific bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis in swine farms with different antibiotic practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknoi, Yuranan; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee

    2017-04-01

    We assessed the occurrence and specificity of bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis in swine farms for their potential application in microbial source tracking. A local B. fragilis host strain, SP25 (DSM29413), was isolated from a pooled swine feces sample taken from a non-antibiotic farm. This strain was highly specific to swine fecal materials because it did not detect bacteriophages in any samples from human sewage, sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, and cats. The reference B. fragilis strain, RYC2056, could detect phages in swine samples but also detected phages in most human sewage and polluted urban canal samples. Phages of SP25 exist in the proximity of certain swine farms, regardless of their antibiotic use (p > 0.05). B. fragilis strain SP25 exhibited relatively high resistance to most of the veterinary antimicrobial agents tested. Interestingly, most farms that were positive for SP25 phages were also positive for RYC2056 phages. In conclusion, the swine-specific SP25 strain has the potential to indicate swine fecal contamination in certain bodies of water. Bacterial isolates with larger distributions are being studied and validated. This study highlights the importance of assessing the abundance of phages in local swine populations before determining their potential applicability for source tracking in local surface waters.

  16. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  17. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate shall show that the entire region of origin is free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from.... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0165) [55 FR 31495, Aug. 2, 1990...

  18. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter...

  19. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a...

  20. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  1. Prevention of swine dysentery with a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin and resistance of swine dysentery to tylosin and sodium arsanilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, L D; Rodabaugh, D E

    1976-07-01

    The addition of a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin to feed at the total concentrations of 44 and 77 mg/kg, beginning at the time of exposure and continuing for 8 weeks, prevented experimentally induced swine dysentery in swine. The disease did not develop after the medication was withdrawn. In contrast, swine dysentery, similar to that seen in the nonmedicated swine, did develop in simultaneously exposed swine treated with feed containing either 44 mg of tylosin or 99 mg sodium arsanilate/kg. The swine fed sodium arsanilate and which developed hemorrhagic diarrhea had a more severe form of this type of diarrhea than did the nonmedicated swine. After reexposure to inefective inoculum of swine dysentery 86 days after initial exposure, all remaining swine previously medicated with either tylosin or sodium arsanilate and all nonmedicated swine were immune; whereas 17 of the 24 swine fed the combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin were susceptible to swine dysentery and developed diarrhea.

  2. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  3. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans......·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would...

  4. Reassortment patterns in Swine influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khiabanian

    Full Text Available Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, isolated in Mexico and the United States. Pigs are documented to allow productive replication of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses. Thus it has been conjectured that pigs are the "mixing vessel" that create the avian-human reassortant strains, causing the human pandemics. Hence, studying the process and patterns of viral reassortment, especially in pigs, is a key to better understanding of human influenza pandemics. In the last few years, databases containing sequences of influenza A viruses, including swine viruses, collected since 1918 from diverse geographical locations, have been developed and made publicly available. In this paper, we study an ensemble of swine influenza viruses to analyze the reassortment phenomena through several statistical techniques. The reassortment patterns in swine viruses prove to be similar to the previous results found in human viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, that the surface glycoprotein coding segments reassort most often. Moreover, we find that one of the polymerase segments (PB1, reassorted in the strains responsible for the last two human pandemics, also reassorts frequently.

  5. Microbiological identification and analysis of Swine lungs collected from carcasses in Swine farms, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yunfeng; Xie, Jiexiong; Chen, Ye; Wei, Chunya; Zhu, Wanjun; Chen, Jidang; Qi, Haitao; Zhang, Liangquan; Sun, Long; Zhang, Xiaozhan; Zhou, Pei; Cao, Zhenpeng; Qi, Wenbao; Zhang, Minze; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Guihong

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this 3 years study was to determine the prevalence of porcine pathogens of the lungs of swine in swine farms in southern China. A total of 5,420 samples were collected from 200 swine farms. The bacterium that was most commonly isolated was Streptococcus suis, with 10.24 % of the samples being positive, 114 lungs (2.1 %) were positive for pseudorabies virus and 263 (4.85 %) were positive for classical swine fever virus; much lower than positive for PRRSV (15.1 %, p = 0.023) and PCV2 (13.8 %, p = 0.038). lungs that were positive for PRRSV and/or PCV-2 have significantly increased odds of being positive for any of the S. suis (9.79 vs. 0.44 %, p = 0.003).

  6. Transcription analysis on response of swine lung to H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Hongbo; Wen, Zhibin; Wu, Shujuan; Huang, Canhui; Jia, Guangmin; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2011-08-08

    As a mild, highly contagious, respiratory disease, swine influenza always damages the innate immune systems, and increases susceptibility to secondary infections which results in considerable morbidity and mortality in pigs. Nevertheless, the systematical host response of pigs to swine influenza virus infection remains largely unknown. To explore it, a time-course gene expression profiling was performed for comprehensive analysis of the global host response induced by H1N1 swine influenza virus in pigs. At the early stage of H1N1 swine virus infection, pigs were suffering mild respiratory symptoms and pathological changes. A total of 268 porcine genes showing differential expression (DE) after inoculation were identified to compare with the controls on day 3 post infection (PID) (Fold change ≥ 2, p swine influenza virus infection in pigs. The observed gene expression profile could help to screen the potential host agents for reducing the prevalence of swine influenza virus and further understand the molecular pathogenesis associated with H1N1 infection in pigs.

  7. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  8. USMARC update on swine reproduction research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine research at USMARC has continued to focus on meat quality, improvement of genomic resources and reproduction, specifically estrus traits, sow longevity and lifetime productivity. This report will focus on research in behavioral anestrus in gilts. Gilts that reach puberty at an earlier age are ...

  9. pandemic swine influenza virus: preparedness planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    pandemic planning. Keywords: Pandemic, swine, influenza, virus, preparedness. INTRODUCTION. Effective pandemic preparedness and response should involve all sectors of ... In less affluent countries, human and material resources are often scarce and other ... Once surge requirements have been estimated, policy ...

  10. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  11. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... types; (3) Adding definitions of terms used in several contract types to describe the market price that... rule will benefit swine producers by increasing their knowledge about contract terms and the number of...

  12. Replicon particle vaccine protects swine against influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, B; Erdman, M M; Stine, D L; Harris, I; Irwin, C; Jens, M; Loynachan, A; Kamrud, K; Harris, D L

    2010-12-01

    An alphavirus derived replicon particle (RP) vaccine expressing the cluster IV H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) hemagglutinin (HA) gene induced protective immunity against homologous influenza virus challenge. However, pigs with maternal antibody had no protective immunity against challenge after vaccination with RP vaccines expressing HA gene alone or in combination with nucleoprotein gene. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  14. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  15. Preventing PRRS from Establishing in Utah Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, Clell V.

    2000-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is considered the most important disease affecting swine operations in North America and internationally. There has been no evidence of cross-infection to humans since discovery of PRRS in the U.S. in 1987.

  16. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential...

  17. Genetic monitoring in contemporary swine production

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Mila S.; Jovanović Slobodan J.; Trailović Ružica D.; Dimitrijević Vladimir M.

    2002-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques for genome studies has led to qualitative progress in the selection of domestic animals by enabling the use of genetic markers, in addition to phenotypic selection parameters in choosing an animal. Genetic montoring has a wide application in contemporary swine production. Namely, genetic control is in the basis of all procedures pertaining to the selection of parent couples. Genetic monitoring is thus used in the genetic characterization of breeds, line...

  18. Initial psychological responses to swine flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Gaines, Stanley O; Myers, Lynn; Neto, Felix

    2011-06-01

    The emergence of influenza A ("swine flu") in early 2009 led to widespread public concern. However, little research has examined the factors that underlie initial worry about infection and subsequent behavioral responses to such worry. This study seeks to model some key predictors of worry and behavioral responses in the early stages of the swine flu pandemic (WHO pandemic stage 5). A cross-sectional internet questionnaire study (N = 186). Twenty-five percent of respondents rated themselves as worried about being a victim of swine flu, 40% that they were worried of a family member contracting the virus. Twenty percent had bought, or intended to buy, preparatory materials (e.g., face masks), 20% intended to delay or cancel air travel. In a structural equation model, conservation values and family or friends perception of risks predicted worry about infection, while worry correlated with the purchase of preparatory materials, a lesser willingness to travel by public transport, and difficulty in focusing on everyday activities. While previous research on pandemic risk perception has focused on cognitive risk judgments, our data suggests that initial "emotional" concerns about infection are also significant predictors of behavioral responses to pandemic threat. Such worry is likely to be influenced by a variety of individual factors, such as personal values, as well as normative pressures. Practitioners can use and expand on such models of pandemic response when tailoring health campaigns to meet newly emergent threats.

  19. Swine models for cardiovascular research: a low stress transport and restraint system for large swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighty, G W; Spear, R S; Karatay, M C; Hare, C L; Carlson, R J

    1992-04-01

    A restraint and transport system was developed for handling large swine during cardiovascular research studies. The major design criteria provided for comfortable, low stress restraint of the swine, safety for laboratory personnel and ability to perform a wide variety of hemodynamic and echocardiographic measurements in the standing, supported standing and sedated, or in Panepinto sling positions. A head gate is provided for venipuncture procedures, and an auxiliary feeding and watering front panel can replace the head gate for use of the system as a post-operative "recovery room". Using this system animals weighing 22 to 150 kg can be easily managed.

  20. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Lewis (Nicola); C.A. Russell (Colin); P. Langat (Pinky); T.K. Anderson (Tavis); K. Berger (Kathryn); F. Bielejec (Filip); D.F. Burke (David); G. Dudas (Gytis); J.M. Fonville (Judith); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); P. Kellam (Paul); B.F. Koel (Björn); P. Lemey (Philippe); T. Nguyen (Tung); B. Nuansrichy (Bundit); J.S. Malik Peiris; T. Saito (Takehiko); G. Simon (Gaelle); E. Skepner (Eugene); N. Takemae (Nobuhiro); R.J. Webby (Richard J.); K. van Reeth; S.M. Brookes (Sharon M.); L. Larsen (Lars); S.J. Watson (Simon J.); I.H. Brown (Ian); A.L. Vincent (Amy L.); S. Reid (Scott); M.A. Garcia (Montserrat Auero); T.C. Harder (Timm); E. Foni (Emanuela); I. Markowska-Daniel (Iwona)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSwine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds

  1. Oxygen radical-scavenging capacities of peptides from swine blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... In China, about five hundred million swine are slaughtered yearly, which represents about 45% of the world´s production. Swine blood is generally discarded except for the small amount that is used in soybean curd and other food products. This not only wastes resources, but also contaminates the.

  2. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal and economically significant disease of domestic pigs in Uganda where outbreaks regularly occur. There is neither a vaccine nor treatment available for ASF control. Twenty two African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotypes (I - XXII) have been identified based on partial sequencing ...

  3. Economic Analysis Of Private Sector Participation In Swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the analysis of the economics of private sector participation in swine production in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, was conducted. Data were collected from sixty private operators of swine farms, who were randomly selected from the study area between March and October, 2002. Descriptive statistics and ...

  4. Prevalence, predisposing factors and antibiogram of swine skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These drugs therefore remain effective for first-line postsurgical chemotherapy in the management of swine skin abscess except Chloramphenicol which is banned in food animal therapy. Running title: Prevalence, Predisposing Factors and Antibiogram of Swine Skin Abscess. Keywords: Abscess, Antibiogram, Ibadan, ...

  5. Removal of nitrogen from anaerobically digested swine wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result indicates that the sulfur-packed biofilter would be used as an efficient option for denitrification by autotrophic denitrifiers during swine wastewater treatment. Key words: Biological nitrogen removal, nitrification, denitrification, chemical oxygen demand (COD), intermittent aeration, sulfur-packed bed reactor, swine ...

  6. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron AM; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, JS Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12217.001 PMID:27113719

  7. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  8. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to quarantine... of any import permit. The facilities occupied by swine should be kept clean and sanitary to the... described in paragraph (b) of this section. The importer, or his or her agent, shall request in writing such...

  9. Economic losses to Iberian swine production from forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Ramon Molina Martinez; Miguel Herrera Machuca; Ricardo Zamora Diaz; Fancisco Rodriguez y Silva; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2011-01-01

    Most forestry property in Andalusia is privately held. One of the most important possibilities for economic development of rural areas is the use of pasture lands (dehesa in Spanish). During the spring–summer season, swine grazing takes advantage of grasses between the trees, and during winter (harsher times), they use Quercus tree fruit. Swine production has a direct...

  10. Oxygen radical-scavenging capacities of peptides from swine blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In China, about five hundred million swine are slaughtered yearly, which represents about 45% of the world´s production. Swine blood is generally discarded except for the small amount that is used in soybean curd and other food products. This not only wastes resources, but also contaminates the environment. In this study ...

  11. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in swine abattoir workers. | Ukuli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis E (HE) caused by Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging global public health threat. It has been identified as potentially zoonotic and swine act as main reservoirs. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with HEV in swine abattoir workers ...

  12. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors for swine influenza zoonotic transmission in swine workers from northwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Robles, G; Montalvo-Corral, M; Caire-Juvera, G; Ayora-Talavera, G; Hernández, J

    2012-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the transmission of swine influenza through occupational exposure and to assess some risk factors for zoonotic transmission in workers from commercial farms in Mexico. Seroprevalence to swine influenza subtypes was determined by hemagglutinin inhibition assay and was higher in exposed (E), in comparison with unexposed (UE) participants (Pinfluenza virus (SIV) H3N2 and the exposition to swine [OR 3.05, 95% (CI) 1.65-5.64] and to geographic location [OR 8.15, 95% (CI) 1.41-47.05] was found. Vaccination appeared as a protective factor [OR 0.05, 95% (CI) 0.01-0.52]. Farms with high number of breeding herd were associated with increased anti-SIV antibodies in the E group [OR 3.98, 95% (CI) 1.00-15.86]. These findings are relevant and support the evidence of zoonoses in swine farms and point out the need to implement preventive measures to diminish the occurrence of the disease and the potential emergence of pathogenic reassortant strains. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern Eur...

  15. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ibatá, Diana María; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Quijada, Darla; Burton, Kenneth; Mur, Lina

    2017-01-01

    The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs). Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF) and Classical swine fever (CSF) introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine) to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10-3). Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10-3 for ASF, and 2.5*10-3 for CSF) higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10-4 for ASF, and 1.56*10-3 for CSF). This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products). The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products), is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US.

  16. Irreversible electroporation in a Swine lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Damian E; Aswad, Bassam; Ng, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the safety and tissue effects of IRE in a swine lung model. This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Nine anesthetized domestic swine underwent 15 percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion creations (6 with bipolar and 3 with 3-4 monopolar electrodes) under fluoroscopic guidance and with pancuronium neuromuscular blockade and EKG gating. IRE electrodes were placed into the central and middle third of the right mid and lower lobes in all animals. Postprocedure PA and lateral chest radiographs were obtained to evaluate for pneumothorax. Three animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks and six at 4 weeks. Animals underwent high-resolution CT scanning and PA and lateral radiographs 1 h before sacrifice. The treated lungs were removed en bloc, perfused with formalin, and sectioned. Gross pathologic and microscopic changes after standard hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed within the areas of IRE lesion creation. No significant adverse events were identified. CT showed focal areas of spiculated high density ranging in greatest diameter from 1.1-2.2 cm. On gross inspection of the sectioned lung, focal areas of tan discoloration and increased density were palpated in the areas of IRE. Histological analysis revealed focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration that respected the boundaries of the interlobular septae. No pathological difference could be discerned between the 2- and 4-week time points. The bronchioles and blood vessels within the areas of IRE were intact and did not show signs of tissue injury. IRE creates focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage without creating damage to the bronchioles or blood vessels. Short-term safety in a swine model appears to be satisfactory.

  17. Prevalence of coronavirus antibodies in Iowa swine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wesley, R D; Woods, R D; McKean, J D; Senn, M K; Elazhary, Y

    1997-01-01

    Three hundred and forty-seven serum samples from 22 Iowa swine herds were screened for TGEV/PRCV neutralizing antibody. Ninety-one percent of the sera and all 22 herds were positive. These sera were then tested by the blocking ELISA test to distinguish TGEV and PRCV antibody. The ELISA test confirmed the high percentage of TGEV/PRCV positive sera. By the blocking ELISA test, 12 herds were PRCV positive, 6 herds were TGEV positive and 4 herds were mixed with sera either positive for TGEV or PR...

  18. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  19. In-situ pyrogenic production of biodiesel from swine fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-11-01

    In-situ production of fatty acid methyl esters from swine fat via thermally induced pseudo-catalytic transesterification on silica was investigated in this study. Instead of methanol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor to achieve environmental benefits and economic viability. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of swine fat reveals that swine fat contains 19.57wt.% of water and impurities. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles obtained under various conditions (extracted swine oil+methanol+NaOH, extracted swine oil+DMC+pseudo-catalytic, and swine fat+DMC+pseudo-catalytic) were compared. These profiles were identical, showing that the introduced in-situ transesterification is technically feasible. This also suggests that in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification has a high tolerance against impurities. This study also shows that FAME yield via in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification of swine fat reached up to 97.2% at 380°C. Therefore, in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification can be applicable to biodiesel production of other oil-bearing biomass feedstocks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone on the swine reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly

  1. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  2. Technical pearls for swine lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ashkan; Cobb, Jessica A; Staples, Edward D; Baz, Maher A; Beaver, Thomas M

    2011-11-01

    Since the advent of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP), there has been increased focus on swine models of lung transplantation; however, the anatomic differences between human and swine lungs and the technical challenges in performing porcine lung transplantation are not well described in the surgical literature. Surgically important anatomic variations are described, and the technical measures taken to address them during harvest and transplantation are introduced. There are three surgically important anatomic variations in pigs. First, the right cranial lobe bronchus arises directly from the trachea, which makes right lung transplantation technically challenging if not prohibitive. Second, the left hemi-azygos vein is fully developed and courses upward through the posterior mediastinum, where it crosses the left pulmonary hilum and drains directly into the coronary sinus. During transplantation, this vein is ligated and dissected away to expose the underlying left pulmonary hilar structures. Third, the right inferior pulmonary vein crosses the midline to drain into the left atrium immediately adjacent to the left inferior pulmonary vein. During donor lung preparation, the right inferior pulmonary vein is ligated distally from the left atrium, which leaves an adequate atrial cuff around the left sided pulmonary veins for later anastomosis. Experimental porcine lung transplantation is technically demanding. We have found recognition of the above described anatomical differences and technical nuances facilitate transplantation and provide reproducible results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Coagulation in Treatment of Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Bui Manh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wastewater taken from the Nam Phong swine slaughterhouse, Ho Chi Minh City, was used to evaluate the treatment efficiency of common coagulants, including Alum (Aluminum Sulfate - Al2(SO43.18H2O, Poly-Aluminum Chloride (PAC, and Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O, using a jar-test system. The experiments were conducted using the one-factor-at-a-time method to examine three variables which are pH, stirring speed, and coagulant dosage. The results showed that both Alum and PAC perform over 90% removal of colour, turbidity, COD, and total phosphorus (TP from slaughterhouse wastewater at pH 7 with a stirring speed of 75 revolutions per minute (RPM and average coagulant dosages of 450 mg/L for Alum and 550 mg/L for PAC. Meanwhile, under the appropriate conditions of pH equal to 10 and 75 RPM with a chemical dosage of 350 mg/L, COD and TP removal efficiencies by Ferrous Sulfate exceed 87%, but those of turbidity and colour only reach 25%. This finding could be a promising coagulation method as a pre-treatment for the swine slaughterhouse wastewater.

  4. Classical Swine Fever—An Updated Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities. PMID:28430168

  5. Classical Swine Fever-An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-04-21

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities.

  6. Binding characteristics of swine erythrocyte insulin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieberg, G.; Bryan, G.S.; Sartin, J.L.; Williams, J.C.; Prince, T.J.; Kemppainen, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    Crossbred gilts had 8.8 +/- 1.1% maximum binding of ( SVI)insulin to insulin receptors on erythrocytes. The number of insulin-binding sites per cell was 137 +/- 19, with a binding affinity ranging from 7.4 X 10(7)M-1 to 11.2 X 10(7)M-1 and mean of 8.8 X 10(7)M-1. Pregnant sows had a significant increase in maximum binding due to an increase in number of receptor sites per cell. Lactating sows fed a high-fiber diet and a low-fiber diet did not develop a significant difference in maximum binding of insulin. Sows fed the low-fiber diet had a significantly higher number of binding sites and a significantly lower binding affinity than did sows fed a high-fiber diet. Receptor-binding affinity was lower in the low-fiber diet group than in cycling gilts, whereas data from sows fed the high-fiber diet did not differ from data for cycling gilts. Data from this study indicated that insulin receptors of swine erythrocytes have binding characteristics similar to those in other species. Pregnancy and diet will alter insulin receptor binding in swine.

  7. Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolated from commercial swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR) for the analysis of genetic diversity among Escherichia coli strains isolated from commercial swine farms in Sichuan province of China. Thirty four strains of E. coli were selected by selective medium and conventional biochemical test from ...

  8. Controlled Cortical Impact in Swine: Pathophysiology and Biomechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manley, Geoffrey T; Rosenthal, Guy; Lam, Maggie; Morabito, Diane; Yan, Donghong; Derugin, Nikita; Bollen, Andrew; Knudson, M. M; Panter, S. S

    2005-01-01

    ...), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were collected for 10 hours after injury. Following injury, ICP and HR increased above baseline values in all swine with a more pronounced elevation in animals impacted to a depth of depression of 12 mm...

  9. Highly diverse posaviruses in swine faeces are aquatic in origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Palinski, Rachel; Hesse, Richard; Anderson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Posaviruses are a group of highly divergent viruses identified in swine faeces that are distantly related to other members of the order Picornavirales. Eighteen posavirus genomes were assembled from 10 out of 25 (40 %) faecal-swab pools collected from healthy adult swine. Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol) domain found that posaviruses form a large, highly diverse, monophyletic clade, which includes similar viruses identified in human (husavirus) and fish (fisavirus) faeces or intestinal contents, respectively. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis of water samples collected from commercial swine barns identified four out of 19 (21 %) samples were positive using a 5'-nuclease assay targeting the Pol region of posavirus 1. ICPD (immunoprecipitation coupled to PCR detection) assays to explore serological evidence of posavirus infection found only a single positive sample, suggesting posaviruses do not commonly infect swine, and together these results suggests a likely aquatic host.

  10. Swine farm wastewater and mineral fertilization in corn cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Pâmela A. M.; Sampaio, Silvio C.; Reis, Ralpho R. dos; Rosa, Danielle M.; Correa, Marcus M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles), on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 1...

  11. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Mejicanos, G.; Sanjayan, N.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances i...

  12. Experimental infection of pregnant gilts with swine hepatitis E virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Thacker, Brad J.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Guenette, Denis K.; Buitenwerf, Ryan M.; Royer, Ryan L.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection on pregnant gilts, their fetuses, and offspring, 12 gilts were intravenously inoculated with swine HEV. Six gilts, who were not inoculated, served as controls. All inoculated gilts became actively infected and shed HEV in feces, but vertical transmission was not detected in the fetuses. There was no evidence of clinical disease in the gilts or their offspring. Mild multifocal lymphohistiocytic hepatitis was observed in 4 of 12...

  13. A Laparoscopic Swine Model of Noncompressible Torso Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    swine for uncontrolled hemor- rhage has been the open (midline) laparotomy facilitating organ injury (most commonly a liver crush or spleen incision...Maryland; and Academic Department Military Surgery and Trauma (J.J.M.), Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham; and Academic Unit of Surgery ...reapproximated using staples. Surgery The swine that did not receive a splenectomy underwent laparoscopic port placement using a Hassan technique, which

  14. What every Hepatologist should Know about Swine Flu?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

    2009-01-01

    As world is witnessing ever fastest growing pandemic, physicians with various specialties should adopt themselves to the new situation (1). Global death toll of swine flu by November 15, 2009, has raised to 6750. Many of those who died or were hospitalized suffered from comorbid conditions which increased either the severity or the risk of acquiring the disease (2). Swine flu may change the course of many chronic diseases. Thus, all physicians in different disciplines should realize and consi...

  15. Estudo clínico de 35 pacientes com diagnóstico de erisipela internados no Hospital Central da Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo Erysipelas: a clinical study of 35 pacients hospitalized at the São Paulo Central Hospital of Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mie Oyama Okajima

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Erisipela e celulite são infecções cutâneas freqüentes. OBJETIVOS: Com o objetivo de avaliar incidência, fatores de risco, principais complicações, esquemas terapêuticos utilizados e evolução. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 35 pacientes com diagnóstico de erisipela internados nas enfermarias do Hospital Central da Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo no período de abril a agosto de 2002. RESULTADOS: A incidência de pacientes com diagnóstico de erisipela no período estudado foi de 0,87%. O fator de risco local mais encontrado foi o linfedema, seguido por episódios prévios de erisipela. Dos fatores de risco gerais, aqueles que comprometem a imunidade, como diabetes mellitus, etilismo e neoplasias, foram os mais observados em associação ao quadro de infecção dermatológica. Sinais inflamatórios locais foram encontrados em 97,8% dos casos. Verificaram-se quatro casos com complicações: necrose, abscesso, trombose venosa profunda e septicemia. A evolução dos pacientes foi satisfatória em mais de 97% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento com penicilina cristalina foi associado ao menor número de complicações (pBACKGROUND: Erysipelas and cellulitis are common skin infections. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to investigate the frequency, risk factors, clinical features, complications, principal drugs used for treatment and the disease course. METHODS: The authors studied 35 ward patients who had been diagnosed with erysipelas, and were admitted to the Central Hospital of Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo between April and August 2002. RESULTS: Among the patients in the ward during the study 0.87% had been diagnosed with erysipelas. The most common local risk factor was lymphedema, followed by previous episodes of erysipelas. Among the general risk factors, diabetes mellitus, alcohol abuse and cancer were most frequently observed. Local inflammatory signs were found in 97

  16. Occurrence of tylosin in swine wastewater in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Liliana; Garzón-Zúñiga, Marco Antonio; Buelna, Gerardo; Moeller-Chávez, Gabriela Eleonora; Noyola, Adalberto; Avilez-Flores, Martha; Estrada-Arriaga, Edson B

    2013-01-01

    This study determined a tylosin concentration in swine wastewater located in a Mexican pig farm, during different stages of the pigs' growth. The detection of antibiotics in swine wastewater is complex due to its high concentration of solids. Analytical method was developed for detection of tylosin in swine wastewater and swine slurry. Average recoveries of tylosin in the liquid and solid phase were greater than 51 and 44%, respectively, with a greater total recovery of 95%. The results indicated the presence of tylosin in swine wastewater and slurry at concentrations greater than the ones reported in the literature. In grab samples of swine wastewater, the tylosin detected showed concentrations of 56, 72 and 8.6 μg L(-1), in breeding-gestation, nursery pigs, and grow-finishing area, respectively. In composite samples, the concentration of tylosin was 11.8 μg L(-1) for the breeding-gestation area and 2.4 μg L(-1) for the grow-finishing area. For slurry, the concentration of tylosin was 20.6 and 17.8 μg L(-1), for the breeding-gestation and grow-finishing area, respectively. This study presents the detection of a high concentration of tylosin in breeding-gestation and nursery pigs. Traces of tylosin in wastewater from grow-finishing stage were found although the animals were not receiving antibiotics.

  17. 9 CFR 93.504 - Import permits for swine and for swine specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the origin, history, and health status of the swine; the lack of satisfactory information necessary to..., National Center for Import-Export, 4700 River Road Unit 38, Riverdale, Maryland 20737-1231. (B) The...

  18. Fungal survival in ensiled swine faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-García, E; Castrejón-Pineda, F; Herradora-Lozano, M A; Ramírez-Pérez, A H; Angeles-Campos, S; Buntinx, S E

    2008-06-01

    The survival of several genera of fungi was determined in the ensiled solid fraction of swine faeces after 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days of ensiling. The experiment had two treatments, un-ensiled and ensiled manure, in a split-plot design. The manure was distributed into 50 containers; samples, taken at the specified times, were cultured in agar potato dextrose medium, incubated, and colony forming units (CFU/g) were counted and log-transformed. The ensiling process decreased the number of CFU after 56 days. Five fungal genera were identified (Absidia spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and non-fructiferous fungi), and their vulnerability to the ensiling conditions varied, although most of them slowed their growth or disappeared after 14 days of ensiling.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

  20. Determinants of adults' intention to vaccinate against pandemic swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Robin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour provided the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Three hundred and sixty two adults from the UK, who were not in vaccination priority groups, completed either an online (n = 306 or pen and paper (n = 56 questionnaire. Data were collected from 30th October 2009, just after swine flu vaccination became available in the UK, and concluded on 31st December 2009. The main outcome of interest was future swine flu vaccination intentions. Results The extended Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted 60% of adults' intention to have a swine flu vaccination with attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, anticipating feelings of regret (the impact of missing a vaccination opportunity, intention to have a seasonal vaccine this year, one perceived barrier: "I cannot be bothered to get a swine flu vaccination" and two perceived benefits: "vaccination decreases my chance of getting swine flu or its complications" and "if I get vaccinated for swine flu, I will decrease the frequency of having to consult my doctor," being significant predictors of intention. Black British were less likely to intend to have a vaccination compared to Asian or White respondents. Conclusions Theoretical frameworks which identify determinants that influence decisions to have a pandemic influenza vaccination are useful. The implications of this research are discussed with a view to maximising any future pandemic influenza vaccination uptake using theoretically-driven applications.

  1. 9 CFR 166.3 - Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage... Provisions § 166.3 Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. (a) Access by swine to garbage handling and treatment areas shall be prevented by construction of facilities to exclude all ages...

  2. Farming styles and cooperatives disputes of swine farmers under economic pressure in southern France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In Southern France, the regression of swine farms and swine is ongoing. It involves reorientation of socio-professional networks, especially the farmers’ cooperatives. For understanding the various ways of maintaining swine production under the regressive circumstances, we focus on the farmers’

  3. Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    Objective-To evaluate changes in antimicrobial consumption and productivity by Danish swine farms during 1992 to 2008. Sample Population-All Danish swine farms for antimicrobial consumption data and a representative sample of Danish swine herds for productivity data. Procedures-Antimicrobial cons...

  4. Swine flu-have we learnt any lesson from the past ? | Yadav | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The world has suffered the pandemics due to swine flu in the past. The present epidemic in India has claimed many lives. Even, after the first outbreak of swine flu in 2009 no concrete efforts are done to prevent this infection. There is an urgent need to take radical steps to prevent such epidemics. Key words: Swine ...

  5. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  6. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF THE SWINE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX, THE SLA COMPLEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span ~1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 Mb, respectively, making the swi...

  7. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil’s swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009–2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759

  8. Swine farm wastewater and mineral fertilization in corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela A. M. Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles, on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 100, 200, 300 m3 ha-1 during the cycle. The effects of the association between mineral fertilization at sowing and swine wastewater were evaluated simultaneously. Swine wastewater at the dose of 100 m3 ha-1 promoted availability and absorption of P, K+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ without causing toxicity to plants or damage to the soil, constituting a viable, low-cost alternative of water reuse and fertilization for farmers. The nutrients N, P, K+ and B must be complemented with mineral fertilization. Special attention should be directed to the accumulation of Zn2+ in the soil along the time of swine wastewater application.

  9. Molecular diagnostics of swine infection caused by Mycoplasma suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .

  10. African swine fever virus isolate, Georgia, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Rebecca J; Michaud, Vincent; Heath, Livio; Hutchings, Geoff; Oura, Chris; Vosloo, Wilna; Dwarka, Rahana; Onashvili, Tinatin; Albina, Emmanuel; Dixon, Linda K

    2008-12-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is widespread in Africa but is rarely introduced to other continents. In June 2007, ASF was confirmed in the Caucasus region of Georgia, and it has since spread to neighboring countries. DNA fragments amplified from the genome of the isolates from domestic pigs in Georgia in 2007 were sequenced and compared with other ASF virus (ASFV) isolates to establish the genotype of the virus. Sequences were obtained from 4 genome regions, including part of the gene B646L that encodes the p72 capsid protein, the complete E183L and CP204L genes, which encode the p54 and p30 proteins and the variable region of the B602L gene. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the Georgia 2007 isolate is closely related to isolates belonging to genotype II, which is circulating in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. One possibility for the spread of disease to Georgia is that pigs were fed ASFV-contaminated pork brought in on ships and, subsequently, the disease was disseminated throughout the region.

  11. Novel reassortant swine influenza viruses are circulating in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    of the reassortant viruses comprised a HA gene similar to H1 of H1N1 avian-like swine influenza virus (SIV) and a NA gene most closely related to N2 gene of human H3N2 influenza virus that circulated in humans in the mid 1990s. The internal genes of this reassortant virus with the subtype H1avN2hu all belonged...... to the H1N1 avian-like SIV lineages. Until now this novel virus H1avN2hu has only been detected in Danish swine. The other novel reassortant virus contained the HA gene from H1N1pdm09 virus and a NA gene similar to the N2 gene of H3N2 SIV that have been circulating in European swine since the mid 1980s...

  12. Using probiotics to improve swine gut health and nutrient utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfa F. Liao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To maintain a healthy gut is definitely key for a pig to digest and absorb dietary nutrients efficiently. A balanced microbiota (i.e., a healthy micro-ecosystem is an indispensable constituent of a healthy gut. Probiotics, the live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer good health benefits onto the host, are a category of feed additives that can be used to replenish the gut microbial population while recuperating the host immune system. Besides their antitoxin and diarrhea reduction effects, dietary supplementation of probiotics can improve gut health, nutrient digestibilities and, therefore, benefit nutrient utilization and growth performance of pigs. Current knowledge in the literature pertinent to the beneficial effects of utilizing various probiotics for swine production has been comprehensively reviewed, and the safety and the risk issues related to probiotic usage have also been discussed in this paper. Considering that the foremost cost in a swine operation is feed cost, feed efficiency holds a very special, if not the paramount, significance in commercial swine production. Globally, the swine industry along with other animal industries is moving towards restricting and eventually a total ban on the usage of antibiotic growth promoters. Therefore, selection of an ideal alternative to the in-feed antibiotics to compensate for the lost benefits due to the ban on the antibiotic usage is urgently needed to support the industry for profitable and sustainable swine production. As is understood, a decision on this selection is not easy to make. Thus, this review paper aims to provide some much needed up-to-date knowledge and comprehensive references for swine nutritionists and producers to refer to before making prudent decisions and for scientists and researchers to develop better commercial products.

  13. Lumbricidae as transitory hosts in Metastrongylus infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastrongylidosis or lungworm disease in swine is a disease caused by several types of nematodes of the genus Metastrongylus. Metastrongylidae are biohelminths whose causes use transitory hosts for their development and maintaining their biological cycle, and in this case they are numerous species of Lumbricidae (earthworms. Depending on the geographic environment, numerous representatives of Lumbricidae persist as transitory hosts. In our environment, these are dominant earthworm species of the genus Eisenia spp, Dandreobena spp, Allopbophora spp, Lubricus spp, Octoiasium spp, Bimastus spp, and rarely those from the genus Heledrillus spp. Swine are infected perorally with Metastrongylidae when they ingest infected earthworms.

  14. Functional analysis of replication determinantsin classical swine fever virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne

    and animal pathogens should facilitate finding new approaches for efficient disease control. The principal aim of this thesis is to characterise determinants involved in the replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Classical swine fever is a highly contagious virus disease of domestic pigs and wild...... in cell culture. Knowledge of these sequence variations and putative long-range interactions will provide valuable insights into mechanisms underlying virustranslation and replication. In manuscript 3, a selection marker has been inserted into a CSFV-based replicon making it suitable for screening...

  15. Presence of gastrointestinal parasites in swine and human of four swine production farms in Cundinamarca- Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Mendoza-Gómez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the presence and the type of endoparasites with zoonotic potential in swine and human of two technified and two semi-technified farms in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materials and methods. Three serial samplings of feces were taken in a pen row within intervals of 15 days, in two technified and two semi-technified farms in different age groups distributed as follows: pregnant-sows, nursing-females, boars, weaners, suckling-piglets, and growing-pig. By means of informed consent thirty-three people agreed to enter the study. Thirty-three samples from men and women of different ages were received. The pool and individual samples of fecal were evaluated by direct analysis, qualitative flotation and sedimentation techniques and modified ZiehlNeelsen stain. Results. For the porcine population, on the average, the results obtained from both technified farms showed that Balantidium coli (42%, Endolimax nana (21.9% and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.8% were the most common parasites. In semi-technified farms they were: Entamoeba coli (40%, Endolimax nana (35%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (25% and Balantidium coli (5%. By means of the test chi2 it is possible to conclude that there is a significant difference between the parasites species and the type of farm. The results obtained in human showed the presence of parasites as: E. coli (42.2%, Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (12.1%, E. nana (9.1%, B. coli (9.1%, I. bütschlii (3.0% and Blastocystis hominis (3.0%. Conclusions. The presence of parasites such as Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Entamoeba coli in swine and human suggests a possible rotation of parasitic species between hosts.

  16. Heat Stress Effects on Growing-Finishing Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the factors that create heat stress, the response of the animals while under heat stress, and the signs of heat-stressed swine are essential to making rational decisions for the selection, design, and management of their environments. Heat stressors include combinations of environment...

  17. Production system dynamism and parasitic interac- tion of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    separate house without drainage) and poor (housed together with other live- stock in open barn with no shed). Statistical analysis. The Chi-square test was applied to ... owners release their swine to graze on the field along with other livestock. .... which 14 farms were having more than 30 pigs and 36 farms were having less.

  18. Diet modification as a mitigation tool for swine production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate air emission reductions from swine following implementation of diet strategies. In each study, the impact of these feeding strategies on pig performance and air emissions were compared to those of animals fed commercial diets. Groups of pigs were ho...

  19. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in swine abattoir workers.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This silent maintenance of HEV infection amongst swine abattoir workers is an occupational risk that could challenge .... HE Seroprevalence in different occupations ..... nary microbiology. 2011;149(1):236-41. 46. Aggarwal R, Krawczynski K. Hepatitis E: an overview and recent advances in clinical and laboratory research.

  20. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    compared to that from the raw biomas s. On the other hand, the results from the codigestion of raw (non-pretreated) wheat straw with swine manure were very promising, suggesting that 4.6 kg of straw added to 1 t of manure increase the methane production by 10%. Thus, wheat straw can be considered...

  1. Influenza A virus infections in swine: pathogenesis and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, B H

    2014-03-01

    Influenza has been recognized as a respiratory disease in swine since its first appearance concurrent with the 1918 "Spanish flu" human pandemic. All influenza viruses of significance in swine are type A, subtype H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 viruses. Influenza viruses infect epithelial cells lining the surface of the respiratory tract, inducing prominent necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and variable interstitial pneumonia. Cell death is due to direct virus infection and to insult directed by leukocytes and cytokines of the innate immune system. The most virulent viruses consistently express the following characteristics of infection: (1) higher or more prolonged virus replication, (2) excessive cytokine induction, and (3) replication in the lower respiratory tract. Nearly all the viral proteins contribute to virulence. Pigs are susceptible to infection with both human and avian viruses, which often results in gene reassortment between these viruses and endemic swine viruses. The receptors on the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract are major determinants of infection by influenza viruses from other hosts. The polymerases, especially PB2, also influence cross-species infection. Methods of diagnosis and characterization of influenza viruses that infect swine have improved over the years, driven both by the availability of new technologies and by the necessity of keeping up with changes in the virus. Testing of oral fluids from pigs for virus and antibody is a recent development that allows efficient sampling of large numbers of animals.

  2. Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza epidemcis: Lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Koch, G.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is based on a talk which was held in the course of the spring symposium „Impfen statt Keulen“ of the Akademie für Tiergesundheit (AfT) 2011 in Wiesbaden-Naurod. Experience with recent large-scale epidemics of Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza – among others in the

  3. Enzymes in Poultry and Swine Nutrition | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Enzymes in Poultry and Swine Nutrition. Auteur(s) : Ronald R. ... mechanisms. Such studies will enhance our understanding of the role of dietary enzymes in animal nutrition. ... Six équipes de chercheurs de classe mondiale étudieront comment surmonter la résistance au traitement des cancers les plus mortels.

  4. Soybean nutritional status and seed physiological quality with swine wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Passarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Swine wastewater application is a practice that can become viable in agriculture, for minimizing fertilization costs and improving soil conditions. Therefore, it is essential to establish criteria that define appropriate application doses from the agronomic and environmental perspectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of swine wastewater doses associated with mineral fertilization on soybean nutritional status and physiological quality of seed. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year of 2010/2011, using twenty-four drainage lysimeters in randomized block design in 4 x 2 factorial scheme, with four swine wastewater doses (0, 100, 200 and 300 m3 ha-1 applied before sowing, associated with presence and absence of mineral fertilization, in three replicates. Leaves at the flowering stage were collected for determinations of N, P, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Mn and Fe. Symptoms of toxicity and nutritional deficiency were observed in the crop. Furthermore, higher doses of swine wastewater caused lower physiological quality in soybean seeds.

  5. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  6. Field study of earth tempered swine ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, W.D.; Peterson, W.H.; Muehling, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Four earth-tube heat exchanger systems for heating and cooling the ventilation air for swine farrowing and nursery buildings were studied. Results show appreciable winter heating and summer cooling from the earth tubes with minimal variation in the temperature of the discharge air. 5 refs.

  7. The future of influenza A virus vaccines for swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic losses due to influenza A virus (IAV) infections are substantial and a global problem, ranking among the top three major health challenges in the swine industry. Currently, H1 and H3 subtypes circulate in pigs globally associated with different combinations of N1 and N2 subtypes; however, t...

  8. Comparative prevalence of immune evasion complex genes associated with beta-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates from swine, swine facilities, humans with swine contact, and humans with no swine contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genet...

  9. Nutrient management practices among swine operations of various sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinger, W J; Monahan, K A; Scanlon, T L; Parsons, T D

    2000-11-15

    To determine feeding, cropping, and manure-handling practices of swine operations of various sizes. Producer survey. 85 sow units and 132 finish floors. Swine producers were surveyed by mail and during farm visits for information regarding herd characteristics and management practices, with emphasis on the 3 components of the nutrient cycle: cropping, feeding and nutrition, and manure handling. Farms were categorized by operation type as sow units or finish floors and, subsequently, stratified by size as small sow units ( or = 600 head), small finish floors ( or = 2,000 head). Large sow units and large finish floors were approximately twice as likely to use environmentally sound nutrient management practices as small sow units or small finish floors. These large operations were more likely to use progressive feeding practices, to be aware of their nutrient flows, and to be capable of using these nutrients properly. There is a need for greater environmental awareness among all swine producers, especially among small producers. This provides a possible growth area for large-animal veterinary consultants. Economy of scale and increased governmental regulations allow large farms to use environmentally sound practices. Thus, large swine farms are not necessarily harmful to the environment.

  10. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  11. Cultivation of soybean with swine wastewater | Frigo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the cultivation of soybean under the use of swine wastewater (SWW). The SWW used was diluted in water at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. At 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing, plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area, concentrations of NPK on leaf and productivity were determined. The results show that ...

  12. Persistent Classical Swine Fever infection in newborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Lohse, Louise; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Pestiviruses are unique in their ability to cause persistent infection (PI) in pigs infected in utero. In cattle, PI calves play an important role in maintenance of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in the herd. In pigs, the occurence of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) PI piglets...

  13. Treatment of swine wastewater with subsurface-flow constructed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the capability of horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) for treating pretreated swine wastewater as a function of contact time (CT) and type of macrophyte under the local conditions of Yucatán, Mexico. Experiments were conducted from July 2004 to November 2005 on a ...

  14. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an APHIS employee alone. (b) The appraisal of swine will be based on the fair market value as determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided that where appraisal is by the head, each animal in the group is the same value per head, and where appraisal...

  15. Optimal Resource Allocation In Swine Production For Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated optimal resource allocation in swine production and its implication for rural development in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of interview form 50 randomly selected respondents. The study revealed that pig production in Umuahia, Abia State is mainly carried out by young ...

  16. Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolated from commercial swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... The infectious diseases caused by E. coli are very serious. Analysis of E. coli strains genetic diversity is important for epidemiology. The objective of this study was to use REP-PCR and ERIC-PCR for the analysis of genetic diversity among E. coli strains isolated from commercial swine farms in Sichuan ...

  17. Vaccinology of classical swine fever: from lab to field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.

    2003-01-01

    There are two types of classical swine fever vaccines available: the classical live and the recently developed E2 subunit vaccines. The live Chinese strain vaccine is the most widely used. After a single vaccination, it confers solid immunity within a few days that appears to persist lifelong. The

  18. Odor control in swine buildings: recycle flush vs. automated scraper

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was conducted to compare odor concentrations in exhaust of traditional flush barns and barns equipped with automated scrapers. The study was conducted at commercial tunnel-ventilated swine barns in northwest Missouri. Odor samples were collected from the barn exhaust in polyvinyl ...

  19. Anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Inhibition by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kaare Hvid; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1998-01-01

    A stable anaerobic degradation of swine manure with ammonia concentration of 6 g-N/litre was obtained in continuously stirred tank reactors with a hydraulic retention time of 15 days, at Four different temperatures. Methane yields of 188, 141, 67 and 22 ml-CH4/g-VS were obtained at 37, 45, 55...

  20. Modulation of Translation Initiation Efficiency in Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, cDNAs corresponding to the wild type (wt) or mutant forms of the IRES of CSFV strain Paderborn were...

  1. Modulation of Translation Initiation Efficiency in Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham J.

    Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, the nucleotides 47 to 427, including the IRES region of the wt CSFV strain Paderborn, were amplified...

  2. African Swine Fever control in Ibadan, Nigeria: problems, needs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African swine fever (ASF) is a widely discussed disease in Ibadan, Nigeria, where high mortality losses occurred in outbreaks in the city between 2001-2006. To study the level to which ASF containment technologies were adopted and factors associated with adoption behavior, a sample of 60 pig farmers was selected from ...

  3. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Annalisa; Gonzales, José Luis; Bonelli, Sara Irene; Valda, Ybar; Pieri, Angela; Segundo, Higinio; Ibañez, Ramón; Mantella, Antonia; Bartalesi, Filippo; Tolari, Francesco; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in persons in 2 rural communities in southeastern Bolivia and the presence of HEV in human and swine fecal samples. HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. PMID:21801630

  4. Accelerating vaccine development for African swine fever virus ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... Photo: IDRC / Bartay The challenge African swine fever (ASF) is a highly infectious hemorrhagic viral disease that wipes out entire herds of infected pigs. ASF is widespread in at least half of sub-Saharan Africa, and threatens food security due to devastating economic losses.

  5. A Review of Swine Influenza: An Emerging Pandemic | Adeola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An unprecedented epizootic swine Influenza A (H1N1) virus that is highly pathogenic has crossed the species barrier in Mexico to cause many human fatalities and poses an increasing pandemic threat. This summary describes the aetiopathogenesis of human infection with Influenza A (H1N1) and reviews ...

  6. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  7. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the current study, aiming to find more clues in understanding the molecular mechanisms of CSFV NS5A's function, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell (SUVEC). Alignment with the NCBI database ...

  8. Antibiotic Resistant Microbiota in the Swine Intestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The healthy swine intestine is populated by upwards of 500 bacterial species, mainly obligate anaerobes. Our research focuses on the roles of these commensal bacteria in antimicrobial resistance and on interventions to reduce the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In comparisons of intes...

  9. Quantification of underlying mechanisms of classical swine fever virus transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesendorp, E.

    2010-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an exotic viral disease in most European countries. Occasionally, outbreaks occur due to re-introduction of the virus. During these outbreaks, virus transmission between herds occurs via direct contact between infected and susceptible pigs, or via indirect transmission

  10. Production system dynamism and parasitic interaction of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings were Ascaris suum (13.9%), Eimeria species (5.6%), Oesophagostomum species (6.7%) and Sarcoptes scabiei (16.2%). Mixed infection was observed on 13 swine, among them 2% were positive for Ascaris suum and Eimeria species, where as 1.14% were positive for Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum ...

  11. Imported pigs may have introduced the first classical swine influenza viruses into Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenfei; Yang, Shuai; Guo, Yuanji; Yang, Lei; Bai, Tian; Yu, Zaijiang; Li, Xiaodan; Li, Ming; Guo, Junfeng; Wang, Dayan; Gao, Rongbao; Dong, Libo; Zou, Shumei; Li, Zi; Wang, Min; Shu, Yuelong

    2013-07-01

    The first classical swine influenza A H1N1 viruses were isolated in Mainland China in 1991. To aid surveillance of swine influenza viruses as part of pandemic preparedness, we sought to identify their origin. We sequenced and phylogenically analyzed 19 swine influenza viruses isolated in 1991 and 1992 in China and compared them with viruses isolated from other regions during the same period. All 19 swine influenza viruses analyzed in our study shared the highest similarity with the classical swine influenza virus A/Swine/Maryland/23239/1991 (H1N1). Phylogenetic trees of eight segmented genes exhibited similar topology, with all segments in the cluster of classical swine influenza viruses. In addition, antigenic analysis also indicated that the tested isolated were related to classical swine influenza isolates. Classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses were predominant in Beijing pig herds during this period. Since both antibody and virus detections did not indicate the presence of CS H1N1 before 1991 in Mainland China, we combined with the data on pigs imported to and exported from China and concluded that these viruses might spread to China via pigs imported from North America and that they could affect the genetic evolution and transmission dynamics of swine influenza viruses in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Hau

    Full Text Available Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates

  13. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Samantha J.; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R.; Frana, Timothy S.; Nicholson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage’s absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a

  14. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Samantha J; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R; Frana, Timothy S; Nicholson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a reduced

  15. Role of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the swine production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ercoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC can cause severe clinical diseases in humans, such as haemorrhagic colitis (HC and haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS. Although ruminants, primarily cattle, have been suggested as typical reservoirs of STEC, many food products of other origins, including pork products, have been confirmed as vehicles for STEC transmission. Only in rare cases, pork consumption is associated with severe clinical symptoms caused by high pathogenic STEC strains. However, in these outbreaks, it is unknown whether the contamination of food products occurs during swine processing or via cross-contamination from foodstuffs of different sources. In swine, STEC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of oedema disease. In particular a Shiga toxin subtype, named stx2e, it is considered as a key factor involved in the damage of swine endothelial cells. On the contrary, stx2e-producing Escherichia coli has rarely been isolated in humans, and usually only from asymptomatic carriers or from patients with mild symptoms, such as uncomplicated diarrhoea. In fact, the presence of gene stx2e, encoding for stx2e, has rarely been reported in STEC strains that cause HUS. Moreover, stx2e-producing STEC isolated from humans and pigs were found to differ in serogroup, their virulence profile and interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. Because of the limited epidemiologic data of STEC in swine and the increasing role of non-O157 STEC in human illnesses, the relationship between swine STEC and human disease needs to be further investigated.

  16. Effect of soy protein on swine intestinal lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    Hypocholesterolemic effect of soy protein appears to be the result of reduced cholesterol absorption and enhanced cholesterol excretion. The objective of this study is to delineate the underlying mechanism of soy protein effect on cholesterol absorption. At the end of a 5-week soy-protein or casein diet, swine were subjected to cannulation of mesenteric lymph duct under halothane anesthesia. A single dose of 250 μCi [ 14 C]-cholesterol and 10 mCi [ 3 H]-leucine was infused into the upper jejunum two hours after one-fifth of daily food was given. Then lymph was collected hourly for three hours and the lipoprotein fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation. SDS-PAGE (5%) was used to measure the concentrations of individual apoproteins by densitometric scanning. The three-hour lymphatic transport of cholesterol in casein-fed swine was significantly higher than in those fed soy protein. Triglyceride transports were similar in two groups. The [ 3 H]-leucine incorporation study revealed that transport of apo B-48 bore a significant positive relationship to transport of cholesterol in both chylomicron and VLDL fractions of mesenteric lymph. A greater apo B-48 secretion with higher specific activity was probably responsible for the greater transport of cholesterol in chylomicrons in casein-fed swine. On the other hand, the lesser cholesterol transport in chylomicrons in soy protein-fed swine was probably caused by lower apo B-48 secretion. Similarly, the transport of lymph VLDL cholesterol in swine fed casein or soy protein paralleled the amount of accompanying apo B-48. Dietary proteins probably influence the intestinal synthesis of apo B-48 which in turn affects cholesterol transport into the lymphatics

  17. Antimicrobial use in Chinese swine and broiler poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Vikram; Otte, Joachim; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where this has occurred is China, and evidence suggests 70% of poultry production now occurs outside of traditional small farms. Moreover, China is now the largest aggregate consumer of meat products in the world. With this rapid rise in consumption, the Chinese production model has changed along with the use of antimicrobials in feeds. However, the specific antibiotic use in the Chinese food animal production sector is unclear. Additionally, we are aware of high quantities of antimicrobial use because of reports of high concentrations of antimicrobials in animal waste and surface waters surrounding animal feeding operations. In this report, we estimate the volume of antibiotics used for swine and poultry production as these are the two meat sources with the highest levels of production and consumption in China. We adopt a model developed by Mellon et al. in the US for estimating drug use in feed for poultry and swine production to estimate overall antimicrobial use as well as antimicrobial use by class. We calculate that 38.5 million kg [84.9 million lbs] were used in 2012 in China's production of swine and poultry. By antibiotic class, the highest weights are tetracyclines in swine and coccidiostats in poultry. The volume of antimicrobial use is alarming. Although there are limitations to these data, we hope our report will stimulate further analysis and a sense of urgency in assessing the consequences of such high levels of utilization in terms of antibiotic resistance in the food supply

  18. 76 FR 70037 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Liechtenstein and Switzerland AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule... Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the region of Europe that we recognize as low risk for classical swine fever... Switzerland to the region of Europe that we recognize as low risk for CSF and to add Liechtenstein to the...

  19. 76 FR 7721 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... exception of semen collected from swine in Denmark, Finland, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden, or the United... CSF Region in the EU; History Before discussing our assessments of the animal health status of Estonia...,'' took into consideration the CSF history of the 10 Member States in the EC's request, the CSF history of...

  20. Quantitative assessment of the likelihood of the introduction of classical swine fever virus into the Danish swine population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronsvoort, BMD; Alban, L.; Greiner, M.

    2008-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a major infectious-disease agent of livestock and causes production losses through increased morbidity and mortality, particularly of young pigs. We identified the pathways for introduction of CSFV into Denmark and assessed the annual probability...

  1. 77 FR 74555 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... semen collected from swine in Denmark, Finland, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden, or the United Kingdom.... This rule: (1) Preempts all State and local laws and regulations that are inconsistent with this rule..., Finland, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden, or the United Kingdom''. 0 b. By removing paragraph (h). 0 c. By...

  2. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest 'reverse zoonosis' of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human-animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. [Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in swine in Costa Rica: epidemiologic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A L; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L

    1991-01-01

    On a three hundred swine sera sample collected from a Municipal Slaughter house and a Research Laboratory at the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería a 26% of positivity against T. gondii was found using the carbon immunoassay. A relationship between the age and swine race are made. The epidemiological significance of this findings are discussed focused mainly on the role of swine meat as a source of human infection in Costa Rica.

  4. Hepatitis E virus and coliphages in waters proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Myers, Kevin; Pisanic, Nora; Heaney, Christopher; Stewart, Jill

    2014-01-01

    North Carolina is the second leading state in pork production in the United States, with over 10 million swine. Swine manure in NC is typically collected and stored in open-pit lagoons before the liquid waste is sprayed onto agricultural fields for disposal. Components of this waste may be able to impact surface water quality with the potential for human exposure. This study examined viruses of public health concern in creeks adjacent to swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) spra...

  5. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu? Treatment ? Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Th?ophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebu...

  6. Comparison of Hydroxocobalamin Versus Norepinephrine Versus Saline in a Swine Model of Servere Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Versus Saline in a Swine Model of Severe Septic Shock presented at/published to SURF Conference, San Antonio, TX 20 May 2016 with MDWJ 41-108, and has...PRESENTED: Comparison of hydroxocobalamin versus norepinephrine versus saline in a Swine model of severe septic shock 7. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS...Comparison of hydroxocbalamin versus norepinephrine versus saline in a swine model of severe septic shock . Background: Sepsis is associated with a mortality

  7. Comparison of Hydroxocobalamin Versus Norepinephrine Versus Saline in a Swine Model of Severe Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    Versus Saline in a Swine Model of Severe Septic Shock presented at/published to the Lightning Oral, SAEM Conference, New Orleans, LA 10-13 May 2016 with...PRESENTED: Comparison of hydroxocobalamin versus norepinephrine versus sal ine in a Swine model of severe septic shock 7. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS...saline in a swine model of severe septic shock . Background: Sepsis is associated with a mortality of nearly 30%. Mortality is due, in part, to an

  8. Spatial Dynamics of Human-Origin H1 Influenza A Virus in North American Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I.; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C.; Gramer, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003–2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens. PMID:21695237

  9. Swine flu- a serious pandeMic threat | Rachna | IMTU Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swine infl uenza (swine fl u) is a respiratory disease caused by type A infl uenza virus, the only pandemic strain. This new strain called swine-origin (H1N1) infl uenza A virus (SO-IAV), is transmitted to humans and spreads quickly from person to person. It emerged in Mexico and USA in April 2009. The 2009 outbreak of ...

  10. African swine fever virus infection in Classical swine fever subclinically infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Muñoz-González, Sara; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Rosell, Rosa; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi; Fraile, Lorenzo; de la Riva, Paloma Martínez; Rodríguez, Fernando; Domínguez, Javier; Ganges, Llilianne

    2017-08-01

    Recently moderate-virulence classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains have been proven capable of generating postnatal persistent infection (PI), defined by the maintenance of viremia and the inability to generate CSFV-specific immune responses in animals. These animals also showed a type I interferon blockade in the absence of clinical signs. In this study, we assessed the infection generated in 7-week-old CSFV PI wild boars after infection with the African swine fever virus (ASFV). The wild boars were divided in two groups and were infected with ASFV. Group A comprised boars who were CSFV PI in a subclinical form and Group B comprised pestivirus-free wild boars. Some relevant parameters related to CSFV replication and the immune response of CSFV PI animals were studied. Additionally, serum soluble factors such as IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ and sCD163 were analysed before and after ASFV infection to assess their role in disease progression. After ASFV infection, only the CSFV PI wild boars showed progressive acute haemorrhagic disease; however, the survival rates following ASFV infection was similar in both experimental groups. Notwithstanding, the CSFV RNA load of CSFV PI animals remained unaltered over the study; likewise, the ASFV DNA load detected after infection was similar between groups. Interestingly, systemic type I FN-α and IL-10 levels in sera were almost undetectable in CSFV PI animals, yet detectable in Group B, while detectable levels of IFN-γ were found in both groups. Finally, the flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in myelomonocytic cells (CD172a + ) and a decrease in CD4 + T cells in the PBMCs from CSFV PI animals after ASFV infection. Our results showed that the immune response plays a role in the progression of disease in CSFV subclinically infected wild boars after ASFV infection, and the immune response comprised the systemic type I interferon blockade. ASFV does not produce any interference with CSFV replication, or vice

  11. EVIDENCE OF PSEUDORABIES VIRUS SHEDDING IN FERAL SWINE ( SUS SCROFA) POPULATIONS OF FLORIDA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Felipe A; Sayler, Katherine A; Bounds, Courtney; Milleson, Michael P; Carr, Amanda N; Wisely, Samantha M

    2018-01-01

    :  Feral swine ( Sus scrofa) are a pathogen reservoir for pseudorabies virus (PrV). The virus can be fatal to wildlife and contributes to economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. National surveillance efforts in the US use serology to detect PrV-specific antibodies in feral swine populations, but PrV exposure is not a direct indicator of pathogen transmission among conspecifics or to non-suid wildlife species. We measured antibody production and the presence of PrV DNA in four tissue types from feral swine populations of Florida, US. We sampled blood, nasal, oral, and genital swabs from 551 individuals at 39 sites during 2014-16. Of the animals tested for antibody production, 224 of 436 (51%) feral swine were antibody positive while 38 of 549 feral swine (7%) tested for viral shedding were quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-positive for PrV. The detection of PrV DNA across all the collected sample types (blood, nasal, oral, and genital [vaginal] swabs) suggested viral shedding via direct (oronasal or venereal), and potentially indirect (through carcass consumption), routes of transmission among infected and susceptible animals. Fourteen of 212 seronegative feral swine were qPCR-positive, indicating 7% false negatives in the serologic assay. Our findings suggest that serology may underestimate the actual infection risk posed by feral swine to other species and that feral swine populations in Florida are capable of shedding the virus through multiple routes.

  12. H1N1 influenza viruses varying widely in hemagglutinin stability transmit efficiently from swine to swine and to ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Russier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen by most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans and H5N1 airborne transmissibility in the ferret model. Swine have served as an intermediate host for zoonotic influenza viruses, yet the evolutionary pressure exerted by this host on HA stability was unknown. For over 70 contemporary swine H1 and H3 isolates, we measured HA activation pH to range from pH 5.1 to 5.9 for H1 viruses and pH 5.3 to 5.8 for H3 viruses. Thus, contemporary swine isolates vary widely in HA stability, having values favored by both avian (pH >5.5 and human and ferret (pH ≤5.5 species. Using an early 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 virus backbone, we generated three viruses differing by one HA residue that only altered HA stability: WT (pH 5.5, HA1-Y17H (pH 6.0, and HA2-R106K (pH 5.3. All three replicated in pigs and transmitted from pig-to-pig and pig-to-ferret. WT and R106 viruses maintained HA genotype and phenotype after transmission. Y17H (pH 6.0 acquired HA mutations that stabilized the HA protein to pH 5.8 after transmission to pigs and 5.5 after transmission to ferrets. Overall, we found swine support a broad range of HA activation pH for contact transmission and many recent swine H1N1 and H3N2 isolates have stabilized (human-like HA proteins. This constitutes a heightened pandemic risk and underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance and control efforts for swine viruses.

  13. The Bordetella Bps polysaccharide is required for biofilm formation and persistence in the lower respiratory tract of swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is pervasive in swine populations and plays multiple roles in respiratory disease. Additionally, B. bronchiseptica is capable of establishing long-term or chronic infections in swine. Bacterial biofilms are increasingly recognized as important contributors to chronic bacter...

  14. Fate and transport of antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes in artificially drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure application

    Science.gov (United States)

    While previous studies have examined the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes around confined swine feeding operations, little information is known about their release and transport from artificially drained fields receiving swine manure application. Much of the...

  15. Transcriptional immunoresponse of tissue-specific macrophages in swine after infection with African swine fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages and cytokines are important in the control of inflammation and regulation of the immune response. However, they can also contribute to immunopathology in the host after viral infection and the regulatory network can be subverted by infectious agents, including viruses, some of which produce cytokine analogues or have mechanisms that inhibit cytokine function. African swine fever virus (ASFV encodes a number of proteins which modulate cytokine and chemokine induction, host transcription factor activation, stress responses, and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to elucidate the mechanisms of immune responses to ASFV in different subpopulations of porcine macrophages. A transcriptional immune response in different resident tissue macrophages following ASFV infection was presented in many publications. ASFV-susceptible porcine macrophages can be of several origins, such as peripheral blood, lungs, bone marrow, etc. blood monocytes, blood macrophages, and lung macrophages have demonstrated a modulation of phenotype. Monocyte-derived macrophages could express surface markers not found on their monocyte precursors. Moreover, they can undergo further differentiation after infection and during inflammation. When viruses infect such cells, immunological activity can be seriously impaired or modified.

  16. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....

  17. Swine Influenza Viruses – Evolution and Zoonotic Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina

    the establishment of a reverse genetics system based on a backbone from the Danish H1N2 SIV, which is one of the two most prevalent subtypes in Denmark. Recently, a variant of a North American swine H3N2 virus containing a pandemic M gene was transmitted to humans in the US and on few occasions human......-to-human transmission was observed. These events underline the need for a reverse genetics system to be used for an analysis of the behavior of a pandemic M gene in a Danish SIV.......Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important respiratory pathogen with a broad host range. The natural reservoir for IAV is waterfowls, but both human and swine are considered natural hosts. During the past century IAV has caused severe pandemics as well as seasonal epidemics in the human population...

  18. Polymerase discordance in novel swine influenza H3N2v constellations is tolerated in swine but not human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joshua D; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Nagy, Tamas; Gabbard, Jon; Lee, Christopher; Tompkins, Stephen M; Tripp, Ralph A

    2014-01-01

    Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA) segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA) showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.

  19. Impact of production systems on swine confinement buildings bioaerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Valérie; Nehmé, Benjamin; Mériaux, Anne; Massé, Daniel; Duchaine, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    Hog production has been substantially intensified in Eastern Canada. Hogs are now fattened in swine confinement buildings with controlled ventilation systems and high animal densities. Newly designed buildings are equipped with conventional manure handling and management systems, shallow or deep litter systems, or source separation systems to manage the large volumes of waste. However, the impacts of those alternative production systems on bioaerosol concentrations within the barns have never been evaluated. Bioaerosols were characterized in 18 modern swine confinement buildings, and the differences in bioaerosol composition in the three different production systems were evaluated. Total dust, endotoxins, culturable actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteria were collected with various apparatuses. The total DNA of the air samples was extracted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the total number of bacterial genomes, as a total (culturable and nonculturable) bacterial assessment. The measured total dust and endotoxin concentrations were not statistically different in the three studied production systems. In buildings with sawdust beds, actinomycetes and molds were found in higher concentrations than in the conventional barns. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Scopulariopsis species were identified in all the studied swine confinement buildings. A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor were abundantly present in the facilities with sawdust beds. Thermotolerant A. fumigatus and Mucor were usually found in all the buildings. The culturable bacteria concentrations were higher in the barns with litters than in the conventional buildings, while real-time PCR revealed nonstatistically different concentrations of total bacteria in all the studied swine confinement buildings. In terms of workers' respiratory health, barns equipped with a solid/liquid separation system may offer better air quality than conventional buildings or barns with

  20. Investigations of eugenol efficacy in treatment of mange in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezdimirović Milanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricide efficacy, tolerability and safety of the active ingredient of the etheric oil of cloves eugenol was investigated in the treatment of mange in swine, and the obtained results were compared with the results of acaricide efficacy of the synthetic acaricide permethrin, which has been in use for quite a some time. A single application of permethrin in the form of a 1% solution showed maximum efficacy of 62.5%, and after three applications of 75.0% in the treatment of sarcoptes in swine mange. A single application of eugenol in the form of a 10% solution had maximum efficacy of 75.0%, and applied three times an efficacy of 100% in curbing Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. A single administration of 20% eugenol solution showed maximum efficacy of 87.5%, and applied three times it was 100% efficient in curbing Sarcoptes scabeiei var. suis. The best efficacy in the treatment of sarcoptes mange in swine was achieved with three applications of eugenol in a concentration of 20%. This maximum effect (100% was obtained already after the second treatment. Eugenol in a concentration of 10% was safe for local application on skin because it does not cause any undesired reactions, while a 20% concentration caused irritation followed by a passing redness and disquiet in a smaller number of treated animals. The results of comparative investigations of acaricide efficacy of permethrin and eugenol demonstrate that there is resistence in Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis to permethrin. The biocide eugenol can safely be recommended for the treatment of sarcoptes mange in swine.

  1. Accelerating Coagulation in Traumatic Injuries Using Inorganic Polyphosphate-Coated Silica Nanoparticles in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    blood loss in a swine in a swine model. Methods : 9 male and 4 female pigs weighing 65±8 kg were anesthetized and instrumented . After abdominal...nanoparticles (PLNP) will decrease blood loss in a swine in a swine model. Methods : Pigs were anesthetized and instrumented and randomized to receive...study/training models in this protocol? No. REDUCTION: Since the last IACUC approval, have any methods been identified to reduce the number of live

  2. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  3. Swine manure composting by means of experimental turning equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, A; Da Borso, F; Rodar, T; Chiumenti, R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of research was to test the effectiveness of a prototype of a turning machine and to evaluate the feasability of a farm-scale composting process of the solid fraction of swine manure. A qualitative evaluation of the process and final product was made by monitoring the following parameters: process temperature, oxygen concentration inside the biomass, gaseous emissions (CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O), respiration index, humification index, total and volatile solids, carbon and nitrogen, pH and microbial load. The prototype proved to be very effective from a technical-operational point of view. The composting process exhibited a typical time-history, characterised by a thermophilic phase followed by a curing phase [Chiumenti, A., Chiumenti, R., Diaz, L.F., Savage, G.M., Eggerth, L.L., Goldstein, N., 2005. Modern Composting Technologies. BioCycle-JG Press, Emmaus, PA, USA]. Gas emissions from compost the windrow were more intense during the active phase of the process and showed a decreasing trend from the thermophilic to the curing phase. The final compost was characterized by good qualitative characteristics, a significant level of humification [Rossi, L., Piccinini, S., 1999. La qualità agronomica dei compost derivanti da liquami suinicoli. (Agronomic quality of swine manure compost). L'informatore Agrario 38, 29-31] and no odor emissions. This method of managing manure represents an effective, low cost approach that could be an interesting opportunity for swine farms.

  4. Acute infection of swine by various Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynachan, A T; Nugent, J M; Erdman, M M; Harris, D L

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of various serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica to infect alimentary and nonalimentary tissues of swine within 3 h of inoculation. Fourteen wild-type S. enterica serovars (4,12:imonophasic, 6,7 nonmotile, Agona, Brandenburg, Bredeney, Derby, Heidelberg, Infantis, Muenchen, Thompson, Typhimurium, Typhimurium variant Copenhagen, untypeable, and Worthington), two known virulent S. enterica serovars (Choleraesuis strain SC-38 and Typhimurium strain chi4232), and two avirulent S. enterica Choleraesuis vaccine strains (Argus and SC-54) were inoculated intranasally (approximately 5 x 10(9) cells) into swine (four animals per Salmonella isolate). Three hours after inoculation, animals were euthanized, and both alimentary tissues (tonsil, colon contents, and cecum contents) and nonalimentary tissues (mandibular lymph node, thymus, lung, liver, spleen, ileocecal lymph node, and blood) were collected for Salmonella isolation. All Salmonella serovars evaluated except Salmonella Choleraesuis SC-54 acutely infected both alimentary and nonalimentary tissues. These results indicate that Salmonella isolates commonly found in swine are capable of acutely infecting both alimentary and nonalimentary tissues in a time frame consistent with that in which animals are transported and held in lairage prior to slaughter.

  5. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  6. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  7. In-feed antibiotic effects on the swine intestinal microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looft, Torey; Johnson, Timothy A.; Allen, Heather K.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Alt, David P.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Sul, Woo Jun; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M.; Chai, Benli; Cole, James R.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Tiedje, James M.; Stanton, Thad B.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics have been administered to agricultural animals for disease treatment, disease prevention, and growth promotion for over 50 y. The impact of such antibiotic use on the treatment of human diseases is hotly debated. We raised pigs in a highly controlled environment, with one portion of the littermates receiving a diet containing performance-enhancing antibiotics [chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and penicillin (known as ASP250)] and the other portion receiving the same diet but without the antibiotics. We used phylogenetic, metagenomic, and quantitative PCR-based approaches to address the impact of antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota. Bacterial phylotypes shifted after 14 d of antibiotic treatment, with the medicated pigs showing an increase in Proteobacteria (1–11%) compared with nonmedicated pigs at the same time point. This shift was driven by an increase in Escherichia coli populations. Analysis of the metagenomes showed that microbial functional genes relating to energy production and conversion were increased in the antibiotic-fed pigs. The results also indicate that antibiotic resistance genes increased in abundance and diversity in the medicated swine microbiome despite a high background of resistance genes in nonmedicated swine. Some enriched genes, such as aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferases, confer resistance to antibiotics that were not administered in this study, demonstrating the potential for indirect selection of resistance to classes of antibiotics not fed. The collateral effects of feeding subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics to agricultural animals are apparent and must be considered in cost-benefit analyses. PMID:22307632

  8. Three-phase foam analysis and development of a lab-scale foaming capacity and stability test for swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foam accumulation on the manure slurry at deep pit swine facilities has been linked to flash fire incidents, making it a serious safety concern for pork producers. In order to investigate this phenomenon, samples of swine manure were collected from over 50 swine production facilities in Iowa with va...

  9. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact on the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment ...

  10. Genes indicative of zoonotic and swine pathogens are persistent in stream water and sediment following a swine manure spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Johnson, Heather E.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Foreman, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Manure spills to streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB); the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol; 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viable cells; one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII) by quantitative PCR (qPCR); and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR, or reverse-transcriptase qPCR. Twelve days post-spill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli, were detected in water or sediment. STII increased from undetectable before, or above the spill, to 105 copies/100 mL water 12 days post-spill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells post-spill. Eighteen days post-spill porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. Sediment FIB concentrations (per gram wet weight) were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals post-spill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days post-spill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes, and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences.

  11. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang–Jin; Deng, Liang–Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g −1 VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L −1 . Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L −1 . The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yield of 0.649 L g −1 VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s −1 when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield

  12. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. Watson, Simon; Langat, Pinky; M. Reid, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data...

  13. Origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in swine in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Ignacio; Nelson, Martha I; Quezada-Monroy, Francisco; Dutta, Jayeeta; Cortes-Fernández, Refugio; Lara-Puente, J Horacio; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Cunha, Luis F; Trovão, Nídia S; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Rambaut, Andrew; van Bakel, Harm; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Asia is considered an important source of influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics, owing to large, diverse viral reservoirs in poultry and swine. However, the zoonotic origins of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) remain unclear, due to conflicting evidence from swine and humans. There is strong evidence that the first human outbreak of pdmH1N1 occurred in Mexico in early 2009. However, no related swine viruses have been detected in Mexico or any part of the Americas, and to date the most closely related ancestor viruses were identified in Asian swine. Here, we use 58 new whole-genome sequences from IAVs collected in Mexican swine to establish that the swine virus responsible for the 2009 pandemic evolved in central Mexico. This finding highlights how the 2009 pandemic arose from a region not considered a pandemic risk, owing to an expansion of IAV diversity in swine resulting from long-distance live swine trade. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16777.001 PMID:27350259

  14. Tylosin-resistant Enterococci, erm genes, and tylosin in drained fields receiving swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of tylosin at subtherapeutic levels by the swine industry provides selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance in gastrointestinal bacteria. The land application of swine manure to drained agricultural fields might introduce elevated levels of total and tylosin-resistant ...

  15. Origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in swine in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Ignacio; Nelson, Martha I; Quezada-Monroy, Francisco; Dutta, Jayeeta; Cortes-Fernández, Refugio; Lara-Puente, J Horacio; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Cunha, Luis F; Trovão, Nídia S; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Rambaut, Andrew; van Bakel, Harm; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2016-06-28

    Asia is considered an important source of influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics, owing to large, diverse viral reservoirs in poultry and swine. However, the zoonotic origins of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) remain unclear, due to conflicting evidence from swine and humans. There is strong evidence that the first human outbreak of pdmH1N1 occurred in Mexico in early 2009. However, no related swine viruses have been detected in Mexico or any part of the Americas, and to date the most closely related ancestor viruses were identified in Asian swine. Here, we use 58 new whole-genome sequences from IAVs collected in Mexican swine to establish that the swine virus responsible for the 2009 pandemic evolved in central Mexico. This finding highlights how the 2009 pandemic arose from a region not considered a pandemic risk, owing to an expansion of IAV diversity in swine resulting from long-distance live swine trade.

  16. Immunologic mechanisms in the adaptation of swine farm workers to their work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Cormier, Yvon; Veillette, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Swine building exposure causes inflammatory reactions that appear to be attenuated with prolonged periods of contact. The mechanisms behind this adaptation to a dusty and endotoxin-rich environment are poorly understood. Our aim was to compare levels of selected inflammatory mediators in swine fa...

  17. 9 CFR 93.520 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS... Import permit and declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from countries of Central...

  18. Meta-analysis to define a core microbiota in the swine gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The swine gut microbiota encompasses a large and diverse population of bacteria that play a significant role in pig health. As such, a number of recent studies have utilized high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition and structure of the swine gut micr...

  19. Antigenic and genetic evolution of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. de Jong (Jan); D.J. Smith (Derek James); A.S. Lapedes (Alan); I. Donatelli; L. Campitelli; G. Barigazzi; K. van Reeth; T.C. Jones (Terry); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the early 1970s, a human influenza A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)-like virus colonized the European swine population. Analyses of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated in The Netherlands and Belgium revealed that in the early 1990s, antigenic drift had occurred, away from A/Port

  20. Antigenic drift in swine influenza H3 haemagglutinins with implications for vaccination policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.C.; Nieuwstadt, van A.P.; Kimman, T.G.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Bestebroer, T.M.; Bijlsma, K.; Verweij, C.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Claas, E.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    In order to explore the occurrence of antigenic drift in swine influenza A(H3N2) virus, we examined virus strains from outbreaks of respiratory disease among finishing pigs in the Netherlands in 1996 and 1997 and from earlier outbreaks. In contrast to swine H3N2 strains from the 1980s, the recent

  1. A five-year survey of African swine fever outbreaks in Plateau State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reported here is a five-year account of outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) in Plateau state, which devastated swine production and almost threw the whole pig induatry of the state in total disarray. Although veterinary authorities from 15 local government areas (LGA) of the state kreported the lsuspicion of the ldiseas, ...

  2. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Tudela Zúquete, Sara; Wijnveld, Michiel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Jongejan, Frans; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie L A

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors for the presence of ruminant pestviruses in the Dutch swine population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Quak, J.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Swine can be infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV), as well as ruminant pestiviruses: bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Border disease virus (BDV). Cross-reactions between pestiviruses occur, both regarding protective immunity and in diagnostic tests. The presence of BVDV and BDV

  4. Microbial Ecology of Stored Swine Manure and Reduction of Emissions Using Condensed Tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Stored swine manure serves as a habitat for billions of microorganisms and is associated with the generation of odorous compounds and g...

  5. The genetic diversity of contemporary swine influenza A viruses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Influenza A virus (IAV) is one of the most important respiratory pathogens of swine. It impacts mortality and causes significant financial losses through decreased production and the costs associated with vaccination and treatment. Further, due to the susceptibility of swine to transie...

  6. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as yarding receipts, sale tickets, invoices, and waybills upon which is recorded: (i) All serial... offered for sale or transportation, in interstate commerce, unless each swine is identified at whichever... transportation, offers for sale or transportation, or otherwise handles swine in interstate commerce, is...

  7. Virulence determinants within the E2 glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Camille Melissa; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Lohse, Louise

    Classical Swine Fever is a highly contagious disease of pigs caused by Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a member of the pestivirus genus within the family Flaviviridae. The E2 glycoprotein of CSFV has been shown to be an important factor for the virulence of the virus. In a recent study, we have...

  8. Treatment with interferon-alpha delays disease in swine infected with a highly virulent CSFV strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically significant, highly contagious swine disease. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is an enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, classified as a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae (Becher et al.,...

  9. Prevalence, serotype, virulence characteristics, clonality and antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from swine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Swine are the only known animal reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE), a human pathogen. Since YE is a fecal organism of swine, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, serotype, virulence plasmid (pYV)-associated characteristics, clonality, and antibiotic su...

  10. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...-0005] Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free States AGENCY: Animal and... amending the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis-free States. We have determined that Texas meets the criteria for...

  11. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan AGENCY: Animal and... proposed action plan describing a potential new approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies... brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Comments on the notice were required to...

  12. 78 FR 9028 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan AGENCY: Animal and... brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Swine brucellosis and pseudorabies have...: Background Brucellosis is a contagious disease, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, that affects both...

  13. 76 FR 65935 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    .... APHIS-2011-0005] Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free States AGENCY.... SUMMARY: We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis...

  14. Effect of Australian zeolite on methane production and ammonium removal during anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesinghe, D. Thushari N.; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Scales, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is one of the most effective methods for treating swine manure by converting it into green energy, and efficiently reducing methane (CH4) emission to the atmosphere. Low C/N ratio of swine manure and the production of high levels of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) during...... acidogenesis due to the high N contents of swine manure considerably reduce CH4 yield. The reduction of N during anaerobic digestion by the addition of zeolite improves CH4 production and reduces potential environmental threats associated with ammonia (NH3) emissions from anaerobic digestion of swine manure....... The main objective of this study was to determine the optimum Australian zeolite dose that produces maximum NH4 + recovery at optimum CH4 production. In laboratory experiments, swine manure was treated with natural and sodium zeolites at 0, 10, 40, 70, 100 mg/L and digested anaerobically for 60 days...

  15. Poly I:C adjuvanted inactivated swine influenza vaccine induces heterologous protective immunity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Milton; Wang, Zhao; Sreenivasan, Chithra C; Hause, Ben M; Gourapura J Renukaradhya; Li, Feng; Francis, David H; Kaushik, Radhey S; Khatri, Mahesh

    2015-01-15

    Swine influenza is widely prevalent in swine herds in North America and Europe causing enormous economic losses and a public health threat. Pigs can be infected by both avian and mammalian influenza viruses and are sources of generation of reassortant influenza viruses capable of causing pandemics in humans. Current commercial vaccines provide satisfactory immunity against homologous viruses; however, protection against heterologous viruses is not adequate. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an intranasal Poly I:C adjuvanted UV inactivated bivalent swine influenza vaccine consisting of Swine/OH/24366/07 H1N1 and Swine/CO/99 H3N2, referred as PAV, in maternal antibody positive pigs against an antigenic variant and a heterologous swine influenza virus challenge. Groups of three-week-old commercial-grade pigs were immunized intranasally with PAV or a commercial vaccine (CV) twice at 2 weeks intervals. Three weeks after the second immunization, pigs were challenged with the antigenic variant Swine/MN/08 H1N1 (MN08) and the heterologous Swine/NC/10 H1N2 (NC10) influenza virus. Antibodies in serum and respiratory tract, lung lesions, virus shedding in nasal secretions and virus load in lungs were assessed. Intranasal administration of PAV induced challenge viruses specific-hemagglutination inhibition- and IgG antibodies in the serum and IgA and IgG antibodies in the respiratory tract. Importantly, intranasal administration of PAV provided protection against the antigenic variant MN08 and the heterologous NC10 swine influenza viruses as evidenced by significant reductions in lung virus load, gross lung lesions and significantly reduced shedding of challenge viruses in nasal secretions. These results indicate that Poly I:C or its homologues may be effective as vaccine adjuvants capable of generating cross-protective immunity against antigenic variants/heterologous swine influenza viruses in pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  17. Avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus antibodies among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Cao, Zhenpeng; Tan, Likai; Fu, Xinliang; Lu, Gang; Qi, Wenbao; Ke, Changwen; Wang, Heng; Sun, Lingshuang; Zhang, Guihong

    2014-01-01

    Infection of human with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) occasionally occurs in China, suggesting a potential risk of cross-species transmission of the swine influenza H1N1 virus from pigs to humans, particularly to those having direct contact with pigs. A seroepidemiological study was conducted to assess the prevalence of antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China to evaluate the risk of infection to swine farm workers. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays revealed that 11.17% (61/546) of the sera samples from swine farm residents in southern China were positive for antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. The difference in numbers of antibody-positive samples obtained from swine farm residents and a control group of healthy city residents was statistically significant (P = 0.031). In addition, 219 of the 1,180 serum samples from pigs were positive for the antibodies against an avian-like A (H1N1) SIV, A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2013(H1N1), as assessed by HI. The data suggest that occupational exposure of swine farm residents and veterinarians in southern China to pigs may increase their risk of acquiring avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection. According to a special pig farming model in southern China, the staff and residents are in close contact with infected pigs and may be among the first to become infected.

  18. Novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses in pigs in Tianjin, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Li; Li, Hai-Hua; Lu, Chao; Yang, Chun-Lei; Feng, Jing; Han, Wei; Ren, Wei-Ke; Tian, Xiang-Xue; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Wen, Feng; Li, Ze-Jun; Gong, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ruan, Bao-Yang; Yan, Ming-Hua; Yu, Hai

    2016-02-01

    Pigs are susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses and therefore have been proposed to be mixing vessels for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment. In this study, for the first time, we report the isolation and genetic analyses of three novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses from pigs in Tianjin, Northern China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these novel viruses contained genes from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (PB2, PB1, PA and NP), Eurasian swine (HA, NA and M) and triple-reassortant swine (NS) lineages. This indicated that the reassortment among the 2009 pandemic H1N1, Eurasian swine and triple-reassortant swine influenza viruses had taken place in pigs in Tianjin and resulted in the generation of new viruses. Furthermore, three human-like H1N1, two classical swine H1N1 and two Eurasian swine H1N1 viruses were also isolated during the swine influenza virus surveillance from 2009 to 2013, which indicated that multiple genetic lineages of swine H1N1 viruses were co-circulating in the swine population in Tianjin, China. The emergence of novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses may be a potential threat to human health and emphasizes the importance of further continuous surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interspecies interactions and potential Influenza A virus risk in small swine farms in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCune Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent avian influenza epidemic in Asia and the H1N1 pandemic demonstrated that influenza A viruses pose a threat to global public health. The animal origins of the viruses confirmed the potential for interspecies transmission. Swine are hypothesized to be prime "mixing vessels" due to the dual receptivity of their trachea to human and avian strains. Additionally, avian and human influenza viruses have previously been isolated in swine. Therefore, understanding interspecies contact on smallholder swine farms and its potential role in the transmission of pathogens such as influenza virus is very important. Methods This qualitative study aimed to determine swine-associated interspecies contacts in two coastal areas of Peru. Direct observations were conducted at both small-scale confined and low-investment swine farms (n = 36 and in open areas where swine freely range during the day (n = 4. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders in swine farming. Results In both locations, the intermingling of swine and domestic birds was common. An unexpected contact with avian species was that swine were fed poultry mortality in 6/20 of the farms in Chancay. Human-swine contacts were common, with a higher frequency on the confined farms. Mixed farming of swine with chickens or ducks was observed in 36% of all farms. Human-avian interactions were less frequent overall. Use of adequate biosecurity and hygiene practices by farmers was suboptimal at both locations. Conclusions Close human-animal interaction, frequent interspecies contacts and suboptimal biosecurity and hygiene practices pose significant risks of interspecies influenza virus transmission. Farmers in small-scale swine production systems constitute a high-risk population and need to be recognized as key in preventing interspecies pathogen transfer. A two-pronged prevention approach, which offers educational activities for swine farmers about sound hygiene and

  20. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genesis and genetic constellations of swine influenza viruses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonsuk, Sukontip; Sangthong, Pradit; Petcharat, Nantawan; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa

    2013-12-27

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) is one of the most important zoonotic agents and the origin of the most recent pandemic virus. Asia is considered to be the epicenter for genetic exchanging of influenza A viruses and Southeast Asia including Thailand serves as a reservoir to maintain the persistence of the viruses for seeding other regions. Therefore, searching for new reassortants in this area has been routinely required. Although SIVs in Thailand have been characterized, collective information regarding their genetic evolution and gene constellations is limited. In this study, whole genomes of 30 SIVs isolated during clinical target surveillance plus all available sequences of past and currently circulating Thai SIVs were genetically characterized based on their evolutionary relationships. All genetic pools of Thai SIVs are comprised of four lineages including classical swine (CS), Eurasian swine (EAs), Triple reassortants (TRIG) and Seasonal human (Shs). Out of 84 isolates, nine H1N1, six H3N2 and one H1N2 strains were identified. Gene constellations of SIVs in Thailand are highly complex resulting from multiple reassortments among concurrently circulating SIVs and temporally introduced foreign genes. Most strains contain gene segments from both EAs and CS lineages and appeared transiently. TRIG lineage has been recently introduced into Thai SIV gene pools. The existence of EAs and TRIG lineages in this region may increase rates of genetic exchange and diversity while Southeast Asia is a persistent reservoir for influenza A viruses. Continual monitoring of SIV evolution in this region is crucial in searching for the next potential pandemic viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Swine Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen L.; Thacker, Brad J.; Janke, Bruce H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental respiratory model was used to investigate the interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus (SIV) in the induction of pneumonia in susceptible swine. Previous studies demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic bronchopneumonia in swine, potentiates a viral pneumonia induced by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to inoculation with SIV. Clinical disease as characterized by the severity of cough and fever was evaluated daily. Percentages of lung tissue with visual lesions and microscopic lesions were assessed upon necropsy at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following SIV inoculation. Clinical observations revealed that pigs infected with both SIV and M. hyopneumoniae coughed significantly more than pigs inoculated with a single agent. Macroscopic pneumonia on necropsy at days 3 and 7 was greatest in both SIV-infected groups, with minimal levels of pneumonia in the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected pigs. At 14 days post-SIV inoculation, pneumonia was significantly more severe in pigs infected with both pathogens. However, by 21 days postinoculation, the level of pneumonia in the dual-infected pigs was similar to that of the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected group, and the pneumonia in the pigs inoculated with only SIV was nearly resolved. Microscopically, there was no apparent increase in the severity of pneumonia in pigs infected with both agents compared to that of single-agent-challenged pigs. The results of this study found that while pigs infected with both agents exhibited more severe clinical disease, the relationship between the two pathogens lacked the profound potentiation found with dual infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between mycoplasmas and viruses varies with the individual agent. PMID:11427564

  3. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic variability within a swine operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Lucina Galina; Pettit, Kalie; Dos Santos, Lucas F; Tubbs, Rick; Pieters, Maria

    2016-03-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic diversity within a swine operation comingling weaned pigs. Bronchial swabs and tracheal aspirates were collected from 3 nursery-to-finish farms. During the finishing production stages, samples were obtained from mortalities and from live coughing pigs in rooms where mortality was not observed. A total of 105 samples were examined by a M. hyopneumoniae real-time polymerase chain reaction and subjected to genetic typing using a multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) assay. The MLVA was used to identify genetic variants based on the number of repeats in 2 variable number tandem repeats loci, namely P97 and P146, thought to mediate adherence of M. hyopneumoniae to swine cilia. Four distinguishable M. hyopneumoniae variants were identified: MVLA variants 9-15, 11-21, 9-21, and 7-15. Variant 9-15 was the most prevalent, observed in 79% of rooms, and detected on all 3 farms. Variant 11-21 was present in 37% of the rooms on 2 of the 3 farms. Only one 9-21 variant was identified in 1 farm, and all samples of variant 7-15 were recovered from another farm. Based on the low prevalence and limited geographic distribution of the last 2 variants, it is hypothesized that they might be the result of in-situ recombination. All variants detected in this investigation appeared to belong to 3 clusters. Overall, a limited number of variants and clusters were identified in a system that comingles pigs from different sources, suggesting limited M. hyopneumoniae genetic variation within commercial swine production environments. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Effects of chronic 90Sr ingestion in miniature swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Hackett, P.L.; Lund, J.E.; McClanahan, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    Daily 90 Sr feeding of greater than 125 μCi/day resulted in pancytopenia with death usually due to hemorrhage. At 125 μCi, pancytopenia and myelolymphoproliferative disorders appeared. At less than 125 μCi/day a dose-related neutropenia was evident. There is an apparent increased incidence of both benign and malignant tumors of soft tissue in animals fed 25 μCi/day for their lifetime. Benign uterine tumors, dental defects and marked arthritis continued to be the major diseases necessitating euthanasia in aged animals from all groups, including control swine. (U.S.)

  5. THE MATERNAL TRANSMISSION OF VACCINIAL IMMUNITY IN SWINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, John B.

    1932-01-01

    The introduction of vaccinia virus into the skin of swine calls forth a typical vesicular reaction which may be followed by a solid immunity. This acquired state of resistance was utilized in determining the route of immunity transmission from sow to young. The suckling young of immune sows, vaccinated on the 7th day or earlier, showed no reaction to the virus. Their hand-fed litter mates, however, were susceptible and reacted with the formation of vesicles. These observations indicate that the porcine placenta is largely impermeable to protective substances and establish the fact that colostrum functions as the vehicle for their transmission as it does for antibodies. PMID:19870106

  6. Polymerase Discordance in Novel Swine Influenza H3N2v Constellations Is Tolerated in Swine but Not Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Nagy, Tamas; Gabbard, Jon; Lee, Christopher; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA) segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA) showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection. PMID:25330303

  7. Polymerase discordance in novel swine influenza H3N2v constellations is tolerated in swine but not human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Powell

    Full Text Available Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.

  8. Improved culture methods for isolation of Salmonella organisms from swine feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Mortensen, Alicja

    2000-01-01

    Objective-To compare 3 alternative culture techniques for the detection of Salmonella organisms in swine feces with a modification of the international Standard Organization (ISO) 6579 standard protocol. Sample Population-Fecal samples from swine herds suspected of having Salmonella infections....... Results-Comparing the Salmonella culture results of 183 swine fecal samples, the diagnostic sensitivity of the SPRINT protocol (0.86) was not significantly different than the diagnostic sensitivity of the modified ISO protocol (0.80), although it was 24 hours faster. The SPRINT protocol could detect 5...

  9. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  10. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Swine Influenza Vaccine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjot Basra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1 and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR chains, known as the “shared epitope”, which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the “shared epitope” may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.

  11. Classical swine fever in pigs: recent developments and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Vishal; Nandi, S; Ravishankar, C; Upmanyu, V; Verma, Rishendra

    2014-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most devastating epizootic diseases of pigs, causing high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of clinical signs and similarity in disease manifestations to other diseases make CSF difficult to diagnose with certainty. The disease is further complicated by the presence of a number of different strains belonging to three phylogenetic groups. Advanced diagnostic techniques allow detection of antigens or antibodies in clinical samples, leading to implementation of proper and effective control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods, including portable real-time PCR, provide diagnosis in a few hours with precision and accuracy, even at the point of care. The disease is controlled by following a stamping out policy in countries where vaccination is not practiced, whereas immunization with live attenuated vaccines containing the 'C' strain is effectively used to control the disease in endemic countries. To overcome the problem of differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals, different types of marker vaccines, with variable degrees of efficacy, along with companion diagnostic assays have been developed and may be useful in controlling and even eradicating the disease in the foreseeable future. The present review aims to provide an overview and status of CSF as a whole with special reference to swine husbandry in India.

  12. Dewatering of phosphorus extracted from liquid swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szögi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B; Hunt, Patrick G

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from liquid swine manure is an attractive technology when on-farm application of liquid swine manure is not an option. We developed a technology that enables separation of this P, but its high moisture content makes transportation difficult. In this work, we investigated dewatering procedures to concentrate the P product. Sludge rich in calcium phosphate (> 20% P2O5) was obtained using a field prototype, and it was further dewatered using a combination of polymer treatment and filter bags. Anionic polyacrylamide polymer treatment (> or = 20 mg/L) was effective to flocculate the P-rich sludge, which enhanced filtration and dewatering. Without polymer, filtration was incomplete due to clogging of filters. Non-woven polypropylene and monofilament filter bag fabrics with mesh size 99% of suspended solids and total P. Solids content dramatically increased from about 1.5% to > 90%. These dewatered solids can be transported more economically off the farm for use as a valuable fertilizer material.

  13. Common swine models of cardiovascular disease for research and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisóstomo, Verónica; Sun, Fei; Maynar, Manuel; Báez-Díaz, Claudia; Blanco, Virginia; Garcia-Lindo, Monica; Usón-Gargallo, Jesús; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major health concern and therefore an important topic in biomedical research. Large animal models allow researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of new cardiovascular procedures in systems that resemble human anatomy; additionally, they can be used to emulate scenarios for training purposes. Among the many biomedical models that are described in published literature, it is important that researchers understand and select those that are best suited to achieve the aims of their research, that facilitate the humane care and management of their research animals and that best promote the high ethical standards required of animal research. In this resource the authors describe some common swine models that can be easily incorporated into regular practices of research and training at biomedical institutions. These models use both native and altered vascular anatomy of swine to carry out research protocols, such as testing biological reactions to implanted materials, surgically creating aneurysms using autologous tissue and inducing myocardial infarction through closed-chest procedures. Such models can also be used for training, where native and altered vascular anatomy allow medical professionals to learn and practice challenging techniques in anatomy that closely simulates human systems.

  14. Discharge of swine wastes risks water quality and food safety: Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from swine sources to the receiving environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liang-Ying; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Su, Hao-Chang; Chen, Jun; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Swine feedlots are widely considered as a potential hotspot for promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. ARGs could enter the environment via discharge of animal wastes, thus resulting in contamination of soil, water, and food. We investigated the dissemination and diversification of 22 ARGs conferring resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicols, and macrolides as well as the occurrence of 18 corresponding antibiotics from three swine feedlots to the receiving water, soil environments and vegetables. Most ARGs and antibiotics survived the on-farm waste treatment processes in the three swine farms. Elevated diversity of ARGs was observed in the receiving environments including river water and vegetable field soils when compared with respective controls. The variation of ARGs along the vertical soil profiles of vegetable fields indicated enrichment and migration of ARGs. Detection of various ARGs and antibiotic residues in vegetables fertilized by swine wastes could be of great concern to the general public. This research demonstrated the contribution of swine wastes to the occurrence and development of antibiotic resistance determinants in the receiving environments and potential risks to food safety and human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vaccine development for protection against systemic infections with Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis are important invasive bacterial pathogens of swine, commonly causing meningitis, arthritis, polyserositis, and septicemia. Due to the presence of many serotypes and high genotypic variability, efficacious vaccines are not readily available. We are us...

  16. Identification of atypical porcine pestivirus infection in swine herds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Wu, K; Liu, J; Ge, S; Xiao, Y; Shang, Y; Ning, Z

    2017-08-01

    Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) have been detected in swine herds from the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and most recently in Austria, suggesting a wide geographic distribution of this novel virus. Here, for the first time, we reported APPV infection in swine herds in China. Newborn piglets from two separate swine herds in Guangdong province were found showing typical congenital tremors in July and August 2016. RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed APPV infection occurred. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Chinese APPV strains, GD1 and GD2, formed independent branch from the USA, Germany and the Netherlands. Nucleotide identities between members of the APPV ranged between 83.1% and 83.5%, and this showed APPV is highly diverse. It is apparent that this provides the first molecular evidence of APPV infection in swine herds in China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. ADM1-based modeling of anaerobic digestion of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers present challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal has been tested as a simple and cheap method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane potential and the biogas productivity of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was tested in CSTR-type digesters fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretrea...

  18. Serological and molecular evidence of hepadnavirus infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine R Vieira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Recently, investigations in a swine herd identified evidence of the existence of a novel member of the Hepadnavirus family endemic in swine. The aim of this study was to investigate the serological and molecular markers of Hepadnavirus circulation in Brazilian domestic swine and wild boar herds, and to evaluate the identity with HBV and other Hepadnaviruses reported previously. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. For the study, 376 swine were screened for hepatitis B virus serological markers. Analyses were performed in serum samples using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits (DiaSorin® for anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs. Reactive and undetermined swine serum samples were selected to perform DNA viral extraction (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, Qiagen®, partial genome amplification and genome sequencing. [b]Results[/b]. From 376 swine samples analysed, 28 (7.45% were reactive to anti-HBc, 3 (0.80% to HBsAg and 6 (1.6% to anti-HBs. Besides, more 17 (4.52% swine samples analyzed were classified in the grey zone of the EIA test to anti-HBc and 2 (0.53% to HBsAg. From 49 samples molecularly analyzed after serological trial, 4 samples showed a positive result for the qualitative PCR for Hepadnavirus. Phylogenetic reconstruction using partial genome sequencing (360 bp of 3 samples showed similarity with HBV with 90.8–96.3% of identity. [b]Conclusions.[/b] Serological and molecular data showed evidence of the circulation of a virus similar to hepatitis B virus in swine.

  19. The Use of Bioaerosol Sampling for Airborne Virus Surveillance in Swine Production Facilities: A Mini Review

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin D. Anderson; Benjamin D. Anderson; John A. Lednicky; Montserrat Torremorell; Gregory C. Gray

    2017-01-01

    Modern swine production facilities typically house dense populations of pigs and may harbor a variety of potentially zoonotic viruses that can pass from one pig generation to another and periodically infect human caretakers. Bioaerosol sampling is a common technique that has been used to conduct microbial risk assessments in swine production, and other similar settings, for a number of years. However, much of this work seems to have been focused on the detection of non-viral microbial agents ...

  20. The action of certain antibiotics and ether on swine enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, R G

    1971-01-01

    The susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to the action of three antibiotics and diethyl ether was determined. Infected swine were used in an in vivo sensitivity detection system. The parameter of susceptibility was lesion prophylaxis. In vivo, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae appeared to be resistant to diethyl ether, tylosin tartrate, and erythromycin, but was susceptible to the action of chlortetracycline. Chlortetracycline was effective in preventing the development of lesions when given at levels which would be practical in commercial swine operations.

  1. Serological study of influenza viruses in veterinarians working with swine in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Sánchez-Betancourt, Iván; Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2017-06-01

    Humans and swine are both affected by influenza viruses, and swine are considered a potential source of new influenza viruses. Transmission of influenza viruses across species is well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of different influenza virus subtypes in veterinarians working for the Mexican swine industry, using a hemagglutination inhibition test. All sera tested were collected in July 2011. The data were analysed using a generalized linear model and a linear model to study the possible association of seroprevalence with the age of the veterinarian, vaccination status, and biosecurity level of the farm where they work. The observed seroprevalence was 12.3%, 76.5%, 46.9%, and 11.1% for the human subtypes of pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1), seasonal human influenza virus (hH1N1), the swine subtypes of classical swine influenza virus (swH1N1), and triple-reassortant swine influenza virus (swH3N2), respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that age was associated with hH1N1 seroprevalence (P veterinarians, whereas all of those not vaccinated tested negative for this subtype. Our findings suggest that, between the onset of the 2009 pandemic and July 2011, the Mexican veterinarians working in the swine industry did not have immunity to the pH1N1 virus; hence, they would have been at risk for infection with this virus if this subtype had been circulating in swine in Mexico prior to 2011.

  2. Potential of Duckweed for Swine Wastewater Nutrient removal and Biomass Valorisation through Anaerobic Co-digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, phytodepuration has been considered an efficient technology to treat wastewaters. The present study reports a bench scale depuration assay of swine wastewater using Lemna minor. The highest observed growth rate obtained in swine wastewater was 3.1 ± 0.3 gDW m−2 day−1 and the highest nitrogen and phosphorus uptake were 140 mg N m−2 day−1 and 3.47 mg P m−2 day−1, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency in the swine wastewater assay was 58.9 ± 2.0%. Furthermore, the biomass valorisation by anaerobic co-digestion with swine wastewater was assessed. Results showed a clear improvement in specific methane production rate (around 40% when compared to mono-substrate anaerobic digestion. The highest methane specific production, 131.0 ± 0.8 mL CH4 g−1 chemical oxygen demand, was obtained with a mixture containing 100 g of duckweed per liter of pre-treated swine wastewater. The water-nutrients-energy nexus approach showed to be promising for swine waste management.

  3. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular characterization of Belgian pseudorabies virus isolates from domestic swine and wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpoest, Sara; Cay, Ann Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

    2014-08-06

    Aujeszky's disease is an economically important disease in domestic swine caused by suid herpesvirus 1, also called pseudorabies virus (PRV). In several European countries, including Belgium, the virus has successfully been eradicated from the domestic swine population. The presence of PRV in the wild boar population however poses a risk for possible reintroduction of the virus into the domestic pig population. It is therefore important to assess the genetic relatedness between circulating strains and possible epidemiological links. In this study, nine historical Belgian domestic swine isolates that circulated before 1990 and five recent wild boar isolates obtained since 2006 from Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were genetically characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and phylogenetic analysis. While all wild boar isolates were characterized as type I RFLP genotypes, the RFLP patterns of the domestic swine isolates suggest that a shift from genotype I to genotype II might have occurred in the 1980s in the domestic population. By phylogenetic analysis, Belgian wild boar isolates belonging to both clade A and B were observed, while all domestic swine isolates clustered within clade A. The joint phylogenetic analysis of both wild boar and domestic swine strains showed that some isolates with identical sequences were present within both populations, raising the question whether these strains represent an increased risk for reintroduction of the virus into the domestic population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Eperythrozoon suis antibodies in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, F S; Liu, M C; Chou, S M; Zachary, J F; Smith, A R

    1992-03-01

    An ELISA was developed and tested to detect antibodies to Eperythrozoon suis in swine. Results were compared with those of the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Antigen isolated from swine heavily infected with E suis was used for both tests. Comparison of the ELISA with the IHA test revealed a significant (P less than 0.001) correlation between results. Of 114 samples obtained from 9 swine infected with E suis, 87.7% were seropositive (titer greater than or equal to 200) via the ELISA, and 80.7% were seropositive (titer greater than or equal to 20) via the IHA test. The sensitivity of the ELISA was greater than that of the IHA test. All blood samples obtained from specific-pathogen-free swine tested negative for E suis antibody. Cross-reactions were not observed between E suis antigen and antisera against various swine and cattle disease agents using ELISA. We concluded that the ELISA may be used for rapid and effective diagnosis of infection with E suis in swine.

  6. Evaluation of Neurophysiologic and Systematic Changes during Aeromedical Evacuation and en Route Care of Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    long-range aero-medical evacuation has adverse effects on brain blood flow and tissue oxygenation, as well as lung function in swine models of...neurotrauma and polytrauma. We plan to investigate the effects of aero-medical evacuation on neurophysiology and lung function in swine models of TBI with...Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard McCarron, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry M. Jackson Foundation Bethesda

  7. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  8. [Classical swine fever in wild boars in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, M A; Thür, B; Vanzetti, T; Schleiss, W; Schmidt, J; Griot, C

    1999-01-01

    In May 1998, wild boars with classical swine fever (CSF) symptoms were detected in the southern part (Canton Ticino) of Switzerland. CSF virus was isolated from the submitted samples and RT-PCR followed by direct nucleotide sequencing of the 5' non-translated region showed that this virus was identical to the isolate previously recognized in wild boars from the area of Varese (Italy). In most animals, antibodies to CSF virus were detected as well. An immediate measurement was taken by limiting the movement of pigs and identifying both risk and surveillance zones. In order not to disturb potentially infected wild boars within their habitat a complete hunting prohibition for 2 months was enforced. The different possibilities of the control of CSF outbreaks in wild boars are discussed.

  9. Seroprevalence of African Swine Fever in Senegal, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Ismaila; Grosbois, Vladimir; Jori, Ferran; Blanco, Esther; Vial, Laurence; Akakpo, Ayayi J.; Bada-Alhambedji, Rianatou; Kone, Philippe; Roger, Francois L.

    2011-01-01

    In Senegal, during 2002–2007, 11 outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) were reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Despite this, little was known of the epidemiology of ASF in the country. To determine the prevalence of ASF in Senegal in 2006, we tested serum specimens collected from a sample of pigs in the 3 main pig-farming regions for antibodies to ASF virus using an ELISA. Of 747 serum samples examined, 126 were positive for ASF, suggesting a prevalence of 16.9%. The estimated prevalences within each of the regions (Fatick, Kolda, and Ziguinchor) were 13.3%, 7.8%, and 22.1%, respectively, with statistical evidence to suggest that the prevalence in Ziguinchor was higher than in Fatick or Kolda. This regional difference is considered in relation to different farming systems and illegal trade with neighboring countries where the infection is endemic. PMID:21192854

  10. Genetic typing of recent classical swine fever isolates from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S S; Hemadri, D; Shankar, B P; Raghavendra, A G; Veeresh, H; Sindhoora, B; Chandan, S; Sreekala, K; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K

    2010-03-24

    Seventeen classical swine fever virus (CSFV) isolates recovered during the period of 3 years (2006-2008) from India were subjected to nucleotide sequencing in the 5' untranslated region (UTR). For genetic typing, 150 nucleotides within this region were used. For better epizootiological understanding, 39 nucleotide sequences of the above region, including 13 Indian CSFV sequences, available either in the Genbank or published literature were also included in the study. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the Indian isolates could be grouped in to two subgroups, viz., 1.1 and 2.2. The study also revealed predominance of subgroup 1.1 and involvement of viruses of more than one subgroup in an outbreak. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Myocardial infarction and intramyocardial injection models in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Frederic C; Telukuntla, Kartik S; Karantalis, Vasileios; Suncion, Viky Y; Heldman, Alan W; Mushtaq, Muzammil; Williams, Adam R; Hare, Joshua M

    2012-07-12

    Sustainable and reproducible large animal models that closely replicate the clinical sequelae of myocardial infarction (MI) are important for the translation of basic science research into bedside medicine. Swine are well accepted by the scientific community for cardiovascular research, and they represent an established animal model for preclinical trials for US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of novel therapies. Here we present a protocol for using porcine models of MI created with a closed-chest coronary artery occlusion-reperfusion technique. This creates a model of MI encompassing the anteroapical, lateral and septal walls of the left ventricle. This model infarction can be easily adapted to suit individual study design and enables the investigation of a variety of possible interventions. This model is therefore a useful tool for translational research into the pathophysiology of ventricular remodeling and is an ideal testing platform for novel biological approaches targeting regenerative medicine. This model can be created in approximately 8-10 h.

  12. Recovery of gastrointestinal swine parasites in anaerobic biodigester systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañon-Franco, William Alberto; Henao-Agudelo, Ricardo Andrés; Pérez-Bedoya, José Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Solid and liquid wastes from livestock operations represent important challenges for animal production regarding their impact in the environment and public health. Parasitological tests performed on 80 samples of affluent and effluent waters from three anaerobic biodigestors with flexible structure from swine farms of Caldas - Colombia, showed the presence of Isospora suis (45%), Eimeria suis (42.5%), E. espinosa (35%), Strongyloides ransomi (28.8%), E. perminuta (12.5%), E. cerdonis (3.8%), and E. porci (2.5%). The additional finding of eggs of Taenia spp. in 10% of the samples was probably caused by a connection between the human sewage system and the biodigester. Although we observed a mean decrease of 65.6% of parasites, these levels were insufficient to meet the minimum requirement set by Engelberg's guidelines regarding water quality. This study demonstrates the serious environmental impact that an inadequately treated animal wastewater represents, and has important implications for water resources and human health.

  13. Identification of swine influenza virus epitopes and analysis of multiple specificities expressed by cytotoxic T cell subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Riber, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide binding and presentation are essential for antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and swine MHC class I molecules, also termed swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), thus play a crucial role in the process that leads...... to elimination of viruses such as swine influenza virus (SwIV). This study describes the identification of SLA-presented peptide epitopes that are targets for a swine CTL response, and further analyses multiple specificities expressed by SwIV activated CTL subsets. Findings: Four SwIV derived peptides were...

  14. ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM SWINE WASTEWATER USING MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimezie Jason Ogugbue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation from swine wastewater using microbial fuel cell (MFC was investigated. Swine wastewater was collected into dual-chambered (aerobic and anaerobic fuel cell. The maximum power output using copper and carbon electrodes were 250.54 and 52.33 µW, while 10.0 and 5.0 cm salt bridge length between the cathode and anode were 279.50 and 355.26 µW, respectively. Potassium permanganate and ordinal water gave a maximum power output of 1287.8 and 13 9.18 µW. MFCs utilize microbial communities to degrade organic materials found within wastewater and converted stored chemical energy to electrical energy in a single step. The initial bacterial and fungal counts were 7.4×106 and 1.1×103 CFU ml-1. Bacterial counts steadily increased with time to 1.40×107 CFU ml-1 while fungal count declined to 4.4×106 CFU ml-1 after day 60. The declined in microbial counts may be attributed to the time necessary for acclimatization of microbes to the anode. The genera identified were Bacillus, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus and Rhizopus. These microbes acted as primary and secondary utilizers, utilizing carbon and other organics of the wastewater. Chemical parameters indicated that the biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 91.4–23.2 mg/L, giving 75% while the chemical oxygen demand ranged from 243.1–235.2 mg/L, representing 3.3%. Although, the metabolic activities of microbes were responsible for the observed degradation, leading to electricity, the overall power output depended on the distance between the anode and cathode compartment, types of electrode materials and mediators and oxygen reaction at the cathode.

  15. Probiotic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from swine intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Balasingham

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A study was conducted with the objective to isolate probiotic microorganisms from swine intestine. Materials and Methods: In this study 63 isolates (24 caeca, 24 colon mucosal scrapings, and 15 rectal swab samples were collected from Large White Yorkshire pigs. The isolates were inoculated and grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 48 h and subjected to morphological identification. Colonies having Gram-positive rods were selected for further physiological and biochemical identification tests, which were conducted in triplicate in two runs for each of the selected isolates using a standard protocol. Probiotic properties among the identified species were determined through the implementation of several tests related with pH tolerance, bile tolerance, and antimicrobial activity. Results: Morphological identification revealed that only 23 isolates were Gram-positive rods. Physiological tests performed on these 23 isolates further revealed that four of them did not exhibit any growth, at all conditions studied. The rest 19 isolates were, therefore, selected and subjected to biochemical tests. Six isolates were rejected because they were oxidase and nitrate reduction positive. From the 13 isolates subjected to sugar fermentation tests, speciation of only two isolates could be ascertained, one of the isolates showed characteristics for Lactobacillus acidophilus and the other for Lactobacillus plantarum. These two isolates were assessed for the strain possessing maximum probiotic property, and it was inferred that both - L. plantarum and L. acidophilus could tolerate a wide pH range (2-9, a wide bile concentration (0.05-0.3% and revealed antimicrobial activity toward Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter spp. Conclusion: L. plantarum and L. acidophilus were isolated from swine intestine and were found to have good probiotic properties.

  16. Novel swine model of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Osamu; Iijima, Takehiko; Kohira, Takahiro; Teranishi, Mai; Kawasaki, Shin; Saito, Akira; Mikami, Yu; Sugiura, Asuka; Hashimoto, Shiho; Shimada, Eiko; Uchikawa, Makoto; Matsuhashi, Mika; Tsuno, Nelson H; Tanaka, Minoru; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Nagase, Takahide; Tadokoro, Kenji; Takahashi, Koki

    2014-12-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening complication of blood transfusion. Antibodies against human leukocyte antigens in donors' plasma are the major causes of TRALI. Several animal models of TRALI have been developed, and the mechanism underlying TRALI development has been extensively investigated using rodent models. Although sheep models of nonimmune TRALI have been developed, large-animal models of antibody-mediated TRALI are not yet available. To develop a swine model of TRALI, male Clawn strain miniature pigs were used. A monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against swine leukocyte antigens (SLAs) Class I (4G8, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg body weight [BW]) and a control antibody (1.0 mg/kg BW) were injected into the peripheral vein after priming with or without 1 μg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 3 each). Lung injury was assessed using PaO2 /FiO2 (P/F) ratio and by chest X-ray imaging. Histopathologic analysis was also conducted. Lung injury could be induced by injecting 4G8 at an amount of 1.0 mg/kg BW, after LPS. The P/F ratio 90 minutes after the administration of 4G8 significantly decreased (p Lung injury was confirmed by histopathologic analysis. Lung injury in pigs was successfully induced by anti-SLA MoAb. Priming with LPS is a prerequisite for inducing lung injury and the amount of the antibody is a critical condition. © 2014 AABB.

  17. African swine fever virus uses macropinocytosis to enter host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena G Sánchez

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV, which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. Presently, no specific protection or vaccine against ASF is available, despite the high hazard that the continued occurrence of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the recent outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007, and the potential dissemination to neighboring countries, represents. Although virus entry is a remarkable target for the development of protection tools, knowledge of the ASFV entry mechanism is still very limited. Whereas early studies have proposed that the virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, the specific mechanism used by ASFV remains uncertain. Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V, and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. By a combination of optical and electron microscopy, we show that the virus causes cytoplasm membrane perturbation, blebbing and ruffles. We have also found that internalization of the virions depends on actin reorganization, activity of Na(+/H(+ exchangers, and signaling events typical of the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. Inhibition of these key regulators of macropinocytosis, as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, results in a considerable decrease in ASFV entry and infection. In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved.

  18. Ochratoxin A in serum of swine from different Brazilian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, César D; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Direito, Glória M; Keller, Kelly M; Dalcero, Ana M; da Rocha Rosa, Carlos A

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the current study were to monitor the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the serum of slaughtered swine and to investigate its distribution in 4 major geographical regions of Brazil. A total of 400 samples of serum were collected from 4 major states of Brazil (100 samples each). Ochratoxin A concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In Santa Catarina State, 60% of the samples had OTA concentrations ranging from 4.01 to 75.4 mg/l. In Mato Grosso State, 75% of the samples had OTA concentrations ranging from 0.17 to 46.79 mg/l. Bahia State samples had OTA concentrations ranging from 2.72 to 4.13 mg/l in 36% of the samples, whereas 68% of the samples from Rio de Janeiro State had OTA concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 115 mg/l. Only Santa Catarina State and Rio de Janeiro State had serum samples that exceeded 75 mg/l OTA in 20% and 2% of the samples, respectively. A direct relationship between the higher concentrations of OTA in serum from the States of Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro and the highest concentrations of OTA in food intended for animal consumption in the same 2 Brazilian states was found in the present study. Ochratoxin A distribution in foodstuffs is very heterogeneous, and an alternative method by which to monitor the presence of OTA in feed includes analyzing swine serum samples, which reflect the toxin content of the ingested feed. This strategy could prevent the occurrence of ochratoxicosis in animal production, reduce economic losses, and minimize hazards to human health.

  19. Swine cortical and cancellous bone: histomorphometric and densitometric characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Andreis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Swine bone morphology, composition and remodelling are similar to humans’, therefore they are considered good models in bone-related research. They have been used for several studies involving bone growth, bone and cartilage fractures and femoral head osteonecrosis. Nevertheless, the literature about pig normal bone features is incomplete. This work aims to fill the literature gaps on the microarchitecture and Bone Mineral Density (BMD of swine femoral diaphysis and distal epiphysis and tibial plateau and diaphysis. Materials and methods: Five hind limbs were collected from slaughtered 80-100 kg pigs. Microscopic analysis of cortical and cancellous bone from middle/distal femur and proximal/middle tibia was performed to determine basic histomorphometric parameters at different sites. Dual-energy X-Rays Absorptiometry was also employed to evaluate BMD. ANOVA and correlation between BMD, bone area (BA and cortical thickness were performed. Results and discussion: Diaphyseal cortical bone was mostly plexiform both in the tibia and the femur; primary/secondary osteons without clear organization were also found. Mean values for bone area, bone perimeter, trabecular width, number and separation and BMD at different anatomical sites were defined. No significant difference was found for these values at different anatomical sites. BMD proved to be positively correlated with cortical thickness (r=0,80; p<0,01. Despite the small sample size, these results seem homogeneous. They could therefore represent reference values for normal bone parameters in pigs. Applied anatomy and regenerative medicine, in fact, demand very precise information about bone micromorphology, composition and density to provide reliable indication in bone substitutes building. Moreover, since the interpretation of bone abnormalities is based on mastering normal bone characteristics, the definition of reference parameters is mandatory to avoid misinterpretation and

  20. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Maria Rathmann

    2014-01-01

    of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly...... occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular...

  1. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...

  2. Effect of the presence of the antimicrobial tylosin in swine waste on anaerobic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angenent, Largus T; Mau, Margit; George, Usha; Zahn, James A; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2008-05-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), seeded with a biomass inoculum that previously had not been exposed to the macrolide antimicrobial tylosin (mixture of Tylosin A, B, C, and D), was operated for 3 months with swine waste without Tylosin A and for 9 months with swine waste containing Tylosin A at an average concentration of 1.6 mg/L. When swine waste with tylosin was fed to the ASBR, methane production and volatile solids removal did not appear to be inhibited and a methane yield of 0.47 L methane per gram volatile solids fed to the ASBR was observed. Throughout the operating period, Tylosin A levels in ASBR biomass and effluent were below the detection limit of 0.01 mg/L. However, during the first 3 months of operation, the levels of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB)-resistant bacteria in the ASBR biomass increased substantially as determined by hybridizations with oligonucleotide probes designed to target MLSB-resistant bacteria. Since no Tylosin A was present in the swine waste during the initial 3 months, the presence of MLSB-resistant bacteria in the swine waste was likely the reason for the increase in resistance. Subsequently, the levels of MLSB-resistant bacteria in ASBR biomass stabilized with an average of 44.9% for the 9 months of operation with swine waste containing Tylosin A. The level of MLSB-resistant bacteria in the swine waste fed to the ASBR during this period averaged 18.0%. The results indicate that anaerobic treatment of a waste stream containing tylosin was effective (based on reactor performance) and that the level of resistant bacteria in the ASBR was substantially higher than in the waste stream fed to this system.

  3. Differentiated swine airway epithelial cell cultures for the investigation of influenza A virus infection and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Allen C; Karasin, Alexander I; Olsen, Christopher W

    2013-03-01

    Differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures have been utilized to investigate cystic fibrosis, wound healing, and characteristics of viral infections. These cultures, grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI) in media with defined hormones and growth factors, recapitulate many aspects of the in vivo respiratory tract and allow for experimental studies at the cellular level. To optimize growth conditions for differentiated swine airway epithelial cultures and to use these cultures to examine influenza virus infection and replication. Primary swine respiratory epithelial cells were grown at an air-liquid interface with varying amounts of retinoic acid and epidermal growth factor. Cells grown with optimized concentrations of these factors for 4 weeks differentiated into multilayer epithelial cell cultures resembling the lining of the swine respiratory tract. Influenza virus infection and replication were examined in these cultures. Retinoic acid promoted ciliogenesis, whereas epidermal growth factor controlled the thickness of the pseudoepithelium. The optimal concentrations for differentiated swine cell cultures were 1·5 ng/ml epidermal growth factor and 100nm retinoic acid. Influenza A viruses infected and productively replicated in these cultures in the absence of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that the cultures express a protease capable of activating influenza virus hemagglutinin. Differences in virus infection and replication characteristics found previously in pigs in vivo were recapitulated in the swine cultures. This system could be a useful tool for a range of applications, including investigating influenza virus species specificity, defining cell tropism of influenza viruses in the swine respiratory epithelium, and studying other swine respiratory diseases. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Effect of diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome on skeletal muscles of Ossabaw miniature swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bradley A; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Wenzel, James W; Sturek, Michael; Kostrominova, Tatiana Y

    2011-05-01

    Ossabaw swine fed excess kilocalorie diet develop metabolic syndrome (MS) characterized by obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance with/without dyslipidemia. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that MS would have a detrimental effect on skeletal muscle structure and cause changes in the expression of myosin heavy chains (MHCs). Adult male Ossabaw swine were fed for 24 wk high-fructose or high-fat/cholesterol/fructose diets to induce normolipidemic MS (MetS) or dyslipidemic MS (DMetS), respectively, and were compared with the lean swine on control diet. MetS swine showed mild MS, lacking increases in total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, both of which were highly upregulated in DMetS swine. There was an ∼1.2-fold increase in the cross-sectional areas of muscle fibers in MetS and DMetS groups compared with control for biceps femoris and plantaris muscles. In plantaris muscles, DMetS diet caused an ∼2-fold decrease in slow MHC mRNA and protein expression and an ∼1.2- to 1.8-fold increase in the number of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) droplets without large changes in the size of the droplets. There was a trend to the decrease in slow MHC expression in muscles of swine on MetS diet. The number of IMCL droplets in muscle fibers of the MetS group was comparable to controls. These data correlate well with the data on total plasma cholesterol (control = 60, MetS = 70, and DMetS = 298 mg/dl) and LDL (control = 29, MetS = 30, and DMetS = 232 mg/dl). We conclude that structural changes observed in skeletal muscle of obese Ossabaw swine correlate with those previously reported for obese humans.

  5. Comparative virulence of wild-type H1N1pdm09 influenza A isolates in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningson, Jamie N; Rajao, Daniela S; Kitikoon, Pravina; Lorusso, Alessio; Culhane, Marie R; Lewis, Nicola S; Anderson, Tavis K; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-03-23

    In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) influenza A virus (IAV) reached pandemic status and was soon after detected in pigs worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether differences in the HA protein can affect pathogenicity and antigenicity of H1N1pdm09 in swine. We compared lung pathology, viral replication and shedding and the antigenic relationships of four wild-type H1N1pdm09 viruses in pigs: one human (CA/09) and three isolated in swine after the pandemic (IL/09, IL/10, and MN/10). The swine strains were selected based upon unique amino acid substitutions in the HA protein. All selected viruses resulted in mild disease and viral shedding through nasal and oral fluids, however, viral replication and the degree of pathology varied between the isolates. A/Swine/IL/5265/2010 (IL/10), with substitutions I120M, S146G, S186P, V252M, had lower viral titers in the lungs and nasal secretions and fewer lung lesions. The other two swine viruses caused respiratory pathology and replicated to titers similar to the human CA/09, although MN/10 (with mutations D45Y, K304E, A425S) had lower nasal shedding. Swine-adapted H1N1pdm09 have zoonotic potential, and have reassorted with other co-circulating swine viruses, influencing the evolution of IAV in swine globally. Further, our results suggest that amino acid changes in the HA gene have the potential to alter the virulence of H1N1pdm09 in swine. Importantly, the limited clinical signs in pigs could result in continued circulation of these viruses with other endemic swine IAVs providing opportunities for reassortment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Evaluation of Faecalibacterium 16S rDNA genetic markers for accurate identification of swine faecal waste by quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chuanren; Cui, Yamin; Zhao, Yi; Zhai, Jun; Zhang, Baoyun; Zhang, Kun; Sun, Da; Chen, Hang

    2016-10-01

    A genetic marker within the 16S rRNA gene of Faecalibacterium was identified for use in a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect swine faecal contamination in water. A total of 146,038 bacterial sequences were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing. By comparative bioinformatics analysis of Faecalibacterium sequences with those of numerous swine and other animal species, swine-specific Faecalibacterium 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified and Polymerase Chain Okabe (PCR) primer sets designed and tested against faecal DNA samples from swine and non-swine sources. Two PCR primer sets, PFB-1 and PFB-2, showed the highest specificity to swine faecal waste and had no cross-reaction with other animal samples. PFB-1 and PFB-2 amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences from 50 samples of swine with positive ratios of 86 and 90%, respectively. We compared swine-specific Faecalibacterium qPCR assays for the purpose of quantifying the newly identified markers. The quantification limits (LOQs) of PFB-1 and PFB-2 markers in environmental water were 6.5 and 2.9 copies per 100 ml, respectively. Of the swine-associated assays tested, PFB-2 was more sensitive in detecting the swine faecal waste and quantifying the microbial load. Furthermore, the microbial abundance and diversity of the microbiomes of swine and other animal faeces were estimated using operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The species specificity was demonstrated for the microbial populations present in various animal faeces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding swine flu among para-medical workers in a tertiary care hospital in Pondicherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S S; Kuppuraman, D; Boratne, A V; Abraham, S B; Singh, Z

    2011-03-01

    Para-medical workers (PMWs) are first contacts for suspected Swine flu patients and also the media to spread key messages regarding its prevention and control strategies. Present study was conducted to ascertain knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Swine flu among para-medical workers in a tertiary care hospital. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among PMWs during May-July, 2010. KAP regarding Swine flu was collected through pre-designed questionnaire and information on attitude towards Swine flu was also collected through FGD-free list analysis. Data was analysed using Epi_Info and Anthropac software. A total of 237 PMWs responded. Majority of the PMWs knew about signs and symptoms (89.03%), mode of transmission (91.56%) and route of transmission (91.98%) of Swine flu. Television (67.51%) was the major source of information. 75.53% and 58.65% PMWs respectively knew about organ of the body chiefly affected and type of specimen to be collected during Swine flu. 196 (82.7%) and 191 (80.59%) PMWs respectively knew about availability of vaccine and treatment against Swine flu. 94.09% PMWs stated that extra precautions such as use of face mask, frequent handwashing, use of gloves etc. should be taken while handling any suspected Swine flu case and 73.84% PMWs do take such precautions. 80.17% PMWs opined that epidemic of Swine flu can be halted at current stage. In the present study, PMWs possessed good knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Swine flu and this fact should be utilized while designing and guiding containment strategies against existing Swine flu epidemic.

  8. 9 CFR 94.20 - Gelatin derived from horses or swine, or from ruminants that have not been in any region where...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gelatin derived from horses or swine... § 94.20 Gelatin derived from horses or swine, or from ruminants that have not been in any region where bovine spongiform encephalopathy exists. Gelatin derived from horses or swine, or from ruminants that...

  9. Absence of human innate immune evasion complex in LA-MRSA ST5 strains isolated from pigs, swine facilities, and humans with swine contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Since its first ties to swine, livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has raised public health concerns because livestock may be the largest reservoir of MRSA outside the hospital setting. In contrast to Europe and Asia, where the primary sequence type...

  10. Swine models in the design of more effective medical countermeasures against organophosphorus poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorandeu, F.; Mikler, J.R.; Thiermann, H.; Tenn, C.; Davidson, C.; Sawyer, T.W.; Lallement, G.; Worek, F.

    2007-01-01

    Although the three most commonly used large mammal species in the safety assessment of drugs remain the dog, the macaque and the marmoset, swine, especially minipigs, have also been widely used over the years in many toxicological studies. Swine present a number of interesting biological and physiological characteristics. Similarities in skin properties with humans have led to extensive in vitro and in vivo studies. There is a specific interest in cardiovascular research, as well as in anaesthesiology and critical care medicine due to common features of swine and human physiology. Although knowledge of swine brain structure and functions remains incomplete, data does exist. The multiple blood sampling that is necessary in pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic studies are possible, as well as multiparametric monitoring and interventions with equipment used in human clinical settings. Practicality (handling), scientific (stress reduction) and ethical (invasive monitoring) reasons have led research teams to incorporate anaesthesia into their paradigms which makes the analysis of data increasingly difficult. Although not substantiated by scientific data, the swine appears to have an intermediate position in the scale of public perception between non-human primates and animals commonly referred to as pets (i.e. dogs and cats) and rodents. The benefits of the swine model justify the use of these animals in the design of more effective medical countermeasures against known chemical warfare agents (nerve agents, vesicants and lung damaging agents). Exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides represents a severe health issue in developing countries, while OP intoxication with the more lethal military nerve agents is not only of military concern but also a terrorist threat. Tailoring therapeutic regimens to the reality of OP poisoning is of the utmost importance when little experimental data and sparse human clinical data are available in the decision making process. We will

  11. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vienna R. Brown

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV, which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.

  12. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Vienna R.; Bevins, Sarah N.

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar) densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation. PMID:29468165

  13. Histopathological Evaluation of Horse Serum-induced Immune Complex Vasculitis in Swine: Implication to Coronary Artery Lesions in Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saji Philip

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: HS can induce IC vasculitis in swine. The rashes and 2D echocardiographic and histopathological studies of the acute to healing phases showed close similarities with KD, and it is concluded that swine may serve as a unique experimental model for IC vasculitis and for various therapeutic trials.

  14. Modified live virus vaccine induces a distinct immune response profile compared to inactivated influenza A virus vaccines in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and antigenic diversity within H1 influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes circulating in swine is increasing. The need for cross-protective influenza vaccines in swine is necessary as the virus becomes more diverse. This study compared the humoral and cell-mediated immune response of modified live ...

  15. Continual re-introduction of human pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses into US swine, 2009-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human-to-swine transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses (pH1N1) increased the genetic diversity of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs) globally and is linked to the emergence of new pandemic threats, including H3N2v variants. Through phylogenetic analysis of contemporary swIAVs in the Unit...

  16. Deletion of the thymidine kinase gene induces complete attenuation of the Georgia isolate of African swine fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs. There are no vaccines to control Africa swine fever (ASF). Experimental vaccines have been developed using genetically modified live attenuated ASFVs obtained by specifically de...

  17. Sequence adaptations during growth of rescued classical swine fever viruses in cell culture and within infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne; Friis, Martin Barfred; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important disease of swine. Four different viruses were rescued from full-length cloned cDNAs derived from the Paderborn strain of CSFV. Three of these viruses had been modified by mutagenesis (with 7 or 8 nt changes) within stem 2 of the ...

  18. Interaction of CSFV E2 protein with swine host factors as detected by yeast two-hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    E2 is one of the envelope glycoproteins of pestiviruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). E2 is involved in several critical functions, including virus entry into target cells, induction of a protective immune response and virulence in swine. Howev...

  19. Prevalence and Abundance of Florfenicol and Linezolid Resistance Genes in Soils Adjacent to Swine Feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Wang, Yang; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Zheng; Du, Xiang-Dang; Jiang, Haiyang; Xia, Xi; Shen, Zhangqi; Ding, Shuangyang; Wu, Congming; Zhou, Bingrui; Wu, Yongning; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-08-30

    Florfenicol is extensively used in livestock to prevent or cure bacterial infections. However, it is not known whether the administration of florfenicol has resulted in the emergence and dissemination of florfenicol resistance genes (FRGs, including fexA, fexB, cfr, optrA, floR, and pexA) in microbial populations in surrounding farm environments. Here we collected soil samples for the detection of FRGs and the residue of florfenicol from six swine farms with the record of florfenicol usage. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and metagenomic sequencing revealed a significantly higher relative abundance of FRGs in the soils adjacent to the three swine farms where florfenicol was heavily used compared with the other sites. Meanwhile, the detectable levels of florfenicol were also identified in soils from two of these three farms using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It appears that amount of florfenicol used on swine farms and the spreading of soils with swine waste could promote the prevalence and abundance of FRGs, including the linezolid resistance genes cfr and optrA, in adjacent soils, and agricultural application of swine manure with florfenicol may have caused a residual level of florfenicol in the soils.

  20. Codigestion of Taihu blue algae with swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Hengfeng; Wang, Shouquan; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Codigestion of blue algae with swine manure has the highest CH 4 yield at ISR 2.0. • pH, TAN, N-NH 3 and VFAs confirmed the appropriate stability of the codigestion. • 35.44% VS reduction was achieved by codigestion of blue algae with swine manure. • Three key enzyme characteristics demonstrated the higher efficiencies of codigestion. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of Taihu blue algae and its codigestion with swine manure was evaluated at different inoculum substrate ratios (ISRs) from 0.5 to 3.0. Results showed that codigestion of blue algae with swine manure led to the highest methane (CH 4 ) production of 212.7 mL g −1 VS at ISR 2.0, while digestion of blue algae inoculated with granular sludge brought out the optimized CH 4 production of 73.5 mL g −1 VS at ISR 3.0. The values of pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), free ammonia nitrogen (N-NH 3 ) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) showed no significant difference between the digestion and codigestion, confirming the appropriate stability of the two batch anaerobic processes. Closer examination of VS removal rates and key enzymes variation proved codigestion had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation, which demonstrated that AD of blue algae with swine manure was a promising technology for both solid wastes treatment and renewable-energy production

  1. Integrin β3 is required in infection and proliferation of classical swine fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Li

    Full Text Available Classical Swine Fever (CSF is a highly infectious fatal pig disease, resulting in huge economic loss to the swine industry. Integrins are membrane-bound signal mediators, expressed on a variety of cell surfaces and are known as receptors or co-receptors for many viruses. However, the role of integrin β3 in CSFV infection is unknown. Here, through quantitive PCR, immunofluorescence (IFC and immunocytohistochemistry (ICC, we revealed that ST (swine testicles epithelial cells have a prominent advantage in CSFV proliferation as compared to EC (swine umbilical vein endothelial cell, IEC (swine intestinal epithelial cell and PK (porcine kidney epithelial cells. Meanwhile, ST cells had remarkably more integrin β3 expression as compared to EC, IEC and PK cells, which was positively correlated with CSFV infection and proliferation. Integrin β3 was up-regulated post CSFV infection in all the four cell lines, while the CSFV proliferation rate was decreased in integrin β3 function-blocked cells. ShRNA1755 dramatically decreased integrin β3, with a deficiency of 96% at the mRNA level and 80% at the protein level. CSFV proliferation was dramatically reduced in integrin β3 constantly-defected cells (ICDC, with the deficiencies of 92.6%, 99% and 81.7% at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post CSFV infection, respectively. These results demonstrate that integrin β3 is required in CSFV infection and proliferation, which provide a new insight into the mechanism of CSFV infection.

  2. LIMITED ANTIBODY EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS IN FERAL SWINE (SUS SCROFA) IN THE USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Miller, Ryan S; Anderson, Theodore D; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Lewis, Jonathan R; Mihalco, Rebecca L; Gortázar, Christian; Gidlewski, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle ( Bos taurus ) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis . Efforts have been made in the US to eradicate the disease in cattle, but spillover into wildlife and subsequent spillback have impeded progress in some states. In particular, infection in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) has been followed by infection in cattle in some Midwestern states. Infection has also been documented in feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) on the Hawaiian island of Molokai and in various European countries, but no large-scale survey of antibody exposure to the bacteria has been conducted in feral swine in the US. We tested 488 sera from feral swine collected near previously documented outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and captive cervids, in addition to 2,237 feral swine sera collected across the US from 1 October 2013 to 30 September 2014. While all but one of the samples were antibody negative, the results are important for establishing baseline negative data since feral swine are capable reservoirs and could be implicated in future outbreaks of the disease.

  3. Temporal changes and the effect of subtherapeutic concentrations of antibiotics in the gut microbiota of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2014-12-01

    The use of antibiotics in swine production for the purpose of growth promotion dates back to the 1950s. Despite this long history of use, the exact mechanism(s) responsible for the growth-promoting effects of antibiotics in swine remain largely unknown. It is believed, however, that growth promotion is due to antibiotics having a direct impact on the gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of two antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota over a 19-week monitoring period was investigated using Illumina-based sequencing. A shift in the relative abundance of several taxa and in 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was observed in pigs fed subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin (44-11 mg kg(-1) feed). Only minor alterations were noted with the administration of chlortetracycline at 5.5 mg kg(-1) feed. The most notable changes in the relative abundance of taxa and OTUs were noted between suckling piglets and postweaned pigs. Diversity was also reduced in the gut microbiota of suckling piglets as measured using the Shannon, Chao1, and phylogenetic diversity indices. These results show that the effect of antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota is variable based on dosage and duration and that the swine gut microbiota exhibits considerable resilience to long-term changes due to antibiotic perturbations. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Pasteurella multocida isolated from poultry and swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furian, Thales Quedi; Borges, Karen Apellanis; Laviniki, Vanessa; Rocha, Silvio Luis da Silveira; de Almeida, Camila Neves; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Moraes, Hamilton Luiz de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes atrophic rhinitis in swine and fowl cholera in birds, and is a secondary agent in respiratory syndromes. Pathogenesis and virulence factors involved are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect 22 virulence-associated genes by PCR, including capsular serogroups A, B and D genes and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of P. multocida strains from poultry and swine. ompH, oma87, plpB, psl, exbD-tonB, fur, hgbA, nanB, sodA, sodC, ptfA were detected in more than 90% of the strains of both hosts. 91% and 92% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were classified in serogroup A. toxA and hsf-1 showed a significant association to serogroup D; pmHAS and pfhA to serogroup A. Gentamicin and amoxicillin were the most effective drugs with susceptibility higher than 97%; however, 76.79% of poultry strains and 85% of swine strains were resistant to sulphonamides. Furthermore, 19.64% and 36.58% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were multi-resistant. Virulence genes studied were not specific to a host and may be the result of horizontal transmission throughout evolution. High multidrug resistance demonstrates the need for responsible use of antimicrobials in animals intended for human consumption, in addition to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to P. multocida. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Life-supporting function of genetically modified swine lungs in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc H; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Zhang, Tianshu; Wu, Guosheng; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Shuurman, Henk-Jan; Sachs, David H; Ayares, David; Allan, James S; Pierson, Richard N

    2007-05-01

    During ex vivo perfusion with human blood, homozygous galactosyl transferase knockout swine lungs exhibit prolonged survival (approximately 2 hours) relative to wild-type (swine lungs expressing human decay accelerating factor (lungs was evaluated. Three galactosyl transferase knockout swine left lungs were transplanted into baboons in a life-supporting model. One baboon lung allograft and two swine lung xenografts transgenic for human membrane cofactor protein (CD46) served as controls. Whereas two membrane cofactor protein lungs exhibited high pulmonary vascular resistance (>500 mm Hg x min/L) and failed to support life within 21 minutes, two of three galactosyl transferase knockout lungs supported life, for 90 and 215 minutes, and displayed low peripheral vascular resistance (48 +/- 12 mm Hg x min/L at 60 minutes), similar to the allogeneic control. Complement activation (delta C3a lungs. Neutrophils, monocytes, and platelets were rapidly sequestered in galactosyl transferase knockout and human membrane cofactor protein lung recipients, unlike the allogeneic control ( 0.5 nmol/L) was seen in the galactosyl transferase knockout recipients. Platelet activation (beta-thromboglobulin rise > 200) and appearance of capillary congestion and vessel thrombosis confirmed coagulation activation associated with galactosyl transferase knockout lung failure. Galactosyl transferase knockout swine lungs are significantly protected in vivo from the physiologic consequences (increased pulmonary vascular resistance, capillary leak) associated with hyperacute lung rejection. As during ex vivo perfusion, dysregulated coagulation-thrombin elaboration, platelet activation, and intravascular thrombosis-mediates galactosyl transferase knockout lung xenograft injury.

  6. Swine slurry application and soil management on double-cropped oat/maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo Adriano Bison Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The swine production in southern Brazil is concentrated in small farms that use residues as a nutrient source for crops of economic interest. This study aimed to evaluate the use of swine slurry associated with tillage systems on double-cropped oat/maize. The experiment was carried out in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons, in Taquaruçu do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of the interaction of four swine slurry doses (no swine slurry, 20 m3 ha-1, 40 m3 ha-1 and 80 m3 ha-1 and mineral fertilization, in three tillage systems (no-tillage, chiseling and chiseling + disking. The swine slurry application on doublecropped oat/maize increased the dry matter and grain yield. The 80 m3 ha-1 dose provided a response statistically similar to the mineral fertilization recommended for maize. The interaction between the 80 m3 ha-1 dose and the immediate incorporation of slurry into the soil reduced N losses by ammonia volatilization, promoting a significant increase in maize grain yield, when grown on a clayish soil.

  7. New influenza A virus reassortments have been found in Danish swine in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    % of the samples were positive for swine influenza virus. All influenza positive samples were tested for the H1N1pdm09 virus by a real time RT-PCR assay specific for the pandemic HA gene and 26% of the samples were positive. Subtyping of 90 samples by sequencing revealed the presence of; i) H1N1 “avian like...... in the Danish pig population. iii) H1N1pdm09 viruses which were found the first time in Danish pigs in January 2010. iv) Three new subtype variants comprising H1 “avian like” together with N2 “human like”, H1 pandemic with N2 “human like” and finally H1 pandemic with N2 from swine H3N2. The presence of N2...... the pandemic H1N1 virus. This study contribute significantly to our knowledge of the epidemiology of swine influenza A virus circulating in Danish swine and the potential role of swine in the emergence of novel reassortant viruses....

  8. Genetic Parameter Estimation in Seedstock Swine Population for Growth Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Gwan Choi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters that are to be used for across-herd genetic evaluations of seed stock pigs at GGP level. Performance data with pedigree information collected from swine breeder farms in Korea were provided by Korea Animal Improvement Association (AIAK. Performance data were composed of final body weights at test days and ultrasound measures of back fat thickness (BF, rib eye area (EMA and retail cut percentage (RCP. Breeds of swine tested were Landrace, Yorkshire and Duroc. Days to 90 kg body weight (DAYS90 were estimated with linear function of age and ADG calculated from body weights at test days. Ultrasound measures were taken with A-mode ultrasound scanners by trained technicians. Number of performance records after censoring outliers and keeping records pigs only born from year 2000 were of 78,068 Duroc pigs, 101,821 Landrace pigs and 281,421 Yorkshire pigs. Models included contemporary groups defined by the same herd and the same seasons of births of the same year, which was regarded as fixed along with the effect of sex for all traits and body weight at test day as a linear covariate for ultrasound measures. REML estimation was processed with REMLF90 program. Heritability estimates were 0.40, 0.32, 0.21 0.39 for DAYS90, ADG, BF, EMA, RCP, respectively for Duroc population. Respective heritability estimates for Landrace population were 0.43, 0.41, 0.22, and 0.43 and for Yorkshire population were 0.36, 0.38, 0.22, and 0.42. Genetic correlation coefficients of DAYS90 with BF, EMA, or RCP were estimated to be 0.00 to 0.09, −0.15 to −0.25, 0.22 to 0.28, respectively for three breeds populations. Genetic correlation coefficients estimated between BF and EMA was −0.33 to −0.39. Genetic correlation coefficient estimated between BF and RCP was high and negative (−0.78 to −0.85 but the environmental correlation coefficients between these two traits was medium and negative (near −0

  9. First Isolation of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 in Europe through Swine Surveillance in the Netherlands and Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W.; van Coillie, Els; Antonis, Adriaan F. G.; van der Poel, Wim H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 3 and 4 are a cause of human hepatitis and swine are considered the main reservoir. To study the HEV prevalence and characterize circulating HEV strains, fecal samples from swine in the Netherlands and Belgium were tested by RT-PCR. HEV prevalence in swine was 7–15%. The Dutch strains were characterized as genotype 3, subgroups 3a, 3c and 3f, closely related to sequences found in humans and swine earlier. The HEV strains found in Belgium belonged to genotypes 3f and 4b. The HEV genotype 4 strain was the first ever reported in swine in Europe and an experimental infection in pigs was performed to isolate the virus. The genotype 4 strain readily infected piglets and caused fever and virus shedding. Since HEV4 infections have been reported to run a more severe clinical course in humans this observation may have public health implications. PMID:21829641

  10. In Vitro Reassortment between Endemic H1N2 and 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Swine Influenza Viruses Generates Attenuated Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Ran, Zhiguang; Zhu, Laihua; Webby, Richard J.; Simonson, Randy R.; Li, Feng

    2012-01-01

    The pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus was first reported in humans in the spring of 2009 and soon thereafter was identified in numerous species, including swine. Reassortant viruses, presumably arising from the co-infection of pH1N1 and endemic swine influenza virus (SIV), were subsequently identified from diagnostic samples collected from swine. In this study, co-infection of swine testicle (ST) cells with swine-derived endemic H1N2 (MN745) and pH1N1 (MN432) yielded two reassortant H1N2 ...

  11. Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates associated with septicemia in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Nadia; Corriveau, Jonathan; Letellier, Ann; Daigle, France; Quessy, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently isolated from pigs and may also cause enteric disease in humans. In this study, 33 isolates of S. Typhimurium associated with septicemia in swine (CS) were compared to 33 isolates recovered from healthy animals at slaughter (WCS). The isolates were characterized using phenotyping and genotyping methods. For each isolate, the phage type, antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) DNA profiles were determined. In addition, the protein profiles of each isolate grown in different conditions were studied by Coomassie Blue-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot. Various phage types were identified. The phage type PT 104 represented 36.4% of all isolates from septicemic pigs. Resistance to as many as 12 antimicrobial agents, including some natural resistances, was found in isolates from CS and WCS. Many genetic profiles were identified among the PT 104 phage types. Although it was not possible to associate one particular protein with septicemic isolates, several highly immunogenic proteins, present in all virulent isolates and in most isolates from clinically healthy animals, were identified. These results indicated that strains associated with septicemia belong to various genetic lineages that can also be recovered from asymptomatic animals at the time of slaughter. PMID:20357952

  12. Self-made Palmaz stent: an experimental swine model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shicheng; Teng Gaojun; Guo Jinhe; Fang Wen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the histologic changes and physicochemical stability of self-made Palmaz stent placed in swine arteries. Methods: The self-made Palmaz stent was made of 316L stainless steel wire. Nine stents were respectively placed within internal carotid, renal and iliac arteries of six pigs. Pigs were euthanized at intervals of 0.5, 1 and 3 months respectively and angiography were performed. Immediately followed by light and electro scanning microscopy for the stent zones. Results: All stents were successfully implanted in the target arteries and were patent shown in the angiographic examination immediately after the stent placement. Eight stents (8/9) remained patent at the time before euthanasia. No migration of stent were shown in the follow-up angiography. Light and electron scanning microscopy showed that the surface of the stents was covered by a thin layer of endothelial cells 2 weeks after the procedure and completely covered after 4 weeks. No inflammation occurred. Conclusions: The self-made Palmaz stent has good physicochemical stability and histocompatibility with easy placement, rather long term patency, histopathologic stability and thus the promising for clinical application

  13. Harnessing Local Immunity for an Effective Universal Swine Influenza Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchilian, Elma; Holzer, Barbara

    2017-05-05

    Influenza A virus infections are a global health threat to humans and are endemic in pigs, contributing to decreased weight gain and suboptimal reproductive performance. Pigs are also a source of new viruses of mixed swine, avian, and human origin, potentially capable of initiating human pandemics. Current inactivated vaccines induce neutralising antibody against the immunising strain but rapid escape occurs through antigenic drift of the surface glycoproteins. However, it is known that prior infection provides a degree of cross-protective immunity mediated by cellular immune mechanisms directed at the more conserved internal viral proteins. Here we review new data that emphasises the importance of local immunity in cross-protection and the role of the recently defined tissue-resident memory T cells, as well as locally-produced, and sometimes cross-reactive, antibody. Optimal induction of local immunity may require aerosol delivery of live vaccines, but it remains unclear how long protective local immunity persists. Nevertheless, a universal vaccine might be extremely useful for disease prevention in the face of a pandemic. As a natural host for influenza A viruses, pigs are both a target for a universal vaccine and an excellent model for developing human influenza vaccines.

  14. Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class II Is a Xenoantigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladowski, Joseph M; Reyes, Luz M; Martens, Gregory R; Butler, James R; Wang, Zheng-Yu; Eckhoff, Devin E; Tector, Matthew; Tector, A Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Over 130 000 patients in the United States alone need a lifesaving organ transplant. Genetically modified porcine organs could resolve the donor organ shortage, but human xenoreactive antibodies destroy pig cells and are the major barrier to clinical application of xenotransplantation. The objective of this study was to determine whether waitlisted patients possess preformed antibodies to swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II, homologs of the class II HLA. Sera from people currently awaiting solid organ transplant were tested for IgG binding to class II SLA proteins when expressed on mammalian cells. Pig fibroblasts were made positive by transfection with the class II transactivator. As a second expression system, transgenes encoding the alpha and beta chains of class II SLA were transfected into human embryonic kidney cells. Human sera containing IgG specific for class II HLA molecules exhibited greater binding to class II SLA positive cells than to SLA negative cells. Sera lacking antibodies against class II HLA showed no change in binding regardless of the presence of class II SLA. These antibodies could recognize either SLA-DR or SLA-DQ complexes. Class II SLA proteins may behave as xenoantigens for people with humoral immunity toward class II HLA molecules.

  15. Biliverdin protects against liver ischemia reperfusion injury in swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Andria

    Full Text Available Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI in organ transplantation remains a serious and unsolved problem. Organs that undergo significant damage during IRI, function less well immediately after reperfusion and tend to have more problems at later times when rejection can occur. Biliverdin has emerged as an agent that potently suppress IRI in rodent models. Since the use of biliverdin is being developed as a potential therapeutic modality for humans, we tested the efficacy for its effects on IRI of the liver in swine, an accepted and relevant pre-clinical animal model. Administration of biliverdin resulted in rapid appearance of bilirubin in the serum and significantly suppressed IRI-induced liver dysfunction as measured by multiple parameters including urea and ammonia clearance, neutrophil infiltration and tissue histopathology including hepatocyte cell death. Taken together, our findings, in a large animal model, provide strong support for the continued evaluation of biliverdin as a potential therapeutic in the clinical setting of transplantation of the liver and perhaps other organs.

  16. Unravelling the transcriptome profile of the Swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale.

  17. Unravelling the Transcriptome Profile of the Swine Respiratory Tract Mycoplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale. PMID:25333523

  18. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker eMoennig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV are members of the family Suidae, i.e. Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0<1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.

  19. Perspectives of treating swine manure biodigestors in projects of carbon capture in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mario Rodrigues Marques

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects proposed in the Kyoto Protocol constitute an interesting way of protecting the environment and at the same time promoting sustainable economic development in emerging economy countries. Possible CDM projects include the treatment of swine manure using biodigestion, which would provide an opportunity for Brazil to actively participate in the carbon credits market. Brazil is currently the world’s third leading swine producer (36 million animals. This study aims to demonstrate that the treatment of swine manure using bio digestion can minimize environmental impact and also contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere by approximately 19 million tons per year, generating around US$ 78 million in carbon credits for Brazil annually.

  20. 2009 Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 resembles previous influenza isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Kingsford

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In April 2009, novel swine-origin influenza viruses (S-OIV were identified in patients from Mexico and the United States. The viruses were genetically characterized as a novel influenza A (H1N1 strain originating in swine, and within a very short time the S-OIV strain spread across the globe via human-to-human contact.We conducted a comprehensive computational search of all available sequences of the surface proteins of H1N1 swine influenza isolates and found that a similar strain to S-OIV appeared in Thailand in 2000. The earlier isolates caused infections in pigs but only one sequenced human case, A/Thailand/271/2005 (H1N1.Differences between the Thai cases and S-OIV may help shed light on the ability of the current outbreak strain to spread rapidly among humans.

  1. Comparison of clinical and paraclinical parameters as tools for early diagnosis of classical swine fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Nielsen, Jens

    Comparison of clinical and paraclinical parameters as tools for early diagnosis of classical swine fever. Louise Lohse, Åse Uttenthal, Jens Nielsen. National Veterinary Institute, Division of Virology, Lindholm, Technical University of Denmark. Introduction: In order to limit the far-reaching socio......-economic as well as the animal welfare consequences of an outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF), early diagnosis is essential. However, host-virus interactions strongly influence the course of CSF disease, and the clinical feature is not clear, thus complicating the diagnostic perspective. At the National...... demonstrated that it remains a particular challenge to provide a competent diagnostic tool box for low virulent strains of CSFV, e.g. CSFV-Glentorf. Acknowledgements: The authors wish to thank the EU Reference laboratory for Classical Swine Fever, TIHO, Hannover, for kindly supplying the CSFV-Romania, the CSFV...

  2. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  3. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: What is the concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160Abstract: Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called “atypical infection”. These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.Keywords: swine flu, drug, vaccine, concept

  4. Viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Seganfredo, Milton Antonio; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mmiele@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The swine manure treatment is based on several technologies, such as pond systems, composting, biodigesters, and compact process like the EMBRAPA's Swine Manure Treatment System. The last one can reach high quality effluent with reduced pollution, although it demands higher investment and costs. For this reason it is necessary to manage revenues with byproducts and carbon credit markets. The aim of this study was to present a viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system considering its potential revenues facing higher costs. Using market prices and measured data from a prototype running in south Brazil, the study calculated costs, revenues, profit, net present value and internal rate return. It also estimated these indicators assuming scale economies. The results showed that the investment can pay its costs by its insertion in the carbon credit market and other revenues like the energy substitution. It also showed the importance to reach scale economies. (author)

  5. Findings of bacterial microflora in piglets infected with conventional swine plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.

  6. Induction of anaesthesia with remifentanil after bolus midazolam administration in Landrace/Large White swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacharioudaki, Argyro; Lelovas, Pavlos; Sergentanis, Theodoros N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate an alternative combination for anaesthesia induction in swine. Study design Randomized, ‘blinded’ experimental study. Animals Forty-five Landrace/Large White swine weighing 20.0 ± 1.5 kg. Methods Pulse oximetry, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were measured after.......001), better response to intubation (p animals required additional midazolam. In groups R1, R4 and R5, there were decreases in HRs (p = 0.009, p...... variables. One animal developed apnoea and four electrocardiographic anomalies; all resolved without pharmaceutical interventions. Conclusions and clinical relevance A combination of 0.2 mg kg−1 midazolam with 4 or 5 μg kg−1 remifentanil may provide an alternative method of anaesthesia induction for swine....

  7. Comparison of detection methods for Toxoplasma gondii in naturally and experimentally infected swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Dolores E; Chirukandoth, Sreekumar; Dubey, J P; Lunney, Joan K; Gamble, H Ray

    2006-10-10

    Results from recent serological surveys and epidemiological studies show that pigs raised in a variety of management systems can be carriers of the tissue cyst stage of Toxoplasma gondi. This parasite can be transmitted to humans through the consumption of improperly prepared pork, making detection and removal of infected swine carcasses from the food chain an important food safety issue. Several methods are available for detection of T. gondii infected swine, including serological assays, polymerase chain reaction, and animal bioassays. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection sensitivities of six of these commonly used methods for detection of T. gondii infection in tissues from naturally and experimentally infected pigs. The results indicate that a serum-based ELISA is the most sensitive method, of those tested, for detection of T. gondii infected swine.

  8. Assessment of zoonotic potential of four European swine influenza viruses in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into swine herds have drastically increased the diversity of reassortants throughout Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is unknown, hence necessitating enhanced surveillance of European swine......-like H1 and human-like N2 and one with pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high viral titers in nasal wash- and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via respiratory droplets...... to neuraminidase inhibitors. These findings suggest that the investigated viruses have the potential to infect humans and further underline the need for continued surveillance as well as pandemic and zoonotic assessment of new influenza reassortants....

  9. Piezoresistive measurement of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding with microcantilever arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, N.; Maldonado, C. J.; Thundat, T.; Passian, A.

    2014-03-01

    Effective detection of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide is crucial as it could be used as a positive control to screen for highly infectious flu strains such as Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1). Piezoresistive microcantilever arrays present a pathway towards highly sensitive and label-free detection of biomolecules by transducing the antigen-antibody binding into change in resistivity via induced surface stress variation. We demonstrate a mechanical transduction of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding and suggest the employed technique may offer a potential platform for detection of the H1N1 virus, which could be clinically used to diagnose and provide subsequent relief.

  10. Fate and survival of Campylobacter coli in swine manure at various temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Wolff, Anders; Madsen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter coli is the most common Campylobacter species found in pig(95%),but the ability of this bacterium to survive in swine manure as well as the potential for causing human illness are poorly understood. We present here laboratory-scale experiments to investigate the effect of temperature...... on the survival of C.coli in spiked swine manure samples at temperatures from 4 to 52˚C. The survival of C.coli during storage for 30 days was studied by three different methods: bacterial culture(plate counting),DNA qPCR, and mRNART-qPCR.The results indicate that C.coli could survive in swine manure up to 24...... that it detected only viable C.colicells,thus eliminating false-positive resulting from DNA from dead C.coli cells....

  11. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Emily

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  12. Public views of the UK media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Smith, Emily

    2010-11-15

    The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu) were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men) to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  13. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Use of Bioaerosol Sampling for Airborne Virus Surveillance in Swine Production Facilities: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin D; Lednicky, John A; Torremorell, Montserrat; Gray, Gregory C

    2017-01-01

    Modern swine production facilities typically house dense populations of pigs and may harbor a variety of potentially zoonotic viruses that can pass from one pig generation to another and periodically infect human caretakers. Bioaerosol sampling is a common technique that has been used to conduct microbial risk assessments in swine production, and other similar settings, for a number of years. However, much of this work seems to have been focused on the detection of non-viral microbial agents (i.e., bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, etc.), and efforts to detect viral aerosols in pig farms seem sparse. Data generated by such studies would be particularly useful for assessments of virus transmission and ecology. Here, we summarize the results of a literature review conducted to identify published articles related to bioaerosol generation and detection within swine production facilities, with a focus on airborne viruses. We identified 73 scientific reports, published between 1991 and 2017, which were included in this review. Of these, 19 (26.7%) used sampling methodology for the detection of viruses. Our findings show that bioaerosol sampling methodologies in swine production settings have predominately focused on the detection of bacteria and fungi, with no apparent standardization between different approaches. Information, specifically regarding virus aerosol burden in swine production settings, appears to be limited. However, the number of viral aerosol studies has markedly increased in the past 5 years. With the advent of new sampling technologies and improved diagnostics, viral bioaerosol sampling could be a promising way to conduct non-invasive viral surveillance among swine farms.

  15. The Use of Bioaerosol Sampling for Airborne Virus Surveillance in Swine Production Facilities: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern swine production facilities typically house dense populations of pigs and may harbor a variety of potentially zoonotic viruses that can pass from one pig generation to another and periodically infect human caretakers. Bioaerosol sampling is a common technique that has been used to conduct microbial risk assessments in swine production, and other similar settings, for a number of years. However, much of this work seems to have been focused on the detection of non-viral microbial agents (i.e., bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, etc., and efforts to detect viral aerosols in pig farms seem sparse. Data generated by such studies would be particularly useful for assessments of virus transmission and ecology. Here, we summarize the results of a literature review conducted to identify published articles related to bioaerosol generation and detection within swine production facilities, with a focus on airborne viruses. We identified 73 scientific reports, published between 1991 and 2017, which were included in this review. Of these, 19 (26.7% used sampling methodology for the detection of viruses. Our findings show that bioaerosol sampling methodologies in swine production settings have predominately focused on the detection of bacteria and fungi, with no apparent standardization between different approaches. Information, specifically regarding virus aerosol burden in swine production settings, appears to be limited. However, the number of viral aerosol studies has markedly increased in the past 5 years. With the advent of new sampling technologies and improved diagnostics, viral bioaerosol sampling could be a promising way to conduct non-invasive viral surveillance among swine farms.

  16. Shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of dusts from swine confinement and grain facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Boissy

    Full Text Available Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance. The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70% at the phylum level, Clostridia (44% at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%. In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the

  17. Detection of African swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Frederic R; Schroeder, Megan E; Mulhern, Erin L; McIntosh, Michael T; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. Pigs infected with ASF and CSF viruses (ASFV and CSFV) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. Likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability to perform herd-level surveillance for all 3 diseases rapidly and cost effectively using a single diagnostic sample and test is highly desirable. This study assessed the feasibility of simultaneous ASFV, CSFV, and FMDV detection by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) in swine oral fluids collected through the use of chewing ropes. Animal groups were experimentally infected independently with each virus, observed for clinical signs, and oral fluids collected and tested throughout the course of infection. All animal groups chewed on the ropes readily before and after onset of clinical signs and before onset of lameness or serious clinical signs. ASFV was detected as early as 3 days postinoculation (dpi), 2-3 days before onset of clinical disease; CSFV was detected at 5 dpi, coincident with onset of clinical disease; and FMDV was detected as early as 1 dpi, 1 day before the onset of clinical disease. Equivalent results were observed in 4 independent studies and demonstrate the feasibility of oral fluids and mRT-qPCR for surveillance of ASF, CSF, and FMD in swine populations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    . Using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, it was shown that codigestion of OME with swine manure (up to 50% OME) was successful with a COD reduction up to 75%. The process was adapted for degradation of OME with stepwise increase of the OME load to the UASB reactor. The results showed...... that the high content of ammonia in swine manure, together with content of other nutrients, make it possible to degrade OME without addition of external alkalinity and without addition of external nitrogen source. Anaerobic treatment of OME in UASB reactors resulted in reduction of simple phenolic compounds...

  19. Expert groups in Denmark with special reference to Classical and African swine fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    2012-01-01

    The Danish (National Veterinary) Expert group for Classical and African swine fever has been active during the last 10 years. The group is composed of experts in EU-legislation, in Danish pig production, in pig diseases and in virology. The group has participated in a national workshop on CSFV...... surveillance, in Contingency planning exercises and many efforts is done to keep the group updated on the current international situation for swine fevers. The group has been very stabile and especially our participation in a Taiex workshop in 2005 in Romania was a very good basis for our fruitful...

  20. The influence of diet on the development of swine dysentery upon experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jensen, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fermented liquid food (FLF) and the addition of lactic acid to a diet based on wheat and barley on the development of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally infected with a Danish field isolate of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Furthermore...... and sugar-beet pulp. The experiment was designed as a randomized-block trial and was performed in triplicate including a total of 192 pigs. After feeding the diets for 2 weeks, six pigs in each group were challenged orally with B. hyodysenteriae and observed for another 4 weeks. After challenge, swine...

  1. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Shona; Smith, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu) were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sam...

  2. High-quality, ecologically sound remediation of acidic soil using bicarbonate-rich swine wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Qilu, Cheng; Xueling, Wu; ligen, Xu; Hui, Lin; Yuhua, Zhao; Qifa, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    The swine industry in China is experiencing a wastewater crisis. In this work, we found that swine wastewaters were particularly high in bicarbonate (1.52?9.25?g/L, mean?=?5.68?g/L, n?=?42). The high level of bicarbonate may add to the pollution load during discharge. We therefore suggest a new method for bicarbonate-rich wastewater remediation in acidic soil. In our laboratory irrigation experiments, wastewater irrigation efficiently increased the pH and decreased the exchangeable aluminum i...

  3. [Therapeutic qualities of a lente preparation of swine insulins manufactured by Pharmachem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, D; Bozadzhieva, E; Pampulov, L; Penchev, I; Uzunova, B

    1977-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of swine insulin preparation Lente, "Pharmachim" production was studied in 50 diabetics. Its hypoglycemizing activitis compared with that of standardized insulin Lente--"Novo", extract of bovine pancreas. The Bulgarian preparation was found to be very similar to the preparation Lente-Novo in its pharma-codynamic properties and could successfully be used in the diabetes melitus treatment. Insulin Lente Pharmachim is presumed to have lower antigenicity as an extract of swine pancreas, which is actually its great advantage for the therapeutic practice.

  4. Rapid development of an efficacious swine vaccine for novel H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Veen, Ryan; Kamrud, Kurt; Mogler, Mark; Loynachan, Alan T; McVicker, Jerry; Berglund, Peter; Owens, Gary; Timberlake, Sarah; Lewis, Whitney; Smith, Jonathan; Harris, D L Hank

    2009-10-29

    Recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) from a novel H1N1 influenza strain was produced using an alphavirus replicon expression system. The recombinant HA vaccine was produced more rapidly than traditional vaccines, and was evaluated as a swine vaccine candidate at different doses in a challenge model utilizing the homologous influenza A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) strain. Vaccinated animals showed significantly higher specific antibody response, reduced lung lesions and viral shedding, and higher average daily gain when compared to non-vaccinated control animals. These data demonstrate that the swine vaccine candidate was efficacious at all of the evaluated doses.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of current classical swine fever virus isolates of wild boar in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leifer, I; Hoffmann, B; Höper, D

    2010-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) has caused significant economic losses in industrialized pig production, and is still present in some European countries. Recent CSF outbreaks in Europe were mainly associated with strains of genogroup 2 (subgroup 2.3). Although there are extensive datasets regarding 2.......3 strains, there is very little information available on longer fragments or whole classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genomes. Furthermore, there are no detailed analyses of the molecular epidemiology of CSFV wild boar isolates available. Nevertheless, complete genome sequences are supportive...

  6. Occupational Hazards of Fyling Pigs: A Swine model of Hypobaric Induced Neuronal Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-22

    59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Profess ional Presentation Approval 18 APR 20 17 1. Your paper, entitled Occupational Hazards of Flving Pigs : A Swine Model of...RANK1’GRAOE, ’TITlE OF RE \\llEW’ER 45. REVIEWER 31GNAT’IJRE so_ o,o.TE FR-C"\\/.OUS EDlnCNB ARE Ol>SCLETE OCCU PATIONAL HAZARDS OF FLYING PIGS : A SWINE...necessitates intubation or anesthetization of exposure subjects, miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) were repetiti vely exposed to non-hypoxic

  7. A novel pathogenic Mammalian orthoreovirus from diarrheic pigs and Swine blood meal in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmasandra Narayanappa, Athmaram; Sooryanarain, Harini; Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Cao, Dianjun; Ammayappan Venkatachalam, Backiyalakshmi; Kambiranda, Devaiah; LeRoith, Tanya; Heffron, Connie Lynn; Lindstrom, Nicole; Hall, Karen; Jobst, Peter; Sexton, Cary; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2015-05-19

    Since May 2013, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea have devastated the U.S. swine industry, causing immense economic losses. Two different swine enteric coronaviruses (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Delta coronavirus) have been isolated from the affected swine population. The disease has been reported from at least 32 states of the United States and other countries, including Mexico, Peru, Dominican Republic, Canada, Columbia, Ecuador, and Ukraine, with repeated outbreaks in previously infected herds. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a novel mammalian orthoreovirus 3 (MRV3) from diarrheic feces of piglets from these outbreaks in three states and ring-dried swine blood meal from multiple sources. MRV3 could not be isolated from healthy or pigs that had recovered from epidemic diarrhea from four states. Several MRV3 isolates were obtained from chloroform-extracted pig feces or blood meal in cell cultures or developing chicken embryos. Biological characterization of two representative isolates revealed trypsin resistance and thermostability at 90°C. NextGen sequencing of ultrapurified viruses indicated a strong homology of the S1 segment to mammalian and bat MRV3. Neonatal piglets experimentally infected with these viruses or a chloroform extract of swine blood meal developed severe diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis with 100% mortality within 3 days postinfection. Therefore, the novel porcine MRV3 may contribute to enteric disease along with other swine enteric viruses. The role of MRV3 in the current outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea in the United States remains to be determined, but the pathogenic nature of the virus warrants further investigations on its epidemiology and prevalence. Porcine orthoreoviruses causing diarrhea have been reported in China and Korea but not in the United States. We have isolated and characterized two pathogenic reassortant MRV3 isolates from swine fecal samples from porcine epidemic diarrhea outbreaks

  8. Bioinformatics prediction of swine MHC class I epitopes from Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    an effective CTL response against PRRSV, we have taken a bioinformatics approach to identify common PRRSV epitopes predicted to react broadly with predominant swine MHC (SLA) alleles. First, the genomic integrity and sequencing method was examined for 334 available complete PRRSV type 2 genomes leaving 104...... by the PopCover algorithm, providing a final list of 54 epitopes prioritized according to maximum coverage of PRRSV strains and SLA alleles. This bioinformatics approach provides a rational strategy for selecting peptides for a CTL-activating vaccine with broad coverage of both virus and swine diversity...

  9. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: a fatal complication of swine flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Maheshwari, P.K.; Haque, A.

    2010-01-01

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of multifocal symmetrical brain lesions involving mainly thalami, brainstem, cerebellum and white matter. ANEC is a serious and life threatening complication of simple viral infections. We present a case of a young child who developed this condition with classical clinical and radiological findings consistent with ANEC, secondary to swine flu (H1N1). He needed ventilatory support and had profound motor and intellectual deficit on discharge. We report this case with aim of raising awareness about this fatal complication of swine flu which has become a global health care issue these days. (author)

  10. Transformation of Swine Manure and Algal Consortia to Value-added Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Mahmoud A.

    The swine production sector is projected to grow globally. In the past, this growth manifested itself in increased herd sizes and geographically concentrated production. Although economically sound, these trends had negative consequences on surrounding ecosystems. Over-application of manure resulted in water quality degradation, while long-term storage of manure slurries was found to promote release of potent GHG emissions. There is a need for innovative approaches for swine manure management that are compatible with current scales of production, and increasingly strict environmental regulations. This study aims to investigate the potential for incorporating gasification as part of a novel swine manure management system which utilizes liquid-solid separation and periphytic algal consortia as a phycoremediation vector for the liquid slurry. The gasification of swine manure solids, and algal biomass solids generate both a gaseous fuel product (producer gas) in addition to a biochar co-product. First, the decomposition kinetics for both feedstock, i.e., swine manure solids, and algal solids, were quantified using thermogravimetry at different heating rates (1 ~ 40°C min-1) under different atmospheres (nitrogen, and air). Pyrolysis kinetics were determined for manure solids from two farms with different manure management systems. Similarly, the pyrolysis kinetics were determined for phycoremediation algae grown on swine manure slurries. Modeling algal solids pyrolysis as first-order independent parallel reactions was sufficient to describe sample devolatilization. Combustion of swine manure solids blended with algal solids, at different ratios, showed no synergistic effects. Gasification of phycoremediation algal biomass was studied using a bench-scale auger gasification system at temperatures between 760 and 960°C. The temperature profile suggested a stratification of reaction zones common to fixed-bed reactors. The producer gas heating value ranged between 2.2 MJ m

  11. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown ingredie......An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown...

  12. The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A S; Nolting, J M; Workman, J D; Cooper, M; Fisher, A E; Marsh, B; Forshey, T

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural fairs create an unconventional animal-human interface that has been associated with swine-to-human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in recent years. Early detection of IAV-infected pigs at agricultural fairs would allow veterinarians to better protect swine and human health during these swine exhibitions. This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV-infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs immediately prior to the unloading of the animals at a single large swine exhibition. Concurrent to the snout wipe collection, owners took the rectal temperatures of his/her pigs. In this case, 47 (2.4%) pigs tested positive for IAV before they entered the swine barn. The mean rectal temperatures differed by only 0.19°C between IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs. The low prevalence of IAV among the pigs upon entry to the fair in the second objective provides evidence that limiting intraspecies spread of IAV during the fairs will likely have significant impacts on the zoonotic transmission. However, in both objectives, the high degree of similarity in the body temperature measurements between the IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs made it impossible to set a diagnostically meaningful cut point to differentiate IAV status of the individual animals. Unfortunately, body temperature measurement cannot be used to accurately screen exhibition swine for IAV. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. PA-X protein decreases replication and pathogenicity of swine influenza virus in cultured cells and mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Qian; Sun, Ying-Feng; Ruan, Bao-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Min; Wang, Qi; Yang, Hai-Ming; Wang, Shuai-Yong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Shan, Tong-Ling; Tong, Wu; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Guo-Xin; Zheng, Hao; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Yu, Hai

    2017-06-01

    Swine influenza viruses have been circulating in pigs throughout world and might be potential threats to human health. PA-X protein is a newly discovered protein produced from the PA gene by ribosomal frameshifting and the effects of PA-X on the 1918 H1N1, the pandemic 2009 H1N1, the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and the avian H9N2 influenza viruses have been reported. However, the role of PA-X in the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus is still unknown. In this study, we rescued the H1N1 wild-type (WT) classical swine influenza virus (A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2011 (H1N1)) and H1N1 PA-X deficient virus containing mutations at the frameshift motif, and compared their replication properties and pathogenicity of swine influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that the expression of PA-X inhibits virus replication and polymerase activity in cultured cells and decreases virulence in mouse models. Therefore, our study demonstrates that PA-X protein acts as a negative virulence regulator for classical H1N1 swine influenza virus and decreases virulence by inhibiting viral replication and polymerase activity, deepening our understanding of the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A pig growth model for assessment of environmental footprint from swine operations: Effect of dietary energy and lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Jørgensen, Henry

    2011-01-01

    In swine operations, greenhouse gas emissions are mostly from stored manure. Accurate prediction of manure composition is required to estimate environmental footprint from swine operations. Pig growth models are often used to optimize profitability of swine production facilities; however, their a......In swine operations, greenhouse gas emissions are mostly from stored manure. Accurate prediction of manure composition is required to estimate environmental footprint from swine operations. Pig growth models are often used to optimize profitability of swine production facilities; however......, their application may be more valuable through assessment of environmental footprint from swine production. The study aims to describe and evaluate nutrient partitioning and excretion in a pig growth model to be used in predicting manure volume and composition. From a biological perspective, nutrient excretion can...... can either be defined by the user or ad libitum intake may be simulated by means of an algorithm for metabolic regulation. The model was developed using the open source software R. The data of Bikker et al. (1994, 1995 and 1996) [J. Anim. Sci. 72:1744–1753, 73:2355–2363 and 74:817–826] was used...

  15. Race, Poverty, and Potential Exposure of Middle-School Students to Air Emissions from Confined Swine Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen W.; Wilcosky, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that airborne effluent from swine confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) may affect the health and quality of life of adults and the prevalence of asthma symptoms among children. To investigate the extent to which public school students may be exposed to airborne effluent from swine CAFOs and to evaluate the association between schools’ demographic characteristics and swine CAFO exposures, we assessed the proximity of 226 schools to the nearest swine CAFO and conducted a survey of school employees to identify schools with noticeable livestock odor. We used publicly available information describing the enrollment of each school to assess the association between race and socioeconomic status (SES) and swine CAFO exposure. Odor from livestock was noticeable outside (n = 47, 21%) and inside (n = 19, 8%) school buildings. Schools with school were located closer to swine CAFOs (mean = 4.9 miles) than were the remaining schools (mean = 10.8 miles) and were more likely to be located within 3 miles of an operation than were schools with high-white/high-SES enrollment (prevalence ratio = 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.59–4.33). The prevalence of reported livestock odor varied with SES (low SES, 25%; high SES, 17%). These analyses indicate that the potential for in-school exposure to pollution arising from swine CAFOs in North Carolina and the environmental health risks associated with such exposures vary according to the racial and economic characteristics of enrolled students. PMID:16581551

  16. Receptor specificity of subtype H1 influenza A viruses isolated from swine and humans in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Mei; Rivailler, Pierre; Hossain, Jaber; Carney, Paul; Balish, Amanda; Perry, Ijeoma; Davis, C. Todd; Garten, Rebecca; Shu, Bo; Xu, Xiyan; Klimov, Alexander; Paulson, James C.; Cox, Nancy J.; Swenson, Sabrina; Stevens, James; Vincent, Amy; Gramer, Marie; Donis, Ruben O.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of classical swine influenza viruses receptor specificity preceding the emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus was analyzed in glycan microarrays. Classical swine influenza viruses from the α, β, and γ antigenic clusters isolated between 1945 and 2009 revealed a binding profile very similar to that of 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses, with selectivity for α2-6-linked sialosides and very limited binding to α2-3 sialosides. Despite considerable genetic divergence, the ‘human-like’ H1N1 viruses circulating in swine retained strong binding preference for α2-6 sialylated glycans. Interspecies transmission of H1N1 influenza viruses from swine to humans or from humans to swine has not driven selection of viruses with distinct novel receptor binding specificities. Classical swine and human seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses have conserved specificity for similar α2-6-sialoside receptors in spite of long term circulation in separate hosts, suggesting that humans and swine impose analogous selection pressures on the evolution of receptor binding function. PMID:21333316

  17. A multiplex RT-PCR assay for the rapid and differential diagnosis of classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Arce, Heidy; Pérez, Lester J; Frías, Maria T; Rosell, Rosa; Tarradas, Joan; Núñez, José I; Ganges, Llilianne

    2009-11-18

    Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease causing severe economic losses in pig production almost worldwide. All pestivirus species can infect pigs, therefore accurate and rapid pestivirus detection and differentiation is of great importance to assure control measures in swine farming. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex, highly sensitive and specific RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation between CSFV and other pestivirus infections in swine. The universal and differential detection was based on primers designed to amplify a fragment of the 5' non-coding genome region for the detection of pestiviruses and a fragment of the NS5B gene for the detection of classical swine fever virus. The assay proved to be specific when different pestivirus strains from swine and ruminants were evaluated. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be as little as 0.89TCID(50). The assay analysis of 30 tissue homogenate samples from naturally infected and non-CSF infected animals and 40 standard serum samples evaluated as part of two European Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests conducted by the European Community Reference Laboratory, Hanover, Germany proved that the multiplex RT-PCR method provides a rapid, highly sensitive, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis for classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections in swine.

  18. Estimation models of variance components for farrowing interval in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderbal Cavalcante Neto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of including maternal genetic, common litter environmental and permanent environmental effects in estimation models of variance components for the farrowing interval trait in swine. Data consisting of 1,013 farrowing intervals of Dalland (C-40 sows recorded in two herds were analyzed. Variance components were obtained by the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method. Eight models were tested which contained the fixed effects(contemporary group and covariables and the direct genetic additive and residual effects, and varied regarding the inclusion of the maternal genetic, common litter environmental, and/or permanent environmental random effects. The likelihood-ratio test indicated that the inclusion of these effects in the model was unnecessary, but the inclusion of the permanent environmental effect caused changes in the estimates of heritability, which varied from 0.00 to 0.03. In conclusion, the heritability values obtained indicated that this trait appears to present no genetic gain as response to selection. The common litter environmental and the maternal genetic effects did not present any influence on this trait. The permanent environmental effect, however, should be considered in the genetic models for this trait in swine, because its presence caused changes in the additive genetic variance estimates.Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar a importância da inclusão dos efeitos genético materno, comum de leitegada e de ambiente permanente no modelo de estimação de componentes de variância para a característica intervalo de parto em fêmeas suínas. Foram utilizados dados que consistiam de 1.013 observações de fêmeas Dalland (C-40, registradas em dois rebanhos. As estimativas dos componentes de variância foram realizadas pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita livre de derivadas. Foram testados oito modelos, que continham os efeitos

  19. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and the identification of commonly expressed haplotypes using sequence specific low- and high resolution primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Fink, Dorte Rosenbek; Jungersen, Gregers

    The genomic region (SLA) of the swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which bind and present endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system, is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many of which encode a distinct MHC class I molecule. Each SLA...... expressed SLA class I alleles in Danish outbred swine. A total of 108 animals from eight different production herds were tested, and with low resolution sequence specific primer (SSP)-PCR typing the top five most commonly expressed SLA class I allele groups were found to be SLA-3*04XX, SLA-1*08XX, SLA-1...... molecule is only able to bind a restricted number of peptides with specific biochemical characteristics matching important anchor positions in the peptide binding groove. Although the diversity of T cells is vast, the individual MHC make-up thus limits the range of potential T cell epitopes for any given...

  20. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS...... pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1...... (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly...

  1. Myriophyllum aquaticum Constructed Wetland Effectively Removes Nitrogen in Swine Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishu Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Removal of nitrogen (N is a critical aspect in the functioning of constructed wetlands (CWs, and the N treatment in CWs depends largely on the presence and activity of macrophytes and microorganisms. However, the effects of plants on microorganisms responsible for N removal are poorly understood. In this study, a three-stage surface flow CW was constructed in a pilot-scale within monospecies stands of Myriophyllum aquaticum to treat swine wastewater. Steady-state conditions were achieved throughout the 600-day operating period, and a high (98.3% average ammonia removal efficiency under a N loading rate of 9 kg ha-1 d-1 was observed. To determine whether this high efficiency was associated with the performance of active microbes, the abundance, structure, and interactions of microbial community were compared in the unvegetated and vegetated samples. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions showed the abundances of nitrifying genes (archaeal and bacterial amoA and denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK, and nosZ were increased significantly by M. aquaticum in the sediments, and the strongest effects were observed for the archaeal amoA (218-fold and nirS genes (4620-fold. High-throughput sequencing of microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed that M. aquaticum greatly changed the microbial community, and ammonium oxidizers (Nitrosospira and Nitrososphaera, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira, and abundant denitrifiers including Rhodoplanes, Bradyrhizobium, and Hyphomicrobium, were enriched significantly in the sediments. The results of a canonical correspondence analysis and Mantle tests indicated that M. aquaticum may shift the sediment microbial community by changing the sediment chemical properties. The enriched nitrifiers and denitrifiers were distributed widely in the vegetated sediments, showing positive ecological associations among themselves and other bacteria based on phylogenetic molecular ecological networks.

  2. Genomic characterization and high prevalence of bocaviruses in swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongling Shan

    Full Text Available Using random PCR amplification followed by plasmid subcloning and DNA sequencing, we detected bocavirus related sequences in 9 out of 17 porcine stool samples. Using primer walking, we sequenced the nearly complete genomes of two highly divergent bocaviruses we provisionally named porcine bocavirus 1 isolate H18 (PBoV1-H18 and porcine bocavirus 2 isolate A6 (PBoV2-A6 which differed by 51.8% in their NS1 protein. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PBoV1-H18 was very closely related to a ∼2 Kb central region of a porcine bocavirus-like virus (PBo-LikeV from Sweden described in 2009. PBoV2-A6 was very closely related to the porcine bocavirus genomes PBoV-1 and PBoV2 from China described in 2010. Among 340 fecal samples collected from different age, asymptomatic swine in five Chinese provinces, the prevalence of PBoV1-H18 and PBoV2-A6 related viruses were 45-75% and 55-70% respectively, with 30-47% of pigs co-infected. PBoV1-A6 related strains were highly conserved, while PBoV2-H18 related strains were more diverse, grouping into two genotypes corresponding to the previously described PBoV1 and PBoV2. Together with the recently described partial bocavirus genomes labeled V6 and V7, a total of three major porcine bocavirus clades have therefore been described to date. Further studies will be required to elucidate the possible pathogenic impact of these diverse bocaviruses either alone or in combination with other porcine viruses.

  3. Recent advancements in the hormonal stimulation of ovulation in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knox RV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert V Knox Department of Animal Sciences, 360 Animal Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana, IL, USA Abstract: Induction of ovulation for controlled breeding is available for use around the world, and conditions for practical application appear promising. Many of the hormones available, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and its analogs, as well as porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH, have been shown to be effective for advancing or synchronizing ovulation in gilts and weaned sows. Each of the hormones has unique attributes with respect to the physiology of its actions, how it is administered, its efficacy, and approval for use. The timing for induction of ovulation during the follicle phase is critical as follicle maturity changes over time, and the success of the response is determined by the stage of follicle development. Female fertility is also a primary factor affecting the success of ovulation induction and fixed time insemination protocols. Approximately 80%–90% of female pigs will develop mature follicles following weaning in sows and synchronization of estrus in gilts. However, those gilts and sows with follicles that are less developed and mature, or those that develop with abnormalities, will not respond to an ovulatory surge of LH. To address this problem, some protocols induce follicle development in all females, which can improve the overall reliability of the ovulation response. Control of ovulation is practical for use with fixed time artificial insemination and should prove highly advantageous for low-dose and single-service artificial insemination and for use with frozen-thawed and sex-sorted sperm. Keywords: artificial insemination, follicle, hormone, ovulation, swine

  4. Seasonal variability in airborne biotic contaminants in swine confinement buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kumari

    Full Text Available Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of biotic contaminants in swine confinement buildings (SCBs. The biotic contaminants of seven SCBs were monitored during one visit in the winter and one during the summer. Paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, V3 region, was used to examine seasonal shifts in bacterial community composition and diversity. The abundances of 16S rRNA genes and six tetracycline resistance genes (tetB, tetH, tetZ, tetO, tetQ, and tetW were also quantified using real-time PCR. Bacterial abundances, community composition and diversity all showed strong seasonal patterns defined by winter peaks in abundance and diversity. Microclimatic variables of SCBs, particularly air speed, PM2.5 and total suspended particles (TSP were found significantly correlated to abundances, community composition, and diversity of bacterial bioaerosols. Seasonal fluctuations were also observed for four tetracycline resistance genes, tetH, tetO, tetQ, and tetW. The frequency of occurrences of these resistance genes were significantly higher in samples collected during winter and was also significantly correlated with air speed, PM2.5 and TSP. Overall, our results indicate that biotic contaminants in SCBs exhibit seasonal trends, and these could be associated with the microclimatic variables of SCBs. The correlations established in the current study could be helpful in establishing better management strategies to minimize the potential health impacts on both livestock and humans working in this environment.

  5. SOILS AS NATURAL REACTORS FOR SWINE WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bautista

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of soils to mineralize organic matter depends on their individual characteristics; when waste waters are added to them their organic matter content (OM, cationic exchange capacity (CEC and percentage of clay (PC are altered. Pedotransfer functions (PTF enable certain processes to be determined from easily measured soil properties. The aims of this study were i to generate PTF to estimate the retention and mineralisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM present in swine wastewater (SWW based on measurements of OM, CEC and PC and ii to identify the soils most suited to acting as natural reactors for treating SWW, using multicriteria analysis. Samples were taken from ten soils (epipedons or superficial samples to measure the retention of dissolved organic matter (RDOM in 30 cm high soil columns, making three applications of SWW. In addition, an experiment was carried out in pots to measure the effect of SWW on soil carbon evolution (SCE and the potential anaerobic nitrogen mineralisation (PANM. Multiple regressions were made using soil OM (%, CEC (cmol+ kg-1 and PC (% as independent variables and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, SCE and PANM as dependent variables. The PFT found were RDOM = 41.5 + (2.8*CEC – (0.81*PC – (3.5*OM  r= 0.81; SCE =  542.3 + (20.1*OM + (4.6*CEC – (2.7*PC r= 0.96; PANM = -8.4 + (3.45*OM + (1.12*PC – (2.20*CEC r= 0.88. The most suitable soils for acting as natural reactors of SWW were the Luvisol LVct and an unclassified EPI-1. Â

  6. Coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.F.; DeGuzman, L.R.; Pedersen, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent papers have raised doubt as to the magnitude of coronary blood flow during closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We will describe experiments that concern the methods of coronary flow measurement during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Nine anesthetized swine were instrumented to allow simultaneous measurements of coronary blood flow by both electromagnetic cuff flow probes and by the radiomicrosphere technique. Cardiac arrest was caused by electrical fibrillation and closed-chest massage was performed by a Thumper (Dixie Medical Inc., Houston). The chest was compressed transversely at a rate of 66 strokes/min. Compression occupied one-half of the massage cycle. Three different Thumper piston strokes were studied: 1.5, 2, and 2.5 inches. Mean aortic pressure and total systemic blood flow measured by the radiomicrosphere technique increased as Thumper piston stroke was lengthened (mean +/- SD): 1.5 inch stroke, 23 +/- 4 mm Hg, 525 +/- 195 ml/min; 2 inch stroke, 33 +/- 5 mm Hg, 692 +/- 202 ml/min; 2.5 inch stroke, 40 +/- 6 mm Hg, 817 +/- 321 ml/min. Both methods of coronary flow measurement (electromagnetic [EMF] and radiomicrosphere [RMS]) gave similar results in technically successful preparations (data expressed as percent prearrest flow mean +/- 1 SD): 1.5 inch stroke, EMF 12 +/- 5%, RMS 16 +/- 5%; 2 inch stroke, EMF 30 +/- 6%, RMS 26 +/- 11%; 2.5 inch stroke, EMF 50 +/- 12%, RMS 40 +/- 20%. The phasic coronary flow signal during closed-chest compression indicated that all perfusion occurred during the relaxation phase of the massage cycle. We concluded that coronary blood flow is demonstrable during closed-chest massage, but that the magnitude is unlikely to be more than a fraction of normal

  7. Effects of alcohol on pericardial adhesion formation in hypercholesterolemic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Antonio D; Chu, Louis M; Sellke, Frank W

    2012-04-01

    Reoperative cardiac surgery is complicated in part because of extensive adhesions encountered during the second operation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol with and without resveratrol (red wine vs vodka) on postoperative pericardial adhesion formation in a porcine model of hypercholesterolemia and chronic myocardial ischemia. Male Yorkshire swine were fed a high-cholesterol diet to simulate conditions of coronary artery disease followed by surgical placement of an ameroid constrictor to induce chronic ischemia. Postoperatively, control pigs continued their high-cholesterol diet alone, whereas the 2 experimental groups had diets supplemented with red wine or vodka. Seven weeks after ameroid placement, all animals underwent reoperative sternotomy. Compared with controls, pericardial adhesion grade was markedly reduced in the vodka group, whereas there was no difference in the wine group. Intramyocardial fibrosis was significantly reduced in the vodka group compared with controls. There was no difference in expression of proteins involved in focal adhesion formation between any groups (focal adhesion kinase, integrin alpha-5, integrin beta-1, paxillin, vinculin, protein tyrosine kinase 2, protein kinase C ε, and phosphorylated protein kinase C ε). The wine group exhibited elevated C-reactive protein levels versus the control and vodka groups. Postoperative vodka consumption markedly reduced the formation of pericardial adhesions and intramyocardial fibrosis, whereas red wine had no effect. Analysis of protein expression did not reveal any obvious explanation for this phenomenon, suggesting a post-translational effect of alcohol on fibrous tissue deposition. The difference in adhesion formation in the vodka versus wine groups may be due to increased inflammation in the wine group. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of DNA methylation in various swine tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is known to play an important role in regulating gene expression during biological development and tissue differentiation in eukaryotes. In this study, we used the fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP method to assess the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation in muscle, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and stomach from the swine strain Laiwu, and we also examined specific methylation patterns in the seven tissues. In total, 96,371 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both EcoRI + HpaII and EcoRI + MspI, the HpaII and MspI are isoschizomeric enzymes, were amplified using 16 pairs of selective primers. A total of 50,094 sites were found to be methylated at cytosines in seven tissues. The incidence of DNA methylation was approximately 53.99% in muscle, 51.24% in the heart, 50.18% in the liver, 53.31% in the spleen, 51.97% in the lung, 51.15% in the kidney and 53.39% in the stomach, as revealed by the incidence of differential digestion. Additionally, differences in DNA methylation levels imply that such variations may be related to specific gene expression during tissue differentiation, growth and development. Three types of bands were generated in the F-MSAP profile, the total numbers of these three types of bands in the seven tissues were 46,277, 24,801 and 25,293, respectively.In addition, different methylation patterns were observed in seven tissues from pig, and almost all of the methylation patterns detected by F-MSAP could be confirmed by Southern analysis using the isolated amplified fragments as probes. The results clearly demonstrated that the F-MSAP technique can be adapted for use in large-scale DNA methylation detection in the pig genome.

  9. Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus antibodies in pigs and residents of swine farms, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Zhu, Wanjun; Chen, Ye; Tan, Likai; Zhou, Pei; Cao, Zhenpeng; Ke, Changwen; Li, Yugu; Wu, Jie; Qi, Wenbao; Jiao, Peirong; Zhang, Guihong

    2013-12-01

    Since 1997, the H5 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulating in China have become an international concern. Clade 2.3.2 of H5N1 AIVs is genetically distinct from the viruses isolated before 2007 and antigenically different from the vaccine strains widely used in China. Swine farms in rural China are thought to play an important role in AIVs ecology. A seroepidemiological study was undertaken among swine farm residents and pigs to understand the prevalence of antibodies against H5N1 AIVs in southern China. During the period March 24, 2008 to December 25, 2012,serum samples were collected from 1606 swine farm residents on 40 swine farms in southern China. A total of 1980 pigs' serum samples were collected in the same swine farms where swine workers' serum samples were collected from March 2009 to March 2013. For a control group, 104 serum samples were collected from healthy city residents in Nanchang. All the serum samples were collected to perform hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and (neutralization) NT assays to investigate the prevalence of H5N1 AIV infections in southern China. Sixteen human samples were positive by HI assay and 10 of these were also positive by NT assay against H5N1. No serum samples from human control and pigs were HI positive for H5N1 AIV. Our results demonstrate minimal transmission H5N1 AIV from birds to pigs in the swine farms studied and the risk of poultry-to-human and poultry-to-pig transmission for at least clades 2.3.2 seemed very low. This study provides the first data regarding antibodies against H5N1 AIV in humans and pigs on swine farms in China. The findings of this study can serve as a baseline for additional serologic studies to assess transmission of H5N1 viruses between avian species, pigs and swine workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and characterization of potential probiotic strains with antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán-Vega, Sandra Rayén; Villena, Julio; Valdebenito, José; Salas, María José; Parra, Cristian; Ruiz, Alvaro; Kitazawa, Haruki; García, Apolinaria

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. The search of probiotics in human milk is a recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. To our knowledge, no reports regarding the potential probiotic effect of bacteria from swine milk have been published. In this work, we isolated several lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and evaluated them for them potential as probiotics. Among the isolated strains, Lactobacillus curvatus TUCO-5E showed antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens. TUCO-5E was able to reduce the growth of enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains as well as pathogenic salmonella. In vitro exclusion and displacement assays in intestinal epithelial cells showed a remarkable antagonistic effect for L. curvatus TUCO-5E against Salmonella sp. strain TUCO-I7 and Salmonella enterica ATCC 13096. Moreover, by using a mouse model of Salmonella infection, we were able to demonstrate that preventative administration of L. curvatus TUCO-5E for 5 consecutive days was capable of decreasing the number of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the liver and spleen of treated mice, compared with the controls, and prevented dissemination of the pathogen to the blood stream. Therefore, we have demonstrated here that swine milk is an interesting source of beneficial bacteria. In addition, the results of this work suggest that L. curvatus TUCO-5E is a good candidate to study in vivo the protective effect of probiotics against intestinal infection and damage induced by Salmonella infection in the porcine host.

  11. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) effect on methane yield: verification in continuously fed digesters. • AAS resulted in 98% increase of the methane yield of swine manure fibers in continuously fed digesters. • ADM1 was successfully adapted to simulating anaerobic digestion of swine manure. • Modification of hydrolysis kinetics was necessary for an adequate simulation of the digestion of AAS-treated fibers. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per 0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly contribute to the methane production. In the second place, ADM1 was used to describe biogas production from the codigestion of manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The model predictions regarding biogas production and methane content were in good agreement with the experimental data. It was shown that, AAS treatment significantly increased the disintegration and hydrolysis rate of the carbohydrate compounds of the fibers. The effect of the addition of AAS treated fibers on the kinetics of the conversion of other key compounds such as volatile fatty acids was negligible.

  12. Rapid determination of ractopamine in swine urine using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuli; Huang, Yiqun; Li, Chunying; Wang, Xichang; Lai, Keqiang

    2011-09-28

    Ractopamine is approved for use in swine to improve carcass leanness in the United States, but banned in the European Union and China because ractopamine residue may pose health risks. This study investigated the possibility of applying surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for analysis of ractopamine in swine urine. Ractopamine (0.1-10 μg mL(-1)) was added to urine samples collected from 20 swine to prepare a total of 240 samples. A simple centrifugation, a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method, and a more complicated method involving liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction (LLE-SPE) were used to extract ractopamine from urine samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares (PLS) regression were used for spectral data analyses. Although no satisfactory result was obtained with the centrifugation method, ractopamine could be detected at levels of 0.8 and 0.4 μg mL(-1) with the LLE and LLE-SPE extraction methods, respectively. The R2 of the PLS model of actual ractopamine values versus predicted values was 0.74 for the LLE method and 0.73 for the LLE-SPE method. The SERS method with simple sample preparation has great potential for rapid analysis of ractopamine in swine urine.

  13. Economics of Swine Marketing in Kafanchan (Katsit)Market, Jama'a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A market survey of 30 swine traders in Kafanchan was conducted to evaluate the structure, conduct and performance of the market. Although there were many sellers and buyers and no collusion, Lorenz curve analyses showed that 30% of all traders handled 74% of the sales. The Gini coefficient was also high (0.53), ...

  14. Gastrointestinal absorption and retention of plutonium-238 in neonatal rats and swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    Neonatal rats gavaged with 237 Pu or 238 Pu retained a substantial quantity in gut mucosa for a week but absorbed only 2.9% of the 237 Pu. After 140 days the amount retained fell to half that initially deposited. Newborn swine also retained large amounts in the gut and absorbed about 40% of the dose

  15. Socio-economic impact of African swine fever outbreak of 2011 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to evaluate the socio-economic impact of African swine fever (ASF) and associated epidemiological factors following the 2011 outbreak in Isoka district of Zambia. One hundred and twenty small holder farmers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to collect information on the ...

  16. Causes of death in swine in Jos Area of Plateau State | Osiyemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascariasis and cysticercosis were the main purnsitic diseases. Early treatment of sick swine and improved husbandry and management would have certainly reduced the losses which the pig producers had sustained in consequence of these conditions. Keywords: Pneumonia, Cysticercosis. Colibacillosis, Salmonellosis ...

  17. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy

  18. Antimicrobial growth promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in poultry and swine, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, M. C.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers, swine, pork, and chicken meat and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter in...

  19. Swine-Origin Influenza A Outbreak 2009 at Shinshu University, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washizuka Shinsuke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A worldwide outbreak of swine flu H1N1 pandemic influenza occurred in April 2009. To determine the mechanism underlying the spread of infection, we prospectively evaluated a survey implemented at a local university. Methods Between August 2009 and March 2010, we surveyed 3 groups of subjects: 2318 children in six schools attached to the Faculty of Education, 11424 university students, and 3344 staff members. Subjects with influenza-like symptoms who were diagnosed with swine flu at hospitals or clinics were defined as swine flu patients and asked to make a report using a standardized form. Results After the start of the pandemic, a total of 2002 patients (11.7% were registered in the survey. These patients included 928 schoolchildren (40.0%, 1016 university students (8.9%, and 58 staff members (1.7%. The incidence in schoolchildren was significantly higher than in the other 2 groups (P Conclusion Schoolchildren and university students are vulnerable to swine flu, suggesting that avoidance of close contact, especially among these young people, may be effective way in controlling future severe influenza pandemics, especially at educational institutions.

  20. The avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus has limited replication in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetically and antigenically distinct H3N2 canine influenza of avian-origin was detected in March of 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. A subsequent outbreak was reported with over 1,000 dogs in the Midwest affected. The potential for canine-to-swine transmission was unknown. Experimental infection in pi...

  1. 9 CFR 93.516 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.516 Import permit and...

  2. Genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian and swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jeong, Jipseol; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Choi, Eun-Jin; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the potential for cross-species transmission of influenza viruses by comparing the genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with different host origins in Korea. Antigenic and phylogenetic analyses of H1 AIVs circulating in Korea provided evidence of genetic similarity between viruses that infect domestic ducks and those that infect wild birds, although there was no relationship between avian and swine viruses. However, there were some relationships between swine and human viral genes. The replication and pathogenicity of the H1 viruses was assessed in chickens, domestic ducks and mice. Viral shedding in chickens was relatively high. Virus was recovered from both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs up to 5-10 days post-inoculation. The titres of domestic duck viruses in chickens were much higher than those of wild-bird viruses. Both domestic duck and wild-bird viruses replicated poorly in domestic ducks. None of the swine viruses replicated in chickens or domestic ducks; however, six viruses showed relatively high titres in mice, regardless of host origin, and induced clinical signs such as ruffled fur, squatting and weight loss. Thus, although the phylogenetic and antigenic analyses showed no evidence of interspecies transmission between birds and swine, the results suggest that Korean H1 viruses have the potential to cause disease in mammals. Therefore, we should intensify continuous monitoring of avian H1 viruses in mammals and seek to prevent interspecies transmission. © 2014 The Authors.

  3. Molecular characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolates from swine lungs by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Silva Chitarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Swine respiratory diseases such as atrophic rhinitis and bronchopneumonia caused by Pasteurella (P. multocida cause important economic losses to the modern swine industry. The purpose of this study was to characterize P. multocida strains isolated from swine lungs by RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA to demonstrate their genetic diversity. Ninety-four samples of fragments from lungs with pneumonia and sixty one samples without pneumonia were collected in slaughterhouses in Mato Grosso during the period from December 2009 to March 2010. Clinical cases in 2012 and 2013 were also included in this study. Among the lung fragments with macroscopic lesions, without macroscopic lesions and clinical samples, 40.42%, 4.49% and 100% were positive for P. multocida, respectively. Bacterial identification culturing was confirmed by PCR (polymerase chain reaction by means of the amplification of the gene kmt1. RAPD technique was performed for 46 isolates, and in every isolate, a total of 7 to 11 amplification bands were detected, composed of 8 clusters based on genetic similarity. Thus, treatment, control and preventive measures should consider the genetic diversity of P. multocida populations in swine herds in order to improve the development of new protocols to produce antimicrobials and vaccines.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of semi-intensive method of swine production:a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected by means of structured questionnaire administered on twenty-one farms practicing semi-intensive technique of swine production with the aid of cluster sampling technique. Data collected was subjected to various measures of return on investment viz: Gross Margin, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Net Present Value, ...

  5. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  6. Immunogenicity and efficacy of a rough Brucella suis vaccine delivered orally or parenterally to feral swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis strain 353-1 is a stable vaccine strain that is clinically safe, does not cause positive serologic responses on conventional brucellosis surveillance tests, and induces humoral and cellular immunity in swine after vaccination. In this study, we evaluated tissue clearance and immunologi...

  7. Immuogenicity and safety of a natural rough mutant of Brucella suis as a vaccine for swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and clearance of the natural rough mutant of Brucella suis strain 353-1 (353-1) as a vaccine in domestic swine. In three studies encompassing 155 animals, pigs were inoculated with 353-1 by conjunctival (5 x 10**7 CFU), p...

  8. Characterization of Phosphorus in Animal Manures Collected from Three (Dairy, Swine, and Broiler) Farms in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Li, H.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Shen, J.; Zhang, F.

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the phosphorus species and concentration in animal manure, we comparatively characterized phosphorus in dairy manure, swine manure, and broiler litter, using a sequential procedure, a simplified two-step procedure (NaHCO3/NaOH+EDTA), and a solution Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic

  9. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine 'PUBMED' to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.

  10. Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbulte, Matthew R.; Spickler, Anna R.; Zaabel, Pamela K.; Roth, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health. PMID:26344946

  11. Antimicrobial growth promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in poultry and swine, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, M. C.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers, swine, pork, and chicken meat and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter...

  12. Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in anaerobic digestion and land application of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qianwen; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Meixue; Tong, Juan; Wang, Rui; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-06-01

    Swine farm and the adjacent farmland are hot spots of ARGs. However, few studies have investigated the on-site occurrence of ARGs distributed in the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by land application of swine wastewater. Two typical swine farms, in southern and northern China respectively, with AD along with land application were explored on ARG distributions. ARGs were highly abundant in raw swine wastewater, AD effectively reduced the copy number of all detected ARGs (0.21-1.34 logs removal), but the relative abundance with different resistance mechanisms showed distinctive variation trends. The reduction efficiency of ARGs was improved by stable operational temperature and longer solid retention time (SRT) of AD. ARGs in soil characterized the contamination from the irrigation of the digested liquor. The total ARGs quantity in soil fell down by 1.66 logs in idle period of winter compared to application period of summer in the northern region, whereas the total amount was steady with whole-year application in south. Some persistent (sul1 and sul2) and elevated ARGs (tetG and ereA) in AD and land application need more attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [The eradication of African swine fever in Brazil, 1978-1984].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, T M P

    2006-04-01

    The African swine fever episode in Brazil was due to trade and tourism between Spain, Portugal and Brazil, at a time when outbreaks were on the rise in Europe. The eradication of the disease, the slaughter of pigs, the elimination of the carcasses and the isolation of affected farms were given wide media coverage, and had a major socio-economic impact. It was forbidden to raise pigs in garbage dumps or to give them feed considered hazardous. Analyses performed in Brazil as well as national and international investigations by researchers from reference laboratories concluded that the disease had spread from Rio de Janeiro to other states, as is stated in official reports. Following emergency measures, a control programme was implemented, leading to enhanced quality in the pig farming sector. The authors describe epidemiological surveillance of African swine fever, classical swine fever and related diseases, biosafety in swine farming, and the emergency action plan comprising animal health training for veterinarians and social workers. The results of the eradication programme were excellent, despite the controversy over compulsory sacrifice in a country with serious social problems. In 2004, Brazil was the fourth largest pork producer and exporter, with an output of 2.679 million tons and exports of 508,000 tons to international markets with very high standards.

  14. Evidence for porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) in Brazilian swine herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Porcine bocaviruses were recently identified among swine co-infected with PCV2 (2,3) and suffering an acute-onset disease of high mortality in the United States, in pigs with PMWS in Sweden (1), and in pigs with reproductive and neurological disease in China (4). Parvoviruses are smal...

  15. Time-dependent infection probability of classical swine fever via excretions and secretions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesendorp, E.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Stegeman, A.; Vos, de C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Several routes contribute to the spread of classical swine fever (CSF) during outbreaks of this disease. However, for many infected herds in recent epidemics, no route of virus introduction could be indentified. To obtain more insight into the relative importance of secretions and excretions in

  16. The effectiveness of classical swine fever surveillance programmes in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, D.; Nielen, M.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Consequences of classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics depend on the control measures, but also on the number of infected herds at the end of the high-risk period (HRP). Surveillance programmes aim to keep this number as low as possible, so the effectiveness of surveillance programmes can be measured

  17. Microbial community analysis of swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons by next-generation DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic lagoons are a standard practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. This practice relies heavily on microbiological processes to reduce concentrated organic material and nutrients. Despite this reliance on microbiological processes, research has only recently begun to identify and enume...

  18. Phosphorus recovery from anaerobic swine lagoon sludge using the quick wash process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long term and significant accumulation of sludge in anaerobic swine lagoons reduces its storage volume and ability to treat waste. Usually, excess accumulation of lagoon sludge is removed by dredging. The dredged sludge is then land applied at agronomic rates according to its nutrient content. Becau...

  19. A Novel Swine Model for Evaluation of Potential Intravascular Hemostatic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    we set fluid infusion at a low level that would defend against fluid loss from respiration, urination, and evaporation from ex- posed intestines that...Intravenous rFVIIa administered for hemorrhage control in hypo- thermic coagulopathic swine with grade V liver injuries. J Trauma 50:721–729. 34. Matsuoka

  20. Recovery of ammonia and phosphate minerals from swine wastewater using gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from liquid manures. In this study, phosphorus (P) recovery via magnesium chloride precipitation was enhanced by combining it with ammonia recovery through gas-permeable membranes. Anaerobically digested swine effluent containing approx...

  1. Propidium Monoazide Coupled with PCR Predicts Infectivity of Enteric Viruses in Swine Manure and Biofertilized Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Hernández, Marta; García-González, María Cruz; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) was assessed to discriminate infectious enteric viruses in swine raw manure, swine effluent from anaerobic biodigester (AB) and biofertilized soils. Those samples were spiked either with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) or mengovirus (vMC0), and PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR allowed discriminating inactivated viruses from the infective particles, with significant reductions (>99.9%). Then, the procedure was further assayed to evaluate the presence and stability of two non-cultivable viruses (porcine adenovirus and rotavirus A) in natural samples (swine raw manure, swine effluent from AB and biofertilized soils); it demonstrated viral inactivation during the storage period at 23 °C. As a result, the combination of PMA coupled to real-time PCR can be a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in comparison to more labour-intensive and costly techniques such as animal or tissue-culture infectivity methods, and for those viruses that do not have currently available cell culture techniques.

  2. The in-feed antibiotic carbadox induces phage gene transcription in the swine gut microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbadox is a quinoxaline-di-N-oxide antibiotic fed to over 40 percent of young pigs in the U.S. and has been shown to induce phage DNA transduction in vitro; however, the effects of carbadox on swine microbiome functions are poorly understood. We investigated the in vivo effects of carbadox on swin...

  3. Cost-effectiveness of measures to prevent classical swine fever introduction into The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de C.J.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent history has demonstrated that classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics can incur high economic losses, especially for exporting countries that have densely populated pig areas and apply a strategy of non-vaccination, such as The Netherlands. Introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) remains a continuing

  4. Development and Use of a Swine Model for Evaluating Anesthetic Agents and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    anaesthesia in patients with valvular heart disease . Canad. Anaesth. Soc. J., 26: 463-467, 1979. ...341Ketamine has been advocated for the induction of anesthesia in the acutely hypovolemic patient because of its ability to preserve blood pressure which...hypovolemia. The effects of anesthetic induction doses of Ketamine and thiopental were evaluated in a hypovolemic swine model. Sixteen acutely in

  5. Uncovering of Classical Swine Fever Virus adaptive response to vaccination by Next Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Orton, Richard; Höper, Dirk

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has rapidly become the preferred technology in nucleotide sequencing, and can be applied to unravel molecular adaptation of RNA viruses such as Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). However, the detection of low frequency variants within viral populations by NGS...

  6. Conservation of Swine Genetics by the National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) after One Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the continued threats to genetic diversity, and that this is the 10th year NAGP has been operating, it is useful to assess the progress made to date in securing animal genetic resources in general and swine genetic resources specifically. In 1999 the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) es...

  7. Heavy metal and antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from the environment of swine farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.; Ping, C.; Mei, L.S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of heavy metal resistance and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from environment of swine farms in China. A total of 284 bacteria were isolated, 158 from manure, 62 from soil and 64 from wastewater in different swine farm samples. All the isolates were tested for resistant against eight heavy metals. From the total of 284 isolates, maximum bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to Zn/sup 2+/ (98.6%) followed by Cu/sup 2+/ (97.5%), Cd/sup 2+/ (68.3%), Mn/sup 2+/ (60.2%), Pb/sup 2+/(51.4%), Ni/sup 2+/(41.5%) and Cr/sup 2+/(45.1%). However, most of the isolates were sensitive to Co/sup 2+/. Meanwhile,all the isolates were tested for sensitively to nine antibiotics. The results shows that most isolates were sensitive to cefoxitin and oxacillin, but resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, erythromycin, clindamycin were widespread. Multiple resistant to metals and antibiotics were also observed in this study. Most isolates were tolerant to different concentrations of various heavy metals and antibiotics. Our results confirmed that environment of swine farms in China has a significant proportion of heavy metal and antibiotic resistant bacteria, and these bacteria constitute a potential risk for swine health and public health. (author)

  8. Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Sandbulte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.

  9. The potential of antiviral agents to control classical swine fever: A modelling study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, J.A.; Vrancken, R.; Neyts, J.; Goris, N.

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) represents a continuous threat to pig populations that are free of disease without vaccination. When CSF virus is introduced, the minimal control strategy imposed by the EU is often insufficient to mitigate the epidemic. Additional measures such as preemptive culling

  10. Super-oxidized water inactivates major viruses circulating in swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianing; Zhang, Chengyu; Liu, Yue; Liu, Guangliang

    2017-04-01

    Disinfectant is commonly employed to eliminate infectious agents and prevent its transmission. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of Medilox ® super-oxidized water on inactivating veterinary viruses mainly circulating in swine farms. The results demonstrated that this super-oxidized water could effectively inactivate porcine viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Work-Related Health Effects in Swine Building Workers After Respiratory Protection Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Veillette, Marc; Mériaux, Anne

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To compare inflammation and lung function in swine workers after periods with and without respiratory protection during work. METHODS:Twenty-three workers were examined before and after two nonprotected work shifts. One shift was preceded by a period with diminished exposure by use...

  12. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure slurry in sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, D.I. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Food Research Branch; Droste, R.L. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    This work presents preliminary results of an ongoing laboratory study to evaluate the feasibility of psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for stabilizing, deodorizing and adding value to swine manure. Preliminary results show that the process is feasible. (author). 14 refs., 7 tabs.

  13. Identification of Brucella spp. in feral swine (Sus scrofa) at abattoirs in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various tissues, nasal swabs, urine, and blood samples were collected from 376 feral swine at two federally-inspected abattoirs in Texas during six separate sampling periods in 2015. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. by culture and serology. Brucella spp. were cultured from 13.0% of feral swin...

  14. Comparative Fecal Metagenomics Unveils Unique Functional Capacity of the Swine Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health and to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Limited information on the physiological...

  15. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Manjunatha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19. The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ′PUBMED′ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND. Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson′s disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process...

  17. Genotype patterns of contemporary reassorted H3N2 virus in U.S. swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the evolution of H3N2v influenza viruses that have infected 288 humans since July 2011, we performed the largest phylogenetic analysis at a whole genome scale of influenza viruses from North American swine to date (n = 200). At least ten distinct reassorted H3N2/pandemic H1N1 (rH3N2p)...

  18. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human–animal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to sw...

  19. Use of inactivated E.Coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to augment responses to respiratory vaccines in swine, various adjuvants were intranasally co-administered with an antigen to pigs. Detoxified E. coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced mucosal and systemic immunity to the model peptide, exhibiting their efficacy as mucosal adjuvants for...

  20. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ....). List of Subjects in 9 CFR Part 91 Animal diseases, Animal welfare, Exports, Livestock, Reporting and... / Tuesday, May 24, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing...

  1. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). List of Subjects in 9 CFR Part 91 Animal diseases, Animal welfare...

  2. Carbon sequestration in surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbo...

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the swine leukocyte antigen - 2 gene for Korean native pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic distances of the SLA-2 gene, to characterize SLA-2 alleles, and to provide basic genetic information of Korean pigs. The swine leukocyte antigen - 2 (SLA-2) gene in the MHC classical region was cloned with spleen tissues from Korean native pigs ...

  4. The effect of purinergic P2 receptor blockade on skeletal muscle exercise hyperemia in miniature swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; McAllister, R M; Yang, H T

    2014-01-01

    -microsphere technique and systemic hemodynamics before and after arterial infusion of the P2 receptor antagonist reactive blue 2 during treadmill exercise (5.2 km/h, ~60 % VO2max) and arterial ATP infusion in female Yucatan miniature swine (~29 kg). RESULTS: Mean blood flow during exercise from the 16 sampled skeletal...

  5. Neoatherosclerosis development following bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation in diabetic and non-diabetic swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke S van Ditzhuijzen

    Full Text Available DM remains a risk factor for poor outcome after stent-implantation, but little is known if and how DM affects the vascular response to BVS.The aim of our study was to examine coronary responses to bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS in swine with and without diabetes mellitus fed a 'fast-food' diet (FF-DM and FF-NDM, respectively by sequential optical coherence tomography (OCT-imaging and histology.Fifteen male swine were evaluated. Eight received streptozotocin-injection to induce DM. After 9 months (M, 32 single BVS were implanted in epicardial arteries with a stent to artery (S/A-ratio of 1.1:1 under quantitative coronary angiography (QCA and OCT guidance. Lumen, scaffold, neointimal coverage and composition were assessed by QCA, OCT and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS pre- and/or post-procedure, at 3M and 6M. Additionally, polarization-sensitive (PS-OCT was performed in 7 swine at 6M. After sacrifice at 3M and 6M, histology and polymer degradation analysis were performed.Late lumen loss was high (~60% within the first 3M after BVS-implantation (P0.20. Neointimal coverage was highly heterogeneous in all swine (DM vs. NDM P>0.05, with focal lipid accumulation, irregular collagen distribution and neointimal calcification. Likewise, polymer mass loss was low (~2% at 3M, ~5% at 6M;P>0.20 and not associated with DM or inflammation.Scaffold coverage showed signs of neo-atherosclerosis in all FF-DM and FF-NDM swine, scaffold polymer was preserved and the vascular response to BVS was not influenced by diabetes.

  6. Reliable estimation of antimicrobial use and its evolution between 2010 and 2013 in French swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hémonic, Anne; Chauvin, Claire; Delzescaux, Didier; Verliat, Fabien; Corrégé, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    There has been a strong implication of both the French swine industry and the national authorities on reducing the use of antimicrobials in swine production since 2010. The annual monitoring of antimicrobial sales by the French Veterinary Medicines Agency (Anses-ANMV) provides estimates but not detailed figures on actual on-farm usage of antimicrobials in swine production. In order to provide detailed information on the 2010 and 2013 antimicrobial use in the French swine industry, the methodology of cross-sectional retrospective study on a representative sample of at least 150 farms has been elected. The analysis of the collected data shows a strong and significant decrease in antimicrobial exposure of pigs between 2010 and 2013. Over three years, the average number of days of treatment significantly decreased by 29% in suckling piglets and by 19% in weaned piglets. In fattening pigs, the drop (- 29%) was not statistically significant. Only usage in sows did increase over that period (+ 17%, non-significant), which might be associated with the transition to group-housing of pregnant sows that took place at the time. Also, over that period, the use of third- and fourth generation cephalosporins in suckling piglets decreased by 89%, and by 82% in sows, which confirms that the voluntary moratorium on these classes of antimicrobials decided at the end of 2010 has been effectively implemented. The methodology of random sampling of farms appears as a precise and robust tool to monitor antimicrobial use within a production animal species, able to fulfil industry and national authorities' objectives and requirements to assess the outcome of concerted efforts on antimicrobial use reduction. It demonstrates that the use of antimicrobials decreased in the French swine industry between 2010 and 2013, including the classes considered as critical for human medicine.

  7. Anesthesia in swine : optimizing a laboratory model to optimize translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehböck, D; Dietrich, H; Klima, G; Paal, P; Lindner, K H; Wenzel, V

    2015-01-01

    In order to extrapolate novel therapies from the bench to the bedside (translational research), animal experiments are scientifically necessary. Swine are popular laboratory animals as their cardiorespiratory physiology is very similar to humans. Every study has to be approved by the local and/or national animal ethical committees. As swine are extremely sensitive to stress the primary goal is therefore to provide a calm, stress-free environment in both housing and experimental facilities. Swine should be properly sedated for transport and normothermia needs to be ensured. It is recommended to commence anesthesia by injecting ketamine and propofol followed by endotracheal intubation during spontaneous breathing. After intubation, anesthesia maintenance is performed with morphine or piritramide, propofol and rocuronium and routine monitoring is applied analogue to a clinical operating theater for humans. Normothermia (38.5 °C) needs to be ensured. While surgical procedures can be readily extrapolated from a human operating theater to swine, non-anesthesiologist scientists may lose the animal rapidly due to airway management problems. Vascular access can be secured by cut-downs or ultrasound-guided techniques in the inguinal and the neck region. For humane euthanasia of pigs, morphine, followed by propofol, rocuronium and potassium chloride are recommended. As radical animal right groups may threaten scientists, it is prudent that animal laboratories have unmarked entrance doors, are located in buildings that are not accessible to the public and strictly controlled access of laboratory staff is enforced. In conclusion, swine are an excellent laboratory animal for bench to bedside research and can be managed properly when basic knowledge and adequate skills on careful handling, anesthesia and surgical considerations are present.

  8. Hepatitis E Virus (Genotype 3) in Slurry Samples from Swine Farming Activities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Brambilla, M; Bisaglia, C; Pisani, G; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Equestre, M; Iaconelli, M

    2017-06-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent causative agent of acute hepatitis, transmitted by fecal-oral route. Infection with HEV is a global cause for morbidity and mortality throughout the world: it mainly causes large outbreaks in endemic areas and sporadic autochthonous cases in industrialized countries where HEV infections seem to be an emergent zoonotic disease. Infection of porcine livestock and its relationship with the human cases have been demonstrated. The present study describes an investigation on the prevalence and diversity of HEV in pig slurry in Italy. Slurry samples (24) were collected from ten farms located in North Italy during 2015 and analyzed for HEV, using four broad-range nested PCR assays targeting ORF1 (MTase), ORF2 (capsid) genes, and ORF2/3 regions. Overall, 18 samples (75%) were positive for HEV RNA, and characterized as genotype 3. Nine samples could be subtyped by ORF2 sequencing: Eight belonged to subtype 3f, while one sequence could not be characterized by blast analysis and phylogenetic analysis and may actually represent a new subtype. Furthermore, similarity of 99% was found between 3f Italian HEV sequences of human and swine origins. Real-Time PCR assay was also performed, in order to obtain quantitative data on positive samples. Two swine slurry samples were positive, containing 600 and 1000 UI per mL of sewage. The results of this study show that HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine excreta, and have high degree of identity with strains detected in autochthonous HEV cases. Improving swine farming operations safety and increasing operators' awareness of the zoonotic potential connected with the handling of swine effluents turn out to be key points in order to reduce the environmental and sanitary problem represented by the possible dissemination of HEV to water bodies.

  9. Removal of excess nutrients by Australian zeolite during anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, D Thushari N; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B; Scales, Peter; Sommer, Sven G; Chen, Deli

    2018-03-21

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using natural and NaCl-treated Australian zeolites to simultaneously remove excess nutrients from anaerobically digested swine manure. Ion adsorption and desorption properties of Australian zeolite during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure were investigated. Two experiments were conducted: the first was an adsorption experiment with multi-component solutions that corresponded with the ionic composition of swine manure digestates. The second experiment determined the effects of zeolite dose rates during anaerobic digestion of swine manure on the removal of N, P and K from solution. Adsorption isotherms confirmed selectivity for K + over NH 4 + by Australian natural and sodium zeolites. Therefore, NH 4 + removal was considerably reduced when there was simultaneous K + uptake. Natural zeolite desorbed more Ca 2+ during K + and NH 4 + adsorption than sodium zeolite. The ion exchange reaction was independent of the presence of P. P removal was very dependent on the pH of the medium. Natural Australian zeolite was shown to be a potential sorbent for the removal of NH 4 + , K + and P during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure. However, the application of high concentrations of zeolite at higher pH values (> 7.5) might not be appropriate for anaerobic digestion, because zeolite desorbed more Ca 2+ ions into the solution at the higher doses of zeolite and then availability of P for microbial growth might be reduced as a result of PO 4 3- precipitation with Ca 2+ at the higher pH.

  10. Presence of influenza viruses in backyard poultry and swine in El Yali wetland, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Vasquez, N; Di Pillo, F; Lazo, A; Jiménez-Bluhm, P; Schultz-Cherry, S; Hamilton-West, C

    2016-11-01

    In South America little is known regarding influenza virus circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations. Backyard productive systems (BPS) that breed swine and poultry are widely distributed throughout Chile with high density in the central zone, and several BPS are located within the "El Yali" (EY) ecosystem, which is one of the most important wetlands in South America. Here, 130 different wild bird species have been described, of them, at least 22 species migrate yearly from North America for nesting. For this reason, EY is considered as a high-risk zone for avian influenza virus. This study aims to identify if backyard poultry and swine bred in the EY ecosystem have been exposed to influenza A virus and if so, to identify influenza virus subtypes. A biosecurity and handling survey was applied and samples were collected from BPS in two seasons (spring 2013 and fall 2014) for influenza seroprevalence, and in one season (fall 2014) for virus presence. Seroprevalence at BPS level was 42% (95% CI:22-49) during spring 2013 and 60% (95% CI 43-72) in fall 2014. rRT-PCR for the influenza A matrix gene indicated a viral prevalence of 27% (95% CI:14-39) at BPS level in fall 2014. Eight farms (73% of rRT-PCR positive farms) were also positive to the Elisa test at the same time. One BPS was simultaneously positive (rRT-PCR) in multiple species (poultry, swine and geese) and a H1N2 virus was identified from swine, exemplifying the risk that these BPS may pose for generation of novel influenza viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use estimates of in-feed antimicrobials in swine production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Michael D; Bush, Eric J; Morrison, Robert B; Singer, Randall S; Snelson, Harry

    2012-03-01

    When considering the development of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, comparing gross use estimates of different antimicrobials is of little value due to differences in potencies, duration of activity, relative effect on target and commensal bacteria, and mechanisms of resistance. However, it may be valuable to understand quantities of different antimicrobials used in different ages of swine and for what applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to construct an estimate of antimicrobial use through the feed in swine production in the United States. Estimates were based on data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Swine 2006 Study and from a 2009 survey of swine-exclusive practitioners. Inputs consisted of number of pigs in a production phase, feed intake per day, dose of the antimicrobial in the feed, and duration of administration. Calculations were performed for a total of 102 combinations of antimicrobials (n=17), production phases (n=2), and reasons for use (n=3). Calculations were first conducted on farm-level data, and then extrapolated to the U.S. swine population. Among the nursery phase estimates, chlortetracycline had the largest estimate of use, followed by oxytetracycline and tilmicosin. In the grower/finisher phase, chlortetracycline also had the largest use estimate, followed by tylosin and oxytetracycline. As an annual industry estimate for all phases, chlortetracycline had the highest estimated use at 533,973 kg. The second and third highest estimates were tylosin and oxytetracycline with estimated annual uses of 165,803 kg and 154,956 kg, respectively. The estimates presented here were constructed to accurately reflect available data related to production practices, and to provide an example of a scientific approach to estimating use of compounds in production animals.

  12. Swine influenza virus vaccine serologic cross-reactivity to contemporary U.S. swine H3N2 and efficacy in pigs infected with an H3N2 similar to 2011-2012 H3N2v

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Swine influenza A virus (IAV) reassortment with 2009 H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm09) virus has been documented and new genotypes and sub-clusters of H3N2 have since expanded in the U.S. swine population. An H3N2 variant (H3N2v) virus with the H1N1pdm09 matrix gene and the remaining genes of sw...

  13. Regulation of host translational machinery by African swine fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castelló

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV, like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively, whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2alpha, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis

  14. Polyanhydride nanovaccine against swine influenza virus in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Santosh; Goodman, Jonathan; Bondra, Kathryn; Lakshmanappa, Yashavanth S; Hiremath, Jagadish; Shyu, Duan-Liang; Ouyang, Kang; Kang, Kyung-Il; Krakowka, Steven; Wannemuehler, Michael J; Won Lee, Chang; Narasimhan, Balaji; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2017-02-22

    We have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of an influenza A virus (IAV) subunit vaccine based on biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticles delivery in mice. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of ∼200nm polyanhydride nanoparticles encapsulating inactivated swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) as a vaccine to induce protective immunity against a heterologous IAV challenge in pigs. Nursery pigs were vaccinated intranasally twice with inactivated SwIAV H1N2 (KAg) or polyanhydride nanoparticle-encapsulated KAg (KAg nanovaccine), and efficacy was evaluated against a heterologous zoonotic virulent SwIAV H1N1 challenge. Pigs were monitored for fever daily. Local and systemic antibody responses, antigen-specific proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, gross and microscopic lung lesions, and virus load in the respiratory tract were compared among the groups of animals. Our pre-challenge results indicated that KAg nanovaccine induced virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation and increased the frequency of CD4 + CD8αα + T helper and CD8 + cytotoxic T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. KAg nanovaccine-immunized pigs were protected from fever following SwIAV challenge. In addition, pigs immunized with the KAg nanovaccine presented with lower viral antigens in lung sections and had 6 to 8-fold reduction in nasal shedding of SwIAV four days post-challenge compared to control animals. Immunologically, increased IFN-γ secreting T lymphocyte populations against both the vaccine and challenge viruses were detected in KAg nanovaccine-immunized pigs compared to the animals immunized with KAg alone. However, in the KAg nanovaccine-immunized pigs, hemagglutination inhibition, IgG and IgA antibody responses, and virus neutralization titers were comparable to that in the animals immunized with KAg alone. Overall, our data indicated that intranasal delivery of polyanhydride-based SwIAV nanovaccine augmented antigen-specific cellular immune response in

  15. Effects of intraosseous erythropoietin during hemorrhagic shock in swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Borovnik-Lesjak

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether erythropoietin given during hemorrhagic shock (HS ameliorates organ injury while improving resuscitation and survival. METHODS: Three series of 24 pigs each were studied. In an initial series, 50% of the blood volume (BV was removed in 30 minutes and normal saline (threefold the blood removed started at minute 90 infusing each third in 30, 60, and 150 minutes with shed blood reinfused at minute 330 (HS-50BV. In a second series, the same HS-50BV protocol was used but removing an additional 15% of BV from minute 30 to 60 (HS-65BV. In a final series, blood was removed as in HS-65BV and intraosseous vasopressin given from minute 30 (0.04 U/kg min(-1 until start of shed blood reinfusion at minute 150 (HS-65BV+VP. Normal saline was reduced to half the blood removed and given from minute 90 to 120 in half of the animals. In each series, animals were randomized 1:1 to receive erythropoietin (1,200 U/kg or control solution intraosseously after removing 10% of the BV. RESULTS: In HS-50BV, O2 consumption remained near baseline yielding minimal lactate increases, 88% resuscitability, and 60% survival at 72 hours. In HS-65BV, O2 consumption was reduced and lactate increased yielding 25% resuscitability. In HS-65BV+VP, vasopressin promoted hemodynamic stability yielding 92% resuscitability and 83% survival at 72 hours. Erythropoietin did not affect resuscitability or subsequent survival in any of the series but increased interleukin-10, attenuated lactate increases, and ameliorated organ injury based on lesser troponin I, AST, and ALT increases and lesser neurological deficits in the HS-65BV+VP series. CONCLUSIONS: Erythropoietin given during HS in swine failed to alter resuscitability and 72 hour survival regardless of HS severity and concomitant treatment with fluids and vasopressin but attenuated acute organ injury. The studies also showed the efficacy of vasopressin and restrictive fluid resuscitation for hemodynamic

  16. Social network analysis provides insights into African swine fever epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichoti, Jacqueline Kasiiti; Davies, Jocelyn; Kitala, Philip M; Githigia, Samuel M; Okoth, Edward; Maru, Yiheyis; Bukachi, Salome A; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Pig movements play a significant role in the spread of economically important infectious diseases such as the African swine fever. Characterization of movement networks between pig farms and through other types of farm and household enterprises that are involved in pig value chains can provide useful information on the role that different participants in the networks play in pathogen transmission. Analysis of social networks that underpin these pig movements can reveal pathways that are important in the transmission of disease, trade in commodities, the dissemination of information and the influence of behavioural norms. We assessed pig movements among pig keeping households within West Kenya and East Uganda and across the shared Kenya-Uganda border in the study region, to gain insight into within-country and trans-boundary pig movements. Villages were sampled using a randomized cluster design. Data were collected through interviews in 2012 and 2013 from 683 smallholder pig-keeping households in 34 villages. NodeXL software was used to describe pig movement networks at village level. The pig movement and trade networks were localized and based on close social networks involving family ties, friendships and relationships with neighbours. Pig movement network modularity ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 and exhibited good community structure within the network implying an easy flow of knowledge and adoption of new attitudes and beliefs, but also promoting an enhanced rate of disease transmission. The average path length of 5 defined using NodeXL, indicated that disease could easily reach every node in a cluster. Cross-border boar service between Uganda and Kenya was also recorded. Unmonitored trade in both directions was prevalent. While most pig transactions in the absence of disease, were at a small scale (10km. The close social relationships between actors in pig movement networks indicate the potential for possible interventions to develop shared norms and mutually accepted

  17. Effects of the organic matter from swine wastewater on the adsorption and desorption of alachlor in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bosco, Tatiane C; Sampaio, Silvio C; Coelho, Silvia R M; Cosmann, Natássia J; Smanhotto, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The application of swine wastewater to the soil for agricultural purposes results in the addition of total and dissolved organic matter to the soil, which may interfere with the dynamics of pesticides in the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of total and dissolved organic matter from a biodigester and a treatment lagoon of swine wastewater in the adsorption and desorption of alachlor [2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N(methoxymethyl acetamide)]. The assay was performed by the batch equilibrium method, and the results were fitted to the Freundlich model. The curve comparison test revealed a greater adsorption of alachlor in the soil treated with swine wastewater from the biodigester. The adsorption and desorption of alachlor increased in the soils where swine wastewater was added, and hysteresis was observed in all of the treatments. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  18. Serial Coronary Imaging of Early Atherosclerosis Development in Fast-Food-Fed Diabetic and Nondiabetic Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke S. van Ditzhuijzen, MSc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM are at increased risk for atherosclerosis-related events compared to non-DM (NDM patients. With an expected worldwide epidemic of DM, early detection of anatomic and functional coronary atherosclerotic changes is gaining attention. To improve our understanding of early atherosclerosis development, we studied a swine model that gradually developed coronary atherosclerosis. Interestingly, optical coherence tomography, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, vascular function, and histology demonstrated no differences between development of early atherosclerosis in fast-food-fed (FF DM swine and that in FF-NDM swine. Coronary computed tomography angiography did not detect early atherosclerosis, but optical coherence tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy demonstrated coronary atherosclerosis development in FF-DM and FF-NDM swine.

  19. Role of adenosine in the regulation of coronary blood flow in swine at rest and during treadmill exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); R. Stubenitsky (René); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractA pivotal role for adenosine in the regulation of coronary blood flow is still controversial. Consequently, we investigated its role in the regulation of coronary vasomotor tone in swine at rest and during graded treadmill exercise. During exercise,

  20. Myeloid leukemias and virally induced lymphomas in miniature inbred swine; development of a large animal tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAIMON eDURAN-STRUUCK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a large animal transplantable tumor model has limited the study of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of liquid cancers. Swine as a species provide a natural option based on their similarities with humans and their already extensive use in biomedical research. Specifically, the MGH miniature swine herd retains unique genetic characteristics that facilitate the study of hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation. Spontaneously arising liquid cancers in these swine, specifically myeloid leukemias and B cell lymphomas, closely resemble human malignancies. The ability to establish aggressive tumor cell lines in vitro from these naturally occurring malignancies makes a transplantable tumor model a close reality. Here, we discuss our experience with myeloid and lymphoid tumors in MHC characterized miniature swine and future approaches regarding the development of a large animal transplantable tumor model.

  1. Serologic test development. Progress report, July 1, 1974--June 30, 1975. [Radioimmunoassay method for diagnosis of swine and bovine diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C.; Clinard, E.H.; Sanders, W.M.; Bartlett, M.L.; Payne, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The Enzyme-Labeled Antibody (ELA) test system has been adapted to microtiter trays for both cell bound and soluble antigens. Problems involving both readout instrumentation and reaction product stability have been solved. Progress involving application of the ELA system for detection of hog cholera, trichinosis, swine brucellosis, and swine and bovine tuberculosis is reported. Prototype instrumentation for automating ELA processing is being developed. (auth)

  2. Chronic mercurial poisoning in swine. A case report of an outbreak with some epidemiological characteristics of hog cholera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahrs, R.F.

    1968-01-01

    A herd of 44 adult swine and five litters of newborn piglets experienced an outbreak of fatal chronic mercurial poisoning caused by ingestion of wheat treated with a mercurial fungicide. Hog cholera was suspected because neurologic signs and petechial hemorrhages were observed, because four swine purchased at a public stockyard had recently been added to the unvaccinated herd, and because the observed onset was sudden.

  3. Antibody titers against swine influenza subtypes determined by the hemagglutination inhibition test are highly dependent on the strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette

    In Denmark there are three circulating strains of swine influenza H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2. The H1N2 is different from the H1N2 subtypes circulating in other European countries. The Danish subtype is a reassortment between the two Danish circulating swine influenza subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. From...

  4. Premedication with meloxicam exacerbates intracranial hemorrhage in an immature swine model of non-impact inertial head injury

    OpenAIRE

    Friess, SH; Naim, MY; Kilbaugh, TJ; Ralston, J; Margulies, SS

    2012-01-01

    Meloxicam is a cyclo-oxgenase-2 preferential non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug with very effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in swine. Previous reports in piglets have demonstrated that meloxicam also inhibits cyclo-oxgenase-1 and reduces production of thromboxane significantly. We use pre-injury analgesia in our immature swine (3–5 day old piglets) model of brain injury using rapid head rotations without impact. In 23 consecutive subjects we found that premedication with melox...

  5. Lack of evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection in domestic swine in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciacci-Zanella Janice Reis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the first prevalence of antibodies and experimental inoculation of suspected samples of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV from ELISA positive pigs from swine herds in Brazil. Based on the hypothesis that this agent is present in swine herds worldwide, the objective of this work was to establish a diagnostic methodology and to investigate the occurrence of PRRSV in Brazilian swine herds. Fifty-four swine herds, the total number which imported genetic material (live pigs or swine semen from countries where PRRS was endemic from 1990 to December 2000, from eight Brazilian States all included in this study. The sampling used was such as to detect a prevalence of infection of 5%, with a confidence level of 95%. A total of 3785 serum samples were tested for PRRSV antibodies by ELISA. Following the ELISA test, which was performed with two different commercial kits, all serum positive pigs were retested, examined and additional materials were collected. Viral isolation in permissive tissue culture cells and swine bioassays were performed. Additionally, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR were also performed. We could not demonstrate the presence of PRRSV or RNA of PRRSV by viral isolation or RT-PCR (or nested RT-PCR, respectively in all of the analyzed samples. Furthermore, the pigs inoculated with PRRSV suspicion samples did not seroconvert nor produce characteristic PRRS lesions in the swine bioassay. Thus, our results indicate no evidence of PRRSV in the samples analyzed from swine herds in this study.

  6. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  7. Association of the Host Immune Response with Protection Using a Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Virus Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jolene; O'Donnell, Vivian; Alfano, Marialexia; Velazquez Salinas, Lauro; Holinka, Lauren G; Krug, Peter W; Gladue, Douglas P; Higgs, Stephen; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-10-22

    African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4) virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus) is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi) showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi). This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN)-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles) and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms.

  8. Association of the Host Immune Response with Protection Using a Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Virus Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Carlson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV. There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4 virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi. This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms.

  9. Forms of phosphorus transfer in runoff under no-tillage in a soil treated with successive swine effluents applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenzi, Cledimar Rogério; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Tiecher, Tadeu Luis; Lorensini, Felipe; Cancian, Adriana; Stefanello, Lincon; Girotto, Eduardo; Vieira, Renan Costa Beber; Ferreira, Paulo Ademar Avelar; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Successive swine effluent applications can substantially increase the transfer of phosphorus (P) forms in runoff. The aim of this study was to evaluate P accumulation in the soil and transfer of P forms in surface runoff from a Hapludalf soil under no-tillage subjected to successive swine effluent applications. This research was carried out in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil, from 2004 to 2007, on a Typic Hapludalf soil. Swine effluent rates of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha(-1) were broadcast over the soil surface prior to sowing of different species in a crop rotation. Soil samples were collected in stratified layers, and the levels of available P were determined. Samples of water runoff from the soil surface were collected throughout the period, and the available, soluble, particulate, and total P were measured. Successive swine effluent applications led to increases in P availability, especially in the soil surface, and P migration through the soil profile. Transfer of P forms was closely associated with runoff, which is directly related to rainfall volume. Swine effluent applications also reduced surface runoff. These results show that in areas with successive swine effluent applications, practices that promote higher water infiltration into the soil are required, e.g., crop rotation and no-tillage system.

  10. Expression Dynamics of Innate Immunity in Influenza Virus-Infected Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Amadori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current circulating swine influenza virus (IV subtypes in Europe (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are associated with clinical outbreaks of disease. However, we showed that pigs could be susceptible to other IV strains that are able to cross the species barrier. In this work, we extended our investigations into whether different IV strains able to cross the species barrier might give rise to different innate immune responses that could be associated with pathological lesions. For this purpose, we used the same samples collected in a previous study of ours, in which healthy pigs had been infected with a H3N2 Swine IV and four different H3N8 IV strains circulating in different animal species. Pigs had been clinically inspected and four subjects/group were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 21 days post infection. In the present study, all groups but mock exhibited antibody responses to IV nucleoprotein protein. Pulmonary lesions and high-titered viral replication were observed in pigs infected with the swine-adapted virus. Interestingly, pigs infected with avian and seal H3N8 strains also showed moderate lesions and viral replication, whereas equine and canine IVs did not cause overt pathological signs, and replication was barely detectable. Swine IV infection induced interferon (IFN-alpha and interleukin-6 responses in bronchoalveolar fluids (BALF at day 3 post infection, as opposed to the other non-swine-adapted virus strains. However, IFN-alpha responses to the swine-adapted virus were not associated with an increase of the local, constitutive expression of IFN-alpha genes. Remarkably, the Equine strain gave rise to a Serum Amyloid A response in BALF despite little if any replication. Each virus strain could be associated with expression of cytokine genes and/or proteins after infection. These responses were observed well beyond the period of virus replication, suggesting a prolonged homeostatic imbalance of the innate immune system.

  11. Evaluation of Amino Acid and Energy Utilization in Feedstuff for Swine and Poultry Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, C.; Adeola, O.

    2014-01-01

    An accurate feed formulation is essential for optimizing feed efficiency and minimizing feed cost for swine and poultry production. Because energy and amino acid (AA) account for the major cost of swine and poultry diets, a precise determination of the availability of energy and AA in feedstuffs is essential for accurate diet formulations. Therefore, the methodology for determining the availability of energy and AA should be carefully selected. The total collection and index methods are 2 major procedures for estimating the availability of energy and AA in feedstuffs for swine and poultry diets. The total collection method is based on the laborious production of quantitative records of feed intake and output, whereas the index method can avoid the laborious work, but greatly relies on accurate chemical analysis of index compound. The direct method, in which the test feedstuff in a diet is the sole source of the component of interest, is widely used to determine the digestibility of nutritional components in feedstuffs. In some cases, however, it may be necessary to formulate a basal diet and a test diet in which a portion of the basal diet is replaced by the feed ingredient to be tested because of poor palatability and low level of the interested component in the test ingredients. For the digestibility of AA, due to the confounding effect on AA composition of protein in feces by microorganisms in the hind gut, ileal digestibility rather than fecal digestibility has been preferred as the reliable method for estimating AA digestibility. Depending on the contribution of ileal endogenous AA losses in the ileal digestibility calculation, ileal digestibility estimates can be expressed as apparent, standardized, and true ileal digestibility, and are usually determined using the ileal cannulation method for pigs and the slaughter method for poultry. Among these digestibility estimates, the standardized ileal AA digestibility that corrects apparent ileal digestibility for

  12. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of swine with spontaneous influenza A infection in Brazil, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane T.N. Watanabe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza (SI is caused by the type A swine influenza virus (SIV. It is a highly contagious disease with a rapid course and recovery. The major clinical signs and symptoms are cough, fever, anorexia and poor performance. The disease has been associated with other co-infections in many countries, but not in Brazil, where, however, the first outbreak has been reported in 2011. The main aim of this study was to characterize the histological features in association with the immunohistochemical (IHC results for influenza A (IA, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in lung samples from 60 pigs submitted to Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS, Brazil, during 2009-2010. All of these lung samples had changes characterized by interstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis, never observed previously in the evaluation of swine lungs in our laboratory routine. Pigs in this study had showed clinical signs of a respiratory infection. Swine samples originated from Rio Grande do Sul 31 (52%, Santa Catarina 14 (23%, Paraná 11 (18%, and Mato Grosso do Sul 4 (7%. Positive anti-IA IHC labelling was observed in 45% of the cases, which were associated with necrotizing bronchiolitis, atelectasis, purulent bronchopneumonia and hyperemia. Moreover, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar and bronchiolar polyp-like structures, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT hyperplasia and pleuritis were the significant features in negative anti-IA IHC, which were also associated with chronic lesions. There were only two cases with positive anti-PCV2 IHC and none to PRRSV. Therefore, SIV was the predominant infectious agent in the lung samples studied. The viral antigen is often absent due to the rapid progress of SI, which may explain the negative IHC results for IA (55%; therefore, IHC should be performed at the beginning of the disease. This study

  13. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  14. Respon Fagositosis Leukosit Polimorf Babi (in vitro Terhadap Streptoccocus equi Subsp. Zooepidemicus (PHAGOCYTIC RESPONSE OF SWINE POLYMORPH LEUCOCYTES (IN VITRO TO STREPTOCCOCUS EQUI SUBSP. ZOOEPIDEMICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Harjono Utama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Respon Fagositosis Leukosit Polimorf Babi (in vitro Terhadap Streptoccocus equi Subsp. Zooepidemicus (PHAGOCYTIC RESPONSE OF SWINE POLYMORPH LEUCOCYTES (IN VITRO TO STREPTOCCOCUS EQUI SUBSP. ZOOEPIDEMICUS

  15. Modelling the time at which overcrowding and feed interruption emerge on the swine premises under movement restrictions during a classical swine fever outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, H Y; Yadav, S; Olynk Widmar, N J; Croney, C; Ash, M; Cooper, M

    2017-03-01

    A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the time elapsed before overcrowding (TOC) or feed interruption (TFI) emerged on the swine premises under movement restrictions during a classical swine fever (CSF) outbreak in Indiana, USA. Nursery (19 to 65 days of age) and grow-to-finish (40 to 165 days of age) pork production operations were modelled separately. Overcrowding was defined as the total weight of pigs on premises exceeding 100% to 115% of the maximum capacity of the premises, which was computed as the total weight of the pigs at harvest/transition age. Algorithms were developed to estimate age-specific weight of the pigs on premises and to compare the daily total weight of the pigs with the threshold weight defining overcrowding to flag the time when the total weight exceeded the threshold (i.e. when overcrowding occurred). To estimate TFI, an algorithm was constructed to model a swine producer's decision to discontinue feed supply by incorporating the assumptions that a longer estimated epidemic duration, a longer time interval between the age of pigs at the onset of the outbreak and the harvest/transition age, or a longer progression of an ongoing outbreak would increase the probability of a producer's decision to discontinue the feed supply. Adverse animal welfare conditions were modelled to emerge shortly after an interruption of feed supply. Simulations were run with 100 000 iterations each for a 365-day period. Overcrowding occurred in all simulated iterations, and feed interruption occurred in 30% of the iterations. The median (5th and 95th percentiles) TOC was 24 days (10, 43) in nursery operations and 78 days (26, 134) in grow-to-finish operations. Most feed interruptions, if they emerged, occurred within 15 days of an outbreak. The median (5th and 95th percentiles) time at which either overcrowding or feed interruption emerged was 19 days (4, 42) in nursery and 57 days (4, 130) in grow-to-finish operations. The study findings suggest that

  16. Swine influenza virus vaccine serologic cross-reactivity to contemporary US swine H3N2 and efficacy in pigs infected with an H3N2 similar to 2011-2012 H3N2v.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitikoon, Pravina; Gauger, Phillip C; Anderson, Tavis K; Culhane, Marie R; Swenson, Sabrina; Loving, Crystal L; Perez, Daniel R; Vincent, Amy L

    2013-12-01

    Swine influenza A virus (IAV) reassortment with 2009 H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm09) virus has been documented, and new genotypes and subclusters of H3N2 have since expanded in the US swine population. An H3N2 variant (H3N2v) virus with the H1N1pdm09 matrix gene and the remaining genes of swine triple reassortant H3N2 caused outbreaks at agricultural fairs in 2011-2012. To assess commercial swine IAV vaccines' efficacy against H3N2 viruses, including those similar to H3N2v, antisera to three vaccines were tested by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay against contemporary H3N2. Vaccine 1, with high HI cross-reactivity, was further investigated for efficacy against H3N2 virus infection in pigs with or without maternally derived antibodies (MDA). In addition, efficacy of a vaccine derived from whole inactivated virus (WIV) was compared with live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) against H3N2. Hemagglutinin inhibition cross-reactivity demonstrated that contemporary swine H3N2 viruses have drifted from viruses in current swine IAV vaccines. The vaccine with the highest level of HI cross-reactivity significantly protected pigs without MDA. However, the presence of MDA at vaccination blocked vaccine efficacy. The performance of WIV and LAIV was comparable in the absence of MDA. Swine IAV in the United States is complex and dynamic. Vaccination to minimize virus shedding can help limit transmission of virus among pigs and people. However, vaccines must be updated. A critical review of the use of WIV in sows is required in the context of the current IAV ecology and vaccine application in pigs with MDA. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. [Relationship between PMI and ATR-FTIR Spectral Changes in Swine Costal Cartilages and Ribs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Wang, Qi; Jing, Xiao-li; Li, Bing; Zhang, Yin-ming; Wang, Zhi-jun; Li, Cheng-zhi; Lin, Han-cheng; Zhang, Ji; Huang, Ping; Wang, Zhen-yuan

    2016-02-01

    To analyze postmortem chemical changes in Landrace costal cartilages and ribs using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and to provide a novel technique for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). The swines were sacrificed by hemorrhage and their costal cartilages and ribs were kept in 20 degrees C. The chemical analysis of the costal cartilages and ribs were performed using ATR-FTIR every 72 h. The correlation between the certain spectral parameters and PMI was also analyzed. The time-dependent changes of costal cartilages were more significant than ribs. There were no obvious changes for the main absorbance bands position, and some absorbance band ratios showed time-dependent changes and significant correlations with the PMI. ATR-FTIR has the ability to analyze postmortem chemical changes of the swine costal cartilages and ribs, and it can be a new method to estimate PMI based on spectroscopy.

  18. Time to critical overcrowding of Manitoba swine barns in the event of restriction on animal movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargen, Leeanne L.; Whiting, Terry L.

    2002-01-01

    Canada maintains a stamping-out policy for control of foreign animal disease. Integral to stamping out, there are obligatory animal movement restrictions that, over time, can result in severe animal welfare problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the time to critical overcrowding in a sample of Manitoba swine farms, if they were placed under movement restriction. Time to critical overcrowding in both static and dynamic populations was estimated by modeling swine growth and projecting anticipated on-farm stocking density through time and comparing it with a standard maximal stocking density. The time to critical overcrowding of 15 isowean piglet production units was 0.66 ± 0.88 weeks. On average, 7 isolated nursery facilities reached critical overcrowding in 52 ± 14 days and 5 farrow-to-finish operations reached critical overcrowding in 43 ± 18 days. Animal welfare concerns should be included in contingency plans to control foreign animal disease. PMID:12497962

  19. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.

  20. Biofilm inhibitors targeting the outer membrane protein A of Pasteurella multocida in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubera, Anchanee; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Shoham, Menachem

    2017-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (Pm) is the causative agent of atrophic rhinitis in swine. This study aimed to discover biofilm inhibitors against swine Pm to counteract antibiotic resistance and decrease virulence. The virulence factor outer membrane protein A (OmpA) was targeted. A library of drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was used to perform virtual screening against PmOmpA. The top-scoring compounds had no effect on the growth of Pm serotype A or D. Mycophenolate mofetil showed the highest efficacy in inhibiting biofilm formation by Pm serotype A, with an IC 50 of 7.3 nM. For Pm serotype D, indocyanine green showed the highest effect at an IC 50 of 11.7 nM. Nevertheless, these compounds had no effect on an established biofilm of Pm. This study offers an alternative way to prevent biofilm formation by Pm that could also be applied to other pathogens.

  1. Swine plasma immunoglobulins for prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea: Safety and Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Bendix Hansen, Marie

    and minimize the on antibiotics and zinc usage. Swine immunoglobulins were isolated directly from slaughterhouse swine plasma-waste by expanded bed chromatography. It was shown that the isolated Immunoglobulin fraction bound enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Salmonella ssp. and inhibited...... their adhesion to porcine epithelial cells in vitro. As the immunoglobulin fraction is intended for oral use as a feed supplement, we also tested the safety of feeding 4 grams of natural immunoglobulins to 4-5 week old weaner piglets for 14 days and observed no adverse effects. In an experimental model of E....... coli F4+ induced PWD, we observed that piglets given IgG as a feed supplement cleared the E coli infection significantly faster than control weaner piglets not receiving an immunoglobulin feed supplement. Furthermore, deep sequencing of the ileal microbiota showed a significantly lowered colonization...

  2. THE USE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR THE PREDICTION OF PRODUCTIVITY PARAMETERS IN SWINE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Sangoi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In similar conditions of food handling and genetics, there are large differences in the final productivity of farms, resulting from inherent factors of the production system. This fact predisposes the need of studies on optimizing the rearing conditions of the farms, in order to verify the main limitations for the producers. Therefore, the present study aims to generate predictions of the swine productivity in the finishing phase, using variables related to their profiles and the production results achieved. 107 farmers belonging to a swine cooperative were considered in the study, located in 47 counties at the Taquari valley region, Brazil. Predictions were generated through the aid of neural networks, and the findings show that Artificial Neural Networks (ANN can predict the productivity variables Feed Conversion, Mortality and Average Daily Gain for the proposed case.

  3. Diversity and zoonotic potential of rotaviruses in swine and cattle across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, Sofie E.; Bányai, Krisztián; Buesa, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses can infect both humans and animals. Individual rotavirus strains can occasionally cross species barriers and might hereby contribute to the emergence of new genotypes in heterologous hosts. The incidence and impact of zoonotic rotavirus are not well defined, and one reason...... for this is a lack of data about strains circulating in suspected reservoir animal hosts. In this study we report the incidence, genetic diversity, and molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses detected in domestic cattle and swine in 6 European countries. From 2003 to 2007, 1101 and more than 2000 faecal specimens were...... collected from swine and cattle, both healthy and diarrhoeic, and tested for rotaviruses. Viruses from positive stools were genotyped and a subset of strains was characterized by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 (G) and VP4 (P) genes. Rotaviruses were detected in 43% of bovine...

  4. Nation-wide Salmonella enterica surveillance and control in Danish slaughter swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Jan; Jensen, P.T.; Halgaard, C.

    1997-01-01

    A nation-wide Salmonella enterica surveillance and control programme was initiated in Danish finishing herds over the first quarter of 1995, In Denmark, all swine for slaughter are identifiable by a unique herd code. For each herd code, and depending on the herd's annual kill, random samples...... herd sizes). Irrespective of Salmonella level, all herds receive a monthly update on the current results of the S. enterica test results. IF a herd is categorized in Level 2 or 3, it must receive an advisory visit by a practising veterinarian and a local swine extension specialist, and certain...... management hygiene precautions must be taken. If a herd is categorized in Level 3, the finishers from the herd must additionally be slaughtered under special hygiene precautions. This is supervised by the veterinary authorities. During 1995, 604 000 samples were tested for S. enterica, corresponding to 3...

  5. Monitoring the determinants of efficient viral replication using Classical Swine Fever Virus-reporter replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Everett, Helen; Crooke, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiological agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining improved knowledge of the pathogenic features of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence...... of the CSFV genome within cells can be achieved using autonomously replicating constructs (replicons) containing a reporter gene that expresses a readily quantifiable enzyme. Here, a newly implemented cloning technique was applied to genome modification of the fulllength CSFV cDNA previously inserted...... proteins considered non-essential for RNA replication were constructed and these deletions were replaced with an in-frame insertion of the Renilla luciferase (Rluc) sequence. RNA transcripts from these replicons should be translated as a single functional open reading frame. Full-genome cDNAs (~10-12,3 kb...

  6. The influence of diet on the development of swine dysentery upon experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jensen, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    , to confirm if low non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-containing diets reduce swine dysentery the effect of different dietary levels of NSP and resistant starch (RS) was evaluated. These diets were based on cooked rice and animal protein, cooked rice and potato starch, cooked rice and wheat bran, or cooked rice......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fermented liquid food (FLF) and the addition of lactic acid to a diet based on wheat and barley on the development of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally infected with a Danish field isolate of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Furthermore...... dysentery was observed in all feeding groups. The incidence of disease varied between 94% (rice/wheat bran) and 44% (FLF). The effect of diet on faecal shedding of B. hyodysenteriae was statistically significant (P...

  7. Biodigester economic viability for electrical power production using biogas from swine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: ricardogc@fca.unesp.br; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2008-07-01

    The increase of energy use in agriculture and the raising prices of electricity demand studies on alternate sources of energy and improvement on biogas use efficiency so that agricultural activities become more competitive. Biogas production through anaerobic biodigestion represents an important breakthrough for the problem of swine waste and energy availability for rural areas. This work aimed to analyze the economy on biodigester investment for electrical power production using biogas from anaerobic biodigestion of swine waste. Two factors were used for this evaluation: the cost of electrical power production through biogas and time for equipment investment return. Results show that investment return time can be only 2.45 years for electrical power at peak time. (author)

  8. Evidence of infection with avian, human, and swine influenza viruses in pigs in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Shehata, Mahmoud M; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2018-02-01

    The majority of the Egyptian swine population was culled in the aftermath of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, but small-scale growing remains. We sampled pigs from piggeries and an abattoir in Cairo. We found virological evidence of infection with avian H9N2 and H5N1 viruses as well as human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Serological evidence suggested previous exposure to avian H5N1 and H9N2, human pandemic H1N1, and swine avian-like and human-like viruses. This raises concern about potential reassortment of influenza viruses in pigs and highlights the need for better control and prevention of influenza virus infection in pigs.

  9. Removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics from swine wastewater by a constructed macrophyte floating bed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Qiming; Hu, Lixia; Chen, Hancheng; Chang, Zhizhou; Zou, Huixian

    2010-12-01

    The potential of three varieties of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), Dryan, Tachimasari and Waseyutaka, to improve the water quality of swine wastewater was evaluated using a constructed macrophyte floating bed system. With respect to reductions in levels of nutrients, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sulfonamide antimicrobials (SAs, including sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole), Dryan performed better than Tachimasari and Waseyutaka. For Dryan, total N was reduced by 84.0%, total P by 90.4%, COD by 83.4% and sulfonamide antimicrobials by 91.8-99.5%. Similar results were observed for Tachimasari and Waseyutaka. The results indicated that the treatment of swine wastewater using the constructed macrophyte floating bed system was effective in the removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genomic Analysis of Highly Virulent Georgia 2007/1 Isolate of African Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David A.G.; Darby, Alistair C.; Da Silva, Melissa; Upton, Chris; Radford, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    African swine fever is widespread in Africa but has occasionally been introduced into other continents. In June 2007, African swine fever was isolated in the Caucasus Region of the Republic of Georgia and subsequently in neighboring countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and 9 states of the Russian Federation). Previous data for sequencing of 3 genes indicated that the Georgia 2007/1 isolate is closely related to isolates of genotype II, which has been identified in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. We report the complete genomic coding sequence of the Georgia 2007/1 isolate and comparison with other isolates. A genome sequence of 189,344 bp encoding 166 open reading frames (ORFs) was obtained. Phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of 125 conserved ORFs showed that this isolate clustered most closely with the Mkuzi 1979 isolate. Some ORFs clustered differently, suggesting that recombination may have occurred. Results provide a baseline for monitoring genomic changes in this virus. PMID:21470447

  11. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Pedersen, Kerri; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Kwok, Oliver C; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-08-15

    The protozoon Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids (Canis familiaris, Canis latrans, Canis lupus) are definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs, are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Between 2012 and 2014, serum samples from 1059 feral swine (Sus scrofa) from 29 states of the USA were tested for N. caninum antibodies, using the N. caninum agglutination test (NAT). Of these, 159 (15.0%) feral pigs from 21 states tested positive, with a range of titers of 1:25 (cut-off) (n=153), 1:200 (1), 1:400 (1), 1:800 (3) and 1:3200 (1). Results indicate widespread exposure of feral swine to N. caninum infection across the USA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Mortality on grower/finisher-only swine operations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losinger W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available For 53 grower/finisher-only swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study, mortality among finisher pigs ranged from 0 to 12.0% over a 6-month period. Twenty-six (49.1% had 2% mortality. Nine (17.0% operations experienced >4% mortality. Fisher's exact test revealed that operations with all-in all-out management were significantly more likely to have 1 grower/finisher pig came from another source. Larger operations (where >900 pigs entered the grower/finisher phase practiced all-in, all-out management more frequently than smaller operations, and had a lower mean percent mortality than smaller operations. Diagnosis of Salmonella in finisher pigs performed at a laboratory or by a veterinarian in the 12 months prior to interview was associated with both increased percent mortality and increased percent mortality per day.

  13. Surveillance programs in Denmark has revealed the circulation of novel reassortant influenza A viruses in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    by the combination of the gene segments hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In most European countries, the avian-like (av)H1N1, the 2009 pandemic variant (H1N1pdm09), H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes have constituted the dominating SIV subtypes during recent years. In Denmark, the H1N2 subtype is a reassortant between...... avH1N1 and H3N2 which is different from the dominating European H1N2 subtype (1). The prevalence of the H1N1pdm09 virus in swine has increased since 2009 in some countries including Denmark. Here we present the results of the national passive surveillance program on influenza in swine performed from...

  14. African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Revilla, Yolanda

    2016-03-15

    African swine fever (ASF) is among the most significant of swine diseases for which no effective vaccines and antivirals are available. The disease, which is endemic in Africa, was introduced to Trans-Caucasian countries and the Russian Federation in 2007, where it remains prevalent today among domestic pigs and wild boars. Although some measures were implemented, ASF continues to pose a global risk for all countries, and thereby highlighting the importance of vaccine and antiviral research. In this review, an overview of research efforts toward the development of effective vaccines during the past decades is presented. As an alternative to vaccine development, the current state in antiviral research against ASFV is also presented. Finally, future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research giving emphasis on some strategies that may allow researchers to develop effective countermeasures against ASF are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence for retrovirus in miniature swine with radiation-induced leukemia or metaplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Biochemical and morphological evidence indicates that a type-C retrovirus is present in the blood of swine (both leukemic and nonleukemic) exposed to strontium-90 radiation. Nonexposed swine that were leukemic also had virus present. The virus was shown to contain and RNase-sensitive DNA polymerase activity with cation, detergent and template requirements similar to those of known viral reverse transcriptases. The buoyant density of the virus was 1.14 to 1.16 g/ml, whih can be converted, by treatment with ether, to a virion core having a density of 1.2 to 1.23 g/ml. Linear regression analysis indicated a correlation between virus-associated DNA polymerase activity and the number of blast cells in the peripheral blood. (Author)

  16. The effects of apple pomace, bentonite and calcium superphosphate on swine manure aerobic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishao; Huang, Yimei; Liu, Xueling; Huang, Hua

    2014-09-01

    The effects of additives such as apple pomace, bentonite and calcium superphosphate on swine manure composting were investigated in a self-built aerated static box (90 L) by assessing their influences on the transformation of nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous and compost maturity. The results showed that additives all prolonged the thermophilic stage in composting compared to control. Nitrogen losses amounted to 34-58% of the initial nitrogen, in which ammonia volatilization accounted for 0.3-4.6%. Calcium superphosphate was helpful in facilitating composting process as it significantly reduced the ammonia volatilization during thermophilic stage and increased the contents of total nitrogen and phosphorous in compost, but bentonite increased the ammonia volatilization and reduced the total nitrogen concentration. It suggested that calcium superphosphate is an effective additive for keeping nitrogen during swine manure composting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerated swine lagoon wastewater: a promising alternative medium for Botryococcus braunii cultivation in open system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzhi; Ge, Yaming; Cheng, Haixiang; Wu, Lianghuan; Tian, Guangming

    2013-07-01

    To understand the potential of using swine lagoon wastewater to cultivate Botryococcus braunii for biofuel production, growth characteristics of B. braunii 765 cultivated in aerated swine lagoon wastewater (ASLW) without sterilization and pH adjustment were investigated. The results showed that the alga strain could maintain competitive advantage over the 26-day cultivation. The highest dry biomass of alga grown in ASLW was 0.94 mg L(-1) at day 24, which was 1.73 times that grown in BG11 medium, an artificial medium normally used for B. braunii cultivation. And the algal hydrocarbon content was 23.8%, being more than twice that in BG11 medium. Additionally, after the 26-day cultivation, about 40.8% of TN and 93.3% of TP in ASLW were removed, indicating also good environmental benefits of algal bioremediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. H1N1 influenza ('swine 'flu') in the paediatric ICU in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schoub B. Swine flu – implications for South Africa. Communicable Diseases Surveillance. Bulletin 2009;7(3):5-7. 5. Ahrens JO, Morrow BM, Argent AC. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in critically ill children admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit, South Africa. S Afr J Crit Care 2015;31(1):4-7. 6. Cox CM, Blanton L, Dhara R, ...

  19. Use of swine wastewater in oilseed radish crop: agronomic and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Pegoraro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swine effluent has been applied to soils to promote nutrient cycling and reduce the uncontrolled disposal of effluents into bodies of water. However, the use of these effluents on various crops has raised environmental and public health concerns. Oilseed radish crop (Raphanus sativus L. is a winter crop planted in no-tillage systems as a green fertilizer that also can be used for biodiesel, and it requires high levels of nutrients for its development. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the environmental and agronomic effects of the application of swine wastewater on oilseed radish. The experiment was conducted in a 0.162 ha area with the following treatments: unirrigated (rainfed, irrigated, and fertilized with swine wastewater (370 m3 ha-1 cycle-1. After each rainfall event, analyses were conducted for the main macro and micronutrients in the runoff and percolated material from drainage lysimeters. Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil were also analyzed, as were the agronomic and nutritional indices of the dry crop phytomass in full blooming stage. Application of swine wastewater at a level of 370 m3 ha-1 produces a crop with better agronomic quality. Over the long term, however, caution should be taken regarding the surface runoff of NO3-, P, K, Mn and total salts and the percolation of NO3-, Na and Cu. Moreover, the rainfall occurred one day after fertigation contributed to the increase of the levels of P, K, Na, Cu, Zn and Mn in the percolated material.

  20. Comparison of aerated marsh-pond-marsh and continuous marsh constructed wetlands for treating swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Dean A; Reddy, G B; Hunt, Patrick G; Poach, M E; Ro, Kyoung S; Cyrus, Johnsely S

    2010-01-01

    Increased swine production in North Carolina has resulted in greater waste generation and is demanding some emerging new innovative technologies to effectively treat swine wastewater. One of the cost-effective and passive methods to treat swine wastewater is using constructed wetlands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the N removal under two N loads in 3 different wetland systems: aerated marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M), aerated marsh-covered pond-marsh (M-FB-M), and continuous marsh (CM) with two days drain and five days flood cycle. Swine wastewater from an anaerobic lagoon was applied to the constructed wetland cells (11 m wide x 40 m length) at two N loading rates of 7 and 12 kg N ha(-1) day(-1)from June to July and August to September 2005, respectively. Weekly inflow and outflow samples were collected for N, P, TS, and COD analysis. Total N reductions (%) at low and high N loading rates were 85.8 and 51.8; 86.3 and 63.3; and 86.2 and 61.8 for M-P-M, M-FB-M, and CM, respectively. Aeration had no significant (P > 0.05) impact on N removal. However, significant (P 0.05) in N reduction was found among wetland systems. Vegetation uptake of N was negligible, ranging from 1.2 to 1.8 %. No significant (P > 0.05) differences in TS and COD removal were observed between the wetland systems.

  1. Histopathological and immunohistochemical approaches for the diagnosis of Pasteurellosis in swine population of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Bhat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Infectious porcine bronchopneumonia, caused by Pasteurella multocida, is a widespread disease of major economic significance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to diagnose swine Pasteurellosis using gross, histopathological, and immunopathological approaches in the swine population of Punjab and to compare the efficacy of immunohistochemical (IHC techniques with conventional diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 adult swine lung samples showing gross pneumonic changes were collected along with the associated lymph nodes to carry out the study. The collected samples were then processed for histopathological and IHC studies. Results: Out of the total 71 lung samples, 26 samples were found to be suspected for Pasteurellosis as per the microscopic changes observed, and out of these 26 samples, 16 cases were confirmed to be positive for Pasteurellosis by IHC. Varied macroscopic changes noted in lungs were pneumonic patches with consolidation of many lobes, congestion, and focal hemorrhages. Main lesions associated with lymph nodes were its enlargement and hemorrhages. Histologically, the lung showed fibrinous and suppurative bronchopneumonia, multifocal suppuration, thickening of septa with fibrin combined with cellular infiltration and edema. The higher IHC expression of P. multocida was seen in the bronchial epithelium besides in alveolar and bronchial exudate. Moreover, on comparing the histopathological and IHC scores which were calculated on the basis of characteristic microscopic lesions and number of antigen positive cells, respectively, a significant positive correlation (r=0.4234 was found. Conclusion: It was concluded that swine population of Punjab is having P. multocida infection. The gross and histopathological lesions can be helpful in the preliminary diagnosis of Pasteurellosis but needs to be supplemented by other immunodiagnostic tests. Moreover, IHC technique proved to be a specific, reliable, precise

  2. Characterization of chloramphenicol resistance in beta-hemolytic Escherichia coli associated with diarrhea in neonatal swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Kenneth M; White, David G; McDermott, Patrick F; Zhao, Shaohua; Gaines, Stuart; Maurer, John J; Nisbet, David J

    2002-02-01

    Ninety beta-hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates associated with diarrhea in neonatal pigs from multiple farms in Oklahoma were investigated for known associated disease serotypes, virulence factors, ribotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes. Fifteen different serotypes were observed, with 58% of isolates belonging to groups that produce one of three major enterotoxins: O149, O147, and O139. Thirty percent of the swine E. coli isolates possessed a combination of F4 fimbriae and the heat-labile toxin and heat-stable toxin B enterotoxins. Seventy-three percent of the E. coli isolates were resistant to five or more antibiotics. Interestingly, 53% of swine E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to chloramphenicol (CHL), an antibiotic whose use in food animals has been prohibited in the United States since the mid-1980s. The cmlA gene, which encodes a putative CHL efflux pump, was detected by PCR in 47 of the 48 CHL-resistant isolates, and 4 of these also possessed the cat2 gene, which encodes a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. The one CHL-resistant isolate that did not contain either cmlA or cat-2 possessed the flo gene, which confers resistance to both florfenicol and CHL. To determine whether CHL-resistant swine E. coli isolates represented dissemination of a clonal strain, all 90 isolates were analyzed by ribotyping. Seventeen distinct E. coli ribogroups were identified, with CHL resistance observed among the isolates in all except one of the major ribogroups. The identification of the cmlA gene among diverse hemolytic enterotoxigenic E. coli strains demonstrates its broad dissemination in the swine production environment and its persistence even in the absence of CHL selection pressure.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from clinically healthy swine in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Megid, Jane; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. This study is the first to report on the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis isolated from clinically healthy pigs in Brazil; the fourth major pork producer in the world. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 260 strains was determined by disc diffusion method. Strains were commonly susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, and florfenicol, with more than 80% of the strains being susceptible to these antimicrobi...

  4. Energy and pressure requirements for compression of swine solid fraction compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amount of pig slurry spread on soil has contributed to nitrate water pollution both in surface and in ground waters, especially in areas classified as vulnerable zones to nitrate in accordance with European Regulation (91/676/CEE. Several techniques have been developed to manage livestock slurries as cheaply and conveniently as possible and to reduce potential risks of environmental pollution. Among these techniques, solid-liquid separation of slurry is a common practice in Italy. The liquid fraction can be used for irrigation and the solid fraction, after aerobic stabilization, produces an organic compost rich in humic substances. However, compost derived from swine solid fraction is a low density material (bulk density less than 500 kgm–3. This makes it costly to transport composted swine solid fraction from production sites to areas where it could be effectively utilized for value-added applications such as in soil fertilization. Densification is one possible way to enhance the storage and transportation of the compost. This study therefore investigates the effect of pressure (20- 110 MPa and pressure application time (5-120 s on the compaction characteristics of compost derived from swine solid fraction. Two different types of material have been used: composted swine solid fraction derived from mechanical separation and compost obtained by mixing the first material with wood chips. Results obtained showed that both the pressure applied and the pressure application time significantly affect the density of the compacted samples; while the specific compression energy is significantly affected only by the pressure. Best predictor equations were developed to predict compact density and the specific compression energy required by the densification process. The specific compression energy values based on the results from this study (6-32 kJkg–1 were significantly lower than the specific energy required to manufacture pellets from

  5. Prevalence and Genotypic Characteristics of Clostridium difficile in a Closed and Integrated Human and Swine Population▿

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Keri N.; Scott, H. Morgan; Harvey, Roger B.; Norby, Bo; Hume, Michael E.; Andrews, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Recently, an apparent rise in the number of cases attributed to community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection has led researchers to explore additional sources of infection. The finding of C. difficile in food animals and retail meat has raised concern about potential food-borne and occupational exposures. The objective of this study was to compare C. difficile isolated from a closed population of healthy individuals consisting of both humans and swine in order to investigate possible fo...

  6. Differentiated swine airway epithelial cell cultures for the investigation of influenza A virus infection and replication

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, Allen C.; Karasin, Alexander I.; Olsen, Christopher W.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Bateman et al. (2013) Differentiated swine airway epithelial cell cultures for the investigation of influenza A virus infection and replication. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(2) 139–150. Background  Differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures have been utilized to investigate cystic fibrosis, wound healing, and characteristics of viral infections. These cultures, grown at an air–liquid interface (ALI) in media with defined hormones and growth fa...

  7. Repeat cross-sectional data on the progression of the metabolic syndrome in Ossabaw miniature swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaela L. McKenney-Drake

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ossabaw miniature swine were fed an excess calorie, atherogenic diet for 6, 9, or 12 months. Increased body weight, hypertension, and increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are described in Table 1. For more detailed interpretations and conclusions about the data, see our associated research study, “Biphasic alterations in coronary smooth muscle Ca2+ regulation during coronary artery disease progression in metabolic syndrome” McKenney-Drake, et al. (2016 [1].

  8. Transcriptional profiling of swine lung tissue after experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhicai; Cui, Hengmin; Li, Mingzhou; Peng, Xi; Zhu, Ling; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Jideng; Xu, Zhiwen; Gan, Meng; Deng, Junliang; Li, Xuewei; Fang, Jing

    2013-05-21

    Porcine pleuropneumonia is a highly contagious respiratory disease that causes great economic losses worldwide. In this study, we aimed to explore the underlying relationship between infection and injury by investigation of the whole porcine genome expression profiles of swine lung tissues post-inoculated with experimentally Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Expression profiling experiments of the control group and the treatment group were conducted using a commercially available Agilent Porcine Genechip including 43,603 probe sets. Microarray analysis was conducted on profiles of lung from challenged versus non-challenged swine. We found 11,929 transcripts, identified as differentially expressed at the p ≤0.01 level. There were 1188 genes annotated as swine genes in the GenBank Data Base. GO term analysis identified a total of 89 biological process categories, 82 cellular components and 182 molecular functions that were significantly affected, and at least 27 biological process categories that were related to the host immune response. Gene set enrichment analysis identified 13 pathways that were significantly associated with host response. Many proinflammatory-inflammatory cytokines were activated and involved in the regulation of the host defense response at the site of inflammation; while the cytokines involved in regulation of the host immune response were suppressed. All changes of genes and pathways of induced or repressed expression not only led to a decrease in antigenic peptides presented to T lymphocytes by APCs via the MHC and alleviated immune response injury induced by infection, but also stimulated stem cells to produce granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocyte, and promote neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose bacterial and foreign antigen at the site of inflammation. The defense function of swine infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was improved, while its immune function was decreased.

  9. Pathogenicity and transmissibility of North American triple reassortant swine influenza A viruses in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Barman

    Full Text Available North American triple reassortant swine (TRS influenza A viruses have caused sporadic human infections since 2005, but human-to-human transmission has not been documented. These viruses have six gene segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, and NS closely related to those of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses. Therefore, understanding of these viruses' pathogenicity and transmissibility may help to identify determinants of virulence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses and to elucidate potential human health threats posed by the TRS viruses. Here we evaluated in a ferret model the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three groups of North American TRS viruses containing swine-like and/or human-like HA and NA gene segments. The study was designed only to detect informative and significant patterns in the transmissibility and pathogenicity of these three groups of viruses. We observed that irrespective of their HA and NA lineages, the TRS viruses were moderately pathogenic in ferrets and grew efficiently in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. All North American TRS viruses studied were transmitted between ferrets via direct contact. However, their transmissibility by respiratory droplets was related to their HA and NA lineages: TRS viruses with human-like HA and NA were transmitted most efficiently, those with swine-like HA and NA were transmitted minimally or not transmitted, and those with swine-like HA and human-like NA (N2 showed intermediate transmissibility. We conclude that the lineages of HA and NA may play a crucial role in the respiratory droplet transmissibility of these viruses. These findings have important implications for pandemic planning and warrant confirmation.

  10. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelme-Ayala, Pamela [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); El-Din, Mohamed Gamal, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Smith, Richard [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Code, Kenneth R. [IOWC Technologies Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Leonard, Jerry [Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. {yields} This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. {yields} Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. {yields} Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. {yields} Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH{sub 3}), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl{sup -}) and 50% of the phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH{sub 3}, nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  11. Iodoacetic acid, but not sodium iodate, creates an inducible swine model of photoreceptor damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jennifer M; Fernandez de Castro, Juan P; Demarco, Paul J; Franco, Luisa M; Wang, Wei; Vukmanic, Eric V; Peng, Xiaoyan; Sandell, Julie H; Scott, Patrick A; Kaplan, Henry J; McCall, Maureen A

    2012-04-01

    Our purpose was to find a method to create a large animal model of inducible photoreceptor damage. To this end, we tested in domestic swine the efficacy of two chemical toxins, known to create photoreceptor damage in other species: Iodoacetic Acid (IAA) and Sodium Iodate (NaIO(3)). Intravenous (IV) administration of NaIO(3) up to 90 mg/kg had no effect on retinal function and 110 mg/kg was lethal. IV administration of IAA (5-20 mg/kg) produced concentration-dependent changes in visual function as measured by full-field and multi-focal electroretinograms (ffERG and mfERG), and 30 mg/kg IAA was lethal. The IAA-induced effects measured at two weeks were stable through eight weeks post-injection, the last time point investigated. IAA at 7.5, 10, and 12 mg/kg produce a concentration-dependent reduction in both ffERG b-wave and mfERG N1-P1 amplitudes compared to baseline at all post-injection times. Comparisons of dark- and light-adapted ffERG b-wave amplitudes show a more significant loss of rod relative to cone function. The fundus of swine treated with ≥10 mg/kg IAA was abnormal with thinner retinal vessels and pale optic discs, and we found no evidence of bone spicule formation. Histological evaluations show concentration-dependent outer retinal damage that correlates with functional changes. We conclude that NaIO(3,) is not an effective toxin in swine. In contrast, IAA can be used to create a rapidly inducible, selective, stable and concentration-dependent model of photoreceptor damage in swine retina. Because of these attributes this large animal model of controlled photoreceptor damage should be useful in the investigation of treatments to replace damaged photoreceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Unraveling the Armor of a Killer: Evasion of Host Defenses by African Swine Fever Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana Luisa; Netherton, Chris; Dixon, Linda K

    2017-03-15

    African swine fever is an acute hemorrhagic disease of pigs. Extensive recent spread in the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe has increased the risk to global pig production. The virus is a large DNA virus and is the only member of the Asfarviridae family. In pigs, the virus replicates predominantly in macrophages. We review how the virus overcomes the barriers to replication in the macrophage and the virus mechanism to inhibit key host defense pathways. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Rapid Development of an Efficacious Swine Vaccine for Novel H1N1

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Veen, Ryan; Kamrud, Kurt; Mogler, Mark; Loynachan, Alan T.; McVicker, Jerry; Berglund, Peter; Owens, Gary; Timberlake, Sarah; Lewis, Whitney; Smith, Jonathan; Harris, DL Hank

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) from a novel H1N1 influenza strain was produced using an alphavirus replicon expression system. The recombinant HA vaccine was produced more rapidly than traditional vaccines, and was evaluated as a swine vaccine candidate at different doses in a challenge model utilizing the homologous influenza A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) strain. Vaccinated animals showed significantly higher specific antibody response, reduced lung lesions and viral shedding, and higher avera...

  14. Nutritional and Metabolic Consequences of Feeding High-Fiber Diets to Swine: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Atta K. Agyekum; C. Martin Nyachoti

    2017-01-01

    At present, substantial amounts of low-cost, fibrous co-products are incorporated into pig diets to reduce the cost of raising swine. However, diets that are rich in fiber are of low nutritive value because pigs cannot degrade dietary fiber. In addition, high-fiber diets have been associated with reduced nutrient utilization and pig performance. However, recent reports are often contradictory and the negative effects of high-fiber diets are influenced by the fiber source, type, and inclusion ...

  15. Landscape genomic approach to detect selection signatures in locally adapted Brazilian swine genetic groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cesconeto, Robson Jose; Joost, Stéphane; McManus, Concepta Margaret; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Braccini, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Samples of 191 animals from 18 different Brazilian locally adapted swine genetic groups were genotyped using Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip in order to identify selection signatures related to the monthly variation of Brazilian environmental variables. Using BayeScan software, 71 SNP markers were identified as FST outliers and 60 genotypes (58 markers) were found by Samβada software in 371 logistic models correlated with 112 environmental variables. Five markers were identified in b...

  16. Ecotoxicological evaluation of swine manure disposal on tropical soils in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segat, Julia Corá; Alves, Paulo Roger Lopes; Baretta, Dilmar; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2015-12-01

    Swine production in Brazil results in a great volume of manure that normally is disposed of as agricultural fertilizer. However, this form of soil disposal, generally on small farms, causes the accumulation of large amounts of manure and this results in contaminated soil and water tables. To evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations of swine manure on earthworms, several ecotoxicological tests were performed using Eisenia andrei as test organism in different tropical soils, classified respectively as Ultisol, Oxisol, and Entisol, as well as Tropical Artificial Soil (TAS). The survival, reproduction and behavior of the earthworms were evaluated in experiments using a completely randomized design, with five replications. In the Ultisol, Oxisol and TAS the swine manure showed no lethality, but in the Entisol it caused earthworm mortality (LOEC=45 m(3)ha(-1)). In the Entisol, the waste reduced the reproductive rate and caused avoidance behavior in E. andrei (LOEC=30 m(3)ha(-1)) even in lower concentrations. The Entisol is extremely sandy, with low cation exchange capacity (CEC), and this may be the reason for the higher toxicity on soil fauna, with the soil not being able to hold large amounts of pollutants (e.g. toxic metals), but leaving them in bioavailable forms. These results should be a warning of the necessity to consider soil parameters (e.g. texture and CEC) when evaluating soil contamination by means of ecotoxicological assays, as there still are no standards for natural soils in tropical regions. E. andrei earthworms act as indicators for a soil to support disposal of swine manure without generating harm to agriculture and ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Swine Flu and The Effect of Compulsory Class Attendance on Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Goulas, Sofoklis; Megalokonomou, Rigissa

    2016-01-01

    We use a natural experiment that relaxed class attendance requirements for one school year to explore students' marginal propensity to skip class, and to examine the effects of their absences on scholastic outcomes. We exploit exogenous variation resulting from a one-time policy Greece implemented allowing high school students to miss 30 percent more class hours without penalty during the 2009-10 academic year, a period when officials feared outbreaks of swine flu. Using a new dataset, we ana...

  18. Campylobacter coli in Swine Production: Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms and Molecular Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Siddhartha; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance, to evaluate and compare the use of two genotyping methods for molecular epidemiology purposes, and to determine the genotypic diversity of Campylobacter coli of porcine origin. A total of 100 C. coli isolates from swine were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobials using the agar dilution method and genotyped using two high-resolution fingerprinting approaches: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electr...

  19. Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe; Altier, Craig

    2002-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among salmonellae isolated from swine, we studied 484 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (including serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen) isolates. We found two common pentaresistant phenotypes. The first was resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmCmStSuTe phenotype; 36.2% of all isolates), mainly of the definitive type 104 (DT104) phage type (180 of 187 ...

  20. Red, Blue, and the Flu: Media Self-Selection and Partisan Gaps in Swine Flu Vaccinations

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the relationship between political partisanship and attitudes and behavior with respect to the Swine Flu crisis of 2009 in general, and the U.S. mass vaccination program in particular. I argue that even seemingly non-partisan political issues like public health are increasingly characterized by partisan polarization in public attitudes, and that such polarization is in part attributable, at least in part, to the breakdown of the information commons that characterized the A...