Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically significant, highly contagious swine disease. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is an enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, classified as a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae (Becher et al.,...
Crisóstomo, Verónica; Sun, Fei; Maynar, Manuel; Báez-Díaz, Claudia; Blanco, Virginia; Garcia-Lindo, Monica; Usón-Gargallo, Jesús; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel
Cardiovascular diseases are a major health concern and therefore an important topic in biomedical research. Large animal models allow researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of new cardiovascular procedures in systems that resemble human anatomy; additionally, they can be used to emulate scenarios for training purposes. Among the many biomedical models that are described in published literature, it is important that researchers understand and select those that are best suited to achieve the aims of their research, that facilitate the humane care and management of their research animals and that best promote the high ethical standards required of animal research. In this resource the authors describe some common swine models that can be easily incorporated into regular practices of research and training at biomedical institutions. These models use both native and altered vascular anatomy of swine to carry out research protocols, such as testing biological reactions to implanted materials, surgically creating aneurysms using autologous tissue and inducing myocardial infarction through closed-chest procedures. Such models can also be used for training, where native and altered vascular anatomy allow medical professionals to learn and practice challenging techniques in anatomy that closely simulates human systems.
Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham
of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...
Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Chiers, Koen; Maes, Dominiek; Ducatelle, Richard; Decostere, Annemie
This paper discusses what can be expected with regard to efficacy of antibacterial vaccines used in swine, based on the present knowledge of pathogen-host interactions. First, vaccination against bacteria that mainly cause disease by production of exotoxins is considered. Vaccines containing the inactivated toxin or a non-toxic but antigenic recombinant protein derived from the exotoxin can be expected to provide protection against disease. The degree of protection induced by such vaccines varies, however, depending amongst other things on the pathogenesis of the disease. Vaccination against clostridial infections, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections, progressive atrophic rhinitis and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, is considered. The second part of the article deals with vaccination against extracellular bacteria. Protection against these bacteria is generally mediated by antibodies against their surface antigens and certain secreted antigens, but cellular immunity may also play a role. Efficacy of vaccines against swine erysipelas, Streptococcus suis infections, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections and swine dysentery is discussed. Finally, vaccination against facultatively intracellular bacteria is considered. For protection against these bacteria cell-mediated immunity plays an important role, but antibodies may also be involved. It is generally accepted that live-attenuated vaccines are more suitable for induction of cell-mediated immunity than inactivated vaccines, although this also depends on the adjuvant used in the vaccine. As an example, vaccination against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is discussed.
Grau, Frederic R; Schroeder, Megan E; Mulhern, Erin L; McIntosh, Michael T; Bounpheng, Mangkey A
African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. Pigs infected with ASF and CSF viruses (ASFV and CSFV) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. Likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability to perform herd-level surveillance for all 3 diseases rapidly and cost effectively using a single diagnostic sample and test is highly desirable. This study assessed the feasibility of simultaneous ASFV, CSFV, and FMDV detection by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) in swine oral fluids collected through the use of chewing ropes. Animal groups were experimentally infected independently with each virus, observed for clinical signs, and oral fluids collected and tested throughout the course of infection. All animal groups chewed on the ropes readily before and after onset of clinical signs and before onset of lameness or serious clinical signs. ASFV was detected as early as 3 days postinoculation (dpi), 2-3 days before onset of clinical disease; CSFV was detected at 5 dpi, coincident with onset of clinical disease; and FMDV was detected as early as 1 dpi, 1 day before the onset of clinical disease. Equivalent results were observed in 4 independent studies and demonstrate the feasibility of oral fluids and mRT-qPCR for surveillance of ASF, CSF, and FMD in swine populations. © 2015 The Author(s).
Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a close relative of the human Enterovirus B serotype, coxsackievirus B5. As the etiological agent of a significant emergent veterinary disease, several studies have attempted to explain its origin. However, several key questions r...... stating that SVDV originated through co-infection, recombination, and a single anthroponotic event, during large viral meningitis epidemics around 1960/1961 involving the ancestral serotypes. The exact geographical origin of SVDV may remain untestable due to historical aspects....
Dorjee, S; Revie, C W; Poljak, Z; McNab, W B; Sanchez, J
Understanding contact networks are important for modelling and managing the spread and control of communicable diseases in populations. This study characterizes the swine shipment network of a multi-site production system in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Data were extracted from a company's database listing swine shipments among 251 swine farms, including 20 sow, 69 nursery and 162 finishing farms, for the 2-year period of 2006 to 2007. Several network metrics were generated. The number of shipments per week between pairs of farms ranged from 1 to 6. The medians (and ranges) of out-degree were: sow 6 (1-21), nursery 8 (0-25), and finishing 0 (0-4), over the entire 2-year study period. Corresponding estimates for in-degree of nursery and finishing farms were 3 (0-9) and 3 (0-12) respectively. Outgoing and incoming infection chains (OIC and IIC), were also measured. The medians (ranges) of the monthly OIC and IIC were 0 (0-8) and 0 (0-6), respectively, with very similar measures observed for 2-week intervals. Nursery farms exhibited high measures of centrality. This indicates that they pose greater risks of disease spread in the network. Therefore, they should be given a high priority for disease prevention and control measures affecting all age groups alike. The network demonstrated scale-free and small-world topologies as observed in other livestock shipment studies. This heterogeneity in contacts among farm types and network topologies should be incorporated in simulation models to improve their validity. In conclusion, this study provided useful epidemiological information and parameters for the control and modelling of disease spread among swine farms, for the first time from Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perez, Andres M.; Willeberg, Preben W
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most devastating diseases of livestock. The disease is caused by infection with a picornavirus, generically referred as FMD virus (FMDV), which is considered one of the most infectious agents affecting animals. FMD status affects national and international...... movement and trade of animals and animal products, and food animal trade is expected to play an important role in poverty alleviation (Perez). Applied knowledge about FMD pathogenesis and epidemiology is important in the design and implementation of effective prevention and control programs, minimizing...... detrimental effects of FMD outbreaks. Decision tools have been developed by applying simulation models based on characteristics of FMD pathogenesis and epidemiology. These tools are meant to be used by risk managers and risk communicators to help prioritize control options during an FMD epidemic and making...
Tamarov, G; Khristov, S
Explored was the possibility of simultaneous vaccination of pigs against the Aujeszky's disease virus and the swine influenza virus. Used were strain MK-25 against the former and strain 3sb against the latter. It was found that at the simultaneous subcutaneous or oral treatment with the two antigens equally effective immunity was built as in the case of vaccination with each one of them used alone. No antagonism was established between the two antigens during the time of immunity building in the body.
Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina
and surveillance systems are critical for the timely and effective control of infectious diseases. The ability of a system to detect changes in the disease burden depends on the choice of data source. Many factors can lead to inconsistent data collection among populations and it is therefore important to assess...... compared to highlyinfectious (re-emerging) diseases, due to control measures such as vaccination or health management programs. Furthermore, the data collected differ from those obtained from traditional surveillance (generally related to incidence monitoring), due to its focus on the endemic scenario...... and eradication programs. This limitation did not apply to the mortality data, which is available for all Danish swine herds on a monthly basis. However, observed changes might be due to disease occurrence, or as a result of changes in herd management or a lack of accuracy in the calculation of mortality. Several...
... swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED...
Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Montoya, M; Reis, A L; Dixon, L K
African swine fever (ASF) recently has spread beyond sub-Saharan Africa to the Trans-Caucasus region, parts of the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. In this new epidemiological scenario, the disease has similarities, but also important differences, compared to the situation in Africa, including the substantial involvement of wild boar. A better understanding of this new situation will enable better control and prevent further spread of disease. In this article, these different scenarios are compared, and recent information on the pathogenesis of ASF virus strains, the immune response to infection and prospects for developing vaccines is presented. Knowledge gaps and the prospects for future control are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Pirbright Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Golde, William T; Nfon, Charles K; Toka, Felix N
The interface between successful pathogens and their hosts is often a tenuous balance. In acute viral infections, this balance involves induction and inhibition of innate responses. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is considered one of the most contagious viruses known and is characterized by rapid induction of clinical disease in cloven hoofed animals exposed to infection. Viral shedding is extensive before the equally rapid resolution of acute disease. This positive strand RNA virus is an extremely successful pathogen, due in part to the ability to interrupt the innate immune response. Previous reviews have described the inhibition of cellular innate responses in the infected cell both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present a review of virus inhibition of cells that are a source of antiviral function in swine. Particularly in the case of dendritic cells and natural killer cells, the virus has evolved mechanisms to interrupt the normal function of these important mediators of innate function, even though these cells are not infected by the virus. Understanding how this virus subverts the innate response will provide valuable information for the development of rapidly acting biotherapeutics to use in response to an outbreak of FMDV.
Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection
Martin, P.A.J.; Cameron, A.R.; Barfod, Kristen
A method for quantitative evaluation of surveillance for disease freedom has been presented in the accompanying paper (Martin et al., 2007). This paper presents an application of the methods, using as an example surveillance for classical swine fever (CSF) in Denmark in 2005. A scenario tree model......) associated with age and location (county), and disease clustering within herds. A surveillance time period of one month was used in the analysis. Records for the year 2005 were analysed, representing 25,332 samples from 3528 herds; all were negative for CSF-specific antibodies. Design prevalences of 0...
Andres M Perez
Full Text Available The reporting and monitoring of swine enteric coronavirus diseases (SECD, such as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV and porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV, in the United States (US has been challenging because of the absence of a regulatory framework and the emerging nature of these diseases. The National Animal Health Laboratory Network, the Emergency Management and the Response System and the Swine Health Monitoring Project were used to monitor the disease situation between May 2013 and March 2015. Important differences existed between and among them in terms of nature and extent of reporting. Here, we assessed the implementation of these systems from different perspectives, including a description and comparison of collected data, disease metrics, usefulness, simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, representativeness, timeliness and stability. This assessment demonstrates the limitations that the absence of premises identification imposes to certain databases, and the importance of federally-regulated frameworks in collecting accurate information on a timely-manner. This study also demonstrates the value that the voluntary and producer-organized systems may have in monitoring emerging diseases. The results from all three data sources help to establish the baseline information on SECD epidemiological dynamics after two years of disease spread in the country.
Baudon, E; Fournié, G; Hiep, D T; Pham, T T H; Duboz, R; Gély, M; Peiris, M; Cowling, B J; Ton, V D; Peyre, M
While swine production is rapidly growing in South-East Asia, the structure of the swine industry and the dynamic of pig movements have not been well-studied. However, this knowledge is a prerequisite for understanding the dynamic of disease transmission in swine populations and designing cost-effective surveillance strategies for infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed the farming and trading practices in the Vietnamese swine familial farming sector, which accounts for most pigs in Vietnam, and for which disease surveillance is a major challenge. Farmers from two communes of a Red River Delta Province (northern Vietnam) were interviewed, along with traders involved in pig transactions. Major differences in the trade structure were observed between the two communes. One commune had mainly transversal trades, that is between farms of equivalent sizes, whereas the other had pyramidal trades, that is from larger to smaller farms. Companies and large familial farrow-to-finish farms were likely to act as major sources of disease spread through pig sales, demonstrating their importance for disease control. Familial fattening farms with high pig purchases were at greater risk of disease introduction and should be targeted for disease detection as part of a risk-based surveillance. In contrast, many other familial farms were isolated or weakly connected to the swine trade network limiting their relevance for surveillance activities. However, some of these farms used boar hiring for breeding, increasing the risk of disease spread. Most familial farms were slaughtering pigs at the farm or in small local slaughterhouses, making the surveillance at the slaughterhouse inefficient. In terms of spatial distribution of the trades, the results suggested that northern provinces were highly connected and showed some connection with central and southern provinces. These results are useful to develop risk-based surveillance protocols for disease detection in the swine familial
Simulundu, Edgar; Lubaba, Caesar H; van Heerden, Juanita; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mataa, Liywalii; Chambaro, Herman Moses; Sinkala, Yona; Munjita, Samuel Munalula; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Samui, Kenny; Pandey, Girja Shanker; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral hemorrhagic disease of swine. In Zambia, ASF was first reported in 1912 in Eastern Province and is currently believed to be endemic in that province only. Strict quarantine measures implemented at the Luangwa River Bridge, the only surface outlet from Eastern Province, appeared to be successful in restricting the disease. However, in 1989, an outbreak occurred for the first time outside the endemic province. Sporadic outbreaks have since occurred almost throughout the country. These events have brought into acute focus our limited understanding of the epidemiology of ASF in Zambia. Here, we review the epidemiology of the disease in areas considered nonendemic from 1989 to 2015. Comprehensive sequence analysis conducted on genetic data of ASF viruses (ASFVs) detected in domestic pigs revealed that p72 genotypes I, II, VIII and XIV have been involved in causing ASF outbreaks in swine during the study period. With the exception of the 1989 outbreak, we found no concrete evidence of dissemination of ASFVs from Eastern Province to other parts of the country. Our analyses revealed a complex epidemiology of the disease with a possibility of sylvatic cycle involvement. Trade and/or movement of pigs and their products, both within and across international borders, appear to have been the major factor in ASFV dissemination. Since ASFVs with the potential to cause countrywide and possibly regional outbreaks, could emerge from "nonendemic regions", the current ASF control policy in Zambia requires a dramatic shift to ensure a more sustainable pig industry.
Pannwitz, Gunter; Haas, Bernd; Hoffmann, Bernd; Fischer, Sebastian
In a closed pig establishment housing about 18,000 pigs, 2895 gilts were tested pre-export for SVD (swine vesicular disease) antibodies using Ceditest/PrioCHECK SVDV-AB ELISA. 130 gilts (4.5%) tested positive. In addition, 561 animals of this farm were sampled per random for SVD serology. One in 241 weaners (0.4%), eight in 150 gilts (5.3%) and 18 in 170 (10.6%) pregnant sows tested ELISA SVD-antibody positive. Of the ELISA positive samples, 23 tested positive in VNT (virus neutralization test). Of these, 20 VNT-positive animals were re-sampled two weeks later and re-tested via ELISA and VNT in different laboratories, displaying falling titres with one to two animals remaining VNT-positive. Epidemiological investigations and clinical examinations on site did not yield any evidence for SVD. 745 faecal samples taken from individual pigs and collected from pens tested negative in SVDV-RNA-PCR. 40 of these samples tested negative in virus isolation on cell culture. Pathological examinations on fallen pigs did not reveal any evidence for SVD either. After comparing our ELISA results with data recorded in the ELISA validation by Chenard et al. (1998), we propose that the published test performance is perhaps not currently applicable for the commercial test. Provided that SVD-antibody negative pigs were tested, a specificity of 99.6% in weaners, 95.5% in gilts and 89.4% in pregnant sows would appear to be more appropriate for the Ceditest/PrioCHECK SVDV-AB ELISA. Details are provided for all examined pigs regarding husbandry, breed, age, weeks pregnant and previous vaccinations. The results of other serological tests on the same sera are given. Possible clusterings of false-positive SVD-ELISA results are discussed.
Cowled, Brendan D; Garner, M Graeme; Negus, Katherine; Ward, Michael P
Disease modelling is one approach for providing new insights into wildlife disease epidemiology. This paper describes a spatio-temporal, stochastic, susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered process model that simulates the potential spread of classical swine fever through a documented, large and free living wild pig population following a simulated incursion. The study area (300 000 km2) was in northern Australia. Published data on wild pig ecology from Australia, and international Classical Swine Fever data was used to parameterise the model. Sensitivity analyses revealed that herd density (best estimate 1-3 pigs km-2), daily herd movement distances (best estimate approximately 1 km), probability of infection transmission between herds (best estimate 0.75) and disease related herd mortality (best estimate 42%) were highly influential on epidemic size but that extraordinary movements of pigs and the yearly home range size of a pig herd were not. CSF generally established (98% of simulations) following a single point introduction. CSF spread at approximately 9 km2 per day with low incidence rates (management in wildlife. An important finding was that it may only be necessary to cull or vaccinate relatively small proportions of a population to successfully contain and eradicate some wildlife disease epidemics.
Thomas-Bachli, Andrea L; Pearl, David L; Friendship, Robert M; Berke, Olaf
Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 - 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 - 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale
... Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... visit the CDC seasonal flu website . What is Swine Influenza? Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory ...
Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Since the 2009 pandemic of H1N1 or Swine Flu influenza , there have been respiratory emergencies every year throughout India , but in the early part of this year that is between January and April 2015 an explosion of cases was seen throughout the country , and so also in our state , Andhra Pradesh. The study of clinical presentation , radiological features and course of the disease helps in early suspicion , isolation , detection and institution of treatment in swine flu positive patients so that further spread of the disease can be co ntrolled and the patients saved . MATERIAL AND METHODS : This is a cross - sectional study conducted at the Department of Pulmonary Medicine , S.V.R.R. Govt. General Hospital , Tirupathi , between January 2015 and April 2015. Study sample was the total number of swine flu suspects who were admitted in the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit and swine flu wards of the Department of Pulmonary Medicine. SUMMARY : Out of 32 suspects admitted , 13 tested positive for swine flu. 8 of the 13 were females (61% and 5 were males (39%. Cold , cough and breathlessness were present in all the patients (100%. Sore throat was present in only 4 patients (30%. 11 out of the 13 patients were in respiratory failure (85%. 9 out of the 13 had comorbidities like diabetes , bronchial asthma and chronic kidney disease (70%. Chest X - ray and CT chest showed ARDS like pic ture and pneumonia in 11 out of the 13 patients (85%.
Uttenthal, Åse; Parida, Satya; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun
for the presence of infection. This literature review describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry.......The prophylactic use of vaccines against exotic viral infections in production animals is undertaken exclusively in regions where the disease concerned is endemic. In such areas, the infection pressure is very high and so, to assure optimal protection, the most efficient vaccines are used. However......, in areas considered to be free from these diseases and in which there is the possibility of only limited outbreaks, the use of Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) or marker vaccines allows for vaccination while still retaining the possibility of serological surveillance...
Cowled Brendan D
Full Text Available Abstract Disease modelling is one approach for providing new insights into wildlife disease epidemiology. This paper describes a spatio-temporal, stochastic, susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered process model that simulates the potential spread of classical swine fever through a documented, large and free living wild pig population following a simulated incursion. The study area (300 000 km2 was in northern Australia. Published data on wild pig ecology from Australia, and international Classical Swine Fever data was used to parameterise the model. Sensitivity analyses revealed that herd density (best estimate 1-3 pigs km-2, daily herd movement distances (best estimate approximately 1 km, probability of infection transmission between herds (best estimate 0.75 and disease related herd mortality (best estimate 42% were highly influential on epidemic size but that extraordinary movements of pigs and the yearly home range size of a pig herd were not. CSF generally established (98% of simulations following a single point introduction. CSF spread at approximately 9 km2 per day with low incidence rates (
Introduction Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in swine. IAV transmission from humans to swine is a major contributor to swine IAV diversity. In 2012, a novel H3N2 with an HA (hu-H3) and NA derived from human seasonal H3N2 was detected in United States (US) swine. The h...
Hakhverdyan, M.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Thoren, P.
A real-time PCR assay based on primer-probe energy transfer (PriProET) was developed to detect swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). Specificity tests of SVDV and heterologous virus showed specific amplification of SVDV strains only. The amplification plot for the closely related Coxsackievirus B5...
Rebel, J.M.J.; Leendertse, C.H.; Dekker, A.; Moormann, R.J.M.
We studied VP0 cleavage of Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), a member of the Picornaviridae using a full-length cDNA copy of the Dutch SVDV isolate. The influences of mutations, introduced at the cleavage site of SVDV, on VP0 cleavage, RNA encapsidation and viral infection were studied. Double
Reid, S.M.; Paton, D.J.; Wilsden, G.
Automated real-time RT-PCR was evaluated as a diagnostic tool for swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) infection on a range of samples (vesicular epithelium, serum, nasal swabs, faeces) from four inoculated and three in-contact pigs over a period of 28 days. Traditional diagnostic procedures (vir...
This volume presents information on the following topics: hemodynamic characteristics of the conscious resting pig; cardiovascular and metabolic responses to acute and chronic exercise in swine (ILLEGIBLE) a large animal model for studies (ILLEGIBLE) effects of heparin-protamine interaction in swine - intravenous vs. intraarterial; swine as animal models in cardiovascular research; studies of coronary thrombosis in swine with von Willebrand's disease; role of plasma intermediate and low density lipoproteins in early atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic swine; swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology; the pig as a model for studying kidney disease in man; hypertension of renal origin and the effects of Captopril in miniature pigs; porcine natural killer/killer cell system; the behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo; a review of spontaneous and experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis; and Sinclair swine melanoma.
Yao, Jianhua; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Mollura, Daniel J.
The 2009 pandemic is a global outbreak of novel H1N1 influenza. Radiologic images can be used to assess the presence and severity of pulmonary infection. We develop a computer-aided assessment system to analyze the CT images from Swine-Origin Influenza A virus (S-OIV) novel H1N1 cases. The technique is based on the analysis of lung texture patterns and classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Pixel-wise tissue classification is computed from the SVM value. The method was validated on four H1N1 cases and ten normal cases. We demonstrated that the technique can detect regions of pulmonary abnormality in novel H1N1 patients and differentiate these regions from visually normal lung (area under the ROC curve is 0.993). This technique can also be applied to differentiate regions infected by different pulmonary diseases.
Olson, L D; Rodabaugh, D E
The addition of a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin to feed at the total concentrations of 44 and 77 mg/kg, beginning at the time of exposure and continuing for 8 weeks, prevented experimentally induced swine dysentery in swine. The disease did not develop after the medication was withdrawn. In contrast, swine dysentery, similar to that seen in the nonmedicated swine, did develop in simultaneously exposed swine treated with feed containing either 44 mg of tylosin or 99 mg sodium arsanilate/kg. The swine fed sodium arsanilate and which developed hemorrhagic diarrhea had a more severe form of this type of diarrhea than did the nonmedicated swine. After reexposure to inefective inoculum of swine dysentery 86 days after initial exposure, all remaining swine previously medicated with either tylosin or sodium arsanilate and all nonmedicated swine were immune; whereas 17 of the 24 swine fed the combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin were susceptible to swine dysentery and developed diarrhea.
Hubbard, Logan; Lipinski, Jerry; Ziemer, Benjamin; Malkasian, Shant; Sadeghi, Bahman; Javan, Hanna; Groves, Elliott M; Dertli, Brian; Molloi, Sabee
Purpose To retrospectively validate a first-pass analysis (FPA) technique that combines computed tomographic (CT) angiography and dynamic CT perfusion measurement into one low-dose examination. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the animal care committee. The FPA technique was retrospectively validated in six swine (mean weight, 37.3 kg ± 7.5 [standard deviation]) between April 2015 and October 2016. Four to five intermediate-severity stenoses were generated in the left anterior descending artery (LAD), and 20 contrast material-enhanced volume scans were acquired per stenosis. All volume scans were used for maximum slope model (MSM) perfusion measurement, but only two volume scans were used for FPA perfusion measurement. Perfusion measurements in the LAD, left circumflex artery (LCx), right coronary artery, and all three coronary arteries combined were compared with microsphere perfusion measurements by using regression, root-mean-square error, root-mean-square deviation, Lin concordance correlation, and diagnostic outcomes analysis. The CT dose index and size-specific dose estimate per two-volume FPA perfusion measurement were also determined. Results FPA and MSM perfusion measurements (P FPA and P MSM ) in all three coronary arteries combined were related to reference standard microsphere perfusion measurements (P MICRO ), as follows: P FPA_COMBINED = 1.02 P MICRO_COMBINED + 0.11 (r = 0.96) and P MSM_COMBINED = 0.28 P MICRO_COMBINED + 0.23 (r = 0.89). The CT dose index and size-specific dose estimate per two-volume FPA perfusion measurement were 10.8 and 17.8 mGy, respectively. Conclusion The FPA technique was retrospectively validated in a swine model and has the potential to be used for accurate, low-dose vessel-specific morphologic and physiologic assessment of coronary artery disease. © RSNA, 2017.
Fernandez-Sainz, Ignacio; Medina, Gisselle N; Ramirez-Medina, Elizabeth; Koster, Marla J; Grubman, Marvin J; de Los Santos, Teresa
A human adenovirus (Ad5) vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O1-Manisa subunit vaccine (Ad5-O1Man) was engineered to deliver FMDV O1-Manisa capsid and capsid-processing proteins. Swine inoculated with Ad5-O1Man developed an FMDV-specific humoral response as compared to animals inoculated with an empty Ad5-vector. Vaccinated animals were completely protected against homologous challenge at 7 or 21 days post-vaccination. Potency studies exhibited a PD50 of about 10 7 pfu/animal while a dose of 4×10 7 pfu/animal fully protected swine against FMDV intradermal challenge. In-vitro cross-neutralization analysis distinctly predicted that swine vaccinated with Ad5-O1Man would be protected against challenge with homologous FMDV O1Man Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype and also against recent outbreak strains of Mya-98 South East Asia (SEA) lineage including O1-UK-2001 and O1-South Korea-2010. These results indicate that recombinant Ad5-O1Man is an effective, safe and cross-reacting vaccine that could potentially be used preventively and in outbreak situations, to control FMDV O Mya-98 lineage in swine. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Conclusion: HS can induce IC vasculitis in swine. The rashes and 2D echocardiographic and histopathological studies of the acute to healing phases showed close similarities with KD, and it is concluded that swine may serve as a unique experimental model for IC vasculitis and for various therapeutic trials.
Full Text Available When an emergency swine disease outbreak, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, occurs, it will be necessary to rapidly and humanely depopulate and dispose of infected and susceptible pigs to limit viral replications and disease spread. Methods other than handling individual pigs will be required to achieve the necessary rapidity. Suitable and practical on-farm methods will require depopulating large numbers of pigs at a time outside confinement buildings. The process must be easily implemented with readily available materials and equipment, while providing for the safety and well-being of personnel. Carbon dioxide gas (CO2 is the means of choice, and this study analyzed the methods and requirements for delivering the gas into large volume truck bodies, corrals, dumpsters or other such chambers that may be used. The issues studied included: How the gas should be introduced to achieve the needed spatial distribution; whether plenums are required in the chambers; and the importance of sealing all chamber cracks and edges except around the top cover to limit CO2 dilution and leakage. Analysis was done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, and primary results were verified experimentally. The CFD findings and experimental results are compared, and recommendations are discussed.
Veturia Ileana Nueleanu
Full Text Available The enteric disease complex may have a great economic impact by decreasing the growth of the animals, the conversion-rate of the fodder and, implicitly, the quality of carcass. That results in low production values, in correlation with low costs of production and decreased profitability. A therapeutic protocol was established, being administered tiamullin in the period of maximum incidence ofthe disease –5 days before and after weaning in pig youth, and the same period of time for the fatten pigs. The average meat production increased with 37.04% in youth pigs and 29.23% in fat pigs, in comparison with the period before the therapy. The profit that was achieved in youth pigs was 95 %, in comparison with the investment (the medication that was 5 %. The value of the investment was 27% in fat pigs, in comparison with the materialized profit of 73 %. The ratio between the total investment values (tiamullin medication and the benefit obtained in posttherapeutic period was 1:3.76, for the enteric disease complex in swine.
Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Risatti, Guillermo R; Holinka, Lauren G; O'Donnell, Vivian; Carlson, Jolene; Alfano, Marialexia; Rodriguez, Luis L; Carrillo, Consuelo; Gladue, Douglas P; Borca, Manuel V
Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) mainly involves vaccination with live attenuated vaccines (LAV). Experimental CSFV LAVs has been lately developed through reverse genetics using several different approaches. Here we present that codon de-optimization in the major CSFV structural glycoprotein E2 coding region, causes virus attenuation in swine. Four different mutated constructs (pCSFm1-pCSFm4) were designed using various mutational approaches based on the genetic background of the highly virulent strain Brescia (BICv). Three of these constructs produced infectious viruses (CSFm2v, CSFm3v, and CSFm4v). Animals infected with CSFm2v presented a reduced and extended viremia but did not display any CSF-related clinical signs. Animals that were infected with CSFm2v were protected against challenge with virulent parental BICv. This is the first report describing the development of an attenuated CSFV experimental vaccine by codon usage de-optimization, and one of the few examples of virus attenuation using this methodology that is assessed in a natural host. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Valdes-Donoso, Pablo; VanderWaal, Kimberly; Jarvis, Lovell S; Wayne, Spencer R; Perez, Andres M
Between-farm animal movement is one of the most important factors influencing the spread of infectious diseases in food animals, including in the US swine industry. Understanding the structural network of contacts in a food animal industry is prerequisite to planning for efficient production strategies and for effective disease control measures. Unfortunately, data regarding between-farm animal movements in the US are not systematically collected and thus, such information is often unavailable. In this paper, we develop a procedure to replicate the structure of a network, making use of partial data available, and subsequently use the model developed to predict animal movements among sites in 34 Minnesota counties. First, we summarized two networks of swine producing facilities in Minnesota, then we used a machine learning technique referred to as random forest, an ensemble of independent classification trees, to estimate the probability of pig movements between farms and/or markets sites located in two counties in Minnesota. The model was calibrated and tested by comparing predicted data and observed data in those two counties for which data were available. Finally, the model was used to predict animal movements in sites located across 34 Minnesota counties. Variables that were important in predicting pig movements included between-site distance, ownership, and production type of the sending and receiving farms and/or markets. Using a weighted-kernel approach to describe spatial variation in the centrality measures of the predicted network, we showed that the south-central region of the study area exhibited high aggregation of predicted pig movements. Our results show an overlap with the distribution of outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, which is believed to be transmitted, at least in part, though animal movements. While the correspondence of movements and disease is not a causal test, it suggests that the predicted network may approximate
Full Text Available Abstract Background The systemic form of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD, also known as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS was initially detected in the early 1990s. Starting in 2004, the Canadian swine industry experienced considerable losses due to PCVAD, concurrent with a shift in genotype of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2. Objectives of the current study were to explore spatial characteristics of self-reported PCVAD distribution in Ontario between 2004 and 2008, and to investigate the existence and nature of local spread. Results The study included 278 swine herds from a large disease-monitoring project that included porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS virus-positive herds identified by the diagnostic laboratory, and PRRS virus-negative herds directly from the target population. Herds were included if they had growing pigs present on-site and available geographical coordinates for the sampling site. Furthermore, herds were defined as PCVAD-positive if a producer reported an outbreak of circovirus associated disease, or as PCVAD-negative if no outbreak was noted. Spatial trend was investigated using generalized additive models and time to PCVAD outbreak in a herd using Cox's proportional hazard model; spatial and spatio-temporal clustering was explored using K-functions; and location of most likely spatial and spatio-temporal clusters was investigated using scan statistics. Over the study period, the risk of reporting a PCVAD-positive herd tended to be higher in the eastern part of the province after adjustment for herd PRRS status (P = 0.05. This was partly confirmed for spread (Partial P P = 0.06 existence of spatio-temporal clustering of PCVAD and detection of a spatio-temporal cluster (P = 0.04. Conclusions In Ontario, PCVAD has shown a general trend, spreading from east-to-west. We interpret the existence of spatio-temporal clustering as evidence of spatio-temporal aggregation of PCVAD
Dibarbora, Marina; Cappuccio, Javier A; Aznar, María N; Bessone, Fernando A; Piscitelli, Hernán; Pereda, Ariel J; Pérez, Daniel R
Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina. Antibodies against H1 pandemic were detected in 80% of the farms while 11%, 11.7% and 6.0% of the producers were positive to influenza H3 cluster 2, AV and Bs, respectively. None of the producers was aware of the risk factors concerning the transmission of diseases from pigs to humans. A percentage of 47% of them buy pigs for breeding from other farmers and markets. With regard to biosecurity measures, only 16% of the farms had perimeter fences. The results of this study demonstrate that productive characterization and disease surveys are important to improve productivity and to reduce the risk of disease transmission among animals and humans. The study of sanitary status and risk factors is necessary for better control and eradication of diseases in backyard or small producers. More representative studies at country level should be carried out to detect the pathogensthat circulate and, with this knowledge, to implement prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
O'Sullivan, T; Friendship, R; Pearl, D L; McEwen, B; Ker, A; Dewey, C
An intuitive assumption is to believe that the number of submissions made to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory is dictated by the financial state of the industries using the laboratory. However, no research is available to document how the economics of a food animal industry affects laboratory submissions and therefore disease monitoring and surveillance efforts. The objective of this study was to determine if economic indices associated with the Ontario swine industry can account for the variability seen in these submissions. Retrospective swine submissions made to the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario from January 1998 to July 2009 were compiled. The following economic, demographic, and health variables impacting Ontario swine production were selected for analysis: auction price, lean-hog futures, currency exchange rate, price of corn, an outbreak of porcine circovirus type-2 associated diseases (PCVAD), government incentive program, number of farms in province, and average farm size. All independent variables identified by unconditional associations to have a significance of P≤0.2 with the outcome of monthly submission count were included in a multivariable negative binomial model. A final model was identified by a backwards elimination procedure. A total of 30,432 swine submissions were recorded. The mean frequency of monthly submissions over 139 months was 212.9 (SD=56.0). After controlling for farm size, the number of pigs in Ontario, higher submission counts were associated with a weaker CAD$ versus US$, higher auction prices, and a PCVAD outbreak (Plaboratory. In conclusion, lab submissions are a useful source of animal health data for disease surveillance; however, surveillance activities should also monitor the economics of the industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Denver, Sigrid; Alban, Lis; Boklund, Anette
to clean lorries immediately after transportation of live animals. The distribution of costs between stakeholders was estimated to be as follows: pig industry 63%, cattle industry 27%, and the public authorities 10%. Most of the activities focused on reducing the probability of spreading FMD/SF, while only......The present paper provides an overview of the costs of preventive activities, currently undertaken in Denmark, related to foot and mouth disease (FMD) and classical and African swine fever (SF). Only costs held between outbreaks were included. Costs were divided into public costs and costs paid...... in a group of experts from universities, industry, and public authorities. The costs of each preventive activity were related to the type of activity, the number of times the activity was carried out and the share of costs that could be associated with FMD or SF. Uncertainty about parameters was incorporated...
Saunders, G.C.; Clinard, E.H.; Sanders, W.M.; Bartlett, M.L.; Payne, R.J.
The Enzyme-Labeled Antibody (ELA) test system has been adapted to microtiter trays for both cell bound and soluble antigens. Problems involving both readout instrumentation and reaction product stability have been solved. Progress involving application of the ELA system for detection of hog cholera, trichinosis, swine brucellosis, and swine and bovine tuberculosis is reported. Prototype instrumentation for automating ELA processing is being developed. (auth)
Paes, Rita de Cássia da Silva; Fonseca, A A; Monteiro, L A R C; Jardim, G C; Piovezan, U; Herrera, H M; Mauro, R A; Vieira-da-Motta, O
The feral swine (FS) originated from the domestic pig and is present throughout the Brazilian wetland plain (the Pantanal). Aujeszky's disease (AD) was first serologically confirmed in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) in 2001; however, there was no viral confirmation. The aim of this study was to investigate antibodies against-SuHV-1 in the sera of feral swine in the studied areas, detect SuHV-1 through PCR and classify the viral genome. Among the 218 animals sampled, 186 were analyzed by ELISA, resulting in 88 (47.3%) reactive samples. In the serum neutralization test (SN), 57/179 (31.8%) samples presented antibodies against the AD virus (SuHV-1). By nested PCR, 104 DNA samples were extracted for analysis and confirmed with amplification of a fragment of glycoprotein B (gB) in five samples. The SuHV-1 was detected in 12 samples by using primers for glycoprotein E (gE) and viral genome was classified as Type I by ul44 partial sequencing. The amplification of SuHV-1 glycoprotein fragments in the fetuses of seropositive sows indicate that the vertical transmission contribute to maintain SuHV-1 in a free-living feral swine population. The origin of AD in the feral swine populations of the Pantanal is unknown, however, the determination of viral latency, the vertical transmission of the antigen by the amplification of SuHV-1 glycoprotein fragments in the fetuses of seropositive sows and genome typing contribute to the elucidation of the epidemiology of this disease in the wetlands of MS, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...
Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Harndahl, M.; Nielsen, Morten
Characterization of the peptide‐binding specificity of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I and II molecules is critical to the understanding of adaptive immune responses of swine toward infectious pathogens. Here, we describe the complete binding motif of the SLA‐2*0401 molecule based on a posi......Characterization of the peptide‐binding specificity of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I and II molecules is critical to the understanding of adaptive immune responses of swine toward infectious pathogens. Here, we describe the complete binding motif of the SLA‐2*0401 molecule based...... within the structural proteins of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV), strain A24 were analyzed as candidate T‐cell epitopes. Peptides predicted by the NetMHCpan were tested in ELISA for binding to the SLA‐1*0401 and SLA‐2*0401 major histocompatibility complex class I proteins. Four of the 10 predicted...
Full Text Available Swine flu, also known as swine influenza, pig influenza, hog flu and pig flu, is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behaviour. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Mostly people who are closely associated with pigs (for example, pork processors and farmers acquire the infection and similarly pigs get infected occasionally human flu infection. The cross-species infections (swine virus to man; human flu virus to pigs have always been confined to local areas and have not spread across borders in either pigs or humans. Unfortunately, this cross-species situation with influenza viruses has had the potential to change and cause epidemics and pandemics. Most recent pandemic has been reported in 2009, where "swine flu" strain, first seen in Mexico, was termed as H1N1 as it was mainly infecting people and exhibited two main surface antigens, H1 (hemagglutinin type 1 and N1 (neuraminidase type1. This unique eight RNA strands from novel H1N1 flu have one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird strains, and five from swine strains. Since then it has been infecting people here and there.
Lubaba, Caesar H.; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mataa, Liywalii; Chambaro, Herman Moses; Sinkala, Yona; Munjita, Samuel Munalula; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Samui, Kenny; Pandey, Girja Shanker; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S.
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral hemorrhagic disease of swine. In Zambia, ASF was first reported in 1912 in Eastern Province and is currently believed to be endemic in that province only. Strict quarantine measures implemented at the Luangwa River Bridge, the only surface outlet from Eastern Province, appeared to be successful in restricting the disease. However, in 1989, an outbreak occurred for the first time outside the endemic province. Sporadic outbreaks have since occurred almost throughout the country. These events have brought into acute focus our limited understanding of the epidemiology of ASF in Zambia. Here, we review the epidemiology of the disease in areas considered nonendemic from 1989 to 2015. Comprehensive sequence analysis conducted on genetic data of ASF viruses (ASFVs) detected in domestic pigs revealed that p72 genotypes I, II, VIII and XIV have been involved in causing ASF outbreaks in swine during the study period. With the exception of the 1989 outbreak, we found no concrete evidence of dissemination of ASFVs from Eastern Province to other parts of the country. Our analyses revealed a complex epidemiology of the disease with a possibility of sylvatic cycle involvement. Trade and/or movement of pigs and their products, both within and across international borders, appear to have been the major factor in ASFV dissemination. Since ASFVs with the potential to cause countrywide and possibly regional outbreaks, could emerge from “nonendemic regions”, the current ASF control policy in Zambia requires a dramatic shift to ensure a more sustainable pig industry. PMID:28832525
Non-host adapted Salmonella serovars are opportunistic pathogens that can colonize food-producing animals without causing overt disease, including the frequent foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Interventions against Salmonella need to both enhance food safe...
Paul, P S; Mengeling, W L
Each of 5 gilts was vaccinated IM with modified live-virus (MLV) vaccine for porcine parvovirus (PPV), and 5 gilts were used as nonvaccinated controls. Vaccinated gilts developed hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibodies to PPV (titer of 320 to 1,280) by 2 weeks after vaccination. All gilts wee bred, and at about 40 days of gestation their immunity was challenged by intranasal and oral administration of a virulent strain of PPV. Gilts were killed at about 84 days of gestation and their litters were examined. Litters from vaccinated gilts comprised 59 live and 2 dead fetuses. Neither the virus nor antibodies to the virus were detected in any of the fetuses. In contrast, litters from nonvaccinated gilts comprised 25 live and 29 dead fetuses, and PPV was isolated from all dead and 9 live fetuses. Viral antigen was detected by direct immunofluorescence in the lungs of all PPV-infected fetuses, and 7 of the live infected fetuses had HI antibodies. Modified live virus did not cause transplacental fetal infection in 3 seronegative gilts inoculated at about 40 days of gestation. All 3 gilts had antibodies to PPV (80 to 640) when killed at about 84 days of gestation, and neither HI antibodies nor PPV were detected in any of the 20 live and 1 dead fetuses from these gilts. Modified live virus replicated in the tissues of fetuses of 2 gilts inoculated in utero. Seven of 8 fetuses inoculated with MLV died and were infected. These results demonstrated the efficacy of MLV vaccine for the prevention of PPV-induced reproductive disease in swine. Although MLV did not cross the placental barrier in pregnant animals, its pathogenicity for porcine fetuses after direct in utero inoculation indicates that its use should be limited to nonpregnant animals.
Huang, Yanyun; Haines, Deborah M; Harding, John C S
The current study tested the benefit of commercially available spray-dried bovine colostrum (The Saskatoon Colostrum Company, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) in raising snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs. In experiment 1, 12 SF-pCD pigs received a liquid diet composed mainly of bovine colostrum from birth to day 10; 6 remained on the same liquid diet (COL), and the other 6 were fed a diet composed mainly of milk replacer (RPL) until weaning. In experiment 2, 12 SF-pCD pigs were fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning; after weaning, 6 were fed a starter diet containing 20% (w/w) bovine colostrum powder (STARTER-COL), and the other 6 were fed a starter diet without any bovine colostrum (STARTER-CTRL) until termination (day 42 or day 49). In experiment 1 the COL pigs had significantly fewer fever-days than did the RPL pigs. In experiment 2 diarrhea, typhlocolitis, and pancreatic degeneration developed in 4 of the STARTER-COL pigs after weaning. In both experiments all the pigs fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning survived until termination. All pigs tested free of swine influenza virus H1N1 and H3N2, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Porcine parvovirus. In experiment 2 all the pigs tested free of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), but some in both groups tested positive for Torque teno virus genogroups 1 and 2. In conclusion, with the use of snatch-farrowing and bovine colostrum, pigs can be raised in the absence of porcine maternal antibodies with 100% survival and freedom from most porcine pathogens of biologic relevance. This model is potentially suitable for animal disease research.
Li Guangjin; Chen Weizao; Yan Weiyao; Zhao Kai; Liu Mingqiu; Zhang Jun; Fei Liang; Xu Quanxing; Sheng Zutian; Lu Yonggan; Zheng Zhaoxin
Previously, we demonstrated that a fusion protein (Gal-FMDV) consisting of β-galactosidase and an immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160), of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 protein induced protective immune responses in guinea pigs and swine. We now designed a new potential recombinant protein vaccine against FMDV in swine. The immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160) from the VP1 protein of serotype O FMDV, was fused to the carboxy terminus of a swine immunoglobulin G single heavy chain constant region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion protein (IgG-FMDV) was purified and emulsified with oil adjuvant. Vaccination twice at an interval of 3 weeks with the emulsified IgG-FMDV fusion protein induced an FMDV-specific spleen proliferative T-cell response in guinea pigs and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody in guinea pigs and swine. All of the immunized animals were efficiently protected against FMDV challenge. There was no significant difference between IgG-FMDV and Gal-FMDV in eliciting immunity after vaccination twice in swine. However, when evaluating the efficacy of a single inoculation of the fusion proteins, we found that IgG-FMDV could elicit a protective immune response in swine, while Gal-FMDV only elicited a weak neutralizing activity and could not protect the swine against FMDV challenge. Our results suggest that the IgG-FMDV fusion protein is a promising vaccine candidate for FMD in swine
Full Text Available Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS and porcine dermatitis nephropathy syndrome (PDNS. Current investigations indicate that there is a causal connection between these two syndromes. These two new diseases, which have recently spread all over the world, cause serious losses, great concern and confusion, especially when they occur simultaneously or in a sequence in the same herd, or in parallel with other pathogenes, primarily with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and the porcine parvovirus (PPV. PMWS was first described in Canada in 1991. It most often affect pigs aged 5-12 weeks. The main clinical expression, depending on the stage of progression is diarrhea, delayed development or depressed growth, stuntedness, dyspnea ictherus, eyelid swelling, and lymphadenopathy. More rarely, there are neurological symptoms. Prominent suppression of the immune system is the main characteristic of PMWS, and a wave of secondary bacterial infection is also observed. PDNS is a new disease of economic importance, which mostly affects older swine, from 5 weeks to 5 months of age. The most prominent clinical symptoms in seriously ill piglets is extensive dermatitis, mostly on the chest, abdomen, haunches and forelegs, with the appearance of purple-red swellings of different shape and size. The swine are depressive febrile, anorectic, all of which leads to stunted growth. They are inactive. Mortality is often about 15%. PDNS is a differentially diagnostically
Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Barfod, Kristen; Mortensen, Sten
, by providing network knowledge to the local veterinarian in charge of controlling disease spread, should also be evaluated as a potential tool to manage epidemics during the crisis. Geographic information systems could also be linked in the approach to produce knowledge about local transmission of disease....... homogeneity in farm-to-farm relationship should only be used for large-scale interpretation and for epidemic preparedness. The network approach, based on graph theory, can be used efficiently to express more precisely, on a local scale (premise), the heterogeneity of animal movements. This approach...
Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Akdeniz, Neslihan; Crawford, Benjamin P; Koziel, Jacek A
A passively-ventilated plastic-wrapped composting system initially developed for biosecure disposal of poultry mortalities caused by avian influenza was adapted and tested to assess its potential as an emergency disposal option for disease-related swine mortalities. Fresh air was supplied through perforated plastic tubing routed through the base of the compost pile. The combined air inlet and top vent area is ⩽∼1% of the gas exchange surface of a conventional uncovered windrow. Parameters evaluated included: (1) spatial and temporal variations in matrix moisture content (m.c.), leachate production, and matrix O2 concentrations; (2) extent of soft tissue decomposition; and (3) internal temperature and the success rate in achieving USEPA time/temperature (T) criteria for pathogen reduction. Six envelope materials (wood shavings, corn silage, ground cornstalks, ground oat straw, ground soybean straw, or ground alfalfa hay) and two initial m.c.'s (15-30% w.b. for materials stored indoors, and 45-65% w.b. to simulate materials exposed to precipitation) were tested to determine their effect on performance parameters (1-3). Results of triple-replicated field trials showed that the composting system did not accumulate moisture despite the 150kg carcass water load (65% of 225kg total carcass mass) released during decomposition. Mean compost m.c. in the carcass layer declined by ∼7 percentage points during 8-week trials, and a leachate accumulation was rare. Matrix O2 concentrations for all materials other than silage were ⩾10% using the equivalent of 2m inlet/vent spacing. In silage O2 dropped below 5% in some cases even when 0.5m inlet/vent spacing was used. Eight week soft tissue decomposition ranged from 87% in cornstalks to 72% in silage. Success rates for achievement of USEPA Class B time/temperature criteria ranged from 91% for silage to 33-57% for other materials. Companion laboratory biodegradation studies suggest that Class B success rates can be improved
The interface between successful pathogens and their hosts is often a tenuous balance. In acute viral infections, this involves induction and inhibition of innate responses. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is considered one of the most contagious viruses known and is characterized by rapid induc...
Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlieger, de J.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.
The recent outbreaks of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), Classical Swine Fever (CSF), and highly pathogenetic Avian Influenza (AI) in the European Union (EU) have shown that such contagious animal diseases can have a devastating impact in terms of animal welfare, economics and societal outcry and
Kobisch, M.; Friis, N.F.
/tonsillar samples and can induce antibodies in blood and joint fluid. Predisposing factors play an important role. M. flocculare is widely distributed in swine, in normal and pneumonic lungs and in nasal cavities, but no pathogenic capability has been described. There is great interest in this mycoplasma because......Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. The lung lesions, generally observed in young pigs, are characterised by a hyperplasia of the epithelial cells and an increased perivascular and peribronchiolar accumulation of mononuclear cells. Following M. hyopneumoniae...
Boklund, Anette; Dahl, J.; Alban, L.
Confirming freedom from disease is important for export of animals and animal products. In Denmark, an intensive surveillance program is in place for Aujeszky's disease (AD) and classical swine fever (CSF), including 34,974 blood samples tested for AD and 37,414 samples tested for CSF (2008 figures......). In the current system, 3.5% of sows and boars for export or slaughter are tested for both diseases, as well as all boars before entering boar stations. Furthermore, nucleus herds are tested every third month for classical swine fever. We investigated, whether the sample size could be reduced without compromising...... as a distribution (0.0042:0.0083; 0.05), and the within-herd and between-herd design prevalence were set to 0.05 and 0.01, respectively. If 50 and 75% of the test results from exported or slaughtered sows and boars were simulated to be removed at random, while the blood samples from boar stations were kept constant...
Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...
Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi
The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory
Saunders, G.C. Clinard, E.H.; Bartlett, M.L.; Sanders, W.M.
The rapid, indirect enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microplate test has been developed as a diagnostic and surveillance tool to aid in the control of animal disease. Data are presented, which illustrate the application of the test to viral (hog cholera), parasitic (trichinosis), and bacterial (brucellosis) diseases of animals. A greater than 95 percent correlation was observed between the hog cholera ELA test and the hog cholera serum neutralization test performed on over 2000 mixed hog cholera positive and negative field samples obtained during the 1976 New Jersey epizootic. Of 56 swine naturally infected with Trichinella spiralis at a level considered dangerous to man, all were ELA positive, while only one of 360 T. spiralis negative packing house sera was ELA positive. Preliminary experiments with bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) indicate that the ELA test is more sensitive than other test methods currently in use. ELA procedures should soon become tests of choice for the detection of antibodies to animal disease agents.
Liván Vergel Álvarez
Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to determine the main diseases associated to the PPC in Sancti Spiritus province from 1994 to 2009 and the specific objectives is to determine the bacterial, parasitical and viral associated to it. A number of 14999 animal in 77 focus were analysed, macroscopic tests were practiced. Samples for histopathologic studies were colleted in 200 hundred animals, bacteriology 220, parasithology 350, and for virological sutudies, 199 samples were taken. For the statistical processing, several computing programs were used such as Microsoft EXCEL y SWX. Pasteurelosis, Salmonelosis, and Colibacilosis were the most common bacterial diseases, gastrointestinal parasites and Cistecercosis were the parasotosis with most insidence and the Circovirosis and Swine Viral Encefalomiocardítis were the only viral associated diseases to the dianostic PPC during that period.
Belsham, G J; Rasmussen, T B; Normann, P; Vaclavek, P; Strandbygaard, B; Bøtner, A
During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both of these coronaviruses. However, further analyses, using other TGEV- and PEDV-specific RT-qPCR assays, provided results inconsistent with infection by either of these viruses. Sequencing of an amplicon (ca. 1.6 kb), generated by an RT-PCR specific for the PEDV S-gene, indicated a very close similarity (ca. 99% identity) to recently described chimeric viruses termed swine enteric coronaviruses (SeCoVs). These viruses (with an RNA genome of ca. 28 kb) were first identified in Italy in samples from 2009 but have not been detected there since 2012. A closely related virus was detected in archived samples in Germany from 2012, but has not been detected subsequently. Building on the initial sequence data, further amplicons were generated and over 9 kb of sequence corresponding to the 3'-terminus of the new SeCoV genome was determined. Sequence comparisons showed that the three known SeCoVs are ≥98% identical across this region and contain the S-gene and 3a sequences from PEDV within a backbone of TGEV, but the viruses are clearly distinct from each other. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that pigs from within the SeCoV-infected herd seroconverted against PEDV but tested negative in a TGEV-specific ELISA that detects antibodies against the S protein. These results indicate that SeCoV is continuing to circulate in Europe and suggest it can cause a disease that is very similar to PED. Specific detection of the chimeric SeCoVs either requires development of a new diagnostic RT-qPCR assay or the combined use of assays targeting the PEDV S-gene and another part of the TGEV genome. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Pérez-Wohlfeil, Esteban; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Trelles, Oswaldo; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.
Franciele Maboni Siqueira
Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.
... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved interstate for insemination of swine or implantation into swine shall be accompanied by a document issued by...
Belsham, Graham; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Normann, Preben
of these coronaviruses. However, further analyses, using other TGEV- and PEDV-specific RT-qPCR assays, provided results inconsistent with infection by either of these viruses. Sequencing of an amplicon (ca. 1.6 kb), generated by an RT-PCR specific for the PEDV S-gene, indicated a very close similarity (ca. 99% identity......) to recently described chimeric viruses termed swine enteric coronaviruses (SeCoVs). These viruses (with an RNA genome of ca. 28 kb) were first identified in Italy in samples from 2009 but have not been detected there since 2012. A closely related virus was detected in archived samples in Germany from 2012...
... Executive Order 12866. However, for this action, the Office of Management and Budget has waived its review... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE...
Hook, R.R.; Berkelhammer, J.; Hamby, C.V.
Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo
Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky
Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential...
Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq
The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans......·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would...
Vrublevskaya, V V; Afanasyev, V N; Grinevich, A A; Skarga, Yu Y; Gladyshev, P P; Ibragimova, S A; Krylsky, D V; Morenkov, O S
Three lateral flow assays (LFAs) for the detection of antibodies against glycoprotein B (gB) of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) in swine sera: a competitive double antibody sandwich LFA without a preincubation step (CDAS-gB-LFA), a CDAS-gB-LFA with a preincubation step (pCDAS-gB-LFA), and a competitive direct gB-LFA have been developed and were compared with each other and with a gB-ELISA. The assays are based on monoclonal antibodies to immunodominant epitopes of ADV gB. The pCDAS-gB-LFA proved to be the most specific and sensitive assay to detect antibodies directed to ADV gB. The specificity and sensitivity of the pCDAS-gB-LFA with the use of an LFA reader for test line intensity measurements were 97.6 and 94.9%, respectively. The lower diagnostic sensitivity of the pCDAS-gB-LFA compared to a gB-ELISA reflects its reduced analytical sensitivity, which was shown in titration experiments with positive sera. The pCDAS-gB-LFA, using the reader-based and visual detection modes, showed good agreement in respect to specificity; however, the LFA reader detection provided a higher diagnostic and analytical sensitivity compared to visual detection. The developed pCDAS-gB-LFA is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for the detection of antibodies to ADV gB and can be used for screening ADV-infected swine in unvaccinated herds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nußbaum, Benedikt L; Vogt, Josef; Wachter, Ulrich; McCook, Oscar; Wepler, Martin; Matallo, José; Calzia, Enrico; Gröger, Michael; Georgieff, Michael; Wood, Mark E; Whiteman, Matthew; Radermacher, Peter; Hafner, Sebastian
Decreased levels of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contribute to atherosclerosis, whereas equivocal data are available on H2S effects during sepsis. Moreover, H2S improved glucose utilization in anaesthetized, ventilated, hypothermic mice, but normothermia and/or sepsis blunted this effect. The metabolic effects of H2S in large animals are controversial. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the H2S donor GYY4137 during resuscitated, fecal peritonitis-induced septic shock in swine with genetically and diet-induced coronary artery disease (CAD). Twelve and 18 h after peritonitis induction, pigs received either GYY4137 (10 mg kg, n = 9) or vehicle (n = 8). Before, at 12 and 24 h of sepsis, we assessed left ventricular (pressure-conductance catheters) and renal (creatinine clearance, blood NGAL levels) function. Endogenous glucose production and glucose oxidation were derived from the plasma glucose isotope and the expiratory CO2/CO2 enrichment during continuous i.v. 1,2,3,4,5,6-C6-glucose infusion. GYY4137 significantly increased aerobic glucose oxidation, which coincided with higher requirements of exogenous glucose to maintain normoglycemia, as well as significantly lower arterial pH and decreased base excess. Apart from significantly lower cardiac eNOS expression and higher troponin levels, GYY4137 did not significantly influence cardiac and kidney function or the systemic inflammatory response. During resuscitated septic shock in swine with CAD, GYY4137 shifted metabolism to preferential carbohydrate utilization. Increased troponin levels are possibly due to reduced local NO availability. Cautious dosing, the timing of GYY4137 administration, and interspecies differences most likely account for the absence of any previously described anti-inflammatory or organ-protective effects of GYY4137 in this model.
N.S. Lewis (Nicola); C.A. Russell (Colin); P. Langat (Pinky); T.K. Anderson (Tavis); K. Berger (Kathryn); F. Bielejec (Filip); D.F. Burke (David); G. Dudas (Gytis); J.M. Fonville (Judith); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); P. Kellam (Paul); B.F. Koel (Björn); P. Lemey (Philippe); T. Nguyen (Tung); B. Nuansrichy (Bundit); J.S. Malik Peiris; T. Saito (Takehiko); G. Simon (Gaelle); E. Skepner (Eugene); N. Takemae (Nobuhiro); R.J. Webby (Richard J.); K. van Reeth; S.M. Brookes (Sharon M.); L. Larsen (Lars); S.J. Watson (Simon J.); I.H. Brown (Ian); A.L. Vincent (Amy L.); S. Reid (Scott); M.A. Garcia (Montserrat Auero); T.C. Harder (Timm); E. Foni (Emanuela); I. Markowska-Daniel (Iwona)
textabstractSwine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal and economically significant disease of domestic pigs in Uganda where outbreaks regularly occur. There is neither a vaccine nor treatment available for ASF control. Twenty two African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotypes (I - XXII) have been identified based on partial sequencing ...
Ferguson, F.G.; Botticelli, G.; Confer, F.L.; Pinto, A.J.
Since natural killer (NK) cells have a role in immune surveillance, they are important to consider in disease pathogenesis and resistance. We examined cell aspects responsible for NK cell mediated cytotoxicity in Yorkshire swine. Using cell separation procedures, peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined for reactivity to a panel of tumor targets, kinetics of lysis, morphology, surface receptor characteristics and response to immunoregulators. YAC-1 lymphoma and K-562 myeloid leukemia cells were sensitive to swine NK cells; whereas, several other tumor lines were not. In kinetic studies, swine NK cells were slower in initiation of the lytic process than cells responsible for NK activity in other species; small agranular lymphocytes are responsible for this activity in swine. These cells were examined for the presence of a surface marker, asialo GM1, which is common to NK cells in several other species. Swine NK cells respond to an interferon inducer, poly I:C, with enhanced NK activity. Cells in Yorkshire swine have characteristics which are unique but also have characteristics common to NK cells in other species
Thomas-Bachli Andrea L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Abattoir data have the potential to provide information for geospatial disease surveillance applications, but the quality of the data and utility for detecting disease outbreaks is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to 1 identify non-disease factors that may bias these data for disease surveillance and 2 determine if major disease events that took place during the study period would be captured using multi-level modelling and scan statistics. We analyzed data collected at all provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario, Canada during 2001-2007. During these years there were outbreaks of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS and swine influenza that produced widespread disease within the province. Negative binomial models with random intercepts for abattoir, to account for repeated measurements within abattoirs, were created. The relationships between partial carcass condemnation rates for pneumonia and nephritis with year, season, agricultural region, stock price, and abattoir processing capacity were explored. The utility of the spatial scan statistic for detecting clusters of high partial carcass condemnation rates in space, time, and space-time was investigated. Results Non-disease factors that were found to be associated with lung and kidney condemnation rates included abattoir processing capacity, agricultural region and season. Yearly trends in predicted condemnation rates varied by agricultural region, and temporal patterns were different for both types of condemnations. Some clusters of high condemnation rates of kidneys with nephritis in time and space-time preceded the timeframe during which case clusters were detected using traditional laboratory data. Yearly kidney condemnation rates related to nephritis lesions in eastern Ontario were most consistent with the trends that were expected in relation to the documented disease outbreaks
Bordetella bronchiseptica is pervasive in swine populations and plays multiple roles in respiratory disease. Additionally, B. bronchiseptica is capable of establishing long-term or chronic infections in swine. Bacterial biofilms are increasingly recognized as important contributors to chronic bacter...
Kobisch, M.; Friis, N.F.
infection, immune reactions are observed and resistance is induced in pigs. Laboratory diagnosis is generally performed by an immunofluorescent test and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibiotics are useful but the development of resistance has been described. Vaccination seems to be an effective...... method of controlling the disease. M. hyorhinis, generally transmitted by sows to piglets through nasal secretions, exists in a high percentage in the respiratory tract of healthy pigs. But some strains can induce serofibrinous to fibrinopurulent polyserositis and arthritis. M. hyorhinis is isolated from...
Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Hongbo; Wen, Zhibin; Wu, Shujuan; Huang, Canhui; Jia, Guangmin; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin
As a mild, highly contagious, respiratory disease, swine influenza always damages the innate immune systems, and increases susceptibility to secondary infections which results in considerable morbidity and mortality in pigs. Nevertheless, the systematical host response of pigs to swine influenza virus infection remains largely unknown. To explore it, a time-course gene expression profiling was performed for comprehensive analysis of the global host response induced by H1N1 swine influenza virus in pigs. At the early stage of H1N1 swine virus infection, pigs were suffering mild respiratory symptoms and pathological changes. A total of 268 porcine genes showing differential expression (DE) after inoculation were identified to compare with the controls on day 3 post infection (PID) (Fold change ≥ 2, p swine influenza virus infection in pigs. The observed gene expression profile could help to screen the potential host agents for reducing the prevalence of swine influenza virus and further understand the molecular pathogenesis associated with H1N1 infection in pigs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.
Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron AM; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, JS Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L
Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12217.001 PMID:27113719
Bagley, Clell V.
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is considered the most important disease affecting swine operations in North America and internationally. There has been no evidence of cross-infection to humans since discovery of PRRS in the U.S. in 1987.
African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact on the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment ...
Rossi, Sophie; Toigo, Carole; Hars, Jean; Pol, Françoise; Hamann, Jean-Luc; Depner, Klaus; Le Potier, Marie-Frederique
The understanding of host-parasite systems in wildlife is of increasing interest in relation to the risk of emerging diseases in livestock and humans. In this respect, many efforts have been dedicated to controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in the European Wild Boar. But CSF eradication has not always been achieved even though vaccination has been implemented at a large-scale. Piglets have been assumed to be the main cause of CSF persistence in the wild since they appeared to be more often infected and less often immune than older animals. However, this assumption emerged from laboratory trials or cross-sectional surveys based on the hunting bags. In the present paper we conducted a capture-mark-recapture study in free-ranging wild boar piglets that experienced both CSF infection and vaccination under natural conditions. We used multi-state capture recapture models to estimate the immunization and infection rates, and their variations according to the periods with or without vaccination. According to the model prediction, 80% of the infected piglets did not survive more than two weeks, while the other 20% quickly recovered. The probability of becoming immune did not increase significantly during the summer vaccination sessions, and the proportion of immune piglets was not higher after the autumn vaccination. Given the high lethality of CSF in piglets highlighted in our study, we consider unlikely that piglets could maintain the chain of CSF virus transmission. Our study also revealed the low efficacy of vaccination in piglets in summer and autumn, possibly due to the low palatability of baits to that age class, but also to the competition between baits and alternative food sources. Based on this new information, we discuss the prospects for the improvement of CSF control and the interest of the capture-recapture approach for improving the understanding of wildlife diseases.
Kamran Bagheri Lankarani
As world is witnessing ever fastest growing pandemic, physicians with various specialties should adopt themselves to the new situation (1). Global death toll of swine flu by November 15, 2009, has raised to 6750. Many of those who died or were hospitalized suffered from comorbid conditions which increased either the severity or the risk of acquiring the disease (2). Swine flu may change the course of many chronic diseases. Thus, all physicians in different disciplines should realize and consi...
Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern Eur...
Philip, Saji; Lee, Wen-Chuan; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lue, Hung-Chi
Horse serum-induced immune complex coronary vasculitis in swine is the first experimental model to mimic most of the pictures of Kawasaki disease. Immune complex mechanism has been implicated as one of the possible mechanisms in the pathogenesis of vasculitis in Kawasaki disease. Antioxidants have a significant role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases in both human and animal studies. We tried giving vitamins A, E, and C to treat immune complex vasculitis, in the hope of mitigating coronary vasculitis in Kawasaki disease. Our study group consisted of 30 pure bred male piglets of 2-3 months of age, and they were divided into test and control groups. The test (AEC) group (n = 20) received two doses of horse serum, 10 mL (0.65 g protein)/kg body weight at 5-day intervals, and oral vitamins A, E, and C once daily for 14 days. The control group (n = 10) was further divided into the saline group (n = 3) receiving two doses of normal saline and the horse serum group (n = 7) receiving two doses of horse serum at 5-day intervals. Piglets were observed for the rashes and coronary artery dimensions. Both the AEC and the control horse serum group developed rashes after horse serum infusions, but the AEC group developed significantly fewer rashes, and no rashes were seen in the saline group. The control horse serum group (mean ± standard deviation = 2.13 ± 0.72) showed significant coronary artery dilatation, whereas there was no significant dilatation in the AEC group (mean ± standard deviation = 0.81 ± 0.58) or the control saline group (p = 0.002). Serum sickness is a prototype of immune complex vasculitis, and the severity can be ameliorated with antioxidants. A trial of therapeutic dosages of vitamins A, E, and C in acute phase of Kawasaki disease, may be effective in mitigation of coronary artery lesion in addition to intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most devastating livestock diseases around the world. Several serotype specific vaccine formulations exist but require about 5-7 days to induce protective immunity. Our previous studies have shown that a constitutively active fusion protein of porcine ...
Jimenez-Clavero, Miguel A; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Ley, Victoria; Spiller, O Brad
Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) evolved from coxsackie B virus serotype 5 (CVB5) in the recent past, crossing the species barrier from humans to pigs. Here, SVDV isolates from early and recent outbreaks have been compared for their capacity to utilize the progenitor virus receptors coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55). Virus titre of CVB5 and SVDV isolates It'66 and UK'72 on human HeLa cells was reduced by pre-incubation with either anti-DAF or anti-CAR antibodies; however, recent SVDV isolates R1072, R1120 and SPA'93 did not infect HeLa cells lytically. CVB5 and SVDV infection of the pig cell line IB-RS-2 was inhibited completely by anti-CAR antibodies for all isolates, and no reduction was observed following pre-incubation of cells with anti-pig DAF antibodies. Expression of human DAF in the pig cell line IB-RS-2 enhanced the virus titre of early SVDV isolates by 25-fold, but had no effect on recent SVDV isolate titre. Binding of radiolabelled CVB5 to IB-RS-2 cells was increased seven- to eightfold by expression of human DAF and binding of early SVDV isolates was increased 1.2-1.3-fold, whereas no increase in binding by recent SVDV isolates was mediated by human DAF expression. Addition of soluble hDAF-Fc inhibited CVB5, but not SVDV, infection of pig cells. Pre-incubation of all viruses with soluble hCAR-Fc blocked infection of IB-RS-2 pig cells completely; titration of the amount of soluble hCAR-Fc required to block infection revealed that early isolate UK'72 was the least susceptible to inhibition, and the most recent isolate, SPA'93, was the most susceptible.
Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Thacker, Brad J.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Guenette, Denis K.; Buitenwerf, Ryan M.; Royer, Ryan L.; Meng, Xiang-Jin
To determine the effect of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection on pregnant gilts, their fetuses, and offspring, 12 gilts were intravenously inoculated with swine HEV. Six gilts, who were not inoculated, served as controls. All inoculated gilts became actively infected and shed HEV in feces, but vertical transmission was not detected in the fetuses. There was no evidence of clinical disease in the gilts or their offspring. Mild multifocal lymphohistiocytic hepatitis was observed in 4 of 12...
Yang, Yifei; Shi, Ruihan; She, Ruiping; Mao, Jingjing; Zhao, Yue; Du, Fang; Liu, Can; Liu, Jianchai; Cheng, Minheng; Zhu, Rining; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Soomro, Majid Hussain
In recent decades, Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) infection has been recognized as the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, and has become a threat to the swine industry. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is another high prevalent pathogen in swine in many regions of the world. PCV2 and HEV are both highly prevalent in pig farms in China. In this study, we characterized the HEV and PCV2 co-infection in 2-3 month-old piglets, based on pathogen identification and the pathological changes observed, in Hebei Province, China. The pathological changes were severe, and general hyperemia, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrosis were evident in the tissues of dead swine. PCR was used to identify the pathogen and we tested for eight viruses (HEV, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, PCV2, Classical swine fever virus, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus, Porcine parvovirus and Pseudorabies virus) that are prevalent in Chinese pig farms. The livers, kidneys, spleens, and other organs of the necropsied swine were positive for HEV and/or PCV2. Immunohistochemical staining showed HEV- and PCV2-antigen-positive signals in the livers, kidneys, lungs, lymph nodes, and intestine. HEV and PCV2 co-infection in piglets was detected in four out of seven dead pigs from two pig farms in Hebei, China, producing severe pathological changes. The natural co-infection of HEV and PCV2 in pigs in China has rarely been reported. We speculate that co-infection with PCV2 and HEV may bring some negative effect on pig production and recommend that more attention should be paid to this phenomenon.
Swine infl uenza (swine fl u) is a respiratory disease caused by type A infl uenza virus, the only pandemic strain. This new strain called swine-origin (H1N1) infl uenza A virus (SO-IAV), is transmitted to humans and spreads quickly from person to person. It emerged in Mexico and USA in April 2009. The 2009 outbreak of ...
Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.
Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly
Lichoti, Jacqueline Kasiiti; Davies, Jocelyn; Maru, Yiheyis; Kitala, Philip M; Githigia, Samuel M; Okoth, Edward; Bukachi, Salome A; Okuthe, Sam; Bishop, Richard P
We applied social network analysis to pig trader networks on the Kenya-Uganda border. Social network analysis is a recently developed tool, which is useful for understanding value chains and improving disease control policies. We interviewed a sample of 33 traders about their experiences with trade and African swine fever (ASF), analyzed the networks they generated in purchasing pigs and selling pork and their potential contribution to modulating dissemination of the ASF virus (ASFV). The majority of the traders were aware of clinical signs of ASF and the risk of trade transmitting ASFV. Most said they avoided buying pigs from ASF outbreak villages or sick pigs but their experiences also indicated that inadvertent purchase was relatively common. Traders had early knowledge of outbreaks since they were contacted by farmers who had heard rumours and wanted to sell their pigs to avoid the risk of them dying. Individual traders bought pigs in up to nine villages, and up to six traders operated in a village. Although each trade typically spanned less than 5km, networks of the various traders, comprising movements of pigs from source villages to slaughter slabs/sites and retail outlets, and movement of pork to villages where it was consumed, linked up indirectly across the 100km×50km study area and revealed several trade pathways across the Kenya-Uganda border. ASF could potentially spread across this area and beyond through sequential pig and pork transactions. Regulation of the pig and pork trade was minimal in practice. The risk of ASFV being spread by traders was compounded by their use of poorly constructed slaughter slabs/sites with open drainage, ineffective or non-existent meat inspection services, lack of provision for biosecurity in the value chain, and sales of pork to customers who were unaware of the risks to their own pigs from contact with ASF infected pork. More effective regulation is warranted. However, limitations on government capacity, together with
Herrera-Ibatá, Diana María; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Quijada, Darla; Burton, Kenneth; Mur, Lina
The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs). Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF) and Classical swine fever (CSF) introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine) to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10-3). Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10-3 for ASF, and 2.5*10-3 for CSF) higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10-4 for ASF, and 1.56*10-3 for CSF). This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products). The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products), is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US.
This book chapter for the 8th edition of the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals describes the current state of knowledge regarding progressive atrophic rhinitis of swine. Topics covered include clinical signs and lesions, characteristics and methods of detection for...
Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...
Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Poljak, Z
The objectives of this study were to describe networks of Ontario swine sites and their service providers (including trucking, feed, semen, gilt and boar companies); to categorize swine sites into clusters based on site-level centrality measures, and to investigate risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) using information gathered from the above-mentioned analyses. All 816 sites included in the current study were enrolled in the PRRS area regional control and elimination projects in Ontario. Demographics, biosecurity and network data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and PRRS status was determined on the basis of available diagnostic tests and assessment by site veterinarians. Two-mode networks were transformed into one-mode dichotomized networks. Cluster and risk factor analyses were conducted separately for breeding and growing pig sites. In addition to the clusters obtained from cluster analyses, other explanatory variables of interest included: production type, type of animal flow, use of a shower facility, and number of neighboring swine sites within 3km. Unadjusted univariable analyses were followed by two types of adjusted models (adjusted for production systems): a generalizing estimation equation model (GEE) and a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results showed that the gilt network was the most fragmented network, followed by the boar and truck networks. Considering all networks simultaneously, approximately 94% of all swine sites were indirectly connected. Unadjusted risk factor analyses showed significant associations between almost all predictors of interest and PRRS positivity, but these disappeared once production system was taken into consideration. Finally, the vast majority of the variation on PRRS status was explained by production system according to GLMM, which shows the highly correlated nature of the data, and raises the point that interventions at this level could potentially have high
Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .
... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY... must be retained for 2 years. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...
Jong, de J.C.; Nieuwstadt, van A.P.; Kimman, T.G.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Bestebroer, T.M.; Bijlsma, K.; Verweij, C.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Claas, E.C.J.
In order to explore the occurrence of antigenic drift in swine influenza A(H3N2) virus, we examined virus strains from outbreaks of respiratory disease among finishing pigs in the Netherlands in 1996 and 1997 and from earlier outbreaks. In contrast to swine H3N2 strains from the 1980s, the recent
Loeffen, W.L.A.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Quak, J.; Elbers, A.R.W.
Swine can be infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV), as well as ruminant pestiviruses: bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Border disease virus (BDV). Cross-reactions between pestiviruses occur, both regarding protective immunity and in diagnostic tests. The presence of BVDV and BDV
Johnston, Camille Melissa; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Lohse, Louise
Classical Swine Fever is a highly contagious disease of pigs caused by Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a member of the pestivirus genus within the family Flaviviridae. The E2 glycoprotein of CSFV has been shown to be an important factor for the virulence of the virus. In a recent study, we have...
...] Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan AGENCY: Animal and... brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Swine brucellosis and pseudorabies have...: Background Brucellosis is a contagious disease, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, that affects both...
Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C
This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.
López-Robles, G; Montalvo-Corral, M; Caire-Juvera, G; Ayora-Talavera, G; Hernández, J
A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the transmission of swine influenza through occupational exposure and to assess some risk factors for zoonotic transmission in workers from commercial farms in Mexico. Seroprevalence to swine influenza subtypes was determined by hemagglutinin inhibition assay and was higher in exposed (E), in comparison with unexposed (UE) participants (Pinfluenza virus (SIV) H3N2 and the exposition to swine [OR 3.05, 95% (CI) 1.65-5.64] and to geographic location [OR 8.15, 95% (CI) 1.41-47.05] was found. Vaccination appeared as a protective factor [OR 0.05, 95% (CI) 0.01-0.52]. Farms with high number of breeding herd were associated with increased anti-SIV antibodies in the E group [OR 3.98, 95% (CI) 1.00-15.86]. These findings are relevant and support the evidence of zoonoses in swine farms and point out the need to implement preventive measures to diminish the occurrence of the disease and the potential emergence of pathogenic reassortant strains. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available Metastrongylidosis or lungworm disease in swine is a disease caused by several types of nematodes of the genus Metastrongylus. Metastrongylidae are biohelminths whose causes use transitory hosts for their development and maintaining their biological cycle, and in this case they are numerous species of Lumbricidae (earthworms. Depending on the geographic environment, numerous representatives of Lumbricidae persist as transitory hosts. In our environment, these are dominant earthworm species of the genus Eisenia spp, Dandreobena spp, Allopbophora spp, Lubricus spp, Octoiasium spp, Bimastus spp, and rarely those from the genus Heledrillus spp. Swine are infected perorally with Metastrongylidae when they ingest infected earthworms.
and animal pathogens should facilitate finding new approaches for efficient disease control. The principal aim of this thesis is to characterise determinants involved in the replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Classical swine fever is a highly contagious virus disease of domestic pigs and wild...... in cell culture. Knowledge of these sequence variations and putative long-range interactions will provide valuable insights into mechanisms underlying virustranslation and replication. In manuscript 3, a selection marker has been inserted into a CSFV-based replicon making it suitable for screening...
[Epizoologic studies of the detection of antibodies against Aujeszky's disease virus in sera and blood eluates of swine from Thailand using ELISA ("Enzygnost," Behring), serum neutralization test and "Aujeszky Latex Kit" (Iffa Merieux)].
Leamcharaskul, P; Renner-Müller, I C; Munz, E; Reimann, M
The results of three tests for Aujeszky's disease were analysed and compared. The presence of Aujeszky's antibodies was determined by "Enzyme-linked-Immunosorbent-Assays" (ELISA, "Enzygnost"), Behring company, Marburg; "Serum-Neutralization-Tests" (SNT); and "Latex Agglutination-Tests" (LT, "Aujeszky-Latex-Kit"), Iffa Merieux company, Laupheim. Whole blood and sera samples were taken from 805 swine from 26 of Thailand's provinces. These samples were analysed to determine if eluates of whole blood on filter paper were as effective as corresponding sera samples in determining the presence of Aujeszky's disease antibodies. From a total of 805 samples, 26% of the serum and 18% of the blood eluate samples showed a positive result when tested by the ELISA method. Clearly, testing whole blood eluates provides results which are inferior to results from sera samples. Therefore the ELISA whole blood eluates test can only be recommended with reservations. Further testing was done on 645 serum samples using SNT. Samples tested were those which gave negative, suspicious, or weakly positive results when tested by ELISA. Using SNT, 23% of these showed a positive result. Many serum and blood eluate samples were also tested by LT. Most of these test samples were chosen because they were deemed suspicious. Suspicious samples were defined as those which had deviant test results. According to these results the sensitivity of LT was between the sensitivity of SNT and ELISA. Owner survey responses tended to state that few animals had been vaccinated. This coupled with the frequency of antibody occurrence proves the high rate of infection among Thailand's swine population.
Grosse Beilage, E; Friedel, K; Hirchert, R; Wagner, C; Bollwahn, W
The aim of the study was to prove in a region in the North-West of Germany that there is the possibility to decrease the prevalence of latent Aujeszky's Disease infections by means of a systematic vaccination. For this, the most important precondition of the success in a high population immunity that is maintained also in the finishing pig until slaughter. Since it is known that maternal antibodies interfere with the active immunization in the prefattening period, procedures were to be found that guarantee a high immunity in spite of the colostral antibodies. The results of the study show that the existing recommendation for vaccinating fattening pigs are sufficient for the prevalence of latent infections. They also confirm the necessity to carry out a check- and slaughter policy at the end of the eradication program.
Martínez-López, Beatriz; Ivorra, Benjamin; Ramos, Angel Manuel; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel
The study presented here is one of the very first aimed at exploring the potential spread of classical swine fever (CSF) from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs. Specifically, we used a spatial stochastic spread model, called Be-FAST, to evaluate the potential spread of CSF virus (CSFV) in Bulgaria, which holds a large number of backyards (96% of the total number of pig farms) and is one of the very few countries for which backyard pigs and farm counts are available. The model revealed that, despite backyard pigs being very likely to become infected, infections from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs were rare. In general, the magnitude and duration of the CSF simulated epidemics were small, with a median [95% PI] number of infected farms per epidemic of 1 [1,4] and a median [95% PI] duration of the epidemic of 44 [17,101] days. CSFV transmission occurs primarily (81.16%) due to indirect contacts (i.e. vehicles, people and local spread) whereas detection of infected premises was mainly (69%) associated with the observation of clinical signs on farm rather than with implementation of tracing or zoning. Methods and results of this study may support the implementation of risk-based strategies more cost-effectively to prevent, control and, ultimately, eradicate CSF from Bulgaria. The model may also be easily adapted to other countries in which the backyard system is predominant. It can also be used to simulate other similar diseases such as African swine fever. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sep 7, 2011 ... The infectious diseases caused by E. coli are very serious. Analysis of E. coli strains genetic diversity is important for epidemiology. The objective of this study was to use REP-PCR and ERIC-PCR for the analysis of genetic diversity among E. coli strains isolated from commercial swine farms in Sichuan ...
African swine fever (ASF) is a widely discussed disease in Ibadan, Nigeria, where high mortality losses occurred in outbreaks in the city between 2001-2006. To study the level to which ASF containment technologies were adopted and factors associated with adoption behavior, a sample of 60 pig farmers was selected from ...
Jan 12, 2018 ... Photo: IDRC / Bartay The challenge African swine fever (ASF) is a highly infectious hemorrhagic viral disease that wipes out entire herds of infected pigs. ASF is widespread in at least half of sub-Saharan Africa, and threatens food security due to devastating economic losses.
Classical swine fever (CSF) is an exotic viral disease in most European countries. Occasionally, outbreaks occur due to re-introduction of the virus. During these outbreaks, virus transmission between herds occurs via direct contact between infected and susceptible pigs, or via indirect transmission
African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs that has significant economic consequences for the swine industry. The control of African Swine Fever (ASF) has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. Successful experi...
... Europe that we recognize as low risk for classical swine fever (CSF). The regulations in 9 CFR part 93... 12866 and, therefore, has not been reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget. In accordance with..., FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE...
Butler, J. E.; Sun, J.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek
Roč. 30, - (2006), s. 199-221 ISSN 0145-305X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : swine * b cells * immunoglobulins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.399, year: 2006
Bronsvoort, BMD; Alban, L.; Greiner, M.
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a major infectious-disease agent of livestock and causes production losses through increased morbidity and mortality, particularly of young pigs. We identified the pathways for introduction of CSFV into Denmark and assessed the annual probability...
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs. There are no vaccines to control Africa swine fever (ASF). Experimental vaccines have been developed using genetically modified live attenuated ASFVs obtained by specifically de...
Hadsbjerg, Johanne; Friis, Martin Barfred; Fahnøe, Ulrik
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important disease of swine. Four different viruses were rescued from full-length cloned cDNAs derived from the Paderborn strain of CSFV. Three of these viruses had been modified by mutagenesis (with 7 or 8 nt changes) within stem 2 of the ...
... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Other Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...
Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.
Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin
Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities. PMID:28430168
Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin
Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities.
Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC can cause severe clinical diseases in humans, such as haemorrhagic colitis (HC and haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS. Although ruminants, primarily cattle, have been suggested as typical reservoirs of STEC, many food products of other origins, including pork products, have been confirmed as vehicles for STEC transmission. Only in rare cases, pork consumption is associated with severe clinical symptoms caused by high pathogenic STEC strains. However, in these outbreaks, it is unknown whether the contamination of food products occurs during swine processing or via cross-contamination from foodstuffs of different sources. In swine, STEC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of oedema disease. In particular a Shiga toxin subtype, named stx2e, it is considered as a key factor involved in the damage of swine endothelial cells. On the contrary, stx2e-producing Escherichia coli has rarely been isolated in humans, and usually only from asymptomatic carriers or from patients with mild symptoms, such as uncomplicated diarrhoea. In fact, the presence of gene stx2e, encoding for stx2e, has rarely been reported in STEC strains that cause HUS. Moreover, stx2e-producing STEC isolated from humans and pigs were found to differ in serogroup, their virulence profile and interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. Because of the limited epidemiologic data of STEC in swine and the increasing role of non-O157 STEC in human illnesses, the relationship between swine STEC and human disease needs to be further investigated.
Adrienne L. Watson
Full Text Available Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications.
Janke, B H
Influenza has been recognized as a respiratory disease in swine since its first appearance concurrent with the 1918 "Spanish flu" human pandemic. All influenza viruses of significance in swine are type A, subtype H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 viruses. Influenza viruses infect epithelial cells lining the surface of the respiratory tract, inducing prominent necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and variable interstitial pneumonia. Cell death is due to direct virus infection and to insult directed by leukocytes and cytokines of the innate immune system. The most virulent viruses consistently express the following characteristics of infection: (1) higher or more prolonged virus replication, (2) excessive cytokine induction, and (3) replication in the lower respiratory tract. Nearly all the viral proteins contribute to virulence. Pigs are susceptible to infection with both human and avian viruses, which often results in gene reassortment between these viruses and endemic swine viruses. The receptors on the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract are major determinants of infection by influenza viruses from other hosts. The polymerases, especially PB2, also influence cross-species infection. Methods of diagnosis and characterization of influenza viruses that infect swine have improved over the years, driven both by the availability of new technologies and by the necessity of keeping up with changes in the virus. Testing of oral fluids from pigs for virus and antibody is a recent development that allows efficient sampling of large numbers of animals.
Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten
resulted in marginal improvements to the control of the epidemics. However, adding testing of dead animals in the protection and surveillance zones was predicted to be the optimal control scenario for an ASF epidemic in industrialized swine populations without contact to wild boar. This optimal scenario...
Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.
Samantha J Hau
Full Text Available Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates
Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact
Hau, Samantha J.; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R.; Frana, Timothy S.; Nicholson, Tracy L.
Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage’s absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a
Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.
Hau, Samantha J; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R; Frana, Timothy S; Nicholson, Tracy L
Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a reduced
Henningson, Jamie N; Rajao, Daniela S; Kitikoon, Pravina; Lorusso, Alessio; Culhane, Marie R; Lewis, Nicola S; Anderson, Tavis K; Vincent, Amy L
In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) influenza A virus (IAV) reached pandemic status and was soon after detected in pigs worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether differences in the HA protein can affect pathogenicity and antigenicity of H1N1pdm09 in swine. We compared lung pathology, viral replication and shedding and the antigenic relationships of four wild-type H1N1pdm09 viruses in pigs: one human (CA/09) and three isolated in swine after the pandemic (IL/09, IL/10, and MN/10). The swine strains were selected based upon unique amino acid substitutions in the HA protein. All selected viruses resulted in mild disease and viral shedding through nasal and oral fluids, however, viral replication and the degree of pathology varied between the isolates. A/Swine/IL/5265/2010 (IL/10), with substitutions I120M, S146G, S186P, V252M, had lower viral titers in the lungs and nasal secretions and fewer lung lesions. The other two swine viruses caused respiratory pathology and replicated to titers similar to the human CA/09, although MN/10 (with mutations D45Y, K304E, A425S) had lower nasal shedding. Swine-adapted H1N1pdm09 have zoonotic potential, and have reassorted with other co-circulating swine viruses, influencing the evolution of IAV in swine globally. Further, our results suggest that amino acid changes in the HA gene have the potential to alter the virulence of H1N1pdm09 in swine. Importantly, the limited clinical signs in pigs could result in continued circulation of these viruses with other endemic swine IAVs providing opportunities for reassortment. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Verpoest, Sara; Cay, Ann Brigitte; De Regge, Nick
Aujeszky's disease is an economically important disease in domestic swine caused by suid herpesvirus 1, also called pseudorabies virus (PRV). In several European countries, including Belgium, the virus has successfully been eradicated from the domestic swine population. The presence of PRV in the wild boar population however poses a risk for possible reintroduction of the virus into the domestic pig population. It is therefore important to assess the genetic relatedness between circulating strains and possible epidemiological links. In this study, nine historical Belgian domestic swine isolates that circulated before 1990 and five recent wild boar isolates obtained since 2006 from Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were genetically characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and phylogenetic analysis. While all wild boar isolates were characterized as type I RFLP genotypes, the RFLP patterns of the domestic swine isolates suggest that a shift from genotype I to genotype II might have occurred in the 1980s in the domestic population. By phylogenetic analysis, Belgian wild boar isolates belonging to both clade A and B were observed, while all domestic swine isolates clustered within clade A. The joint phylogenetic analysis of both wild boar and domestic swine strains showed that some isolates with identical sequences were present within both populations, raising the question whether these strains represent an increased risk for reintroduction of the virus into the domestic population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen
Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.
Looft, Torey; Johnson, Timothy A.; Allen, Heather K.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Alt, David P.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Sul, Woo Jun; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M.; Chai, Benli; Cole, James R.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Tiedje, James M.; Stanton, Thad B.
Antibiotics have been administered to agricultural animals for disease treatment, disease prevention, and growth promotion for over 50 y. The impact of such antibiotic use on the treatment of human diseases is hotly debated. We raised pigs in a highly controlled environment, with one portion of the littermates receiving a diet containing performance-enhancing antibiotics [chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and penicillin (known as ASP250)] and the other portion receiving the same diet but without the antibiotics. We used phylogenetic, metagenomic, and quantitative PCR-based approaches to address the impact of antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota. Bacterial phylotypes shifted after 14 d of antibiotic treatment, with the medicated pigs showing an increase in Proteobacteria (1–11%) compared with nonmedicated pigs at the same time point. This shift was driven by an increase in Escherichia coli populations. Analysis of the metagenomes showed that microbial functional genes relating to energy production and conversion were increased in the antibiotic-fed pigs. The results also indicate that antibiotic resistance genes increased in abundance and diversity in the medicated swine microbiome despite a high background of resistance genes in nonmedicated swine. Some enriched genes, such as aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferases, confer resistance to antibiotics that were not administered in this study, demonstrating the potential for indirect selection of resistance to classes of antibiotics not fed. The collateral effects of feeding subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics to agricultural animals are apparent and must be considered in cost-benefit analyses. PMID:22307632
Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur in pigs immunized with whole-inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine and subsequently infected with an antigenically divergent virus of the same HA subtype. Live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines administered intranasally h...
Conclusion: Serum sickness is a prototype of immune complex vasculitis, and the severity can be ameliorated with antioxidants. A trial of therapeutic dosages of vitamins A, E, and C in acute phase of Kawasaki disease, may be effective in mitigation of coronary artery lesion in addition to intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a contagious and frequently lethal disease of pigs that produces significant economic consequences to the swine industry. ASFV genome encodes for more than 150 genes, but only a few of them have been studied in detail. Here we report the characterization of op...
This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.
Hsu, F S; Liu, M C; Chou, S M; Zachary, J F; Smith, A R
An ELISA was developed and tested to detect antibodies to Eperythrozoon suis in swine. Results were compared with those of the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Antigen isolated from swine heavily infected with E suis was used for both tests. Comparison of the ELISA with the IHA test revealed a significant (P less than 0.001) correlation between results. Of 114 samples obtained from 9 swine infected with E suis, 87.7% were seropositive (titer greater than or equal to 200) via the ELISA, and 80.7% were seropositive (titer greater than or equal to 20) via the IHA test. The sensitivity of the ELISA was greater than that of the IHA test. All blood samples obtained from specific-pathogen-free swine tested negative for E suis antibody. Cross-reactions were not observed between E suis antigen and antisera against various swine and cattle disease agents using ELISA. We concluded that the ELISA may be used for rapid and effective diagnosis of infection with E suis in swine.
Classical swine fever virus detection: results of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ring trial conducted in the framework of the European network of excellence for epizootic disease diagnosis and control.
Hoffmann, B.; Blome, S.; Bonulauri, P.; Fernández-Pinero, J.; Greiser-Wilke, I.; Haegeman, A.; Isaksson, M.; Koenen, F.; Leblanc, N.; Leifer, I.; Potier, Le M.F.; Loeffen, W.; Rasmussen, T.B.; Stadejek, T.; Stahl, K.; Tignon, M.; Uttenthal, A.; Poel, van der W.H.M.
The current study reports on a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) ring trial for the detection of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genomic RNA undertaken by 10 European laboratories. All laboratories were asked to use their routine in-house real-time
Butler, J. E.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek
Roč. 5, FEB 17 (2017), s. 255-279 ISSN 2165-8102 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09296S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : swine * pre-immune antibody repertoire * ileal Peyer's patches Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2016
Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))
The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.
Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.
Full Text Available Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.
Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin
Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.
Introduction Porcine bocaviruses were recently identified among swine co-infected with PCV2 (2,3) and suffering an acute-onset disease of high mortality in the United States, in pigs with PMWS in Sweden (1), and in pigs with reproductive and neurological disease in China (4). Parvoviruses are smal...
Pedersen, Kerri; Miller, Ryan S; Anderson, Theodore D; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Lewis, Jonathan R; Mihalco, Rebecca L; Gortázar, Christian; Gidlewski, Thomas
Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle ( Bos taurus ) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis . Efforts have been made in the US to eradicate the disease in cattle, but spillover into wildlife and subsequent spillback have impeded progress in some states. In particular, infection in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) has been followed by infection in cattle in some Midwestern states. Infection has also been documented in feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) on the Hawaiian island of Molokai and in various European countries, but no large-scale survey of antibody exposure to the bacteria has been conducted in feral swine in the US. We tested 488 sera from feral swine collected near previously documented outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and captive cervids, in addition to 2,237 feral swine sera collected across the US from 1 October 2013 to 30 September 2014. While all but one of the samples were antibody negative, the results are important for establishing baseline negative data since feral swine are capable reservoirs and could be implicated in future outbreaks of the disease.
Withers, Mark R; Correa, Maria T; Morrow, Morgan; Stebbins, Martha E; Seriwatana, Jitvimol; Webster, W David; Boak, Marshall B; Vaughn, David W
In a cross-sectional serosurvey, eastern North Carolina swine workers (n = 165) were compared with non-swine workers (127) for the presence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus as measured by a quantitative immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using a cutoff of 20 Walter Reed U/ml, swine-exposed subjects had a 4.5-fold higher antibody prevalence (10.9%) than unexposed subjects (2.4%). No evidence of past clinical hepatitis E or unexplained jaundice could be elicited. Swine (84) and mice (61), from farm sites in the same region as exposed subjects, were also tested. Antibody prevalence in swine (overall = 34.5%) varied widely (10.0-91.7%) according to site, but no antibody was detected in mice. Our data contribute to the accumulating evidence that hepatitis E may be a zoonosis and specifically to the concept of it as an occupational infection of livestock workers.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... swine contract library will be made available to the public? GIPSA will summarize the information it has...
Chander, Vishal; Nandi, S; Ravishankar, C; Upmanyu, V; Verma, Rishendra
Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most devastating epizootic diseases of pigs, causing high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of clinical signs and similarity in disease manifestations to other diseases make CSF difficult to diagnose with certainty. The disease is further complicated by the presence of a number of different strains belonging to three phylogenetic groups. Advanced diagnostic techniques allow detection of antigens or antibodies in clinical samples, leading to implementation of proper and effective control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods, including portable real-time PCR, provide diagnosis in a few hours with precision and accuracy, even at the point of care. The disease is controlled by following a stamping out policy in countries where vaccination is not practiced, whereas immunization with live attenuated vaccines containing the 'C' strain is effectively used to control the disease in endemic countries. To overcome the problem of differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals, different types of marker vaccines, with variable degrees of efficacy, along with companion diagnostic assays have been developed and may be useful in controlling and even eradicating the disease in the foreseeable future. The present review aims to provide an overview and status of CSF as a whole with special reference to swine husbandry in India.
Muhangi, Denis; Masembe, Charles; Emanuelson, Ulf; Boqvist, Sofia; Mayega, Lawrence; Ademun, Rose Okurut; Bishop, Richard P; Ocaido, Michael; Berg, Mikael; Ståhl, Karl
African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal, haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs, that poses a serious threat to pig farmers and is currently endemic in domestic pigs in most of sub-Saharan Africa. To obtain insight into the factors related to ASF outbreaks at the farm-level, a longitudinal study was performed in one of the major pig producing areas in central Uganda. Potential risk factors associated with outbreaks of ASF were investigated including the possible presence of apparently healthy ASF-virus (ASFV) infected pigs, which could act as long-term carriers of the virus. Blood and serum were sampled from 715 pigs (241 farms) and 649 pigs (233 farms) to investigate presence of ASFV and antibodies, during the periods of June-October 2010 and March-June 2011, respectively. To determine the potential contribution of different risks to ASF spread, a questionnaire-based survey was administered to farmers to assess the association between ASF outbreaks during the study period and the risk factors. Fifty-one (21 %) and 13 (5.6 %) farms reported an ASF outbreak on their farms in the previous one to two years and during the study period, respectively. The incidence rate for ASF prior to the study period was estimated at 14.1 per 100 pig farm-years and 5.6 per 100 pig farm-years during the study. Three pigs tested positive for ASFV using real-time PCR, but none tested positive for ASFV specific antibodies using two different commercial ELISA tests. There was no evidence for existence of pigs that were long-term carriers for the virus based on the analysis of blood and serum as there were no seropositive pigs and the only three ASFV DNA positive pigs were acutely infected and were linked to outbreaks reported by farmers during the study. Potential ASF risk factors were present on both small and medium-scale pig farms, although small scale farms exhibited a higher proportion with multiple potential risk factors (like borrowing boars for sows mating, buying replacement from
Díaz de Arce, Heidy; Pérez, Lester J; Frías, Maria T; Rosell, Rosa; Tarradas, Joan; Núñez, José I; Ganges, Llilianne
Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease causing severe economic losses in pig production almost worldwide. All pestivirus species can infect pigs, therefore accurate and rapid pestivirus detection and differentiation is of great importance to assure control measures in swine farming. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex, highly sensitive and specific RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation between CSFV and other pestivirus infections in swine. The universal and differential detection was based on primers designed to amplify a fragment of the 5' non-coding genome region for the detection of pestiviruses and a fragment of the NS5B gene for the detection of classical swine fever virus. The assay proved to be specific when different pestivirus strains from swine and ruminants were evaluated. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be as little as 0.89TCID(50). The assay analysis of 30 tissue homogenate samples from naturally infected and non-CSF infected animals and 40 standard serum samples evaluated as part of two European Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests conducted by the European Community Reference Laboratory, Hanover, Germany proved that the multiplex RT-PCR method provides a rapid, highly sensitive, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis for classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections in swine.
Mouton, Laure; Dekker, Aldo; Bleijenberg, Meindert; Blanchet, Michel; Coco-Martin, Jose; Hudelet, Pascal; Goutebroze, Sylvain
FMDV serotype SAT2 is most frequently associated with outbreaks in ruminants. However, the risk of it spreading from cattle to pigs cannot be excluded. To assess the efficacy of an SAT2-type FMD inactivated vaccine against homologous challenge in pigs, a suitable challenge strain adapted to pigs was produced. After two passages in two pigs each, a FMDV stock of SAT2 challenge strain was produced. This material was used to infect two groups of five pigs. The first group being vaccinated 28 days before challenge and the other one left as an unvaccinated control. Clinical signs were recorded, virus shedding was assessed on mouth swabs, and neutralising antibody titres were determined. At least 80% of the vaccinated pigs were protected against clinical disease. Furthermore, no virus shedding was observed in any of the vaccinated pigs. This study shows that experimentally inoculated pigs can become infected with a SAT2 serotype. Furthermore, vaccination offers protection against generalisation and viral excretion, confirming the potential of vaccination as an important tool in the control of FMD in pigs. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMVD, one of the most contagious viruses of cloven-hoofed animals, may cause a prolonged, asymptomatic but persistent infection in ruminants, named the "carrier state". However, it remains an open question whether this carrier state occurs in pigs. Here we present quantitative analyses of the duration of FMDV RNA and infectivity in lymphoid and epithelial tissues in experimentally infected pigs with FMDV C-S8c1. The data indicated that although FMDV RNA remained in blood until day 14 post-infection (pi, viremia was cleared by day 7 pi. However, all tissues tested were positive for FMDV until day 14-17 pi. Interestingly, the specific infectivity of FMDV in these tissues was in some cases even higher than the FMDV C-S8c1. We therefore propose that a "pseudopersistent state" may occur in pigs in which virus replicates in lymphoid tissues for a prolonged period of time, thereby representing a potential source of virus.
Nagai, Makoto; Aoki, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kozasa, Takashi; Tominaga-Teshima, Kaho; Mine, Junki; Abe, Yuri; Tamura, Tomokazu; Kobayashi, Tsubasa; Nishine, Kaoru; Tateishi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yudai; Fukuhara, Mai; Ohmori, Keitaro; Todaka, Reiko; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Shigeyuki; Kida, Hiroshi; Shirai, Junsuke
In the current study, molecular, biological, and antigenic analyses were performed to characterize Border disease virus (BDV) strain FNK2012-1 isolated from a pig in 2012 in Japan. The complete genome comprises 12,327 nucleotides (nt), including a large open reading frame of 11,685 nt. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that FNK2012-1 was clustered into BDV genotype 1 with ovine strains. FNK2012-1 grew in porcine, bovine, and ovine primary cells and cell lines, but grew better in bovine and ovine cells than in porcine cells. Specific pathogen-free pigs inoculated with FNK2012-1 did not show any clinical signs. Noninoculated contact control pigs also did not show clinical signs and did not seroconvert. The results suggest that FNK2012-1 may be of ruminant origin and is poorly adapted to pigs. Such observations can provide important insights into evidence for infection and transmission of BDV, which may be of ruminant origin, among pigs.
Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Liu, Xia; Hao, Fei; Yang, Leilei; Deng, Jiawu; Zhang, Wenwen; Wei, Jianzhong; Jiang, Jieyuan
During 2012 and 2013, several border disease virus (BDV) strains were identified from Chinese goat and sheep herds. At the same time, pigs from the same areas were found to be seropositive to BDV by ELISA, without showing clinical signs (unpublished data). To examine the susceptibility of pigs to the Chinese BDV strains, BDV isolate JSLS12-01, isolated from naturally infected sheep, was used to infect pigs. Antibody responses, viremia, clinical signs and pathological changes of the infected animals were examined. It confirmed that the current BDV strain could infect the domestic pigs, the animals showed viremia during 4 to 14 days post infection (dpi) and sero-conversion from 14dpi; no clinical and pathological changes were observed. In addition, CSFV maternal antibody did not influence BDV infection. Subsequently, pigs were infected with the BDV isolate and vaccinated with Hog cholera lapinized virus (HCLV) 21 days later to determine the effect of BDV infection on antibody induction of CSFV vaccination. The specific CSFV antibody and neutralizing antibody titers of the BDV infected group remained negative after the primary vaccination. Even after the boost vaccination, they were still significantly lower than those of the uninfected groups (p<0.05). These results indicated that BDV infection could down-regulate the antibody responses of CSFV C-strain vaccination. It should be paid attention that BDV prevalence in pig herds and in live vaccines might hamper the vaccination of CSF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carlson, Jolene; O'Donnell, Vivian; Alfano, Marialexia; Velazquez Salinas, Lauro; Holinka, Lauren G; Krug, Peter W; Gladue, Douglas P; Higgs, Stephen; Borca, Manuel V
African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4) virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus) is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi) showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi). This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN)-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles) and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms.
Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV. There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4 virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi. This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms.
Bateman, Allen C; Karasin, Alexander I; Olsen, Christopher W
Differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures have been utilized to investigate cystic fibrosis, wound healing, and characteristics of viral infections. These cultures, grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI) in media with defined hormones and growth factors, recapitulate many aspects of the in vivo respiratory tract and allow for experimental studies at the cellular level. To optimize growth conditions for differentiated swine airway epithelial cultures and to use these cultures to examine influenza virus infection and replication. Primary swine respiratory epithelial cells were grown at an air-liquid interface with varying amounts of retinoic acid and epidermal growth factor. Cells grown with optimized concentrations of these factors for 4 weeks differentiated into multilayer epithelial cell cultures resembling the lining of the swine respiratory tract. Influenza virus infection and replication were examined in these cultures. Retinoic acid promoted ciliogenesis, whereas epidermal growth factor controlled the thickness of the pseudoepithelium. The optimal concentrations for differentiated swine cell cultures were 1·5 ng/ml epidermal growth factor and 100nm retinoic acid. Influenza A viruses infected and productively replicated in these cultures in the absence of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that the cultures express a protease capable of activating influenza virus hemagglutinin. Differences in virus infection and replication characteristics found previously in pigs in vivo were recapitulated in the swine cultures. This system could be a useful tool for a range of applications, including investigating influenza virus species specificity, defining cell tropism of influenza viruses in the swine respiratory epithelium, and studying other swine respiratory diseases. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.
Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water sa...
Rowlands, Rebecca J; Michaud, Vincent; Heath, Livio; Hutchings, Geoff; Oura, Chris; Vosloo, Wilna; Dwarka, Rahana; Onashvili, Tinatin; Albina, Emmanuel; Dixon, Linda K
African swine fever (ASF) is widespread in Africa but is rarely introduced to other continents. In June 2007, ASF was confirmed in the Caucasus region of Georgia, and it has since spread to neighboring countries. DNA fragments amplified from the genome of the isolates from domestic pigs in Georgia in 2007 were sequenced and compared with other ASF virus (ASFV) isolates to establish the genotype of the virus. Sequences were obtained from 4 genome regions, including part of the gene B646L that encodes the p72 capsid protein, the complete E183L and CP204L genes, which encode the p54 and p30 proteins and the variable region of the B602L gene. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the Georgia 2007 isolate is closely related to isolates belonging to genotype II, which is circulating in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. One possibility for the spread of disease to Georgia is that pigs were fed ASFV-contaminated pork brought in on ships and, subsequently, the disease was disseminated throughout the region.
The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic system of adult female Large White swine. The content of this system and its relationships with both the external environment and between the different parts of the system were explained. The analysis of these results in terms of compared physiology showed that the structure of the cholesterol system was the same in man and in the swine. Consequently, the swine constitutes a good biological tool to study human cholesterol indirectly and to foresee the changes that might be induced in various physio-pathological cases. (author) [fr
Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 515% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 35 million patients causing 250,000500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474
Full Text Available Classical Swine Fever (CSF is a highly infectious fatal pig disease, resulting in huge economic loss to the swine industry. Integrins are membrane-bound signal mediators, expressed on a variety of cell surfaces and are known as receptors or co-receptors for many viruses. However, the role of integrin β3 in CSFV infection is unknown. Here, through quantitive PCR, immunofluorescence (IFC and immunocytohistochemistry (ICC, we revealed that ST (swine testicles epithelial cells have a prominent advantage in CSFV proliferation as compared to EC (swine umbilical vein endothelial cell, IEC (swine intestinal epithelial cell and PK (porcine kidney epithelial cells. Meanwhile, ST cells had remarkably more integrin β3 expression as compared to EC, IEC and PK cells, which was positively correlated with CSFV infection and proliferation. Integrin β3 was up-regulated post CSFV infection in all the four cell lines, while the CSFV proliferation rate was decreased in integrin β3 function-blocked cells. ShRNA1755 dramatically decreased integrin β3, with a deficiency of 96% at the mRNA level and 80% at the protein level. CSFV proliferation was dramatically reduced in integrin β3 constantly-defected cells (ICDC, with the deficiencies of 92.6%, 99% and 81.7% at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post CSFV infection, respectively. These results demonstrate that integrin β3 is required in CSFV infection and proliferation, which provide a new insight into the mechanism of CSFV infection.
The Danish (National Veterinary) Expert group for Classical and African swine fever has been active during the last 10 years. The group is composed of experts in EU-legislation, in Danish pig production, in pig diseases and in virology. The group has participated in a national workshop on CSFV...... surveillance, in Contingency planning exercises and many efforts is done to keep the group updated on the current international situation for swine fevers. The group has been very stabile and especially our participation in a Taiex workshop in 2005 in Romania was a very good basis for our fruitful...
Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Nielsen, Jens
Comparison of clinical and paraclinical parameters as tools for early diagnosis of classical swine fever. Louise Lohse, Åse Uttenthal, Jens Nielsen. National Veterinary Institute, Division of Virology, Lindholm, Technical University of Denmark. Introduction: In order to limit the far-reaching socio......-economic as well as the animal welfare consequences of an outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF), early diagnosis is essential. However, host-virus interactions strongly influence the course of CSF disease, and the clinical feature is not clear, thus complicating the diagnostic perspective. At the National...... demonstrated that it remains a particular challenge to provide a competent diagnostic tool box for low virulent strains of CSFV, e.g. CSFV-Glentorf. Acknowledgements: The authors wish to thank the EU Reference laboratory for Classical Swine Fever, TIHO, Hannover, for kindly supplying the CSFV-Romania, the CSFV...
Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160Abstract: Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called “atypical infection”. These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.Keywords: swine flu, drug, vaccine, concept
Ascariasis and cysticercosis were the main purnsitic diseases. Early treatment of sick swine and improved husbandry and management would have certainly reduced the losses which the pig producers had sustained in consequence of these conditions. Keywords: Pneumonia, Cysticercosis. Colibacillosis, Salmonellosis ...
Weesendorp, E.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Stegeman, A.; Vos, de C.J.
Several routes contribute to the spread of classical swine fever (CSF) during outbreaks of this disease. However, for many infected herds in recent epidemics, no route of virus introduction could be indentified. To obtain more insight into the relative importance of secretions and excretions in
anaesthesia in patients with valvular heart disease . Canad. Anaesth. Soc. J., 26: 463-467, 1979. ...341Ketamine has been advocated for the induction of anesthesia in the acutely hypovolemic patient because of its ability to preserve blood pressure which...hypovolemia. The effects of anesthetic induction doses of Ketamine and thiopental were evaluated in a hypovolemic swine model. Sixteen acutely in
Backer, J.A.; Vrancken, R.; Neyts, J.; Goris, N.
Classical swine fever (CSF) represents a continuous threat to pig populations that are free of disease without vaccination. When CSF virus is introduced, the minimal control strategy imposed by the EU is often insufficient to mitigate the epidemic. Additional measures such as preemptive culling
....). List of Subjects in 9 CFR Part 91 Animal diseases, Animal welfare, Exports, Livestock, Reporting and... / Tuesday, May 24, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). List of Subjects in 9 CFR Part 91 Animal diseases, Animal welfare...
Ragan, H.A.; Hackett, P.L.; Lund, J.E.; McClanahan, B.J.
Daily 90 Sr feeding of greater than 125 μCi/day resulted in pancytopenia with death usually due to hemorrhage. At 125 μCi, pancytopenia and myelolymphoproliferative disorders appeared. At less than 125 μCi/day a dose-related neutropenia was evident. There is an apparent increased incidence of both benign and malignant tumors of soft tissue in animals fed 25 μCi/day for their lifetime. Benign uterine tumors, dental defects and marked arthritis continued to be the major diseases necessitating euthanasia in aged animals from all groups, including control swine. (U.S.)
Robert J Boissy
Full Text Available Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance. The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70% at the phylum level, Clostridia (44% at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%. In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the
Nott, Sherrill B.
This report is a summary of the financial and production records kept by swine farmers enrolled in the Telfarm/MicroTel record program through Michigan State University Extension. This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on swine farms during 1997; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide information on the trends in resource use, income and costs during the last few years.
Classical swine fever virus detection: results of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ring trial conducted in the framework of the European network of excellence for epizootic disease diagnosis and control
Hoffmann, Bernd; Blome, Sandra; Bonilauri, Paolo
The current study reports on a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) ring trial for the detection of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genomic RNA undertaken by 10 European laboratories. All laboratories were asked to use their routine in-house real-time RT...... and specificity values. Nevertheless, some in-house systems had unspecific reactions or suboptimal sensitivity with only a single CSFV genotype. Follow-up actions involved either improvement of suboptimal assays or replacement of specific laboratory assays with the FLI protocol, with or without modifications...
Martin, Brigitte E; Sun, Hailiang; Carrel, Margaret; Cunningham, Fred L; Baroch, John A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Young, Sean G; Schmit, Brandon; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lutman, Mark W; Pedersen, Kerri; Lager, Kelly; Bowman, Andrew S; Slemons, Richard D; Smith, David R; DeLiberto, Thomas; Wan, Xiu-Feng
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During the period from 2010 to 2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 U.S. states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4.9%) samples were IAV antibody positive. Among 294 serum samples selected for antigenic characterization, 271 cross-reacted with ≥1 tested virus, whereas the other 23 did not cross-react with any tested virus. Of the 271 IAV-positive samples, 236 cross-reacted with swine IAVs, 1 with avian IAVs, and 16 with avian and swine IAVs, indicating that feral swine had been exposed to both swine and avian IAVs but predominantly to swine IAVs. Our findings suggest that feral swine could potentially be infected with both avian and swine IAVs, generating novel IAVs by hosting and reassorting IAVs from wild birds and domestic swine and facilitating adaptation of avian IAVs to other hosts, including humans, before their spillover. Continued surveillance to monitor the distribution and antigenic diversities of IAVs in feral swine is necessary to increase our understanding of the natural history of IAVs. IMPORTANCE There are more than 5 million feral swine distributed across at least 35 states in the United States. In contrast to domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have unique opportunities for contact with wildlife, livestock, and their habitats. Our serological results indicate that feral swine in the United States have been exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs) consistent with those found in both domestic swine and wild birds, with the predominant infections consisting of swine-adapted IAVs
Leknoi, Yuranan; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee
We assessed the occurrence and specificity of bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis in swine farms for their potential application in microbial source tracking. A local B. fragilis host strain, SP25 (DSM29413), was isolated from a pooled swine feces sample taken from a non-antibiotic farm. This strain was highly specific to swine fecal materials because it did not detect bacteriophages in any samples from human sewage, sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, and cats. The reference B. fragilis strain, RYC2056, could detect phages in swine samples but also detected phages in most human sewage and polluted urban canal samples. Phages of SP25 exist in the proximity of certain swine farms, regardless of their antibiotic use (p > 0.05). B. fragilis strain SP25 exhibited relatively high resistance to most of the veterinary antimicrobial agents tested. Interestingly, most farms that were positive for SP25 phages were also positive for RYC2056 phages. In conclusion, the swine-specific SP25 strain has the potential to indicate swine fecal contamination in certain bodies of water. Bacterial isolates with larger distributions are being studied and validated. This study highlights the importance of assessing the abundance of phages in local swine populations before determining their potential applicability for source tracking in local surface waters.
Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R
Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.
Lyra, T M P
The African swine fever episode in Brazil was due to trade and tourism between Spain, Portugal and Brazil, at a time when outbreaks were on the rise in Europe. The eradication of the disease, the slaughter of pigs, the elimination of the carcasses and the isolation of affected farms were given wide media coverage, and had a major socio-economic impact. It was forbidden to raise pigs in garbage dumps or to give them feed considered hazardous. Analyses performed in Brazil as well as national and international investigations by researchers from reference laboratories concluded that the disease had spread from Rio de Janeiro to other states, as is stated in official reports. Following emergency measures, a control programme was implemented, leading to enhanced quality in the pig farming sector. The authors describe epidemiological surveillance of African swine fever, classical swine fever and related diseases, biosafety in swine farming, and the emergency action plan comprising animal health training for veterinarians and social workers. The results of the eradication programme were excellent, despite the controversy over compulsory sacrifice in a country with serious social problems. In 2004, Brazil was the fourth largest pork producer and exporter, with an output of 2.679 million tons and exports of 508,000 tons to international markets with very high standards.
Thacker, Eileen L.; Thacker, Brad J.; Janke, Bruce H.
An experimental respiratory model was used to investigate the interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus (SIV) in the induction of pneumonia in susceptible swine. Previous studies demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic bronchopneumonia in swine, potentiates a viral pneumonia induced by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to inoculation with SIV. Clinical disease as characterized by the severity of cough and fever was evaluated daily. Percentages of lung tissue with visual lesions and microscopic lesions were assessed upon necropsy at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following SIV inoculation. Clinical observations revealed that pigs infected with both SIV and M. hyopneumoniae coughed significantly more than pigs inoculated with a single agent. Macroscopic pneumonia on necropsy at days 3 and 7 was greatest in both SIV-infected groups, with minimal levels of pneumonia in the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected pigs. At 14 days post-SIV inoculation, pneumonia was significantly more severe in pigs infected with both pathogens. However, by 21 days postinoculation, the level of pneumonia in the dual-infected pigs was similar to that of the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected group, and the pneumonia in the pigs inoculated with only SIV was nearly resolved. Microscopically, there was no apparent increase in the severity of pneumonia in pigs infected with both agents compared to that of single-agent-challenged pigs. The results of this study found that while pigs infected with both agents exhibited more severe clinical disease, the relationship between the two pathogens lacked the profound potentiation found with dual infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between mycoplasmas and viruses varies with the individual agent. PMID:11427564
Cabezón, Oscar; Muñoz-González, Sara; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Rosell, Rosa; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi; Fraile, Lorenzo; de la Riva, Paloma Martínez; Rodríguez, Fernando; Domínguez, Javier; Ganges, Llilianne
Recently moderate-virulence classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains have been proven capable of generating postnatal persistent infection (PI), defined by the maintenance of viremia and the inability to generate CSFV-specific immune responses in animals. These animals also showed a type I interferon blockade in the absence of clinical signs. In this study, we assessed the infection generated in 7-week-old CSFV PI wild boars after infection with the African swine fever virus (ASFV). The wild boars were divided in two groups and were infected with ASFV. Group A comprised boars who were CSFV PI in a subclinical form and Group B comprised pestivirus-free wild boars. Some relevant parameters related to CSFV replication and the immune response of CSFV PI animals were studied. Additionally, serum soluble factors such as IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ and sCD163 were analysed before and after ASFV infection to assess their role in disease progression. After ASFV infection, only the CSFV PI wild boars showed progressive acute haemorrhagic disease; however, the survival rates following ASFV infection was similar in both experimental groups. Notwithstanding, the CSFV RNA load of CSFV PI animals remained unaltered over the study; likewise, the ASFV DNA load detected after infection was similar between groups. Interestingly, systemic type I FN-α and IL-10 levels in sera were almost undetectable in CSFV PI animals, yet detectable in Group B, while detectable levels of IFN-γ were found in both groups. Finally, the flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in myelomonocytic cells (CD172a + ) and a decrease in CD4 + T cells in the PBMCs from CSFV PI animals after ASFV infection. Our results showed that the immune response plays a role in the progression of disease in CSFV subclinically infected wild boars after ASFV infection, and the immune response comprised the systemic type I interferon blockade. ASFV does not produce any interference with CSFV replication, or vice
... certificate shall show that the entire region of origin is free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from.... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0165) [55 FR 31495, Aug. 2, 1990...
Thimmasandra Narayanappa, Athmaram; Sooryanarain, Harini; Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Cao, Dianjun; Ammayappan Venkatachalam, Backiyalakshmi; Kambiranda, Devaiah; LeRoith, Tanya; Heffron, Connie Lynn; Lindstrom, Nicole; Hall, Karen; Jobst, Peter; Sexton, Cary; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Elankumaran, Subbiah
Since May 2013, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea have devastated the U.S. swine industry, causing immense economic losses. Two different swine enteric coronaviruses (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Delta coronavirus) have been isolated from the affected swine population. The disease has been reported from at least 32 states of the United States and other countries, including Mexico, Peru, Dominican Republic, Canada, Columbia, Ecuador, and Ukraine, with repeated outbreaks in previously infected herds. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a novel mammalian orthoreovirus 3 (MRV3) from diarrheic feces of piglets from these outbreaks in three states and ring-dried swine blood meal from multiple sources. MRV3 could not be isolated from healthy or pigs that had recovered from epidemic diarrhea from four states. Several MRV3 isolates were obtained from chloroform-extracted pig feces or blood meal in cell cultures or developing chicken embryos. Biological characterization of two representative isolates revealed trypsin resistance and thermostability at 90°C. NextGen sequencing of ultrapurified viruses indicated a strong homology of the S1 segment to mammalian and bat MRV3. Neonatal piglets experimentally infected with these viruses or a chloroform extract of swine blood meal developed severe diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis with 100% mortality within 3 days postinfection. Therefore, the novel porcine MRV3 may contribute to enteric disease along with other swine enteric viruses. The role of MRV3 in the current outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea in the United States remains to be determined, but the pathogenic nature of the virus warrants further investigations on its epidemiology and prevalence. Porcine orthoreoviruses causing diarrhea have been reported in China and Korea but not in the United States. We have isolated and characterized two pathogenic reassortant MRV3 isolates from swine fecal samples from porcine epidemic diarrhea outbreaks
Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.
Hilton, Shona; Smith, Emily
The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu) were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men) to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.
Comparison of Asian porcine high fever disease isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to United States isolates for their ability to cause disease and secondary bacterial infection in swine
Epidemiologic data from Asian outbreaks of highly-pathogenic (HP) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suggest that disease severity was associated with both the virulence of the PRRSV isolates and secondary bacterial infections. Previous reports have indicated that U.S. isola...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...
Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.
Full Text Available Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, isolated in Mexico and the United States. Pigs are documented to allow productive replication of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses. Thus it has been conjectured that pigs are the "mixing vessel" that create the avian-human reassortant strains, causing the human pandemics. Hence, studying the process and patterns of viral reassortment, especially in pigs, is a key to better understanding of human influenza pandemics. In the last few years, databases containing sequences of influenza A viruses, including swine viruses, collected since 1918 from diverse geographical locations, have been developed and made publicly available. In this paper, we study an ensemble of swine influenza viruses to analyze the reassortment phenomena through several statistical techniques. The reassortment patterns in swine viruses prove to be similar to the previous results found in human viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, that the surface glycoprotein coding segments reassort most often. Moreover, we find that one of the polymerase segments (PB1, reassorted in the strains responsible for the last two human pandemics, also reassorts frequently.
Zha, Yunfeng; Xie, Jiexiong; Chen, Ye; Wei, Chunya; Zhu, Wanjun; Chen, Jidang; Qi, Haitao; Zhang, Liangquan; Sun, Long; Zhang, Xiaozhan; Zhou, Pei; Cao, Zhenpeng; Qi, Wenbao; Zhang, Minze; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Guihong
The primary objective of this 3 years study was to determine the prevalence of porcine pathogens of the lungs of swine in swine farms in southern China. A total of 5,420 samples were collected from 200 swine farms. The bacterium that was most commonly isolated was Streptococcus suis, with 10.24 % of the samples being positive, 114 lungs (2.1 %) were positive for pseudorabies virus and 263 (4.85 %) were positive for classical swine fever virus; much lower than positive for PRRSV (15.1 %, p = 0.023) and PCV2 (13.8 %, p = 0.038). lungs that were positive for PRRSV and/or PCV-2 have significantly increased odds of being positive for any of the S. suis (9.79 vs. 0.44 %, p = 0.003).
Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt
In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611
Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1 and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR chains, known as the “shared epitope”, which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the “shared epitope” may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.
Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jeong, Jipseol; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Choi, Eun-Jin; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong
This study examined the potential for cross-species transmission of influenza viruses by comparing the genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with different host origins in Korea. Antigenic and phylogenetic analyses of H1 AIVs circulating in Korea provided evidence of genetic similarity between viruses that infect domestic ducks and those that infect wild birds, although there was no relationship between avian and swine viruses. However, there were some relationships between swine and human viral genes. The replication and pathogenicity of the H1 viruses was assessed in chickens, domestic ducks and mice. Viral shedding in chickens was relatively high. Virus was recovered from both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs up to 5-10 days post-inoculation. The titres of domestic duck viruses in chickens were much higher than those of wild-bird viruses. Both domestic duck and wild-bird viruses replicated poorly in domestic ducks. None of the swine viruses replicated in chickens or domestic ducks; however, six viruses showed relatively high titres in mice, regardless of host origin, and induced clinical signs such as ruffled fur, squatting and weight loss. Thus, although the phylogenetic and antigenic analyses showed no evidence of interspecies transmission between birds and swine, the results suggest that Korean H1 viruses have the potential to cause disease in mammals. Therefore, we should intensify continuous monitoring of avian H1 viruses in mammals and seek to prevent interspecies transmission. © 2014 The Authors.
Cristiane Silva Chitarra
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Swine respiratory diseases such as atrophic rhinitis and bronchopneumonia caused by Pasteurella (P. multocida cause important economic losses to the modern swine industry. The purpose of this study was to characterize P. multocida strains isolated from swine lungs by RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA to demonstrate their genetic diversity. Ninety-four samples of fragments from lungs with pneumonia and sixty one samples without pneumonia were collected in slaughterhouses in Mato Grosso during the period from December 2009 to March 2010. Clinical cases in 2012 and 2013 were also included in this study. Among the lung fragments with macroscopic lesions, without macroscopic lesions and clinical samples, 40.42%, 4.49% and 100% were positive for P. multocida, respectively. Bacterial identification culturing was confirmed by PCR (polymerase chain reaction by means of the amplification of the gene kmt1. RAPD technique was performed for 46 isolates, and in every isolate, a total of 7 to 11 amplification bands were detected, composed of 8 clusters based on genetic similarity. Thus, treatment, control and preventive measures should consider the genetic diversity of P. multocida populations in swine herds in order to improve the development of new protocols to produce antimicrobials and vaccines.
Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar
The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine 'PUBMED' to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.
Sandbulte, Matthew R.; Spickler, Anna R.; Zaabel, Pamela K.; Roth, James A.
Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health. PMID:26344946
Matthew R. Sandbulte
Full Text Available Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.
Full Text Available The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19. The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ′PUBMED′ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND. Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson′s disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.
Swine research at USMARC has continued to focus on meat quality, improvement of genomic resources and reproduction, specifically estrus traits, sow longevity and lifetime productivity. This report will focus on research in behavioral anestrus in gilts. Gilts that reach puberty at an earlier age are ...
pandemic planning. Keywords: Pandemic, swine, influenza, virus, preparedness. INTRODUCTION. Effective pandemic preparedness and response should involve all sectors of ... In less affluent countries, human and material resources are often scarce and other ... Once surge requirements have been estimated, policy ...
The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and
...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... types; (3) Adding definitions of terms used in several contract types to describe the market price that... rule will benefit swine producers by increasing their knowledge about contract terms and the number of...
Bosworth, B; Erdman, M M; Stine, D L; Harris, I; Irwin, C; Jens, M; Loynachan, A; Kamrud, K; Harris, D L
An alphavirus derived replicon particle (RP) vaccine expressing the cluster IV H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) hemagglutinin (HA) gene induced protective immunity against homologous influenza virus challenge. However, pigs with maternal antibody had no protective immunity against challenge after vaccination with RP vaccines expressing HA gene alone or in combination with nucleoprotein gene. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...
The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...
Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animal were reported as reservoirs. Swine stands out as the major reservoir for HEV infection in humans, as suggested by the close genetic relationship of swine and human virus. Since 2000, Genotype 4 HEV has become the dominant cause of hepatitis E disease in China. Recent reports showed that genotype 4 HEV is freely transmitted between humans and swine in eastern and southern China. However, the infection status of HEV in human and swine populations in central China is still unclear. This study was conducted in a rural area of central China, where there are many commercial swine farms. A total of 1476 serum and 554 fecal specimens were collected from the general human and swine populations in this area, respectively. The seroepidemiological study was conducted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conserved genomic sequences of open reading frame 2 were detected using reverse transcription-PCR. The results indicated that the overall viral burden of the general human subjects was 0.95% (14/1476, while 7.0% (39/554 of the swine excreted HEV in stool. The positive rate of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in the serum samples was 7.9% (117/1476 and 1.6% (24/1476, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 150 nt partial sequence of the capsid protein gene showed that the 53 swine and human HEV isolates in the current study all belonged to genotype 4, clustering into three major groups. However, the HEV isolates prevalent in the human and swine populations were classified into known distinct subgenotypes, which suggested that no cross-species transmission between swine and humans had taken place in this area. This result was confirmed by cloning and phylogenetic analysis of the complete capsid protein gene sequence of three representative HEV strains in the three major groups. The cross reactivity between anti-HEV IgG from human sera and the two representative strains from swine in
Tatiane T.N. Watanabe
Full Text Available Swine influenza (SI is caused by the type A swine influenza virus (SIV. It is a highly contagious disease with a rapid course and recovery. The major clinical signs and symptoms are cough, fever, anorexia and poor performance. The disease has been associated with other co-infections in many countries, but not in Brazil, where, however, the first outbreak has been reported in 2011. The main aim of this study was to characterize the histological features in association with the immunohistochemical (IHC results for influenza A (IA, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in lung samples from 60 pigs submitted to Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS, Brazil, during 2009-2010. All of these lung samples had changes characterized by interstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis, never observed previously in the evaluation of swine lungs in our laboratory routine. Pigs in this study had showed clinical signs of a respiratory infection. Swine samples originated from Rio Grande do Sul 31 (52%, Santa Catarina 14 (23%, Paraná 11 (18%, and Mato Grosso do Sul 4 (7%. Positive anti-IA IHC labelling was observed in 45% of the cases, which were associated with necrotizing bronchiolitis, atelectasis, purulent bronchopneumonia and hyperemia. Moreover, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar and bronchiolar polyp-like structures, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT hyperplasia and pleuritis were the significant features in negative anti-IA IHC, which were also associated with chronic lesions. There were only two cases with positive anti-PCV2 IHC and none to PRRSV. Therefore, SIV was the predominant infectious agent in the lung samples studied. The viral antigen is often absent due to the rapid progress of SI, which may explain the negative IHC results for IA (55%; therefore, IHC should be performed at the beginning of the disease. This study
Bargen, Leeanne L.; Whiting, Terry L.
Canada maintains a stamping-out policy for control of foreign animal disease. Integral to stamping out, there are obligatory animal movement restrictions that, over time, can result in severe animal welfare problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the time to critical overcrowding in a sample of Manitoba swine farms, if they were placed under movement restriction. Time to critical overcrowding in both static and dynamic populations was estimated by modeling swine growth and projecting anticipated on-farm stocking density through time and comparing it with a standard maximal stocking density. The time to critical overcrowding of 15 isowean piglet production units was 0.66 ± 0.88 weeks. On average, 7 isolated nursery facilities reached critical overcrowding in 52 ± 14 days and 5 farrow-to-finish operations reached critical overcrowding in 43 ± 18 days. Animal welfare concerns should be included in contingency plans to control foreign animal disease. PMID:12497962
Zakaryan, Hovakim; Revilla, Yolanda
African swine fever (ASF) is among the most significant of swine diseases for which no effective vaccines and antivirals are available. The disease, which is endemic in Africa, was introduced to Trans-Caucasian countries and the Russian Federation in 2007, where it remains prevalent today among domestic pigs and wild boars. Although some measures were implemented, ASF continues to pose a global risk for all countries, and thereby highlighting the importance of vaccine and antiviral research. In this review, an overview of research efforts toward the development of effective vaccines during the past decades is presented. As an alternative to vaccine development, the current state in antiviral research against ASFV is also presented. Finally, future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research giving emphasis on some strategies that may allow researchers to develop effective countermeasures against ASF are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Brambilla, M; Bisaglia, C; Pisani, G; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Equestre, M; Iaconelli, M
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent causative agent of acute hepatitis, transmitted by fecal-oral route. Infection with HEV is a global cause for morbidity and mortality throughout the world: it mainly causes large outbreaks in endemic areas and sporadic autochthonous cases in industrialized countries where HEV infections seem to be an emergent zoonotic disease. Infection of porcine livestock and its relationship with the human cases have been demonstrated. The present study describes an investigation on the prevalence and diversity of HEV in pig slurry in Italy. Slurry samples (24) were collected from ten farms located in North Italy during 2015 and analyzed for HEV, using four broad-range nested PCR assays targeting ORF1 (MTase), ORF2 (capsid) genes, and ORF2/3 regions. Overall, 18 samples (75%) were positive for HEV RNA, and characterized as genotype 3. Nine samples could be subtyped by ORF2 sequencing: Eight belonged to subtype 3f, while one sequence could not be characterized by blast analysis and phylogenetic analysis and may actually represent a new subtype. Furthermore, similarity of 99% was found between 3f Italian HEV sequences of human and swine origins. Real-Time PCR assay was also performed, in order to obtain quantitative data on positive samples. Two swine slurry samples were positive, containing 600 and 1000 UI per mL of sewage. The results of this study show that HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine excreta, and have high degree of identity with strains detected in autochthonous HEV cases. Improving swine farming operations safety and increasing operators' awareness of the zoonotic potential connected with the handling of swine effluents turn out to be key points in order to reduce the environmental and sanitary problem represented by the possible dissemination of HEV to water bodies.
Dieste-Pérez, L.; Frankena, K.; Blasco, J.M.; Muñoz, P.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.
Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonizes and causes disease in many animal species. Livestock associated-MRSA isolates are represented by isolates of the sequence type 398. These isolates are considered to be livestock adapted. This report provides the complete genome of one swine assoc...
Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun
Swine influenza virus (SIV) causes a contagious and requiring official notification disease of pigs and humans. In this study, a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay based on primer–probe energy transfer (PriProET) for the detection of SIV RNA was developed...
Lohse, Louise; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Nielsen, Jens
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs. The disease was introduced from the African continent to Georgia in 2007 and has since spread throughout the Caucasus and the Russian Federation. ASF is now established in Eastern Europe and outbreaks have occurred...
In this podcast, Dr. Lyn Finelli discusses CDCâs recommendations for reducing the risk of infection with H3N2v flu viruses for fairgoers and swine exhibitors. Created: 9/10/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 9/10/2012.
Schoub B. Swine flu – implications for South Africa. Communicable Diseases Surveillance. Bulletin 2009;7(3):5-7. 5. Ahrens JO, Morrow BM, Argent AC. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in critically ill children admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit, South Africa. S Afr J Crit Care 2015;31(1):4-7. 6. Cox CM, Blanton L, Dhara R, ...
Mikaela L. McKenney-Drake
Full Text Available Ossabaw miniature swine were fed an excess calorie, atherogenic diet for 6, 9, or 12 months. Increased body weight, hypertension, and increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are described in Table 1. For more detailed interpretations and conclusions about the data, see our associated research study, “Biphasic alterations in coronary smooth muscle Ca2+ regulation during coronary artery disease progression in metabolic syndrome” McKenney-Drake, et al. (2016 .
Reis, Ana Luisa; Netherton, Chris; Dixon, Linda K
African swine fever is an acute hemorrhagic disease of pigs. Extensive recent spread in the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe has increased the risk to global pig production. The virus is a large DNA virus and is the only member of the Asfarviridae family. In pigs, the virus replicates predominantly in macrophages. We review how the virus overcomes the barriers to replication in the macrophage and the virus mechanism to inhibit key host defense pathways. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Achenbach, J E; Gallardo, C; Nieto-Pelegrín, E; Rivera-Arroyo, B; Degefa-Negi, T; Arias, M; Jenberie, S; Mulisa, D D; Gizaw, D; Gelaye, E; Chibssa, T R; Belaye, A; Loitsch, A; Forsa, M; Yami, M; Diallo, A; Soler, A; Lamien, C E; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M
African swine fever (ASF) is an important emerging transboundary animal disease (TAD), which currently has an impact on many countries in Africa, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Russian Federation. The current situation in Europe shows the ability of the virus to rapidly spread, which stands to threaten the global swine industry. At present, there is no viable vaccine to minimize spread of the disease and stamping out is the main source of control. In February 2011, Ethiopia had reported its first suspected outbreaks of ASF. Genomic analyses of the collected ASF virus (ASFV) strains were undertaken using 23 tissue samples collected from domestic swine in Ethiopia from 2011 to 2014. The analysis of Ethiopian ASFVs partial p72 gene sequence showed the identification of a new genotype, genotype XXIII, that shares a common ancestor with genotypes IX and X, which comprise isolates circulating in Eastern African countries and the Republic of Congo. Analysis of the p54 gene also followed the p72 pattern and the deduced amino acid sequence of the central variable region (CVR) of the B602L gene showed novel tetramer repeats not previously characterized. © 2016 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Porphyre, Thibaud; Boden, Lisa A; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Auty, Harriet K; Gunn, George J; Woolhouse, Mark E J
The impact of non-commercial producers on disease spread via livestock movement is related to their level of interaction with other commercial actors within the industry. Although understanding these relationships is crucial in order to identify likely routes of disease incursion and transmission prior to disease detection, there has been little research in this area due to the difficulties of capturing movements of small producers with sufficient resolution. Here, we used the Scottish Livestock Electronic Identification and Traceability (ScotEID) database to describe the movement patterns of different pig production systems which may affect the risk of disease spread within the swine industry. In particular, we focused on the role of small pig producers. Between January 2012 and May 2013, 23,169 batches of pigs were recorded moving animals between 2382 known unique premises. Although the majority of movements (61%) were to a slaughterhouse, the non-commercial and the commercial sectors of the Scottish swine industry coexist, with on- and off-movement of animals occurring relatively frequently. For instance, 13% and 4% of non-slaughter movements from professional producers were sent to a non-assured commercial producer or to a small producer, respectively; whereas 43% and 22% of movements from non-assured commercial farms were sent to a professional or a small producer, respectively. We further identified differences between producer types in several animal movement characteristics which are known to increase the risk of disease spread. Particularly, the distance travelled and the use of haulage were found to be significantly different between producers. These results showed that commercial producers are not isolated from the non-commercial sector of the Scottish swine industry and may frequently interact, either directly or indirectly. The observed patterns in the frequency of movements, the type of producers involved, the distance travelled and the use of haulage
Rajão, Daniela S.; Walia, Rasna R.; Campbell, Brian; Gauger, Phillip C.; Janas-Martindale, Alicia; Killian, Mary Lea
ABSTRACT Repeated spillovers of the H1N1 pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09) from humans to pigs resulted in substantial evolution of influenza A viruses infecting swine, contributing to the genetic and antigenic diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) currently circulating in swine. The reassortment with endemic swine viruses and maintenance of some of the H1N1pdm09 internal genes resulted in the circulation of different genomic constellations in pigs. Here, we performed a whole-genome phylogenetic analysis of 368 IAV circulating in swine from 2009 to 2016 in the United States. We identified 44 different genotypes, with the most common genotype (32.33%) containing a clade IV-A HA gene, a 2002-lineage NA gene, an M-pdm09 gene, and remaining gene segments of triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) origin. To understand how different genetic constellations may relate to viral fitness, we compared the pathogenesis and transmission in pigs of six representative genotypes. Although all six genotypes efficiently infected pigs, they resulted in different degrees of pathology and viral shedding. These results highlight the vast H3N2 genetic diversity circulating in U.S. swine after 2009. This diversity has important implications in the control of this disease by the swine industry, as well as a potential risk for public health if swine-adapted viruses with H1N1pdm09 genes have an increased risk to humans, as occurred in the 2011-2012 and 2016 human variant H3N2v cases associated with exhibition swine. IMPORTANCE People continue to spread the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm09) IAV to pigs, allowing H1N1pdm09 to reassort with endemic swine IAV. In this study, we determined the 8 gene combinations of swine H3N2 IAV detected from 2009 to 2016. We identified 44 different genotypes of H3N2, the majority of which contained at least one H1N1pdm09 gene segment. We compared six representative genotypes of H3N2 in pigs. All six genotypes efficiently infected pigs, but they resulted in different
Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease that affects domestic and wild suids and could cause important economic losses. It is the most dangerous infectious disease of the wild boar that can cause severe death in densely populated areas. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of endoparasites on the oral vaccination against classical swine fever in wild boar. The study compared classical swine fever antibody titres in wild boar treated and untreated with antiparasitics. Fourteen six-month-old wild boar piglets were tested via direct ELISA to detect specific antibodies in blood serum after vaccination. Before the vaccination, one group of piglets was administered antiparasitic therapy; the other group of animals remained untreated. Twenty-eight days post vaccination, piglets from the first group (free of parasites showed significantly (P = 0.0015 higher concentrations of specific antibodies than the infected animals. Obtained results proved that parasitic infections substantially influence the efficacy of oral vaccination against classical swine fever and may support the ability of the virus to produce infectious diseases and its transmission in the wild boar population. For that reason, antiparasitic therapy of wild boar populations before their vaccination is highly recommended in order to increase the vaccine’s efficacy.
Savić Mila S.; Jovanović Slobodan J.; Trailović Ružica D.; Dimitrijević Vladimir M.
The development of molecular techniques for genome studies has led to qualitative progress in the selection of domestic animals by enabling the use of genetic markers, in addition to phenotypic selection parameters in choosing an animal. Genetic montoring has a wide application in contemporary swine production. Namely, genetic control is in the basis of all procedures pertaining to the selection of parent couples. Genetic monitoring is thus used in the genetic characterization of breeds, line...
Goodwin, Robin; Gaines, Stanley O; Myers, Lynn; Neto, Felix
The emergence of influenza A ("swine flu") in early 2009 led to widespread public concern. However, little research has examined the factors that underlie initial worry about infection and subsequent behavioral responses to such worry. This study seeks to model some key predictors of worry and behavioral responses in the early stages of the swine flu pandemic (WHO pandemic stage 5). A cross-sectional internet questionnaire study (N = 186). Twenty-five percent of respondents rated themselves as worried about being a victim of swine flu, 40% that they were worried of a family member contracting the virus. Twenty percent had bought, or intended to buy, preparatory materials (e.g., face masks), 20% intended to delay or cancel air travel. In a structural equation model, conservation values and family or friends perception of risks predicted worry about infection, while worry correlated with the purchase of preparatory materials, a lesser willingness to travel by public transport, and difficulty in focusing on everyday activities. While previous research on pandemic risk perception has focused on cognitive risk judgments, our data suggests that initial "emotional" concerns about infection are also significant predictors of behavioral responses to pandemic threat. Such worry is likely to be influenced by a variety of individual factors, such as personal values, as well as normative pressures. Practitioners can use and expand on such models of pandemic response when tailoring health campaigns to meet newly emergent threats.
Shinde, Vivek; Bridges, Carolyn B; Uyeki, Timothy M; Shu, Bo; Balish, Amanda; Xu, Xiyan; Lindstrom, Stephen; Gubareva, Larisa V; Deyde, Varough; Garten, Rebecca J; Harris, Meghan; Gerber, Susan; Vagasky, Susan; Smith, Forrest; Pascoe, Neal; Martin, Karen; Dufficy, Deborah; Ritger, Kathy; Conover, Craig; Quinlisk, Patricia; Klimov, Alexander; Bresee, Joseph S; Finelli, Lyn
Triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses--containing genes from avian, human, and swine influenza viruses--emerged and became enzootic among pig herds in North America during the late 1990s. We report the clinical features of the first 11 sporadic cases of infection of humans with triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, occurring from December 2005 through February 2009, until just before the current epidemic of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) among humans. These data were obtained from routine national influenza surveillance reports and from joint case investigations by public and animal health agencies. The median age of the 11 patients was 10 years (range, 16 months to 48 years), and 4 had underlying health conditions. Nine of the patients had had exposure to pigs, five through direct contact and four through visits to a location where pigs were present but without contact. In another patient, human-to-human transmission was suspected. The range of the incubation period, from the last known exposure to the onset of symptoms, was 3 to 9 days. Among the 10 patients with known clinical symptoms, symptoms included fever (in 90%), cough (in 100%), headache (in 60%), and diarrhea (in 30%). Complete blood counts were available for four patients, revealing leukopenia in two, lymphopenia in one, and thrombocytopenia in another. Four patients were hospitalized, two of whom underwent invasive mechanical ventilation. Four patients received oseltamivir, and all 11 recovered from their illness. From December 2005 until just before the current human epidemic of swine-origin influenza viruses, there was sporadic infection with triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses in persons with exposure to pigs in the United States. Although all the patients recovered, severe illness of the lower respiratory tract and unusual influenza signs such as diarrhea were observed in some patients, including
Risager, Peter Christian; Everett, Helen; Crooke, Helen
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiological agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining improved knowledge of the pathogenic features of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence...... of the CSFV genome within cells can be achieved using autonomously replicating constructs (replicons) containing a reporter gene that expresses a readily quantifiable enzyme. Here, a newly implemented cloning technique was applied to genome modification of the fulllength CSFV cDNA previously inserted...... proteins considered non-essential for RNA replication were constructed and these deletions were replaced with an in-frame insertion of the Renilla luciferase (Rluc) sequence. RNA transcripts from these replicons should be translated as a single functional open reading frame. Full-genome cDNAs (~10-12,3 kb...
Lindecrona, R.H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jensen, B.B.
, to confirm if low non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-containing diets reduce swine dysentery the effect of different dietary levels of NSP and resistant starch (RS) was evaluated. These diets were based on cooked rice and animal protein, cooked rice and potato starch, cooked rice and wheat bran, or cooked rice......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fermented liquid food (FLF) and the addition of lactic acid to a diet based on wheat and barley on the development of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally infected with a Danish field isolate of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Furthermore...... dysentery was observed in all feeding groups. The incidence of disease varied between 94% (rice/wheat bran) and 44% (FLF). The effect of diet on faecal shedding of B. hyodysenteriae was statistically significant (P...
Adriano Savoia Morales
Full Text Available Reports about acquired resistance to colistin in different bacteria species are increasing, including E. coli of animal origin, but reports of resistance in wild S. enterica of different serotypes from swine are not found in the literature. Results obtained with one hundred and twenty-six E. coli strains from diseased swine and one hundred and twenty-four S. enterica strains from diseased and carrier swine showed a frequency of 6.3% and 21% of colistin-resistant strains, respectively. When comparing the disk diffusion test with the agar dilution test to evaluate the strains, it was confirmed that the disk diffusion test is not recommended to evaluate colistin resistance as described previously. The colistin MIC 90 and MIC 50 values obtained to E. coli were 0.25 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL, the MIC 90 and MIC 50 to S. enterica were 1 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL. Considering the importance of colistin in control of nosocomial human infections with Gram-negative multiresistant bacteria, and the large use of this drug in animal production, the colistin resistance prevalence in enterobacteriaceae of animal origin must be monitored more closely.
Achenbach, J.E.; Gallardo, C.; Nieto-Pelegrín, E.; Rivera-Arroyo, B.; Degefa-Negi, T.; Arias, M.; Jenberie, S.; Mulisa, D.D.; Gizaw, D.; Gelaye, E.; Chibssa, T.R.; Belaye, A.; Loitsch, A.; Forsa, M.; Yami, M.; Diallo, A.; Soler, A.; Lamien, C.E.
Full text: African swine fever (ASF) is an important emerging transboundary animal disease (TAD), which currently has an impact on many countries in Africa, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Russian Federation. The current situation in Europe shows the ability of the virus to rapidly spread, which stands to threaten the global swine industry. At present, there is no viable vaccine to minimize spread of the disease and stamping out is the main source of control. In February 2011, Ethiopia had reported its first suspected outbreaks of ASF. Genomic analyses of the collected ASF virus (ASFV) strains were undertaken using 23 tissue samples collected from domestic swine in Ethiopia from 2011 to 2014. The analysis of Ethiopian ASFVs partial p72 gene sequence showed the identification of a new genotype, genotype XXIII that shares a common ancestor with genotypes IX and X, which comprise isolates circulating in Eastern African countries and the Republic of Congo. Analysis of the p54 gene also followed the p72 pattern and the deduced amino acid sequence of the central variable region (CVR) of the B602L gene showed novel tetramer repeats not previously characterized. (author)
Morales, Adriano Savoia; Fragoso de Araújo, Juliana; de Moura Gomes, Vasco Túlio; Reis Costa, Adrienny Trindade; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dália; Porfida Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana; de Lima Filsner, Pedro Henrique Nogueira; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; Micke Moreno, Andrea
Reports about acquired resistance to colistin in different bacteria species are increasing, including E. coli of animal origin, but reports of resistance in wild S. enterica of different serotypes from swine are not found in the literature. Results obtained with one hundred and twenty-six E. coli strains from diseased swine and one hundred and twenty-four S. enterica strains from diseased and carrier swine showed a frequency of 6.3% and 21% of colistin-resistant strains, respectively. When comparing the disk diffusion test with the agar dilution test to evaluate the strains, it was confirmed that the disk diffusion test is not recommended to evaluate colistin resistance as described previously. The colistin MIC 90 and MIC 50 values obtained to E. coli were 0.25 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL, the MIC 90 and MIC 50 to S. enterica were 1 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL. Considering the importance of colistin in control of nosocomial human infections with Gram-negative multiresistant bacteria, and the large use of this drug in animal production, the colistin resistance prevalence in enterobacteriaceae of animal origin must be monitored more closely.
Lighty, G W; Spear, R S; Karatay, M C; Hare, C L; Carlson, R J
A restraint and transport system was developed for handling large swine during cardiovascular research studies. The major design criteria provided for comfortable, low stress restraint of the swine, safety for laboratory personnel and ability to perform a wide variety of hemodynamic and echocardiographic measurements in the standing, supported standing and sedated, or in Panepinto sling positions. A head gate is provided for venipuncture procedures, and an auxiliary feeding and watering front panel can replace the head gate for use of the system as a post-operative "recovery room". Using this system animals weighing 22 to 150 kg can be easily managed.
Widén, F.; Everett, H.; Blome, S.
Classical swine fever is one of the most important infectious diseases for the pig industry worldwide due to its economic impact. Vaccination is an effective means to control disease, however within the EU its regular use is banned owing to the inability to differentiate infected and vaccinated a...
Hone, J; Pech, R; Yip, P
Infectious diseases establish in a population of wildlife hosts when the number of secondary infections is greater than or equal to one. To estimate whether establishment will occur requires extensive experience or a mathematical model of disease dynamics and estimates of the parameters of the disease model. The latter approach is explored here. Methods for estimating key model parameters, the transmission coefficient (beta) and the basic reproductive rate (RDRS), are described using classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs as an example. The tentative results indicate that an acute infection of classical swine fever will establish in a small population of wild pigs. Data required for estimation of disease transmission rates are reviewed and sources of bias and alternative methods discussed. A comprehensive evaluation of the biases and efficiencies of the methods is needed.
Elena G Sánchez
Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV, which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. Presently, no specific protection or vaccine against ASF is available, despite the high hazard that the continued occurrence of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the recent outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007, and the potential dissemination to neighboring countries, represents. Although virus entry is a remarkable target for the development of protection tools, knowledge of the ASFV entry mechanism is still very limited. Whereas early studies have proposed that the virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, the specific mechanism used by ASFV remains uncertain. Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V, and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. By a combination of optical and electron microscopy, we show that the virus causes cytoplasm membrane perturbation, blebbing and ruffles. We have also found that internalization of the virions depends on actin reorganization, activity of Na(+/H(+ exchangers, and signaling events typical of the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. Inhibition of these key regulators of macropinocytosis, as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, results in a considerable decrease in ASFV entry and infection. In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved.
Aug 2, 2010 ... In China, about five hundred million swine are slaughtered yearly, which represents about 45% of the world´s production. Swine blood is generally discarded except for the small amount that is used in soybean curd and other food products. This not only wastes resources, but also contaminates the.
In this study, the analysis of the economics of private sector participation in swine production in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, was conducted. Data were collected from sixty private operators of swine farms, who were randomly selected from the study area between March and October, 2002. Descriptive statistics and ...
These drugs therefore remain effective for first-line postsurgical chemotherapy in the management of swine skin abscess except Chloramphenicol which is banned in food animal therapy. Running title: Prevalence, Predisposing Factors and Antibiogram of Swine Skin Abscess. Keywords: Abscess, Antibiogram, Ibadan, ...
This result indicates that the sulfur-packed biofilter would be used as an efficient option for denitrification by autotrophic denitrifiers during swine wastewater treatment. Key words: Biological nitrogen removal, nitrification, denitrification, chemical oxygen demand (COD), intermittent aeration, sulfur-packed bed reactor, swine ...
Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing
...) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to quarantine... of any import permit. The facilities occupied by swine should be kept clean and sanitary to the... described in paragraph (b) of this section. The importer, or his or her agent, shall request in writing such...
Juan Ramon Molina Martinez; Miguel Herrera Machuca; Ricardo Zamora Diaz; Fancisco Rodriguez y Silva; Armando Gonzalez-Caban
Most forestry property in Andalusia is privately held. One of the most important possibilities for economic development of rural areas is the use of pasture lands (dehesa in Spanish). During the springâsummer season, swine grazing takes advantage of grasses between the trees, and during winter (harsher times), they use Quercus tree fruit. Swine production has a direct...
In China, about five hundred million swine are slaughtered yearly, which represents about 45% of the world´s production. Swine blood is generally discarded except for the small amount that is used in soybean curd and other food products. This not only wastes resources, but also contaminates the environment. In this study ...
Background: Hepatitis E (HE) caused by Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging global public health threat. It has been identified as potentially zoonotic and swine act as main reservoirs. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with HEV in swine abattoir workers ...
Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam
To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683
Full Text Available The current circulating swine influenza virus (IV subtypes in Europe (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are associated with clinical outbreaks of disease. However, we showed that pigs could be susceptible to other IV strains that are able to cross the species barrier. In this work, we extended our investigations into whether different IV strains able to cross the species barrier might give rise to different innate immune responses that could be associated with pathological lesions. For this purpose, we used the same samples collected in a previous study of ours, in which healthy pigs had been infected with a H3N2 Swine IV and four different H3N8 IV strains circulating in different animal species. Pigs had been clinically inspected and four subjects/group were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 21 days post infection. In the present study, all groups but mock exhibited antibody responses to IV nucleoprotein protein. Pulmonary lesions and high-titered viral replication were observed in pigs infected with the swine-adapted virus. Interestingly, pigs infected with avian and seal H3N8 strains also showed moderate lesions and viral replication, whereas equine and canine IVs did not cause overt pathological signs, and replication was barely detectable. Swine IV infection induced interferon (IFN-alpha and interleukin-6 responses in bronchoalveolar fluids (BALF at day 3 post infection, as opposed to the other non-swine-adapted virus strains. However, IFN-alpha responses to the swine-adapted virus were not associated with an increase of the local, constitutive expression of IFN-alpha genes. Remarkably, the Equine strain gave rise to a Serum Amyloid A response in BALF despite little if any replication. Each virus strain could be associated with expression of cytokine genes and/or proteins after infection. These responses were observed well beyond the period of virus replication, suggesting a prolonged homeostatic imbalance of the innate immune system.
Vienna R. Brown
Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is caused by CSF virus (CSFV which can be the source of substantial morbidity and mortality events in affected swine. The disease can take one of several forms (acute, chronic, or prenatal and depending on the virulence of the inoculating strain may result in a lethal infection irrespective of the form acquired. Because of the disease-free status of the United States and the high cost of a viral incursion, a summary of US vulnerabilities for viral introduction and persistence is provided. The legal importation of live animals as well as animal products, byproducts, and animal feed serve as a potential route of viral introduction. Current import regulations are described as are mitigation strategies that are commonly utilized to prevent pathogens, including CSFV, from entering the US. The illegal movement of suids and their products as well as an event of bioterrorism are both feasible routes of viral introduction but are difficult to restrict or regulate. Ultimately, recommendations are made for data that would be useful in the event of a viral incursion. Population and density mapping for feral swine across the United States would be valuable in the event of a viral introduction or spillover; density data could further contribute to understanding the risk of infection in domestic swine. Additionally, ecological and behavioral studies, including those that evaluate the effects of anthropogenic food sources that support feral swine densities far above the carrying capacity would provide invaluable insight to our understanding of how human interventions affect feral swine populations. Further analyses to determine the sampling strategies necessary to detect low levels of antibody prevalence in feral swine would also be valuable.
Abente, Eugenio J.; Santos, Jefferson; Lewis, Nicola S.; Gauger, Phillip C.; Stratton, Jered; Skepner, Eugene; Rajao, Daniela S.
ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) of the H3 subtype is an important respiratory pathogen that affects both humans and swine. Vaccination to induce neutralizing antibodies against the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) is the primary method used to control disease. However, due to antigenic drift, vaccine strains must be periodically updated. Six of the 7 positions previously identified in human seasonal H3 (positions 145, 155, 156, 158, 159, 189, and 193) were also indicated in swine H3 antigenic evolution. To experimentally test the effect on virus antigenicity of these 7 positions, substitutions were introduced into the HA of an isogenic swine lineage virus. We tested the antigenic effect of these introduced substitutions by using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) data with monovalent swine antisera and antigenic cartography to evaluate the antigenic phenotype of the mutant viruses. Combinations of substitutions within the antigenic motif caused significant changes in antigenicity. One virus mutant that varied at only two positions relative to the wild type had a >4-fold reduction in HI titers compared to homologous antisera. Potential changes in pathogenesis and transmission of the double mutant were evaluated in pigs. Although the double mutant had virus shedding titers and transmissibility comparable to those of the wild type, it caused a significantly lower percentage of lung lesions. Elucidating the antigenic effects of specific amino acid substitutions at these sites in swine H3 IAV has important implications for understanding IAV evolution within pigs as well as for improved vaccine development and control strategies in swine. IMPORTANCE A key component of influenza virus evolution is antigenic drift mediated by the accumulation of amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, resulting in escape from prior immunity generated by natural infection or vaccination. Understanding which amino acid positions of the HA contribute to the ability
Olesen, Ann Sofie; Lohse, Louise; Boklund, Anette
In 2014, African swine fever virus (ASFV) was introduced into the Baltic states and Poland. Since then, the disease has continued to spread within these regions, and recently, cases were reported in the Czech Republic and Romania. Currently, there is an increasing risk of ASFV introduction...... inoculation, by direct contact to infected animals and by aerosol developed acute disease characterized by viremia, fever and depression. Infectious virus was first detected in blood obtained from the inoculated pigs and then sequentially among the within-pen, between-pen and air-contact pigs. ASFV DNA...
Alexa J Bracht
Full Text Available Senecavirus A (SV-A, formerly, Seneca Valley virus (SVV, has been detected in swine with vesicular lesions and is thought to be associated with swine idiopathic vesicular disease (SIVD, a vesicular disease syndrome that lacks a defined causative agent. The clinical presentation of SIVD resembles that of other more contagious and economically devastating vesicular diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, swine vesicular disease (SVD, and vesicular stomatitis (VS, that typically require immediate rule out diagnostics to lift restrictions on animal quarantine, movement, and trade. This study presents the development of a sensitive, SYBR Green RT-qPCR assay suitable for detection of SV-A in diagnostic swine specimens. After testing 50 pigs with clinical signs consistent with vesicular disease, 44 (88% were found to be positive for SV-A by RT-qPCR as compared to none from a negative cohort of 35 animals without vesicular disease, indicating that the assay is able to successfully detect the virus in an endemic population. SV-A RNA was also detectable at a low level in sera from a subset of pigs that presented with (18% or without (6% vesicular signs. In 2015, there has been an increase in the occurrence of SV-A in the US, and over 200 specimens submitted to our laboratory for vesicular investigation have tested positive for the virus using this method. SV-A RNA was detectable in all common types of vesicular specimens including swabs and tissue from hoof lesions, oral and snout epithelium, oral swabs, scabs, and internal organ tissues such as liver and lymph node. Genome sequencing analysis from recent virus isolates was performed to confirm target amplicon specificity and was aligned to previous isolates.
Dias, Natanael Lamas; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto; Oliveira, Anapolino Macedo; Sales, Érica Bravo; Alves, Bruna Rios Coelho; Dorella, Fernanda Alves
The viral disease classical swine fever (CSF), caused by a Pestivirus, is one of the major causes of economic losses for pig farming. The aim of this work was to validate a RT-qPCR using Taqman for detection of CSF in swine tissues. The parameters for the validation followed the specifications of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the guide ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The analysis of the 5′NTR region of CSF virus was performed in 145 samples from 29 infected pigs and in 240 samples from 80 pigs originated in the Brazilian CSF-free zone. The tissues tested were spleen, kidney, blood, tonsils, and lymph nodes. Sequencing of the positive samples for 5′NTR region was performed to evaluate the specificity of the RT-qPCR. Tests performed for the RT-qPCR validation demonstrated that the PCR assay was efficient in detecting RNA from CSF virus in all materials from different tissues of infected animals. Furthermore, RNA from CSF virus was not detected in samples of swine originated from the Brazilian CSF-free zone. Hence, it is concluded that RT-qPCR can be used as a complementary diagnostic for CSF. PMID:24818039
Full Text Available The article seeks to study general aspects of the main coronaviruses affecting pigs, their presentation in Colombia, and particular aspects of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, emerging in different countries and generating a great impact on the health and economy of the swine industry. The main coronaviruses affecting swine are porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV, PEDV, and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV. Long ago in Colombia there had been reports of TGEV and PRCV associated with the importation of animals from the United States, which was controlled in the infected farms and in quarantine units. PEDV was first detected in Colombia in mid-March 2014; the Colombian Agricultural Institute issued a health alert in Neiva (Huila, Fusagasugá and Silvania (Cundinamarca, and Puerto López (Meta due to the unusual presentation of epidemic vomiting and diarrhea in young and adult animals, abortion in pregnant sows, with high mortality rates (up to 100% in animals during the first week of age. At present the disease has been reported in other municipalities of the country as well as in different countries with similar clinical conditions and mortality rates in pigs with high economic losses for the swine sector.
Nerlich, Brigitte; Koteyko, Nelya
This article explores how the 2009 pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) intersected with issues of biosecurity in the context of an increasing entanglement between the spread of disease and the spread of information. Drawing on research into metacommunication, the article studies the rise of communication about ways in which swine flu was communicated, both globally and locally, during the pandemic. It examines and compares two corpora of texts, namely UK newspaper articles and blogs, written between 28 March and 11 June 2009, that is, the period from the start of the outbreak till the WHO announcement of the pandemic. Findings show that the interaction between traditional and digital media as well as the interaction between warnings about swine flu and previous warnings about other epidemics contributed to a heightened discourse of blame and counter-blame but also, more surprisingly, self-blame and reflections about the role the media in pandemic communication. The consequences of this increase in metacommunication for research into crisis communication are explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alkhamis, Moh A; Gallardo, Carmina; Jurado, Cristina; Soler, Alejandro; Arias, Marisa; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M
African swine fever (ASF) is a complex infectious disease of swine that constitutes devastating impacts on animal health and the world economy. Here, we investigated the evolutionary epidemiology of ASF virus (ASFV) in Eurasia and Africa using the concatenated gene sequences of the viral protein 72 and the central variable region of isolates collected between 1960 and 2015. We used Bayesian phylodynamic models to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the virus, to identify virus population demographics and to quantify dispersal patterns between host species. Results suggest that ASFV exhibited a significantly high evolutionary rate and population growth through time since its divergence in the 18th century from East Africa, with no signs of decline till recent years. This increase corresponds to the growing pig trade activities between continents during the 19th century, and may be attributed to an evolutionary drift that resulted from either continuous circulation or maintenance of the virus within Africa and Eurasia. Furthermore, results implicate wild suids as the ancestral host species (root state posterior probability = 0.87) for ASFV in the early 1700s in Africa. Moreover, results indicate the transmission cycle between wild suids and pigs is an important cycle for ASFV spread and maintenance in pig populations, while ticks are an important natural reservoir that can facilitate ASFV spread and maintenance in wild swine populations. We illustrated the prospects of phylodynamic methods in improving risk-based surveillance, support of effective animal health policies, and epidemic preparedness in countries at high risk of ASFV incursion.
Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Cepiel, Alicja; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Gajek, Jacek; Pasławska, Urszula; Nicpoń, Józef
Swine are a well-recognized animal model for human cardiovascular diseases. Despite the widespread use of porcine model in experimental electrophysiology, still no reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive electrophysiology study (EPS) have been developed in this species thus far. The aim of the study was to develop a set of normal values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive EPS of swine. The study included 36 healthy domestic swine (24-40 kg body weight). EPS was performed under a general anesthesia with midazolam, propofol and isoflurane. The reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters were calculated as arithmetic means ± 2 standard deviations. The reference values were determined for AH, HV and PA intervals, interatrial conduction time at its own and imposed rhythm, sinus node recovery time (SNRT), corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT), anterograde and retrograde Wenckebach points, atrial, atrioventricular node and ventricular refractory periods. No significant correlations were found between body weight and heart rate of the examined pigs and their electrophysiological parameters. The hereby presented reference values can be helpful in comparing the results of various studies, as well as in more accurately estimating the values of electrophysiological parameters that can be expected in a given experiment.
Xu, Xin; Fei, Dongliang; Han, Huansheng; Liu, Honggui; Zhang, Jiayong; Zhou, Yulong; Xu, Chuang; Wang, Hongbin; Cao, Hongwei; Zhang, Hua
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is responsible for the highly contagious viral disease of swine, and causes great economic loss in the swine-raising industry. Considering the significance of CSFV, a systemic analysis was performed to study its codon usage patterns. In this study, using the complete genome sequences of 76 CSFV representing three genotypes, we firstly analyzed the relative nucleotide composition, effective number of codon (ENC) and synonymous codon usage in CSFV genomes. The results showed that CSFV is GC-moderate genome and the third-ended codons are not preferentially used. Every ENC values in CSFV genomes are >50, indicating that the codon usage bias is comparatively slight. Subsequently, we performed the correspondence analysis (COA) to investigate synonymous codon usage variation among all of the CSFV genomes. We found that codon usage bias in these CSFV genomes is greatly influenced by G + C mutation, which suggests that mutational pressure may be the main factor determining the codon usage biases. Moreover, most of the codon usage bias among different CSFV ORFs is directly related to the nucleotide composition. Other factors, such as hydrophobicity and aromaticity, also influence the codon usage variation among CSFV genomes. Our study represents the most comprehensive analysis of codon usage patterns in CSFV genome and provides a basic understanding of the mechanisms for its codon usage bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L
The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Natanael Lamas Dias
Full Text Available The viral disease classical swine fever (CSF, caused by a Pestivirus, is one of the major causes of economic losses for pig farming. The aim of this work was to validate a RT-qPCR using Taqman for detection of CSF in swine tissues. The parameters for the validation followed the specifications of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE and the guide ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The analysis of the 5′NTR region of CSF virus was performed in 145 samples from 29 infected pigs and in 240 samples from 80 pigs originated in the Brazilian CSF-free zone. The tissues tested were spleen, kidney, blood, tonsils, and lymph nodes. Sequencing of the positive samples for 5′NTR region was performed to evaluate the specificity of the RT-qPCR. Tests performed for the RT-qPCR validation demonstrated that the PCR assay was efficient in detecting RNA from CSF virus in all materials from different tissues of infected animals. Furthermore, RNA from CSF virus was not detected in samples of swine originated from the Brazilian CSF-free zone. Hence, it is concluded that RT-qPCR can be used as a complementary diagnostic for CSF.
van der Wal, Fimme J; Jelsma, Tinka; Fijten, Helmi; Achterberg, René P; Loeffen, Willie L A
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and lethal disease in swine. Serological tests for the diagnosis of CSF need not only to detect antibodies against CSFV, but also need to differentiate these from antibodies against other pestiviruses. To investigate the possibilities of specific peptide-based serology, various synthetic peptides that represent a well-described linear epitope of the CSFV E2 protein (TAVSPTTLR) were used to test the viability of a peptide-based suspension array for the detection of antibodies against pestiviruses in swine. The results show that N-terminally biotinylated peptides can bind to avidin conjugated beads, and function in detection of the corresponding monoclonal antibody WH303. There are indications that the length of the spacer between epitope and biotin affect the efficiency of the peptide-antibody interaction. A protocol was established that enables probing for antibodies in porcine sera, where neutravidin-blocking of serum and the use of empty control beads for normalization was crucial. With a set of porcine sera with antibodies against various pestiviruses, the proof of concept of a peptide-based suspension array for specific detection of antibodies against pestiviruses in porcine sera was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim: Infectious porcine bronchopneumonia, caused by Pasteurella multocida, is a widespread disease of major economic significance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to diagnose swine Pasteurellosis using gross, histopathological, and immunopathological approaches in the swine population of Punjab and to compare the efficacy of immunohistochemical (IHC techniques with conventional diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 adult swine lung samples showing gross pneumonic changes were collected along with the associated lymph nodes to carry out the study. The collected samples were then processed for histopathological and IHC studies. Results: Out of the total 71 lung samples, 26 samples were found to be suspected for Pasteurellosis as per the microscopic changes observed, and out of these 26 samples, 16 cases were confirmed to be positive for Pasteurellosis by IHC. Varied macroscopic changes noted in lungs were pneumonic patches with consolidation of many lobes, congestion, and focal hemorrhages. Main lesions associated with lymph nodes were its enlargement and hemorrhages. Histologically, the lung showed fibrinous and suppurative bronchopneumonia, multifocal suppuration, thickening of septa with fibrin combined with cellular infiltration and edema. The higher IHC expression of P. multocida was seen in the bronchial epithelium besides in alveolar and bronchial exudate. Moreover, on comparing the histopathological and IHC scores which were calculated on the basis of characteristic microscopic lesions and number of antigen positive cells, respectively, a significant positive correlation (r=0.4234 was found. Conclusion: It was concluded that swine population of Punjab is having P. multocida infection. The gross and histopathological lesions can be helpful in the preliminary diagnosis of Pasteurellosis but needs to be supplemented by other immunodiagnostic tests. Moreover, IHC technique proved to be a specific, reliable, precise
Bischoff, Kenneth M; White, David G; McDermott, Patrick F; Zhao, Shaohua; Gaines, Stuart; Maurer, John J; Nisbet, David J
Ninety beta-hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates associated with diarrhea in neonatal pigs from multiple farms in Oklahoma were investigated for known associated disease serotypes, virulence factors, ribotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes. Fifteen different serotypes were observed, with 58% of isolates belonging to groups that produce one of three major enterotoxins: O149, O147, and O139. Thirty percent of the swine E. coli isolates possessed a combination of F4 fimbriae and the heat-labile toxin and heat-stable toxin B enterotoxins. Seventy-three percent of the E. coli isolates were resistant to five or more antibiotics. Interestingly, 53% of swine E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to chloramphenicol (CHL), an antibiotic whose use in food animals has been prohibited in the United States since the mid-1980s. The cmlA gene, which encodes a putative CHL efflux pump, was detected by PCR in 47 of the 48 CHL-resistant isolates, and 4 of these also possessed the cat2 gene, which encodes a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. The one CHL-resistant isolate that did not contain either cmlA or cat-2 possessed the flo gene, which confers resistance to both florfenicol and CHL. To determine whether CHL-resistant swine E. coli isolates represented dissemination of a clonal strain, all 90 isolates were analyzed by ribotyping. Seventeen distinct E. coli ribogroups were identified, with CHL resistance observed among the isolates in all except one of the major ribogroups. The identification of the cmlA gene among diverse hemolytic enterotoxigenic E. coli strains demonstrates its broad dissemination in the swine production environment and its persistence even in the absence of CHL selection pressure.
Zuo, Zhicai; Cui, Hengmin; Li, Mingzhou; Peng, Xi; Zhu, Ling; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Jideng; Xu, Zhiwen; Gan, Meng; Deng, Junliang; Li, Xuewei; Fang, Jing
Porcine pleuropneumonia is a highly contagious respiratory disease that causes great economic losses worldwide. In this study, we aimed to explore the underlying relationship between infection and injury by investigation of the whole porcine genome expression profiles of swine lung tissues post-inoculated with experimentally Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Expression profiling experiments of the control group and the treatment group were conducted using a commercially available Agilent Porcine Genechip including 43,603 probe sets. Microarray analysis was conducted on profiles of lung from challenged versus non-challenged swine. We found 11,929 transcripts, identified as differentially expressed at the p ≤0.01 level. There were 1188 genes annotated as swine genes in the GenBank Data Base. GO term analysis identified a total of 89 biological process categories, 82 cellular components and 182 molecular functions that were significantly affected, and at least 27 biological process categories that were related to the host immune response. Gene set enrichment analysis identified 13 pathways that were significantly associated with host response. Many proinflammatory-inflammatory cytokines were activated and involved in the regulation of the host defense response at the site of inflammation; while the cytokines involved in regulation of the host immune response were suppressed. All changes of genes and pathways of induced or repressed expression not only led to a decrease in antigenic peptides presented to T lymphocytes by APCs via the MHC and alleviated immune response injury induced by infection, but also stimulated stem cells to produce granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocyte, and promote neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose bacterial and foreign antigen at the site of inflammation. The defense function of swine infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was improved, while its immune function was decreased.
Dupuy, Damian E; Aswad, Bassam; Ng, Thomas
This study was designed to evaluate the safety and tissue effects of IRE in a swine lung model. This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Nine anesthetized domestic swine underwent 15 percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion creations (6 with bipolar and 3 with 3-4 monopolar electrodes) under fluoroscopic guidance and with pancuronium neuromuscular blockade and EKG gating. IRE electrodes were placed into the central and middle third of the right mid and lower lobes in all animals. Postprocedure PA and lateral chest radiographs were obtained to evaluate for pneumothorax. Three animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks and six at 4 weeks. Animals underwent high-resolution CT scanning and PA and lateral radiographs 1 h before sacrifice. The treated lungs were removed en bloc, perfused with formalin, and sectioned. Gross pathologic and microscopic changes after standard hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed within the areas of IRE lesion creation. No significant adverse events were identified. CT showed focal areas of spiculated high density ranging in greatest diameter from 1.1-2.2 cm. On gross inspection of the sectioned lung, focal areas of tan discoloration and increased density were palpated in the areas of IRE. Histological analysis revealed focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration that respected the boundaries of the interlobular septae. No pathological difference could be discerned between the 2- and 4-week time points. The bronchioles and blood vessels within the areas of IRE were intact and did not show signs of tissue injury. IRE creates focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage without creating damage to the bronchioles or blood vessels. Short-term safety in a swine model appears to be satisfactory.
Dietze, Klaas; Tucakov, Anna; Engel, Tatjana; Wirtz, Sabine; Depner, Klaus; Globig, Anja; Kammerer, Robert; Mouchantat, Susan
Non-invasive sampling techniques based on the analysis of oral fluid specimen have gained substantial importance in the field of swine herd management. Methodological advances have a focus on endemic viral diseases in commercial pig production. More recently, these approaches have been adapted to non-invasive sampling of wild boar for transboundary animal disease detection for which these effective population level sampling methods have not been available. In this study, a rope-in-a-bait based oral fluid sampling technique was tested to detect classical swine fever virus nucleic acid shedding from experimentally infected domestic pigs. Separated in two groups treated identically, the course of the infection was slightly differing in terms of onset of the clinical signs and levels of viral ribonucleic acid detection in the blood and oral fluid. The technique was capable of detecting classical swine fever virus nucleic acid as of day 7 post infection coinciding with the first detection in conventional oropharyngeal swab samples from some individual animals. Except for day 7 post infection in the "slower onset group", the chances of classical swine fever virus nucleic acid detection in ropes were identical or higher as compared to the individual sampling. With the provided evidence, non-invasive oral fluid sampling at group level can be considered as additional cost-effective detection tool in classical swine fever prevention and control strategies. The proposed methodology is of particular use in production systems with reduced access to veterinary services such as backyard or scavenging pig production where it can be integrated in feeding or baiting practices.
Wesley, R D; Woods, R D; McKean, J D; Senn, M K; Elazhary, Y
Three hundred and forty-seven serum samples from 22 Iowa swine herds were screened for TGEV/PRCV neutralizing antibody. Ninety-one percent of the sera and all 22 herds were positive. These sera were then tested by the blocking ELISA test to distinguish TGEV and PRCV antibody. The ELISA test confirmed the high percentage of TGEV/PRCV positive sera. By the blocking ELISA test, 12 herds were PRCV positive, 6 herds were TGEV positive and 4 herds were mixed with sera either positive for TGEV or PR...
Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao; Tompkins, S Mark
During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the 'gold standard' for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3±0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0±0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3±1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature.
Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)
Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.
Lee, Jechan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kwon, Eilhann E
In-situ production of fatty acid methyl esters from swine fat via thermally induced pseudo-catalytic transesterification on silica was investigated in this study. Instead of methanol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor to achieve environmental benefits and economic viability. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of swine fat reveals that swine fat contains 19.57wt.% of water and impurities. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles obtained under various conditions (extracted swine oil+methanol+NaOH, extracted swine oil+DMC+pseudo-catalytic, and swine fat+DMC+pseudo-catalytic) were compared. These profiles were identical, showing that the introduced in-situ transesterification is technically feasible. This also suggests that in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification has a high tolerance against impurities. This study also shows that FAME yield via in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification of swine fat reached up to 97.2% at 380°C. Therefore, in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification can be applicable to biodiesel production of other oil-bearing biomass feedstocks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rolf P Kreutz
Full Text Available Rolf P Kreutz1,2, Mouhamad Alloosh3, Khaled Mansour1, Zachary Neeb3, Yvonne Kreutz2, David A Flockhart2, Michael Sturek31Krannert Institute of Cardiology, 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology, 3Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, IN, USABackground: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans are associated with increased platelet activation and hyperreactivity of platelets to various agonists. Ossabaw swine develop all the hallmarks of MetS including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, and coronary artery disease when being fed excess calorie atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that Ossabaw swine with MetS would exhibit increased platelet reactivity compared with lean pigs without MetS.Materials and methods: Ossabaw swine were fed high caloric, atherogenic diet for 44 weeks to induce MetS (n = 10 and were compared with lean controls without MetS that had been fed normal calorie standard diet (n = 10. Light transmittance aggregometry was performed using adenosine diphosphate (ADP, collagen, thrombin, and arachidonic acid (AA at different concentrations. Dose response curves and EC50 were calculated. Glucose tolerance testing and intravascular ultrasound study of coronary arteries were performed.Results: MetS pigs compared with lean controls were morbidly obese, showed evidence of arterial hypertension, elevated cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Platelets from MetS pigs were more sensitive to ADP-induced platelet aggregation than leans (EC50: 1.83 ± 1.3 µM vs 3.64 ± 2.2 µM; P = 0.02. MetS pigs demonstrated higher platelet aggregation in response to collagen than lean pigs (area under the curve: 286 ± 74 vs 198 ± 123; P = 0.037 and a trend for heightened response to AA (AUC: 260 ± 151 vs 178 ± 145; P = 0.13. No significant difference was found for platelet
Dlugolenski, Daniel; Jones, Les; Howerth, Elizabeth; Wentworth, David; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A
Swine are susceptible to infection by both avian and human influenza viruses, and this feature is thought to contribute to novel reassortant influenza viruses. In this study, the influenza virus reassortment rate in swine and human cells was determined. Coinfection of swine cells with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (huH1N1) and an endemic swine H1N2 (A/swine/Illinois/02860/09) virus (swH1N2) resulted in a 23% reassortment rate that was independent of α2,3- or α2,6-sialic acid distribution on the cells. The reassortants had altered pathogenic phenotypes linked to introduction of the swine virus PA and neuraminidase (NA) into huH1N1. In mice, the huH1N1 PA and NA mediated increased MIP-2 expression early postinfection, resulting in substantial pulmonary neutrophilia with enhanced lung pathology and disease. The findings support the notion that swine are a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortants independent of sialic acid distribution. These results show the potential for continued reassortment of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with endemic swine viruses and for reassortants to have increased pathogenicity linked to the swine virus NA and PA genes which are associated with increased pulmonary neutrophil trafficking that is related to MIP-2 expression. Influenza A viruses can change rapidly via reassortment to create a novel virus, and reassortment can result in possible pandemics. Reassortments among subtypes from avian and human viruses led to the 1957 (H2N2 subtype) and 1968 (H3N2 subtype) human influenza pandemics. Recent analyses of circulating isolates have shown that multiple genes can be recombined from human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, leading to triple reassortants. Understanding the factors that can affect influenza A virus reassortment is needed for the establishment of disease intervention strategies that may reduce or preclude pandemics. The findings from this study show that swine cells provide a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortment
Dlugolenski, Daniel; Jones, Les; Howerth, Elizabeth; Wentworth, David; Tompkins, S. Mark
ABSTRACT Swine are susceptible to infection by both avian and human influenza viruses, and this feature is thought to contribute to novel reassortant influenza viruses. In this study, the influenza virus reassortment rate in swine and human cells was determined. Coinfection of swine cells with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (huH1N1) and an endemic swine H1N2 (A/swine/Illinois/02860/09) virus (swH1N2) resulted in a 23% reassortment rate that was independent of α2,3- or α2,6-sialic acid distribution on the cells. The reassortants had altered pathogenic phenotypes linked to introduction of the swine virus PA and neuraminidase (NA) into huH1N1. In mice, the huH1N1 PA and NA mediated increased MIP-2 expression early postinfection, resulting in substantial pulmonary neutrophilia with enhanced lung pathology and disease. The findings support the notion that swine are a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortants independent of sialic acid distribution. These results show the potential for continued reassortment of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with endemic swine viruses and for reassortants to have increased pathogenicity linked to the swine virus NA and PA genes which are associated with increased pulmonary neutrophil trafficking that is related to MIP-2 expression. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses can change rapidly via reassortment to create a novel virus, and reassortment can result in possible pandemics. Reassortments among subtypes from avian and human viruses led to the 1957 (H2N2 subtype) and 1968 (H3N2 subtype) human influenza pandemics. Recent analyses of circulating isolates have shown that multiple genes can be recombined from human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, leading to triple reassortants. Understanding the factors that can affect influenza A virus reassortment is needed for the establishment of disease intervention strategies that may reduce or preclude pandemics. The findings from this study show that swine cells provide a mixing vessel for influenza
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.
Karimi, Ashkan; Cobb, Jessica A; Staples, Edward D; Baz, Maher A; Beaver, Thomas M
Since the advent of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP), there has been increased focus on swine models of lung transplantation; however, the anatomic differences between human and swine lungs and the technical challenges in performing porcine lung transplantation are not well described in the surgical literature. Surgically important anatomic variations are described, and the technical measures taken to address them during harvest and transplantation are introduced. There are three surgically important anatomic variations in pigs. First, the right cranial lobe bronchus arises directly from the trachea, which makes right lung transplantation technically challenging if not prohibitive. Second, the left hemi-azygos vein is fully developed and courses upward through the posterior mediastinum, where it crosses the left pulmonary hilum and drains directly into the coronary sinus. During transplantation, this vein is ligated and dissected away to expose the underlying left pulmonary hilar structures. Third, the right inferior pulmonary vein crosses the midline to drain into the left atrium immediately adjacent to the left inferior pulmonary vein. During donor lung preparation, the right inferior pulmonary vein is ligated distally from the left atrium, which leaves an adequate atrial cuff around the left sided pulmonary veins for later anastomosis. Experimental porcine lung transplantation is technically demanding. We have found recognition of the above described anatomical differences and technical nuances facilitate transplantation and provide reproducible results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ha Bui Manh
Full Text Available In this study, wastewater taken from the Nam Phong swine slaughterhouse, Ho Chi Minh City, was used to evaluate the treatment efficiency of common coagulants, including Alum (Aluminum Sulfate - Al2(SO43.18H2O, Poly-Aluminum Chloride (PAC, and Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O, using a jar-test system. The experiments were conducted using the one-factor-at-a-time method to examine three variables which are pH, stirring speed, and coagulant dosage. The results showed that both Alum and PAC perform over 90% removal of colour, turbidity, COD, and total phosphorus (TP from slaughterhouse wastewater at pH 7 with a stirring speed of 75 revolutions per minute (RPM and average coagulant dosages of 450 mg/L for Alum and 550 mg/L for PAC. Meanwhile, under the appropriate conditions of pH equal to 10 and 75 RPM with a chemical dosage of 350 mg/L, COD and TP removal efficiencies by Ferrous Sulfate exceed 87%, but those of turbidity and colour only reach 25%. This finding could be a promising coagulation method as a pre-treatment for the swine slaughterhouse wastewater.
Dieberg, G.; Bryan, G.S.; Sartin, J.L.; Williams, J.C.; Prince, T.J.; Kemppainen, R.J.
Crossbred gilts had 8.8 +/- 1.1% maximum binding of ( SVI)insulin to insulin receptors on erythrocytes. The number of insulin-binding sites per cell was 137 +/- 19, with a binding affinity ranging from 7.4 X 10(7)M-1 to 11.2 X 10(7)M-1 and mean of 8.8 X 10(7)M-1. Pregnant sows had a significant increase in maximum binding due to an increase in number of receptor sites per cell. Lactating sows fed a high-fiber diet and a low-fiber diet did not develop a significant difference in maximum binding of insulin. Sows fed the low-fiber diet had a significantly higher number of binding sites and a significantly lower binding affinity than did sows fed a high-fiber diet. Receptor-binding affinity was lower in the low-fiber diet group than in cycling gilts, whereas data from sows fed the high-fiber diet did not differ from data for cycling gilts. Data from this study indicated that insulin receptors of swine erythrocytes have binding characteristics similar to those in other species. Pregnancy and diet will alter insulin receptor binding in swine.
The immune response to the highly acute foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is routinely reported as a measure of serum antibody. However, a critical effector function of immune responses combating viral infection of mammals is the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, mediated by virus specific ...
Kekarainen, Tuija; Martínez-Guinó, Laura; Segalés, Joaquim
Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are vertebrate infecting, single-stranded circular DNA viruses. Two genetically distinct TTV genogroups (TTV1 and TTV2) infect swine worldwide with high prevalence. Currently, swine TTVs are considered non-pathogenic, although TTV2 has been linked to post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, a porcine circovirus disease. On the other hand, pig materials are an important source of components used in porcine vaccine manufacturing, human drugs and commercial enzyme products. However, there is little information about the possible existence of extraneous viruses in products containing porcine-derived components. In the present study, 26 commercial swine vaccines, seven human drugs and three enzyme products from porcine origin were tested for the presence of TTV1 and TTV2 genomes by PCR. Four vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were positive for TTV2 by PCR. Three M. hyopneumoniae, one porcine parvovirus and one porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines were PCR positive for TTV1. One human drug contained TTV1 DNA as well as a trypsin enzyme; a porcine-derived elastase product was positive for both TTV genogroups. These results show that swine TTVs are contaminants not only of swine vaccines but also of human drugs containing porcine components and enzymes for laboratory use.
O'Donnell, Vivian; Risatti, Guillermo R; Holinka, Lauren G; Krug, Peter W; Carlson, Jolene; Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Azzinaro, Paul A; Gladue, Douglas P; Borca, Manuel V
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs that has significant economic consequences for the swine industry. The control of African swine fever (ASF) has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. Successful experimental vaccines have been derived from naturally occurring, cell culture-adapted, or genetically modified live attenuated ASFV. Recombinant viruses harboring engineered deletions of specific virulence-associated genes induce solid protection against challenge with parental viruses. Deletion of the 9GL (B119L) gene in the highly virulent ASFV isolates Malawi Lil-20/1 (Mal) and Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Δ9GL viruses) resulted in complete protection when challenged with parental isolates. When similar deletions were created within the ASFV Georgia 2007 (ASFV-G) genome, attenuation was achieved but the protective and lethal doses were too similar. To enhance attenuation of ASFV-G, we deleted another gene, UK (DP96R), which was previously shown to be involved in attenuation of the ASFV E70 isolate. Here, we report the construction of a double-gene-deletion recombinant virus, ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔUK. When administered intramuscularly (i.m.) to swine, there was no induction of disease, even at high doses (10 6 HAD 50 ). Importantly, animals infected with 10 4 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD 50 ) of ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔUK were protected as early as 14 days postinoculation when challenged with ASFV-G. The presence of protection correlates with the appearance of serum anti-ASFV antibodies, but not with virus-specific circulating ASFV-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells. ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔUK is the first rationally designed experimental ASFV vaccine that protects against the highly virulent ASFV Georgia 2007 isolate as early as 2 weeks postvaccination. Currently, there is no commercially available vaccine against African swine fever. Outbreaks of the disease are devastating to the swine
Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela
Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.
Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela
Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs. PMID:23630601
Full Text Available Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain in two independent trials. In each trial (i 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection, (ii another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.
Popescu, Luca; Gaudreault, Natasha N; Whitworth, Kristen M; Murgia, Maria V; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Mileham, Alan; Samuel, Melissa; Wells, Kevin D; Prather, Randall S; Rowland, Raymond R R
African swine fever is a highly contagious, often fatal disease of swine for which there is no vaccine or other curative treatment. The macrophage marker, CD163, is a putative receptor for African swine fever virus (ASFV). Pigs possessing a complete knockout of CD163 on macrophages were inoculated with Georgia 2007/1, a genotype 2 isolate. Knockout and wild type pen mates became infected and showed no differences in clinical signs, mortality, pathology or viremia. There was also no difference following in vitro infection of macrophages. The results do not rule out the possibility that other ASFV strains utilize CD163, but demonstrate that CD163 is not necessary for infection with the Georgia 2007/1 isolate. This work rules out a significant role for CD163 in ASFV infection and creates opportunities to focus on alternative receptors and entry mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Cho, Patricia S; Teague, Alexander G S; Fishman, Brian; Fishman, Aaron S; Hanekamp, John S; Moran, Shannon G; Wikiel, Krzysztof J; Ferguson, Kelly K; Lo, Diana P; Duggan, Michael; Arn, J Scott; Billiter, Bob; Horner, Ben; Houser, Stuart; Yeap, Beow Yong; Westmoreland, Susan V; Spitzer, Thomas R; McMorrow, Isabel M; Sachs, David H; Bronson, Roderick T; Huang, Christene A
This manuscript reports on five cases of spontaneous myelogenous leukemia, similar to human disease, occurring within highly inbred, histocompatible sublines of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) MHC-defined miniature swine. In cases where a neoplasm was suspected based on clinical observations, samples were obtained for complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, and flow cytometric analysis. Animals confirmed to have neoplasms were euthanized and underwent necropsy. Histological samples were obtained from abnormal tissues and suspect lesions. The phenotype of the malignancies was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of processed peripheral blood mononuclear cells and affected tissues. Five cases of spontaneous myeloid leukemia were identified in adult animals older than 30 months of age. All animals presented with symptoms of weight loss, lethargy, and marked leukocytosis. At autopsy, all animals had systemic disease involvement and presented with severe hepatosplenomegaly. Three of the five myelogenous leukemias have successfully been expanded in vitro. The clustered incidence of disease in this closed herd suggests that genetic factors may be contributing to disease development. Myelogenous leukemia cell lines established from inbred sublines of MGH MHC-defined miniature swine have the potential to be utilized as a model to evaluate therapies of human leukemia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PRRSV infection is the most economically important disease affecting domestic swine herds in the United States and in many countries. Commercially available vaccines are often based on older viral strains and offer limited efficacy against heterologous challenge. Live virus immunization (LVI), a for...
von Rosen, Tanya; Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens
Several studies have highlighted the important role of cytokines in disease development of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection. In the present study, we examined the kinetics of 7 porcine cytokines in serum from pigs infected with 3 different CSFV strains. Based on the clinical picture i...
PCR) for the analysis of genetic diversity among Escherichia coli strains isolated from commercial swine farms in Sichuan province of China. Thirty four strains of E. coli were selected by selective medium and conventional biochemical test from ...
Manley, Geoffrey T; Rosenthal, Guy; Lam, Maggie; Morabito, Diane; Yan, Donghong; Derugin, Nikita; Bollen, Andrew; Knudson, M. M; Panter, S. S
...), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were collected for 10 hours after injury. Following injury, ICP and HR increased above baseline values in all swine with a more pronounced elevation in animals impacted to a depth of depression of 12 mm...
Hause, Ben M; Palinski, Rachel; Hesse, Richard; Anderson, Gary
Posaviruses are a group of highly divergent viruses identified in swine faeces that are distantly related to other members of the order Picornavirales. Eighteen posavirus genomes were assembled from 10 out of 25 (40 %) faecal-swab pools collected from healthy adult swine. Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol) domain found that posaviruses form a large, highly diverse, monophyletic clade, which includes similar viruses identified in human (husavirus) and fish (fisavirus) faeces or intestinal contents, respectively. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis of water samples collected from commercial swine barns identified four out of 19 (21 %) samples were positive using a 5'-nuclease assay targeting the Pol region of posavirus 1. ICPD (immunoprecipitation coupled to PCR detection) assays to explore serological evidence of posavirus infection found only a single positive sample, suggesting posaviruses do not commonly infect swine, and together these results suggests a likely aquatic host.
Fabricio Rochedo Conceição
Full Text Available A Pneumonia Enzoótica Suína (PES, causada pela bactéria fastidiosa Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, é a doença respiratória mais importante dos suínos, responsável por enormes prejuízos à suinocultura brasileira e mundial. A elevada prevalência e o fato de pré-dispor os suínos à patógenos oportunistas tornam esta doença o alvo central de um programa de saúde de rebanho para doenças respiratórias. O conhecimento das características do agente etiológico bem como dos seus fatores de patogenicidade pode ajudar na elaboração de novas estratégias de controle da PES. O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir alguns aspectos da etiopatogenia da PES que têm implicação na imunoprofilaxia da doença e os principais resultados obtidos com vacinas de última geração avaliadas experimentalmente.Swine Enzootic Pneumonia (SEP, caused by fastidious bacterium Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is the most important respiratory disease of swines, responsible for high losses to Brazilian and worldwide swine breeding. The high prevalence and the fact to predis-pose the swines to secondary pathogens make this disease the central target of a herd health program to respiratory diseases. The knowledge of the characteristics and pathogenicity factors of etiologic agent could help in the development of new strategies to control SEP. The aim of this review was to discuss some aspects of the etiopathogenesis of the SEP that have implications in the immunoprofilaxis of disease and the main results obtained with new generation vaccines evaluated experimentally.
Full Text Available As of April 25 th 2009, 11.00 AM, eight human cases of swine influenza A virus infection have been identified in the United States in California and Texas. There is also established evidence of similar cases across the United States border in Mexico. Experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in cooperation with World Health Organization and public health experts from Canada and Mexico are leading an exhaustive investigation to find the source of infection and infected people. We present a profile of this illness from the available literature.
Pereira, Pâmela A. M.; Sampaio, Silvio C.; Reis, Ralpho R. dos; Rosa, Danielle M.; Correa, Marcus M.
ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles), on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 1...
Mejicanos, G.; Sanjayan, N.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.
Abstract Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances i...
swine for uncontrolled hemor- rhage has been the open (midline) laparotomy facilitating organ injury (most commonly a liver crush or spleen incision...Maryland; and Academic Department Military Surgery and Trauma (J.J.M.), Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham; and Academic Unit of Surgery ...reapproximated using staples. Surgery The swine that did not receive a splenectomy underwent laparoscopic port placement using a Hassan technique, which
García-Sánchez, Liliana; Garzón-Zúñiga, Marco Antonio; Buelna, Gerardo; Moeller-Chávez, Gabriela Eleonora; Noyola, Adalberto; Avilez-Flores, Martha; Estrada-Arriaga, Edson B
This study determined a tylosin concentration in swine wastewater located in a Mexican pig farm, during different stages of the pigs' growth. The detection of antibiotics in swine wastewater is complex due to its high concentration of solids. Analytical method was developed for detection of tylosin in swine wastewater and swine slurry. Average recoveries of tylosin in the liquid and solid phase were greater than 51 and 44%, respectively, with a greater total recovery of 95%. The results indicated the presence of tylosin in swine wastewater and slurry at concentrations greater than the ones reported in the literature. In grab samples of swine wastewater, the tylosin detected showed concentrations of 56, 72 and 8.6 μg L(-1), in breeding-gestation, nursery pigs, and grow-finishing area, respectively. In composite samples, the concentration of tylosin was 11.8 μg L(-1) for the breeding-gestation area and 2.4 μg L(-1) for the grow-finishing area. For slurry, the concentration of tylosin was 20.6 and 17.8 μg L(-1), for the breeding-gestation and grow-finishing area, respectively. This study presents the detection of a high concentration of tylosin in breeding-gestation and nursery pigs. Traces of tylosin in wastewater from grow-finishing stage were found although the animals were not receiving antibiotics.
... the origin, history, and health status of the swine; the lack of satisfactory information necessary to..., National Center for Import-Export, 4700 River Road Unit 38, Riverdale, Maryland 20737-1231. (B) The...
Bergeron, Nadia; Corriveau, Jonathan; Letellier, Ann; Daigle, France; Quessy, Sylvain
Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently isolated from pigs and may also cause enteric disease in humans. In this study, 33 isolates of S. Typhimurium associated with septicemia in swine (CS) were compared to 33 isolates recovered from healthy animals at slaughter (WCS). The isolates were characterized using phenotyping and genotyping methods. For each isolate, the phage type, antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) DNA profiles were determined. In addition, the protein profiles of each isolate grown in different conditions were studied by Coomassie Blue-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot. Various phage types were identified. The phage type PT 104 represented 36.4% of all isolates from septicemic pigs. Resistance to as many as 12 antimicrobial agents, including some natural resistances, was found in isolates from CS and WCS. Many genetic profiles were identified among the PT 104 phage types. Although it was not possible to associate one particular protein with septicemic isolates, several highly immunogenic proteins, present in all virulent isolates and in most isolates from clinically healthy animals, were identified. These results indicated that strains associated with septicemia belong to various genetic lineages that can also be recovered from asymptomatic animals at the time of slaughter. PMID:20357952
Tchilian, Elma; Holzer, Barbara
Influenza A virus infections are a global health threat to humans and are endemic in pigs, contributing to decreased weight gain and suboptimal reproductive performance. Pigs are also a source of new viruses of mixed swine, avian, and human origin, potentially capable of initiating human pandemics. Current inactivated vaccines induce neutralising antibody against the immunising strain but rapid escape occurs through antigenic drift of the surface glycoproteins. However, it is known that prior infection provides a degree of cross-protective immunity mediated by cellular immune mechanisms directed at the more conserved internal viral proteins. Here we review new data that emphasises the importance of local immunity in cross-protection and the role of the recently defined tissue-resident memory T cells, as well as locally-produced, and sometimes cross-reactive, antibody. Optimal induction of local immunity may require aerosol delivery of live vaccines, but it remains unclear how long protective local immunity persists. Nevertheless, a universal vaccine might be extremely useful for disease prevention in the face of a pandemic. As a natural host for influenza A viruses, pigs are both a target for a universal vaccine and an excellent model for developing human influenza vaccines.
Franciele Maboni Siqueira
Full Text Available The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale.
Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo
The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale. PMID:25333523
Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV are members of the family Suidae, i.e. Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0<1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.
Full Text Available The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS conducts weekly surveillance of slaughter condemnation rates to provide early warning for emerging diseases and to monitor health trends in swine. Swine deaths in-transit are an animal welfare concern and represent lost revenue for the swine industry. This retrospective observational study used ambient temperature and humidity data from weather stations near United States slaughter plants collected from 2010 to 2015 to predict the incidence and risk of death among swine in-transit and just prior to slaughter. The risk of death for market swine at a heat index (HI, which combines the effects of temperature and humidity, indicating moderately hot weather conditions between 85 and 92°F was 1.37 times greater than that of the baseline temperature range of 54–79°F. The risk of death for cull sows at an HI between 85 and 92°F was 1.93 times greater than that of average temperatures ranging from 54 to 79°F. Roaster swine (weigh < 220 lbs and often used for whole carcass roasting, however, had 0.80 times the risk when the HI was 85–92°F compared to a baseline temperature of 54–79°F. The risk of death for roaster swine at a minimum temperature between 40 and 50°F was 1.21 times greater than that of average temperatures ranging from 54 to 79°F. The risk of death for market swine at a minimum temperature range of 40–50°F was 0.97 times that of average temperatures ranging from 54 to 79°F. And for cull sows, the risk of death at a minimum temperature range of 40–50°F was 0.81 times the risk at the average temperature ranging from 54 to 79°F. Across the study period, cumulative foregone revenue, or revenue not realized due to swine condemnations, for all swine was $18.6 million and $4.3 million for cold temperatures and high HI ranges above the baseline, respectively. Marginal foregone revenue per hog in hotter months is higher due
Serrano-García, E; Castrejón-Pineda, F; Herradora-Lozano, M A; Ramírez-Pérez, A H; Angeles-Campos, S; Buntinx, S E
The survival of several genera of fungi was determined in the ensiled solid fraction of swine faeces after 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days of ensiling. The experiment had two treatments, un-ensiled and ensiled manure, in a split-plot design. The manure was distributed into 50 containers; samples, taken at the specified times, were cultured in agar potato dextrose medium, incubated, and colony forming units (CFU/g) were counted and log-transformed. The ensiling process decreased the number of CFU after 56 days. Five fungal genera were identified (Absidia spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and non-fructiferous fungi), and their vulnerability to the ensiling conditions varied, although most of them slowed their growth or disappeared after 14 days of ensiling.
Full Text Available Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively. Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest to 5 (highest. Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR. Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF, Enzootic Pneumonia (EP, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS, as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers
Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis
Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and
Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis
Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and
Bearson, Bradley L; Bearson, Shawn M D
The pathogenic potential of Salmonella is determined during the complex interaction between pathogen and host, requiring optimal regulation of multiple bacterial genetic systems within variable in vivo environments. The mouse model of systemic disease has been an extremely productive model to investigate the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Although the mouse model is a widely used paradigm for studying the pathogenesis of systemic disease caused by Salmonella, investigations concerning food safety interventions should employ natural hosts to examine gastrointestinal colonization by Salmonella. Recent research has demonstrated specific differences in the attenuation of certain S. Typhimurium mutants in mice compared to swine. This variation in pathogenesis between the mouse model and pigs for the S. Typhimurium mutants is presumably dependent upon either the requirements for specific gene products during systemic disease (mouse) versus gastrointestinal colonization (pig) or host specific differences. In addition, host specific diversity in Salmonella colonization of swine has also been described in comparison to other food-producing animals, including cattle and chickens. Differences in Salmonella colonization and pathogenesis across diverse animal species highlight the importance of species-specific studies of gastrointestinal colonization for the development of Salmonella interventions to enhance pork safety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bottoms, Kate; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Deardon, Rob; Alsop, Janet; Dewey, Cate
Risk-based surveillance is becoming increasingly important in the veterinary and public health fields. It serves as a means of increasing surveillance sensitivity and improving cost-effectiveness in an increasingly resource-limited environment. Our approach for developing a tool for the risk-based geographical surveillance of contagious diseases of swine incorporates information about animal density and external biosecurity practices within swine herds in southern Ontario. The objectives of this study were to group the sample of herds into discrete biosecurity groups, to develop a map of southern Ontario that can be used as a tool in the risk-based geographical surveillance of contagious swine diseases, and to identify significant predictors of biosecurity group membership. A subset of external biosecurity variables was selected for 2-step cluster analysis and latent class analysis (LCA). It was determined that 4 was the best number of groups to describe the data, using both analytical approaches. The authors named these groups: i) high biosecurity herds that were open with respect to replacement animals; ii) high biosecurity herds that were closed with respect to replacement animals; iii) moderate biosecurity herds; and iv) low biosecurity herds. The risk map was developed using information about the geographic distribution of herds in the biosecurity groups, as well as the density of swine sites and of grower-finisher pigs in the study region. Finally, multinomial logistic regression identified heat production units (HPUs), number of incoming pig shipments per month, and herd type as significant predictors of biosecurity group membership. It was concluded that the ability to identify areas of high and low risk for disease may improve the success of surveillance and eradication projects.
McCluskey, Brian J; Haley, Charles; Rovira, Albert; Main, Rodger; Zhang, Yan; Barder, Sunny
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the United States (US) in February 2014. This was the second novel swine enteric coronavirus detected in the US since May 2013. In this study, we conducted retrospective testing of samples submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories where qualifying biological samples were derived from previously submitted diagnostic case submissions from US commercial swine farms with a clinical history of enteric disease or from cases that had been previously tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus, PEDV, or rotavirus. Overall, 2286 banked samples were tested from 27 States. Samples were collected in 3 separate years and in 17 different months. Test results revealed 4 positive samples, 3 collected in August 2013 and 1 collected in October 2013. In addition, a case series including 42 operations in 10 States was conducted through administration of a survey. Survey data collected included information on characteristics of swine operations that had experienced PDCoV clinical signs. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining descriptive estimates of biosecurity practices and disease status over time of each operation. Clinical signs of PDCoV were reported to be similar to those of PEDV. The average number of animals on each operation exhibiting clinical signs (morbidity) and the average number of case fatalities was greatest for suckling and weaned pigs. Average operation-level weaned pig morbidity was greatest in the first week of the outbreak while average operation-level suckling pig case fatality was greatest in the second week of the outbreak. The survey included questions regarding biosecurity practices for visitors and operation employees; trucks, equipment and drivers; and feed sources. These questions attempted to identify a likely pathway of introduction of PDCoV onto the operations surveyed. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Khatri, Mahesh; Chattha, Kuldeep S
In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of epithelial stem-like cells from the swine umbilical cord and their susceptibility to influenza virus infection. Swine umbilical cord epithelial stem cells (SUCECs) expressed stem cell and pluripotency associated markers such as SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA 1-60 and TRA 1-81 and Oct4. Morphologically, cells displayed polygonal morphology and were found to express epithelial markers; pancytokeratin, cytokeratin-18 and occludin; mesenchymal cell markers CD44, CD90 and haematopoietic cell marker CD45 were not detected on these cells. The cells had extensive proliferation and self- renewal properties. The cells also possessed immunomodulatory activity and inhibited the proliferation of T cells. Also, higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were detected in SUCEC-T cell co-cultures. The cells were multipotent and differentiated into lung epithelial cells when cultured in epithelial differentiation media. We also examined if SUCECs are susceptible to infection with influenza virus. SUCECs expressed sialic acid receptors, used by influenza virus for binding to cells. The 2009 pandemic influenza virus and swine influenza virus replicated in these cells. SUCECs due to their differentiation and immunoregulatory properties will be useful as cellular therapy in a pig model for human diseases. Additionally, our data indicate that influenza virus can infect SUCECs and may transmit influenza virus from mother to fetus through umbilical cord and transplantation of influenza virus-infected stem cells may transmit infection to recipients. Therefore, we propose that umbilical cord cells, in addition to other agents, should also be tested for influenza virus before cryopreservation for future use as a cell therapy for disease conditions.
Castrucci, Maria R; Facchini, Marzia; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Garulli, Bruno; Sciaraffia, Ester; Meola, Monica; Fabiani, Concetta; De Marco, Maria A; Cordioli, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Donatelli, Isabella
To examine cross-reactivity between hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/California/7/09 (CA/09) virus and that derived from representative Eurasian "avian-like" (EA) H1N1 swine viruses isolated in Italy between 1999 and 2008 during virological surveillance in pigs. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the HA gene of CA/09 virus (MVA-HA-CA/09) was used as a vaccine to investigate cross-protective immunity against H1N1 swine viruses in mice. Two classical swine H1N1 (CS) viruses and four representative EA-like H1N1 swine viruses previously isolated during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pigs on farms in Northern Italy were used in this study. Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MVA/HA/CA/09 and then challenged intranasally with H1N1 swine viruses. Cross-reactive antibody responses were determined by hemagglutination- inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralizing (MN) assays of sera from MVA-vaccinated mice. The extent of protective immunity against infection with H1N1 swine viruses was determined by measuring lung viral load on days 2 and 4 post-challenge. Systemic immunization of mice with CA/09-derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross-protective immunity against recent EA-like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross-reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA-like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. © 2013 The Authors Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...
Om Prakash Rajoura
Full Text Available Background: Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. Understanding the role of specific perceptions in motivating people to engage in precautionary behavior may help health communicators to improve their messages about outbreaks of new infectious disease generally and swine flu specifically. Objectives: To study the knowledge and practices of health care providers regarding swine flu and to study the attitudes and practices of health care providers toward the prevention of the swine flu epidemic. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional (descriptive study and was conducted in the month of September, 2009, among doctors and nurses. A maximum of 40% of the total health care providers of GTB Hospital were covered because of feasibility and logistics, and, therefore, the sample size was 334. Results: Around 75% of the health care providers were aware about the symptoms of swine flu. Mostly, all study subjects were aware that it is transmitted through droplet infection. Correct knowledge of the incubation period of swine flu was known to 80% of the doctors and 69% of the nurses. Knowledge about high-risk groups (contacts, travelers, health care providers was observed among 88% of the doctors and 78.8% of the nurses. Practice of wearing mask during duty hours was observed among 82.6% of doctors and 85% of nurses, whereas of the total study population, only 40% were correctly using mask during duty hours. Conclusions: Significant gaps observed between knowledge and actual practice of the Health Care Provider regarding swine flu need to be filled by appropriate training. Data indicate that the health care providers are very intellectual, but they do not themselves practice what they preach.
Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Willenborg, Jörg
Use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is essential to control infectious diseases, thereby keeping animals healthy and animal products safe for the consumer. On the other hand, development and spread of antimicrobial resistance is of major concern for public health. Streptococcus (S.) suis reflects a typical bacterial pathogen in modern swine production due to its facultative pathogenic nature and wide spread in the pig population. Thus, in the present review we focus on certain current aspects and problems related to antimicrobial use and resistance in S. suis as a paradigm for a bacterial pathogen affecting swine husbandry worldwide. The review includes (i) general aspects of antimicrobial use and resistance in veterinary medicine with emphasis on swine, (ii) genetic resistance mechanisms of S. suis known to contribute to bacterial survival under antibiotic selection pressure, and (iii) possible other factors which may contribute to problems in antimicrobial therapy of S. suis infections, such as bacterial persister cell formation, biofilm production, and co-infections. The latter shows that we hardly understand the complexity of factors affecting the success of antimicrobial treatment of (porcine) infectious diseases and underlines the need for further research in this field.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour provided the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Three hundred and sixty two adults from the UK, who were not in vaccination priority groups, completed either an online (n = 306 or pen and paper (n = 56 questionnaire. Data were collected from 30th October 2009, just after swine flu vaccination became available in the UK, and concluded on 31st December 2009. The main outcome of interest was future swine flu vaccination intentions. Results The extended Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted 60% of adults' intention to have a swine flu vaccination with attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, anticipating feelings of regret (the impact of missing a vaccination opportunity, intention to have a seasonal vaccine this year, one perceived barrier: "I cannot be bothered to get a swine flu vaccination" and two perceived benefits: "vaccination decreases my chance of getting swine flu or its complications" and "if I get vaccinated for swine flu, I will decrease the frequency of having to consult my doctor," being significant predictors of intention. Black British were less likely to intend to have a vaccination compared to Asian or White respondents. Conclusions Theoretical frameworks which identify determinants that influence decisions to have a pandemic influenza vaccination are useful. The implications of this research are discussed with a view to maximising any future pandemic influenza vaccination uptake using theoretically-driven applications.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage... Provisions § 166.3 Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. (a) Access by swine to garbage handling and treatment areas shall be prevented by construction of facilities to exclude all ages...
In Southern France, the regression of swine farms and swine is ongoing. It involves reorientation of socio-professional networks, especially the farmers’ cooperatives. For understanding the various ways of maintaining swine production under the regressive circumstances, we focus on the farmers’
Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe
Objective-To evaluate changes in antimicrobial consumption and productivity by Danish swine farms during 1992 to 2008. Sample Population-All Danish swine farms for antimicrobial consumption data and a representative sample of Danish swine herds for productivity data. Procedures-Antimicrobial cons...
Abstract. The world has suffered the pandemics due to swine flu in the past. The present epidemic in India has claimed many lives. Even, after the first outbreak of swine flu in 2009 no concrete efforts are done to prevent this infection. There is an urgent need to take radical steps to prevent such epidemics. Key words: Swine ...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...
The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span ~1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 Mb, respectively, making the swi...
Fernandez de Castro, Juan P; Scott, Patrick A; Fransen, James W; Demas, James; DeMarco, Paul J; Kaplan, Henry J; McCall, Maureen A
Human and swine retinas have morphological and functional similarities. In the absence of primate models, the swine is an attractive model to study retinal function and disease, with its cone-rich visual streak, our ability to manipulate their genome, and the differences in susceptibility of rod and cone photoreceptors to disease. We characterized the normal development of cone function and its subsequent decline in a P23H rhodopsin transgenic (TgP23H) miniswine model of autosomal dominant RP. Semen from TgP23H miniswine 53-1 inseminated domestic swine and produced TgP23H and Wt hybrid littermates. Retinal function was evaluated using ERGs between postnatal days (P) 14 and 120. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) responses were recorded to full-field stimuli at several intensities. Retinal morphology was assessed using light and electron microscopy. Scotopic retinal function matures in Wt pigs up to P60, but never develops in TgP23H pigs. Wt and TgP23H photopic vision matures similarly up to P30 and diverges at P60 where TgP23H cone vision declines. There are fewer TgP23H RGCs with visually evoked responses at all ages and their response to light is compromised. Photoreceptor morphological changes mirror these functional changes. Lack of early scotopic function in TgP23H swine suggests it as a model of an aggressive form of RP. In this mammalian model of RP, normal cone function develops independent of rod function. Therefore, its retina represents a system in which therapies to rescue cones can be developed to prolong photopic visual function in RP patients.
Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a complex disease of swine, caused by a large DNA virus belonging to the family Asfarviridae. The disease shows variable clinical signs, with high case fatality rates, up to 100%, in the acute forms. ASF is currently present in Africa and Europe where it circulates in different scenarios causing a high socio-economic impact. In most affected regions, control has not been effective in part due to lack of a vaccine. The availability of an effective and safe ASFV vaccines would support and enforce control–eradication strategies. Therefore, work leading to the rational development of protective ASF vaccines is a high priority. Several factors have hindered vaccine development, including the complexity of the ASF virus particle and the large number of proteins encoded by its genome. Many of these virus proteins inhibit the host’s immune system thus facilitating virus replication and persistence. We review previous work aimed at understanding ASFV–host interactions, including mechanisms of protective immunity, and approaches for vaccine development. These include live attenuated vaccines, and “subunit” vaccines, based on DNA, proteins, or virus vectors. In the shorter to medium term, live attenuated vaccines are the most promising and best positioned candidates. Gaps and future research directions are evaluated.
Blome, Sandra; Gabriel, Claudia; Beer, Martin
The use of vaccines is still one of the most effective tools to control infectious diseases. Up to now, conventional vaccines are employed in the majority of cases. Drawbacks of these established vaccines include the lack of differentiability of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA or marker strategy), limitations in the efficacy spectrum, and constraints and restrictions in production. For this reason, new vaccines, which do not show these disadvantages, are under development, especially for notifiable diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF). In principle, the following modern vaccine types can be differentiated: recombinant attenuated vaccines, recombinant inactivated vaccines or subunit vaccines, vector vaccines, and DNA/ RNA vaccines. During the last years, especially attenuated deletion vaccines or chimeric constructs have shown potential. Under field conditions, all marker vaccines have to be accompanied by a potent test system. Particularly this point often shows weaknesses. Alternative vaccine candidates are so far only prototypes and licensing is only a medium term possibility. Moreover, most of these vaccines are genetically engineered and can be problematic in terms of licensing and the public's acceptance. In conclusion, conventional vaccines still present the standard, especially in terms of efficacy. Yet, only vaccines with DIVA properties are feasible for the control of CSF. Thus, development and assessment of alternative vaccines is of paramount importance. The present overview summarizes concepts and vaccine types using the example of classical swine fever. It also recapitulates their advantages and disadvantages as well as their limitations.
Patterson, Sheila K; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Borewicz, Klaudyna; Isaacson, Richard E
Salmonella enterica is an important food borne pathogen that is frequently carried by swine. Carrier animals pose a food safety risk because they can transmit S. enterica to finished food products in the processing plant or by contamination of the environment. Environmental contamination has become increasingly important as non-animal foods (plant-based) have been implicated as sources of S. enterica. The prevalence of S. enterica in swine is high and yet carrier animals remain healthy. S. enterica has developed a highly sophisticated set of virulence factors that allow it to adapt to host environments and to cause disease. It is assumed that S. enterica also has developed unique ways to maintain itself in animals and yet not cause disease. Here we describe our research to understand persistence. Specifically, data are presented that demonstrates that detection of most carrier animals requires specific stresses that cause S. enterica to be shed from pigs. As well, we describe a phenotypic phase variation process that appears to be linked to the carrier state and a complex set of factors that control phenotypic phase variation. Finally, we describe how the composition of the gut bacterial microbiome may contribute to persistence and at the least how S. enterica might alter the composition of the gut bacterial microbiome.
Atuhaire, David Kalenzi; Afayoa, Mathias; Ochwo, Sylvester; Mwesigwa, Savannah; Mwiine, Frank Norbert; Okuni, Julius Boniface; Olaho-Mukani, William; Ojok, Lonzy
African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease which can cause up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs leading to serious socio-economic impact on people's livelihoods. ASF is endemic in Uganda and there is paucity of information on the epidemiology of the disease. The major aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in apparently healthy slaughter pigs at Wambizi slaughterhouse in Kampala city, Uganda. We also estimated the presence of ASFV antibodies and circulating viral antigens in pigs from selected districts of Uganda during targeted surveillance. We analysed 540 and 181 blood samples collected from slaughter pigs and pigs from targeted surveillance districts respectively. The prevalence of ASFV in slaughter pigs was 52.96% (95% CI, 48.75-57.14) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.06-14.45) by ELISA and PCR respectively. In surveillance districts, the proportion of ASFV positive pigs was 53.59% (95% CI, 46.33-60.71) and 0.55% (95% CI, 0.1-3.06) by ELISA and PCR respectively. The study has found out a high seroprevalence of ASFV antibodies in apparently healthy slaughter pigs and also a high proportion of ASFV antibody seropositive pigs in surveyed districts in Uganda indicating exposure to ASFV. However, there was a lower prevalence of ASFV infection implying that there could be low virulent strains of ASFV circulating in domestic pigs in Uganda which requires further investigation.
Full Text Available Relata-se a disseminação da infeção pelo vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA a partir da comercialização de reprodutores suínos oriundos de duas granjas de reprodutores suídeos certificada (GRSC que tiveram surto da DA. Após a confirmação do diagnóstico de DA, os suínos comercializados 37 a 45 dias anteriores aos surtos foram recolhidos, submetidos ao exame sorológico para o VDA e enviados ao abate. Nos rebanhos-destino foram realizados exames sorológicos para o VDA 17 a 37 dias após o recolhimento, naqueles que estavam lojados nas baias vizinhas àquelas onde haviam sido alojados os suínos comprados; seis meses mais tarde, foi realizada outra sorologia por amostragem dos reprodutores. No total, 52 rebanhos compraram suínos das duas granjas, e, destes, 37 (69,8% receberam, pelo menos, um animal com sorologia positiva para o VDA. Somente sete (18,9% deles apresentaram sorologia positiva para o VDA, e em 30 (81,1%, não houve indícios de disseminação da infecção. A contaminação pelo VDA de granjas GRSC representa enorme potencial para a disseminação da infecção, por meio do comércio de suínos de reposição. A rastreabilidade dos animais comercializados em um período anterior ao diagnóstico, com imediata remoção dos lotes de suínos dos rebanhos-destino, evitou a disseminação da infecção.It was reported the spreading of the infection caused by the virus of Aujesky's disease (VAD by the commercialization of breeders originated from two pigs farms GRSC (Farms of Certified Swine Breeders - FCSB which had an outbreak of Aujeszky's disease. After the positive diagnosis of Aujesky's disease, the pigs traded from 37 to 45 day before the outbreaks were removed from the herd, bled for serological exams for the VAD and sent to slaughterhouses. The herds which received these pigs were serologically tested for the VAD, 17 to 37 days after the removal of the animals. Serological tests were also performed in pigs lodged at
Erickson, A; Fisher, M; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Ambagala, A; Hodko, D; Pasick, J; King, D P; Nfon, C; Ortega Polo, R; Lung, O
Microarray technology can be useful for pathogen detection as it allows simultaneous interrogation of the presence or absence of a large number of genetic signatures. However, most microarray assays are labour-intensive and time-consuming to perform. This study describes the development and initial evaluation of a multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and novel accompanying automated electronic microarray assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven important viruses that affect swine (foot-and-mouth disease virus [FMDV], swine vesicular disease virus [SVDV], vesicular exanthema of swine virus [VESV], African swine fever virus [ASFV], classical swine fever virus [CSFV], porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus [PRRSV] and porcine circovirus type 2 [PCV2]). The novel electronic microarray assay utilizes a single, user-friendly instrument that integrates and automates capture probe printing, hybridization, washing and reporting on a disposable electronic microarray cartridge with 400 features. This assay accurately detected and identified a total of 68 isolates of the seven targeted virus species including 23 samples of FMDV, representing all seven serotypes, and 10 CSFV strains, representing all three genotypes. The assay successfully detected viruses in clinical samples from the field, experimentally infected animals (as early as 1 day post-infection (dpi) for FMDV and SVDV, 4 dpi for ASFV, 5 dpi for CSFV), as well as in biological material that were spiked with target viruses. The limit of detection was 10 copies/μl for ASFV, PCV2 and PRRSV, 100 copies/μl for SVDV, CSFV, VESV and 1,000 copies/μl for FMDV. The electronic microarray component had reduced analytical sensitivity for several of the target viruses when compared with the multiplex RT-PCR. The integration of capture probe printing allows custom onsite array printing as needed, while electrophoretically driven hybridization generates results faster than conventional
Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine farmers repeatedly exposed to the barn air suffer from respiratory diseases. However the mechanisms of lung dysfunction following repeated exposures to the barn air are still largely unknown. Therefore, we tested a hypothesis in a rat model that multiple interrupted exposures to the barn air will cause chronic lung inflammation and decline in lung function. Methods Rats were exposed either to swine barn (8 hours/day for either one or five or 20 days or ambient air. After the exposure periods, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR to methacholine (Mch was measured and rats were euthanized to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, blood and lung tissues. Barn air was sampled to determine endotoxin levels and microbial load. Results The air in the barn used in this study had a very high concentration of endotoxin (15361.75 ± 7712.16 EU/m3. Rats exposed to barn air for one and five days showed increase in AHR compared to the 20-day exposed and controls. Lungs from the exposed groups were inflamed as indicated by recruitment of neutrophils in all three exposed groups and eosinophils and an increase in numbers of airway epithelial goblet cells in 5- and 20-day exposure groups. Rats exposed to the barn air for one day or 20 days had more total leukocytes in the BALF and 20-day exposed rats had more airway epithelial goblet cells compared to the controls and those subjected to 1 and 5 exposures (P Conclusion We conclude that multiple exposures to endotoxin-containing swine barn air induce AHR, increase in mucus-containing airway epithelial cells and lung inflammation. The data also show that prolonged multiple exposures may also induce adaptation in AHR response in the exposed subjects.
Full Text Available Antibiotics are used in livestock and poultry production to treat and prevent disease as well as to promote animal growth. Carbadox is an in-feed antibiotic that is widely used in swine production to prevent dysentery and to improve feed efficiency. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of carbadox and its withdrawal on the swine gut microbiota. Six pigs (initially 3-weeks old received feed containing carbadox and six received unamended feed. After 3-weeks of continuous carbadox administration, all pigs were switched to a maintenance diet without carbadox. DNA was extracted from feces (n=142 taken before, during, and following (6-week withdrawal carbadox treatment. Phylotype analysis using 16S rRNA sequences showed the gradual development of the non-medicated swine gut microbiota over the 8-week study, and that the carbadox-treated pigs had significant differences in bacterial membership relative to non-medicated pigs. Enumeration of fecal Escherichia coli showed that a diet change concurrent with carbadox withdrawal was associated with an increase in the E. coli in the non-medicated pigs, suggesting that carbadox pretreatment prevented an increase of E. coli populations. In-feed carbadox caused striking effects within four days of administration, with significant alterations in both community structure and bacterial membership, notably a large relative increase in Prevotella populations in medicated pigs. Digital PCR was used to show that the absolute abundance of Prevotella was unchanged between the medicated and non-medicated pigs despite the relative increase shown in the phylotype analysis. Carbadox therefore caused a decrease in the abundance of other gut bacteria but did not affect the absolute abundance of Prevotella. The pending regulation on antibiotics used in animal production underscores the importance of understanding how they modulate the microbiota and impact animal health, which will inform the search for
Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis
The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil’s swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009–2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759
Pâmela A. M. Pereira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles, on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 100, 200, 300 m3 ha-1 during the cycle. The effects of the association between mineral fertilization at sowing and swine wastewater were evaluated simultaneously. Swine wastewater at the dose of 100 m3 ha-1 promoted availability and absorption of P, K+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ without causing toxicity to plants or damage to the soil, constituting a viable, low-cost alternative of water reuse and fertilization for farmers. The nutrients N, P, K+ and B must be complemented with mineral fertilization. Special attention should be directed to the accumulation of Zn2+ in the soil along the time of swine wastewater application.
Lichoti, Jacqueline Kasiiti; Davies, Jocelyn; Kitala, Philip M; Githigia, Samuel M; Okoth, Edward; Maru, Yiheyis; Bukachi, Salome A; Bishop, Richard P
Pig movements play a significant role in the spread of economically important infectious diseases such as the African swine fever. Characterization of movement networks between pig farms and through other types of farm and household enterprises that are involved in pig value chains can provide useful information on the role that different participants in the networks play in pathogen transmission. Analysis of social networks that underpin these pig movements can reveal pathways that are important in the transmission of disease, trade in commodities, the dissemination of information and the influence of behavioural norms. We assessed pig movements among pig keeping households within West Kenya and East Uganda and across the shared Kenya-Uganda border in the study region, to gain insight into within-country and trans-boundary pig movements. Villages were sampled using a randomized cluster design. Data were collected through interviews in 2012 and 2013 from 683 smallholder pig-keeping households in 34 villages. NodeXL software was used to describe pig movement networks at village level. The pig movement and trade networks were localized and based on close social networks involving family ties, friendships and relationships with neighbours. Pig movement network modularity ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 and exhibited good community structure within the network implying an easy flow of knowledge and adoption of new attitudes and beliefs, but also promoting an enhanced rate of disease transmission. The average path length of 5 defined using NodeXL, indicated that disease could easily reach every node in a cluster. Cross-border boar service between Uganda and Kenya was also recorded. Unmonitored trade in both directions was prevalent. While most pig transactions in the absence of disease, were at a small scale (10km. The close social relationships between actors in pig movement networks indicate the potential for possible interventions to develop shared norms and mutually accepted
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. This disease has affected most areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible...
Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona
of the reassortant viruses comprised a HA gene similar to H1 of H1N1 avian-like swine influenza virus (SIV) and a NA gene most closely related to N2 gene of human H3N2 influenza virus that circulated in humans in the mid 1990s. The internal genes of this reassortant virus with the subtype H1avN2hu all belonged...... to the H1N1 avian-like SIV lineages. Until now this novel virus H1avN2hu has only been detected in Danish swine. The other novel reassortant virus contained the HA gene from H1N1pdm09 virus and a NA gene similar to the N2 gene of H3N2 SIV that have been circulating in European swine since the mid 1980s...
Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS causes far-reaching financial losses to infected countries and regions, including the U.S. The Dr. Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Program (MSHMP is a voluntary initiative in which producers and veterinarians share sow farm PRRS status weekly to contribute to the understanding, in quantitative terms, of PRRS epidemiological dynamics and, ultimately, to support its control in the U.S. Here, we offer a review of a variety of analytic tools that were applied to MSHMP data to assess disease dynamics in quantitative terms to support the decision-making process for veterinarians and producers. Use of those methods has helped the U.S. swine industry to quantify the cyclical patterns of PRRS, to describe the impact that emerging pathogens has had on that pattern, to identify the nature and extent at which environmental factors (e.g., precipitation or land cover influence PRRS risk, to identify PRRS virus emerging strains, and to assess the influence that voluntary reporting has on disease control. Results from the numerous studies reviewed here provide important insights into PRRS epidemiology that help to create the foundations for a near real-time prediction of disease risk, and, ultimately, will contribute to support the prevention and control of, arguably, one of the most devastating diseases affecting the North American swine industry. The review also demonstrates how different approaches to analyze and visualize the data may help to add value to the routine collection of surveillance data and support infectious animal disease control.
Mackie, R.I.; Koike, S.; Krapac, I.; Chee-Sanford, J.; Maxwell, Susan; Aminov, R.I.
Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to treat disease; at slightly lower levels as prophylactics; and at low, subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. Over 88% of swine producers in the United States gave antimicrobials to grower/finisher pigs in feed as a growth promoter in 2000. It is estimated that ca. 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in urine and feces. The extensive use of antibiotics in swine production has resulted in antibiotic resistance in many intestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in swine feces, resulting in dissemination of resistance genes into the environment.To assess the impact of manure management on groundwater quality, groundwater samples have been collected near two swine confinement facilities that use lagoons for manure storage and treatment. Several key contaminant indicators-including inorganic ions, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance genes-were analyzed in groundwater collected from the monitoring wells. Chloride, ammonium, potassium, and sodium were predominant inorganic constituents in the manure samples and served as indicators of groundwater contamination. Based on these analyses, shallow groundwater has been impacted by lagoon seepage at both sites. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) was used to measure the dissolved concentrations of tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in groundwater and manure. Although tetracyclines were regularly used at both facilities, they were infrequently detected in manure samples and then at relatively trace concentrations. Concentrations of all tetracyclines and their breakdown products in the groundwater sampled were generally less than 0.5 ??g/L.Bacterial tetracycline resistance genes served as distinct genotypic markers to indicate the dissemination and mobility of antibiotic resistance genes that originated from the lagoons. Applying PCR to genomic DNA extracted from the lagoon and
Rout, M; Saikumar, G
Classical swine fever (CSF) is an endemic disease in India, but the real magnitude of the problem is not known as only outbreaks of acute CSF are reported and many cases of chronic and clinically inapparent forms of the disease, which manifest a confusing clinical picture, remain undiagnosed. The real status of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection can only be known by testing pigs with highly specific and sensitive diagnostic assays. To obtain the baseline prevalence of CSFV infection among pigs in an endemic region where no vaccination was being performed, a real-time PCR assay was used to detect viral genetic material in tissue samples collected from a slaughterhouse in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh in India. In total, 1120 slaughtered pigs were examined for the presence of CSF suggestive pathological lesions and tissues from suspected cases were tested for the presence of CSFV antigen and nucleic acids by indirect immuno-peroxidase test and real-time PCR, respectively. Based on the detection of viral genetic material in the tonsils, the prevalence of CSFV infection among slaughtered pigs was found to be 7.67%. Pigs detected positive for viral genome by quantitative real-time PCR assay when categorized into different forms of CSF, depending upon the pathological lesions observed, the viral load in the tonsils of some of the pigs with chronic or clinically inapparent form of the disease was similar to that detected in pigs with acute CSF. The results of the study suggested that the risk posed by pigs with chronic disease or those infected but showing no clinical disease may be relatively higher as they can transmit the virus to new susceptible hosts over a longer period of time. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Shengfa F. Liao
Full Text Available To maintain a healthy gut is definitely key for a pig to digest and absorb dietary nutrients efficiently. A balanced microbiota (i.e., a healthy micro-ecosystem is an indispensable constituent of a healthy gut. Probiotics, the live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer good health benefits onto the host, are a category of feed additives that can be used to replenish the gut microbial population while recuperating the host immune system. Besides their antitoxin and diarrhea reduction effects, dietary supplementation of probiotics can improve gut health, nutrient digestibilities and, therefore, benefit nutrient utilization and growth performance of pigs. Current knowledge in the literature pertinent to the beneficial effects of utilizing various probiotics for swine production has been comprehensively reviewed, and the safety and the risk issues related to probiotic usage have also been discussed in this paper. Considering that the foremost cost in a swine operation is feed cost, feed efficiency holds a very special, if not the paramount, significance in commercial swine production. Globally, the swine industry along with other animal industries is moving towards restricting and eventually a total ban on the usage of antibiotic growth promoters. Therefore, selection of an ideal alternative to the in-feed antibiotics to compensate for the lost benefits due to the ban on the antibiotic usage is urgently needed to support the industry for profitable and sustainable swine production. As is understood, a decision on this selection is not easy to make. Thus, this review paper aims to provide some much needed up-to-date knowledge and comprehensive references for swine nutritionists and producers to refer to before making prudent decisions and for scientists and researchers to develop better commercial products.
Cheng, Chih-Yuan; Wu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Guang-Jan; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Huang, Chienjin
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection is a severe swine disease, often causing large economic losses. A Pichia pastoris yeast-expressed CSFV glycoprotein E2 (yE2) has been shown to induce a protective immune response against the virus. To improve the expression level of yE2, the first codon of E2 gene, Arg (CGG), which is the least used in P. pastoris, was optimized to the most favorite codon AGA. The yield of E2 protein was remarkably increased in the codon optimized strain (N342). Three truncated E2 subunits encoding the N-terminal 330 (N330), 301 (N301), and 190 (N190) residues, respectively, were also constructed. The immunogenicity of each recombinant E2 subunits was confirmed by immunization of pigs, and all immunized groups demonstrated high neutralizing antibody titers after boost immunization, which lasted for a long period of time. In addition, a monoclonal antibody (MAb), 1B6, specific to yE2, was generated and shown to recognize CSFV-infected cells. A panel of swine sera were tested by peroxidase-conjugated MAb 1B6-based blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using N330 as coated antigen, and the assay demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. The recombinant yE2 subunits may provide potential subunit vaccine candidates and useful diagnostic reagents for CSFV with easy manipulation and low cost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith Paul F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic data collected during epidemics in the western United States combined with limited experimental studies involving swine and cattle suggest that host predilection of epidemic vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV strains results in variations in clinical response, extent and duration of virus shedding and transmissibility following infection in different hosts. Laboratory challenge of livestock with heterologous VSNJV strains to investigate potential viral predilections for these hosts has not been thoroughly investigated. In separate trials, homologous VSNJV strains (NJ82COB and NJ82AZB, and heterologous strains (NJ06WYE and NJOSF [Ossabaw Island, sand fly] were inoculated into cattle via infected black fly bite. NJ82AZB and NJ06WYE were similarly inoculated into swine. Results Clinical scores among viruses infecting cattle were significantly different and indicated that infection with a homologous virus resulted in more severe clinical presentation and greater extent and duration of viral shedding. No differences in clinical severity or extent and duration of viral shedding were detected in swine. Conclusions Differences in clinical presentation and extent and duration of viral shedding may have direct impacts on viral spread during epidemics. Viral transmission via animal-to-animal contact and insect vectored transmission are likely to occur at higher rates when affected animals are presenting severe clinical signs and shedding high concentrations of virus. More virulent viral strains resulting in more severe disease in livestock hosts are expected to spread more rapidly and greater distances during epidemics than those causing mild or inapparent signs.
Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Berghaus, Roy D; Stallknecht, David E; Mead, Daniel G
Epidemiologic data collected during epidemics in the western United States combined with limited experimental studies involving swine and cattle suggest that host predilection of epidemic vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) strains results in variations in clinical response, extent and duration of virus shedding and transmissibility following infection in different hosts. Laboratory challenge of livestock with heterologous VSNJV strains to investigate potential viral predilections for these hosts has not been thoroughly investigated. In separate trials, homologous VSNJV strains (NJ82COB and NJ82AZB), and heterologous strains (NJ06WYE and NJOSF [Ossabaw Island, sand fly]) were inoculated into cattle via infected black fly bite. NJ82AZB and NJ06WYE were similarly inoculated into swine. Clinical scores among viruses infecting cattle were significantly different and indicated that infection with a homologous virus resulted in more severe clinical presentation and greater extent and duration of viral shedding. No differences in clinical severity or extent and duration of viral shedding were detected in swine. Differences in clinical presentation and extent and duration of viral shedding may have direct impacts on viral spread during epidemics. Viral transmission via animal-to-animal contact and insect vectored transmission are likely to occur at higher rates when affected animals are presenting severe clinical signs and shedding high concentrations of virus. More virulent viral strains resulting in more severe disease in livestock hosts are expected to spread more rapidly and greater distances during epidemics than those causing mild or inapparent signs.
Truong, Quang Lam; Seo, Tae Won; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Han, Jeong Hee; Hahn, Tae-Wook
In 2008, 102 rodents and 24 stray cats from the areas around 9 pig farms in northeast South Korea were used to determine the prevalence of the following selected swine pathogens: ten viral pathogens [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), rotavirus, classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)] and four bacterial pathogens (Brucella, Leptospira, Salmonella and Lawsonia intracellularis). In total, 1,260 tissue samples from 102 rodents and 24 stray cats were examined by specific PCR and RT-PCR assays, including tissue samples of the brain, tonsils, lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, small intestine, large intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes. The percentages of PCR-positive rodents for the porcine pathogens were as follows: 63.7% for Leptospira, 39.2% for Brucella, 6.8% for Salmonella, 15.7% for L. intracellularis, 14.7% for PCV2 and 3.9% for EMCV. The percentages of PCR-positive stray cats for the swine pathogens were as follows: 62.5% for Leptospira, 25% for Brucella, 12.5% for Salmonella, 12.5% for L. intracellularis and 4.2% for PEDV. These results may be helpful for developing control measures to prevent the spread of infectious diseases of pigs.
Lassaletta, Antonio D; Chu, Louis M; Sellke, Frank W
Reoperative cardiac surgery is complicated in part because of extensive adhesions encountered during the second operation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol with and without resveratrol (red wine vs vodka) on postoperative pericardial adhesion formation in a porcine model of hypercholesterolemia and chronic myocardial ischemia. Male Yorkshire swine were fed a high-cholesterol diet to simulate conditions of coronary artery disease followed by surgical placement of an ameroid constrictor to induce chronic ischemia. Postoperatively, control pigs continued their high-cholesterol diet alone, whereas the 2 experimental groups had diets supplemented with red wine or vodka. Seven weeks after ameroid placement, all animals underwent reoperative sternotomy. Compared with controls, pericardial adhesion grade was markedly reduced in the vodka group, whereas there was no difference in the wine group. Intramyocardial fibrosis was significantly reduced in the vodka group compared with controls. There was no difference in expression of proteins involved in focal adhesion formation between any groups (focal adhesion kinase, integrin alpha-5, integrin beta-1, paxillin, vinculin, protein tyrosine kinase 2, protein kinase C ε, and phosphorylated protein kinase C ε). The wine group exhibited elevated C-reactive protein levels versus the control and vodka groups. Postoperative vodka consumption markedly reduced the formation of pericardial adhesions and intramyocardial fibrosis, whereas red wine had no effect. Analysis of protein expression did not reveal any obvious explanation for this phenomenon, suggesting a post-translational effect of alcohol on fibrous tissue deposition. The difference in adhesion formation in the vodka versus wine groups may be due to increased inflammation in the wine group. Copyright Â© 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Lincomycin is commonly used on swine farms for growth promotion as well as disease treatment and control. Consequently, lincomycin may accumulate in the environment adjacent to the swine farms in many ways, thereby influencing antibiotic resistance in the environment. Levels of lincomycin-resistance genes and lincomycin residues in water and soil samples collected from multiple sites near wastewater discharge areas were investigated in this study. Sixteen lincomycin-resistance and 16S rRNA genes were detected using real-time PCR. Three genes, lnu(F, erm(A and erm(B, were detected in all water and soil samples except control samples. Lincomycin residues were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with concentrations detected as high as 9.29 ng/mL in water and 0.97 ng/g in soil. A gradual reduction in the levels of lincomycin-resistance genes and lincomycin residues in the waters and soils were detected from multiple sites along the path of wastewater discharging to the surrounding environment from the swine farms. Significant correlations were found between levels of lincomycin-resistance genes in paired water and soil samples (r = 0.885, p = 0.019, and between lincomycin-resistance genes and lincomycin residues (r = 0.975, p < 0.01. This study emphasized the potential risk of dissemination of lincomycin-resistance genes such as lnu(F, erm(A and erm(B, associated with lincomycin residues in surrounding environments adjacent to swine farms.
Rangelova, Desislava Yordanova
a new DIVA vaccine candidate. The vaccine candidate “CP7E2alf” is intended for either intramuscular vaccination of domestic pig or for bait vaccination of wild boar. In this thesis as part of the clinical testing of the injection vaccine the efficacy of “CP7E2alf” was evaluated in young piglets...... that were positive for maternally derived antibodies (MDA). These antibodies were obtained with colostrum from their mothers vaccinated with traditional live attenuated vaccine C-strain (Riems). The promising results concerning the safety and the efficacy of the candidate DIVA vaccine showed new......General purpose and objectives Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease that causes huge economical losses and animal welfare concerns worldwide. Generally, vaccination is an effective and safe method to control the disease. Following vaccination the pig’s immune system develops...
Full Text Available There is no simple method to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR in swine, an established model for studying renal disease. We developed a protocol to measure GFR in conscious swine by using the plasma clearance of iohexol. We used two groups, test and validation, with eight animals each. Ten milliliters of iohexol (6.47 g was injected into the marginal auricular vein and blood samples (3 mL were collected from the orbital sinus at different points after injection. GFR was determined using two models: two-compartment (CL2: all samples and one-compartment (CL1: the last six samples. In the test group, CL1 overestimated CL2 by ~30%: CL2 = 245 ± 93 and CL1 = 308 ± 123 mL/min. This error was corrected by a first-order polynomial quadratic equation to CL1, which was considered the simplified method: SM = −47.909 + (1.176xCL1 − (0.00063968xCL12. The SM showed narrow limits of agreement with CL2, a concordance correlation of 0.97, and a total deviation index of 14.73%. Similar results were obtained for the validation group. This protocol is reliable, reproducible, can be performed in conscious animals, uses a single dose of the marker, and requires a reduced number of samples, and avoids urine collection. Finally, it presents a significant improvement in animal welfare conditions and handling necessities in experimental trials.
Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP is a chronic respiratory disease. Although the pathogenesis of BOOP is still incompletely understood, BOOP is responsive to steroids and has a good prognosis. In our five pigs with chronic postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, typical BOOP lesions were revealed. All five porcine lungs showed typical intraluminal plugs, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 was identified. They also exhibited similar pathologic findings such as proliferation of type II pneumocytes and myofibroblasts (MFBs, extracellular collagen matrix (ECM deposition, and fragmentation of elastic fibers. MFBs migration correlative molecules, for instance, gelatinase A, B and osteopontin, appeared strongly in the progressing marginal area of polypoid intraluminal plugs of fibrotic lesion. These molecules colocalized with the active MFBs. Both gelatinase activity and intercellular level of active MFBs were significantly increased (<.05. Porcine chronic bronchopneumonia leads to BOOP and it is associated with PCV2 persistent infection. Swine BOOP demonstrates similar cellular constituents with human BOOP. Perhaps their molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis operate in a similar way. Thus we infer that the swine BOOP can be considered as a potential animal model for human BOOP associated with natural viral infection. Moreover, it is more convenient to obtain samples.
Ballester, Maria; Rodríguez-Cariño, Carolina; Pérez, Mónica; Gallardo, Carmina; Rodríguez, Javier M.; Salas, María L.; Rodriguez, Fernando
African swine fever virus (ASFV), the causative agent of one of the most devastating swine diseases, has been considered exclusively cytoplasmic, even though some authors have shown evidence of an early stage of nuclear replication. In the present study, an increment of lamin A/C phosphorylation was observed in ASFV-infected cells as early as 4 h postinfection, followed by the disassembling of the lamina network close to the sites where the viral genome starts its replication. At later time points, this and other nuclear envelope markers were found in the cytoplasm of the infected cells. The effect of the infection on the cell nucleus was much more severe than previously expected, since a redistribution of other nuclear proteins, such as RNA polymerase II, the splicing speckle SC-35 marker, and the B-23 nucleolar marker, was observed from 4 h postinfection. All this evidence, together with the redistribution, dephosphorylation, and subsequent degradation of RNA polymerase II after ASFV infection, suggests the existence of sophisticated mechanisms to regulate the nuclear machinery during viral infection. PMID:21680527
Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans and animals. Y. enterocolitica is also the most heterogeneous species of the genus and is divided into distinct serotypes and over six biotypes. Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains are classically considered as nonpathogenic; however, some biotype 1A isolates have been considered as causative of gastrointestinal disease, yielding symptoms indistinguishable from those produced by pathogenic biotypes. Even after decades of isolation of clinical strains, the pathogenic mechanisms of these isolates are still not fully understood. In the present study, 122 Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were characterized according to the presence of the virulence genes ail, virF, and ystA. A total of 94 strains were positive to at least one virulence gene (77.05%, and 67 were positive to all of them (54.92%. Twenty-two strains were submitted to PFGE genotyping resulting in 22 distinct pulsotypes, varying from 50% to 84% of genetic similarity. Any clustering tendency among pulsotypes related to origin, isolation site, or even virulence profile was not observed. The present study reports an important contamination of the environment in swine slaughterhouses, meat markets, and pork, by potentially virulent Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A.
Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Muñoz, Marta; Bohorquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Summerfield, Artur; Domingo, Mariano; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne
Classical swine fever (CSF) causes major losses in pig farming, with various degrees of disease severity. Efficient live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are used routinely in endemic countries. However, despite intensive vaccination programs in these areas for more than 20 years, CSF has not been eradicated. Molecular epidemiology studies in these regions suggests that the virus circulating in the field has evolved under the positive selection pressure exerted by the immune response to the vaccine, leading to new attenuated viral variants. Recent work by our group demonstrated that a high proportion of persistently infected piglets can be generated by early postnatal infection with low and moderately virulent CSFV strains. Here, we studied the immune response to a hog cholera lapinised virus vaccine (HCLV), C-strain, in six-week-old persistently infected pigs following post-natal infection. CSFV-negative pigs were vaccinated as controls. The humoral and interferon gamma responses as well as the CSFV RNA loads were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination. No vaccine viral RNA was detected in the serum samples and tonsils from CSFV postnatally persistently infected pigs for 21 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, no E2-specific antibody response or neutralising antibody titres were shown in CSFV persistently infected vaccinated animals. Likewise, no of IFN-gamma producing cell response against CSFV or PHA was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the absence of a response to vaccination in CSFV persistently infected pigs.
Lassaletta, Antonio D; Chu, Louis M; Elmadhun, Nassrene Y; Robich, Michael P; Hoffman, Zachary G; Kim, David J; Sellke, Frank W
Previous experiments in Yorkshire swine demonstrated significantly fewer pericardial adhesions and intramyocardial collagen deposition at reoperative sternotomy in animals supplemented with vodka but not with red wine. The purpose of this experiment was to determine a mechanism for adhesion reduction. Twenty-seven male Yorkshire swine were fed a high-cholesterol diet to simulate conditions of coronary artery disease followed by the surgical placement of an ameroid constrictor to the left circumflex coronary artery to induce chronic ischaemia. Postoperatively, control pigs continued their high-fat/cholesterol diet alone, whereas the two experimental groups had diets supplemented with either red wine or vodka for 7 weeks followed by reoperative sternotomy and cardiac harvest. The expression of related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase (RAFTK) and caspase 3 in the sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-soluble myocardial fraction was significantly higher only in the vodka-supplemented group. In the more soluble fraction, the expression of caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3 and caspase 9 was lower in both the vodka and red wine treatment groups. In the SDS-soluble lysate fraction, likely representing the transmembrane/cell-extracellular matrix (ECM), a significant increase in RAFTK and caspase 3 expression was seen only in the vodka-treated animals, which may explain why this group demonstrated significantly fewer pericardial adhesions. Caspase expression/signalling was not increased in the more soluble myocardial lysate, suggesting that the increased apoptotic signalling was specific to the epicardial-ECM.
Full Text Available Serum neutralization tests (SN were performed against classical swine fever virus (CSFV, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and border disease virus (BDV on samples of swine serum collected for screening of antibodies to CSFV, in order to determine the SN value as a differential serological test. Ninety-nine sera out of a sample of 16,664 were positive for antibodies to pestiviruses in an ELISA test which did not distinguish antibodies to different pestiviruses. When submitted to SN, 81 sera were positive for CSFV antibodies only. In 17 sera, crossreactive antibodies to either CSFV, BVDV or BDV were detected. In most of these sera (13 out of 17 the differences between SN titres against the three viruses were not sufficient to estimate which was the most likely antibody-inducing virus. It was concluded that, for the SN to be useful in such differentiation, it is essential to examine a sample which must include a representative number of sera from the same farm where suspect animals were detected. When isolated serum samples are examined, such as those obtained with the sampling strategy adopted here, the SN may give rise to inconclusive results.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The swine influenza (SI is an infectious disease of swine and human. The novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 that emerged from April 2009 in Mexico spread rapidly and caused a human pandemic globally. To determine whether the tremendous virus had existed in or transmitted to pigs in southern China, eight H1N1 influenza strains were identified from pigs of Guangdong province during 2008-2009. Results Based on the homology and phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences of each gene segments, the isolates were confirmed to belong to the classical SI group, with HA, NP and NS most similar to 2009 human-like H1N1 influenza virus lineages. All of the eight strains were low pathogenic influenza viruses, had the same host range, and not sensitive to class of antiviral drugs. Conclusions This study provides the evidence that there is no 2009 H1N1-like virus emerged in southern China, but the importance of swine influenza virus surveillance in China should be given a high priority.
Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire
During pandemics, health authorities may be uncertain about the spread and severity of the disease and the effectiveness and safety of available interventions. This was the case during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010, and governments were forced to make decisions despite these uncertainties. While many countries chose to implement wide scale vaccination programmes, few accomplished their vaccination goals. Many research studies aiming to explore barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake have been conducted in the aftermath of the pandemic, including several qualitative studies. 1. To explore public attitudes to the swine flu vaccine in different countries through a review of qualitative primary studies. 2. To describe and discuss the implications drawn by the primary study authors. Systematic review of qualitative research studies, using a broadly comparative cross case-study approach. Study quality was appraised using an adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality assessment tool. The review indicates that the public had varying opinions about disease risk and prevalence and had concerns about vaccine safety. Most primary study authors concluded that participants were uninformed, and that more information about the disease and the vaccine would have led to an increase in vaccine uptake. We find these conclusions problematic. We suggest instead that people's questions and concerns were legitimate given the uncertainties of the situation at the time and the fact that the authorities did not have the necessary information to convince the public. Our quality assessment of the included studies points to a lack of reflexivity and a lack of information about study context. We suggest that these study weaknesses are tied to primary study authors' lack of acknowledgement of the uncertainties surrounding the disease and the vaccine. While primary study authors suggest that authorities could increase vaccine uptake through increased
Vargas Terán, Moisés; Calcagno Ferrat, Nelson; Lubroth, Juan
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral transboundary animal disease that is highly contagious among domestic and wild pigs, such as boars and peccaries. Today, far from being what was classically described historically, the disease is characterized as having a varied clinical picture, and its diagnosis depends on resorting to proper sample collection and prompt dispatch to a laboratory that can employ several techniques to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Laboratory findings should be complemented with a field analysis of the occurrence of disease to have a better understanding of its epidemiology. The disease is still present in various regions and countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, thus hindering production, trade, and the livestock economy in the region. Consequently, it is among the diseases included in List A of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Currently, there are epidemiologic and ecologic aspects that characterize its geographical distribution in the region such as: continued trends in the demand for pork and pork products; an increase in swine investment with low production costs which are able to compete advantageously in international markets; the convention of associating CSF in the syndrome of "swine hemorrhagic diseases" owing to the historical description of its acute presentation and not to the new and more frequent subacute presentations or the diseases with which it may be confused (notably, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and porcine dermopathic nephropathy syndrome, among others); dissemination of the virus through asymptomatic hosts such as piglets infected in utero; frequent lack of quality control and registration of vaccines and vaccinations; feeding of swine with contaminated food waste (swill); the common practice of smuggling animals and by-products across borders; the backyard family production system or extensive open field methods of swine rearing with minimal input in care and feeding; poor
Rajão, Daniela S; Walia, Rasna R; Campbell, Brian; Gauger, Phillip C; Janas-Martindale, Alicia; Killian, Mary Lea; Vincent, Amy L
Repeated spillovers of the H1N1 pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09) from humans to pigs resulted in substantial evolution of influenza A viruses infecting swine, contributing to the genetic and antigenic diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) currently circulating in swine. The reassortment with endemic swine viruses and maintenance of some of the H1N1pdm09 internal genes resulted in the circulation of different genomic constellations in pigs. Here, we performed a whole-genome phylogenetic analysis of 368 IAV circulating in swine from 2009 to 2016 in the United States. We identified 44 different genotypes, with the most common genotype (32.33%) containing a clade IV-A HA gene, a 2002-lineage NA gene, an M-pdm09 gene, and remaining gene segments of triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) origin. To understand how different genetic constellations may relate to viral fitness, we compared the pathogenesis and transmission in pigs of six representative genotypes. Although all six genotypes efficiently infected pigs, they resulted in different degrees of pathology and viral shedding. These results highlight the vast H3N2 genetic diversity circulating in U.S. swine after 2009. This diversity has important implications in the control of this disease by the swine industry, as well as a potential risk for public health if swine-adapted viruses with H1N1pdm09 genes have an increased risk to humans, as occurred in the 2011-2012 and 2016 human variant H3N2v cases associated with exhibition swine. People continue to spread the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm09) IAV to pigs, allowing H1N1pdm09 to reassort with endemic swine IAV. In this study, we determined the 8 gene combinations of swine H3N2 IAV detected from 2009 to 2016. We identified 44 different genotypes of H3N2, the majority of which contained at least one H1N1pdm09 gene segment. We compared six representative genotypes of H3N2 in pigs. All six genotypes efficiently infected pigs, but they resulted in different degrees of lung damage
María F Mendoza-Gómez
Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the presence and the type of endoparasites with zoonotic potential in swine and human of two technified and two semi-technified farms in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materials and methods. Three serial samplings of feces were taken in a pen row within intervals of 15 days, in two technified and two semi-technified farms in different age groups distributed as follows: pregnant-sows, nursing-females, boars, weaners, suckling-piglets, and growing-pig. By means of informed consent thirty-three people agreed to enter the study. Thirty-three samples from men and women of different ages were received. The pool and individual samples of fecal were evaluated by direct analysis, qualitative flotation and sedimentation techniques and modified ZiehlNeelsen stain. Results. For the porcine population, on the average, the results obtained from both technified farms showed that Balantidium coli (42%, Endolimax nana (21.9% and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.8% were the most common parasites. In semi-technified farms they were: Entamoeba coli (40%, Endolimax nana (35%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (25% and Balantidium coli (5%. By means of the test chi2 it is possible to conclude that there is a significant difference between the parasites species and the type of farm. The results obtained in human showed the presence of parasites as: E. coli (42.2%, Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (12.1%, E. nana (9.1%, B. coli (9.1%, I. bütschlii (3.0% and Blastocystis hominis (3.0%. Conclusions. The presence of parasites such as Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Entamoeba coli in swine and human suggests a possible rotation of parasitic species between hosts.
Understanding the factors that create heat stress, the response of the animals while under heat stress, and the signs of heat-stressed swine are essential to making rational decisions for the selection, design, and management of their environments. Heat stressors include combinations of environment...
separate house without drainage) and poor (housed together with other live- stock in open barn with no shed). Statistical analysis. The Chi-square test was applied to ... owners release their swine to graze on the field along with other livestock. .... which 14 farms were having more than 30 pigs and 36 farms were having less.
A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate air emission reductions from swine following implementation of diet strategies. In each study, the impact of these feeding strategies on pig performance and air emissions were compared to those of animals fed commercial diets. Groups of pigs were ho...
This silent maintenance of HEV infection amongst swine abattoir workers is an occupational risk that could challenge .... HE Seroprevalence in different occupations ..... nary microbiology. 2011;149(1):236-41. 46. Aggarwal R, Krawczynski K. Hepatitis E: an overview and recent advances in clinical and laboratory research.
Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.
compared to that from the raw biomas s. On the other hand, the results from the codigestion of raw (non-pretreated) wheat straw with swine manure were very promising, suggesting that 4.6 kg of straw added to 1 t of manure increase the methane production by 10%. Thus, wheat straw can be considered...
Elbers, A.R.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Koch, G.
This publication is based on a talk which was held in the course of the spring symposium „Impfen statt Keulen“ of the Akademie für Tiergesundheit (AfT) 2011 in Wiesbaden-Naurod. Experience with recent large-scale epidemics of Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza – among others in the
Book cover Enzymes in Poultry and Swine Nutrition. Auteur(s) : Ronald R. ... mechanisms. Such studies will enhance our understanding of the role of dietary enzymes in animal nutrition. ... Six équipes de chercheurs de classe mondiale étudieront comment surmonter la résistance au traitement des cancers les plus mortels.
Olga M. Passarin
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Swine wastewater application is a practice that can become viable in agriculture, for minimizing fertilization costs and improving soil conditions. Therefore, it is essential to establish criteria that define appropriate application doses from the agronomic and environmental perspectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of swine wastewater doses associated with mineral fertilization on soybean nutritional status and physiological quality of seed. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year of 2010/2011, using twenty-four drainage lysimeters in randomized block design in 4 x 2 factorial scheme, with four swine wastewater doses (0, 100, 200 and 300 m3 ha-1 applied before sowing, associated with presence and absence of mineral fertilization, in three replicates. Leaves at the flowering stage were collected for determinations of N, P, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Mn and Fe. Symptoms of toxicity and nutritional deficiency were observed in the crop. Furthermore, higher doses of swine wastewater caused lower physiological quality in soybean seeds.
To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...
Goetsch, W.D.; Peterson, W.H.; Muehling, A.J.
Four earth-tube heat exchanger systems for heating and cooling the ventilation air for swine farrowing and nursery buildings were studied. Results show appreciable winter heating and summer cooling from the earth tubes with minimal variation in the temperature of the discharge air. 5 refs.
Economic losses due to influenza A virus (IAV) infections are substantial and a global problem, ranking among the top three major health challenges in the swine industry. Currently, H1 and H3 subtypes circulate in pigs globally associated with different combinations of N1 and N2 subtypes; however, t...
Comparative prevalence of immune evasion complex genes associated with beta-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates from swine, swine facilities, humans with swine contact, and humans with no swine contact
Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genet...
Hassinger, W J; Monahan, K A; Scanlon, T L; Parsons, T D
To determine feeding, cropping, and manure-handling practices of swine operations of various sizes. Producer survey. 85 sow units and 132 finish floors. Swine producers were surveyed by mail and during farm visits for information regarding herd characteristics and management practices, with emphasis on the 3 components of the nutrient cycle: cropping, feeding and nutrition, and manure handling. Farms were categorized by operation type as sow units or finish floors and, subsequently, stratified by size as small sow units ( or = 600 head), small finish floors ( or = 2,000 head). Large sow units and large finish floors were approximately twice as likely to use environmentally sound nutrient management practices as small sow units or small finish floors. These large operations were more likely to use progressive feeding practices, to be aware of their nutrient flows, and to be capable of using these nutrients properly. There is a need for greater environmental awareness among all swine producers, especially among small producers. This provides a possible growth area for large-animal veterinary consultants. Economy of scale and increased governmental regulations allow large farms to use environmentally sound practices. Thus, large swine farms are not necessarily harmful to the environment.
Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...
This study evaluates the cultivation of soybean under the use of swine wastewater (SWW). The SWW used was diluted in water at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. At 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing, plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area, concentrations of NPK on leaf and productivity were determined. The results show that ...
Uttenthal, Åse; Lohse, Louise; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun
Pestiviruses are unique in their ability to cause persistent infection (PI) in pigs infected in utero. In cattle, PI calves play an important role in maintenance of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in the herd. In pigs, the occurence of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) PI piglets...
This study evaluates the capability of horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) for treating pretreated swine wastewater as a function of contact time (CT) and type of macrophyte under the local conditions of Yucatán, Mexico. Experiments were conducted from July 2004 to November 2005 on a ...
... an APHIS employee alone. (b) The appraisal of swine will be based on the fair market value as determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided that where appraisal is by the head, each animal in the group is the same value per head, and where appraisal...
The study investigated optimal resource allocation in swine production and its implication for rural development in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of interview form 50 randomly selected respondents. The study revealed that pig production in Umuahia, Abia State is mainly carried out by young ...
Oirschot, van J.T.
There are two types of classical swine fever vaccines available: the classical live and the recently developed E2 subunit vaccines. The live Chinese strain vaccine is the most widely used. After a single vaccination, it confers solid immunity within a few days that appears to persist lifelong. The
A research project was conducted to compare odor concentrations in exhaust of traditional flush barns and barns equipped with automated scrapers. The study was conducted at commercial tunnel-ventilated swine barns in northwest Missouri. Odor samples were collected from the barn exhaust in polyvinyl ...
Hansen, Kaare Hvid; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær
A stable anaerobic degradation of swine manure with ammonia concentration of 6 g-N/litre was obtained in continuously stirred tank reactors with a hydraulic retention time of 15 days, at Four different temperatures. Methane yields of 188, 141, 67 and 22 ml-CH4/g-VS were obtained at 37, 45, 55...
Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham
Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, cDNAs corresponding to the wild type (wt) or mutant forms of the IRES of CSFV strain Paderborn were...
Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham J.
Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, the nucleotides 47 to 427, including the IRES region of the wt CSFV strain Paderborn, were amplified...
Cavallo, Annalisa; Gonzales, José Luis; Bonelli, Sara Irene; Valda, Ybar; Pieri, Angela; Segundo, Higinio; Ibañez, Ramón; Mantella, Antonia; Bartalesi, Filippo; Tolari, Francesco; Bartoloni, Alessandro
We determined the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in persons in 2 rural communities in southeastern Bolivia and the presence of HEV in human and swine fecal samples. HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. PMID:21801630
An unprecedented epizootic swine Influenza A (H1N1) virus that is highly pathogenic has crossed the species barrier in Mexico to cause many human fatalities and poses an increasing pandemic threat. This summary describes the aetiopathogenesis of human infection with Influenza A (H1N1) and reviews ...
Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan
The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.
In the current study, aiming to find more clues in understanding the molecular mechanisms of CSFV NS5A's function, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell (SUVEC). Alignment with the NCBI database ...
The healthy swine intestine is populated by upwards of 500 bacterial species, mainly obligate anaerobes. Our research focuses on the roles of these commensal bacteria in antimicrobial resistance and on interventions to reduce the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In comparisons of intes...
The findings were Ascaris suum (13.9%), Eimeria species (5.6%), Oesophagostomum species (6.7%) and Sarcoptes scabiei (16.2%). Mixed infection was observed on 13 swine, among them 2% were positive for Ascaris suum and Eimeria species, where as 1.14% were positive for Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum ...
Zhu, Wenfei; Yang, Shuai; Guo, Yuanji; Yang, Lei; Bai, Tian; Yu, Zaijiang; Li, Xiaodan; Li, Ming; Guo, Junfeng; Wang, Dayan; Gao, Rongbao; Dong, Libo; Zou, Shumei; Li, Zi; Wang, Min; Shu, Yuelong
The first classical swine influenza A H1N1 viruses were isolated in Mainland China in 1991. To aid surveillance of swine influenza viruses as part of pandemic preparedness, we sought to identify their origin. We sequenced and phylogenically analyzed 19 swine influenza viruses isolated in 1991 and 1992 in China and compared them with viruses isolated from other regions during the same period. All 19 swine influenza viruses analyzed in our study shared the highest similarity with the classical swine influenza virus A/Swine/Maryland/23239/1991 (H1N1). Phylogenetic trees of eight segmented genes exhibited similar topology, with all segments in the cluster of classical swine influenza viruses. In addition, antigenic analysis also indicated that the tested isolated were related to classical swine influenza isolates. Classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses were predominant in Beijing pig herds during this period. Since both antibody and virus detections did not indicate the presence of CS H1N1 before 1991 in Mainland China, we combined with the data on pigs imported to and exported from China and concluded that these viruses might spread to China via pigs imported from North America and that they could affect the genetic evolution and transmission dynamics of swine influenza viruses in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lauren G Holinka
Full Text Available Prophylactic vaccination using live attenuated classical swine fever (CSF vaccines has been a very effective method to control the disease in endemic regions and during outbreaks in previously disease-free areas. These vaccines confer effective protection against the disease at early times post-vaccination although the mechanisms mediating the protection are poorly characterized. Here we present the events occurring after the administration of our in-house developed live attenuated marker vaccine, FlagT4Gv. We previously reported that FlagT4Gv intramuscular (IM administered conferred effective protection against intranasal challenge with virulent CSFV (BICv as early as 7 days post-vaccination. Here we report that FlagT4Gv is able to induce protection against disease as early as three days post-vaccination. Immunohistochemical testing of tissues from FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals showed that tonsils were colonized by the vaccine virus by day 3 post-inoculation. There was a complete absence of BICv in tonsils of FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals which had been intranasal (IN challenged with BICv 3 days after FlagT4Gv infection, confirming that FlagT4Gv inoculation confers sterile immunity. Analysis of systemic levels of 19 different cytokines in vaccinated animals demonstrated an increase of IFN-α three days after FlagT4Gv inoculation compared with mock infected controls.
Wen, Feng; Yu, Hai; Yang, Fu-Ru; Huang, Meng; Yang, Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Ze-Jun; Tong, Guang-Zhi
Swine influenza (SI) is an acute, highly contagious respiratory disease caused by swine influenza A viruses (SwIVs), and it poses a potential global threat to human health. Classical H1N1 (cH1N1) SwIVs are still circulating and remain the predominant subtype in the swine population in China. In this study, a high-growth reassortant virus (GD/PR8) harboring the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from a novel cH1N1 isolate in China, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2011 (GD/11) and six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/34(PR8) virus was generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics and tested as a candidate seed virus for the preparation of an inactivated vaccine. The protective efficacy of this vaccine was evaluated in mice and pigs challenged with GD/11 virus. Prime and boost inoculation of GD/PR8 vaccine yielded high-titer serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies and IgG antibodies for GD/11 in both mice and pigs. Complete protection of mice and pigs against cH1N1 SIV challenge was observed, with significantly fewer lung lesions and reduced viral shedding in vaccine-inoculated animals compared with unvaccinated control animals. Our data demonstrated that the GD/PR8 may serve as the seed virus for a promising SwIVs vaccine to protect the swine population.
Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is currently one of the most severe viral infections of domestic pigs, wild boars, and other hosts belonging to Suidae family. ASF is also considered as the most complex and devastating infectious and haemorrhagic disease of swine due to its severe socio-economic impact and transboundary character. ASF it is a notifiable disease and due to the lack of specific treatment and vaccine, the disease can be only limited by the administrative measures comprising wild boar hunting and stamping out of affected pigs. ASF occurred for the first time in Kenya in 1921 while in Europe (Portugal the virus was detected at the end of the 1950s. In spite of successful eradication of this threat in a number of affected regions, the virus remains endemic in both feral and domestic pigs in Africa and Sardinia. The ‘new era’ of ASF started in 2007 after its re-introduction to Georgia. Following its intensive expansion, the virus spread to other Caucasian countries, including the territory of the Russian Federation. In 2014 the virus reached Ukraine, Belarus, and, consequently, European Union countries: Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Poland. The occurrence of ASF in wild boars and pigs had a severe impact on both epidemiology and economy because of the national and international transport and trade consequences. Up to date, starting from the February 2014, eighty ASF cases in wild boar and three outbreaks in domestic pigs have been diagnosed. Taking into account the diverse rate of spread in Poland, this review aims to present and discuss the current state of knowledge on ASF including its epidemiology, pathology, transmission, and perspectives of control.
Hypocholesterolemic effect of soy protein appears to be the result of reduced cholesterol absorption and enhanced cholesterol excretion. The objective of this study is to delineate the underlying mechanism of soy protein effect on cholesterol absorption. At the end of a 5-week soy-protein or casein diet, swine were subjected to cannulation of mesenteric lymph duct under halothane anesthesia. A single dose of 250 μCi [ 14 C]-cholesterol and 10 mCi [ 3 H]-leucine was infused into the upper jejunum two hours after one-fifth of daily food was given. Then lymph was collected hourly for three hours and the lipoprotein fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation. SDS-PAGE (5%) was used to measure the concentrations of individual apoproteins by densitometric scanning. The three-hour lymphatic transport of cholesterol in casein-fed swine was significantly higher than in those fed soy protein. Triglyceride transports were similar in two groups. The [ 3 H]-leucine incorporation study revealed that transport of apo B-48 bore a significant positive relationship to transport of cholesterol in both chylomicron and VLDL fractions of mesenteric lymph. A greater apo B-48 secretion with higher specific activity was probably responsible for the greater transport of cholesterol in chylomicrons in casein-fed swine. On the other hand, the lesser cholesterol transport in chylomicrons in soy protein-fed swine was probably caused by lower apo B-48 secretion. Similarly, the transport of lymph VLDL cholesterol in swine fed casein or soy protein paralleled the amount of accompanying apo B-48. Dietary proteins probably influence the intestinal synthesis of apo B-48 which in turn affects cholesterol transport into the lymphatics
Krishnasamy, Vikram; Otte, Joachim; Silbergeld, Ellen
Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where this has occurred is China, and evidence suggests 70% of poultry production now occurs outside of traditional small farms. Moreover, China is now the largest aggregate consumer of meat products in the world. With this rapid rise in consumption, the Chinese production model has changed along with the use of antimicrobials in feeds. However, the specific antibiotic use in the Chinese food animal production sector is unclear. Additionally, we are aware of high quantities of antimicrobial use because of reports of high concentrations of antimicrobials in animal waste and surface waters surrounding animal feeding operations. In this report, we estimate the volume of antibiotics used for swine and poultry production as these are the two meat sources with the highest levels of production and consumption in China. We adopt a model developed by Mellon et al. in the US for estimating drug use in feed for poultry and swine production to estimate overall antimicrobial use as well as antimicrobial use by class. We calculate that 38.5 million kg [84.9 million lbs] were used in 2012 in China's production of swine and poultry. By antibiotic class, the highest weights are tetracyclines in swine and coccidiostats in poultry. The volume of antimicrobial use is alarming. Although there are limitations to these data, we hope our report will stimulate further analysis and a sense of urgency in assessing the consequences of such high levels of utilization in terms of antibiotic resistance in the food supply
Cao, Yu; Liu, Zhenhai; Xie, Yilin; Hu, Jingchao; Wang, Hua; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jingsong; Wu, Chu-Tse; Wang, Songlin
Periodontitis is one of the most widespread infectious diseases in humans. We previously promoted significant periodontal tissue regeneration in swine models with the transplantation of autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and PDLSC sheet. We also promoted periodontal tissue regeneration in a rat model with a local injection of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the roles of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in periodontal tissue regeneration in swine. In the present study, we transferred an adenovirus that carried HGF gene into human DPSCs (HGF-hDPSCs) under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. These cells were then transplanted into a swine model for periodontal regeneration. Twenty miniature pigs were used to generate periodontitis with bone defect of 5 mm in width, 7 mm in length, and 3 mm in depth. After 12 weeks, clinical, radiological, quantitative and histological assessment of regenerated periodontal tissues was performed to compare periodontal regeneration in swine treated with cell implantation. Our study showed that injecting HGF-hDPSCs into this large animal model could significantly improve periodontal bone regeneration and soft tissue healing. A hDPSC or HGF-hDPSC sheet showed superior periodontal tissue regeneration compared to the injection of dissociated cells. However, the sheets required surgical placement; thus, they were suitable for surgically-managed periodontitis treatments. The adenovirus-mediated transfer of the HGF gene markedly decreased hDPSC apoptosis in a hypoxic environment or in serum-free medium, and it increased blood vessel regeneration. This study indicated that HGF-hDPSCs produced under GMP conditions significantly improved periodontal bone regeneration in swine; thus, this method represents a potential clinical application for periodontal regeneration.
... Liechtenstein and Switzerland AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule... Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the region of Europe that we recognize as low risk for classical swine fever... Switzerland to the region of Europe that we recognize as low risk for CSF and to add Liechtenstein to the...
... exception of semen collected from swine in Denmark, Finland, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden, or the United... CSF Region in the EU; History Before discussing our assessments of the animal health status of Estonia...,'' took into consideration the CSF history of the 10 Member States in the EC's request, the CSF history of...
... semen collected from swine in Denmark, Finland, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden, or the United Kingdom.... This rule: (1) Preempts all State and local laws and regulations that are inconsistent with this rule..., Finland, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden, or the United Kingdom''. 0 b. By removing paragraph (h). 0 c. By...
Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan
The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…
Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Mead, Daniel G
Biting flies have been suggested as mechanical vectors of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey Virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) in livestock populations during epidemic outbreaks in the western United States. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to determine whether biting flies could mechanically transmit VSNJV to livestock by using a black fly, Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt (Diptera: Simuliidae), domestic swine, Sus scrofa L., model. Black flies mechanically transmitted VSNJV to a naive host after interrupted feeding on a vesicular lesion on a previously infected host. Transmission resulted in clinical disease in the naïve host. This is the first demonstration of mechanical transmission of VSNJV to livestock by insects.
Nelson, Martha I; Vincent, Amy L
The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest 'reverse zoonosis' of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human-animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dee, S A; Joo, H S
An investigation of a case of recurrent reproductive failure in a swine herd was conducted. The subject farm (A) and a neighboring farm (B) had experienced an acute outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in 1990. During 1992, farm A experienced recurrent episodes of conception failure, stillbirths, preweaning mortality, and sow mortality. Similar clinical findings were not evident on farm B. Evaluation of production records indicated that the problem was occurring in first-parity litters. It was learned that replacement gilts for farm A were being purchased from an outside source, whereas farm B raised its own replacement gilts. Indirect fluorescent antibody testing of gilts from both farms indicated a high prevalence of seronegative gilts on farm A vs a high prevalence of seropositive gilts on farm B. Although there is no correlation between indirect fluorescent antibody titers and immunity, it would appear that exposure to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus prior to breeding is essential to prevent reproductive disease.
Boklund, Anette; Toft, Nils; Alban, Lis
and duration of the epidemic, the number of depopulated and/or vaccinated herds and animals, the control costs borne by the public and the pig industry, respectively, as well as the loss of exports associated with the epidemic. The simulations showed that the EUplus strategy is the most effective......In 2006, total Danish pork exports were valued at (sic)3.8 billion, corresponding to approximately 5% of the total Danish exports, and an outbreak of a notifiable disease would have dramatic consequences for the agricultural sector in Denmark. Several outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) have...... occurred in Europe within the last decade, and different control strategies have been suggested. The objective of this study was to simulate the epidemiological and economic consequences of such control strategies in a CSF epidemic under Danish conditions with respect to herd demographics and geography...
Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Bøtner, Anette
the subclinical stage and are fully infectious during the clinical stage. ASF virus (ASFV) infection through residues of dead animals in the slurries was also modeled in an exponentially fading-out pattern. Low and high transmission rates for ASFV were tested in the model. Robustness analysis was carried out......To study the spread of African swine fever (ASF) within a pig unit and the impact of unit size on ASF spread, a simulation model was created. In the model, an animal can be in one of the following stages: susceptible, latent, subclinical, clinical, or recovered. Animals can be infectious during...... in order to study the impact of uncertain parameters on model predictions. The results showed that the disease may fade out within the pig unit without a major outbreak. Furthermore, they showed that spread of ASFV is dependent on the infectiousness of subclinical animals and the residues of dead animals...
Wilberts, B L; Arruda, P H; Kinyon, J M; Madson, D M; Frana, T S; Burrough, E R
Swine dysentery is classically associated with infection by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the only current officially recognized Brachyspira sp. that consistently imparts strong beta-hemolysis on blood agar. Recently, several strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira have been isolated from swine with clinical dysentery that are not identified as B. hyodysenteriae by PCR including the recently proposed species "Brachyspira hampsonii." In this study, 6-week-old pigs were inoculated with either a clinical isolate of "B. hampsonii" (EB107; n = 10) clade II or a classic strain of B. hyodysenteriae (B204; n = 10) to compare gross and microscopic lesions and alterations in colonic mucin expression in pigs with clinical disease versus controls (n = 6). Gross lesions were similar between infected groups. No histologic difference was observed between infected groups with regard to neutrophilic inflammation, colonic crypt depth, mucosal ulceration, or hemorrhage. Histochemical and immunohistochemical evaluation of the apex of the spiral colon revealed decreased expression of sulphated mucins, decreased expression of MUC4, and increased expression of MUC5AC in diseased pigs compared to controls. No difference was observed between diseased pigs in inoculated groups. This study reveals significant alterations in colonic mucin expression in pigs with acute swine dysentery and further reveals that these and other microscopic changes are similar following infection with "B. hampsonii" clade II or B. hyodysenteriae. © The Author(s) 2014.
Torres, A L; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L
On a three hundred swine sera sample collected from a Municipal Slaughter house and a Research Laboratory at the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería a 26% of positivity against T. gondii was found using the carbon immunoassay. A relationship between the age and swine race are made. The epidemiological significance of this findings are discussed focused mainly on the role of swine meat as a source of human infection in Costa Rica.
Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Myers, Kevin; Pisanic, Nora; Heaney, Christopher; Stewart, Jill
North Carolina is the second leading state in pork production in the United States, with over 10 million swine. Swine manure in NC is typically collected and stored in open-pit lagoons before the liquid waste is sprayed onto agricultural fields for disposal. Components of this waste may be able to impact surface water quality with the potential for human exposure. This study examined viruses of public health concern in creeks adjacent to swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) spra...
Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Th?ophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela
Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebu...
Versus Saline in a Swine Model of Severe Septic Shock presented at/published to SURF Conference, San Antonio, TX 20 May 2016 with MDWJ 41-108, and has...PRESENTED: Comparison of hydroxocobalamin versus norepinephrine versus saline in a Swine model of severe septic shock 7. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS...Comparison of hydroxocbalamin versus norepinephrine versus saline in a swine model of severe septic shock . Background: Sepsis is associated with a mortality
Versus Saline in a Swine Model of Severe Septic Shock presented at/published to the Lightning Oral, SAEM Conference, New Orleans, LA 10-13 May 2016 with...PRESENTED: Comparison of hydroxocobalamin versus norepinephrine versus sal ine in a Swine model of severe septic shock 7. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS...saline in a swine model of severe septic shock . Background: Sepsis is associated with a mortality of nearly 30%. Mortality is due, in part, to an
Nelson, Martha I.; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C.; Gramer, Marie
The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003–2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens. PMID:21695237
Hernández, Felipe A; Sayler, Katherine A; Bounds, Courtney; Milleson, Michael P; Carr, Amanda N; Wisely, Samantha M
: Feral swine ( Sus scrofa) are a pathogen reservoir for pseudorabies virus (PrV). The virus can be fatal to wildlife and contributes to economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. National surveillance efforts in the US use serology to detect PrV-specific antibodies in feral swine populations, but PrV exposure is not a direct indicator of pathogen transmission among conspecifics or to non-suid wildlife species. We measured antibody production and the presence of PrV DNA in four tissue types from feral swine populations of Florida, US. We sampled blood, nasal, oral, and genital swabs from 551 individuals at 39 sites during 2014-16. Of the animals tested for antibody production, 224 of 436 (51%) feral swine were antibody positive while 38 of 549 feral swine (7%) tested for viral shedding were quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-positive for PrV. The detection of PrV DNA across all the collected sample types (blood, nasal, oral, and genital [vaginal] swabs) suggested viral shedding via direct (oronasal or venereal), and potentially indirect (through carcass consumption), routes of transmission among infected and susceptible animals. Fourteen of 212 seronegative feral swine were qPCR-positive, indicating 7% false negatives in the serologic assay. Our findings suggest that serology may underestimate the actual infection risk posed by feral swine to other species and that feral swine populations in Florida are capable of shedding the virus through multiple routes.
Madera, Rachel Flores; Wang, Lihua; Gong, Wenjie; Burakova, Yulia; Buist, Sterling; Nietfeld, Jerome; Henningson, Jamie; Ozuna, Ada G Cino; Tu, Changchun; Shi, Jishu
The highly contagious classical swine fever (CSF) remains a major trade and health problem in the pig industry, causing large economic losses worldwide. Modified live vaccines (MLV), commonly derived from the attenuated CSF virus (CSFV) C-strain, have been routinely used to control the disease in CSF-endemic countries. However, to completely eradicate the disease, a potent, safe and non-infectious CSF vaccine should be easily accessible and available. This study aims to develop a cost-effective, non infectious CSF subunit vaccine that can elicit rapid and long lasting immunity. We report on a series of animal studies to study the efficacy of a CSF E2 subunit vaccine in oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, KNB-E2. Swine vaccination and CSFV challenge experiments showed that a single KNB-E2 dose with 25 µg of recombinant CSFV glycoprotein E2 can reduce disease and protect from clinical symptoms. In addition, KNB-E2-mediated reduction of CSF symptoms was observed at two weeks post vaccination and the vaccinated pigs continued to exhibit reduced CSF clinical signs when challenged at two months and four months post vaccination. These results suggest that KNB-E2 effectively reduces CSF clinical signs and the potential of this vaccine to safely minimize CSF-related losses.
Full Text Available A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen by most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans and H5N1 airborne transmissibility in the ferret model. Swine have served as an intermediate host for zoonotic influenza viruses, yet the evolutionary pressure exerted by this host on HA stability was unknown. For over 70 contemporary swine H1 and H3 isolates, we measured HA activation pH to range from pH 5.1 to 5.9 for H1 viruses and pH 5.3 to 5.8 for H3 viruses. Thus, contemporary swine isolates vary widely in HA stability, having values favored by both avian (pH >5.5 and human and ferret (pH ≤5.5 species. Using an early 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 virus backbone, we generated three viruses differing by one HA residue that only altered HA stability: WT (pH 5.5, HA1-Y17H (pH 6.0, and HA2-R106K (pH 5.3. All three replicated in pigs and transmitted from pig-to-pig and pig-to-ferret. WT and R106 viruses maintained HA genotype and phenotype after transmission. Y17H (pH 6.0 acquired HA mutations that stabilized the HA protein to pH 5.8 after transmission to pigs and 5.5 after transmission to ferrets. Overall, we found swine support a broad range of HA activation pH for contact transmission and many recent swine H1N1 and H3N2 isolates have stabilized (human-like HA proteins. This constitutes a heightened pandemic risk and underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance and control efforts for swine viruses.
While previous studies have examined the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes around confined swine feeding operations, little information is known about their release and transport from artificially drained fields receiving swine manure application. Much of the...
Full Text Available Macrophages and cytokines are important in the control of inflammation and regulation of the immune response. However, they can also contribute to immunopathology in the host after viral infection and the regulatory network can be subverted by infectious agents, including viruses, some of which produce cytokine analogues or have mechanisms that inhibit cytokine function. African swine fever virus (ASFV encodes a number of proteins which modulate cytokine and chemokine induction, host transcription factor activation, stress responses, and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to elucidate the mechanisms of immune responses to ASFV in different subpopulations of porcine macrophages. A transcriptional immune response in different resident tissue macrophages following ASFV infection was presented in many publications. ASFV-susceptible porcine macrophages can be of several origins, such as peripheral blood, lungs, bone marrow, etc. blood monocytes, blood macrophages, and lung macrophages have demonstrated a modulation of phenotype. Monocyte-derived macrophages could express surface markers not found on their monocyte precursors. Moreover, they can undergo further differentiation after infection and during inflammation. When viruses infect such cells, immunological activity can be seriously impaired or modified.
Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.
Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....
the establishment of a reverse genetics system based on a backbone from the Danish H1N2 SIV, which is one of the two most prevalent subtypes in Denmark. Recently, a variant of a North American swine H3N2 virus containing a pandemic M gene was transmitted to humans in the US and on few occasions human......-to-human transmission was observed. These events underline the need for a reverse genetics system to be used for an analysis of the behavior of a pandemic M gene in a Danish SIV.......Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important respiratory pathogen with a broad host range. The natural reservoir for IAV is waterfowls, but both human and swine are considered natural hosts. During the past century IAV has caused severe pandemics as well as seasonal epidemics in the human population...
Powell, Joshua D; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Nagy, Tamas; Gabbard, Jon; Lee, Christopher; Tompkins, Stephen M; Tripp, Ralph A
Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA) segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA) showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.
Létourneau, Valérie; Nehmé, Benjamin; Mériaux, Anne; Massé, Daniel; Duchaine, Caroline
Hog production has been substantially intensified in Eastern Canada. Hogs are now fattened in swine confinement buildings with controlled ventilation systems and high animal densities. Newly designed buildings are equipped with conventional manure handling and management systems, shallow or deep litter systems, or source separation systems to manage the large volumes of waste. However, the impacts of those alternative production systems on bioaerosol concentrations within the barns have never been evaluated. Bioaerosols were characterized in 18 modern swine confinement buildings, and the differences in bioaerosol composition in the three different production systems were evaluated. Total dust, endotoxins, culturable actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteria were collected with various apparatuses. The total DNA of the air samples was extracted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the total number of bacterial genomes, as a total (culturable and nonculturable) bacterial assessment. The measured total dust and endotoxin concentrations were not statistically different in the three studied production systems. In buildings with sawdust beds, actinomycetes and molds were found in higher concentrations than in the conventional barns. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Scopulariopsis species were identified in all the studied swine confinement buildings. A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor were abundantly present in the facilities with sawdust beds. Thermotolerant A. fumigatus and Mucor were usually found in all the buildings. The culturable bacteria concentrations were higher in the barns with litters than in the conventional buildings, while real-time PCR revealed nonstatistically different concentrations of total bacteria in all the studied swine confinement buildings. In terms of workers' respiratory health, barns equipped with a solid/liquid separation system may offer better air quality than conventional buildings or barns with
Full Text Available The acaricide efficacy, tolerability and safety of the active ingredient of the etheric oil of cloves eugenol was investigated in the treatment of mange in swine, and the obtained results were compared with the results of acaricide efficacy of the synthetic acaricide permethrin, which has been in use for quite a some time. A single application of permethrin in the form of a 1% solution showed maximum efficacy of 62.5%, and after three applications of 75.0% in the treatment of sarcoptes in swine mange. A single application of eugenol in the form of a 10% solution had maximum efficacy of 75.0%, and applied three times an efficacy of 100% in curbing Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. A single administration of 20% eugenol solution showed maximum efficacy of 87.5%, and applied three times it was 100% efficient in curbing Sarcoptes scabeiei var. suis. The best efficacy in the treatment of sarcoptes mange in swine was achieved with three applications of eugenol in a concentration of 20%. This maximum effect (100% was obtained already after the second treatment. Eugenol in a concentration of 10% was safe for local application on skin because it does not cause any undesired reactions, while a 20% concentration caused irritation followed by a passing redness and disquiet in a smaller number of treated animals. The results of comparative investigations of acaricide efficacy of permethrin and eugenol demonstrate that there is resistence in Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis to permethrin. The biocide eugenol can safely be recommended for the treatment of sarcoptes mange in swine.
blood loss in a swine in a swine model. Methods : 9 male and 4 female pigs weighing 65±8 kg were anesthetized and instrumented . After abdominal...nanoparticles (PLNP) will decrease blood loss in a swine in a swine model. Methods : Pigs were anesthetized and instrumented and randomized to receive...study/training models in this protocol? No. REDUCTION: Since the last IACUC approval, have any methods been identified to reduce the number of live
Chiumenti, A; Da Borso, F; Rodar, T; Chiumenti, R
The purpose of research was to test the effectiveness of a prototype of a turning machine and to evaluate the feasability of a farm-scale composting process of the solid fraction of swine manure. A qualitative evaluation of the process and final product was made by monitoring the following parameters: process temperature, oxygen concentration inside the biomass, gaseous emissions (CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O), respiration index, humification index, total and volatile solids, carbon and nitrogen, pH and microbial load. The prototype proved to be very effective from a technical-operational point of view. The composting process exhibited a typical time-history, characterised by a thermophilic phase followed by a curing phase [Chiumenti, A., Chiumenti, R., Diaz, L.F., Savage, G.M., Eggerth, L.L., Goldstein, N., 2005. Modern Composting Technologies. BioCycle-JG Press, Emmaus, PA, USA]. Gas emissions from compost the windrow were more intense during the active phase of the process and showed a decreasing trend from the thermophilic to the curing phase. The final compost was characterized by good qualitative characteristics, a significant level of humification [Rossi, L., Piccinini, S., 1999. La qualità agronomica dei compost derivanti da liquami suinicoli. (Agronomic quality of swine manure compost). L'informatore Agrario 38, 29-31] and no odor emissions. This method of managing manure represents an effective, low cost approach that could be an interesting opportunity for swine farms.
Loynachan, A T; Nugent, J M; Erdman, M M; Harris, D L
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of various serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica to infect alimentary and nonalimentary tissues of swine within 3 h of inoculation. Fourteen wild-type S. enterica serovars (4,12:imonophasic, 6,7 nonmotile, Agona, Brandenburg, Bredeney, Derby, Heidelberg, Infantis, Muenchen, Thompson, Typhimurium, Typhimurium variant Copenhagen, untypeable, and Worthington), two known virulent S. enterica serovars (Choleraesuis strain SC-38 and Typhimurium strain chi4232), and two avirulent S. enterica Choleraesuis vaccine strains (Argus and SC-54) were inoculated intranasally (approximately 5 x 10(9) cells) into swine (four animals per Salmonella isolate). Three hours after inoculation, animals were euthanized, and both alimentary tissues (tonsil, colon contents, and cecum contents) and nonalimentary tissues (mandibular lymph node, thymus, lung, liver, spleen, ileocecal lymph node, and blood) were collected for Salmonella isolation. All Salmonella serovars evaluated except Salmonella Choleraesuis SC-54 acutely infected both alimentary and nonalimentary tissues. These results indicate that Salmonella isolates commonly found in swine are capable of acutely infecting both alimentary and nonalimentary tissues in a time frame consistent with that in which animals are transported and held in lairage prior to slaughter.
Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares
Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.
Suárez, Marisela; Sordo, Yusmel; Prieto, Yanet; Rodríguez, María P; Méndez, Lídice; Rodríguez, Elsa M; Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina; Lorenzo, Elianet; Santana, Elaine; González, Nemecio; Naranjo, Paula; Frías, María Teresa; Carpio, Yamila; Estrada, Mario Pablo
Classical swine fever is an economically important, highly contagious disease of swine worldwide. Subunit vaccines are a suitable alternative for the control of classical swine fever. However, such vaccines have as the main drawback the relatively long period of time required to induce a protective response, which hampers their use under outbreak conditions. In this work, a lentivirus-based gene delivery system is used to obtain a stable recombinant HEK 293 cell line for the expression of E2-CSFV antigen fused to porcine CD154 as immunostimulant molecule. The E2-CD154 chimeric protein was secreted into the medium by HEK293 cells in a concentration around 50mg/L in suspension culture conditions using spinner bottles. The E2-CD154 immunized animals were able to overcome the challenge with a high virulent CSF virus strain performed 7days after a unique dose of the vaccine without clinical manifestations of the disease. Specific anti-CSFV neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ were induced 8days after challenge equivalent to 14days post-vaccination. The present work constitutes the first report of a subunit vaccine able to confer complete protection by the end of the first week after a single vaccination. These results suggest that the E2-CD154 antigen could be potentially used under outbreak conditions to stop CSFV spread and for eradication programs in CSF enzootic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foam accumulation on the manure slurry at deep pit swine facilities has been linked to flash fire incidents, making it a serious safety concern for pork producers. In order to investigate this phenomenon, samples of swine manure were collected from over 50 swine production facilities in Iowa with va...
Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Johnson, Heather E.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Foreman, William T.
Manure spills to streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB); the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol; 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viable cells; one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII) by quantitative PCR (qPCR); and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR, or reverse-transcriptase qPCR. Twelve days post-spill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli, were detected in water or sediment. STII increased from undetectable before, or above the spill, to 105 copies/100 mL water 12 days post-spill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells post-spill. Eighteen days post-spill porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. Sediment FIB concentrations (per gram wet weight) were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals post-spill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days post-spill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes, and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences.
Full Text Available Swine influenza virus and Streptococcus suis are two important contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex, and both have significant economic impacts. Clinically, influenza virus and Streptococcus suis co-infections in pigs are very common, which often contribute to severe pneumonia and can increase the mortality. However, the co-infection pathogenesis in pigs is unclear. In the present study, co-infection experiments were performed using swine H1N1 influenza virus and Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2. The H1N1-SS2 co-infected pigs exhibited more severe clinical symptoms, serious pathological changes, and robust apoptosis of lungs at 6 days post-infection compared with separate H1N1 and SS2 infections. A comprehensive gene expression profiling using a microarray approach was performed to investigate the global host responses of swine lungs against the swine H1N1 infection, SS2 infection, co-infection, and phosphate-buffered saline control. Results showed 457, 411, and 844 differentially expressed genes in the H1N1, SS2, and H1N1-SS2 groups, respectively, compared with the control. Noticeably, genes associated with the immune, inflammatory, and apoptosis responses were highly overexpressed in the co-infected group. Pathway analysis indicated that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, MAPK, toll-like receptor, complement and coagulation cascades, antigen processing and presentation, and apoptosis pathway were significantly regulated in the co-infected group. However, the genes related to these were less regulated in the separate H1N1 and SS2 infection groups. This observation suggested that a certain level of synergy was induced by H1N1 and SS2 co-infection with significantly stronger inflammatory and apoptosis responses, which may lead to more serious respiratory disease syndrome and pulmonary pathological lesion.
Lin, Xian; Huang, Canhui; Shi, Jian; Wang, Ruifang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Lianzhong; Jin, Meilin
Swine influenza virus and Streptococcus suis are two important contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex, and both have significant economic impacts. Clinically, influenza virus and Streptococcus suis co-infections in pigs are very common, which often contribute to severe pneumonia and can increase the mortality. However, the co-infection pathogenesis in pigs is unclear. In the present study, co-infection experiments were performed using swine H1N1 influenza virus and Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2). The H1N1-SS2 co-infected pigs exhibited more severe clinical symptoms, serious pathological changes, and robust apoptosis of lungs at 6 days post-infection compared with separate H1N1 and SS2 infections. A comprehensive gene expression profiling using a microarray approach was performed to investigate the global host responses of swine lungs against the swine H1N1 infection, SS2 infection, co-infection, and phosphate-buffered saline control. Results showed 457, 411, and 844 differentially expressed genes in the H1N1, SS2, and H1N1-SS2 groups, respectively, compared with the control. Noticeably, genes associated with the immune, inflammatory, and apoptosis responses were highly overexpressed in the co-infected group. Pathway analysis indicated that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, MAPK, toll-like receptor, complement and coagulation cascades, antigen processing and presentation, and apoptosis pathway were significantly regulated in the co-infected group. However, the genes related to these were less regulated in the separate H1N1 and SS2 infection groups. This observation suggested that a certain level of synergy was induced by H1N1 and SS2 co-infection with significantly stronger inflammatory and apoptosis responses, which may lead to more serious respiratory disease syndrome and pulmonary pathological lesion.
Shi, Jian; Wang, Ruifang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Lianzhong; Jin, Meilin
Swine influenza virus and Streptococcus suis are two important contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex, and both have significant economic impacts. Clinically, influenza virus and Streptococcus suis co-infections in pigs are very common, which often contribute to severe pneumonia and can increase the mortality. However, the co-infection pathogenesis in pigs is unclear. In the present study, co-infection experiments were performed using swine H1N1 influenza virus and Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2). The H1N1-SS2 co-infected pigs exhibited more severe clinical symptoms, serious pathological changes, and robust apoptosis of lungs at 6 days post-infection compared with separate H1N1 and SS2 infections. A comprehensive gene expression profiling using a microarray approach was performed to investigate the global host responses of swine lungs against the swine H1N1 infection, SS2 infection, co-infection, and phosphate-buffered saline control. Results showed 457, 411, and 844 differentially expressed genes in the H1N1, SS2, and H1N1-SS2 groups, respectively, compared with the control. Noticeably, genes associated with the immune, inflammatory, and apoptosis responses were highly overexpressed in the co-infected group. Pathway analysis indicated that the cytokine–cytokine receptor interactions, MAPK, toll-like receptor, complement and coagulation cascades, antigen processing and presentation, and apoptosis pathway were significantly regulated in the co-infected group. However, the genes related to these were less regulated in the separate H1N1 and SS2 infection groups. This observation suggested that a certain level of synergy was induced by H1N1 and SS2 co-infection with significantly stronger inflammatory and apoptosis responses, which may lead to more serious respiratory disease syndrome and pulmonary pathological lesion. PMID:25906258
Post, Jacob; Weesendorp, Eefke; Montoya, Maria; Loeffen, Willie L
African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal disease for domestic pigs, leading to serious economic losses in countries where ASF is endemic. Despite extensive research, efficient vaccines against ASF are lacking. Since peripheral blood cells are important mediators for vaccines, we study the impact of ASF on blood parameters in pigs with different ages and infected with different doses of ASF virus. Four different groups were studied: (1) 12 weeks of age/low virus dose; (2) 12 weeks of age/high virus dose; (3) 18 weeks of age/low virus dose; and (4) 18 weeks of age/high virus dose. By varying in age and/or ASFV inoculation dose, we monitor blood parameters during different degrees of disease. Thirty percent of the pigs survived the infection with a moderately virulent strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV). Animals that did survive infection were generally older, independent from the inoculation dose used. A firm reduction in many different cell types at 3-5 days postinfection (DPI) was accompanied by an increase in body temperature, followed by clinical signs and mortality from day 6 PI. While blood parameters generally normalized in survivors, γδ T cells and IL-10 levels could be related to mortality. These conclusions should be considered in new approaches for protection against ASF.
Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; de la Rosa-Zamboni, Daniela; Ponce de Leon, Samuel; Hernandez, Mauricio; Quiñones-Falconi, Francisco; Bautista, Edgar; Ramirez-Venegas, Alejandra; Rojas-Serrano, Jorge; Ormsby, Christopher E; Corrales, Ariel; Higuera, Anjarath; Mondragon, Edgar; Cordova-Villalobos, Jose Angel
In late March 2009, an outbreak of a respiratory illness later proved to be caused by novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) was identified in Mexico. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of persons hospitalized for pneumonia at the national tertiary hospital for respiratory illnesses in Mexico City who had laboratory-confirmed S-OIV infection, also known as swine flu. We used retrospective medical chart reviews to collect data on the hospitalized patients. S-OIV infection was confirmed in specimens with the use of a real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay. From March 24 through April 24, 2009, a total of 18 cases of pneumonia and confirmed S-OIV infection were identified among 98 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory illness at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases in Mexico City. More than half of the 18 case patients were between 13 and 47 years of age, and only 8 had preexisting medical conditions. For 16 of the 18 patients, this was the first hospitalization for their illness; the other 2 patients were referred from other hospitals. All patients had fever, cough, dyspnea or respiratory distress, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, and bilateral patchy pneumonia. Other common findings were an increased creatine kinase level (in 62% of patients) and lymphopenia (in 61%). Twelve patients required mechanical ventilation, and seven died. Within 7 days after contact with the initial case patients, a mild or moderate influenza-like illness developed in 22 health care workers; they were treated with oseltamivir, and none were hospitalized. S-OIV infection can cause severe illness, the acute respiratory distress syndrome, and death in previously healthy persons who are young to middle-aged. None of the secondary infections among health care workers were severe. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (SIV subtype H1N1 and H3N2 (Thai isolates in 22-day-old SPF pigs. Results The study found that all pigs in the infected groups developed typical signs of flu-like symptoms on 1–4 days post- infection (dpi. The H1N1-infected pigs had greater lung lesion scores than those of the H3N2-infected pigs. Histopathological lesions related to swine influenza-induced lesions consisting of epithelial cells damage, airway plugging and peribronchial and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration were present in both infected groups. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using nucleoprotein specific monoclonal antibodies revealed positive staining cells in lung sections of both infected groups at 2 and 4 dpi. Virus shedding was detected at 2 dpi from both infected groups as demonstrated by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Conclusion The results demonstrated that both SIV subtypes were able to induce flu-like symptoms and lung lesions in weanling pigs. However the severity of the diseases with regards to lung lesions both gross and microscopic lesions was greater in the H1N1-infected pigs. Based on phylogenetic analysis, haemagglutinin gene of subtype H1N1 from Thailand clustered with the classical H1 SIV sequences and neuraminidase gene clustered with virus of avian origin, whereas, both genes of H3N2 subtype clustered with H3N2 human-like SIV from the 1970s.
Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Pasławska, Urszula; Gajek, Jacek; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Zyśko, Dorota; Nicpoń, Józef
Swine are recognized animal models of human cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known on the CHF-associated changes in the electrophysiological ventricular parameters of humans and animals. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the durations of ventricular effective refraction period (VERP), QT and QTc intervals of pigs with chronic tachycardia-induced tachycardiomyopathy (TIC). The study was comprised of 28 adult pigs (8 females and 20 males) of the Polish Large White breed. A one-chamber pacemaker was implanted in each of the 28 pigs. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and electrophysiological studies were carried out prior to the pacemaker implantation and at subsequent 4-week intervals. All electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and short electrophysiological study measurements in all swine were done under general anesthesia (propofol) after premedication with midazolam, medetomidine, and ketamine. No significant changes in the duration of QT interval and corrected QT interval (QTc) were observed during consecutive weeks of the experiment. The duration of the QTc interval of female pigs was shown to be significantly longer than that of the males throughout the whole study period. Beginning from the 12th week of rapid ventricular pacing, a significant increase in duration of VERP was observed in both male and female pigs. Males and females did not differ significantly in terms of VERP duration determined throughout the whole study period. Ventricular pacing, stimulation with 2 and 3 premature impulses at progressively shorter coupling intervals and an imposed rhythm of 130 bpm or 150 bpm induced transient ventricular tachycardia in one female pig and four male pigs. One episode of permanent ventricular tachycardia was observed. The number of induced arrhythmias increased proportionally to the severity of heart failure and duration of the experiment. However, relatively aggressive protocols of stimulation were required in order to induce
Background Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by the Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is an Office International des Epizooties (OIE) notifiable disease. However, we are far from fully understand the distribution, tissue tropism, pathogenesis, replication and excretion of CSFV in pigs. In this report, we investigated the dynamic distribution and tissue tropism of the virus in internal organs of the experimentally infected pigs using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results A relative quantification real-time PCR was established and used to detect the virus load in internal organs of the experimentally infected pigs. The study revealed that the virus was detected in all 21 of the internal organs and blood collected from pigs at day 1 to day 8 post infections, and had an increasing virus load from day 1 to day 8 post infections. However, there was irregular distribution virus load in most internal organs over the first 2 days post infection. Blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum usually contain the highest viral loads, while heart, duodenum and brain show relatively low viral loads. Conclusions All the data suggest that CSFV had an increasing virus load from day 1 to day 8 post infections in experimentally infected pigs detected by real-time RT-PCR, which was in consistent with the result of the IHC staining. The data also show that CSFV was likely to reproduce in blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and the ileum, while unlikely to replicate in the heart, duodenum and brain. The results provide a foundation for further clarification of the pathogenic mechanism of CSFV in internal organs, and indicate that blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum may be preferred sites of acute infection. PMID:21535885
Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang–Jin; Deng, Liang–Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui
Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g −1 VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L −1 . Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L −1 . The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yield of 0.649 L g −1 VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s −1 when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield
J. Watson, Simon; Langat, Pinky; M. Reid, Scott
The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data...
Mena, Ignacio; Nelson, Martha I; Quezada-Monroy, Francisco; Dutta, Jayeeta; Cortes-Fernández, Refugio; Lara-Puente, J Horacio; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Cunha, Luis F; Trovão, Nídia S; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Rambaut, Andrew; van Bakel, Harm; García-Sastre, Adolfo
Asia is considered an important source of influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics, owing to large, diverse viral reservoirs in poultry and swine. However, the zoonotic origins of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) remain unclear, due to conflicting evidence from swine and humans. There is strong evidence that the first human outbreak of pdmH1N1 occurred in Mexico in early 2009. However, no related swine viruses have been detected in Mexico or any part of the Americas, and to date the most closely related ancestor viruses were identified in Asian swine. Here, we use 58 new whole-genome sequences from IAVs collected in Mexican swine to establish that the swine virus responsible for the 2009 pandemic evolved in central Mexico. This finding highlights how the 2009 pandemic arose from a region not considered a pandemic risk, owing to an expansion of IAV diversity in swine resulting from long-distance live swine trade. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16777.001 PMID:27350259
The use of tylosin at subtherapeutic levels by the swine industry provides selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance in gastrointestinal bacteria. The land application of swine manure to drained agricultural fields might introduce elevated levels of total and tylosin-resistant ...
Mena, Ignacio; Nelson, Martha I; Quezada-Monroy, Francisco; Dutta, Jayeeta; Cortes-Fernández, Refugio; Lara-Puente, J Horacio; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Cunha, Luis F; Trovão, Nídia S; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Rambaut, Andrew; van Bakel, Harm; García-Sastre, Adolfo
Asia is considered an important source of influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics, owing to large, diverse viral reservoirs in poultry and swine. However, the zoonotic origins of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) remain unclear, due to conflicting evidence from swine and humans. There is strong evidence that the first human outbreak of pdmH1N1 occurred in Mexico in early 2009. However, no related swine viruses have been detected in Mexico or any part of the Americas, and to date the most closely related ancestor viruses were identified in Asian swine. Here, we use 58 new whole-genome sequences from IAVs collected in Mexican swine to establish that the swine virus responsible for the 2009 pandemic evolved in central Mexico. This finding highlights how the 2009 pandemic arose from a region not considered a pandemic risk, owing to an expansion of IAV diversity in swine resulting from long-distance live swine trade.
Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Cormier, Yvon; Veillette, Marc
Swine building exposure causes inflammatory reactions that appear to be attenuated with prolonged periods of contact. The mechanisms behind this adaptation to a dusty and endotoxin-rich environment are poorly understood. Our aim was to compare levels of selected inflammatory mediators in swine fa...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS... Import permit and declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from countries of Central...
Background The swine gut microbiota encompasses a large and diverse population of bacteria that play a significant role in pig health. As such, a number of recent studies have utilized high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition and structure of the swine gut micr...
J.C. de Jong (Jan); D.J. Smith (Derek James); A.S. Lapedes (Alan); I. Donatelli; L. Campitelli; G. Barigazzi; K. van Reeth; T.C. Jones (Terry); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)
textabstractIn the early 1970s, a human influenza A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)-like virus colonized the European swine population. Analyses of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated in The Netherlands and Belgium revealed that in the early 1990s, antigenic drift had occurred, away from A/Port
Reported here is a five-year account of outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) in Plateau state, which devastated swine production and almost threw the whole pig induatry of the state in total disarray. Although veterinary authorities from 15 local government areas (LGA) of the state kreported the lsuspicion of the ldiseas, ...
de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Tudela Zúquete, Sara; Wijnveld, Michiel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Jongejan, Frans; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie L A
African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in
Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Stored swine manure serves as a habitat for billions of microorganisms and is associated with the generation of odorous compounds and g...
Introduction: Influenza A virus (IAV) is one of the most important respiratory pathogens of swine. It impacts mortality and causes significant financial losses through decreased production and the costs associated with vaccination and treatment. Further, due to the susceptibility of swine to transie...
... as yarding receipts, sale tickets, invoices, and waybills upon which is recorded: (i) All serial... offered for sale or transportation, in interstate commerce, unless each swine is identified at whichever... transportation, offers for sale or transportation, or otherwise handles swine in interstate commerce, is...
Introduction: Swine are the only known animal reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE), a human pathogen. Since YE is a fecal organism of swine, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, serotype, virulence plasmid (pYV)-associated characteristics, clonality, and antibiotic su...
...-0005] Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free States AGENCY: Animal and... amending the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis-free States. We have determined that Texas meets the criteria for...
...] Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan AGENCY: Animal and... proposed action plan describing a potential new approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies... brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Comments on the notice were required to...
.... APHIS-2011-0005] Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free States AGENCY.... SUMMARY: We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis...
Joseph E Rubin
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, swine dysentery, is a severe production limiting disease of swine. Recently, pigs in western Canada with clinical signs indistinguishable from swine dysentery were observed. Despite the presence of spirochetes on fecal smears, recognized Brachyspira spp. including B. hyodysenteriae could not be identified. A phylogenetically distinct Brachyspira, called "B. hampsonii" strain 30446, however was isolated. The purpose of this study was to experimentally reproduce mucohaemorrhagic colitis and characterize strain 30446 shedding following inoculation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Eighteen 13-week-old pigs were randomly assigned to inoculation (n = 12 or control (n = 6 groups in each of two trials. In trial 1, pigs were inoculated with a tissue homogenate collected from clinically affected field cases. In trial 2, pigs were inoculated with a pure broth culture of strain 30446. In both trials, mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea was significantly more common in inoculated pigs than controls, all of which remained healthy. In animals with mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea, significantly more spirochetes were observed on Gram stained fecal smears, and higher numbers of strain 30446 genome equivalents were detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR. Strain 30446 was cultured from colon and/or feces of all affected but no control animals at necropsy. CONCLUSIONS: "Brachyspira hampsonii" strain 30446 causes mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea in pigs following a 4-9 day incubation period. Fecal shedding was detectable by day 4 post inoculation, and rarely preceded the onset of mucoid or haemorrhagic diarrhea by more than 2 days. Culture and 30446-specific qPCR are reliable methods of detection of this organism in feces and tissues of diarrheic pigs. The emergence of a novel Brachyspira spp., such as "B. hampsonii", creates diagnostic challenges including higher risk of false negative diagnostic tests. We therefore
Wijesinghe, D. Thushari N.; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Scales, Peter J.
Anaerobic digestion is one of the most effective methods for treating swine manure by converting it into green energy, and efficiently reducing methane (CH4) emission to the atmosphere. Low C/N ratio of swine manure and the production of high levels of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) during...... acidogenesis due to the high N contents of swine manure considerably reduce CH4 yield. The reduction of N during anaerobic digestion by the addition of zeolite improves CH4 production and reduces potential environmental threats associated with ammonia (NH3) emissions from anaerobic digestion of swine manure....... The main objective of this study was to determine the optimum Australian zeolite dose that produces maximum NH4 + recovery at optimum CH4 production. In laboratory experiments, swine manure was treated with natural and sodium zeolites at 0, 10, 40, 70, 100 mg/L and digested anaerobically for 60 days...
Thomas, Milton; Wang, Zhao; Sreenivasan, Chithra C; Hause, Ben M; Gourapura J Renukaradhya; Li, Feng; Francis, David H; Kaushik, Radhey S; Khatri, Mahesh
Swine influenza is widely prevalent in swine herds in North America and Europe causing enormous economic losses and a public health threat. Pigs can be infected by both avian and mammalian influenza viruses and are sources of generation of reassortant influenza viruses capable of causing pandemics in humans. Current commercial vaccines provide satisfactory immunity against homologous viruses; however, protection against heterologous viruses is not adequate. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an intranasal Poly I:C adjuvanted UV inactivated bivalent swine influenza vaccine consisting of Swine/OH/24366/07 H1N1 and Swine/CO/99 H3N2, referred as PAV, in maternal antibody positive pigs against an antigenic variant and a heterologous swine influenza virus challenge. Groups of three-week-old commercial-grade pigs were immunized intranasally with PAV or a commercial vaccine (CV) twice at 2 weeks intervals. Three weeks after the second immunization, pigs were challenged with the antigenic variant Swine/MN/08 H1N1 (MN08) and the heterologous Swine/NC/10 H1N2 (NC10) influenza virus. Antibodies in serum and respiratory tract, lung lesions, virus shedding in nasal secretions and virus load in lungs were assessed. Intranasal administration of PAV induced challenge viruses specific-hemagglutination inhibition- and IgG antibodies in the serum and IgA and IgG antibodies in the respiratory tract. Importantly, intranasal administration of PAV provided protection against the antigenic variant MN08 and the heterologous NC10 swine influenza viruses as evidenced by significant reductions in lung virus load, gross lung lesions and significantly reduced shedding of challenge viruses in nasal secretions. These results indicate that Poly I:C or its homologues may be effective as vaccine adjuvants capable of generating cross-protective immunity against antigenic variants/heterologous swine influenza viruses in pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.
Zhou, Han; Cao, Zhenpeng; Tan, Likai; Fu, Xinliang; Lu, Gang; Qi, Wenbao; Ke, Changwen; Wang, Heng; Sun, Lingshuang; Zhang, Guihong
Infection of human with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) occasionally occurs in China, suggesting a potential risk of cross-species transmission of the swine influenza H1N1 virus from pigs to humans, particularly to those having direct contact with pigs. A seroepidemiological study was conducted to assess the prevalence of antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China to evaluate the risk of infection to swine farm workers. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays revealed that 11.17% (61/546) of the sera samples from swine farm residents in southern China were positive for antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. The difference in numbers of antibody-positive samples obtained from swine farm residents and a control group of healthy city residents was statistically significant (P = 0.031). In addition, 219 of the 1,180 serum samples from pigs were positive for the antibodies against an avian-like A (H1N1) SIV, A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2013(H1N1), as assessed by HI. The data suggest that occupational exposure of swine farm residents and veterinarians in southern China to pigs may increase their risk of acquiring avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection. According to a special pig farming model in southern China, the staff and residents are in close contact with infected pigs and may be among the first to become infected.
Luan, Xiaojie; Belev, George; Tam, Julian S; Jagadeeshan, Santosh; Hassan, Noman; Gioino, Paula; Grishchenko, Nikolay; Huang, Yanyun; Carmalt, James L; Duke, Tanya; Jones, Teela; Monson, Bev; Burmester, Monique; Simovich, Tomer; Yilmaz, Orhan; Campanucci, Veronica A; Machen, Terry E; Chapman, L Dean; Ianowski, Juan P
Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel, which can result in chronic lung disease. The sequence of events leading to lung disease is not fully understood but recent data show that the critical pathogenic event is the loss of the ability to clear bacteria due to abnormal airway surface liquid secretion (ASL). However, whether the inhalation of bacteria triggers ASL secretion and whether this is abnormal in cystic fibrosis has never been tested. Here we show, using a novel synchrotron-based in vivo imaging technique, that wild-type pigs display both a basal and a Toll-like receptor-mediated ASL secretory response to the inhalation of cystic fibrosis relevant bacteria. Both mechanisms fail in CFTR -/- swine, suggesting that cystic fibrosis airways do not respond to inhaled pathogens, thus favoring infection and inflammation that may eventually lead to tissue remodeling and respiratory disease.Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the CFTR chloride channel, leading to reduced airway surface liquid secretion. Here the authors show that exposure to bacteria triggers secretion in wild-type but not in pig models of cystic fibrosis, suggesting an impaired response to pathogens contributes to infection.
Gao, Zhiwei; Dosman, James A; Rennie, Donna C; Schwartz, David A; Yang, Ivana V; Beach, Jeremy; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan
Workers in swine operations are exposed to indoor dusts and gases and are at increased risk of respiratory problems. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 recognizes ligands from gram-positive bacteria, whereas TLR4 responds to endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria. To investigate the effects of TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms on lung function in workers from swine operations and nonfarming rural dwellers. A total of 374 full-time workers from large swine operations and 411 nonfarming rural dwellers from Saskatchewan were included. Information on demography, lifestyle, and occupation, lung function measurements, and blood samples for genotyping were obtained from the participants. Multiple regression analysis and Bonferroni correction were used in the statistical analysis. Workers with TLR2-16933T/A polymorphism (AA) had significantly greater mean values of lung function than workers with wild-type genotypes (AT+TT) after controlling for potential confounders (forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 3.7 vs 3.5 L; P=.009; forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75%, 3.7 vs 3.3 L; P=.003; predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second; 100.3% vs 95.6%; P=.005; forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75%, 92.4% vs 83.4%; P=.009). These results were also observed for TLR2Arg677Trp polymorphism among the workers. No such significant differences were observed among nonfarming rural dwellers. For Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene, no significant differences were observed in the mean lung function values between the polymorphic and wild-type groups in both workers and rural dwellers. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, to report protective effects of TLR2 polymorphisms on lung function among workers in swine operations and raises the possibility that TLR2 polymorphisms are protective of airway disease in individuals exposed to gram-positive organisms in the inhaled airborne dust. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by
Sun, Ying-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Li; Li, Hai-Hua; Lu, Chao; Yang, Chun-Lei; Feng, Jing; Han, Wei; Ren, Wei-Ke; Tian, Xiang-Xue; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Wen, Feng; Li, Ze-Jun; Gong, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ruan, Bao-Yang; Yan, Ming-Hua; Yu, Hai
Pigs are susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses and therefore have been proposed to be mixing vessels for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment. In this study, for the first time, we report the isolation and genetic analyses of three novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses from pigs in Tianjin, Northern China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these novel viruses contained genes from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (PB2, PB1, PA and NP), Eurasian swine (HA, NA and M) and triple-reassortant swine (NS) lineages. This indicated that the reassortment among the 2009 pandemic H1N1, Eurasian swine and triple-reassortant swine influenza viruses had taken place in pigs in Tianjin and resulted in the generation of new viruses. Furthermore, three human-like H1N1, two classical swine H1N1 and two Eurasian swine H1N1 viruses were also isolated during the swine influenza virus surveillance from 2009 to 2013, which indicated that multiple genetic lineages of swine H1N1 viruses were co-circulating in the swine population in Tianjin, China. The emergence of novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses may be a potential threat to human health and emphasizes the importance of further continuous surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario.
Arruda, Andreia G; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen
The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population.
Full Text Available Abstract Classical swine fever is a highly contagious disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus, an OIE list A pathogen. Epitope-based vaccines is one of the current focuses in the development of new vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Two B-cell linear epitopes rE2-ba from the E2 glycoprotein of CSFV, rE2-a (CFRREKPFPHRMDCVTTTVENED, aa844-865 and rE2-b (CKEDYRYAISSTNEIGLLGAGGLT, aa693-716, were constructed and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as multiple epitope vaccine. Fifteen 6-week-old specified-pathogen-free (SPF piglets were intramuscularly immunized with epitopes twice at 2-week intervals. All epitope-vaccinated pigs could mount an anamnestic response after booster vaccination with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. At this time, the pigs were subjected to challenge infection with a dose of 1 × 106 TCID50 virulent CSFV strain. After challenge infection, all of the rE2-ba-immunized pigs were alive and without symptoms or signs of CSF. In contrast, the control pigs continuously exhibited signs of CSF and had to be euthanized because of severe clinical symptoms at 5 days post challenge infection. The data from in vivo experiments shown that the multiple epitope rE2-ba shown a greater protection (similar to that of HCLV vaccine than that of mono-epitope peptide(rE2-a or rE2-b. Therefore, The results demonstrated that this multiple epitope peptide expressed in a prokaryotic system can be used as a potential DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals vaccine. The E.coli-expressed E2 multiple B-cell linear epitopes retains correct immunogenicity and is able to induce a protective immune response against CSFV infection.
Klingbeil, Katharina; Lange, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter
Pigs can be severely harmed by influenza, and represent important reservoir hosts, in which new human pathogens such as the recent pandemic swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus can arise by mutation and reassortment of genome segments. To obtain novel, safe influenza vaccines for pigs, and to investigate the antigen-specific immune response, we modified an established live-virus vaccine against Aujeszky's disease of swine, pseudorabies virus (PrV) strain Bartha (PrV-Ba), to serve as vector for the expression of haemagglutinin (HA) of swine-origin H1N1 virus. To facilitate transgene insertion, the genome of PrV-Ba was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome. HA expression occurred under control of the human or murine cytomegalovirus immediate early promoters (P-HCMV, P-MCMV), but could be substantially enhanced by synthetic introns and adaptation of the codon usage to that of PrV. However, despite abundant expression, the heterologous glycoprotein was not detectably incorporated into mature PrV particles. Replication of HA-expressing PrV in cell culture was only slightly affected compared to that of the parental virus strain. A single immunization of pigs with the PrV vector expressing the codon-optimized HA gene under control of P-MCMV induced high levels of HA-specific antibodies. The vaccinated animals were protected from clinical signs after challenge with a related swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus, and challenge virus shedding was significantly reduced.
Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RV are important causes of diarrhea in animals, especially in domestic animals. Of the 9 RV species, rotavirus A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively had been established as important causes of diarrhea in pigs. The Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory receives swine stool samples from North America to determine the etiologic agents of disease. Between November 2009 and October 2011, 7,508 samples from pigs with diarrhea were submitted to determine if enteric pathogens, including RV, were present in the samples. All samples were tested for RVA, RVB, and RVC by real time RT-PCR. The majority of the samples (82% were positive for RVA, RVB, and/or RVC. To better understand the risk factors associated with RV infections in swine diagnostic samples, three-level mixed-effects logistic regression models (3L-MLMs were used to estimate associations among RV species, age, and geographical variability within the major swine production regions in North America. The conditional odds ratios (cORs for RVA and RVB detection were lower for 1-3 day old pigs when compared to any other age group. However, the cOR of RVC detection in 1-3 day old pigs was significantly higher (p 55 day old age groups. Furthermore, pigs in the 21-55 day old age group had statistically higher cORs of RV co-detection compared to 1-3 day old pigs (p < 0.001. The 3L-MLMs indicated that RV status was more similar within states than among states or within each region. Our results indicated that 3L-MLMs are a powerful and adaptable tool to handle and analyze large-hierarchical datasets. In addition, our results indicated that, overall, swine RV epidemiology is complex, and RV species are associated with different age groups and vary by regions in North America.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent avian influenza epidemic in Asia and the H1N1 pandemic demonstrated that influenza A viruses pose a threat to global public health. The animal origins of the viruses confirmed the potential for interspecies transmission. Swine are hypothesized to be prime "mixing vessels" due to the dual receptivity of their trachea to human and avian strains. Additionally, avian and human influenza viruses have previously been isolated in swine. Therefore, understanding interspecies contact on smallholder swine farms and its potential role in the transmission of pathogens such as influenza virus is very important. Methods This qualitative study aimed to determine swine-associated interspecies contacts in two coastal areas of Peru. Direct observations were conducted at both small-scale confined and low-investment swine farms (n = 36 and in open areas where swine freely range during the day (n = 4. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders in swine farming. Results In both locations, the intermingling of swine and domestic birds was common. An unexpected contact with avian species was that swine were fed poultry mortality in 6/20 of the farms in Chancay. Human-swine contacts were common, with a higher frequency on the confined farms. Mixed farming of swine with chickens or ducks was observed in 36% of all farms. Human-avian interactions were less frequent overall. Use of adequate biosecurity and hygiene practices by farmers was suboptimal at both locations. Conclusions Close human-animal interaction, frequent interspecies contacts and suboptimal biosecurity and hygiene practices pose significant risks of interspecies influenza virus transmission. Farmers in small-scale swine production systems constitute a high-risk population and need to be recognized as key in preventing interspecies pathogen transfer. A two-pronged prevention approach, which offers educational activities for swine farmers about sound hygiene and
Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi
Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...
Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui
A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poonsuk, Sukontip; Sangthong, Pradit; Petcharat, Nantawan; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa
Swine influenza virus (SIV) is one of the most important zoonotic agents and the origin of the most recent pandemic virus. Asia is considered to be the epicenter for genetic exchanging of influenza A viruses and Southeast Asia including Thailand serves as a reservoir to maintain the persistence of the viruses for seeding other regions. Therefore, searching for new reassortants in this area has been routinely required. Although SIVs in Thailand have been characterized, collective information regarding their genetic evolution and gene constellations is limited. In this study, whole genomes of 30 SIVs isolated during clinical target surveillance plus all available sequences of past and currently circulating Thai SIVs were genetically characterized based on their evolutionary relationships. All genetic pools of Thai SIVs are comprised of four lineages including classical swine (CS), Eurasian swine (EAs), Triple reassortants (TRIG) and Seasonal human (Shs). Out of 84 isolates, nine H1N1, six H3N2 and one H1N2 strains were identified. Gene constellations of SIVs in Thailand are highly complex resulting from multiple reassortments among concurrently circulating SIVs and temporally introduced foreign genes. Most strains contain gene segments from both EAs and CS lineages and appeared transiently. TRIG lineage has been recently introduced into Thai SIV gene pools. The existence of EAs and TRIG lineages in this region may increase rates of genetic exchange and diversity while Southeast Asia is a persistent reservoir for influenza A viruses. Continual monitoring of SIV evolution in this region is crucial in searching for the next potential pandemic viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pantoja, Lucina Galina; Pettit, Kalie; Dos Santos, Lucas F; Tubbs, Rick; Pieters, Maria
The objective of our study was to characterize the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic diversity within a swine operation comingling weaned pigs. Bronchial swabs and tracheal aspirates were collected from 3 nursery-to-finish farms. During the finishing production stages, samples were obtained from mortalities and from live coughing pigs in rooms where mortality was not observed. A total of 105 samples were examined by a M. hyopneumoniae real-time polymerase chain reaction and subjected to genetic typing using a multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) assay. The MLVA was used to identify genetic variants based on the number of repeats in 2 variable number tandem repeats loci, namely P97 and P146, thought to mediate adherence of M. hyopneumoniae to swine cilia. Four distinguishable M. hyopneumoniae variants were identified: MVLA variants 9-15, 11-21, 9-21, and 7-15. Variant 9-15 was the most prevalent, observed in 79% of rooms, and detected on all 3 farms. Variant 11-21 was present in 37% of the rooms on 2 of the 3 farms. Only one 9-21 variant was identified in 1 farm, and all samples of variant 7-15 were recovered from another farm. Based on the low prevalence and limited geographic distribution of the last 2 variants, it is hypothesized that they might be the result of in-situ recombination. All variants detected in this investigation appeared to belong to 3 clusters. Overall, a limited number of variants and clusters were identified in a system that comingles pigs from different sources, suggesting limited M. hyopneumoniae genetic variation within commercial swine production environments. © 2016 The Author(s).
Sastre, P; Gallardo, C; Monedero, A; Ruiz, T; Arias, M; Sanz, A; Rueda, P
African swine fever (ASF) is a viral infectious disease of domestic and wild suids of all breeds and ages, causing a wide range of hemorrhagic syndromes and frequently characterized by high mortality. The disease is endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa and Sardinia. Since 2007, it has also been present in different countries of Eastern Europe, where control measures have not been effective so far. The continued spread poses a serious threat to the swine industry worldwide. In the absence of vaccine, early detection of infected animals is of paramount importance for control of the outbreak, to prevent the transmission of the virus to healthy animals and subsequent spreading of the disease. Current laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on virological methods (antigen and genome detection) and serodiagnosis. In the present work, a Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) for antigen detection has been developed and evaluated. The test is based on the use of a MAb against VP72 protein of ASFV, the major viral capsid protein and highly immunogenic. First experiments using VP72 viral and recombinant protein or inactivated culture virus showed promising results with a sensitivity similar to that of a commercially available Antigen-ELISA. Moreover, these strips were tested with blood from experimentally infected pigs and field animals and the results compared with those of PCR and Antigen-ELISA. For the experimentally infected samples, there was an excellent correlation between the LFA and the ELISA, while the PCR always showed to be more sensitive (38 % positive samples by PCR versus 27 % by LFA). The LFA was demonstrated to be positive for animals with circulating virus levels exceeding 10(4) HAU. With the field samples, once again, the PCR detected more positives than either the Antigen-ELISA or LFA, although here the number of positive samples scored by the LFA exceeded the values obtained with the Antigen-ELISA, showing 60 % positivity vs 48 % for the ELISA. For the two groups of sera
Sarin, Eric L; Shi, Weiwei; Duara, Rajnish; Melone, Todd A; Kalra, Kanika; Strong, Ashley; Girish, Apoorva; McIver, Bryant V; Thourani, Vinod H; Guyton, Robert A; Padala, Muralidhar
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common heart-valve lesion after myocardial infarction in humans. Because it is considered a risk factor for accelerated heart failure and death, various surgical approaches and catheter-based devices to correct it are in development. Lack of a reproducible animal model of MR after myocardial infarction and reliable techniques to perform open-heart surgery in these diseased models led to the use of healthy animals to test new devices. Thus, most devices that are deemed safe in healthy animals have shown poor results in human efficacy studies, hampering progress in this area of research. Here we report our experience with a swine model of postinfarction MR, describe techniques to induce regurgitation and perform open-heart surgery in these diseased animals, and discuss our outcomes, complications, and solutions.
Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Czyżewska, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt
Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were studied. Nine pigs were infected intratracheally, and five served as controls. Antibodies against SIV were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay, and the influenza-virus-specific T-cell response was measured using a proliferation assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) the concentrations in serum and concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in lung tissues were measured using commercial ELISAs.
Cabezón, O; Colom-Cadena, A; Muñoz-González, S; Pérez-Simó, M; Bohórquez, J A; Rosell, R; Marco, I; Domingo, M; Lavín, S; Ganges, L
In this study, fifteen wild boar piglets were intranasally inoculated classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Catalonia 01. At 5 days post-inoculation, seven other animals within 48 h of birth were put in contact with them. Viral replication and innate and specific immune responses were evaluated. Of the inoculated animals, 46.67% remained post-natally persistently infected and were apparently healthy with neither humoral nor cellular immunological responses specific to CSFV and with high viral loads in their blood, organs and body secretions. Moreover, the present data extend the time period to 48 h after birth when a moderately virulent CSFV strain could lead to post-natal persistent infection given the generation of persistently infected wild boars in the contact group (33.33%). The innate immune response to the virus, as measured by type I IFN-α in serum, was mostly not impaired in the persistently infected wild boars. Interestingly, a decrease and lack of IFN-γ-producing cells against CSFV and PHA was observed. In endemic countries where wild swine species are increasing and low and moderate virulence CSFV strains are prevalent, the possible generation of this form of disease cannot be ruled out. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Beest, te E.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Stegeman, A.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Boven, van R.M.
The control of highly infectious diseases of livestock such as classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and avian influenza is fraught with ethical, economic, and public health dilemmas. Attempts to control outbreaks of these pathogens rely on massive culling of infected farms, and farms
Within the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds,
Nelson, John B.
The introduction of vaccinia virus into the skin of swine calls forth a typical vesicular reaction which may be followed by a solid immunity. This acquired state of resistance was utilized in determining the route of immunity transmission from sow to young. The suckling young of immune sows, vaccinated on the 7th day or earlier, showed no reaction to the virus. Their hand-fed litter mates, however, were susceptible and reacted with the formation of vesicles. These observations indicate that the porcine placenta is largely impermeable to protective substances and establish the fact that colostrum functions as the vehicle for their transmission as it does for antibodies. PMID:19870106
Jackson, Charlene R.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Barrett, John B.; Ladely, Scott R.
The effect of tylosin on erythromycin-resistant enterococci was examined on three farms; farm A used tylosin for growth promotion, farm B used tylosin for treatment of disease, and farm C did not use tylosin for either growth promotion or disease treatment. A total of 1,187 enterococci were isolated from gestation, farrowing, suckling, nursery, and finishing swine from the farms. From a subset of those isolates (n = 662), 59% (124 out of 208), 28% (80 out of 281), and 2% (4 out of 170) were resistant to erythromycin (MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml) from farms A, B, and C, respectively. PCR analysis and Southern blotting revealed that 95% (65 out of 68) of isolates chosen from all three farms for further study were positive for ermB, but all were negative for ermA and ermC. By using Southern blotting, ermB was localized to the chromosome in 56 of the isolates while 9 isolates from farms A and B contained ermB on two similar-sized plasmid bands (12 to 16 kb). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the isolates were genetically diverse and represented a heterogeneous population of enterococci. This study suggests that although there was resistance to a greater number of enterococcal isolates on a farm where tylosin was used as a growth promotant, resistant enterococci also existed on a farm where no antimicrobial agents were used. PMID:15240302
Schnyder, M; Stärk, K D C; Vanzetti, T; Salman, M D; Thor, B; Schleiss, W; Griot, C
An outbreak of classical swine fever in wild boar in the southern part of Switzerland (Canton of Ticino) was investigated after the implementation of control measures in a defined infected area (the risk zone), and in a surrounding surveillance zone (the non-risk zone). After the disease had been detected, hunting was not allowed in the risk zone for over six months, during which the disease was left to run its course, but hunting was continued in the non-risk zone for one month. After seven months, a hunting strategy targeted at young animals was implemented in both zones. Between May 1998 and January 2000,1294 wild boar were shot or found dead, and diagnostic and biological data were collected and analysed. Only one animal from the non-risk zone was found to be seropositive for antibodies to the virus, whereas 179 of 528 wild boar from the risk zone were virus positive and 162 were seropositive. The proportion of virus-positive animals decreased from 62.7 per cent to zero over one year. During the first hunting season, seropositive animals were found in all age groups, but 12 months later only animals more than one year old had antibodies against the virus.
Lin, Y. F.; Yannarell, A. C.; Mackie, R. I.; Krapac, I. G.; Chee-Sanford, J. S.; Koike, S.
The use of antibiotics at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for disease prevention, disease treatment, and growth promotion can contribute to the spread of antibiotic compounds, their breakdown products, and antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or the genes that confer resistance. In addition, constitutive use of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels can select for antibiotic resistance among the bacteria that inhabit animal intestinal tracts, onsite manure treatment facilities, and any environments receiving significant inputs of manure (e.g. through waste lagoon leakage or fertilizer amendments to farm soils). If the antibiotic resistant organisms persist in these new environments, or if they participate in genetic exchanges with the native microflora, then CAFOs may constitute a significant reservoir for the spread of antibiotic resistance to the environment at large. Our results have demonstrated that leakage from waste treatment lagoons can influence the presence and persistence of tetracycline resistance genes in the shallow aquifer adjacent to swine CAFOs, and molecular phylogeny allowed us to distinguish "native" tetracycline resistance genes in control groundwater wells from manure-associated genes introduced from the lagoon. We have also been able to detect the presence of erythromycin resistance genes in CAFO surface and groundwater even though erythromycin is strictly reserved for use in humans and thus is not utilized at any of these sites. Ongoing research, including modeling of particle transport in groundwater, will help to determine the potential spatial and temporal extent of CAFO-derived antibiotic resistance.
Full Text Available Aim: The research was conducted to understand more profoundly the pathogenetic aspects of the acute form of the African swine fever (ASF. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 pigs were inoculated with ASF virus (ASFV (genotype II in the study of the red blood cells (RBCs, blood and urine biochemistry in the dynamics of disease. Results: The major hematological differences observed in ASFV infected pigs were that the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and hematocrits were significantly decreased compared to controls, and the levels of erythropoietin were significantly increased. Also were detected the trends of decrease in RBC count at terminal stages of ASF. Analysis of blood biochemistry revealed that during ASF development, besides bilirubinemia significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase were detected. Analysis of urine biochemistry revealed the presence of bilirubinuria, proteinuria during ASF development. Proteinuria, especially at late stages of the disease reflects a severe kidney damage possible glomerulonefritis. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the characteristics of developing hemolytic anemia observed in acute ASF (genotype II.
Karalyan, Zaven; Zakaryan, Hovakim; Arakelova, Elina; Aivazyan, Violeta; Tatoyan, Marina; Kotsinyan, Armen; Izmailyan, Roza; Karalova, Elena
The research was conducted to understand more profoundly the pathogenetic aspects of the acute form of the African swine fever (ASF). A total of 10 pigs were inoculated with ASF virus (ASFV) (genotype II) in the study of the red blood cells (RBCs), blood and urine biochemistry in the dynamics of disease. The major hematological differences observed in ASFV infected pigs were that the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and hematocrits were significantly decreased compared to controls, and the levels of erythropoietin were significantly increased. Also were detected the trends of decrease in RBC count at terminal stages of ASF. Analysis of blood biochemistry revealed that during ASF development, besides bilirubinemia significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase were detected. Analysis of urine biochemistry revealed the presence of bilirubinuria, proteinuria during ASF development. Proteinuria, especially at late stages of the disease reflects a severe kidney damage possible glomerulonefritis. The results of this study indicate the characteristics of developing hemolytic anemia observed in acute ASF (genotype II).
Enkhbold, Bazarragchaa; Shatar, Munkhduuren; Wakamori, Shiho; Tamura, Tomokazu; Hiono, Takahiro; Matsuno, Keita; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Umemura, Takashi; Damdinjav, Batchuluun; Sakoda, Yoshihiro
Classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious viral disease affecting domestic and wild pigs in many developing countries, is now considered endemic in Mongolia, with 14 recent outbreaks in 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2015. For the first time, CSF viruses isolated from these 14 outbreaks were analyzed to assess their molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity in pigs. Based on the nucleotide sequences of their 5'-untranslated region, isolates were phylogenetically classified as either sub-genotypes 2.1b or 2.2, and the 2014 and 2015 isolates, which were classified as 2.1b, were closely related to isolates from China and Korea. In addition, at least three different viruses classified as 2.1b circulated in Mongolia. Experimental infection of the representative isolate in 2014 demonstrated moderate pathogenicity in 4-week-old pigs, with relatively mild clinical signs. Understanding the diversity of circulating CSF viruses gleans insight into disease dynamics and evolution, and may inform the design of effective CSF control strategies in Mongolia.
Powell, Joshua D.; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Nagy, Tamas; Gabbard, Jon; Lee, Christopher; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Tripp, Ralph A.
Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA) segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA) showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection. PMID:25330303
Joshua D Powell
Full Text Available Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.
Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Mortensen, Alicja
Objective-To compare 3 alternative culture techniques for the detection of Salmonella organisms in swine feces with a modification of the international Standard Organization (ISO) 6579 standard protocol. Sample Population-Fecal samples from swine herds suspected of having Salmonella infections....... Results-Comparing the Salmonella culture results of 183 swine fecal samples, the diagnostic sensitivity of the SPRINT protocol (0.86) was not significantly different than the diagnostic sensitivity of the modified ISO protocol (0.80), although it was 24 hours faster. The SPRINT protocol could detect 5...
Szögi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B; Hunt, Patrick G
Phosphorus (P) recovery from liquid swine manure is an attractive technology when on-farm application of liquid swine manure is not an option. We developed a technology that enables separation of this P, but its high moisture content makes transportation difficult. In this work, we investigated dewatering procedures to concentrate the P product. Sludge rich in calcium phosphate (> 20% P2O5) was obtained using a field prototype, and it was further dewatered using a combination of polymer treatment and filter bags. Anionic polyacrylamide polymer treatment (> or = 20 mg/L) was effective to flocculate the P-rich sludge, which enhanced filtration and dewatering. Without polymer, filtration was incomplete due to clogging of filters. Non-woven polypropylene and monofilament filter bag fabrics with mesh size 99% of suspended solids and total P. Solids content dramatically increased from about 1.5% to > 90%. These dewatered solids can be transported more economically off the farm for use as a valuable fertilizer material.
The proof of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) called SL-A enabled to promote bone marrow allografts. A study of the response to that kind of graft in irradiated pig states a number of interesting points. Bone marrow allografting complies with the rule of tissular compatibility with the major histocompatibility complex. The taking of SL-A incompatible bone marrow allografts could not be achieved under the experimental conditions. In spite of the high doses of radiation, 950 to 1050 rads, higher than 1.5 LD 100%, recipients were capable of rejecting their grafts, regularly. SL-A identify ensured 100%, initial achievement. However, animals developed regular fatal disease within a fairly short time. This development could by no means, be ascribed to the sole sequealae of radiation sickness since autografted animals at equal or even higher doses, showed none of the symptome. Assumption of a chronic graft-vs-host reactions, induced by the minor histocompatible systems, was put foreward, but should be confirmed histopathologically [fr
Eberling, August J; Bieker-Stefanelli, Jill; Reising, Monica M; Siev, David; Martin, Barbara M; McIntosh, Michael T; Beckham, Tammy R
Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically devastating disease of pigs. Instrumental to the control of CSF is a well-characterized assay that can deliver a rapid, accurate diagnosis prior to the onset of clinical signs. A real-time fluorogenic-probe hydrolysis (TaqMan) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for CSF was developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) at the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (CSF PIADC assay) and evaluated for analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. A well-characterized panel including Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Border disease virus (BDV) isolates was utilized in initial feasibility and optimization studies. The assay was initially designed and validated for use on the ABI 7900HT using the Qiagen QuantiTect® Probe RT-PCR chemistry. However, demonstrating equivalency with multiple one-step RT-PCR chemistries and PCR platforms increased the versatility of the assay. Limit of detection experiments indicated that the Qiagen QuantiTect® Multiplex (NoROX) and the Invitrogen SuperScript® III RT-PCR kits were consistently the most sensitive one-step chemistries for use with the CSF PIADC primer/probe set. Analytical sensitivity of the CSF PIADC assay ranged from <1-2.95 log(10) TCID(50)/ml on both the ABI 7900HT and ABI 7500 platforms. The CSF PIADC assay had 100% diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when tested on a panel of 152 clinical samples from the Dominican Republic and Colombia. The ability to perform this newly developed assay in 96-well formats provides an increased level of versatility for use in CSF surveillance programs.
Hadsbjerg, Johanne; Friis, Martin B; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Nielsen, Jens; Belsham, Graham J; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important disease of swine. Four different viruses were rescued from full-length cloned cDNAs derived from the Paderborn strain of CSFV. Three of these viruses had been modified by mutagenesis (with 7 or 8 nt changes) within stem 2 of the subdomain IIIf of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that directs the initiation of protein synthesis. Rescued viruses were inoculated into pigs. The rescued vPader10 virus, without modifications in the IRES, induced clinical disease in pigs that was very similar to that observed previously with the parental field strain and transmission to in-contact pigs occurred. Two sequence reversions, in the NS2 and NS5B coding regions, became dominant within the virus populations in these infected pigs. Rescued viruses, with mutant IRES elements, did not induce disease and only very limited circulation of viral RNA could be detected. However, the animals inoculated with these mutant viruses seroconverted against CSFV. Thus, these mutant viruses were highly attenuated in vivo. All 4 rescued viruses were also passaged up to 20 times in cell culture. Using full genome sequencing, the same two adaptations within each of four independent virus populations were observed that restored the coding sequence to that of the parental field strain. These adaptations occurred with different kinetics. The combination of reverse genetics and in depth, full genome sequencing provides a powerful approach to analyse virus adaptation and to identify key determinants of viral replication efficiency in cells and within host animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.