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Sample records for swine breeding systems

  1. SWINE BREEDING SYSTEMS: A STOCHASTIC EVALUATION WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Raymond E.; Williams, Joseph E.

    1991-01-01

    The after-tax net present value for 27 swine breeding systems composed of Duroc, Hampshire, and Yorkshire breeds were simulated and ordered using stochastic dominance analysis. The concept of the value of information was expanded to develop the concept of the willingness to pay to adopt a new technology. For producers not currently using the dominant system, estimates of the allowable present value cost of adoption are reported and used to explain diverse production practices.

  2. Fatty acids composition of Colonnata Lard from two different swine breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Secchiari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the fatty acid composition of the Colonnata lard obtained from two different swine breeds, Large White (LW and Cinta Senese (CS, during a one year long curing period. Samples of backfat were obtained from the carcass of three animals per breed and disposed into six different marble boxes according to the procedure of the disciplinary production of PGI “Lardo di Colonnata”. During curing period individual lard samples were collected monthly from each marble box. The fatty acid composition of pig backfat reflected the differences in the dietary regimen and in the rearing system of the two breeds. LW swine, in fact, were fed a commercial concentrate and reared in an intensive system, whereas CS swine were fed a diet composed by a commercial concentrate supplemented with acorn and reared in an outdoor system. Lard from LW contained higher amount of saturated fatty acids than lard from CS, whereas the content of unsaturated fatty acids (mainly monounsaturated fatty acids was lower. During the curing period the trend of lard fatty acids composition was different in the two breeds: the lard from CS seemed to be more susceptible to a faster hydrolysis of fatty acids than lard from LW, especially for the monounsaturated fatty acids, while the lard from LW seemed to be more susceptible to a faster hydrolysis of PUFA n-3.

  3. Relationships among and variation within rare breeds of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K S; Lamberson, W R

    2015-08-01

    Extinction of rare breeds of livestock threatens to reduce the total genetic variation available for selection in the face of the changing environment and new diseases. Swine breeds facing extinction typically share characteristics such as small size, slow growth rate, and high fat percentage, which limit them from contributing to commercial production. Compounding the risk of loss of variation is the lack of pedigree information for many rare breeds due to inadequate herd books, which increases the chance that producers are breeding closely related individuals. By making genetic data available, producers can make more educated breeding decisions to preserve genetic diversity in future generations, and conservation organizations can prioritize investments in breed preservation. The objective of this study was to characterize genetic variation within and among breeds of swine and prioritize heritage breeds for preservation. Genotypes from the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip (GeneSeek, Lincoln, NE) were obtained for Guinea, Ossabaw Island, Red Wattle, American Saddleback, Mulefoot, British Saddleback, Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, and Tamworth pigs. A whole-genome analysis toolset was used to construct a genomic relationship matrix and to calculate inbreeding coefficients for the animals within each breed. Relatedness and average inbreeding coefficient differed among breeds, and pigs from rare breeds were generally more closely related and more inbred ( Guinea pigs. Tamworth, Duroc, and Mulefoot tended to not cluster with the other 7 breeds.

  4. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  5. Inbreeding and Genetic Diversity in Three Imported Swine Breeds in China Using Pedigree Data

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    G. Q. Tang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of inbreeding and the loss of genetic diversity is a potential problem in the modern swine breeds in China. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the pedigrees of Chinese Duroc (CD, Landrace (CL and Yorkshire (CY swine to estimate the past and current rates of inbreeding, and to identify the main causes of genetic diversity loss. Pedigree files from CD, CL and CY containing, 4529, 16,776 and 22,600 records, respectively, were analyzed. Pedigree completeness indexes of the three breeds, accounting for one generation back, were 83.72, 93.93 and 93.59%, respectively. The estimated average annual inbreeding rates for CD, CL and CY in recent three years were 0.21, 0.19 and 0.13%, respectively. The estimated average percentage of genetic diversity loss within each breed in recent three years was about 8.92, 2.19, and 3.36%, respectively. The average relative proportion of genetic diversity loss due to unequal contributions of founders in CD, CL and CY was 69.09, 57.95 and 60.57%, and due to random genetic drift was 30.91, 42.05 and 39.43%, respectively. The estimated current effective population size for CD, CL and CY was 76, 117 and 202, respectively. Therefore, CD has been found to have lost considerable genetic diversity, demanding priority for optimizing the selection and mating to control future coancestry and inbreeding. Unequal contribution of founders was a major cause of genetic diversity loss in Chinese swine breeds and random genetic drift also showed substantial impact on the loss of diversity.

  6. Differences in X-chromosome transcriptional activity and cholesterol metabolism between placentae from swine breeds from Asian and Western origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Steve R; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Hardison, Nicholas E; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A; Freking, Bradley A; Nonneman, Dan J; Rohrer, Gary A; Piedrahita, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight into differences in placental physiology between two swine breeds noted for their dissimilar reproductive performance, that is, the Chinese Meishan and white composite (WC), we examined gene expression profiles of placental tissues collected at 25, 45, 65, 85, and 105 days of gestation by microarrays. Using a linear mixed model, a total of 1,595 differentially expressed genes were identified between the two pig breeds using a false-discovery rate q-value ≤0.05. Among these genes, we identified breed-specific isoforms of XIST, a long non-coding RNA responsible X-chromosome dosage compensation in females. Additionally, we explored the interaction of placental gene expression and chromosomal location by DIGMAP and identified three Sus scrofa X chromosomal bands (Xq13, Xq21, Xp11) that represent transcriptionally active clusters that differ between Meishan and WC during placental development. Also, pathway analysis identified fundamental breed differences in placental cholesterol trafficking and its synthesis. Direct measurement of cholesterol confirmed that the cholesterol content was significantly higher in the Meishan versus WC placentae. Taken together, this work identifies key metabolic pathways that differ in the placentae of two swine breeds noted for differences in reproductive prolificacy.

  7. Differences in X-chromosome transcriptional activity and cholesterol metabolism between placentae from swine breeds from Asian and Western origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve R Bischoff

    Full Text Available To gain insight into differences in placental physiology between two swine breeds noted for their dissimilar reproductive performance, that is, the Chinese Meishan and white composite (WC, we examined gene expression profiles of placental tissues collected at 25, 45, 65, 85, and 105 days of gestation by microarrays. Using a linear mixed model, a total of 1,595 differentially expressed genes were identified between the two pig breeds using a false-discovery rate q-value ≤0.05. Among these genes, we identified breed-specific isoforms of XIST, a long non-coding RNA responsible X-chromosome dosage compensation in females. Additionally, we explored the interaction of placental gene expression and chromosomal location by DIGMAP and identified three Sus scrofa X chromosomal bands (Xq13, Xq21, Xp11 that represent transcriptionally active clusters that differ between Meishan and WC during placental development. Also, pathway analysis identified fundamental breed differences in placental cholesterol trafficking and its synthesis. Direct measurement of cholesterol confirmed that the cholesterol content was significantly higher in the Meishan versus WC placentae. Taken together, this work identifies key metabolic pathways that differ in the placentae of two swine breeds noted for differences in reproductive prolificacy.

  8. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    .... APHIS-2009-0067] RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements... tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action would facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by...

  9. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...-0067] RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY... testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action will facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by eliminating the need to conduct pre...

  10. The cholesterol system of the swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, Jocelyne

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic system of adult female Large White swine. The content of this system and its relationships with both the external environment and between the different parts of the system were explained. The analysis of these results in terms of compared physiology showed that the structure of the cholesterol system was the same in man and in the swine. Consequently, the swine constitutes a good biological tool to study human cholesterol indirectly and to foresee the changes that might be induced in various physio-pathological cases. (author) [fr

  11. Selection and use of microsatellite markers for individual identification and meat traceability of six swine breeds in the Chinese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Tingting; Zhu, Chao; Jiang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Zhenzhen; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

    2018-06-01

    Meat traceability based on molecular markers is exerting a great influence on food safety and will enhance its key role in the future. This study aimed to investigate and verify the polymorphism of 23 microsatellite markers and select the most suitable markers for individual identification and meat traceability of six swine breeds in the Chinese market. The mean polymorphism information content value of these 23 loci was 0.7851, and each locus exhibited high polymorphism in the pooled population. There were 10 loci showing good polymorphism in each breed, namely, Sw632, S0155, Sw2406, Sw830, Sw2525, Sw72, Sw2448, Sw911, Sw122 and CGA. When six highly polymorphic loci were combined, the match probability value for two random individual genotypes among the pig breeds (Beijing Black, Sanyuan and Taihu) was lower than 1.151 E-06. An increasing number of loci indicated a gradually decreasing match probability value and therefore enhanced traceability accuracy. The validation results of tracing 18 blood and corresponding meat samples based on five highly polymorphic loci (Sw2525, S0005, Sw0107, Sw911 and Sw857) were successful, with 100% conformation probability, which provided a foundation for establishing a traceability system for pork in the Chinese market.

  12. Spermatic Viability of Cryopreserved Semen of Piau swine breed analyzed by Thermo Resistant Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Hoshino da Costa Barros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Barros M.H.C., Shiomi H.H., Amorim L.S., Guimarães S.E.F., Lopes P.S., Siqueira J.B., Pinho R.O. & Guimarães J.D. [Spermatic Viability of Cryopreserved Semen of Piau swine breed analyzed by Thermo Resistant Test.] Viabilidade espermática de sêmen congelado de suínos da raça Piau avaliada pelo Teste de Termorresistência. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária 36(2:131-136, 2014. Departamento de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, MG 36571-000, Brasil. E-mail: hugoshiomi@hotmail.com The objective of this study was to verify three protocols of semen cryopreservation on spermatic viability after thawing from Piau swine breed (Sus scrofa, by thermo resistant test (TTR. Twenty two ejaculates from 5 Piau mature boars were collected by glove hand technique. To freezing, the ejaculates was split and submitted to three protocols (P: (P1 freezing method proposed by Furst et al. (2005, altered by diluent media, (P2 freezing method proposed by Furst et al. (2005, altered by cooled curve; and (P3 freezing method proposed by Ohata et al. (2001. After thawing, semen was submitted to TTR, been incubated at 37o C by 2 hours, motility sperm (MOT and vigor (VIG was analyzed at 30 minutes of interval. MOT and VIG after thawing was 20.9±12.4, 29.5±10.9 and 49.5±12.1%; 2.5±0.5, 2.9±0.4 and 3.4±0.4, respectively to P1, P2 and P3. The TTR results show gradually decrease of motility and vigor along 2 hours of test procedure utilized, with best average to protocol 3 at all time of analyze. The protocol 3 tested by Piau boars shows highest values in cellular semen cryopreservation.

  13. The effect of breed and sex on sulfamethazine, enrofloxacin, fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine pharmacokinetic parameters in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J T; Baynes, R E; Brooks, J D; Yeatts, J L; Bellis, B; Ashwell, M S; Routh, P; O'Nan, A T; Maltecca, C

    2014-12-01

    Drug use in livestock has received increased attention due to welfare concerns and food safety. Characterizing heterogeneity in the way swine populations respond to drugs could allow for group-specific dose or drug recommendations. Our objective was to determine whether drug clearance differs across genetic backgrounds and sex for sulfamethazine, enrofloxacin, fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine. Two sires from each of four breeds were mated to a common sow population. The nursery pigs generated (n = 114) were utilized in a random crossover design. Drugs were administered intravenously and blood collected a minimum of 10 times over 48 h. A non-compartmental analysis of drug and metabolite plasma concentration vs. time profiles was performed. Within-drug and metabolite analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters included fixed effects of drug administration date, sex and breed of sire. Breed differences existed for flunixin meglumine (P-value<0.05; Cl, Vdss ) and oxfendazole (P-value<0.05, AUC0→∞ ). Sex differences existed for oxfendazole (P-value < 0.05; Tmax ) and sulfamethazine (P-value < 0.05, Cl). Differences in drug clearance were seen, and future work will determine the degree of additive genetic variation utilizing a larger population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pigs in Toxicology: Breed Differences in Metabolism and Background Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helke, Kristi L; Nelson, Keith N; Sargeant, Aaron M; Jacob, Binod; McKeag, Sean; Haruna, Julius; Vemireddi, Vimala; Greeley, Melanie; Brocksmith, Derek; Navratil, Nicole; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Hollinger, Charlotte

    2016-06-01

    Both a rodent and a nonrodent species are required for evaluation in nonclinical safety studies conducted to support human clinical trials. Historically, dogs and nonhuman primates have been the nonrodent species of choice. Swine, especially the miniature swine or minipigs, are increasingly being used in preclinical safety as an alternate nonrodent species. The pig is an appropriate option for these toxicology studies based on metabolic pathways utilized in xenobiotic biotransformation. Both similarities and differences exist in phase I and phase II biotransformation pathways between humans and pigs. There are numerous breeds of pigs, yet only a few of these breeds are characterized with regard to both xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and background pathology findings. Some specific differences in these enzymes based on breed and sex are known. Although swine have been used extensively in biomedical research, there is also a paucity of information in the current literature detailing the incidence of background lesions and differences between commonly used breeds. Here, the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes are compared between humans and pigs, and minipig background pathology changes are reviewed with emphasis on breed differences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Phenotypic characterization of naturalized swine breeds in Brazil, Uruguay and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric data was collected on 859 naturalized swine in Brazil (Piau, Tatu, Nilo, Caruncho, Casco de Burro, Moura, Monteiro and Rabo de Peixe, Colombia (Criolla Zungo, Sanpedreño and Casco de Mula and Uruguay (Mamellado, both on farm and in published material. Information was collected on breed, sex and age, as well as various morphometric measurements. Analysis of variance was carried out using PROC MIXED of SAS ® on phenotypic data. The coefficients of variance varied between 11.50 and 83.81%, and the coefficient of determination was medium to high. Females were in general smaller for most measurements than males, showing sexual dimorphism. The Moura was the closest naturalized breed to the commercial breeds, followed by the Piau, while the Monteiro was the furtherest. The dendrogram obtained from morphological information showed a division of the pigs into three groups. Characterization was possible using morphological and morphometric data.Foram colhidos dados morfométricos de 859 suínos naturalizados do Brasil (Piau, Tatu, Nilo, Caruncho, Casco de Burro, Moura, Monteiro e Rabo de Peixe, Colômbia (Criolla Zungo, Sanpedreño e Casco de Mula e Uruguai (Mamellado Dados sobre raça, sexo e idade foram coletados, assim como varias avaliações morfométricas. A análise de variância foi realizada utilizando-se o procedimento PROC GLM do SAS sobre os dados morfométricos. Os coeficientes de variância oscilaram de 11,50 a 83,81% e o coeficiente de determinação foi de moderado a alto. As fêmeas foram em geral menores na maioria das avaliações em relação aos machos, indicando dimorfismo sexual. A Moura foi a raça naturalizada mais próxima das raças comerciais, seguida da Piau, enquanto a Monteiro apresentou-se mais distante. O dendograma obtido a partir de informações morfológicas apresentou divisão dentro de três grupos. A caracterização foi possível utilizando-se dados morfológicos e morfométricos.

  16. Impact of biological and economic variables on optimal parity for replacement in swine breed-to-wean herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Davis, C B; Ellinger, P N; Schnitkey, G D; Romine, N M; Connor, J F; Knox, R V; Southey, B R

    2006-09-01

    Voluntary and involuntary culling practices determine the average parity when sows are replaced in a herd. Underlying these practices is the economic effect of replacing a sow at different parities. A dynamic programming model was used to find the optimal parity and net present value in breed-to-wean swine herds. The model included income and costs per parity weighted by the discount rate and sow removal rate. Three scenarios that reflect a wide range of cases were considered: low removal rates per parity with no salvage value (LRNS), high removal rates per parity with no salvage value (HRNS), and high removal rates per parity with a percentage of the sows having a salvage value (HRYS). The optimal parity of replacement for the base biological and economic conditions was 4 and 5 parities in the high and low removal scenarios, respectively. Sensitivity analyses identified the variables influencing the optimal replacement parity. Optimal parity of replacement ranged from 3 to 7 parities in the low replacement scenario, compared with 1 to 5 parities in the high replacement scenarios. Sow replacement cost and salvage value had the greatest impact on optimal parity of replacement followed by revenues per piglet weaned. The discount rate and number of parities per year generally had little influence on optimal parity. For situations with high sow costs, low salvage values, and low revenues per piglet, the optimal parity at removal was as high as 6 to 10 parities, and for situations with low sow cost, high salvage values, and high revenues per piglet, the optimal parity at removal was as low as 1 to 2 parities depending on removal rates. The modified internal rate of return suggested that, for most LRNS and HRYS scenarios considered, investment in a swine breed-to-wean enterprise was favored over other investments involving a similar risk profile. Our results indicate that in US breeding herds, sows are culled on average near the optimal parity of 4. However, the

  17. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone on the swine reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly

  18. Genetic parameters in a Swine Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Popa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the variance-covariance components is a very important step in animal breeding because these components are necessary for: estimation of the genetic parameters, prediction of the breeding value and design of animal breeding programs. The estimation of genetic parameters is the first step in the development of a swine breeding program, using artificial insemination. Various procedures exist for estimation of heritability. There are three major procedures used for estimating heritability: analysis of variance (ANOVA, parents-offspring regression and restricted maximum likelihood (REML. By using ANOVA methodology or regression method it is possible to obtain aberrant values of genetic parameters (negative or over unit value of heritability coefficient, for example which can not be interpreting because is out of biological limits.

  19. Impact of production systems on swine confinement buildings bioaerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Valérie; Nehmé, Benjamin; Mériaux, Anne; Massé, Daniel; Duchaine, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    Hog production has been substantially intensified in Eastern Canada. Hogs are now fattened in swine confinement buildings with controlled ventilation systems and high animal densities. Newly designed buildings are equipped with conventional manure handling and management systems, shallow or deep litter systems, or source separation systems to manage the large volumes of waste. However, the impacts of those alternative production systems on bioaerosol concentrations within the barns have never been evaluated. Bioaerosols were characterized in 18 modern swine confinement buildings, and the differences in bioaerosol composition in the three different production systems were evaluated. Total dust, endotoxins, culturable actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteria were collected with various apparatuses. The total DNA of the air samples was extracted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the total number of bacterial genomes, as a total (culturable and nonculturable) bacterial assessment. The measured total dust and endotoxin concentrations were not statistically different in the three studied production systems. In buildings with sawdust beds, actinomycetes and molds were found in higher concentrations than in the conventional barns. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Scopulariopsis species were identified in all the studied swine confinement buildings. A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor were abundantly present in the facilities with sawdust beds. Thermotolerant A. fumigatus and Mucor were usually found in all the buildings. The culturable bacteria concentrations were higher in the barns with litters than in the conventional buildings, while real-time PCR revealed nonstatistically different concentrations of total bacteria in all the studied swine confinement buildings. In terms of workers' respiratory health, barns equipped with a solid/liquid separation system may offer better air quality than conventional buildings or barns with

  20. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an APHIS employee alone. (b) The appraisal of swine will be based on the fair market value as determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided that where appraisal is by the head, each animal in the group is the same value per head, and where appraisal...

  1. Viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Seganfredo, Milton Antonio; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mmiele@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The swine manure treatment is based on several technologies, such as pond systems, composting, biodigesters, and compact process like the EMBRAPA's Swine Manure Treatment System. The last one can reach high quality effluent with reduced pollution, although it demands higher investment and costs. For this reason it is necessary to manage revenues with byproducts and carbon credit markets. The aim of this study was to present a viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system considering its potential revenues facing higher costs. Using market prices and measured data from a prototype running in south Brazil, the study calculated costs, revenues, profit, net present value and internal rate return. It also estimated these indicators assuming scale economies. The results showed that the investment can pay its costs by its insertion in the carbon credit market and other revenues like the energy substitution. It also showed the importance to reach scale economies. (author)

  2. A systemic integrative framework to describe comprehensively a swine health system, Flanders as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Gimeno, Cristina; Dewulf, Jeroen; Maes, Dominiek; Wauters, Erwin

    2018-06-01

    A well-functioning swine health system is crucial to ensure a sustainable pig production. Yet, little attention has been paid to understand it. The objective of this study was to unravel the complexity of a swine health system by using a systems-thinking approach for the case of Flanders (Northern part of Belgium). To that end, qualitative interviews were held with 33 relevant stakeholders. A hybrid thematic analysis was conducted which consisted of two phases. First, an inductive thematic analysis was conducted and second, the resulting themes were classified into the building blocks of a systemic framework. This framework combined a structural and a functional analysis that allowed to identify the key actors and their functions. Additionally, a transformational analysis was performed to evaluate how structures and the entire swine health system enable or disable functions. Findings revealed that the Flemish swine health system presents several merits such as the synchronization of policies and sector's agreements to reduce the antimicrobial use in the pig sector and the presence of a rich network of universities and research institutes that contribute to the education of health professionals. Nevertheless, several systemic failures were observed at different levels such as the lack of a good professional body representing the swine veterinarians, the tradition that veterinary advice is provided for 'free' by feed mill companies, and the shortage of reliable farm productivity data. Both latter failures may hinder swine practitioners to provide integrative advice. While few veterinarians are remunerated per hour or per visit by farmers, the most common business model used by veterinarians is largely based on the sale of medicines. Thus, veterinarians encounter often a conflict of interest when advising on preventive vaccinations and, in turn, farmers distrust their advice. On a positive note, alternatives to the traditional business model were suggested by both

  3. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T; O'Nan, Audrey T; Maltecca, Christian; Baynes, Ronald E; Ashwell, Melissa S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169) spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15) of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control), flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole and known drug metabolizing genes.

  4. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... production system representative. In the event of oral notification, written confirmation shall be given as... within a swine production system. Swine moving within a swine production system to other than slaughter... identified in a valid swine production health plan for that swine production system. (2) The swine production...

  5. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Howard

    Full Text Available Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169 spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15 of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control, flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value <0.007 basal transcript differences were found across breeds for SULT1A1, CYP3A29 and CYP3A22. Across drugs, significant (P-value <0.0038 transcript differences existed between animals given a drug and controls across breeds and sex for ABCB1, PS and CYP1A2. Significant (P <0.0038 transcript differences across breeds were found for CYP2E1 and SULT1A1 for flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin

  6. Physical examination of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B J; Hamilton, M; Masters, P G

    1992-07-01

    Swine may be examined to evaluate a disease state or a lowered economic performance or as a herd health consultation. As much of the examination as possible should be performed without handling the animal. A thorough history, evaluation of herd records, environmental examination, and herd examination should be performed prior to the evaluation of an individual animal. All necessary equipment should be available when starting the individual examination. The animals is then restrained and examined, and necessary samples are taken. Post-mortem examinations or slaughter house evaluations are a very frequent part of a health examination on swine. All samples taken should be in accordance with the standards of the laboratory that you use. You should work closely with the laboratory to obtain the best results. Physical examination of swine can be rewarding for the veterinarian as well as the producer. The most important aspect to remember is to have enough information and the proper equipment available to handle the animals for the minimal amount of time to gain the maximum benefits. Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs are similar to domestic swine in terms of their diseases and health but are dissimilar in management; pot-bellied pigs are frequently brought to the veterinarian for individual examinations. History is the most valuable part of the examination, followed by observation. Pot-bellied pigs prefer to be held securely with a hand under the chin and rump. The examination is conducted similarly to the examination of any companion animal. Chemical restraint often is necessary for sampling or minor surgical procedures. Owners should be consulted prior to the use of any restraint. This will help win their approval and confidence when working on their pets. While performing the physical examination, look at the pig's overall health as well as specific breed characteristics. Try to stay abreast of swine vaccination recommendations; you may be consulted in this regard. Most

  7. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  8. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  9. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Diwyanto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of  livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999   KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  10. Production system dynamism and parasitic interac- tion of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pasture and on swine with poor body condition compared to zero grazing, and on swine with ... Many countries practice different kinds of production approaches. ... farms with an average herd size of 29 swine were sampled by random sam-.

  11. Comparison and Correlation Analysis of Different Swine Breeds Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. X. Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the influence of pig breed and gender on the ultimate pH and physicochemical properties of pork. The correlations between pH and pork quality traits directly related to carcass grade, and consumer’s preference were also evaluated. The pH and meat grading scores for cold carcasses of 215 purebred pigs (Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire from four different farms were obtained. Meat quality parameters of the pork loin were analyzed. Duroc and female animals were more affected compared to other breeds and male pigs. Duroc animals had the highest ultimate pH, carcass back fat thickness, marbling scores, yellowness, and fat content (p<0.05. Landrace pigs had the highest color lightness and cooking loss values (p<0.05. Among all trait parameters, marbling scores showed the highest significant differences when evaluating the impact of breed and gender on meat quality characteristics (p<0.001. Ultimate pH was positively correlated with carcass weight (0.20, back fat thickness (0.19, marbling score (0.17, and color score (0.16 while negatively correlated with cooking loss (−0.24 and shear force (−0.20. Therefore, pork samples with lower ultimate pH had lower cooking loss, higher lightness, and higher shear force values irrespective of breed.

  12. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, J L; de Greef, K; Bonneau, M

    2014-12-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two systems). Data were collected with a questionnaire from nine breeding organisations providing animals and semen to the studied farming systems and from, on average, five farmers per farming system. The sustainability assessment of breeding activities was performed in four dimensions. The first dimension described whether the market for the product was well defined, and whether the breeding goal reflected the farming system and the farmers' demands. The second dimension described recording and selection procedures, together with genetic change in traits that were important in the system. The third dimension described genetic variation, both within and between pig breeds. The fourth dimension described the management of the breeding organisation, including communication, transparency, and technical and human resources. The results show substantial differences in the sustainability of breeding activities, both between farming systems within the same category and between different categories of farming systems. The breeding activities are assessed to be more sustainable for conventional systems than for differentiated systems in three of the four dimensions. In most differentiated farming systems, breeding goals are not related to the system, as these systems use the same genetic material as conventional systems. The breeds used in Traditional farming systems are important for genetic biodiversity, but the small scale of these systems renders them vulnerable. It is hoped that, by

  13. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved...

  14. Presence of influenza viruses in backyard poultry and swine in El Yali wetland, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Vasquez, N; Di Pillo, F; Lazo, A; Jiménez-Bluhm, P; Schultz-Cherry, S; Hamilton-West, C

    2016-11-01

    In South America little is known regarding influenza virus circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations. Backyard productive systems (BPS) that breed swine and poultry are widely distributed throughout Chile with high density in the central zone, and several BPS are located within the "El Yali" (EY) ecosystem, which is one of the most important wetlands in South America. Here, 130 different wild bird species have been described, of them, at least 22 species migrate yearly from North America for nesting. For this reason, EY is considered as a high-risk zone for avian influenza virus. This study aims to identify if backyard poultry and swine bred in the EY ecosystem have been exposed to influenza A virus and if so, to identify influenza virus subtypes. A biosecurity and handling survey was applied and samples were collected from BPS in two seasons (spring 2013 and fall 2014) for influenza seroprevalence, and in one season (fall 2014) for virus presence. Seroprevalence at BPS level was 42% (95% CI:22-49) during spring 2013 and 60% (95% CI 43-72) in fall 2014. rRT-PCR for the influenza A matrix gene indicated a viral prevalence of 27% (95% CI:14-39) at BPS level in fall 2014. Eight farms (73% of rRT-PCR positive farms) were also positive to the Elisa test at the same time. One BPS was simultaneously positive (rRT-PCR) in multiple species (poultry, swine and geese) and a H1N2 virus was identified from swine, exemplifying the risk that these BPS may pose for generation of novel influenza viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil microbial properties after long-term swine slurry application to conventional and no-tillage systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, Elcio L; Machineski, Oswaldo; Hamid, Karima I A; Yada, Ines F U; Barbosa, Graziela M C; Nakatani, Andre S; Coyne, Mark S

    2014-08-15

    Swine waste can be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but large amounts may accumulate excess nutrients in soil or contaminate the surrounding environment. This study evaluated long-term soil amendment (15 years) with different levels of swine slurry to conventional (plow) tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) soils. Long-term swine slurry application did not affect soil organic carbon. Some chemical properties, such as calcium, base saturation, and aluminum saturation were significantly different within and between tillages for various application rates. Available P and microbial parameters were significantly affected by slurry addition. Depending on tillage, soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity increased up to 120 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) in all application rates. The NT system had higher microbial biomass and activity than CT at all application levels. There was an inverse relationship between the metabolic quotient (qCO2) and MBC, and the qCO2 was 53% lower in NT than CT. Swine slurry increased overall acid phosphatase activity, but the phosphatase produced per unit of microbial biomass decreased. A comparison of data obtained in the 3rd and 15th years of swine slurry application indicated that despite slurry application the CT system degraded with time while the NT system had improved values of soil quality indicators. For these Brazilian oxisols, swine slurry amendment was insufficient to maintain soil quality parameters in annual crop production without additional changes in tillage management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  17. MANAGEMENT PATIENT OF SWINE INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Gunawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is an acute respiratory diseases caused by various influenza virus which infect the upper and lower respiratory tract and often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle pain. Influenza spreads through the air. Swine influenza comes from swine and can cause an outbreaks in pig flocks. Even this is a kind of a rare case but the swine influenza could be transmitted to human by direct contact with infected swine or through environment that already being contaminated by swine influenza virus. There are 3 types of swine influenza virus namely H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. Type H1N1 swine-virus had been known since 1918. Avian influenza virus infection is transmitted from one person to another through secret containing virus. Virus is binded into the mucous cells of respiratory tract before it is finally infecting the cells itself. Management patients with H1N1 influenza is based on the complications and the risk. Besides, it is also need to consider the clinical criteria of the patient. Therapy medicamentosa is applied to the patients by giving an antiviral, antibiotics and symptomatic therapy. Prevention can be done by avoid contact with infected animal or environment, having antiviral prophylaxis and vaccination.

  18. Floral syndrome and breeding system of Senna (Cassia) corymbosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    微软用户

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Key words: Senna, pollen, pollination, breeding system. ... through winter in frost free areas. Okogun et al. (2000) ... But the breeding system character was ..... hairy, black and yellow bee whose size can range from 1.5.

  19. Sinclair swine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, R.R.; Berkelhammer, J.; Hamby, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  20. Adult sex ratio variation: implications for breeding system evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, T; Weissing, F J; Komdeur, J

    2014-08-01

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) exhibits immense variation in nature, although neither the causes nor the implications of this variation are fully understood. According to theory, the ASR is expected to influence sex roles and breeding systems, as the rarer sex in the population has more potential partners to mate with than the more common sex. Changes in mate choice, mating systems and parental care suggest that the ASR does influence breeding behaviour, although there is a need for more tests, especially experimental ones. In the context of breeding system evolution, the focus is currently on operational sex ratios (OSRs). We argue that the ASR plays a role of similar importance and urge researchers to study the ASR and the OSR side by side. Finally, we plead for a dynamic view of breeding system evolution with feedbacks between mating, parenting, OSR and ASR on both ecological and evolutionary time scales. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Performance of two swine manure treatment systems on chemical composition and on the reduction of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viancelli, A; Kunz, A; Steinmetz, R L R; Kich, J D; Souza, C K; Canal, C W; Coldebella, A; Esteves, P A; Barardi, C R M

    2013-01-01

    Swine effluents must be correctly handled to avoid negative environmental impacts. In this study, the profiles of two swine manure treatment systems were evaluated: a solid-liquid separation step, followed by an anaerobic reactor, and an aerobic step (System 1); and a biodigester followed by serial lagoons (System 2). Both systems were described by the assessment of chemical, bacterial and viral parameters. The results showed that in System 1, there was reduction of chemicals (COD, phosphorus, total Kjeldhal nitrogen - TKN - and NH(3)), total coliforms and Escherichia coli; however, the same reduction was not observed for Salmonella sp. Viral particles were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated from the effluent. In System 2, there was a reduction of chemicals, bacteria and viruses with no detection of Salmonella sp., circovirus, parvovirus, and torque teno virus in the effluent. The chemical results indicate that the treated effluent can be reused for cleaning swine facilities. However, the microbiological results show a need of additional treatment to achieve a complete inactivation for cases when direct contact with animals is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Satellite tracking and geospatial analysis of feral swine and their habitat use in Louisiana and Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Stephen B.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Goatcher, Buddy L.

    2012-01-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) is an invasive species that was first introduced to the continental United States in the 1500s by European explorers. Also known as feral hogs or feral pigs, the animals typically weigh about 200 pounds (up to 400 pounds), have characteristic tusks up to 3 inches long, are territorial, and live in groups, except for the boars, who are solitary and typically interact with sows only to breed. They have an average litter size of 5-6 piglets and occasionally two litters per year, and because they have few natural predators, survival of their young can be nearly 100 percent. Because of the detrimental impacts of this invasive species---including rooting, damaging agricultural lands, competing for food with and destroying the habitats of native animals, and spreading diseases and parasites---many public lands implement feral swine control programs on an annual basis. This activity is not enough to control or prevent an increase in swine populations, however, because of their distribution beyond the boundaries of public lands. Currently, little is known about feral swine populations, their habitat use and movement patterns, and the resulting habitat destruction in Louisiana and Mississippi. To abate this lack of knowledge, researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC)---in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, and several large landholding companies---are using collars equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to track feral swine in Louisiana and Mississippi to examine population movement patterns, document destruction of habitat and wildlife, and help increase and facilitate removal. The NWRC researchers are using the "Judas pig" system of attaching GPS-satellite telemetry collars to select feral swine to (1) track movement patterns on the landscape, (2) document habitat destruction and effects on native wildlife, and (3) improve

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals Common Antimicrobial Resistant Campylobacter coli Population in Antimicrobial-Free (ABF) and Commercial Swine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P.; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the population biology of antimicrobial resistant (AR) Campylobacter coli isolated from swine reared in the conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) swine production systems at farm, slaughter and environment. A total of 200 C. coli isolates selected from fecal, environmental, and carcass samples of ABF (n = 100) and conventional (n = 100) swine production systems were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Sequence data from seven housekeeping genes was analyzed for the identification of allelic profiles, sequence types (STs) and clonal complex determination. Phylogenetic trees were generated to establish the relationships between the genotyped isolates. A total of 51 STs were detected including two novel alleles (glnA 424 and glyA 464) and 14 novel STs reported for the first time. The majority of the C. coli isolates belonged to ST-854 (ABF: 31, conventional: 17), and were grouped in clonal complex ST-828 (ABF: 68%, conventional: 66%). The mean genetic diversity (H) for the ABF (0.3963+/−0.0806) and conventional (0.4655+/−0.0714) systems were similar. The index of association () for the ABF ( = 0.1513) and conventional ( = 0.0991) C. coli populations were close to linkage equilibrium, indicative of a freely recombining population. Identical STs were detected between the pigs and their environment both at farm and slaughter. A minimum spanning tree revealed the close clustering of C. coli STs that originated from swine and carcass with those from the environment. In conclusion, our study reveals a genotypic diverse C. coli population that shares a common ancestry in the conventional and ABF swine production systems. This could potentially explain the high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant C. coli in the ABF system in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressure. PMID:22984540

  4. Prevalence and Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Swine Feces Recovered in the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2000 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Pina M.; Bagi, Lori K.; Bush, Eric J.; Solow, Barbara T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in swine feces in the United States as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2000 study. Fecal samples collected from swine operations from 13 of the top 17 swine-producing states were tested for the presence of STEC. After enrichment of swine fecal samples in tryptic soy broth, the samples were tested for the presence of stx1 and stx2 by use of the TaqMan E. coli STX1 and STX2 PCR assays. Enrichments of samples positive for stx1 and/or stx2 were plated, and colony hybridization was performed using digoxigenin-labeled probes complementary to the stx1 and stx2 genes. Positive colonies were picked and confirmed by PCR for the presence of the stx1, stx2, or stx2e genes, and the isolates were serotyped. Out of 687 fecal samples tested using the TaqMan assays, 70% (484 of 687) were positive for Shiga toxin genes, and 54% (370 of 687), 64% (436 of 687), and 38% (261 of 687) were positive for stx1, stx2, and both toxin genes, respectively. Out of 219 isolates that were characterized, 29 (13%) produced stx1, 14 (6%) produced stx2, and 176 (80%) produced stx2e. Twenty-three fecal samples contained at least two STEC strains that had different serotypes but that had the same toxin genes or included a strain that possessed stx1 in addition to a strain that possessed stx2 or stx2e. The STEC isolates belonged to various serogroups, including O2, O5, O7, O8, O9, OX10, O11, O15, OX18, O20, O57, O65, O68, O69, O78, O91, O96, O100, O101, O120, O121, O152, O159, O160, O163, and O untypeable. It is noteworthy that no isolates of serogroup O157 were recovered. Results of this study indicate that swine in the United States harbor STEC that can potentially cause human illness. PMID:15574914

  5. Breeding description for fast reactors and symbiotic reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to provide a breeding description for fast reactors and symbiotic reactor systems by means of figures of merit type quantities. The model was used to investigate the effect of several parameters and different fuel usage strategies on the figures of merit which provide the breeding description. The integrated fuel cycle model for a single-reactor is reviewed. The excess discharge is automatically used to fuel identical reactors. The resulting model describes the accumulation of fuel in a system of identical reactors. Finite burnup and out-of-pile delays and losses are treated in the model. The model is then extended from fast breeder park to symbiotic reactor systems. The asymptotic behavior of the fuel accumulation is analyzed. The asymptotic growth rate appears as the largest eigenvalue in the solution of the characteristic equations of the time dependent differential balance equations for the system. The eigenvector corresponding to the growth rate is the core equilibrium composition. The analogy of the long-term fuel cycle equations, in the framework of this model, and the neutron balance equations is explored. An eigenvalue problem adjoint to the one generated by the characteristic equations of the system is defined. The eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue, i.e. to the growth rate, represents the ''isotopic breeding worths.'' Analogously to the neutron adjoint flux it is shown that the isotopic breeding worths represent the importance of an isotope for breeding, i.e. for the growth rate of a system

  6. Antibody levels to hepatitis E virus in North Carolina swine workers, non-swine workers, swine, and murids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mark R; Correa, Maria T; Morrow, Morgan; Stebbins, Martha E; Seriwatana, Jitvimol; Webster, W David; Boak, Marshall B; Vaughn, David W

    2002-04-01

    In a cross-sectional serosurvey, eastern North Carolina swine workers (n = 165) were compared with non-swine workers (127) for the presence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus as measured by a quantitative immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using a cutoff of 20 Walter Reed U/ml, swine-exposed subjects had a 4.5-fold higher antibody prevalence (10.9%) than unexposed subjects (2.4%). No evidence of past clinical hepatitis E or unexplained jaundice could be elicited. Swine (84) and mice (61), from farm sites in the same region as exposed subjects, were also tested. Antibody prevalence in swine (overall = 34.5%) varied widely (10.0-91.7%) according to site, but no antibody was detected in mice. Our data contribute to the accumulating evidence that hepatitis E may be a zoonosis and specifically to the concept of it as an occupational infection of livestock workers.

  7. Mathematical models of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of swine effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisa Stéfano Fagundes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig breeding results in the production of large amounts of waste, which can cause serious environmental problems, when handled incorrectly. This study aimed at testing mathematical models to estimate the parameters of anaerobic biodigestion in biodigesters as a function of the composition of swine effluents with and without separation of the solid fraction and hydraulic retention times (HRT. Semi-continuous biodigesters fed with swine effluents with and without separation of the solid fraction and managed for 15, 22, 29 and 36 days of hydraulic retention were used. The potential of biogas and methane production, as well as the reduction of total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand, were assessed as a function of the effluents composition. HRT was the variable that most influenced the variation of the models, followed by the contents of total and volatile solids. Uni and multivariate models presented high confidence indices, being classified as “great” at predicting the potentials of biogas and methane production and “good” at predicting the reductions of total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand. The models obtained in this study can be used to reliably predict the parameters of the anaerobic biodigestion process of swine effluents in semi-continuous tubular biodigesters.

  8. Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shan; Ying Guangguo; Zhang Ruiquan; Zhou Lijun; Lai Huajie; Chen Zhifeng

    2012-01-01

    Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17β-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5α-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ► 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ► Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ► Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ► The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ► The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.

  9. Feral Swine in the United States Have Been Exposed to both Avian and Swine Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brigitte E; Sun, Hailiang; Carrel, Margaret; Cunningham, Fred L; Baroch, John A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Young, Sean G; Schmit, Brandon; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lutman, Mark W; Pedersen, Kerri; Lager, Kelly; Bowman, Andrew S; Slemons, Richard D; Smith, David R; DeLiberto, Thomas; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During the period from 2010 to 2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 U.S. states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4.9%) samples were IAV antibody positive. Among 294 serum samples selected for antigenic characterization, 271 cross-reacted with ≥1 tested virus, whereas the other 23 did not cross-react with any tested virus. Of the 271 IAV-positive samples, 236 cross-reacted with swine IAVs, 1 with avian IAVs, and 16 with avian and swine IAVs, indicating that feral swine had been exposed to both swine and avian IAVs but predominantly to swine IAVs. Our findings suggest that feral swine could potentially be infected with both avian and swine IAVs, generating novel IAVs by hosting and reassorting IAVs from wild birds and domestic swine and facilitating adaptation of avian IAVs to other hosts, including humans, before their spillover. Continued surveillance to monitor the distribution and antigenic diversities of IAVs in feral swine is necessary to increase our understanding of the natural history of IAVs. IMPORTANCE There are more than 5 million feral swine distributed across at least 35 states in the United States. In contrast to domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have unique opportunities for contact with wildlife, livestock, and their habitats. Our serological results indicate that feral swine in the United States have been exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs) consistent with those found in both domestic swine and wild birds, with the predominant infections consisting of swine-adapted IAVs

  10. Roles of African swine fever virus structural proteins in viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a large, double-stranded DNA virus and the sole member of the Asfarviridae family. ASFV infects domestic pigs, wild boars, warthogs, and bush pigs, as well as soft ticks (Ornithodoros erraticus, which likely act as a vector. The major target is swine monocyte-macrophage cells. The virus can cause high fever, haemorrhagic lesions, cyanosis, anorexia, and even fatalities in domestic pigs. Currently, there is no vaccine and effective disease control strategies against its spread are culling infected pigs and maintaining high biosecurity standards. African swine fever (ASF spread to Europe from Africa in the middle of the 20th century, and later also to South America and the Caribbean. Since then, ASF has spread more widely and thus is still a great challenge for swine breeding. The genome of ASFV ranges in length from about 170 to 193 kbp depending on the isolate and contains between 150 and 167 open reading frames (ORFs. The ASFV genome encodes 150 to 200 proteins, around 50 of them structural. The roles of virus structural proteins in viral infection have been described. These proteins, such as pp220, pp62, p72, p54, p30, and CD2v, serve as the major component of virus particles and have roles in attachment, entry, and replication. All studies on ASFV proteins lay a good foundation upon which to clarify the infection mechanism and develop vaccines and diagnosis methods. In this paper, the roles of ASFV structural proteins in viral infection are reviewed.

  11. Psychodemographic profile of stockpeople working on independent and integrated swine breeding farms in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, A; D'Allaire, S; Bigras-Poulin, M; Ward, R

    1996-01-01

    As a part of a larger study, the psychodemographic profile of Quebec pig stockpeople was described based on a sample of 48 persons working on independent farms randomly selected in the Richelieu-Saint-Hyacinthe region, and on a convenience sample of 38 others employed by 5 organizations of integrated swine production chosen among the largest ones in Québec. The 2 groups of stockpeople were described separately because of the differences between the 2 types of production. Demographic data (age, sex, level of education, training and experience in swine production, seniority on the farm) were obtained through a face-to-face interview. The personality profile was assessed using a standard personality test (French translation of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire). Both the stockpersons on independent farms and those employed by the organizations were more reserved, emotionally stable, serious, conscientious, unsentimental, controlled, introverted, and less anxious than the average person in the general population. However, multivariate analyses revealed some differences between these two groups of stock-persons (P = 0.021) as well as between the employees of the different organizations (P = 0.0038). These differences in personality profiles may reflect differences in working conditions, particularly regarding the human relationships, and in corporate cultures of the organizations. PMID:8904659

  12. Novos polimorfismos no gene da obesidade em raças divergentes de suínos Polymorphisms in the leptin gene in divergent swine breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Soares

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a existência de polimorfismo no gene da leptina (gene da obesidade entre varrões da raça nativa Piau (porco tipo banha e matrizes mestiças de raças comerciais (Landrace/Large White e Landrace/Large White com Pietrain, selecionadas para peso e precocidade. Oito pares de primers foram desenhados a partir da seqüência disponível no GenBank (U66254, usada, neste trabalho, como seqüência de referência. Amostras de DNA foram extraídas de células sangüíneas brancas utilizando-se solução de fenol:clorofórmio, após tratamento com proteinase K. Os fragmentos gerados por amplificação da reação em cadeia da polimerase foram purificados e seqüenciados em seqüenciador automático. As seqüências de nucleotídeos, obtidas a partir do DNA das raças comerciais de suíno, apresentaram maior similaridade com a seqüência de referência, e as seqüências geradas a partir do DNA dos animais nativos divergiram de ambas em algumas posições. Dos 28 polimorfismos encontrados, oito foram observados em apenas uma das três seqüências geradas a partir do DNA das raças nativas. Doze estavam presentes em duas seqüências, e os oito polimorfismos restantes foram encontrados nos três animais nativos.Leptin gene (obese gene polymorphism was investigated in Piau boars (a fat, native breed and sows from commercial strains (Landrace/Large White and Landrace/Large White by Pietrain chosen for rapid growth and early sexual maturity. Eight pairs of primers designed using the sequence available from GenBank (access nº U66254 were identified as the reference sequence in this project. DNA samples were extracted from white blood cells using phenol:chloroform solution, after treatment with proteinase K. Fragments generated by amplification of the Polymerase Chain Reaction were purified and sequenced in an automatic sequencer. Nucleotide sequences obtained from DNA of commercial swine breeds were similar to the reference sequence; whereas

  13. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered...

  14. [Floral syndrome and breeding system of Corydalis edulis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Zhou, Shoubiao; Zhang, Dong; Chao, Tiancai

    2012-05-01

    A field investigation was conducted on the floral syndrome and breeding system of Corydalis edulis located in natural populations in campus of Anhui Normal University by out-crossing index, pollen-ovule ratio, artificial pollination and bagging experiment. The results showed that the plant was in bloom from March to May and flowering span among populations was 72 days. The flowering span for a raceme was 14-24 days. The life span of one single flower was approximately 5-10 days. Spatial positioning of stigma and anthers were spatially desperation on the day of anthesis. The filaments were shorter than the styles through pollen vitality and stigma receptivity experiments. A self-pollination breeding system was reflected by OCI 3, pollinators were required sometimes; A complex cross bred was indicated by P/O = 857.14, combined with the results of the bagging and artificial pollination experiment, the breeding system of C. edulis was mixed with self-pollination and outcrossing. The special floral structure and pests destroying may have a certain impact on seed-set rate.

  15. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, Jean-Luc; de Greef, K; Bonneau, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two syste...

  16. Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans, transmission of human influenza viruses to swine, and reassortment of human and swine influenza A viruses is occurring. The project is part of a Team Grant; all Team Grant studies include active surveillance for influenza among Hutterite swine farmers in Alberta, Canada. This project also includes non-Hutterite swine farms that are experiencing swine respiratory illness. Methods/Design Nurses conduct active surveillance for influenza-like-illness (ILI, visiting participating communally owned and operated Hutterite swine farms twice weekly. Nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera are obtained from persons with any two such symptoms. Swabs are tested for influenza A and B by a real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab. Test-positive participants are advised that they have influenza. The occurrence of test-positive swine workers triggers sampling (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology of the swine herd by veterinarians. Specimens obtained from swine are couriered to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN for testing. Veterinarians and herd owners are notified if animal specimens are test-positive for influenza. If swine ILI occurs, veterinarians obtain samples from the pigs; test-positives from the animals trigger nurses to obtain specimens (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology from the swine workers. ProvLab cultures influenza virus from human specimens, freezes these cultures and

  17. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    , it is important to explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. In this study, the epidemiological and economic effects of strategies to control the spread of ASF between domestic swine herds were examined using a published model (DTU-DADS-ASF). The control strategies were the basic EU...... and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning...

  18. Breeding Systems of Three Tree Ferns : Alsophila firma (Cyatheaceae), Cyathea stipularis (Cyatheaceae), and Lophosoria quadripinnata (Lophosoriaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    DOUGLAS E., SOLTIS; PAMELA S., SOLTIS; ALAN R., SMITH; Department of Botany, Washington State University; Department of Botany, Washington State University; University Herbarium, University of California

    1991-01-01

    Breeding-system data have been available for a large number and diverse array of angiosperms for a relatively long time. In contrast, breeding systems of ferns and their allies (pteridophytes) have only recently been examined, and breeding-system data from natural populations of sporophytes are still lacking for pteridophytes representing many life-history strategies. Few studies, for example, have examined breeding systems of tropical pteridophytes, and no breeding-system data are available ...

  19. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  20. Energy use in swine unit in the finishing system with waste treatment; Uso de energia em unidade suinicola em sistema de terminacao com tratamento de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angonese, Andre Ricardo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], Email: aangonese@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM ), Diamantina, PR (Brazil)], Email: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the energy flux and energetic balance related to the swine production and the recycling of residues generated by the system for utilization as organic fertilizers. The experiment was carried out at Vale dos Ipes Farm, located in the city of Ouro Verde do Oeste, in the Western of Parana State. One finishing phase swine unity containing 600 animals was monitored from January to June 2005. The treatment system is composed by one steel digester with capacity for 50 m{sup 3}, one sedimentation tank, one algae tank and one bio fertilizer storage tank. The swine barn cleaning is performed by dry scratching on a daily basis. The generated residues flow by gravitation through ducts towards the digester. The duration of the hydraulic retention period was 12 days. In the calculation of energetic efficiency, the energetic component ration is the greatest energetic cost in production system of finishing phase swine, corresponding to 95% from the total direct energy. At the way out of the energy system, the energetic component of swine for slaughtering corresponds to 56.8%. The system fitted into the features of an industrial agroecosystem, importing the majority of the consumed energy in the productive process and exporting more than 56% of the production as swine for slaughtering, while the remaining is used in the property as fertilizer. (author)

  1. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg shell quality, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the selected quality indicators of egg shell according to two different breeding systems and different age of laying hens. An object of investigation were shell weight, share of the shell, strength and thickness of the shell for table eggs. There were used the laying hens of final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and free range system. In both breeding systems were ensured the conditions with application of the welfare principles. There was used to feed a complete feed mixture HYD 10 in the both breeding systems.  The feeders were supplemented with feed by hand, daily and the same day was supplemented water to drinking troughs. Egg collection was hand in both breeding systems. This paper is a contribution to the solution of optimal breeding laying hens and production of high quality and safe production of table eggs. From the evaluation of the results was formulated conclusion, which shows that statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 higher egg shell thickness was observed in the breeding free range system compared to the thickness of the egg shell in the breeding cage system, and in age 40 weeks of laying hens in both breeding systems compared to the thickness of the egg shell in age 30 weeks of laying hens. No statistically significant difference (p ≥ 0.05 was observed in egg shell weight between breeding cage system and free range system. Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 higher egg shell weight was observed in the age 40 weeks of laying hens in both breeding  systems compared to age 30 weeks of laying hens. There no statistically significant difference (p ≥ 0.05 was observed in the share of egg shell and egg shell strength between breeding cage system and free range system, nor between age 30 and 40 weeks of laying hens.

  2. Wheat breeding for low phytic acid content: State and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branković Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in wheat breeding for low phytic acid content arised from its roll as antinutrient factor which chelates mineral elements (Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and P, leading to their inadequate use. Excretion of unused P in phytic acid complex through non-ruminant animals such as poultry, swine and fish causes water eutrophication. Numerous indirect methods (e.g. spectrophotometric and direct methods (HPLC - High Performance Liquid Chromatography were developed for fast and accurate phytic acid determination in wheat. It typically represents 50-85% of seed total phosphorus and one to several percents of dry seed weight. Phytic acid content and phytate phosphorus genetic variability have been determined for wheat cultivars and lines under different environmental conditions. Wheat mutant (Triticum aestivum L for low phytic acid content Js-12-LPA was created through breeding efforts.

  3. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  4. An Integrated Biogas Generation System for Swine Farms%联动沼气池发酵工艺及应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官雪芳; 徐庆贤; 黄菊青; 钱蕾; 林斌

    2016-01-01

    根据可持续发展的理念,以实现资源化利用最大化为原则,针对规模化养猪场,通过设备创新和技术集成,提出了“固液分离池-联动沼气池-玻璃钢沼气储气柜”沼气发酵工艺流程,结合沼气发酵智能化控制技术,形成联动高效沼气池发酵工艺技术。通过在福建省新星种猪育种有限公司应用结果表明,该工艺技术能够显著提高沼气产量和沼气利用效率,是一种实用型生态处理技术,对发展农业循环经济有重要意义。%For sustainable agriculture to maximize resource utilization,a biogas generation technology by integrating the solids-liquid separation,methane gas generation,and fiberglass-reinforced plastic biogas storage into a system for waste treatment at swine farms was designed and evaluated. The combined system with automatic controls could be scaled up for large biogas production applications. The experimental model was implemented for observation and testing at Xinxing Pigs Breeding Co.,Ltd. in Fuj ian. The results showed significantly improved yield and utilization efficiency of biogas as compared to the conventional devices. The technology was expected to become a model for practical ecological sewage treatment for effective agricultural recycling at swine farms.

  5. Metabonomic study of the biochemical profiles of heterozygous myostatin knockout swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiang XU,Dengke PAN,Jie ZHAO,Jianwu WANG,Xiaohong HE,Yuehui MA,Ning LI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin is a transforming growth factor-β family member that normally acts to limit skeletal muscle growth. Myostatin gene (MSTN knockout (KO mice show possible effects for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We applied chromatography and mass spectrometry based metabonomics to assess system-wide metabolic response of heterozygous MSTN KO (MSTN+/- swine. Most of the metabolic data for MSTN+/- swine were similar to the data for wild type (WT control swine. There were, however, metabolic changes related to fatty acid metabolism, glucose utilization, lipid metabolism, as well as BCAA catabolism caused by monoallelic MSTN depletion.The statistical analyses suggested that: (1 most metabolic changes were not significant in MSTN+/- swine compared to WT swine; (2 only a few metabolic properties were significantly different between KO and WT swine, especially for lipid metabolism. Significantly, these minor changes were most evident in female KO swine and suggested differences in gender sensitivity to myostatin.

  6. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morphostructure of Spanish goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gonzalez-Martinez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morphostructure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malagueña raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semi-extensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed.

  7. Removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics from swine wastewater by a constructed macrophyte floating bed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Qiming; Hu, Lixia; Chen, Hancheng; Chang, Zhizhou; Zou, Huixian

    2010-12-01

    The potential of three varieties of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), Dryan, Tachimasari and Waseyutaka, to improve the water quality of swine wastewater was evaluated using a constructed macrophyte floating bed system. With respect to reductions in levels of nutrients, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sulfonamide antimicrobials (SAs, including sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole), Dryan performed better than Tachimasari and Waseyutaka. For Dryan, total N was reduced by 84.0%, total P by 90.4%, COD by 83.4% and sulfonamide antimicrobials by 91.8-99.5%. Similar results were observed for Tachimasari and Waseyutaka. The results indicated that the treatment of swine wastewater using the constructed macrophyte floating bed system was effective in the removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Open-nucleus theory for beef cattle breeding systems: A revisitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Packer, I.U.; Tenorio Vasconselos, M.

    1990-07-01

    A theoretical model for Open-Nucleus Systems is herein described in the case of beef cattle breeding. One of the starting points is the observation that the majority of the standard theoretical models for open-nucleus breeding systems were constructed for the case of discrete generations, i.e. for the cases in which the dam average fertility coefficient is f>2. In the case of cattle herds, when only a fraction of the breeding dams can be replaced, it is therefore worthwhile to build up anew a rather rigorous theoretical model, with overlapping generations, and check its predictions. Namely, we apply the new formulae - explicitly depending on β F , ν F , ν M , K and R - to the system in which all breeding sires are in the Nucleus (and are reared in the nucleus itself), and are mated to both Nucleus and Base dams via artificial insemination. Optimal system design has been looked for by the NAG and MINOS computation programs, operated on Vax computers. Opening the nucleus in this situation results to be very effective since the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain per generation for ''closed nucleus'' systems (x=0) results to be, when e.g. R≡F/M≅200, more than 40% lower than the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain, G*, for open nucleus systems. Optimal design corresponds to: (i) having a fraction p≅16% of the female population in the nucleus; (ii) replacing practically all the (nucleus) breeding sires by the best (nucleus born) males: ν M =97/98%; (iii) using for dam replacement all (b≅100%) the (base and nucleus born) females; (iv) implementing a high upward gene migration (x≅80%), while all the surplus nucleus-born females are to be used as base replacements. This corresponds to replace, at each generation, also almost all the nucleus dams (ν F ≅95/100%), and the largest possible fraction of base dams (β F ≅30%, a value changing with p). 17 refs

  9. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  10. Swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sinha

    Full Text Available Summary: The recent outbreak of human infection with a novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 virus is spreading rapidly through sustained human-to-human transmission in multiple countries. Human-to-human transmission occurs by inhalation of infectious droplets and droplet nuclei, and by direct contact, which is facilitated by air and land travel and social gatherings. The most frequently reported symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia, and sore throat. Detailed contact and travel histories and knowledge of viral activity in community are essential for prompt case detection by the health personnel. Real-time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis of throat swabs or lower respiratory samples is a sensitive means of diagnosis. Use of oral oseltamivir may be warranted for the treatment of severe illness. Keywords: Swine influenza, H1N1, Swine flu, Oseltamivir

  11. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  12. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morpho structure of Spanish goat breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Herrera, M.; Luque, M.; Rodero, E.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morpho structure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malaguena) raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semiextensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed. (Author)

  14. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  15. Retrospective analysis of trends and production factors associated with sow mortality on swine-breeding farms in USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Y

    2000-09-01

    Of the 825 pig farms in USA that mailed in their electronic file containing production records, 604 farms were used to observe breeding-female mortality risk and related factors (herd size, lactation length, parity and season). Multiple regression was used to determine factors associated with annual mortality risk. Analyses of variance were used for comparisons of mortality risks among parity and season groups. Average annual mortality risks during the 1997 period was 5.68%. Average breeding-female inventories and average lactation length on USA farms were 733 and 18.3 days, respectively. Higher annual breeding-female mortality risk was associated with larger herd size, greater parity at farrowing and shorter lactation length (P500 females, mortality risk increases by 0.44%. Older parity was associated with higher mortality risks. Summer season was also associated with higher mortality risk. Using five-years' records on 270 farms, annual mortality risk in 1997 was higher than those of 1993 and 1994, while average breeding-female inventory increased and lactation length decreased. It is recommended that producers, especially in large herds, pay more attention to breeding females.

  16. Breeding system variation in 10 evening primroses (Oenothera sections Anogra and Kleinia; Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Kathryn E; Holsinger, Kent E; Evans, Margaret E K

    2010-06-01

    We examined two accounts of the relationship between breeding system and life history variation in a clade of evening primroses (Oenothera, Onagraceae): (1) selection for reproductive assurance should generate an association between self-compatibility and monocarpy and (2) phylogenetic conservatism leads to retention of breeding system and life history traits among closely related taxa. • We performed over 4000 hand pollinations under greenhouse conditions to determine the compatibility of 10 Oenothera taxa (sections Anogra [17 taxa] and Kleinia [2 taxa)] for which breeding systems had not previously been reported. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the influence of pollination treatment, parents, and population on fruiting success. • Among the taxa tested, six were self-incompatible, two were variable in compatibility, and two were self-compatible. We combined these data with published studies in Anogra and Kleinia and mapped breeding system and life history onto a published phylogeny. • We found no evidence for phylogenetic conservatism, but detected considerable evolutionary lability in both traits. Additionally, we found no evidence for a consistent relationship between breeding system and life history. Only eight of 19 taxa followed the predicted association between self-incompatibility and polycarpy vs. self-compatibility and monocarpy. Instead, many taxa have retained self-incompatibility, regardless of monocarpy or polycarpy.

  17. Economic feasibility and evaluation of a novel manure collection and anaerobic digestion system at a commercial swine finisher enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinen, Robert J.; Kephart, Kenneth B.; Graves, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    A case study conducted at a commercial swine-finishing farm demonstrated that a novel manure management system increased economic feasibility of an anaerobic digester by eliminating the need for post-digestion manure storage construction at the farm. Uniquely designed underfloor manure storage pits collected manure for delivery to the digester, and then stored post-digested manure (digestate) in underfloor storage within the same swine houses. It was unknown if the introduction of biologically active digestate into these pits would produce pig living space air quality that was adverse to pig health, growth or survival, or if explosive methane levels would be generated within the buildings. Monitoring of air quality indicators both before and after digestate introduction to underfloor manure storage pits resulted in no observations of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) or methane (CH 4 ) concentrations above critical safety levels in swine housing. Hourly mean ammonia (NH 3 ) concentrations at pig level (0.15 m above the floor) before digestate was present in the buildings were higher (P < 0.05) compared to when digestate was present (24 ± 2.8 ppm vs. 17 ± 1.0 ppm). Air quality measures did not indicate that digestate introduction into underfloor manure pits caused degradations of air quality at pig level. No obvious etiologic effects on swine were observed. Evaluation of the electric cogeneration system showed that cost-savings of electricity produced from biogas combustion was approximately equal to the producer's debt service for capital investment. External funding and low interest financing were necessary for electric cost-savings to offset finance payments. - Highlights: • Swine dunging behavior used to collect 75% of manure for anaerobic digestion. • Digestate returned to housing without adverse etiologic or air quality effects. • System design offered some economic advantages. • Outside funding necessary for electric cost savings to offset

  18. Swine slurry application and soil management on double-cropped oat/maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo Adriano Bison Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The swine production in southern Brazil is concentrated in small farms that use residues as a nutrient source for crops of economic interest. This study aimed to evaluate the use of swine slurry associated with tillage systems on double-cropped oat/maize. The experiment was carried out in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons, in Taquaruçu do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of the interaction of four swine slurry doses (no swine slurry, 20 m3 ha-1, 40 m3 ha-1 and 80 m3 ha-1 and mineral fertilization, in three tillage systems (no-tillage, chiseling and chiseling + disking. The swine slurry application on doublecropped oat/maize increased the dry matter and grain yield. The 80 m3 ha-1 dose provided a response statistically similar to the mineral fertilization recommended for maize. The interaction between the 80 m3 ha-1 dose and the immediate incorporation of slurry into the soil reduced N losses by ammonia volatilization, promoting a significant increase in maize grain yield, when grown on a clayish soil.

  19. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  20. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  1. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  2. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates on plasma membrane viability of Piau swine breed frozen/thawed spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, R O; Lima, D M A; Shiomi, H H; Siqueira, J B; Silveira, C O; Faria, V R; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F; Guimarães, J D

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates addition to freezing extenders on plasma membrane viability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa of the Piau swine breed. Twenty semen samples were used from five males. The freezing extender was based on lactose-egg yolk extender, added to 2% glycerol, 3% dimethylacetamide. The addition of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates was performed after centrifugation, when semen was diluted with the cooling extender. Four groups were subjected to the following treatment: without addition (group 1); 1.5 mg of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol/120 × 10(6) sperm (group 2); 1.5 mg of cyclodextrin-loaded cholestanol/120 × 10(6) sperm (group 3); 1.5 mg of cyclodextrin-loaded desmosterol/120 × 10(6) sperm (group 4). To check post-thawing sperm quality sperm motility and sperm morphology evaluation were used. Additionally, to check sperm viability the hypoosmotic swelling test, supravital staining, and fluorescent assay were used. The mean values recorded for total sperm motility of semen immediately after thawing were 54.5 ± 5.8, 55.5 ± 5.3, 53.7 ± 6.7, and 52.5 ± 6.6% respectively for groups one to four, without difference between themselves (p > 0.05). Regarding fluorescent assay the results were 28.3 ± 13.2, 26.9 ± 12.2, 22.2 ± 11.4, and 32.0 ± 15.3% respectively for groups one to four, also without difference between groups (p > 0,05). Similarly, complementary tests for evaluating the integrity and functionality of the plasma membrane showed no difference between treatments (p > 0.05). In conclusion, use of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates added to the plasma membrane of sperm did not demonstrate any additive effect on increasing and/or maintaining sperm motility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Composting of high moisture content swine manure with corncob in a pilot-scale aerated static bin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nengwu

    2006-10-01

    Pilot composting experiments of swine manure with corncob were conducted to evaluate the performance of the aerated static bin composting system. Effects of temperature control (60 and 70 degrees C) and moisture content (70% and 80%) were monitored on the composting by measuring physical and chemical indexes. The results showed that (1) the composting system could destroy pathogens, converted nitrogen from unstable ammonia to stable organic forms, and reduced the volume of waste; (2) significant difference of NH(4)(+)-N (P(12) = 0.074), and (NO(3)(-) + NO(2)(-))-N (P(12) = 0.085) was found between the temperature control treatments; (3) anaerobic reaction in the treatment with 80% moisture content resulted in significant difference of pH (P(23) = 0.006), total organic matter (P(23) = 0.003), and germination index (P(23) = 0.040) between 70% and 80%. Therefore, the optimum initial moisture content was less than 80% with the composting of swine manure and corncob by using the composting system.

  5. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in swine abattoir workers.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease poses economic ... III and IV infect both swine and humans; and are re- ... associated with transmission in swine abattoir workers in ..... tal evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis ... A novel virus in swine is closely.

  6. Implementation of a chronic unilateral intraparenchymal drug delivery system in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inyong; Paek, Seungleal; Nelson, Brian D; Knight, Emily J; Marsh, Michael P; Bieber, Allan J; Bennet, Kevin E; Lee, Kendall H

    2014-04-30

    Systemic delivery of pharmacologic agents has led to many significant advances in the treatment of neurologic and psychiatric conditions. However, this approach has several limitations, including difficulty penetrating the blood-brain barrier and enzymatic degradation prior to reaching its intended target. Here, we describe the testing of a system allowing intraparenchymal (IPa) infusion of therapeutic agents directly to the appropriate anatomical targets, in a swine model. Five male pigs underwent 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) guided placement of an IPa catheter into the dorso-medial putamen, using a combined system of the Leksell stereotactic arc, a Mayo-developed MRI-compatible pig head frame, and a custom-designed Fred Haer Company (FHC) delivery system. Our results show hemi-lateral coverage of the pig putamen is achievable from a single infusion point and that the volume of the bolus detected in each animal is uniform (1544±420mm(3)). The IPa infusion system is designed to isolate the intracranial catheter from bodily-induced forces while delivering drugs and molecules into the brain tissue by convection-enhanced delivery, with minimal-to-no catheter track backflow. This study presents an innovative IPa drug delivery system, which includes a sophisticated catheter and implantable pump designed to deliver drugs and various molecules in a precise and controlled manner with limited backflow. It also demonstrates the efficacy of the delivery system, which has the potential to radically impact the treatment of a wide range of neurologic conditions. Lastly, the swine model used here has certain advantages for translation into clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Phylogeny-Based Global Nomenclature System and Automated Annotation Tool for H1 Hemagglutinin Genes from Swine Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Catherine A.; Lewis, Nicola S.; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brown, Ian H.; Swenson, Sabrina L.; Simon, Gaëlle; Saito, Takehiko; Berhane, Yohannes; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice; Pereda, Ariel; Davis, C. Todd; Donis, Ruben O.; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    in vaccine antigen selection and allows for inferences about vaccine efficacy. Previous reporting of H1 virus HA in swine relied on colloquial names, frequently with incriminating and stigmatizing geographic toponyms, making comparisons between studies challenging. To overcome this, we developed an adaptable nomenclature using measurable criteria for historical and contemporary evolutionary patterns of H1 global swine IAVs. We also developed a web-accessible tool that classifies viruses according to this nomenclature. This classification system will aid agricultural production and pandemic preparedness through the identification of important changes in swine IAVs and provides terminology enabling discussion of swine IAVs in a common context among animal and human health initiatives. PMID:27981236

  8. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  9. Importance of adaptation and genotype × environment interactions in tropical beef breeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, H M

    2012-05-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of productive and adaptive traits in beef breeding systems based on Bos taurus and tropically adapted breeds across temperate and (sub)tropical environments. In the (sub)tropics, differences that exist between breeds in temperate environments are masked by the effects of environmental stressors. Hence in tropical environments, breeds are best categorised into breed types to compare their performance across environments. Because of the presence of environmental stressors, there are more sources of genetic variation in tropical breeding programmes. It is therefore necessary to examine the genetic basis of productive and adaptive traits for breeding programmes in those environments. This paper reviews the heritabilities and genetic relationships between economically important productive and adaptive traits relevant to (sub)tropical breeding programmes. It is concluded that it is possible to simultaneously genetically improve productive and adaptive traits in tropically adapted breeds of beef cattle grazed in tropical environments without serious detrimental consequences for either adaptation or production. However, breed-specific parameters are required for genetic evaluations. The paper also reviews the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions impacting on production and adaptation of cattle, where 'genotype' is defined as breed (within a crossbreeding system), sire within breed (in a within-breed selection programme) or associations between economically important traits and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs - within a marker-assisted selection programme). It is concluded that re-ranking of breeds across environments is best managed by the use of the breed type(s) best suited to the particular production environment. Re-ranking of sires across environments is apparent in poorly adapted breed types across extreme tropical and temperate environments or where breeding animals are selected in a temperate

  10. Epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z.Q.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Swine trichinellosis has been reported in 26 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities (P/A/M of China. The prevalence rate in swine varied from 0.12 % to 34.2 % in five P/A/M, from 0.01 % to 0.0001 % in other P/A/M. The seroepidemiological survey of swine trichinellosis was carried out by ELISA in seven P/A/M, the seroprevalence varied from 0.09 % to 29.63 %. The prevalence of Thchinella infection in pork sold at the market was from 0.29 % to 5.6 % in four provinces. The transmission of trichinellosis by garbage is the main features of epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China. Rat is an important reservoir in the domestic cycle of trichinellosis. The prevalence rates of T. spiralis infection in rats were from 1.98 % to 15.06 % in six provinces or autonomous regions. The treatment-prophylaxis with forage contained albendazole has been applied to the control of swine trichinellosis in Nanyang area of Henan province, the prevalence of swine trichinellosis had decreased from 32.2 % before prophylaxis to 0.12 % after prophylaxis.

  11. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  12. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  13. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg damage and dirty, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the damage and dirty eggs and egg weight, depending on two different breeding systems and different ages of laying hens. Object of investigation were table eggs, their damage and dirty in the laying hens of the final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and the free range system.  In both rearing systems were ensured the conditions for laying hens in accordance with legislation establishing minimum standards for the laying hens minimum standards for the protection of laying hens, protection of animals kept for farming purposes in accordance with the principles of the so-called five freedoms. That was used to feed a complete feed mixture HYD 10 in both breeding systems. The feeders were supplemented with feed by hand every day and the same day were supplemented water to drinking troughs.  Egg collection was hand in both breeding systems. This paper is a contribution to the solution of optimal breeding hens and production of high quality and safe of table eggs. Based on the results was formulated conclusion, which shows that to the damage and dirty eggs are not affected by the age of the breeding system and age of laying hens. Statistically significant difference     (p ≤ 0.05 in the egg weight was observed between breeding cage system and breeding free range system and   between age 30 and 40 weeks of laying hens.

  14. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  15. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Hau

    Full Text Available Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates

  16. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Samantha J.; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R.; Frana, Timothy S.; Nicholson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage’s absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a

  17. Holstein-Friesian milk performance in organic farming in North Spain: Comparison with other systems and breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Rodríguez-Bermúdez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic systems are highly dependent on the environment and require animals well adapted to local conditions. In Spain, organic dairy farmers are not satisfied with the productive performance of their herds and ask for technical advice to obtain suitable animals for organic systems. The milk productive performance (milk yield, nutritional composition, and somatic cell count of Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming in North Spain compared with conventional farms has been analysed. When breed diversity was present in the same organic farm, Holstein-Friesian milk performance was compared with other breeds and/or crosses. Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming produce slightly less milk than grazing conventional cows, but milk was similar in composition and somatic cell count across systems. The limited data from organic farms where breed diversity exists indicate that Holstein-Friesian cows produce numerically more milk than other breeds and crosses but with statistically lower protein content. Considering that in Spain organic milk production is mostly used for liquid milk consumption and that the payment system is based only on milk volume, Holstein-Friesian cows would better fit the farmer interests than other breeds or crosses. However, in addition to productive performance, reproductive efficiency, animal health and consumer’s preferences should be fully considered when selecting a breed for organic production. If Holstein-Friesian was the selected breed, efforts should be made to identify cows within the breed that are best adapted to organic conditions. New productive, reproductive, nutritional and economic studies would be needed to develop a genetic merit index for organic systems.

  18. African Swine Fever Virus, Siberia, Russia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, Denis; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Gogin, Andrey; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.

  19. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a...

  20. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  1. [Phylogenetic analysis of human/swine/avian gene reassortant H1N2 influenza A virus isolated from a pig in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixiang; Meng, Xueqiong; Liu, Qi; Huang, Xia; Huang, Shengbin; Liu, Cuiquan; Shi, Kaichuang; Guo, Jiangang; Chen, Fangfang; Hu, Liping

    2008-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the genetic characterization and probable origin of the H1N2 swine influenza virus (A/Swine/Guangxi/13/2006) (Sw/GX/13/06) from lung tissue of a pig in Guangxi province, China. Eight genes of Sw/GX/13/06 were cloned and genetically analyzed. The hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), matrix (M) and non-structural (NS) genes of Sw/GX/13/06 were most closely related to genes from the classical swine H1N1 influenza virus lineage. The neuraminidase (NA) and PB1 genes were most closely related to the corresponding genes from the human influenza H3N2 virus lineage. The remaining two genes PA and PB2 polymerase genes were most closely related to the genes from avian influenza virus lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Sw/GX/13/06 was a human/swine/avian H1N2 virus, and closely related to H1N2 viruses isolated from pigs in United States (1999-2001) and Korea (2002). To our knowledge, Sw/GX/13/06 was the first triple-reassortant H1N2 influenza A virus isolated from a pig in China. Whether the Sw/GX/13/06 has a potential threat to breeding farm and human health remains to be further investigated.

  2. Investigations of significance of vaccination against swine parvovirosis in persistently infected sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupulović Diana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvoviral infection of swine is a disease which is manifested in reproductive disorders in sows and gilts in the form of anestria, premature births, miscarriages, mummified fetuses, the birth of poorly vital piglets and/or a reduced number of piglets in the litter. The infection is present in farms with intensive breeding conditions in the form of an endemic infection, all over the world, and also in our country. Timely diagnostics and adequate prophylaxis prevent the occurrence and spread of this disease. Experimental investigations covered 21 sows, divided into two experimental and a third, the control, group. Animals of the first experimental group were vaccinated once before exposure to the boar using an inactivated vaccine, Porcilis Parvo, and animals of the second experimental group were vaccinated twice at an interval of 3 weeks, also using an inactivated vaccine, Parvovax. Sows of the control group were not vaccinated. Blood samples were taken from all animals four times during the course of the experiment, and specific antibodies against the swine parvovirus were determined using the method of hemagglutination inhibition (HI test. The results of the investigations indicate that there was an increase in the titre of specific antibodies following the vaccination of persistently infected sows with the swine parvivirus, and that the present antibodies did not prevent the creating of an immune response. It was established following a comparison of the geometric mean values of antibody titres of vaccinated sows that there was a significant increase in the antibody level following the two vaccinations using the Parvovax vaccine, against the titre values in sows vaccinated once with the Porcilis Parvo vaccine. In control animals, the average value of the antibody level was many times lower in comparison with the established values in the experimental groups. This provides justification for the implementation of immunoprophylaxis against swine

  3. Are pharmacological interventions between conception and birth effective in improving reproductive outcomes in North American swine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, J M; Khalaj, K; Kridli, R T; Edwards, A K; Bidarimath, M; Tayade, C

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of using pharmacological compounds on reproductive outcomes, particularly litter size, in North American swine. While the opportunity to improve reproduction in North American pigs exists, numerous hurdles need to be overcome in order to achieve measureable results. In the swine industry, the majority of piglet losses are incurred during pregnancy and around farrowing. Over the last 20 years, a reduction in losses has been achieved through genetic selection and nutritional management; however, these topics are the focus of other reviews. This review will evaluate attempts to improve litter size by reducing losses at various stages of the reproductive process, from the time of conception to the time of farrowing, using pharmacological compounds. Generally, these compounds are used to either alter physiological processes related to fertilization, embryonic attachment or uterine capacity, etc., or to facilitate management aspects of the breeding females such as inducing parturition. Although some of the pharmacological agents reviewed here show some positive effects on improving reproductive parameters, the inconsistent results and associated risks usually outweigh the benefits gained. Thus, at the present time, the use of pharmacological agents to enhance reproduction in North American swine may only be recommended for herds with low fertility and presents an avenue of research that could be further explored. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Adapted breeds for organic and low input dairy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Marco; Ferris, C; Sairanen, A

    2014-01-01

    Part of SOLID is to understand how contrasting genotypes adapt to a systematic restriction of nutrient and energy supply. In new studies, a number of genotypes identified as being adapted to organic and low input systems were compared with conventional breeds....

  5. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter...

  6. Effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Justin W.; McMurtry , Dan; Blass, Chad R.; Walter, W. David; Beringer, Jeff; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Abundance and distribution of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the USA have increased dramatically during the last 30 years. Effective measures are needed to control and eradicate feral swine populations without displacing animals over wider areas. Our objective was to investigate effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use. We analyzed location data from 21 feral swine that we fitted with Global Positioning System harnesses in southern MO, USA. Various removal activities were applied over time to eight feral swine before lethal removal, including trapped-and-released, chased with dogs, chased with hunter, and chased with helicopter. We found that core space-use areas were reduced following the first removal activity, whereas overall space-use areas and diurnal movement distances increased following the second removal activity. Mean geographic centroid shifts did not differ between pre- and post-periods for either the first or second removal activities. Our information on feral swine movements and space use precipitated by human removal activities, such as hunting, trapping, and chasing with dogs, helps fill a knowledge void and will aid wildlife managers. Strategies to optimize management are needed to reduce feral swine populations while preventing enlarged home ranges and displacing individuals, which could lead to increased disease transmission risk and human-feral swine conflict in adjacent areas.

  7. Genetic structure, relationships and admixture with wild relatives in native pig breeds from Iberia and its islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Luis T; Martínez, Amparo M; Carolino, Inês; Landi, Vincenzo; Delgado, Juan V; Vicente, Antonio A; Vega-Pla, José L; Cortés, Oscar; Sousa, Conceição O

    2013-06-14

    Native pig breeds in the Iberian Peninsula are broadly classified as belonging to either the Celtic or the Mediterranean breed groups, but there are other local populations that do not fit into any of these groups. Most of the native pig breeds in Iberia are in danger of extinction, and the assessment of their genetic diversity and population structure, relationships and possible admixture between breeds, and the appraisal of conservation alternatives are crucial to adopt appropriate management strategies. A panel of 24 microsatellite markers was used to genotype 844 animals representing the 17 most important native swine breeds and wild populations existing in Portugal and Spain and various statistical tools were applied to analyze the results. Genetic diversity was high in the breeds studied, with an overall mean of 13.6 alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.80. Signs of genetic bottlenecks were observed in breeds with a small census size, and population substructure was present in some of the breeds with larger census sizes. Variability among breeds accounted for about 20% of the total genetic diversity, and was explained mostly by differences among the Celtic, Mediterranean and Basque breed groups, rather than by differences between domestic and wild pigs. Breeds clustered closely according to group, and proximity was detected between wild pigs and the Mediterranean cluster of breeds. Most breeds had their own structure and identity, with very little evidence of admixture, except for the Retinto and Entrepelado varieties of the Mediterranean group, which are very similar. Genetic influence of the identified breed clusters extends beyond the specific geographical areas across borders throughout the Iberian Peninsula, with a very sharp transition from one breed group to another. Analysis of conservation priorities confirms that the ranking of a breed for conservation depends on the emphasis placed on its contribution to the between- and

  8. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies of...

  9. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans......·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would...

  10. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  11. First detection and characterization of Salmonella spp. in poultry and swine raised in backyard production systems in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Moran, R; Rivera, D; Toledo, V; Moreno-Switt, A I; Hamilton-West, C

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile. Faecal samples were taken from swine, poultry, geese, ducks, turkeys and peacocks, as well as environmental faecal samples. Confirmation of Salmonella spp. was performed using invA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Identification of serovars was carried out using a molecular serotyping approach, where serogroups were confirmed by a multiplex PCR of Salmonella serogroup genes for five Salmonella O antigens (i.e., D, B, C1, C2-C3, and E1), along with two PCR amplifications, followed by sequencing of fliC and fljB genes. A total of 25 samples (1·4% of total samples) from 15 BPS (4·6 % of total sampled BPS) were found positive for Salmonella. Positive samples were found in poultry (chickens and ducks), swine and environmental sources. Molecular prediction of serovars on Salmonella isolated showed 52·0% of S. Typhimurium, 16·0% of S. Infantis, 16·0% S. Enteritidis, 8·0% S. Hadar, 4·0% S. Tennessee and 4·0% S. Kentucky. Poor biosecurity measures were found on sampled BPS, where a high percentage of mixed confinement systems (72·8%); and almost half of the sampled BPS with improper management of infected mortalities (e.g. selling the carcasses of infected animals for consumption). Number of birds other than chickens (P = 0·014; OR = 1·04; IC (95%) = 1·01-1·07), mixed productive objective (P = 0·030; OR = 5·35; IC (95%) = 1·24-27·59) and mixed animal replacement origin (P = 0017; OR = 5·19; IC (95%) = 1·35-20·47) were detected as

  12. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Herrera-Ibatá

    Full Text Available The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs. Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF and Classical swine fever (CSF introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10-3. Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10-3 for ASF, and 2.5*10-3 for CSF higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10-4 for ASF, and 1.56*10-3 for CSF. This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products. The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products, is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US.

  13. Identification of protein-damaging mutations in 10 swine taste receptors and 191 appetite-reward genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clop, Alex; Sharaf, Abdoallah; Castelló, Anna

    2016-01-01

    . In the intestine, they regulate nutrient absorption and gut motility. Upon ligand binding, TASRs activate the appetite-reward circuitry to signal the nervous system and keep body homeostasis. With the aim to identify genetic variation in the swine TASRs and in the genes from the appetite and the reward pathways......, we have sequenced the exons of 201 TASRs and appetite-reward genes from 304 pigs belonging to ten breeds, wild boars and to two phenotypically extreme groups from a F2 resource with data on growth and fat deposition. RESULTS: We identified 2,766 coding variants 395 of which were predicted to have...... in the appetite and the reward mechanisms. Some of these genes have been already associated to taste preferences, appetite or behaviour in humans and mouse. We have also detected indications of a potential relationship of some of these genes with growth and fat deposition, which could have been caused by changes...

  14. Isolation of a Reassortant H1N2 Swine Flu Strain of Type “Swine-Human-Avian” and Its Genetic Variability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Bai Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We isolated an influenza strain named A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2 from a pig suspected to be infected with swine flu. The results of electron microscopy, hemagglutination (HA assay, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and whole genome sequencing analysis suggest that it was a reassortant virus of swine (H1N1 subtype, human (H3N2 subtype, and avian influenza viruses. To further study the genetic evolution of A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2, we cloned its whole genome fragments using RT-PCR and performed phylogenetic analysis on the eight genes. As a result, the nucleotide sequences of HA, NA, PB1, PA, PB2, NP, M, and NS gene are similar to those of A/Swine/Shanghai/1/2007(H1N2 with identity of 98.9%, 98.9%, 99.0%, 98.6%, 99.0%, 98.9%, 99.3%, and 99.3%, respectively. Similar to A/Swine/Shanghai/1/2007(H1N2, we inferred that the HA, NP, M, and NS gene fragments of A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2 strain were derived from classical swine influenza H3N2 subtype, NA and PB1 were derived from human swine influenza H3N2 subtype, and PB2 and PA genes were derived from avian influenza virus. This further validates the role of swine as a “mixer” for influenza viruses.

  15. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, Manuel V; Holinka, Lauren G; Berggren, Keith A; Gladue, Douglas P

    2018-02-16

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly contagious disease called African swine fever. This disease is often lethal for domestic pigs, causing extensive losses for the swine industry. ASFV is a large and complex double stranded DNA virus. Currently there is no commercially available treatment or vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. Development of recombinant ASFV for producing live-attenuated vaccines or studying the involvement of specific genes in virus virulence has relied on the relatively rare event of homologous recombination in primary swine macrophages, causing difficulty to purify the recombinant virus from the wild-type parental ASFV. Here we present the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system as a more robust and efficient system to produce recombinant ASFVs. Using CRISPR-Cas9 a recombinant virus was efficiently developed by deleting the non-essential gene 8-DR from the genome of the highly virulent field strain Georgia07 using swine macrophages as cell substrate.

  16. Variation in chromosome number and breeding systems: implications for diversification in Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Gutiérrez-Flores

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy, the possession of more than two sets of chromosomes, is a major biological process affecting plant evolution and diversification. In the Cactaceae, genome doubling has also been associated with reproductive isolation, changes in breeding systems, colonization ability, and speciation. Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson, 1885 Britton & Rose, 1909, is a columnar cactus that has long drawn the attention of ecologists, geneticists, and systematists due to its wide distribution range and remarkable assortment of breeding systems in the Mexican Sonoran Desert and the Baja California Peninsula (BCP. However, several important evolutionary questions, such as the distribution of chromosome numbers and whether the diploid condition is dominant over a potential polyploid condition driving the evolution and diversity in floral morphology and breeding systems in this cactus, are still unclear. In this study, we determined chromosome numbers in 11 localities encompassing virtually the entire geographic range of distribution of P. pringlei. Our data revealed the first diploid (2n = 22 count in this species restricted to the hermaphroditic populations of Catalana (ICA and Cerralvo (ICE Islands, whereas the tetraploid (2n = 44 condition is consistently distributed throughout the BCP and mainland Sonora populations distinguished by a non-hermaphroditic breeding system. These results validate a wider distribution of polyploid relative to diploid individuals and a shift in breeding systems coupled with polyploidisation. Considering that the diploid base number and hermaphroditism are the proposed ancestral conditions in Cactaceae, we suggest that ICE and ICA populations represent the relicts of a southern diploid ancestor from which both polyploidy and unisexuality evolved in mainland BCP, facilitating the northward expansion of this species. This cytogeographic distribution in conjunction with differences in floral attributes suggests the distinction of

  17. Variation in chromosome number and breeding systems: implications for diversification in Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Flores, Carina; la Luz, José L León-de; León, Francisco J García-De; Cota-Sánchez, J Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Polyploidy, the possession of more than two sets of chromosomes, is a major biological process affecting plant evolution and diversification. In the Cactaceae, genome doubling has also been associated with reproductive isolation, changes in breeding systems, colonization ability, and speciation. Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson, 1885) Britton & Rose, 1909, is a columnar cactus that has long drawn the attention of ecologists, geneticists, and systematists due to its wide distribution range and remarkable assortment of breeding systems in the Mexican Sonoran Desert and the Baja California Peninsula (BCP). However, several important evolutionary questions, such as the distribution of chromosome numbers and whether the diploid condition is dominant over a potential polyploid condition driving the evolution and diversity in floral morphology and breeding systems in this cactus, are still unclear. In this study, we determined chromosome numbers in 11 localities encompassing virtually the entire geographic range of distribution of P. pringlei . Our data revealed the first diploid (2n = 22) count in this species restricted to the hermaphroditic populations of Catalana (ICA) and Cerralvo (ICE) Islands, whereas the tetraploid (2n = 44) condition is consistently distributed throughout the BCP and mainland Sonora populations distinguished by a non-hermaphroditic breeding system. These results validate a wider distribution of polyploid relative to diploid individuals and a shift in breeding systems coupled with polyploidisation. Considering that the diploid base number and hermaphroditism are the proposed ancestral conditions in Cactaceae, we suggest that ICE and ICA populations represent the relicts of a southern diploid ancestor from which both polyploidy and unisexuality evolved in mainland BCP, facilitating the northward expansion of this species. This cytogeographic distribution in conjunction with differences in floral attributes suggests the distinction of the diploid

  18. Adult sex ratio variation : Implications for breeding system evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szekely, T.; Weissing, F. J.; Komdeur, J.

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) exhibits immense variation in nature, although neither the causes nor the implications of this variation are fully understood. According to theory, the ASR is expected to influence sex roles and breeding systems, as the rarer sex in the population has more potential partners to

  19. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  20. Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lucas; Luo, Kaijian; Olivier, Alicia K; Cunningham, Fred L; Blackmon, Sherry; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Sun, Hailiang; Baroch, John; Lutman, Mark W; Quade, Bianca; Epperson, William; Webby, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Influenza D virus (IDV) has been identified in domestic cattle, swine, camelid, and small ruminant populations across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Our study investigated seroprevalence and transmissibility of IDV in feral swine. During 2012-2013, we evaluated feral swine populations in 4 US states; of 256 swine tested, 57 (19.1%) were IDV seropositive. Among 96 archived influenza A virus-seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010-2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive. Infection studies demonstrated that IDV-inoculated feral swine shed virus 3-5 days postinoculation and seroconverted at 21 days postinoculation; 50% of in-contact naive feral swine shed virus, seroconverted, or both. Immunohistochemical staining showed viral antigen within epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, including trachea, soft palate, and lungs. Our findings suggest that feral swine might serve an important role in the ecology of IDV.

  1. A phylogeny-based global nomenclature system and automated annotation tool for H1 hemagglutinin genes from swine influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAV) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from non-swine hosts, swine H1 have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based...

  2. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Etiopatogenia e imunoprofilaxia da pneumonia enzoótica suína Etiopathogenesis and immunoprofilaxis of Swine Enzootic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Rochedo Conceição

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Pneumonia Enzoótica Suína (PES, causada pela bactéria fastidiosa Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, é a doença respiratória mais importante dos suínos, responsável por enormes prejuízos à suinocultura brasileira e mundial. A elevada prevalência e o fato de pré-dispor os suínos à patógenos oportunistas tornam esta doença o alvo central de um programa de saúde de rebanho para doenças respiratórias. O conhecimento das características do agente etiológico bem como dos seus fatores de patogenicidade pode ajudar na elaboração de novas estratégias de controle da PES. O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir alguns aspectos da etiopatogenia da PES que têm implicação na imunoprofilaxia da doença e os principais resultados obtidos com vacinas de última geração avaliadas experimentalmente.Swine Enzootic Pneumonia (SEP, caused by fastidious bacterium Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is the most important respiratory disease of swines, responsible for high losses to Brazilian and worldwide swine breeding. The high prevalence and the fact to predis-pose the swines to secondary pathogens make this disease the central target of a herd health program to respiratory diseases. The knowledge of the characteristics and pathogenicity factors of etiologic agent could help in the development of new strategies to control SEP. The aim of this review was to discuss some aspects of the etiopathogenesis of the SEP that have implications in the immunoprofilaxis of disease and the main results obtained with new generation vaccines evaluated experimentally.

  4. Interaction of CSFV E2 protein with swine host factors as detected by yeast two-hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    E2 is one of the envelope glycoproteins of pestiviruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). E2 is involved in several critical functions, including virus entry into target cells, induction of a protective immune response and virulence in swine. Howev...

  5. Is floral structure a reliable indicator of breeding system in the Brassicaceae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A Salisbury

    Full Text Available This study investigated the usefulness of floral characters as a potential indicator of breeding system in the Brassicaceae. Initially, pod set, seed set and pollen tube growth experiments were carried out to confirm the breeding systems of 53 lines representing 25 different cultivated and weedy species from the Brassicaceae. The results of the pod set tests clearly differentiated between self-compatible and self-incompatible species. Floral characters were then evaluated on one or more lines of each of the 25 species. Fourteen floral characters were evaluated including, flower diameter, Cruden's outcrossing index, timing and direction of dehiscence and pollen-ovule ratio. Significant differences between species were evident in all of the floral characteristics evaluated. Flower diameter was generally larger in self-incompatible species than self-compatible species and pollen/ovule ratio was generally higher in self-incompatible species than self-compatible species. However, none of the floral characteristics was able to clearly differentiate the self-compatible and self-incompatible species and allow prediction of the breeding system with absolute confidence. The floral characteristic which was most effective at differentiating the two groups was anther direction at dehiscence.

  6. Performance and sustainability of two alternative rabbit breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Theau.Clément

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 alternative breeding systems that differ from the current system in terms of reproduction rhythm, age of females at first insemination and the age of kits at weaning and at slaughter. We measured the performance of 332 females and their offspring over 4 consecutive cycles, as well as the sustainability of the systems. We compared an intensive (group I: reproduction rhythm [RR]=35 d; first insemination [AI1]=20.6 wk of age; weaning age [WA]=32 d; slaughter age [WS]=63 d an extensive (group E: RR=49 d; AI1=16.6 wk; WA=30 d; WS=70 d and a semi-intensive system (group S: RR=42 d; AI1=19.6 wk; WA=35 d; WS=70 d considered as the control system. Sustainability was evaluated using a multicriteria assessment method that takes 14 economic, environmental and social criteria into account, for which 3 to 5 indicators were expressed as the relative score [–1; –0.5; 0; +0.5; +1] for alternative systems compared to the control system. The productivity measured at 28 d (3.5, 4.2 and 4.6 kg/AI, for groups I, S and E, respectively, at 63 d post-partum (30, 38 and 42 kg/female for 4 cycles, respectively, and the total body energy measured 3 d after the 1st and at the 4th insemination (45.4, 46.8 and 49.5 MJ, respectively, were significantly increased when the reproductive rhythm decreased (P<0.001. Before and after weaning, kit mortality decreased when the reproduction rhythm decreased (11.4, 7.3, and 1.9% and 18.3, 15.3 and 10.6% for groups I, S and E, respectively, P<0.05. Carcass quality (weight and dressing percentage was lower in I than in the S and E groups (P<0.001. On this basis, the yearly productivity per doe at weaning could be estimated at 79, 83, and 78 kg for groups I, S and E, respectively. Consequently, the productivity per reproductive cycle increases with the extensification of the breeding system. Nevertheless, compared with the current French system (S, simultaneous changes in several breeding

  7. Volatile organic compounds at swine facilities: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Robarge, Wayne P; Xiao, Changhe; Heber, Albert J

    2012-10-01

    gas Chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) with different detectors most of which require time-consuming procedures to obtain results. Various methodologies and technologies in sampling, sample preparation, and sample analysis have been used. Only four publications reported using GC based analyzers and PTR-MS (proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry) that allowed continuous VOC measurement. Because of this, the majority of experimental studies were only performed on limited numbers of air, manure, or dust samples. Many aerial VOCs had concentrations that were too low to be identified by the GC peaks. Although VOCs emitted from swine facilities have environmental concerns, only a few studies investigated VOC emission rates, which ranged from 3.0 to 176.5mgd(-1)kg(-1) pig at swine finishing barns and from 2.3 to 45.2gd(-1)m(-2) at manure storages. Similar to the other pollutants, spatial and temporal variations of aerial VOC concentrations and emissions existed and were significantly affected by manure management systems, barn structural designs, and ventilation rates. Scientific research in this area has been mainly driven by odor nuisance, instead of environment or health concerns. Compared with other aerial pollutants in animal agriculture, the current scientific knowledge about VOCs at swine facilities is still very limited and far from sufficient to develop reliable emission factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg shell quality, II

    OpenAIRE

    Mária Angelovičová; Viera Ševčíková; Marek Angelovič; Ondřej Bučko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the selected quality indicators of egg shell according to two different breeding systems and different age of laying hens. An object of investigation were shell weight, share of the shell, strength and thickness of the shell for table eggs. There were used the laying hens of final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and free range system. In both breeding systems were ensured the conditions with application of the welfar...

  9. Variation in the Breeding System of Prunella vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Luping; Widrlechner, Mark P

    2011-05-01

    Prunella vulgaris (Lamiaceae), commonly known as selfheal, is a perennial herb with a long history of use in traditional medicine. Recent studies have found that P. vulgaris possesses anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antibacterial properties, and it is likely that this will lead to increased commercial demand for this species. To date, research publications on P. vulgaris cultivation and genetics are scarce. Using accessions originally collected from different geographical regions, we investigated the breeding system of this species by observing variation in floral morphology, time of pollen release, and selfed-seed set in bagged flowers and isolated plants. Two types of floral morphology, one with exerted styles, extending past open corollas when viewed from above, and the other with shorter, inserted styles, were found among 30 accessions. Two accessions originally collected from Asia uniformly displayed exerted styles, and 27 accessions had inserted styles. One accession from Oregon displayed variation in this trait among individual plants. Microscopic observation of seven accessions, including ones with both exerted and inserted styles, revealed that they all release pollen to some degree before the flowers open. Using bagged flowers, we found that selfed-seed set varied widely among eight accessions, ranging from 6% to 94%. However, bagging may underestimate seed set for some accessions. The two accessions with the lowest rates when using bagged flowers increased in seed set by 350% and 158%, respectively, when we evaluated single, unbagged plants in isolation cages. The accession with 6% selfed-seed set when bagged also had exerted styles. These findings suggest that mating systems in P. vulgaris may be in the process of evolutionary change and that understanding breeding-system variation should be useful in developing efficient seed-regeneration protocols and breeding and selection strategies for this species.

  10. Defining a breeding objective for Nile tilapia that takes into account the diversity of smallholder production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omasaki, S K; van Arendonk, J A M; Kahi, A K; Komen, H

    2016-10-01

    In general, livestock and fish farming systems in developing countries tend to be highly diverse in terms of agro-ecological conditions and market orientation. There are no studies that have investigated if and how this diversity translates to varying preferences for breeding objective traits. This is particularly important for breeding programmes that are organized on a national level (e.g. government-supported nucleus breeding programmes). The aim of this study was to investigate whether Nile tilapia farmers with diverse production systems and economic constraints have different preferences for breeding objective traits. The second objective was to derive a consensus breeding goal, using weighted goal programming that could be used for a national breeding programme for Nile tilapia. A survey was conducted among 100 smallholder Nile tilapia farmers in Kenya to obtain preference values for traits of economic importance, by using multiple pairwise comparisons. Individual and group preference values were estimated using analytical hierarchy process. Low-income farmers preferred harvest weight, while medium- and high-income farmers preferred growth rate and survival. Grouping farmers according to market objective (fingerling production or fattening) showed that fingerling producers preferred growth rate and survival, while fattening farmers preferred harvest weight, height and thickness. Weighted goal programming was used to obtain consensus preference values, and these were used to derive desired gains for a breeding goal of a national breeding programme that takes into account the diversity of smallholder production systems. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The action of certain antibiotics and ether on swine enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, R G

    1971-01-01

    The susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to the action of three antibiotics and diethyl ether was determined. Infected swine were used in an in vivo sensitivity detection system. The parameter of susceptibility was lesion prophylaxis. In vivo, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae appeared to be resistant to diethyl ether, tylosin tartrate, and erythromycin, but was susceptible to the action of chlortetracycline. Chlortetracycline was effective in preventing the development of lesions when given at levels which would be practical in commercial swine operations.

  12. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  13. Analysis of Swine Movements in a Province in Northern Vietnam and Application in the Design of Surveillance Strategies for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudon, E; Fournié, G; Hiep, D T; Pham, T T H; Duboz, R; Gély, M; Peiris, M; Cowling, B J; Ton, V D; Peyre, M

    2017-04-01

    While swine production is rapidly growing in South-East Asia, the structure of the swine industry and the dynamic of pig movements have not been well-studied. However, this knowledge is a prerequisite for understanding the dynamic of disease transmission in swine populations and designing cost-effective surveillance strategies for infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed the farming and trading practices in the Vietnamese swine familial farming sector, which accounts for most pigs in Vietnam, and for which disease surveillance is a major challenge. Farmers from two communes of a Red River Delta Province (northern Vietnam) were interviewed, along with traders involved in pig transactions. Major differences in the trade structure were observed between the two communes. One commune had mainly transversal trades, that is between farms of equivalent sizes, whereas the other had pyramidal trades, that is from larger to smaller farms. Companies and large familial farrow-to-finish farms were likely to act as major sources of disease spread through pig sales, demonstrating their importance for disease control. Familial fattening farms with high pig purchases were at greater risk of disease introduction and should be targeted for disease detection as part of a risk-based surveillance. In contrast, many other familial farms were isolated or weakly connected to the swine trade network limiting their relevance for surveillance activities. However, some of these farms used boar hiring for breeding, increasing the risk of disease spread. Most familial farms were slaughtering pigs at the farm or in small local slaughterhouses, making the surveillance at the slaughterhouse inefficient. In terms of spatial distribution of the trades, the results suggested that northern provinces were highly connected and showed some connection with central and southern provinces. These results are useful to develop risk-based surveillance protocols for disease detection in the swine familial

  14. Recovery of gastrointestinal swine parasites in anaerobic biodigester systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañon-Franco, William Alberto; Henao-Agudelo, Ricardo Andrés; Pérez-Bedoya, José Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Solid and liquid wastes from livestock operations represent important challenges for animal production regarding their impact in the environment and public health. Parasitological tests performed on 80 samples of affluent and effluent waters from three anaerobic biodigestors with flexible structure from swine farms of Caldas - Colombia, showed the presence of Isospora suis (45%), Eimeria suis (42.5%), E. espinosa (35%), Strongyloides ransomi (28.8%), E. perminuta (12.5%), E. cerdonis (3.8%), and E. porci (2.5%). The additional finding of eggs of Taenia spp. in 10% of the samples was probably caused by a connection between the human sewage system and the biodigester. Although we observed a mean decrease of 65.6% of parasites, these levels were insufficient to meet the minimum requirement set by Engelberg's guidelines regarding water quality. This study demonstrates the serious environmental impact that an inadequately treated animal wastewater represents, and has important implications for water resources and human health.

  15. Production system and participatory identification of breeding objective traits for indigenous goat breeds of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Gizaw, S.; Kugonza, D.R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kanis, E.

    2018-01-01

    The success of breeding programs in improving indigenous livestock breeds in Uganda has hitherto been limited due to lack of involvement of the key stakeholders. Thus, participatory approaches are being promoted for designing community based improvement programs. The aim of this study was to

  16. Production system and participatory identification of breeding objective traits for indigenous goat breeds of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Gizaw, S.; Kugonza, D.R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kanis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The success of breeding programs in improving indigenous livestock breeds in Uganda has hitherto been limited due to lack of involvement of the key stakeholders. Thus, participatory approaches are being promoted for designing community based improvement programs. The aim of this study was to

  17. Collaborative Plant Breeding for Organic Agricultural Systems in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Goldringer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Because organic systems present complex environmental stress, plant breeders may either target very focused regions for different varieties, or create heterogeneous populations which can then evolve specific adaptation through on-farm cultivation and selection. This often leads to participatory plant breeding (PPB strategies which take advantage of the specific knowledge of farmers. Participatory selection requires increased commitment and engagement on the part of the farmers and researchers. Projects may begin as researcher initiatives with farmer participation or farmer initiatives with researcher participation and over time evolve into true collaborations. These projects are difficult to plan in advance because by nature they change to respond to the priorities and interests of the collaborators. Projects need to provide relevant information and analysis in a time-frame that is meaningful for farmers, while remaining scientifically rigorous and innovative. This paper presents two specific studies: the first was a researcher-designed experiment that assessed the potential adaptation of landraces to organic systems through on-farm cultivation and farmer selection. The second is a farmer-led plant breeding project to select bread wheat for organic systems in France. Over the course of these two projects, many discussions among farmers, researchers and farmers associations led to the development of methods that fit the objectives of those involved. This type of project is no longer researcher-led or farmer-led but instead an equal collaboration. Results from the two research projects and the strategy developed for an ongoing collaborative plant breeding project are discussed.

  18. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate shall show that the entire region of origin is free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from..., Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India...

  19. Cross border Classical Swine Fever control: Improving Dutch and German crisis management systems by an integrated public-private approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, O.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Schütz, V.; Brinkmann, D.; Petersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research approach is to analyse in which ways crisis management measures against Classical Swine Fever (CSF) can be improved by a public private cross border model. A core activity contains the analysis of information and communication systems: In a case study it has been

  20. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  1. Effect on milk production of F1 crossbreds resulted from Alpine breed (♂ x Albanian local goat breed (♀

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristaq Kume

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (♂Alpine breed x ♀local breed. The goats were kept on small-scale farms according to the traditional Albanian system. Milking was carried out in the morning and evening. Kids were weaned at 65 days of age after which milking started. Milk yield was recorded twice with a 15-day interval between the two readings. Total milk yield was calculated using the Fleischmann method. The F1 goats produced 37.8 kg more milk than local breed goats although the lactation length (P<0.05 of F1 goats was six days shorter compared to that of local breed goats (P<0.05. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 of the genotype factor on milk production. The average Cappio-Borlino curves of three genotypes indicated that the lactation curves of local breed and F1 crosses were similar. Although the F1 cross goats had 50% of their genomes from a genetically improved breed they were still able to deal with the difficult conditions that characterize the traditional extensive farming systems in Albania. Breeding pure Alpine breed or its crosses with the local goat breed improved milk production in an extensive traditional system.

  2. Rapid breeding and varietal replacement are critical to adaptation of cropping systems in the developing world to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlin, Gary N; Cairns, Jill E; Das, Biswanath

    2017-03-01

    Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.

  3. Energy analysis in a swine production system with use of manure as bio fertilizer in pasture; Analise energetica em sistema de producao de suinos com aproveitamento dos dejetos como biofertilizante em pastagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Cassio V. [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil)], email: agro.cassio@hotmail.com; Campos, Alessandro T. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], email: campos@deg.ufla.br; Bueno, Osmar C [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Silva, Enilson B [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia

    2009-07-01

    This work objective was to esteem the amount of energy employed in a complete cycle swine production and the energy balance of the system with utilization of the generated manure as bio fertilizer in pasture area, by using five cycles' average data, in a commercial farm in Diamantina municipal district - MG Brazil. The energy coefficient of each involved component was quantified in the productive process of finished swine, residues treatment and Brachiaria decumbens pasture production, in the form of ration, human labor, electric power, machines and equipment, fuel and lubricants, buildings, finished swine production and Brachiaria decumbens production. The average quantity of energy to produce 1 kg of alive swine was of 53.35 MJ. Of total employed energy in the system 76.03% (1,067,106.07 MJ) refers to the inputs and 23.97% (331,400 MJ) refers to the outputs, resulting in an energy efficiency coefficient of 0.31. The energy converted in swine for abate corresponded to 55.58% (184,200 MJ) of the outputs, while the pasture of Brachiaria decumbens reached a value of 44.42% (147,200 MJ). (author)

  4. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  5. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential...

  6. Biogas Initiative from Swine Farm in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damrongsak Det

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First biogas pipeline network has been well established in southern Thailand. About 1,273 households, accountable for about 87% of the total of 1,466 households in the district, get the benefits from biogas energy in many ways. Key success to this initiative is the collaboration between all parties, i.e., swine farm owners, households, and government officials. Swine farm owners are responsible for the design and construction of the biogas plants. Households pay some contributions regarding labor work and maintenance cost on biogas system and its pipeline network. Government officials are responsible for financial and technical supports to both parties. Indeed biogas energy offers an alternative source of heat energy for cooking fuel in this region.

  7. Developing a national and international research community in tree breeding through a web-based information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hohls, DR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available CSIR research group has developed a web-based information system on tree breeding, which will link national and international partners, which data dating back more than 80 years. Tree breeding relies heavily on managing and exploiting data. While...

  8. Detection of Genotype 4 Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Systemic Tissues in Cross-Species Infected Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qiaoxing; An, Junqing; She, Ruiping; Shi, Ruihan; Hao, Wenzhuo; Soomro, MajidHussain; Yuan, Xuerui; Yang, Jinling; Wang, Jingyuan

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted across species. According to previous reports, swine HEV has two genotypes, genotype 3 and 4, and both can infect humans by the fecal-oral route. Thus, it is crucial for the control of HEV zoonotic transmission to evaluate the dynamics of viral shedding and distribution in different tissues during cross-species infection by HEV. In this study, rabbits were infected with genotype 4 swine HEV by the intraperitoneal...

  9. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  10. Precision targeting of liver lesions using a novel electromagnetic navigation device in physiologic phantom and swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovac, Filip; Tang, Jonathan; Xu Sheng; Lindisch, David; Chung, Ho Young; Levy, Elliot B.; Chang, Thomas; McCullough, Michael F.; Yaniv, Ziv; Wood, Bradford J.; Cleary, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation of primary and metastatic liver tumors is becoming a potential alternative to surgical resection. We propose a novel system that uses real-time electromagnetic position sensing of the needle tip to help with precision guidance into a liver tumor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this technology in phantom and animal models. Using an electromagnetic navigation device, instrumented 18 g needles were advanced into radioopaque tumor targets in a respiratory liver phantom. The phantom featured a moving liver target that simulated cranio-caudal liver motion due to respiration. Skin-to-target path planning and real-time needle guidance were provided by a custom-designed software interface based on pre-operative 1 mm CT data slices. Needle probes were advanced using only the electromagnetic navigation device and software display. No conventional real-time imaging was used to assist in advancing the needle to the target. Two experienced operators (interventional radiologists) and two inexperienced ones (residents) used the system. The same protocol was then also used in two anesthetized 45 kg Yorkshire swine where radioopaque agar nodules were injected into the liver to serve as targets. A total of 76 tumor targeting attempts were performed in the liver phantom, and 32 attempts were done in the swine. The average time for path planning was 30 s in the phantom, and 63 s in the swine. The median time for the actual needle puncture to reach the desired target was 33 s in the phantom, and 42 s in the swine. The average registration error between the CT coordinate system and electromagnetic coordinate system was 1.4 mm (SD 0.3 mm) in the phantom, and 1.9 mm (SD 0.4 mm) in the swine. The median distance from the final needle tip position to the center of the tumor was 6.4 mm (SD 3.3 mm, n=76) in the phantom, and 8.3 mm (SD 3.7 mm, n=32) in the swine. There was no statistical difference in the planning time, procedure time, or accuracy of needle

  11. EFFECT OF REARING SYSTEM ON THE MUSCLE FIBRE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHICKEN BREEDS WITH DIFFERENT GROWTH SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Avellini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the rearing system on the muscle fibre characteristics of two meat chicken breeds such as the Ross and the Livorno characterized by extremely fast and extremely slow growth speed respectively. No differences between the breeds were found in the conventional rearing system except for muscle fibre area. On the other hand, in the free range rearing system, differences in muscle fibre composition were evidenced between the breeds especially in the Ileotibialis lateralis muscle with the Livorno having a greater percentage of αR fibres (57,71 vs 36,65. A higher percentage of αR fibres (57,71 vs 46,90 was found in the Ileotibialis lateralis of the free range reared Livorno chickens compared to the conventionally reared ones.

  12. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  13. Polymerase Discordance in Novel Swine Influenza H3N2v Constellations Is Tolerated in Swine but Not Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Nagy, Tamas; Gabbard, Jon; Lee, Christopher; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA) segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA) showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection. PMID:25330303

  14. Production systems of Creole goat and their implications for a breeding programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; Mandonnet, N; Arquet, R; de la Chevrotière, C; Naves, M; Mahieu, M; Alexandre, G

    2010-12-01

    The Creole goat is a local meat breed well adapted to the tropical environment of Guadeloupe, a French island in the Caribbean. A survey of 47 goat farmers was conducted in May 2008 to describe the Guadeloupean goat farming systems. It was the preliminary step for the implementation of a breeding programme for Creole goats. Farmers had 31 does on average. A small number (4%) kept only Creole goats. Most of them (62%) had a mixed herd of Creole and crossbreds. One-third of them (34%) reared only crossbred goats. Farmers appreciate the rusticity and resistance of the Creole goat but consider its growth as too slow. The most desired traits for goat selection were conformation and growth for males (77% of the answers). These traits were also important for females (30% of the answers). Maternal qualities were also frequently cited (maternal behaviour 23%, reproduction 20% and milk production 17%). Disease resistance was not seen as an important trait (10% and 7% of the answers for bucks and does, respectively). A typology constituted of five groups of farmers was also created. Farmers of three groups were retained to participate at a selection programme. They kept Creole goats and have expressed a strong willingness to join a selection programme. The results of the survey suggest that a breeding programme should mostly focus on the Creole goat as a maternal breed. Real consideration should be given to disease resistance. The Creole goat has indeed a key role to play in the sustainability of local farming systems.

  15. Expression Dynamics of Innate Immunity in Influenza Virus-Infected Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Amadori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current circulating swine influenza virus (IV subtypes in Europe (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are associated with clinical outbreaks of disease. However, we showed that pigs could be susceptible to other IV strains that are able to cross the species barrier. In this work, we extended our investigations into whether different IV strains able to cross the species barrier might give rise to different innate immune responses that could be associated with pathological lesions. For this purpose, we used the same samples collected in a previous study of ours, in which healthy pigs had been infected with a H3N2 Swine IV and four different H3N8 IV strains circulating in different animal species. Pigs had been clinically inspected and four subjects/group were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 21 days post infection. In the present study, all groups but mock exhibited antibody responses to IV nucleoprotein protein. Pulmonary lesions and high-titered viral replication were observed in pigs infected with the swine-adapted virus. Interestingly, pigs infected with avian and seal H3N8 strains also showed moderate lesions and viral replication, whereas equine and canine IVs did not cause overt pathological signs, and replication was barely detectable. Swine IV infection induced interferon (IFN-alpha and interleukin-6 responses in bronchoalveolar fluids (BALF at day 3 post infection, as opposed to the other non-swine-adapted virus strains. However, IFN-alpha responses to the swine-adapted virus were not associated with an increase of the local, constitutive expression of IFN-alpha genes. Remarkably, the Equine strain gave rise to a Serum Amyloid A response in BALF despite little if any replication. Each virus strain could be associated with expression of cytokine genes and/or proteins after infection. These responses were observed well beyond the period of virus replication, suggesting a prolonged homeostatic imbalance of the innate immune system.

  16. Pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen concentration and reproductive performance of Bonsmara heifers within different management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshuma, Takula; Holm, Dietmar Erik; Fosgate, Geoffrey Theodore; Lourens, Dirk Cornelius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the association between pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration and reproductive performance of beef heifers within different management systems in South Africa. Bonsmara heifers (n = 369) from five herds with different estimated levels of nitrogen intake during the month prior to the commencement of the breeding season were sampled in November and December 2010 to determine BUN concentrations. Body mass, age, body condition score (BCS) and reproductive tract score (RTS) were recorded at study enrolment. Trans-rectal ultrasound and/or palpation was performed 4-8 weeks after a 3-month breeding season to estimate the stage of pregnancy. Days to pregnancy (DTP) was defined as the number of days from the start of the breeding season until the estimated conception date. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards survival analysis were performed to estimate the association of pre-breeding BUN concentration with subsequent pregnancy and DTP, respectively. After stratifying for herd and adjusting for age, heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration took longer to become pregnant when compared to those with relatively lower BUN concentration (P = 0.011). In the herd with the highest estimated nitrogen intake (n = 143), heifers with relatively higher BUN were less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.013) and if they did, it was only later during the breeding season (P = 0.017), after adjusting for body mass. These associations were not present in the herd (n = 106) with the lowest estimated nitrogen intake (P > 0.500). It is concluded that Bonsmara heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration, might be at a disadvantage because of this negative impact on reproductive performance, particularly when the production system includes high levels of nitrogen intake.

  17. Polymerase discordance in novel swine influenza H3N2v constellations is tolerated in swine but not human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Powell

    Full Text Available Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.

  18. Breeding for reproduction traits in context of multiplication herds efficiency in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Humpolíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented study is a follow-up to the studies focused on effect of different selection pressure applied on two subpopulations of purebred Czech Large White sows on performance in multiplication herds. Higher selection pressure particularly on litter size and number of function nipples, while lower pressure on growth performance was applied in one population. About 1214 farrows of 393 F1 Czech Large White sows were included into statistical evaluation. The mixed linear models using the procedure REML in SAS for Windows 9.1.2. was used. The hypothesis that progeny of sows from hyper-prolific subpopulation breed in multiplier herds have different performance was not confirmed which is in contrast to previous studies. This non-homogeneity can be related to non-additive genetic effects which are caused by crossbreeding while selection methods are based on additive models.

  19. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  20. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to quarantine... of any import permit. The facilities occupied by swine should be kept clean and sanitary to the... described in paragraph (b) of this section. The importer, or his or her agent, shall request in writing such...

  1. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease.

  2. The Romanian Swine Market in the EU Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is a traditional food product for Romania, representing more than half of the annual meat consumption per capita. Swine farming is an activity mainly at full time households, ensuring subsistence, representing a source for commercial exchanges, ensuring workforce stability in the rural areas. The Romanian pork production has presented a slightly fluctuating evolution in recent years. The paper proposes a review of the domestic production, consumption, origin and price of swine sold in the Romanian market. The comunity competitive conditions, the export limitation and food crisis (horse meat scandal, spoiled meat scandal, swine fever or swine flu affected domestic production and exports. Data used in this paper represent statistical information provided by specialized national, European or global institutions, information presented in the media, journals, food industry treatises/dissertations or official information submitted by the Ministry of Agriculture.

  3. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  4. Dairy cow breed interacts with stocking rate in temperate pasture-based dairy production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, O K; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Bryant, A M; Roche, J R

    2018-05-01

    Economic optimum stocking rates for grazing dairy systems have been defined by accounting for the pasture production potential of the farm [t of dry matter (DM)/ha], the amount of feed imported from outside the farm (t of DM/ha), and the size of the cow (kg). These variables were combined into the comparative stocking rate [CSR; kg of body weight (BW)/t of feed DM available] measure. However, CSR assumes no effect of cow genetics beyond BW, and there is increasing evidence of within-breed differences in residual feed intake and between-breed differences in the gross efficiency with which cows use metabolizable energy for milk production. A multiyear production system experiment was established to determine whether Jersey (J) and Holstein-Friesian (HF) breeds performed similarly at the same CSR. Fifty-nine J cows and 51 HF cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 CSR in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement; systems were designed to have a CSR of either 80 or 100 kg of BW/t of feed DM (J-CSR80, J-CSR100, HF-CSR80, and HF-CSR100 treatment groups). Data were analyzed for consistency of farmlet response over years using ANOVA procedures, with year and farmlet as fixed effects and the interaction of farmlet with year as a random effect. The collated biological data and financial data extracted from a national economic database were used to model the financial performance for the different breed and CSR treatments. On average, annual and individual season pasture DM production was greater for the J farmlets and was less in the CSR100 treatment; however, the effect of CSR was primarily driven by a large decline in pasture DM production in the HF-CSR100 treatment (breed × CSR interaction). This interaction in feed availability resulted in a breed × CSR interaction for the per-cow and per-hectare milk production variables, with HF cows producing more milk and milk components per cow in the CSR80 treatment but the same amount as the J cows in the CSR100 treatment. On a per

  5. Two genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza viruses appeared among pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuantian; Zhu, Qiyun; Yang, Huanliang; Zhang, Xiumei; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Yan; Xin, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hualan

    2009-10-01

    H1N2 is one of the main subtypes of influenza, which circulates in swine all over the world. To investigate the prevalence and genetic of H1N2 in swine of China. Two H1N2 swine influenza viruses were isolated from Tianjin and Guangdong province of China in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The molecular evolution of eight gene segments was analyzed. A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 has low identity with A/Swine/Guangdong/2006; in the phylogenetic tree of PA gene, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2006 and A/Swine/Guangxi/1/2006 along with the H1N2 swine isolates of North America formed a cluster; and A/Swine/Tianjin/2004 and A/Swine/Zhejiang/2004, along with the classical H1N1 swine isolates formed another cluster; except that NA gene of A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 fell into the cluster of the H3N2 human influenza virus, indicating the reassortment between H3N2 human and H1N1 swine influenza viruses. Two different genotypes of H1N2 appeared among pigs in China. A/swine/Guangdong/1/06 was probably from H1N2 swine influenza viruses of North America; while A/swine/Tianjin/1/04 maybe come from reassortments of classical H1N1 swine and H3N2 human viruses prevalent in North America.

  6. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  7. Microbiome characterization of MFCs used for the treatment of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Puig, Sebastià; Pous, Narcís; Salcedo-Dávila, Inmaculada; Bañeras, Lluís; Balaguer, Maria Dolors; Colprim, Jesús

    2015-05-15

    Conventional swine manure treatment is performed by anaerobic digestion, but nitrogen is not treated. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) allow organic matter and nitrogen removal with concomitant electricity production. MFC microbiomes treating industrial wastewaters as swine manure have not been characterized. In this study, a multidisciplinary approach allowed microbiome relation with nutrient removal capacity and electricity production. Two different MFC configurations (C-1 and C-2) were used to treat swine manure. In C-1, the nitrification and denitrification processes took place in different compartments, while in C-2, simultaneous nitrification-denitrification occurred in the cathode. Clostridium disporicum and Geobacter sulfurreducens were identified in the anode compartments of both systems. C. disporicum was related to the degradation of complex organic matter compounds and G. sulfurreducens to electricity production. Different nitrifying bacteria populations were identified in both systems because of the different operational conditions. The highest microbial diversity was detected in cathode compartments of both configurations, including members of Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexiaceae and Proteobacteria. These communities allowed similar removal rates of organic matter (2.02-2.09 kg COD m(-3)d(-1)) and nitrogen (0.11-0.16 kg Nm(-3)d(-1)) in both systems. However, they differed in the generation of electric energy (20 and 2 mW m(-3) in C-1 and C-2, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. BreedWheat genotyping and phenotyping data in GnpIS information system

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Marie; Letellier, Thomas; Flores, Raphaël-Gauthier; couderc, Loïc; Mohellibi, Nacer; Pommier, Cyril; Steinbach, Delphine; Quesneville, Hadi; Sapet, Frederic; Rivière, Nathalie; Paux, Etienne; Didier, Audrey; Balfourier, Francois; Charmet, Jean-Francois; Le Gouis, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    BreedWheat project aims to support the competitiveness of the French wheat breeding sector, answering to societal challenges for a sustainable and quality production. Moreover, the BreedWheat project will characterize yet poorly exploited genetic resources to expand the diversity of the elite germplasm. Finally, new breeding methods will be developed and evaluated for their socioeconomic impact. In this frame, bioinformatics goals are (i) to establish and maintain a centralized repository ...

  9. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd – either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern...... European countries. Consequently, there is a non-negligible risk of ASF spread towards Western Europe. Therefore it is important to develop tools to improve our understanding of the spread and control of ASF for contingency planning. A stochastic and dynamic spatial spread model (DTU-DADS) was adjusted...

  10. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  11. Animal welfare: concepts and practical procedures to evaluate the swine productions systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Manteca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of animal welfare have received a wide discussion by international scientific community during the last decades. The most accepted definition consider the animal welfare like a multidimensional theme, where are involved the emotion, the biological activity and the natural behavior. However, considering the clearness of this concepts, another challenge is presented, where is questioned how we can evaluate the animal welfare in commercial systems. Thus, the Welfare Quality® project gave the understanding about the welfare subjects and how we can to evaluate its in commercial farms and slaughterhouses. Then the main of this article is present the principal concepts and practical means to evaluate the animal welfare in swine, according the Welfare Quality® protocols, with the identifications of the positive and critical aspects involved.

  12. Prospective surveillance for influenza. virus in Chinese swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin D; Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Bi, Zhen-Qiang; Lu, Bing; Wang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chuang-Xin; Chen, Shan-Hui; Qian, Yan-Hua; Song, Shao-Xia; Li, Min; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Meng-Na; Borkenhagen, Laura K; Cao, Wu-Chun; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-05-16

    Pork production in China is rapidly increasing and swine production operations are expanding in size and number. However, the biosecurity measures necessary to prevent swine disease transmission, particularly influenza. viruses (IAV) that can be zoonotic, are often inadequate. Despite this risk, few studies have attempted to comprehensively study IAV ecology in swine production settings. Here, we present environmental and animal sampling data collected in the first year of an ongoing five-year prospective epidemiological study to assess IAV ecology as it relates to swine workers, their pigs, and the farm environment. From March 2015 to February 2016, we collected 396 each of environmental swab, water, bioaerosol, and fecal/slurry samples, as well as 3300 pig oral secretion samples from six farms in China. The specimens were tested with molecular assays for IAV. Of these, 46 (11.6%) environmental swab, 235 (7.1%) pig oral secretion, 23 (5.8%) water, 20 (5.1%) bioaerosol, and 19 (4.8%) fecal/slurry specimens were positive for influenza. by qRT-PCR. Risk factors for IAV detection among collected samples were identified using bivariate logistic regression. Overall, these first year data suggest that IAV is quite ubiquitous in the swine production environment and demonstrate an association between the different types of environmental sampling used. Given the mounting evidence that some of these viruses freely move between pigs and swine workers, and that mixing of these viruses can yield progeny viruses with pandemic potential, it seems imperative that routine surveillance for novel IAVs be conducted in commercial swine farms.

  13. Serological and molecular evidence of hepadnavirus infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine R Vieira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Recently, investigations in a swine herd identified evidence of the existence of a novel member of the Hepadnavirus family endemic in swine. The aim of this study was to investigate the serological and molecular markers of Hepadnavirus circulation in Brazilian domestic swine and wild boar herds, and to evaluate the identity with HBV and other Hepadnaviruses reported previously. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. For the study, 376 swine were screened for hepatitis B virus serological markers. Analyses were performed in serum samples using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits (DiaSorin® for anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs. Reactive and undetermined swine serum samples were selected to perform DNA viral extraction (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, Qiagen®, partial genome amplification and genome sequencing. [b]Results[/b]. From 376 swine samples analysed, 28 (7.45% were reactive to anti-HBc, 3 (0.80% to HBsAg and 6 (1.6% to anti-HBs. Besides, more 17 (4.52% swine samples analyzed were classified in the grey zone of the EIA test to anti-HBc and 2 (0.53% to HBsAg. From 49 samples molecularly analyzed after serological trial, 4 samples showed a positive result for the qualitative PCR for Hepadnavirus. Phylogenetic reconstruction using partial genome sequencing (360 bp of 3 samples showed similarity with HBV with 90.8–96.3% of identity. [b]Conclusions.[/b] Serological and molecular data showed evidence of the circulation of a virus similar to hepatitis B virus in swine.

  14. PRODUCTION, MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT SYMPOSIUM: Measurement and mitigation of reactive nitrogen species from swine and poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W; Capelari, M

    2017-05-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production. Systems and practices associated with dry manure handling and bedded systems emit more NH than NO. Results from a turkey grow-out study estimated that just under 1% of consumed N was emitted as NO from housing, compared with just under 11% emitted as NH. Despite generally less NO emissions from animal housing compared with crop field emissions, NO emissions from housing are often greater than estimated. Lagoon systems emit more NO than either slurry or deep pit swine systems. Deep pit swine buildings emit only one-third the NO that is emitted from deep bedded swine systems. Laying hen, broiler chicken, and turkey buildings emit over 4 times as much NO as swine housing, on a weight-adjusted basis. Critical control points for mitigation center on: 1) reducing the amount of N excreted and, therefore, excreted N available for loss to air or water during housing, manure storage, or following land application of manures; 2) capturing excreted N to prevent release of N-containing compounds to air, water, or soil resources; or 3) conversion or treatment of N-containing compounds to non-reactive N gas.

  15. Removal of nitrogen from anaerobically digested swine wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result indicates that the sulfur-packed biofilter would be used as an efficient option for denitrification by autotrophic denitrifiers during swine wastewater treatment. Key words: Biological nitrogen removal, nitrification, denitrification, chemical oxygen demand (COD), intermittent aeration, sulfur-packed bed reactor, swine ...

  16. Modeling livestock population structure: a geospatial database for Ontario swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salah Uddin; O'Sullivan, Terri L; Poljak, Zvonimir; Alsop, Janet; Greer, Amy L

    2018-01-30

    Infectious diseases in farmed animals have economic, social, and health consequences. Foreign animal diseases (FAD) of swine are of significant concern. Mathematical and simulation models are often used to simulate FAD outbreaks and best practices for control. However, simulation outcomes are sensitive to the population structure used. Within Canada, access to individual swine farm population data with which to parameterize models is a challenge because of privacy concerns. Our objective was to develop a methodology to model the farmed swine population in Ontario, Canada that could represent the existing population structure and improve the efficacy of simulation models. We developed a swine population model based on the factors such as facilities supporting farm infrastructure, land availability, zoning and local regulations, and natural geographic barriers that could affect swine farming in Ontario. Assigned farm locations were equal to the swine farm density described in the 2011 Canadian Census of Agriculture. Farms were then randomly assigned to farm types proportional to the existing swine herd types. We compared the swine population models with a known database of swine farm locations in Ontario and found that the modeled population was representative of farm locations with a high accuracy (AUC: 0.91, Standard deviation: 0.02) suggesting that our algorithm generated a reasonable approximation of farm locations in Ontario. In the absence of a readily accessible dataset providing details of the relative locations of swine farms in Ontario, development of a model livestock population that captures key characteristics of the true population structure while protecting privacy concerns is an important methodological advancement. This methodology will be useful for individuals interested in modeling the spread of pathogens between farms across a landscape and using these models to evaluate disease control strategies.

  17. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in swine and swine workplace environments on industrial and antibiotic-free hog operations in North Carolina, USA: A One Health pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Meghan F; Pisanic, Nora; Rhodes, Sarah M; Brown, Alexis; Keller, Haley; Nadimpalli, Maya; Christ, Andrea; Ludwig, Shanna; Ordak, Carly; Spicer, Kristoffer; Love, David C; Larsen, Jesper; Wright, Asher; Blacklin, Sarah; Flowers, Billy; Stewart, Jill; Sexton, Kenneth G; Rule, Ana M; Heaney, Christopher D

    2018-05-01

    Occupational exposure to swine has been associated with increased Staphylococcus aureus carriage, including antimicrobial-resistant strains, and increased risk of infections. To characterize animal and environmental routes of worker exposure, we optimized methods to identify S. aureus on operations that raise swine in confinement with antibiotics (industrial hog operation: IHO) versus on pasture without antibiotics (antibiotic-free hog operation: AFHO). We associated findings from tested swine and environmental samples with those from personal inhalable air samplers on worker surrogates at one IHO and three AFHOs in North Carolina using a new One Health approach. We determined swine S. aureus carriage status by collecting swab samples from multiple anatomical sites, and we determined environmental positivity for airborne bioaerosols with inhalable and impinger samplers and a single-stage impactor (ambient air) cross-sectionally. All samples were analyzed for S. aureus, and isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, absence of scn (livestock marker), and spa type. Seventeen of twenty (85%) swine sampled at the one IHO carried S. aureus at >1 anatomical sites compared to none of 30 (0%) swine sampled at the three AFHOs. All S. aureus isolates recovered from IHO swine and air samples were scn negative and spa type t337; almost all isolates (62/63) were multidrug resistant. S. aureus was recovered from eight of 14 (67%) ambient air and two (100%) worker surrogate personal air samples at the one IHO, whereas no S. aureus isolates were recovered from 19 ambient and six personal air samples at the three AFHOs. Personal worker surrogate inhalable sample findings were consistent with both swine and ambient air data, indicating the potential for workplace exposure. IHO swine and the one IHO environment could be a source of potential pathogen exposure to workers, as supported by the detection of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) with livestock-associated spa

  18. Organic breeding: New trend in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic breeding is a new trend in plant breeding aimed at breeding of organic cultivars adapted to conditions and expectations of organic plant production. The best proof for the need of organic cultivars is the existence of interaction between the performances of genotypes with the kind of production (conventional or organic (graph. 1. The adaptation to low-input conditions of organic production by more eddicient uptake and utilization of plant nutrients is especially important for organic cultivars. One of the basic mechanism of weed control in organic production is the competition of organic cultivars and weeds i.e. the enhanced ability of organic cultivars to suppress the weeds. Resistance/tolerance to diseases and pests is among the most important expectations toward the organic cultivars. In comparison with the methods of conventional plant breeding, in case of organic plant breeding limitations exist in choice of methods for creation of variability and selection classified as permitted, conditionally permitted and banned. The use of genetically modified organisms and their derivated along with induced mutations is not permitted in organic production. The use of molecular markers in organic plant breeding is the only permitted modern method of biotechnology. It is not permitted to patent the breeding material of organic plant breeding or the organic cultivars. .

  19. Interaction of CSFV E2 protein with swine host factors as detected by yeast two-hybrid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P Gladue

    Full Text Available E2 is one of the envelope glycoproteins of pestiviruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV. E2 is involved in several critical functions, including virus entry into target cells, induction of a protective immune response and virulence in swine. However, there is no information regarding any host binding partners for the E2 proteins. Here, we utilized the yeast two-hybrid system and identified fifty-seven host proteins as positive binding partners which bound E2 from both CSFV and BVDV with the exception of two proteins that were found to be positive for binding only to CSFV E2. Alanine scanning of CSFV E2 demonstrated that the binding sites for these cellular proteins on E2 are likely non-linear binding sites. The possible roles of the identified host proteins are discussed as the results presented here will be important for future studies to elucidate mechanisms of host protein-virus interactions during pestivirus infection. However, due to the limitations of the yeast two hybrid system, the proteins identified is not exhaustive and each interaction identified needs to be confirmed by independent experimental approaches in the context of virus-infected cells before any definitive conclusion can be drawn on relevance for the virus life cycle.

  20. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-08-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil's swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009-2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance.

  1. Molecular diagnostics of swine infection caused by Mycoplasma suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .

  2. [Treatment effect of biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system on greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong-Jun; Zhang, Rui; Xiang, Kun; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Unorganized discharge of greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater has brought several negative influences on the ecological environment in the rural area of Yangtze River Delta. Biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system is a potential ecological method for greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater treatment. In order to explore the feasibility of this system and evaluate the contribution of vegetable uptake of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater, three types of vegetables, including Ipomoea aquatica, lettuce and celery were selected in this study. Results showed the combined system had a high capacity in simultaneous removal of organic matter, N and P. The removal efficiencies of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP from the wastewater reached up to 93.2%-95.6%, 97.2%-99.6%, 73.9%-93.1% and 74.9%-90.0%, respectively. System with I. aquatica had the highest efficiencies in N and P removal, followed by lettuce and celery. However, plant uptake was not the primary pathway for TN arid TP removal in the combined system. The vegetable uptake of N and P accounted for only 9.1%-25.0% of TN and TP removal from the wastewater while the effect of microorganisms would be dominant for N and P removal. In addition, the highest amounts of N and P uptake in I. aquatica were closely related with the biomass of plant. Results from the study indicated that the biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system was an effective approach to treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater in China.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Inhibition by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kaare Hvid; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1998-01-01

    A stable anaerobic degradation of swine manure with ammonia concentration of 6 g-N/litre was obtained in continuously stirred tank reactors with a hydraulic retention time of 15 days, at Four different temperatures. Methane yields of 188, 141, 67 and 22 ml-CH4/g-VS were obtained at 37, 45, 55...... and 60 degrees C, respectively. The yields were significantly lower than the potential biogas yield of the swine manure used (300 ml-CH4/g-VS). A free ammonia concentration of 1.1 g-N/litre or more was found to cause inhibition in batch cultures at pH 8.0 (reactor pH), and higher free ammonia...... concentrations resulted in a decreased apparent specific growth rate. Batch experiments with various mixtures of swine and cattle manure showed that the biogas process was inhibited when the swine-to-cattle manure ratio was higher than 25:75, corresponding to a free ammonia concentration of approximately 1.1 g...

  4. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  5. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G

    2012-02-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

  6. The Black of Strei – a Swine Population on the Verge of Extinction in Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Black of Strei swine was declared to be extinct in 1974, but research conducted in 2008-2010 proved that there are still 61 specimens (Black of Strei proper and hybrids in the Hatzeg county and in the Lugoj area. Body measurements have been made in the case of those specimens and they showed that the specimens are a morphoproductive type. The local people appreciate the Black of Strei especially for its fat and bard which are very dry and used in order to obtain the traditional food products in the area. Prolificacy of sows farrowing is an 8 piglets per gestation. This breed is best kept in organic farms. The Black of Strei females are usually cross-bred with wildboar (Sus scrofa ferus males, the hybrids’ meat being very appreciated.

  7. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  8. Economic feasibility of biogas production in swine farms using time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Luis Rockenbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to measure the economic feasibility and the time needed to return capital invested for the installation of a swine manure treatment system, these values originated the sale of carbon credits and/or of compensation of electric energy in swine farms, using the Box-Jenkins forecast models. It was found that the use of biogas is a viable option in a large scale with machines that operate daily for 10h or more, being the return period between 70 to 80 months. Time series analysis models are important to anticipate the series under study behavior, providing the swine breeder/investor means to reduce the financial investment risk as well as helping to decrease the production costs. Moreover, this process can be seen as another source of income and enable the breeder to be self-sufficient in the continuous supply of electric energy, which is very valuable nowadays considering that breeders are now increasingly using various technologies.

  9. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Loeffen, W.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic

  10. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  11. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  12. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil’s swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009–2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759

  13. Swine farm wastewater and mineral fertilization in corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela A. M. Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles, on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 100, 200, 300 m3 ha-1 during the cycle. The effects of the association between mineral fertilization at sowing and swine wastewater were evaluated simultaneously. Swine wastewater at the dose of 100 m3 ha-1 promoted availability and absorption of P, K+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ without causing toxicity to plants or damage to the soil, constituting a viable, low-cost alternative of water reuse and fertilization for farmers. The nutrients N, P, K+ and B must be complemented with mineral fertilization. Special attention should be directed to the accumulation of Zn2+ in the soil along the time of swine wastewater application.

  14. Quantifying Attachment and Antibiotic Resistance of from Conventional and Organic Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwonitzer, Martha R; Soupir, Michelle L; Jarboe, Laura R; Smith, Douglas R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often administered to swine, contributing to the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in their manure. During land application, the bacteria in swine manure preferentially attach to particles in the soil, affecting their transport in overland flow. However, a quantitative understanding of these attachment mechanisms is lacking, and their relationship to antibiotic resistance is unknown. The objective of this study is to examine the relationships between antibiotic resistance and attachment to very fine silica sand in collected from swine manure. A total of 556 isolates were collected from six farms, two organic and four conventional (antibiotics fed prophylactically). Antibiotic resistance was quantified using 13 antibiotics at three minimum inhibitory concentrations: resistant, intermediate, and susceptible. Of the 556 isolates used in the antibiotic resistance assays, 491 were subjected to an attachment assay. Results show that isolates from conventional systems were significantly more resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, chlortetracycline, erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and tylosin ( < 0.001). Results also indicate that isolated from conventional systems attached to very fine silica sand at significantly higher levels than those from organic systems ( < 0.001). Statistical analysis showed that a significant relationship did not exist between antibiotic resistance levels and attachment in from conventional systems but did for organic systems ( < 0.001). Better quantification of these relationships is critical to understanding the behavior of in the environment and preventing exposure of human populations to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest 'reverse zoonosis' of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human-animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. African Swine Fever Virus Biology and Vaccine Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Yolanda; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Richt, Juergen A

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute and often fatal disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia, Italy. Since 2007, the virus emerged in the republic of Georgia, and since then spread throughout the Caucasus region and Russia. Outbreaks have also been reported in Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Poland, threatening neighboring West European countries. The causative agent, the African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that enters the cell by macropinocytosis and a clathrin-dependent mechanism. African Swine Fever Virus is able to interfere with various cellular signaling pathways resulting in immunomodulation, thus making the development of an efficacious vaccine very challenging. Inactivated preparations of African Swine Fever Virus do not confer protection, and the role of antibodies in protection remains unclear. The use of live-attenuated vaccines, although rendering suitable levels of protection, presents difficulties due to safety and side effects in the vaccinated animals. Several African Swine Fever Virus proteins have been reported to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized pigs, and vaccination strategies based on DNA vaccines and recombinant proteins have also been explored, however, without being very successful. The complexity of the virus particle and the ability of the virus to modulate host immune responses are most likely the reason for this failure. Furthermore, no permanent cell lines able to sustain productive virus infection by both virulent and naturally attenuated African Swine Fever Virus strains exist so far, thus impairing basic research and the commercial production of attenuated vaccine candidates. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Irradiated Yeast Fermented Cassava on Performance of Starter and Growing Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khammeng, Terdsak; Sanchisuriya, Pitcharat; Nontaso, Ngarmnit; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supplementation of fermented cassava with Saccharomyces sp. KKU.1 on the swine diet. The fermented products were added in the rat in at 0, 3, 6, and 9%, respectively. Thirty-two (4 week-old) crossbreed swine (Large white x Land race x Duroc) were randomly allotted according to Completely Randomize Design in two periods. Four dietary treatments and four replications (1 male and 1 female) were tested in the starting swine. Four dietary treatments and two replications (2 male and 2 female) were tested in the growing swine. The swine were tested for 6 week (August 2006-September 2006) at the swine unit, Deparment of Animal Science, Khon Kaen University. The results revealed that the fermented cassava in the diet had no affect (P>0.05) on productive performance (growth rate and feed conversion ratio) of swine in both periods.

  18. Indicadores do bem-estar em suínos Welfare indicators in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raíssa Ivna Alquete de Arreguy Baptista

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A busca por produtos de qualidade exige do produtor mudanças no sistema de produção de suíno que priorizem, em particular, o bem-estar do animal. As mudanças são necessárias para atender à demanda da sociedade e ampliar os mercados internos e externos. O bem-estar na espécie suína pode ser avaliado por meio das respostas comportamentais, fisiológicas, ligadas à sanidade e à produção. Em função do exposto, o objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a literatura em relação aos critérios científicos utilizados para indicar o bem-estar da espécie suína nos sistemas de produção.In order to obtain good quality products, the swine production system should prioritize the animals welfare. Changes are necessary to meet society's demand and expand domestic and foreign markets. The swine's welfare can be assessed by behavioral and physiological traits related to health and production. Thus, our goal is to review in the literature what are the scientific criteria that are used to indicate the swine welfare in the production systems.

  19. Breeding biology and variable mating system of a population of introduced dunnocks (Prunella modularis in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S A Santos

    Full Text Available Species with variable mating systems provide a unique opportunity to investigate whether females receive direct fitness benefits from additional male partners. The direct benefits provide an obvious explanation for why females would breed polyandrously, in a situation where males clearly do not attain their optimal reproductive success. Evidence for these direct benefits is, however, mixed. Here, we present a detailed study of the breeding biology of the dunnock, Prunella modularis, which inform an investigation into the effects of the social mating system on the reproductive success in a population of dunnocks in Southern New Zealand. We studied 80 different social groups over the course of three breeding seasons. Dunnocks in our population presented a variable mating system, with socially monogamous (45%, socially polyandrous (54% and socially polygynandrous (1% groups being observed in the same breeding season. We did not observe any polygynous social units in our study period although polygyny exists in the population. We found little difference in the numbers of eggs laid, and egg volume between monogamous and polyandrous nests. However, polyandrous groups had better hatching and fledging success than monogamous groups (composite d = 0.385, 95% CI: 0.307 to 0.463. Overall our results support the notion that polyandry is beneficial for females.

  20. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Alžbeta Žofajová; Jozef Gubiš; Ľudovít Sleziak; Klára Križanová; Vratislav Psota

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently descripti...

  1. Modeled effectiveness of ventilation with contaminant control devices on indoor air quality in a swine farrowing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, T Renée; Altmaier, Ralph; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Because adverse health effects experienced by swine farm workers in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been associated with exposure to dust and gases, efforts to reduce exposures are warranted, particularly in winter seasons when exposures increase due to decreased ventilation. Simulation of air quality and operating costs for ventilating swine CAFO, including treating and recirculating air through a farrowing room, was performed using mass and energy balance equations over a 90-day winter season. System operation required controlling heater operation to achieve room temperatures optimal to ensure animal health (20 to 22.5 °C). Five air pollution control devices, four room ventilation rates, and five recirculation patterns were examined. Inhalable dust concentrations were easily reduced using standard industrial air pollution control devices, including a cyclone, filtration, and electrostatic precipitator. Operating ventilation systems at 0.94 m3 s(-1) (2000 cfm) with 75 to 100% recirculation of treated air from cyclone, electrostatic precipitator, and shaker dust filtration system achieves adequate particle control with operating costs under $1.00 per pig produced ($0.22 to 0.54), although carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations approach 2000 ppm using in-room ventilated gas fired heaters. In no simulation were CO2 concentrations below industry recommended concentrations (1540 ppm), but alternative heating devices could reduce CO2 to acceptable concentrations. While this investigation does not represent all production swine farrowing barns, which differ in characteristics including room dimensions and swine occupancy, the simulation model and ventilation optimization methods can be applied to other production sites. This work shows that ventilation may be a cost-effective control option in the swine industry to reduce exposures.

  2. Association of the Host Immune Response with Protection Using a Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Virus Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jolene; O'Donnell, Vivian; Alfano, Marialexia; Velazquez Salinas, Lauro; Holinka, Lauren G; Krug, Peter W; Gladue, Douglas P; Higgs, Stephen; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-10-22

    African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4) virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus) is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi) showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi). This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN)-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles) and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms.

  3. Application of unmanned aerial systems for high throughput phenotyping of large wheat breeding nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighattalab, Atena; González Pérez, Lorena; Mondal, Suchismita; Singh, Daljit; Schinstock, Dale; Rutkoski, Jessica; Ortiz-Monasterio, Ivan; Singh, Ravi Prakash; Goodin, Douglas; Poland, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Low cost unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have great potential for rapid proximal measurements of plants in agriculture. In the context of plant breeding and genetics, current approaches for phenotyping a large number of breeding lines under field conditions require substantial investments in time, cost, and labor. For field-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP), UAS platforms can provide high-resolution measurements for small plot research, while enabling the rapid assessment of tens-of-thousands of field plots. The objective of this study was to complete a baseline assessment of the utility of UAS in assessment field trials as commonly implemented in wheat breeding programs. We developed a semi-automated image-processing pipeline to extract plot level data from UAS imagery. The image dataset was processed using a photogrammetric pipeline based on image orientation and radiometric calibration to produce orthomosaic images. We also examined the relationships between vegetation indices (VIs) extracted from high spatial resolution multispectral imagery collected with two different UAS systems (eBee Ag carrying MultiSpec 4C camera, and IRIS+ quadcopter carrying modified NIR Canon S100) and ground truth spectral data from hand-held spectroradiometer. We found good correlation between the VIs obtained from UAS platforms and ground-truth measurements and observed high broad-sense heritability for VIs. We determined radiometric calibration methods developed for satellite imagery significantly improved the precision of VIs from the UAS. We observed VIs extracted from calibrated images of Canon S100 had a significantly higher correlation to the spectroradiometer (r = 0.76) than VIs from the MultiSpec 4C camera (r = 0.64). Their correlation to spectroradiometer readings was as high as or higher than repeated measurements with the spectroradiometer per se. The approaches described here for UAS imaging and extraction of proximal sensing data enable collection of HTP

  4. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  5. H1N1 influenza viruses varying widely in hemagglutinin stability transmit efficiently from swine to swine and to ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Russier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen by most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans and H5N1 airborne transmissibility in the ferret model. Swine have served as an intermediate host for zoonotic influenza viruses, yet the evolutionary pressure exerted by this host on HA stability was unknown. For over 70 contemporary swine H1 and H3 isolates, we measured HA activation pH to range from pH 5.1 to 5.9 for H1 viruses and pH 5.3 to 5.8 for H3 viruses. Thus, contemporary swine isolates vary widely in HA stability, having values favored by both avian (pH >5.5 and human and ferret (pH ≤5.5 species. Using an early 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 virus backbone, we generated three viruses differing by one HA residue that only altered HA stability: WT (pH 5.5, HA1-Y17H (pH 6.0, and HA2-R106K (pH 5.3. All three replicated in pigs and transmitted from pig-to-pig and pig-to-ferret. WT and R106 viruses maintained HA genotype and phenotype after transmission. Y17H (pH 6.0 acquired HA mutations that stabilized the HA protein to pH 5.8 after transmission to pigs and 5.5 after transmission to ferrets. Overall, we found swine support a broad range of HA activation pH for contact transmission and many recent swine H1N1 and H3N2 isolates have stabilized (human-like HA proteins. This constitutes a heightened pandemic risk and underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance and control efforts for swine viruses.

  6. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  7. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  8. Adult sex ratios and their implications for cooperative breeding in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Székely, Tamás; Long, Xiaoyan; Kingma, Sjouke Anne

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is a form of breeding system where in addition to a core breeding pair, one or more usually non-breeding individuals provide offspring care. Cooperative breeding is widespread in birds, but its origin and maintenance in contemporary populations are debated. Although deviations

  9. Market Concentration Rate and Market Performance of China’s Swine Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia ZHANG; Yucheng HE

    2016-01-01

    Empirical study on market concentration rate and market performance of China’s Swine Industry indicates that higher market concentration rate brings higher overall performance of swine industry. There exists no obvious causal relation between market concentration rate and market performance,but market performance is highly correlated with market concentration rate. The improvement in performance of swine industry is dependent on further optimization of market concentration rate and other factors.

  10. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: What is the concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160Abstract: Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called “atypical infection”. These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.Keywords: swine flu, drug, vaccine, concept

  11. Goat farming systems in Martinique: management and breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, G; Leimbacher, F; Maurice, O; Domarin, D; Naves, M; Mandonnet, N

    2009-04-01

    To be successful, initiatives to improve farmer's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. A survey was carried out to implement a genetic policy governing meat goat farming in Martinique (11,400 heads and 33,400 ha arable land). The questionnaire comprised a total of 27 items with 306 modalities, and included questions on farm structure, crop and animal productions, management of feeding, reproduction and health control. The sample consisted of 33 farmers with 644 ha and 2,680 goats (1,286 does and 52 bucks), 97% of does in the studied sample were crossbred, 56% of bucks were" imported" breeds (Boer or Anglo-Nubian). The number of goats per farm varied from 16 to 582. The feeding system was predominantly grazing, according to a rotation (55% of cases) or continuous grazing system (42%). On 62% of farms, the males remained with the females permanently, also 83% of farmers did not resort to methods of controlled-mating. The first criteria used for choosing animals (80 to 90% of answers) of both sex, were development and conformation. Assuming that adaptive together with productive traits are important in tropical zones, it is advisable to better define the maternal lineage of the local livestock (presently very sparse records), to improve reproduction management and culling strategies (poor and inadequate management practices do not support any genetic improvement programme), and to guide the farmers in their decisions by employing concerted interprofessional actions (choice of meat breed, market studies).

  12. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal and economically significant disease of domestic pigs in Uganda where outbreaks regularly occur. There is neither a vaccine nor treatment available for ASF control. Twenty two African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotypes (I - XXII) have been identified based on partial sequencing ...

  13. Zoonotic pathogens from feral swine that pose a significant threat to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V R; Bowen, R A; Bosco-Lauth, A M

    2018-06-01

    The natural fecundity of suids, great ability to adapt to new habitats and desire for local hunting opportunities leading to translocation of feral pigs to regions where they are not yet established have all been instrumental in the home range expansion of feral swine. Feral swine populations in the United States continue to expand, wreaking havoc on agricultural lands, further compromising threatened and endangered species, and posing a microbiological threat to humans, domestic livestock and companion animals. This manuscript thoroughly reviews zoonotic diseases of concern including brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, leptospirosis, enteric pathogens, both Salmonella spp. and shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and hepatitis E. These pathogens are not a comprehensive list of microbes that are capable of infecting both humans and feral swine, but rather have been selected as they are known to infect US feral swine, direct transmission between wild suids and humans has previously been documented, or they have been shown to be readily transmitted during processing or consumption of feral swine pork. Humans that interact directly or indirectly with feral swine are at much higher risk for the development of a number of zoonotic pathogens. Numerous case reports document transmission events from feral swine and wild boar to humans, and the resulting diseases may be mild and self-limiting, chronic or fatal. Individuals that interact with feral swine should take preventative measures to minimize the risk of disease transmission and all meat should be thoroughly cooked. Additionally, public health campaigns to increase knowledge of the risks associated with feral swine are imperative. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Swine influenza viruses isolated in 1983, 2002 and 2009 in Sweden exemplify different lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metreveli Giorgi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Swine influenza virus isolates originating from outbreaks in Sweden from 1983, 2002 and 2009 were subjected to nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The aim of the studies was to obtain an overview on their potential relatedness as well as to provide data for broader scale studies on swine influenza epidemiology. Nonetheless, analyzing archive isolates is justified by the efforts directed to the comprehension of the appearance of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Interestingly, this study illustrates the evolution of swine influenza viruses in Europe, because the earliest isolate belonged to 'classical' swine H1N1, the subsequent ones to Eurasian 'avian-like' swine H1N1 and reassortant 'avian-like' swine H1N2 lineages, respectively. The latter two showed close genetic relatedness regarding their PB2, HA, NP, and NS genes, suggesting common ancestry. The study substantiates the importance of molecular surveillance for swine influenza viruses.

  15. 21 CFR 558.115 - Carbadox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Limitations. Not for use in pregnant swine or swine intended for breeding purposes. Do not feed to swine... rate of weight gain and improved feed efficiency. (ii) Limitations. Not for use in pregnant swine or... complete feeds containing less than 15 percent crude protein. (4) Amount. Carbadox, 10 to 25 grams per ton...

  16. Forms of phosphorus transfer in runoff under no-tillage in a soil treated with successive swine effluents applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenzi, Cledimar Rogério; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Tiecher, Tadeu Luis; Lorensini, Felipe; Cancian, Adriana; Stefanello, Lincon; Girotto, Eduardo; Vieira, Renan Costa Beber; Ferreira, Paulo Ademar Avelar; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Successive swine effluent applications can substantially increase the transfer of phosphorus (P) forms in runoff. The aim of this study was to evaluate P accumulation in the soil and transfer of P forms in surface runoff from a Hapludalf soil under no-tillage subjected to successive swine effluent applications. This research was carried out in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil, from 2004 to 2007, on a Typic Hapludalf soil. Swine effluent rates of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha(-1) were broadcast over the soil surface prior to sowing of different species in a crop rotation. Soil samples were collected in stratified layers, and the levels of available P were determined. Samples of water runoff from the soil surface were collected throughout the period, and the available, soluble, particulate, and total P were measured. Successive swine effluent applications led to increases in P availability, especially in the soil surface, and P migration through the soil profile. Transfer of P forms was closely associated with runoff, which is directly related to rainfall volume. Swine effluent applications also reduced surface runoff. These results show that in areas with successive swine effluent applications, practices that promote higher water infiltration into the soil are required, e.g., crop rotation and no-tillage system.

  17. [Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in swine in Costa Rica: epidemiologic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A L; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L

    1991-01-01

    On a three hundred swine sera sample collected from a Municipal Slaughter house and a Research Laboratory at the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería a 26% of positivity against T. gondii was found using the carbon immunoassay. A relationship between the age and swine race are made. The epidemiological significance of this findings are discussed focused mainly on the role of swine meat as a source of human infection in Costa Rica.

  18. Association of the Host Immune Response with Protection Using a Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Virus Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Carlson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV. There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4 virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi. This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms.

  19. Effect of different cryo-protectants on the viability of frozen/thawed semen from boars of the Piau breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, R O; Lima, D M A; Shiomi, H H; Siqueira, J B; Silva, H T; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F; Guimarães, J D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different cryo-protectants (glycerol, dimethylacetamide and dimethylformamide alone or combined and added to lactose-egg yolk extender) on the viability of frozen/thawed semen from the Piau breed as assessed by in vitro testing. Frozen semen samples (n=20) were used from five male swine. Five different freezing extenders, including 2% glycerol (Group 1 - G), 2% glycerol and 3% dimethylacetamide (Group 2 - GA), 2% glycerol and 3% dimethylformamide (Group 3 - GF), 5% dimethylacetamide (Group 4 - A) and 5% dimethylformamide (group 5 - F), were evaluated. To assess post-thawing sperm quality, sperm motility and morphology were evaluated. Sperm viability was determined using the hypoosmotic swelling test, supravital staining, and a fluorescent assay (carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide). The mean total sperm motility of semen immediately after thawing was 46.2±1.3, 57.7±1.5, 53.2±2.1, 51.7±1.2, and 46.5±1.6% for groups 1-5, respectively. Groups 2 (GA) and 3 (GF) had greater motility values (P0.05). The other complementary tests (hypoosmotic swelling test and supra-vital staining) demonstrated that sperm in Groups 2 (GA), 3 (GF) and 4 (A) had the greatest viability and there were no significant differences among these three groups (P>0.05). The most effective cryo-protectant combinations likely minimized and controlled the deleterious processes that occur in the sperm cell during freezing/thawing, thus improving post-thawing sperm viability. In conclusion, the combination of amides (3%) and glycerol (2%) or dimethylacetamide (5%) alone were more efficient at cryo-protection than glycerol alone for semen freezing in the Piau swine breed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of African swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Frederic R; Schroeder, Megan E; Mulhern, Erin L; McIntosh, Michael T; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. Pigs infected with ASF and CSF viruses (ASFV and CSFV) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. Likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability to perform herd-level surveillance for all 3 diseases rapidly and cost effectively using a single diagnostic sample and test is highly desirable. This study assessed the feasibility of simultaneous ASFV, CSFV, and FMDV detection by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) in swine oral fluids collected through the use of chewing ropes. Animal groups were experimentally infected independently with each virus, observed for clinical signs, and oral fluids collected and tested throughout the course of infection. All animal groups chewed on the ropes readily before and after onset of clinical signs and before onset of lameness or serious clinical signs. ASFV was detected as early as 3 days postinoculation (dpi), 2-3 days before onset of clinical disease; CSFV was detected at 5 dpi, coincident with onset of clinical disease; and FMDV was detected as early as 1 dpi, 1 day before the onset of clinical disease. Equivalent results were observed in 4 independent studies and demonstrate the feasibility of oral fluids and mRT-qPCR for surveillance of ASF, CSF, and FMD in swine populations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process......The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary......, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure...

  2. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  3. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  4. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. F. Clark

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatic milking systems (AMS rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August and summer (December to February seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  5. Winter feeding systems and dairy cow breed have an impact on milk composition and flavour of two Protected Designation of Origin French cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L; Michel, G; Berthelot, D; Delaby, L

    2009-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of two feeding systems and two dairy cow breeds on milk yield and composition, physical and sensorial properties of Camembert and Pont-l'Evêque cheeses. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A low energy grass diet with only 15% of concentrate (LowGS) was compared with a high-energy maize silage diet with 30% concentrate (HighMS). Thirty-four Holstein (Ho) and 34 Normande (No) cows in early lactation were assigned to one of two feeding systems for a 6-week period. Cows on the LowGS feeding system had lower milk yield, fat and protein content. In both feeding systems, No cows had lower milk yields but higher milk protein contents than Ho cows. The LowGS feeding system altered milk fatty acid (FA) composition by reducing saturated FA. Breed had only a small impact on milk FA. Concerning milk coagulating properties, only the firmness was reduced by the LowGS feeding and the Ho breed. The effects of breed and feeding system on the protein content of cheeses were more marked in Camembert cheese than in Pont-l'Evêque cheese. However, the Camembert cheese from Ho-LowGS was, in fact, characterized especially by lower protein content. LowGS feeding system and No breed produced more yellow cheeses. Feeding systems had limited effects on the firmness of Camembert and Pont-l'Evêque cheeses measured by penetrometry. In sensory analysis, Ho breed and LowGS feeding produced a Camembert cheese with a more melting texture in the mouth due to the increase of spreadability index and of proteolysis. The type of cheese also had an influence: the effects were more important on Camembert cheese than on Pont-l'Evêque cheese. Only the Ho-LowGS treatment produced a very specific Camembert cheese different from the others. The feeding systems and breed of dairy cow have no determinant effect on PDO (protected designation of origin) Camembert and Pont-l'Evêque cheeses, especially regarding taste. In this kind of

  6. Male and female breeding strategies in a cooperative primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maria Emilia; Araujo, Arrilton; Arruda, Maria de Fatima; Lima, Ana Karinne Moreira; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Hattori, Wallisen Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Marmosets are cooperative breeders organized as extended family groups, but breeding is generally restricted to a single pair. Breeding competition is fierce in female marmosets; males, on the other hand, show low levels of intragroup aggression. We investigated male and female breeding strategies and the resulting reproductive output in 9 wild groups. Reproductive output, tenure of breeding animals, identification of the breeding system, breeding position replacements, migration and infanticide were recorded; also, we recorded grooming and aggression. Replacement of the breeding male or female was observed on nine occasions. On four occasions, the son of the breeding male inherited the breeding post, but we never observed inheritance of a breeding post by a daughter. Mostly, females attained a breeding post by immigrating to a group that had a breeding vacancy. Our results showed that Callithrix jacchus males and females use different strategies to attain a breeding position and maintain it for as long as possible. These strategies prolong the tenure of the breeding position, which is the best way to produce a large number of offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An automated system for positive reinforcement training of group-housed macaque monkeys at breeding and research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulip, Jennifer; Zimmermann, Jonas B; Farningham, David; Jackson, Andrew

    2017-06-15

    Behavioural training through positive reinforcement techniques is a well-recognised refinement to laboratory animal welfare. Behavioural neuroscience research requires subjects to be trained to perform repetitions of specific behaviours for food/fluid reward. Some animals fail to perform at a sufficient level, limiting the amount of data that can be collected and increasing the number of animals required for each study. We have implemented automated positive reinforcement training systems (comprising a button press task with variable levels of difficulty using LED cues and a fluid reward) at the breeding facility and research facility, to compare performance across these different settings, to pre-screen animals for selection and refine training protocols. Animals learned 1- and 4-choice button tasks within weeks of home enclosure training, with some inter-individual differences. High performance levels (∼200-300 trials per 60min session at ∼80% correct) were obtained without food or fluid restriction. Moreover, training quickly transferred to a laboratory version of the task. Animals that acquired the task at the breeding facility subsequently performed better both in early home enclosure sessions upon arrival at the research facility, and also in laboratory sessions. Automated systems at the breeding facility may be used to pre-screen animals for suitability for behavioural neuroscience research. In combination with conventional training, both the breeding and research facility systems facilitate acquisition and transference of learning. Automated systems have the potential to refine training protocols and minimise requirements for food/fluid control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Swine Influenza Virus Antibodies in Humans, Western Europe, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Kremer, Jacques R.; Charpentier, Emilie; Sausy, Aurélie; Olinger, Christophe M.; Weicherding, Pierre; Schuh, John; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2011-01-01

    Serologic studies for swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in humans with occupational exposure to swine have been reported from the Americas but not from Europe. We compared levels of neutralizing antibodies against 3 influenza viruses—pandemic (H1N1) 2009, an avian-like enzootic subtype H1N1 SIV, and a 2007–08 seasonal subtype H1N1—in 211 persons with swine contact and 224 matched controls in Luxembourg. Persons whose profession involved contact with swine had more neutralizing antibodies against SIV and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus than did the controls. Controls also had antibodies against these viruses although exposure to them was unlikely. Antibodies against SIV and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus correlated with each other but not with seasonal subtype H1N1 virus. Sequential exposure to variants of seasonal influenza (H1N1) viruses may have increased chances for serologic cross-reactivity with antigenically distinct viruses. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which serologic responses correlate with infection. PMID:21392430

  9. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  10. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  11. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  12. Carbon sequestration in surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbo...

  13. A closed cabinet system with water flushers and a blender for breeding small animal administered 3HHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, O.; Takeoka, S.; Tsujimura, T.; Kuroda, T.; Iwashita, T.; Amme, T.

    1984-01-01

    A closed cabinet system was developed for breeding small animals administered 3 HHO. 3 HHO vapor released from the animals in the chamber was absorbed with water in a water bubbler. Feces and urine which were washed out with water were ground in a blender, diluted, and then released. With this cabinet system we were successful in safely breeding mice even given a total single injection of 15.5 GBq (420 mCi) of 3 HHO without storing the 3 H-slops for a long time and without any significant leakage of 3 H from the cabinet. (author)

  14. EVIDENCE OF PSEUDORABIES VIRUS SHEDDING IN FERAL SWINE ( SUS SCROFA) POPULATIONS OF FLORIDA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Felipe A; Sayler, Katherine A; Bounds, Courtney; Milleson, Michael P; Carr, Amanda N; Wisely, Samantha M

    2018-01-01

    :  Feral swine ( Sus scrofa) are a pathogen reservoir for pseudorabies virus (PrV). The virus can be fatal to wildlife and contributes to economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. National surveillance efforts in the US use serology to detect PrV-specific antibodies in feral swine populations, but PrV exposure is not a direct indicator of pathogen transmission among conspecifics or to non-suid wildlife species. We measured antibody production and the presence of PrV DNA in four tissue types from feral swine populations of Florida, US. We sampled blood, nasal, oral, and genital swabs from 551 individuals at 39 sites during 2014-16. Of the animals tested for antibody production, 224 of 436 (51%) feral swine were antibody positive while 38 of 549 feral swine (7%) tested for viral shedding were quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-positive for PrV. The detection of PrV DNA across all the collected sample types (blood, nasal, oral, and genital [vaginal] swabs) suggested viral shedding via direct (oronasal or venereal), and potentially indirect (through carcass consumption), routes of transmission among infected and susceptible animals. Fourteen of 212 seronegative feral swine were qPCR-positive, indicating 7% false negatives in the serologic assay. Our findings suggest that serology may underestimate the actual infection risk posed by feral swine to other species and that feral swine populations in Florida are capable of shedding the virus through multiple routes.

  15. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the current study, aiming to find more clues in understanding the molecular mechanisms of CSFV NS5A's function, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell (SUVEC). Alignment with the NCBI database ...

  16. Effect of soy protein on swine intestinal lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    Hypocholesterolemic effect of soy protein appears to be the result of reduced cholesterol absorption and enhanced cholesterol excretion. The objective of this study is to delineate the underlying mechanism of soy protein effect on cholesterol absorption. At the end of a 5-week soy-protein or casein diet, swine were subjected to cannulation of mesenteric lymph duct under halothane anesthesia. A single dose of 250 μCi [ 14 C]-cholesterol and 10 mCi [ 3 H]-leucine was infused into the upper jejunum two hours after one-fifth of daily food was given. Then lymph was collected hourly for three hours and the lipoprotein fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation. SDS-PAGE (5%) was used to measure the concentrations of individual apoproteins by densitometric scanning. The three-hour lymphatic transport of cholesterol in casein-fed swine was significantly higher than in those fed soy protein. Triglyceride transports were similar in two groups. The [ 3 H]-leucine incorporation study revealed that transport of apo B-48 bore a significant positive relationship to transport of cholesterol in both chylomicron and VLDL fractions of mesenteric lymph. A greater apo B-48 secretion with higher specific activity was probably responsible for the greater transport of cholesterol in chylomicrons in casein-fed swine. On the other hand, the lesser cholesterol transport in chylomicrons in soy protein-fed swine was probably caused by lower apo B-48 secretion. Similarly, the transport of lymph VLDL cholesterol in swine fed casein or soy protein paralleled the amount of accompanying apo B-48. Dietary proteins probably influence the intestinal synthesis of apo B-48 which in turn affects cholesterol transport into the lymphatics

  17. Characterization of Conserved and Non-conserved Imprinted Genes in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to increase our understanding of the role of imprinted genes in swine reproduction we used two complementary approaches, analysis of imprinting by pyrosequencing, and expression profiling of parthenogenetic fetuses, to carry out a comprehensive analysis of this gene family in swine. Using A...

  18. Resistance Genes in Global Crop Breeding Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K A; Andersen, K F; Asche, F; Bowden, R L; Forbes, G A; Kulakow, P A; Zhou, B

    2017-10-01

    Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks. Here, we evaluate the general structure of crop breeding networks for cassava, potato, rice, and wheat. All four are clustered due to phytosanitary and intellectual property regulations, and linked through CGIAR hubs. Cassava networks primarily include public breeding groups, whereas others are more mixed. These systems must adapt to global change in climate and land use, the emergence of new diseases, and disruptive breeding technologies. Research priorities to support policy include how best to maintain both diversity and redundancy in the roles played by individual crop breeding groups (public versus private and global versus local), and how best to manage connectivity to optimize resistance gene deployment while avoiding risks to the useful life of resistance genes. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .

  19. Farming styles and cooperatives disputes of swine farmers under economic pressure in southern France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In Southern France, the regression of swine farms and swine is ongoing. It involves reorientation of socio-professional networks, especially the farmers’ cooperatives. For understanding the various ways of maintaining swine production under the regressive circumstances, we focus on the farmers’

  20. Breeding business : the future of plant breeding in the light of developments in patent rights and plant breeder's rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.; Dons, J.J.M.; Overwalle, van G.; Raven, H.; Arundel, A.; Eaton, D.; Nelis, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant breeding serves an important public interest. Two intellectual property (IP) systems are relevant for the protection of innovations in this sector: plant breeder's rights and patent rights. Some exemptions play an important role in plant breeding, such as the 'breeder's exemption', which is

  1. "Boldness" in the domestic dog differs among breeds and breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-07-01

    "Boldness" in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies on boldness in dogs have found differences among breeds, but grouping breeds on the basis of behavioural similarities has been elusive. This study investigated differences in the expression of boldness among dog breeds, kennel club breed groups, and sub-groups of kennel club breed groups by way of a survey on dog personality circulated among Australian dog-training clubs and internet forums and lists. Breed had a significant effect on boldness (F=1.63, numDF=111, denDF=272, ppurpose. Retrievers were significantly bolder than flushing and pointing breeds (Reg. Coef.=2.148; S.E.=0.593; pdogs. Differences in boldness among groups and sub-groups suggest that behavioural tendencies may be influenced by historical purpose regardless of whether that purpose still factors in selective breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Use estimates of in-feed antimicrobials in swine production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Michael D; Bush, Eric J; Morrison, Robert B; Singer, Randall S; Snelson, Harry

    2012-03-01

    When considering the development of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, comparing gross use estimates of different antimicrobials is of little value due to differences in potencies, duration of activity, relative effect on target and commensal bacteria, and mechanisms of resistance. However, it may be valuable to understand quantities of different antimicrobials used in different ages of swine and for what applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to construct an estimate of antimicrobial use through the feed in swine production in the United States. Estimates were based on data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Swine 2006 Study and from a 2009 survey of swine-exclusive practitioners. Inputs consisted of number of pigs in a production phase, feed intake per day, dose of the antimicrobial in the feed, and duration of administration. Calculations were performed for a total of 102 combinations of antimicrobials (n=17), production phases (n=2), and reasons for use (n=3). Calculations were first conducted on farm-level data, and then extrapolated to the U.S. swine population. Among the nursery phase estimates, chlortetracycline had the largest estimate of use, followed by oxytetracycline and tilmicosin. In the grower/finisher phase, chlortetracycline also had the largest use estimate, followed by tylosin and oxytetracycline. As an annual industry estimate for all phases, chlortetracycline had the highest estimated use at 533,973 kg. The second and third highest estimates were tylosin and oxytetracycline with estimated annual uses of 165,803 kg and 154,956 kg, respectively. The estimates presented here were constructed to accurately reflect available data related to production practices, and to provide an example of a scientific approach to estimating use of compounds in production animals.

  3. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  4. Economic losses to Iberian swine production from forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Ramon Molina Martinez; Miguel Herrera Machuca; Ricardo Zamora Diaz; Fancisco Rodriguez y Silva; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2011-01-01

    Most forestry property in Andalusia is privately held. One of the most important possibilities for economic development of rural areas is the use of pasture lands (dehesa in Spanish). During the spring–summer season, swine grazing takes advantage of grasses between the trees, and during winter (harsher times), they use Quercus tree fruit. Swine production has a direct...

  5. Comparative prevalence of immune evasion complex genes associated with beta-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates from swine, swine facilities, humans with swine contact, and humans with no swine contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genet...

  6. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of 20 North European cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    kantanen, J; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik

    2000-01-01

    Blood samples were collected from 743 animals from 15 indigenous, 2 old imported, and 3 commercial North European cattle breeds. The samples were analyzed for 11 erythrocyte antigen systems, 8 proteins, and 10 microsatellites, and used to assess inter- and intrabreed genetic variation and genetic......, allelic diversity has been reduced in several breeds, which was explained by limited effective population sizes over the course of man-directed breed development and demographic bottlenecks of indigenous breeds. A tree showing genetic relationships between breeds was constructed from a matrix of random...... drift-based genetic distance estimates. The breeds were classified on the basis of the tree topology into four major breed groups, defined as Northern indigenous breeds, Southern breeds, Ayrshire and Friesian breeds, and Jersey. Grouping of Nordic breeds was supported by documented breed history...

  8. Use of swine wastewater in oilseed radish crop: agronomic and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Pegoraro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swine effluent has been applied to soils to promote nutrient cycling and reduce the uncontrolled disposal of effluents into bodies of water. However, the use of these effluents on various crops has raised environmental and public health concerns. Oilseed radish crop (Raphanus sativus L. is a winter crop planted in no-tillage systems as a green fertilizer that also can be used for biodiesel, and it requires high levels of nutrients for its development. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the environmental and agronomic effects of the application of swine wastewater on oilseed radish. The experiment was conducted in a 0.162 ha area with the following treatments: unirrigated (rainfed, irrigated, and fertilized with swine wastewater (370 m3 ha-1 cycle-1. After each rainfall event, analyses were conducted for the main macro and micronutrients in the runoff and percolated material from drainage lysimeters. Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil were also analyzed, as were the agronomic and nutritional indices of the dry crop phytomass in full blooming stage. Application of swine wastewater at a level of 370 m3 ha-1 produces a crop with better agronomic quality. Over the long term, however, caution should be taken regarding the surface runoff of NO3-, P, K, Mn and total salts and the percolation of NO3-, Na and Cu. Moreover, the rainfall occurred one day after fertigation contributed to the increase of the levels of P, K, Na, Cu, Zn and Mn in the percolated material.

  9. Alloxan-induced diabetes exacerbates coronary atherosclerosis and calcification in Ossabaw miniature swine with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Jill K; Kole, Ayeeshik; Stivers, Benjamin; Progar, Victor; Pareddy, Anisha; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael

    2018-03-09

    There is a preponderance of evidence implicating diabetes with increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and calcification (CAC) in human patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the effect of diabetes on CAD severity in animal models remains controversial. We investigated whether diabetes exacerbates CAD/CAC and intracellular free calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) dysregulation in the clinically relevant Ossabaw miniature swine model of MetS. Sixteen swine, eight with alloxan-induced diabetes, were fed a hypercaloric, atherogenic diet for 6 months. Alloxan-induced pancreatic beta cell damage was examined by immunohistochemical staining of insulin. The metabolic profile was confirmed by body weight, complete blood panel, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and meal tolerance test. CAD severity was assessed with intravascular ultrasound and histology. [Ca 2+ ] i handling in coronary smooth muscle (CSM) cells was assessed with fura-2 ratiometric imaging. Fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, total cholesterol, and serum triglycerides were elevated in MetS-diabetic swine. This group also exhibited hypoinsulinemia during IVGTT and less pancreatic beta cell mass when compared to lean and MetS-nondiabetic swine. IVUS analysis revealed that MetS-diabetic swine had greater percent wall coverage, percent plaque burden, and calcium index when compared to lean and MetS-nondiabetic swine. Fura-2 imaging of CSM [Ca 2+ ] i revealed that MetS-nondiabetic swine exhibited increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ store release and Ca 2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels compared to lean swine. MetS-diabetic swine exhibited impaired Ca 2+ efflux. Diabetes exacerbates coronary atherosclerosis and calcification in Ossabaw miniature swine with MetS, accompanied by progression of [Ca 2+ ] i dysregulation in advanced CAD/CAC. These results recapitulate increased CAD in humans with diabetes and establish Ossabaw miniature swine as an animal model for future Met

  10. Carbon dioxide hepatic arterial DSA and CT angiography in swine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Huaqiao; Hu Hongjie; Huang Wenxin; Zhang Shizheng; Dong Yonghua; Zhou Dachun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging findings of carbon dioxide hepatic arterial DSA and CT angiography in normal swine. Methods: In general anaesthesia, hepatic arterial DSA was performed with 10 ml iodinated contrast medium (5 ml/s, 10 ml) in 5 normal swine, and then repeated hepatic arterial CO 2 -DSA was performed with a total of 30-50 ml CO 2 injected by manually operated syringe at the velocity of 5-8 ml/s, followed by CO 2 -CT angiography. All the swine were sacrificed after the procedure, the selective hepatic segments were removed, and pathological examination was carried out. The radiological features of hepatic arterial DSA with iodinated contrast medium and CO 2 and CT angiography with CO 2 were analyzed. The ability of showing the arterio-venous shunt was compared. Results: Hepatic arterio-portal shunt was found in the advanced arterial phase of CO 2 -DSA in three of five swine, which was furthermore demonstrated by CO 2 -CT angiography, but iodinated contrast medium DSA showed no arterio-portal shunt in all swine. The gaseous CO 2 in portal vein was absorbed within 1-3 minutes. No CO 2 shunted into the hepatic vein during CO 2 -DSA and CO 2 -CTA. Histology didn't reveal any abnormal changes caused by CO 2 shunt in the swine liver. Conclusion: (1) Hepatic arterial CO 2 -DSA and CO 2 -CTA can reveal arterio-portal shunt that isn't seen with iodinated contrast medium, the gaseous CO 2 in portal vein was absorbed within 1-3 minutes. (2) The gaseous CO 2 can't shunt into hepatic vein when the hepatic artery is perfused with CO 2 in normal swine. (authors)

  11. Floral features, pollination biology and breeding system of Chloraea membranacea Lindl. (Orchidaceae: Chloraeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Agustin; Buzatto, Cristiano Roberto; Pedron, Marcelo; Davies, Kevin L; Ferreira, Pedro Maria de Abreu; Maldonado, Sara; Singer, Rodrigo B

    2012-12-01

    The pollination biology of very few Chloraeinae orchids has been studied to date, and most of these studies have focused on breeding systems and fruiting success. Chloraea membranacea Lindl. is one of the few non-Andean species in this group, and the aim of the present contribution is to elucidate the pollination biology, functional floral morphology and breeding system in native populations of this species from Argentina (Buenos Aires) and Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State). Floral features were examined using light microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The breeding system was studied by means of controlled pollinations applied to plants, either bagged in the field or cultivated in a glasshouse. Pollination observations were made on natural populations, and pollinator behaviour was recorded by means of photography and video. Both Argentinean and Brazilian plants were very consistent regarding all studied features. Flowers are nectarless but scented and anatomical analysis indicates that the dark, clavate projections on the adaxial labellar surface are osmophores (scent-producing glands). The plants are self-compatible but pollinator-dependent. The fruit-set obtained through cross-pollination and manual self-pollination was almost identical. The main pollinators are male and female Halictidae bees that withdraw the pollinarium when leaving the flower. Remarkably, the bees tend to visit more than one flower per inflorescence, thus promoting self-pollination (geitonogamy). Fruiting success in Brazilian plants reached 60·78 % in 2010 and 46 % in 2011. Some pollinarium-laden female bees were observed transferring pollen from the carried pollinarium to their hind legs. The use of pollen by pollinators is a rare record for Orchidaceae in general. Chloraea membrancea is pollinated by deceit. Together, self-compatibility, pollinarium texture, pollinator abundance and behaviour may account for the observed high fruiting success. It is suggested that

  12. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; Di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V.

    1983-01-01

    The virucidal effect of 60 Co γ-radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses, 20 and 30 kGy, were determined in preliminary experiments. At a radiation dose of 30 kGy, the activity of extracellular and cell-associated test viruses, except swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), was completely destroyed both in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure. The infectivity of SVDV decreased significantly (P 10 TCID 50 , both in cell culture medium and in liquid manure and this value corresponded to the international effectiveness demand for a disinfectant. The results showed that the safe disinfection virus in liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  13. Identification of atypical porcine pestivirus infection in swine herds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Wu, K; Liu, J; Ge, S; Xiao, Y; Shang, Y; Ning, Z

    2017-08-01

    Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) have been detected in swine herds from the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and most recently in Austria, suggesting a wide geographic distribution of this novel virus. Here, for the first time, we reported APPV infection in swine herds in China. Newborn piglets from two separate swine herds in Guangdong province were found showing typical congenital tremors in July and August 2016. RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed APPV infection occurred. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Chinese APPV strains, GD1 and GD2, formed independent branch from the USA, Germany and the Netherlands. Nucleotide identities between members of the APPV ranged between 83.1% and 83.5%, and this showed APPV is highly diverse. It is apparent that this provides the first molecular evidence of APPV infection in swine herds in China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic variability within a swine operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Lucina Galina; Pettit, Kalie; Dos Santos, Lucas F; Tubbs, Rick; Pieters, Maria

    2016-03-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic diversity within a swine operation comingling weaned pigs. Bronchial swabs and tracheal aspirates were collected from 3 nursery-to-finish farms. During the finishing production stages, samples were obtained from mortalities and from live coughing pigs in rooms where mortality was not observed. A total of 105 samples were examined by a M. hyopneumoniae real-time polymerase chain reaction and subjected to genetic typing using a multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) assay. The MLVA was used to identify genetic variants based on the number of repeats in 2 variable number tandem repeats loci, namely P97 and P146, thought to mediate adherence of M. hyopneumoniae to swine cilia. Four distinguishable M. hyopneumoniae variants were identified: MVLA variants 9-15, 11-21, 9-21, and 7-15. Variant 9-15 was the most prevalent, observed in 79% of rooms, and detected on all 3 farms. Variant 11-21 was present in 37% of the rooms on 2 of the 3 farms. Only one 9-21 variant was identified in 1 farm, and all samples of variant 7-15 were recovered from another farm. Based on the low prevalence and limited geographic distribution of the last 2 variants, it is hypothesized that they might be the result of in-situ recombination. All variants detected in this investigation appeared to belong to 3 clusters. Overall, a limited number of variants and clusters were identified in a system that comingles pigs from different sources, suggesting limited M. hyopneumoniae genetic variation within commercial swine production environments. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Sustainable organic plant breeding. Final report: a vision, choices, consequences and steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Hulscher, M.; Haring, M.; Jongerden, J.; Mansvelt, van J.D.; Nijs, den A.P.M.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    1999-01-01

    In general, the characteristics of organic varieties - and by extension of organic plant breeding - differ from that of conventional breeding systems and conventional varieties. Realising an organic plant breeding system and subsequently steering it to meet changing demands is no less than a mammoth

  16. Tetracycline resistance in semi-arid agricultural soils under long-term swine effluent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Inna E; Josue, Rosemarie D R; Deng, Shiping; Hattey, Jeffory A

    2017-05-04

    Annually, millions pounds of antibiotics are released unmetabolized into environment along with animal wastes. Accumulation of antibiotics in soils could potentially induce the persistence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Antibiotics such as tetracyclines and tetracycline-resistant bacteria have been previously detected in fields fertilized with animal manure. However, little is known about the accumulation of tetracyclines and the development of tetracycline resistance in semi-arid soils. Here we demonstrate that continuous land application with swine effluent, containing trace amounts of chlortetracycline, does not necessarily induce tetracycline resistance in soil bacteria. Based on the testing of more than 3,000 bacteria isolated from the amended soils, we found no significant increase in the occurrence and level of chlortetracycline resistant bacteria in soils after 15 years of continuous swine effluent fertilization. To account for a possible transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria originated from the swine effluent to soils, we analyzed two commonly found tetracycline resistant genes, tet(O) and tet(M), in the swine effluent and fertilized soils. Both genes were present in the swine effluent, however, they were not detectable in soils applied with swine effluent. Our data demonstrate that agronomic application of manure from antibiotic treated swine effluent does not necessarily result in the development of antibiotic bacterial resistance in soils. Apparently, concentrations of chlortetracycline present in manure are not significant enough to induce the development of antibiotic bacterial resistance.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

  18. Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Shahinfar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production.

  19. Aerobic degradation of tylosin in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Teeter, Jerold; Meyerhoff, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Tylosin, a fermentation-derived macrolide antibiotic, was tested to determine its aerobic degradation rate in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta. For chicken, excreta from a hen administered 14 C-tylosin as part of a metabolism study were used. For cattle and swine, 14 C-tylosin was added to control excreta. The formation of 14 C volatile breakdown products and 14 CO 2 was not observed throughout the study. Material balance for the cabon-14 label ranged between 94% and 104%. Initial, day-0, concentrations of tylosin-A averaged 119.52±4.39, 35.01±1.34, and 62.82±2.11 μg/g (dry weight basis) for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta samples, respectively. After 30 days, samples averaged 4.16±0.69 and 4.11±0.69 μg/g tylosin-A in cattle and swine excreta, respectively. No residues of tylosin-A or its factors were apparent in the chicken excreta samples after 30 days of incubation. In each case, tylosin declined to less than 6.5% of the initial level after 30 days. Calculated first-order half-lives under the test conditions were 6.2 days, <7.6 days, and 7.6 days for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta, respectively. The results indicate that tylosin residues degrade rapidly in animal excreta. Therefore, tylosin residues should not persist in the environment

  20. Genotype I of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Virus-like Particles Elicit Sterilizing Immunity against Genotype I and III Viral Challenge in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi-Chin; Chen, Jo-Mei; Lin, Jen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Ying; Wu, Guan-Hong; Su, Kuan-Hsuan; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Wu, Shang-Rung; Yin, Ji-Hang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Chiou, Shyan-Song

    2018-05-10

    Swine are a critical amplifying host involved in human Japanese encephalitis (JE) outbreaks. Cross-genotypic immunogenicity and sterile protection are important for the current genotype III (GIII) virus-derived vaccines in swine, especially now that emerging genotype I (GI) JE virus (JEV) has replaced GIII virus as the dominant strain. Herein, we aimed to develop a system to generate GI JEV virus-like particles (VLPs) and evaluate the immunogenicity and protection of the GI vaccine candidate in mice and specific pathogen-free swine. A CHO-heparan sulfate-deficient (CHO-HS(-)) cell clone, named 51-10 clone, stably expressing GI-JEV VLP was selected and continually secreted GI VLPs without signs of cell fusion. 51-10 VLPs formed a homogeneously empty-particle morphology and exhibited similar antigenic activity as GI virus. GI VLP-immunized mice showed balanced cross-neutralizing antibody titers against GI to GIV viruses (50% focus-reduction micro-neutralization assay titers 71 to 240) as well as potent protection against GI or GIII virus infection. GI VLP-immunized swine challenged with GI or GIII viruses showed no fever, viremia, or viral RNA in tonsils, lymph nodes, and brains as compared with phosphate buffered saline-immunized swine. We thus conclude GI VLPs can provide sterile protection against GI and GIII viruses in swine.

  1. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    However, to solve the simultaneous equations the ... The aggregate breeding value represents a fundamental concept, the breeding objective, which is ..... Two properties characterise a linear programming problem. The first is additivity, ...

  2. Performance of dairy calves raised under two breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Henrique Borger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.

  3. Educating youth swine exhibitors on influenza A virus transmission at agricultural fairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, J M; Midla, J; Whittington, M S; Scheer, S D; Bowman, A S

    2018-02-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major zoonotic pathogen that threatens global public health. Novel strains of influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to public health due to their pandemic potential, and transmission of influenza A viruses from animals to humans is an important mechanism in the generation and introduction of IAVs that threaten human health. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to develop real-life training scenarios to better inform swine exhibitors of the risks they may encounter when influenza A viruses are present in swine. Educational activities were implemented in five Ohio counties where exhibition swine had historically been shedding influenza A viruses during the county fair. A total of 146 youth swine exhibitors participated in the educational programme, and an increase in the knowledge base of these youth was documented. It is expected that educating youth exhibitors about exposure to influenza A virus infections in the swine they are exhibiting will result in altered behaviours and animal husbandry practices that will improve both human and animal health. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Characterization of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona isolated from swine in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miraglia, Fabiana; Moreno, Luisa Z.; Morais, Zenaide M.; Langoni, Helio; Shimabukuro, Fabio H.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Vasconcellos, Silvio A.; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans swine infection is a cause of serious economic loss and a potential human health hazard. In Brazil, the most common serovars associated with swine infections are Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagie and Tarassovi. Cross-reactions among serovars and the failure of infected animals to

  5. Anaerobic digestion of chicken feather with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Massé, Daniel I; McAllister, Tim A; Beaulieu, Carole; Ungerfeld, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of chicken feathers with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge was assessed in two separate experiments. Ground feathers without any pre-treatment were added to 42-L digesters inoculated with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge, representing 37% and 23% of total solids, respectively and incubated at 25°C in batch mode. Compared to the control without feather addition, total CH(4) production increased by 130% (Pswine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. Mixed liquor NH(4)N concentration increased (Pdigestion to 6.9 and 3.5 g/L at the end of digestion in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. The fraction of proteolytic microorganisms increased (Pdigestion from 12.5% to 14.5% and 11.3% to 13.0% in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters with feather addition, respectively, but decreased in the controls. These results are reflective of feather digestion. Feather addition did not affect CH(4) yields of the swine manure digesters (P=0.082) and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters (P=0.21), indicating that feathers can be digested together with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge without negatively affecting the digestion of swine manure and slaughterhouse sludge. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Upgrading the data acquisition and control systems of the European Breeding Blanket Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannori, Simone; Sermenghi, Valerio; Utili, Marco; Malavasi, Andrea; Gianotti, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Data Acquisition and Control Systems (DACS) upgrading of experimental plant for full size thermo hydraulic testing of nuclear subsystems. • DACS development using integrated hardware/software platform with graphical programming (LabVIEW). • Development of simplified models for real-time simulation. • Rapid prototyping with real time simulation of the complete plant. • Using the code developed for the real time simulator for the real plant DACS. -- Abstract: The EBBTF (European Breeding Blanket Test Facility) experimental plant is a key component for the development of the breeding blankets (TBMs test blanket modules, HCLL helium cooled lithium lead and HCPB helium cooled pebble bed types) used by ITER. EBBTF is an experimental plant which provides the double breeding/cooling loops (liquid metal and gas) required for HCLL testing. EBBTF is composed of four subsystems (TBM, IELLLO integrated European lead lithium loop, HE-FUS3 helium fusion loop, version 3 and helium compressor build by ATEKO) with dedicated control systems realized with hardware/software combinations covering 15 years (1995–2010) time span. At the end of 2010 we began to upgrade the HE-FUS3 data acquisition control systems (DACS) replacing the obsolete PLC Siemens S5 with National Instruments Compact FieldPoint and LabVIEW. The control room has been completely reorganized using high resolution monitors and workstations linked with standard Ethernet interfaces. The data acquisition, control, safety and SCADA software has been completely developed in ENEA using LabVIEW. In this paper we are going to discuss the technical difficulties and the solutions that we have used to accomplish the upgrade

  7. Nation-wide Salmonella enterica surveillance and control in Danish slaughter swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Jan; Jensen, P.T.; Halgaard, C.

    1997-01-01

    ranging from four to more than 60 swine are obtained quarterly at the abattoir. A meat sample from each pig is frozen, and meat juice (harvested after thawing) is examined for specific antibodies against S. enterica using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA combines several S...... during 1995 ranged from a mean of 2.9% in smaller herds (101-200 swine slaughtered per year) to 6.1% in relatively large herds (more than 5000 swine slaughtered per year)....

  8. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  9. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus.

  10. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna Bowles

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits and PRLR (reproductive performance traits also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the

  11. Development and Resuscitation of a Sedated, Mature Male Miniature Swine Severe Hemorrhage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    control. Results: Hemorrhage resulted in a characteristic hypotension and metabolic acidosis . Survival time for the control swine was 64 minutes...domestic swine4 and was characteristic of a hemorrhage- induced metabolic acidosis , with a decrease in blood HCO3, and BE and an increase in blood...Hammett M, Asher L, et al. Effects of bovine polymerized hemoglobin on coagulation in controlled hemorrhagic shock in swine. Shock. 2005;24:145–152

  12. VARIATION AND EVOLUTION OF BREEDING SYSTEMS IN THE TURNERA ULMIFOLIA L. COMPLEX (TURNERACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Spencer C H; Shore, Joel S

    1987-03-01

    The evolutionary and functional relationships among breeding systems and floral morphology were investigated in the Turnera ulmifolia complex. Predictions of a model of breeding system evolution among distylous and homostylous varieties were tested. Chromosome counts of 73 accessions revealed an association between breeding system and chromosome number. Diploid and tetraploid populations of five taxonomic varieties are distylous and self-incompatible, whereas hexaploid populations of three varieties are homostylous and self-compatible. The latter occur at different margins of the geographical range of the complex. Crossing studies and analyses of pollen and ovule fertility in F 1 's revealed that the three homostylous varieties are intersterile. To test the prediction that, homostylous varieties are long homostyles that have originated by crossing over within the distyly supergene, a crossing program was undertaken among distylous and homostylous plants. Residual incompatibility was observed in styles and pollen of each homostylous variety with patterns consistent with predictions of the cross-over model. The intersterility of hexaploid varieties suggests that long homostyly has arisen on at least three occasions in the complex by recombination within the supergene controlling distyly. Deviation from expected compatibility behavior occurs in populations of var. angustifolia that have the longest styles. These phenotypes displayed the greatest separation between anthers and stigmas (herkogamy) and set little seed in crosses with long- or short-styled plants. This suggests that they are derived from long homostyles with shorter length styles. It is proposed that selection for increased outcrossing has favored the evolution of herkogamy in long homostyles. Estimates of outcrossing rate in a distylous population using allozyme markers confirmed that dimorphic incompatibility enforces complete outcrossing. Significant genetic variation for floral traits likely to

  13. A Novel Swine Model for Evaluation of Potential Intravascular Hemostatic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    bovine polymerized hemoglobin on coagulation in controlled hemorrhagic shock in swine. Shock 24:145–152. 2. Bellamy RF. 1984. The causes of death in...WZ, Pusateri AE, Uscilowicz JM, Delgado AV, Holcomb JB. 2005. Independent contributions of hypothermia and acidosis to coagulopathy in swine. J

  14. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for 7 consecutive days. Do not allow rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, horses, or ruminants access to.... The safety of lincomycin has not been demonstrated in pregnant swine or swine intended for breeding...

  15. Slave Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical work on slave breeding in the ante-bellum United States. Slave breeding consisted of interference in the sexual life of slaves by their owners with the intent and result of increasing the number of slave children born. The weight of evidence suggests that slave breeding occurred in sufficient force to raise the rate of growth of the American slave population despite evidence that only a minority of slave-owners engaged in such practices.

  16. EFSA Panels on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ), on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), and on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (swine)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative risk assessment identified Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazards in the context of meat inspection of swine. A comprehensive pork carcass safety assurance is the only way to ensure their effective...... treatments if necessary. At farm level, risk reduction measures are based on herd health programmes, closed breeding pyramids and GHP/GFP. Chemical substances listed in Council Directive 96/23/EC were ranked into four categories. Dioxins, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and chloramphenicol were ranked...

  17. Ventricular Effective Refraction Period and Ventricular Repolarization Analysis in Experimental Tachycardiomyopathy in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Pasławska, Urszula; Gajek, Jacek; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Zyśko, Dorota; Nicpoń, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Swine are recognized animal models of human cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known on the CHF-associated changes in the electrophysiological ventricular parameters of humans and animals. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the durations of ventricular effective refraction period (VERP), QT and QTc intervals of pigs with chronic tachycardia-induced tachycardiomyopathy (TIC). The study was comprised of 28 adult pigs (8 females and 20 males) of the Polish Large White breed. A one-chamber pacemaker was implanted in each of the 28 pigs. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and electrophysiological studies were carried out prior to the pacemaker implantation and at subsequent 4-week intervals. All electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and short electrophysiological study measurements in all swine were done under general anesthesia (propofol) after premedication with midazolam, medetomidine, and ketamine. No significant changes in the duration of QT interval and corrected QT interval (QTc) were observed during consecutive weeks of the experiment. The duration of the QTc interval of female pigs was shown to be significantly longer than that of the males throughout the whole study period. Beginning from the 12th week of rapid ventricular pacing, a significant increase in duration of VERP was observed in both male and female pigs. Males and females did not differ significantly in terms of VERP duration determined throughout the whole study period. Ventricular pacing, stimulation with 2 and 3 premature impulses at progressively shorter coupling intervals and an imposed rhythm of 130 bpm or 150 bpm induced transient ventricular tachycardia in one female pig and four male pigs. One episode of permanent ventricular tachycardia was observed. The number of induced arrhythmias increased proportionally to the severity of heart failure and duration of the experiment. However, relatively aggressive protocols of stimulation were required in order to induce

  18. CASSAVA BREEDING I: THE VALUE OF BREEDING VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ceballos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials - UYT. This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g. high number of their progenies reaching the UYT, suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05. Breeding value (e.g. average SIN at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g. S1 or S2 genotypes would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0 parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele

  19. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Zúquete, S.T.; Wijnveld, M.; Weesendorp, E.; Jongejan, F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in

  20. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Tudela Zúquete, Sara; Wijnveld, Michiel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Jongejan, Frans; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie L A

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in

  1. Temperature modulation with an esophageal heat transfer device - a pediatric swine model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulstad, Erik B; Naiman, Melissa; Shanley, Patrick; Garrett, Frank; Haryu, Todd; Waller, Donald; Azarafrooz, Farshid; Courtney, Daniel Mark

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of conditions appear to benefit from control and modulation of temperature, but available techniques to control temperature often have limitations, particularly in smaller patients with high surface to mass ratios. We aimed to evaluate a new method of temperature modulation with an esophageal heat transfer device in a pediatric swine model, hypothesizing that clinically significant modulation in temperature (both increases and decreases of more than 1°C) would be possible. Three female Yorkshire swine averaging 23 kg were anesthetized with inhalational isoflurane prior to placement of the esophageal device, which was powered by a commercially available heat exchanger. Swine temperature was measured rectally and cooling and warming were performed by selecting the appropriate external heat exchanger mode. Temperature was recorded over time in order to calculate rates of temperature change. Histopathology of esophageal tissue was performed after study completion. Average swine baseline temperature was 38.3°C. Swine #1 exhibited a cooling rate of 3.5°C/hr; however, passive cooling may have contributed to this rate. External warming blankets maintained thermal equilibrium in swine #2 and #3, demonstrating maximum temperature decrease of 1.7°C/hr. Warming rates averaged 0.29°C/hr. Histopathologic analysis of esophageal tissue showed no adverse effects. An esophageal heat transfer device successfully modulated the temperature in a pediatric swine model. This approach to temperature modulation may offer a useful new modality to control temperature in conditions warranting temperature management (such as maintenance of normothermia, induction of hypothermia, fever control, or malignant hyperthermia).

  2. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo

    2007-06-01

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits

  3. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits.

  4. Effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, reproductive performance, and postpartum ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S; Buckley, F; Pierce, K; Byrne, N; Patton, J; Dillon, P

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential differences among Holstein-Friesian (HF), Montbéliarde (MB), Normande (NM), Norwegian Red (NRF), Montbéliarde x Holstein-Friesian (MBX), and Normande x Holstein-Friesian (NMX) across 2 seasonal grass-based systems of milk production. The effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, fertility performance, hormone parameters, ovarian function, and survival were determined by using mixed model methodology, generalized linear models, and survival analysis. The 5-yr study comprised up to 749 lactations on 309 cows in one research herd. The HF produced the greatest yield of solids-corrected milk, the MB and NM produced the least yields, and NRF, MBX, and NMX were intermediate. The NRF had the lowest body weight throughout lactation, the NM had the highest, and the other breeds were intermediate. Body condition score was greatest for MB and NM, least for HF, and intermediate for NRF, MBX, and NMX. The HF had a lower submission rate and overall pregnancy rate compared with the NRF. The NRF survived the longest in the herd, the HF survived the shortest, and the NM, MB, MBX, and NMX were intermediate. Breed of dairy cow had no effect on selected milk progesterone parameters from 5 d postpartum until 26 d after first artificial insemination. Breed of dairy cow did not influence insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 around parturition or at the start of the breeding season. Animals offered a high-concentrate diet had greater milk yield, but they did not have improved reproductive performance. Differences observed between the different breeds in this study are a likely consequence of the past selection criteria for the respective breeds.

  5. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  6. Meta-analysis to define a core microbiota in the swine gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The swine gut microbiota encompasses a large and diverse population of bacteria that play a significant role in pig health. As such, a number of recent studies have utilized high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition and structure of the swine gut micr...

  7. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Manjunatha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19. The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ′PUBMED′ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND. Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson′s disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.

  8. Positioning anaerobic digestion systems in the swine sector in Quebec : a technical and economic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, M.A.; Drolet, V.; Lachance, M.P.; Pouliot, F. [Centre de developpement du porc du Quebec Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Laflamme, C.B. [Hydro-Quebec, Shawinigan, PQ (Canada). Inst. de recherche LTE; Charest, C. [Fertior, Saint-Bernard, PQ (Canada); Forcier, F. [Solinov, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, PQ (Canada); Pelletier, F.; Godbout, S.; Lemay, S.P. [Research and Development Inst. for the Agri-Environment, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Levasseur, P. [IFIP, Inst. du porc, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that investigated on-farm anaerobic digesters using technical and economic analyses based on scenarios adapted to the regulatory and economic context of the swine sector in the province of Quebec. Three scenarios were chosen to represent operating conditions in the swine sector. An economic analysis was conducted to determine the profitability of each scenario. Preliminary results showed that this type of project under current conditions in Quebec generates little profit. If thermal use of biogas is considered, the challenge lies in producing biogas at a lower cost than that of natural gas. The best-case scenario in the present study showed a production cost of $0.65 per m{sup 3} of methane giving a 5-year payback. If biogas is used to generate electricity, the challenge lies in producing electricity at a cost lower than $0.0746 per kWh when it is used directly at the farm, or to obtain a price of $0.112 per kWh so it can be resold on the power grid.

  9. Codigestion of Taihu blue algae with swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Hengfeng; Wang, Shouquan; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Codigestion of blue algae with swine manure has the highest CH 4 yield at ISR 2.0. • pH, TAN, N-NH 3 and VFAs confirmed the appropriate stability of the codigestion. • 35.44% VS reduction was achieved by codigestion of blue algae with swine manure. • Three key enzyme characteristics demonstrated the higher efficiencies of codigestion. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of Taihu blue algae and its codigestion with swine manure was evaluated at different inoculum substrate ratios (ISRs) from 0.5 to 3.0. Results showed that codigestion of blue algae with swine manure led to the highest methane (CH 4 ) production of 212.7 mL g −1 VS at ISR 2.0, while digestion of blue algae inoculated with granular sludge brought out the optimized CH 4 production of 73.5 mL g −1 VS at ISR 3.0. The values of pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), free ammonia nitrogen (N-NH 3 ) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) showed no significant difference between the digestion and codigestion, confirming the appropriate stability of the two batch anaerobic processes. Closer examination of VS removal rates and key enzymes variation proved codigestion had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation, which demonstrated that AD of blue algae with swine manure was a promising technology for both solid wastes treatment and renewable-energy production

  10. [An overview on swine influenza viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Wen-Fei; Shu, Yue-Long

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory pathogens of pigs. They cause both economic bur den in livestock-dependent industries and serious global public health concerns in humans. Because of their dual susceptibility to human and avian influenza viruses, pigs are recognized as intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 circulate in swine populations around the world, with varied origin and genetic characteristics among different continents and regions. In this review, the role of pigs in evolution of influenza A viruses, the genetic evolution of SIVs and interspecies transmission of SIVs are described. Considering the possibility that pigs might produce novel influenza viruses causing more outbreaks and pandemics, routine epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses in pig populations is highly recommended.

  11. Swine as a model for the study of maternal neonatal immunoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.E.; Cambier, J.C.; Klobasa, F.; Werhahn, E.

    1986-01-01

    Swine provide a useful model for evaluating maternal antibody influences on the immune system of developing neonates. Unlike rodents and humans, no antibodies are transferred passively in utero so that newborn piglets, unlike mice pups and babies, enter the world having had no previous exposure to antibodies of their mothers. If maternal antibodies transmitted in utero are immunoregulatory and are in part the basis for neonatal unresponsiveness in neonatal mice and infants, swine offer a model with which to study this regulation. Neonatal piglets can be obtained at birth before suckling and reared in ''artificial sows'' without maternal antibodies which may be administered to neonates in metered amounts with regard to specificity, isotype and idiotype. Fetal piglets can be manipulated surgically in utero; their blood vascular system can be cannulated permitting in utero immunization and continuous sampling. Maternal immunoglobulins play an immunoregulatory role in both conventional and artificial feeding experiments. Data are presented which illustrate the magnitude of this phenomenon and which show that such an effect occurs naturally when piglets suckling first gestation and multilitter sows are compared. Finally, data are reviewed on the characterization of an idiotype anti-idiotype system developed to probe the mechanism of maternal neonatal immunoregulation

  12. Passive surveillance of Leptospira infection in swine in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutzberg-Minder, Katrin; Tschentscher, Astrid; Beyerbach, Martin; Homuth, Matthias; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2018-01-01

    As no current data are available on the prevalence of leptospiral infection in swine in Germany, we analysed laboratory data from diagnostic examinations carried out on samples from swine all over Germany from January 2011 to September 2016. A total of 29,829 swine sera were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies against strains of eleven Leptospira serovars. Overall, 20.2% (6025) of the total sample collection tested positive for leptospiral infection. Seropositivity ranged between 16.3% (964) in 2011 and 30.9% (941) in 2016 (January to September only). Of all samples, 11.6% (57.3% of the positives) reacted with only one Leptospira serovar, and only 8.6% (42.7% of the positives) reacted simultaneously with two or more serovars. The most frequently detected serovar was Bratislava, which was found in 11.6% (3448) of all samples, followed by the serovars Australis in 7.3% (2185), Icterohaemorrhagiae in 4.0% (1191), Copenhageni in 4.0% (1182), Autumnalis in 3.7% (1054), Canicola in 2.0% (585), and Pomona in 1.2% (368). Modelling shows that both the year and the reason for testing at the laboratory had statistically strong effects on the test results; however, no interactions were determined between those factors. The results support the suggestion that the seropositivities found may be considered to indicate the state of leptospiral infections in the German swine population. Although data from passive surveillance are prone to selection bias, stratified analysis by initial reason for examination and analyses by model approaches may correct for biases. A prevalence of about 20% for a leptospiral infection is most probable for sows with reproductive problems in Germany, with an increasing trend. Swine in Germany are probably a reservoir host for serovar Bratislava, but in contrast to other studies not for Pomona and Tarassovi.

  13. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  14. Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure wastewater as influenced by three swine management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John P; Adeli, Ardeshir; McLaughlin, Michael R

    2014-06-15

    The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vast changes to the microbial biota and ecological structure of both the pig and waste manure lagoon wastewater. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible that CAFOs can enrich antibiotic resistant bacteria or pathogens based on farm type, thereby influencing the impact imparted by the land application of its respective wastewater. The purpose of this study was to measure the microbial constituents of swine-sow, -nursery, and -finisher farm manure lagoon wastewater and determine the changes induced by farm management. A total of 37 farms were visited in the Mid-South USA and analyzed for the genes 16S rRNA, spaQ (Salmonella spp.), Camp-16S (Campylobacter spp.), tetA, tetB, ermF, ermA, mecA, and intI using quantitative PCR. Additionally, 16S rRNA sequence libraries were created. Overall, it appeared that finisher farms were significantly different from nursery and sow farms in nearly all genes measured and in 16S rRNA clone libraries. Nearly all antibiotic resistance genes were detected in all farms. Interestingly, the mecA resistance gene (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was below detection limits on most farms, and decreased as the pigs aged. Finisher farms generally had fewer antibiotic resistance genes, which corroborated previous phenotypic data; additionally, finisher farms produced a less diverse 16S rRNA sequence library. Comparisons of Camp-16S and spaQ GU (genomic unit) values to previous culture data demonstrated ratios from 10 to 10,000:1 depending on farm type, indicating viable but not cultivatable bacteria were dominant. The current study indicated that swine farm management schemes positively and negatively affect microbial and antibiotic resistant populations in CAFO wastewater which has future "downstream" implications from both an environmental and public health perspective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F.; Schreiber, E. A.; Gimenez, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), usin...

  16. A wind tunnel study of air flow near model swine confinement buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most significant and persistent environmental concerns regarding swine production is the transport of odor constituents, trace gases, and particulates from animal production and manure storage facilities. The objectives of this study were to determine how swine housing unit orientation af...

  17. Are Swine Workers in the United States at Increased Risk of Infection with Zoonotic Influenza Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kendall P.; Olsen, Christopher W.; Setterquist, Sharon F.; Capuano, Ana W.; Donham, Kelley J.; Thacker, Eileen L.; Merchant, James A.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza strains originate in nonhuman species. Pigs have an important role in interspecies transmission of the virus. We examined multiple swine-exposed human populations in the nation's number 1 swine-producing state for evidence of previous swine influenza virus infection. Methods We performed controlled, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among 111 farmers, 97 meat processing workers, 65 veterinarians, and 79 control subjects using serum samples collected during the period of 2002–2004. Serum samples were tested using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against the following 6 influenza A virus isolates collected recently from pigs and humans: A/Swine/WI/238/97 (H1N1), A/Swine/WI/R33F/01 (H1N2), A/Swine/Minnesota/593/99 (H3N2), A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2), and A/Nanchang/933/95 (H3N2). Results Using multivariable proportional odds modeling, all 3 exposed study groups demonstrated markedly elevated titers against the H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus isolates, compared with control subjects. Farmers had the strongest indication of exposure to swine H1N1 virus infection (odds ratio [OR], 35.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7–161.8), followed by veterinarians (OR, 17.8; 95% CI, 3.8–82.7), and meat processing workers (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.4–29.5). Similarly, farmers had the highest odds for exposure to swine H1N2 virus (OR, 13.8; 95% CI, 5.4–35.4), followed by veterinarians (OR, 9.5; 95% CI, 3.6–24.6) and meat processing workers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1–6.7). Conclusions Occupational exposure to pigs greatly increases workers' risk of swine influenza virus infection. Swine workers should be included in pandemic surveillance and in antiviral and immunization strategies. PMID:16323086

  18. miR-26a suppresses autophagy in swine Sertoli cells by targeting ULK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, M; Li, Z; Cao, R; Weng, B; Peng, F; He, C; Chen, B

    2018-05-14

    A large number of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been detected from porcine testicular tissues thanks to the development of high-throughput sequencing technology. However, the regulatory roles of most identified miRNAs in swine testicular development or spermatogenesis are poorly understood. In our previous study, ULK2 (uncoordinated-51-like kinase 2) was predicted as a target gene of miR-26a. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-26a in swine Sertoli cell autophagy. The relative expression of miR-26a and ULK2 levels has a significant negative correlation (R 2  = .5964, p ≤ .01) in nine developmental stages of swine testicular tissue. Dual-luciferase reporter assay results show that miR-26a directly targets the 3'UTR of the ULK2 gene (position 618-624). In addition, both the mRNA and protein expression of ULK2 were downregulated by miR-26a in swine Sertoli cells. These results indicate that miR-26a targets the ULK2 gene and downregulates its expression in swine Sertoli cells. Based on the expression of marker genes (LC3, p62 and Beclin-1), overexpression of miR-26a or knock-down of ULK2 inhibits swine Sertoli cell autophagy. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-26a suppresses autophagy in swine Sertoli cells by targeting ULK2. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Potential of Duckweed for Swine Wastewater Nutrient removal and Biomass Valorisation through Anaerobic Co-digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, phytodepuration has been considered an efficient technology to treat wastewaters. The present study reports a bench scale depuration assay of swine wastewater using Lemna minor. The highest observed growth rate obtained in swine wastewater was 3.1 ± 0.3 gDW m−2 day−1 and the highest nitrogen and phosphorus uptake were 140 mg N m−2 day−1 and 3.47 mg P m−2 day−1, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency in the swine wastewater assay was 58.9 ± 2.0%. Furthermore, the biomass valorisation by anaerobic co-digestion with swine wastewater was assessed. Results showed a clear improvement in specific methane production rate (around 40% when compared to mono-substrate anaerobic digestion. The highest methane specific production, 131.0 ± 0.8 mL CH4 g−1 chemical oxygen demand, was obtained with a mixture containing 100 g of duckweed per liter of pre-treated swine wastewater. The water-nutrients-energy nexus approach showed to be promising for swine waste management.

  20. Meta-analysis of effects of gender in combination with carcass weight and breed on pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefan, L; Doeschl-Wilson, A; Rooke, J A; Terlouw, C; Bünger, L

    2013-03-01

    Meta-analysis was performed to quantify the effects of gender in combination with carcass weight and breed on pork quality. Altogether published results from 43 references were used. The traits analyzed were pH at 45 min (pH45min) and pH at 24 h (pH24hr) postmortem, objective color attributes lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*; CIE color system), color and marbling scores, drip loss, intramuscular fat content (IMF), and backfat thickness (P2), as well as sensory scores of juiciness and tenderness. Data for 2 muscle types, LM and Musculus semimembranosus (SMM), were used for the analysis. Swine genders were defined as intact/entire male (EM), surgically castrated male (SM), immunocastrated male (IM), and entire female (EF). After standardization of scaled traits (color, marbling scores, juiciness, tenderness) and accounting for cold carcass weight (CW), statistical analysis was performed using mixed models where breed was included as random effect. The analysis found a general effect of gender on each trait and multiple comparisons identified significant differences among the individual genders for L* (lightness), marbling scores, IMF, P2 in LM, and pH24hr in SMM. For these traits, when genders were grouped into gender categories as "castrates" (IM, SM) and "natural genders" (EM, EF), significant differences were found among estimates related to these categories. Furthermore, significant differences were found between castrates and individual gender types, indicating that castrated animals statistically segregated regarding their pork quality and regardless of type of castration. Pork of SM/EM animals has been found to be the fattest/leanest and there is indication that IM pork has the lightest meat color. Carcass weight dependence was found to be nonlinear (quadratic) for a*, P2, and marbling scores, and linear for b* and color scores in LM and pH24hr in SMM. The analysis identified significant breed effects for all traits, with large variation in the

  1. Reassortant swine influenza viruses isolated in Japan contain genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Katsushi; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Uchida, Yuko; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2014-06-01

    In 2013, three reassortant swine influenza viruses (SIVs)-two H1N2 and one H3N2-were isolated from symptomatic pigs in Japan; each contained genes from the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus and endemic SIVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two H1N2 viruses, A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 and A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013, were reassortants that contain genes from the following three distinct lineages: (i) H1 and nucleoprotein (NP) genes derived from a classical swine H1 HA lineage uniquely circulating among Japanese SIVs; (ii) neuraminidase (NA) genes from human-like H1N2 swine viruses; and (iii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. The H3N2 virus, A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013, comprised genes from two sources: (i) hemagglutinin (HA) and NA genes derived from human and human-like H3N2 swine viruses and (ii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated that each of the reassortants may have arisen independently in Japanese pigs. A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 were found to have strong antigenic reactivities with antisera generated for some seasonal human-lineage viruses isolated during or before 2003, whereas A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 reactivities with antisera against viruses isolated after 2004 were clearly weaker. In addition, antisera against some strains of seasonal human-lineage H1 viruses did not react with either A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 or A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013. These findings indicate that emergence and spread of these reassortant SIVs is a potential public health risk. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A S; Nolting, J M; Workman, J D; Cooper, M; Fisher, A E; Marsh, B; Forshey, T

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural fairs create an unconventional animal-human interface that has been associated with swine-to-human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in recent years. Early detection of IAV-infected pigs at agricultural fairs would allow veterinarians to better protect swine and human health during these swine exhibitions. This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV-infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs immediately prior to the unloading of the animals at a single large swine exhibition. Concurrent to the snout wipe collection, owners took the rectal temperatures of his/her pigs. In this case, 47 (2.4%) pigs tested positive for IAV before they entered the swine barn. The mean rectal temperatures differed by only 0.19°C between IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs. The low prevalence of IAV among the pigs upon entry to the fair in the second objective provides evidence that limiting intraspecies spread of IAV during the fairs will likely have significant impacts on the zoonotic transmission. However, in both objectives, the high degree of similarity in the body temperature measurements between the IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs made it impossible to set a diagnostically meaningful cut point to differentiate IAV status of the individual animals. Unfortunately, body temperature measurement cannot be used to accurately screen exhibition swine for IAV. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR...

  4. Genetic diversity and relationships of Vietnamese and European pig breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, N T.D. [Department of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Institute of Biotechnology (IBT), National Center for Natural Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Melchinger, E; Kuss, A W; Peischl, T; Bartenschlager, H; Geldermann, H [Department of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Cuong, N V [Institute of Biotechnology (IBT), National Center for Natural Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2005-07-01

    Indigenous resources of the Asian pig population are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. In this study, five indigenous pig breeds from Viet Nam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Viet Nam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar were chosen for evaluation and comparison of genetic diversity. Samples and data from 317 animals were collected and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected according to the recommendations of the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS; http://www.fao.org/dad-is/). Effective number of alleles, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), within-breed diversity, estimated heterozygosities and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were determined. Breed differentiation was evaluated using the fixation indices of Wright (1951). Genetic distances between breeds were estimated according to Nei (1972) and used for the construction of UPGMA dendrograms which were evaluated by bootstrapping. Heterozygosity was higher in indigenous Vietnamese breeds than in the other breeds. The Vietnamese indigenous breeds also showed higher genetic diversity than the European breeds and all genetic distances had a strong bootstrap support. The European commercial breeds, in contrast, were closely related and bootstrapping values for genetic distances among them were below 60%. European Wild Boar displayed closer relation with commercial breeds of European origin than with the native breeds from Viet Nam. This study is one of the first to contribute to a genetic characterization of autochthonous Vietnamese pig breeds and it clearly demonstrates that these breeds harbour a rich reservoir of genetic diversity. (author)

  5. Genetic diversity and relationships of Vietnamese and European pig breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy, N.T.D.; Melchinger, E.; Kuss, A.W.; Peischl, T.; Bartenschlager, H.; Geldermann, H.; Cuong, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    Indigenous resources of the Asian pig population are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. In this study, five indigenous pig breeds from Viet Nam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Viet Nam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar were chosen for evaluation and comparison of genetic diversity. Samples and data from 317 animals were collected and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected according to the recommendations of the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS; http://www.fao.org/dad-is/). Effective number of alleles, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), within-breed diversity, estimated heterozygosities and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were determined. Breed differentiation was evaluated using the fixation indices of Wright (1951). Genetic distances between breeds were estimated according to Nei (1972) and used for the construction of UPGMA dendrograms which were evaluated by bootstrapping. Heterozygosity was higher in indigenous Vietnamese breeds than in the other breeds. The Vietnamese indigenous breeds also showed higher genetic diversity than the European breeds and all genetic distances had a strong bootstrap support. The European commercial breeds, in contrast, were closely related and bootstrapping values for genetic distances among them were below 60%. European Wild Boar displayed closer relation with commercial breeds of European origin than with the native breeds from Viet Nam. This study is one of the first to contribute to a genetic characterization of autochthonous Vietnamese pig breeds and it clearly demonstrates that these breeds harbour a rich reservoir of genetic diversity. (author)

  6. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact on the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment ...

  7. Genes indicative of zoonotic and swine pathogens are persistent in stream water and sediment following a swine manure spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Johnson, Heather E.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Foreman, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Manure spills to streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB); the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol; 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viable cells; one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII) by quantitative PCR (qPCR); and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR, or reverse-transcriptase qPCR. Twelve days post-spill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli, were detected in water or sediment. STII increased from undetectable before, or above the spill, to 105 copies/100 mL water 12 days post-spill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells post-spill. Eighteen days post-spill porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. Sediment FIB concentrations (per gram wet weight) were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals post-spill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days post-spill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes, and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences.

  8. Induction of Robust Immune Responses in Swine by Using a Cocktail of Adenovirus-Vectored African Swine Fever Virus Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Shehnaz; Waghela, Suryakant D; Bray, Jocelyn; Martin, Cameron L; Sangewar, Neha; Charendoff, Chloe; Shetti, Rashmi; Ashley, Clay; Chen, Chang-Hsin; Berghman, Luc R; Mwangi, Duncan; Dominowski, Paul J; Foss, Dennis L; Rai, Sharath; Vora, Shaunak; Gabbert, Lindsay; Burrage, Thomas G; Brake, David; Neilan, John; Mwangi, Waithaka

    2016-11-01

    The African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine, and at present no treatment or vaccine is available. Natural and gene-deleted, live attenuated strains protect against closely related virulent strains; however, they are yet to be deployed and evaluated in the field to rule out chronic persistence and a potential for reversion to virulence. Previous studies suggest that antibodies play a role in protection, but induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) could be the key to complete protection. Hence, generation of an efficacious subunit vaccine depends on identification of CTL targets along with a suitable delivery method that will elicit effector CTLs capable of eliminating ASFV-infected host cells and confer long-term protection. To this end, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an adenovirus-vectored ASFV (Ad-ASFV) multiantigen cocktail formulated in two different adjuvants and at two immunizing doses in swine. Immunization with the cocktail rapidly induced unprecedented ASFV antigen-specific antibody and cellular immune responses against all of the antigens. The robust antibody responses underwent rapid isotype switching within 1 week postpriming, steadily increased over a 2-month period, and underwent rapid recall upon boost. Importantly, the primed antibodies strongly recognized the parental ASFV (Georgia 2007/1) by indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) assay and Western blotting. Significant antigen-specific gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ + ) responses were detected postpriming and postboosting. Furthermore, this study is the first to demonstrate induction of ASFV antigen-specific CTL responses in commercial swine using Ad-ASFV multiantigens. The relevance of the induced immune responses in regard to protection needs to be evaluated in a challenge study. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determi...

  10. History of Swine influenza viruses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huachen; Webby, Richard; Lam, Tommy T Y; Smith, David K; Peiris, Joseph S M; Guan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The pig is one of the main hosts of influenza A viruses and plays important roles in shaping the current influenza ecology. The occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated that pigs could independently facilitate the genesis of a pandemic influenza strain. Genetic analyses revealed that this virus was derived by reassortment between at least two parent swine influenza viruses (SIV), from the northern American triple reassortant H1N2 (TR) and European avian-like H1N1 (EA) lineages. The movement of live pigs between different continents and subsequent virus establishment are preconditions for such a reassortment event to occur. Asia, especially China, has the largest human and pig populations in the world, and seems to be the only region frequently importing pigs from other continents. Virological surveillance revealed that not only classical swine H1N1 (CS), and human-origin H3N2 viruses circulated, but all of the EA, TR and their reassortant variants were introduced into and co-circulated in pigs in this region. Understanding the long-term evolution and history of SIV in Asia would provide insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans.

  11. Laboratory and in-situ reductions of soluble phosphorus in swine waste slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R T; Moody, L B; Walker, F R; Raman

    2001-11-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted using magnesium chloride (MgCl2) to force the precipitation of struvite (MgNH4PO4 x 6H2O) and reduce the concentration of soluble phosphorus (SP) in swine waste. In laboratory experiments, reductions of SP of 76% (572 to 135 mg P l(-1)) were observed in raw swine manure after addition of magnesium chloride (MgCl2) at a rate calculated to provide a 1.6:1 molar ratio of magnesium (Mg) to total phosphorus. Adjusting the pH of the treated manure to pH 9.0 with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) increased SP reduction to 91% (572 to 50 mg P l(-1)). X-ray diffraction of the precipitate recovered from swine waste slurry treated only with MgCl2 confirmed the presence ofstruvite. The molar N:P:Mg ratio of the recovered precipitate was 1:1.95:0.24, suggesting that compounds in addition to struvite were formed. In a field experiment conducted in a swine manure holding pond, a 90% reduction in SP concentration was observed in approximately 140,000 l of swine manure slurry treated before land application with 2,000 l MgCl2 (64% solution) at ambient slurry temperatures ranging from 5 to 10 degrees C.

  12. Seasonal organic pig production with a local breed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Claudi-Magnussen, C.; Horsted, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    It is important that organic pork differs markedly from conventional pork regarding taste, appearance and production methods in order to overcome the heavy price competition. That is the hypothesis behind thecurrent project. A seasonal outdoor rearing system based on a traditional and local breed...... to the modern genotype and thefat of the Black-Spotted pig was characterised as having a special nutty taste. In conclusion, preliminaryresults indicate that the local breed differs markedly with respect to several meat quality aspects comparedto the modern breed but also shows clear disadvantages regarding...

  13. Adaptive evolution during the establishment of European avian-like H1N1 influenza A virus in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Udayan; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J D; Su, Yvonne C F

    2018-04-01

    An H1N1 subtype influenza A virus with all eight gene segments derived from wild birds (including mallards), ducks and chickens, caused severe disease outbreaks in swine populations in Europe beginning in 1979 and successfully adapted to form the European avian-like swine (EA-swine) influenza lineage. Genes of the EA-swine lineage that are clearly segregated from its closest avian relatives continue to circulate in swine populations globally and represent a unique opportunity to study the adaptive process of an avian-to-mammalian cross-species transmission. Here, we used a relaxed molecular clock model to test whether the EA-swine virus originated through the introduction of a single avian ancestor as an entire genome, followed by an analysis of host-specific selection pressures among different gene segments. Our data indicated independent introduction of gene segments via transmission of avian viruses into swine followed by reassortment events that occurred at least 1-4 years prior to the EA-swine outbreak. All EA-swine gene segments exhibit greater selection pressure than avian viruses, reflecting both adaptive pressures and relaxed selective constraints that are associated with host switching. Notably, we identified key amino acid mutations in the viral surface proteins (H1 and N1) that play a role in adaptation to new hosts. Following the establishment of EA-swine lineage, we observed an increased frequency of intrasubtype reassortment of segments compared to the earlier strains that has been associated with adaptive amino acid replacements, disease severity and vaccine escape. Taken together, our study provides key insights into the adaptive changes in viral genomes following the transmission of avian influenza viruses to swine and the early establishment of the EA-swine lineage.

  14. Design parameters and operating characteristics of animal waste anaerobic digestion systems - swine and poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D T

    1983-01-01

    The development and validation of a comprehensive dynamic simulation model of the anaerobic fermentation of animal waste have been described by Hill. This model has proved to be highly accurate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in predicting the steady-state methane productivity of conventional fermentation plants and in simulating the transient-state response of semi-batch fed digesters. Simulation studies using this model have been performed and results have been used to develop design recommendations for steady-state operations. These simulation studies have also produced a start-up procedure that will ensure successful initial operation of the digestion system and, more importantly, have allowed determination of the operational techniques that will provide recovery from failure due to organic overloading or excessively short detention time. This paper describes the results of these studies for swine and poultry (caged layer) waste and presents the design recommendations and operating techniques developed from the simulations. (Refs. 11).

  15. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0....

  16. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  17. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:27252458

  19. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Davies, Peter R; Gebhart, Connie J

    2016-08-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered "Brachyspira hampsonii," have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. The tissue residues of sodium dehydroacetate used as feed preservative in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Han, Lingling; Xie, Jiayu; Wu, Yingchao; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Yumei

    2018-01-01

    Sodium dehydroacetate (Na-DHA) is a food and feed additive with antimicrobial effects. There is little information on Na-DHA residue levels in foods derived from animals. In this study, Na-DHA residue levels in swine tissues were determined by HLPC, and the pharmacokinetics of Na-DHA in tissues were determined. The Na-DHA residue levels in swine tissues were liver > muscle > fat. The pharmacokinetics of Na-DHA followed a binomial regression model, and the half-time of Na-DHA in swine tissues was 9.07 days for kidney, 7.19 days for liver, 6.66 days for muscle, and 5.39 days for fat tissue. The accuracy of the HPLC method for Na-DHA determination ranged from 80.18% to 91.33% recovery, with coefficients of variation swine diet is a safe feed additive based on residue elimination and ADI values reported. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding Swine Flu among adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention is the most appropriate measure to control H1N1 flu pandemic and awareness of H1N1 flu is ranked very high in preventive measures. Keeping this in view, study was designed to assess the awareness level and to compare it among urban and rural participants. Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding swine flu among adult population, to assess whether there is any difference among rural and urban population and to assess the response generated by the media coverage and the Government efforts.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from April to July 2015 on 300 houses from the urban area and 150 houses from rural area, chosen from study population by random sampling. Mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for categorical were calculated. Results: 94% of urban and 91.3% of the rural participants had previously heard about swine flu, main source being TV. 46% of urban and 74% of rural participants had myth about spread of swine flu by eating pork. 41.3% of urban and 8.7% of rural population thought that government measures are sufficient for controlling swine flu. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding swine flu pandemic is good among study participants but role of health care providers is minimal and requires more dedicated effort. Lack of awareness among study population regarding some key focus areas like health promoting habits, vaccination and myths regarding the spread is of serious concern and needs to be addressed by the media, health workers and the Government efforts

  2. [The eradication of African swine fever in Brazil, 1978-1984].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, T M P

    2006-04-01

    The African swine fever episode in Brazil was due to trade and tourism between Spain, Portugal and Brazil, at a time when outbreaks were on the rise in Europe. The eradication of the disease, the slaughter of pigs, the elimination of the carcasses and the isolation of affected farms were given wide media coverage, and had a major socio-economic impact. It was forbidden to raise pigs in garbage dumps or to give them feed considered hazardous. Analyses performed in Brazil as well as national and international investigations by researchers from reference laboratories concluded that the disease had spread from Rio de Janeiro to other states, as is stated in official reports. Following emergency measures, a control programme was implemented, leading to enhanced quality in the pig farming sector. The authors describe epidemiological surveillance of African swine fever, classical swine fever and related diseases, biosafety in swine farming, and the emergency action plan comprising animal health training for veterinarians and social workers. The results of the eradication programme were excellent, despite the controversy over compulsory sacrifice in a country with serious social problems. In 2004, Brazil was the fourth largest pork producer and exporter, with an output of 2.679 million tons and exports of 508,000 tons to international markets with very high standards.

  3. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  4. Novel reassortant swine influenza viruses are circulating in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    of the reassortant viruses comprised a HA gene similar to H1 of H1N1 avian-like swine influenza virus (SIV) and a NA gene most closely related to N2 gene of human H3N2 influenza virus that circulated in humans in the mid 1990s. The internal genes of this reassortant virus with the subtype H1avN2hu all belonged...... to the H1N1 avian-like SIV lineages. Until now this novel virus H1avN2hu has only been detected in Danish swine. The other novel reassortant virus contained the HA gene from H1N1pdm09 virus and a NA gene similar to the N2 gene of H3N2 SIV that have been circulating in European swine since the mid 1980s...

  5. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or were...

  6. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effect of breeding strategy and feeding system on the within-herd variation of lean meat percents in Danish slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, H; Bagger, J; Nielsen, J P; Ersbøll, A K

    2011-08-01

    In several countries slaughter pigs are paid for individually, according to slaughter weight and lean meat percent (LMP). Production of uniform batches of pigs within the optimal weight and LMP limits will obtain the best price. Therefore, all pigs should have a similar growth rate (average daily gain, ADG) and reach an appropriate slaughter weight within the same time period. LMP may serve as a proxy for ADG since pigs with low LMP have significantly higher ADG than pigs with high LMP and vice versa. Both breeding strategy and feeding system may influence the range of variation among pigs. The aim of this study was to test the two following hypotheses: (1) Herds purchasing breeding gilts have a higher mean value and a lower variation (standard deviation) in LMP than herds producing their own breeding gilts and (2) Herds using restricted feeding of finishers have a higher mean value and a lower variation (standard deviation) in LMP than herds with ad libitum feeding of finishers. The study included 72 herds and a total of 345,132 pigs slaughtered during one year. Among the 72 herds, 40 were home-breeders and 32 purchased breeding gilts from a breeding company. Nineteen herds used restricted feeding, of which 8 (42%) were home-breeders. Fifty-three herds used ad libitum feeding, of which 32 (60%) were home-breeders. Breeding strategy had a significant effect on SDLMP (p=0.003), where purchase of breeding gilts resulted in a significantly lower standard deviation of the monthly LMP compared to home-bred gilts (a difference in median SDLMP of 0.2 percentage points or 8% difference between groups). Feeding system had a significant effect on the meanLMP (p<0.001), with a significantly higher meanLMP in herds using restrictive feeding compared to ad libitum feeding (60.7% versus 60.0%). Restrictive feeding also resulted in a significantly lower SDLMP (p<0.001) compared to ad libitum feeding (2.2% versus 2.5% or a 12% difference between groups). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  8. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  9. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  10. Evolutionary relationships of Red Jungle Fowl and chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevastyanova Antonina A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Published results were reassessed and original data are provided regarding the origin and relatedness of four postulated chicken breed lineages, egg-type, game, meat-type and Bantam, to each other and to the basic ancestral species of jungle fowls, Gallus gallus. A system approach was employed concerning the planning of the experiments. One element of the system approach is the choice of the breeds to be compared with G. gallus. These breeds were supposed to represent major evolutionary branches of chickens. Four experiments on genetic relationships were conducted using different estimation criteria including morphological discrete characters, body measurements, biochemical markers, and the activity of serum esterase-1. The greatest similarity was found between G. gallus and the egg-type breeds of Mediterranean roots and/or true Bantams. This fact might testify that the indicated chicken groups occupied earlier stages in the evolution from the wild progenitor to the present biodiversity of chickens in the world.

  11. Financial benefit from the eradication of swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E N; Lysons, R J

    1988-03-19

    Swine dysentery was eradicated from a 270 sow herd by using medication in conjunction with cleaning and disinfection, without reducing the herd size. The feed conversion efficiency, cost per kg liveweight gain and veterinary costs in the herd were compared with similar Meat and Livestock Commission recorded herds before swine dysentery entered the farm, while it was present and after its eradication. During the four years when the disease was endemic in the herd the feed conversion efficiency deteriorated by 0.58, equivalent to 7.31 pounds per pig, the cost per kg liveweight gain was 15 per cent higher and the costs of veterinary care and medicines were 1.38 pounds per pig greater. Although there were pigs with clinical swine dysentery in the herd during the four year period, the poor production figures were attributed mainly to subclinical disease. The cost of eradicating the disease was more than 20,000 pounds but this sum was recouped within 12 months by the improved production and reduced drug usage. The chances of success of such a programme have been estimated to be between 54 and 90 per cent.

  12. The progressive adaptation of a georgian isolate of African swine fever virus to vero cells leads to a gradual attenuation of virulence in swine corresponding to major modifications of the viral genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Peter W; Holinka, Lauren G; O'Donnell, Vivian; Reese, Bo; Sanford, Brenton; Fernandez-Sainz, Ignacio; Gladue, Douglas P; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis; Risatti, Guillermo R; Borca, Manuel V

    2015-02-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a contagious and often lethal disease of feral and domestic swine. Experimental vaccines derived from naturally occurring, genetically modified, or cell culture-adapted ASFV have been evaluated, but no commercial vaccine is available to control African swine fever (ASF). We report here the genotypic and phenotypic analysis of viruses obtained at different passages during the process of adaptation of a virulent ASFV field isolate from the Republic of Georgia (ASFV-G) to grow in cultured cell lines. ASFV-G was successively passaged 110 times in Vero cells. Viruses obtained at passages 30, 60, 80, and 110 were evaluated in vitro for the ability to replicate in Vero cells and primary swine macrophages cultures and in vivo for assessing virulence in swine. Replication of ASFV-G in Vero cells increased with successive passages, corresponding to a decreased replication in primary swine macrophages cultures. In vivo, progressive loss of virus virulence was observed with increased passages in Vero cells, and complete attenuation of ASFV-G was observed at passage 110. Infection of swine with the fully attenuated virus did not confer protection against challenge with virulent parental ASFV-G. Full-length sequence analysis of each of these viruses revealed significant deletions that gradually accumulated in specific areas at the right and left variable ends of the genome. Mutations that result in amino acid substitutions and frameshift mutations were also observed, though in a rather limited number of genes. The potential importance of these genetic changes in virus adaptation/attenuation is discussed. The main problem in controlling ASF is the lack of vaccines. Attempts to produce vaccines by adaptation of ASFV to cultured cell lines have been made. These attempts led to the production of attenuated viruses that conferred only homologous protection. Specifics regarding adaptation of these isolates to cell cultures have been

  13. Virtual Plants Need Water Too: Functional-Structural Root System Models in the Context of Drought Tolerance Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndour, Adama; Vadez, Vincent; Pradal, Christophe; Lucas, Mikaël

    2017-01-01

    Developing a sustainable agricultural model is one of the great challenges of the coming years. The agricultural practices inherited from the Green Revolution of the 1960s show their limits today, and new paradigms need to be explored to counter rising issues such as the multiplication of climate-change related drought episodes. Two such new paradigms are the use of functional-structural plant models to complement and rationalize breeding approaches and a renewed focus on root systems as untapped sources of plant amelioration. Since the late 1980s, numerous functional and structural models of root systems were developed and used to investigate the properties of root systems in soil or lab-conditions. In this review, we focus on the conception and use of such root models in the broader context of research on root-driven drought tolerance, on the basis of root system architecture (RSA) phenotyping. Such models result from the integration of architectural, physiological and environmental data. Here, we consider the different phenotyping techniques allowing for root architectural and physiological study and their limits. We discuss how QTL and breeding studies support the manipulation of RSA as a way to improve drought resistance. We then go over the integration of the generated data within architectural models, how those architectural models can be coupled with functional hydraulic models, and how functional parameters can be measured to feed those models. We then consider the assessment and validation of those hydraulic models through confrontation of simulations to experimentations. Finally, we discuss the up and coming challenges facing root systems functional-structural modeling approaches in the context of breeding.

  14. Virtual Plants Need Water Too: Functional-Structural Root System Models in the Context of Drought Tolerance Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Ndour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing a sustainable agricultural model is one of the great challenges of the coming years. The agricultural practices inherited from the Green Revolution of the 1960s show their limits today, and new paradigms need to be explored to counter rising issues such as the multiplication of climate-change related drought episodes. Two such new paradigms are the use of functional-structural plant models to complement and rationalize breeding approaches and a renewed focus on root systems as untapped sources of plant amelioration. Since the late 1980s, numerous functional and structural models of root systems were developed and used to investigate the properties of root systems in soil or lab-conditions. In this review, we focus on the conception and use of such root models in the broader context of research on root-driven drought tolerance, on the basis of root system architecture (RSA phenotyping. Such models result from the integration of architectural, physiological and environmental data. Here, we consider the different phenotyping techniques allowing for root architectural and physiological study and their limits. We discuss how QTL and breeding studies support the manipulation of RSA as a way to improve drought resistance. We then go over the integration of the generated data within architectural models, how those architectural models can be coupled with functional hydraulic models, and how functional parameters can be measured to feed those models. We then consider the assessment and validation of those hydraulic models through confrontation of simulations to experimentations. Finally, we discuss the up and coming challenges facing root systems functional-structural modeling approaches in the context of breeding.

  15. [Swine influenza virus: evolution mechanism and epidemic characterization--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xian; Lu, Chengping

    2009-09-01

    Pigs may play an important role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A virus. The tracheal epithelium of pigs contain both SA alpha 2,6 Gal and SA alpha 2,3 Gal receptors and can be infected with swine, human and avian viruses, therefore, pigs have been considered as an intermediate host for the adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans or as mixing vessels for the generation of genetically reassortant viruses. Evolution patterns among swine influenza viruses including evolution of host adaptation, antigenic drift and genetic reassortment, and the latter is the main one. Unlike human influenza viruses, swine viruses have different epizootiological patterns in different areas of world, which is enzootic and geographic dependence. Currently, three predominant subtypes of influenza virus are prevalent in pig populations worldwide: H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2, and these include classical swine H1N1, avian-like H1N1, human-like H3N2, reassortant H3N2 and various genotype H1N2 viruses. In Europe, North America and China, influenza A viruses circulating in pigs are distinct in the genetic characteristics and genetic sources. Since 1979, three subtypes, avian-like H1N1, reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, have been co-circulating in European swine. Before 1998, classical H1N1 viruses were the exclusive cause of swine influenza in North America. However, after that, three triple-reassortant H1N2, H3N2 and H1N1 viruses with genes of human, swine and avian virus began to emerge in pigs. Genetically, the pandemic viruses emerging in human, so called influenza A (H1N1) viruses, contain genes from both Europe and North American SIV lineages. SIV is not the same as Europe and the United States in the prevalence and genetic background in China, mainly classical swine H1N1 and human-like H3N2 type virus. However, in recent years, SIV from Europe and North America have been introduced into Chinese pig herds, so more attention should be given on the evolutionary of SIV in China

  16. Development of a Swine-Specific Fecal Pollution Marker Based on Host Differences in Methanogen mcrA Genes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Ufnar, David F.; Wang, Shiao Y.; Ellender, R. D.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate methanogen diversity in animal hosts to develop a swine-specific archaeal molecular marker for fecal source tracking in surface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of swine mcrA sequences compared to mcrA sequences from the feces of five animals (cow, deer, sheep, horse, and chicken) and sewage showed four distinct swine clusters, with three swine-specific clades. From this analysis, six sequences were chosen for molecular marker development and initial testin...

  17. Functional analysis of replication determinantsin classical swine fever virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne

    and animal pathogens should facilitate finding new approaches for efficient disease control. The principal aim of this thesis is to characterise determinants involved in the replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Classical swine fever is a highly contagious virus disease of domestic pigs and wild...... in cell culture. Knowledge of these sequence variations and putative long-range interactions will provide valuable insights into mechanisms underlying virustranslation and replication. In manuscript 3, a selection marker has been inserted into a CSFV-based replicon making it suitable for screening...

  18. Evaluation of Faecalibacterium 16S rDNA genetic markers for accurate identification of swine faecal waste by quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chuanren; Cui, Yamin; Zhao, Yi; Zhai, Jun; Zhang, Baoyun; Zhang, Kun; Sun, Da; Chen, Hang

    2016-10-01

    A genetic marker within the 16S rRNA gene of Faecalibacterium was identified for use in a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect swine faecal contamination in water. A total of 146,038 bacterial sequences were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing. By comparative bioinformatics analysis of Faecalibacterium sequences with those of numerous swine and other animal species, swine-specific Faecalibacterium 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified and Polymerase Chain Okabe (PCR) primer sets designed and tested against faecal DNA samples from swine and non-swine sources. Two PCR primer sets, PFB-1 and PFB-2, showed the highest specificity to swine faecal waste and had no cross-reaction with other animal samples. PFB-1 and PFB-2 amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences from 50 samples of swine with positive ratios of 86 and 90%, respectively. We compared swine-specific Faecalibacterium qPCR assays for the purpose of quantifying the newly identified markers. The quantification limits (LOQs) of PFB-1 and PFB-2 markers in environmental water were 6.5 and 2.9 copies per 100 ml, respectively. Of the swine-associated assays tested, PFB-2 was more sensitive in detecting the swine faecal waste and quantifying the microbial load. Furthermore, the microbial abundance and diversity of the microbiomes of swine and other animal faeces were estimated using operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The species specificity was demonstrated for the microbial populations present in various animal faeces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Gang–Jin [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bioprocess Control AB, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Deng, Liang–Wei, E-mail: dengliangwei@caas.cn [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Southwest Collaborative Innovation Center of Swine for Quality & Safety, Chengdu 611130 (China); Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  20. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang–Jin; Deng, Liang–Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g −1 VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L −1 . Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L −1 . The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yield of 0.649 L g −1 VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s −1 when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield

  1. Antimicrobial use in Chinese swine and broiler poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Vikram; Otte, Joachim; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where this has occurred is China, and evidence suggests 70% of poultry production now occurs outside of traditional small farms. Moreover, China is now the largest aggregate consumer of meat products in the world. With this rapid rise in consumption, the Chinese production model has changed along with the use of antimicrobials in feeds. However, the specific antibiotic use in the Chinese food animal production sector is unclear. Additionally, we are aware of high quantities of antimicrobial use because of reports of high concentrations of antimicrobials in animal waste and surface waters surrounding animal feeding operations. In this report, we estimate the volume of antibiotics used for swine and poultry production as these are the two meat sources with the highest levels of production and consumption in China. We adopt a model developed by Mellon et al. in the US for estimating drug use in feed for poultry and swine production to estimate overall antimicrobial use as well as antimicrobial use by class. We calculate that 38.5 million kg [84.9 million lbs] were used in 2012 in China's production of swine and poultry. By antibiotic class, the highest weights are tetracyclines in swine and coccidiostats in poultry. The volume of antimicrobial use is alarming. Although there are limitations to these data, we hope our report will stimulate further analysis and a sense of urgency in assessing the consequences of such high levels of utilization in terms of antibiotic resistance in the food supply

  2. Identification of Wild Boar-Habitat Epidemiologic Cycle in African Swine Fever Epizootic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenais, Erika; Ståhl, Karl; Guberti, Vittorio; Depner, Klaus

    2018-04-01

    The African swine fever epizootic in central and eastern European Union member states has a newly identified component involving virus transmission by wild boar and virus survival in the environment. Insights led to an update of the 3 accepted African swine fever transmission models to include a fourth cycle: wild boar-habitat.

  3. Matching breeding goals with farming systems to enhance the sustainability of fish farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Fish farming is growing but is also facing challenges regarding economic viability and environmental sustainability. Selective breeding could enhance the sustainability of fish farming by changing animal performances. Thus, our aim was to develop sustainable breeding goals by using economic (EV)

  4. Introduction of African swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union.

  5. Use patterns, excretion masses and contamination profiles of antibiotics in a typical swine farm, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Liu, Shan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to screen the occurrence of 50 antibiotics in a typical swine farm in southern China, which includes animal feeds, waste collection and treatment systems (lagoons and anaerobic digesters), and receiving environments (vegetable fields, streams, and private wells). Nine antibiotics were found in the feeds for different stages of the development of pigs in the swine farm, at concentrations ranging from 2.37 ± 0.16 ng g(-1) (sulfamethazine) to 61 500 ± 11 900 ng g(-1) (bacitracin). 11, 17 and 15 target compounds were detected in feces, flush water, and suspended particles in the swine farm, respectively. Based on the survey of feeds and animal waste from the farm, chlortetracycline, tetracycline, bacitracin and florfenicol in the feces, flush water and suspended particles mainly originated from the feeds, while most sulfonamides, including doxycycline, oxytetracycline, fluoroquinolones, macrolides and trimethoprim, were mainly from injection and other oral routes. The daily excretion masses of antibiotics per pig calculated based on animal waste had the following order: sows (48.3 mg per day per pig), piglets (18.9 mg per day per pig), growing pigs (7.01 mg per day per pig) and finishing pigs (1.47 mg per day per pig), indicating that the usage of antibiotics (type and dosage) and excretion masses are related to the growth stage of pigs. Chlortetracycline and bacitracin are the main contributors to the total excretion mass of antibiotics from pigs at different stages of development in the farm. The waste treatment system (lagoons and anaerobic digesters) was found to be ineffective in the elimination of antibiotics. The detection of some antibiotics in the surrounding environments of the farm (the well water, stream water and vegetable field soil) was a reflection of pollution from the swine farm.

  6. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  7. First reports of pseudorabies and winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) associated with an emerging feral swine (Sus scrofa) population in New Hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Anthony R; Pedersen, Kerri; Hall, Parker

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of feral swine (Sus scrofa) populations into new geographic regions is of concern not only due to increased range but also because they carry diseases and parasites that pose a threat to humans, livestock, and wildlife into new areas. Recently, emerging feral swine populations have been reported in the northeastern US and due to their adaptive nature will likely continue to spread. During 2009-2012, 49 feral swine were removed from three counties in New Hampshire. Of these, serum samples were submitted from 34 for disease surveillance testing. One of the feral swine was antibody-positive for pseudorabies virus (PRV) making it the first documented infection in feral swine in New Hampshire. Infestations of winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) were also documented on two of the feral swine which had only been reported previously on feral swine in Texas. Feral swine may not only serve as an important host for an economically important commercial swine pathogen like PRV, but they could also increase host diversity for parasites such as the winter tick, a species that can regionally impact moose (Alces alces) survival. These findings warrant further investigation of expanding and established feral swine populations in New Hampshire as pathogen hosts and support continued effort to reduce numbers or regionally eradicate feral swine.

  8. Retrospective and statistical analysis of breeding management on the Italian Heavy Draught Horse breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, R; Sartori, C; Pigozzi, G

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated some aspects of breeding management in the Italian Heavy Draught Horse breed, aiming at improving its efficiency at stud farm level. A first aim was to evaluate the risk of unsuccessful reproduction in mares after an early (3 years) or normal (4 years) age at first foaling, in interaction with different stud rearing systems. A second objective was the examination of the mean time length in which young 2-year-old stallions maintain a genetic superiority on older proven stallions, identifying a 'genetic lifespan' in which young stallions can be safely used for reducing the cost of services. Reproductive performance at first and second foaling of 1513 mares were used. Mares had a normal first foal at 3 (n = 745) or 4 years of age (n = 768) in stud farms on the basis of stable (n = 488), feral (n = 345) or semi-feral (n = 680) rearing systems. Logistic regression analysis was performed by modeling the risk of unsuccessful reproduction in the subsequent season (i.e., results at second foaling), as affected by the interaction of age at first foaling × rearing system (six classes). Genetic lifespan of young stallions was estimated by regressing the least square means from a mixed model analysis for repeated measures of individual differences in 'total merit' estimated breeding values (EBVs) between young stallions (mean no. of 45/year) and the mean EBV of all proven stallions in a given year of genetic evaluation (mean no. of 483/year). Young stallions born between 1999 and 2005 were used, following each generation (i.e., birth year) from 2 to 7 subsequent yearly genetic evaluations. In comparison with the best reproductive success of second foaling at 4 years in stable systems, the greatest risk of unsuccessful reproduction was at 3 years in feral (+167%) and 3 years in semi-feral conditions (+91%). Young stallions showed a 0.50 s.d. greater EBV at the first evaluation than proven stallions, with a mean annual decrease in EBV of 0.07 s.d./year on

  9. Commercial bacterins did not induce detectable levels of antibodies in mice against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens strongly recognized by swine immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Fisch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae results in major economic losses to the swine industry. Hence, the identification of factors that provide protection against EP could help to develop effective vaccines. One such factor that provides partial protection are bacterins. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the induction of antibodies against fifteen M. hyopneumoniae antigens, strongly recognized by the swine immune system during natural infection, in mice vaccinated with six commercial bacterins. Each group of mice was inoculated with one bacterin, and seroconversion was assessed by indirect ELISA using recombinant antigens and M. hyopneumoniae 7448 whole cell extract. Sera from one inoculated group recognized antigen MHP_0067, and sera from four inoculated groups recognized antigens MHP_0513 and MHP_0580. None of the bacterins was able to induce seroconversion against the twelve remaining antigens. This absence of a serological response could be attributed to the lack of antigen expression in M. hyopneumoniae strains used in bacterin production. Additionally the partial protection provided by these vaccines could be due to low expression or misfolding of antigens during vaccine preparation. Therefore, the supplementation of bacterins with these recombinant antigens could be a potential alternative in the development of more effective vaccines.

  10. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F; Schreiber, E A; Gimenez, Olivier

    2011-04-23

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), using a 19 year mark-recapture dataset involving more than 11,000 birds. We showed that skipping breeding was more likely in El-Niño years, correlated with an increase in the local sea surface temperature, supporting the hypothesis that it may be partly an adaptive strategy of birds to face the trade-off between survival and reproduction owing to environmental constraints. We also showed that the age-specific probability of first breeding attempt was synchronized among different age-classes and higher in El-Niño years. This result suggested that pre-breeders may benefit from lowered competition with experienced breeders in years of high skipping probabilities.

  11. Coupling Cover Crops with Alternative Swine Manure Application Strategies: Manure-15N Tracer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of rye cover crops with alternative liquid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure application strategies may enhance retention of manure N in corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cropping systems. The objective of this study was to quantify uptake of manure derived-N by a rye (Seca...

  12. Serological and molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in swine herds in China, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chunxia; Wang, Qiao; Cao, Sanjie; Zhao, Qin; Wen, Yiping; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping; Wu, Rui

    2018-01-31

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in swine. JEV is prevalent throughout China in human; however, spatiotemporal analysis of JEV in Chinese swine herds has not been reported previously. Herein, we present serological and molecular epidemiological results and estimates of prevalence of JEV infections among swine herds in various regions of China. The results suggest that JEV infections are widespread and genotype I and III strains co-exist in the same regions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor JEV infection status among swine herds in China.

  13. Shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of dusts from swine confinement and grain facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissy, Robert J; Romberger, Debra J; Roughead, William A; Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa; Poole, Jill A; LeVan, Tricia D

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance). The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70%) at the phylum level, Clostridia (44%) at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%). In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the bioinformatic analyses

  14. Shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of dusts from swine confinement and grain facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Boissy

    Full Text Available Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance. The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70% at the phylum level, Clostridia (44% at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%. In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the

  15. Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, FEB 17 (2017), s. 255-279 ISSN 2165-8102 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09296S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : swine * pre-immune antibody repertoire * ileal Peyer's patches Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2016

  16. Identification of Wild Boar–Habitat Epidemiologic Cycle in African Swine Fever Epizootic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Karl; Guberti, Vittorio; Depner, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The African swine fever epizootic in central and eastern European Union member states has a newly identified component involving virus transmission by wild boar and virus survival in the environment. Insights led to an update of the 3 accepted African swine fever transmission models to include a fourth cycle: wild boar–habitat. PMID:29553337

  17. Microbial Ecology of Stored Swine Manure and Reduction of Emissions Using Condensed Tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Stored swine manure serves as a habitat for billions of microorganisms and is associated with the generation of odorous compounds and g...

  18. USMARC update on swine reproduction research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine research at USMARC has continued to focus on meat quality, improvement of genomic resources and reproduction, specifically estrus traits, sow longevity and lifetime productivity. This report will focus on research in behavioral anestrus in gilts. Gilts that reach puberty at an earlier age are ...

  19. Recurrent population improvement of rice breeding facilitated with male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    A new rice breeding system has been developed, making use of genic male sterility to utilize diverse breeding materials and to promote genetic recombination. In this system, recurrent selection technique and introgressive hybridization were used to increase the frequencies of producing desired genotypes and to improve the population in succession. To promote genetic recombination by the recurrent selection technique, intermating within the population is necessary, and to introduce useful germ plasms by the introgressive hybridization, back crossing with new genetic material is necessary. These can be done efficiently by using the recessive alleles for male sterility, and the representative models for thisF type of breeding were presented. (Kaihara, S.)

  20. Guinea pig model for evaluating the potential public health risk of swine and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yipeng; Bi, Yuhai; Pu, Juan; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Jingjing; Gao, Huijie; Liu, Linqing; Xu, Qi; Tan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Mengda; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun; Liu, Jinhua

    2010-11-23

    The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.

  1. Variation in the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-1 and the song control system in the tropical breeding rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) is dependent on sex and reproductive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Tyler J; Small, Thomas W; Ball, Gregory F; Moore, Ignacio T

    2012-08-01

    Seasonal breeding in temperate zone vertebrates is characterised by pronounced variation in both central and peripheral reproductive physiology as well as behaviour. In contrast, many tropical species have a comparatively longer and less of a seasonal pattern of breeding than their temperate zone counterparts. These extended, more "flexible" reproductive periods may be associate with a lesser degree of annual variation in reproductive physiology. Here we investigated variation in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction in relation to the changes in the neural song control system in a tropical breeding songbird the rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis). Using in situ hybridization, we show that the optical density of GnRH1 mRNA expression is relatively constant across pre-breeding and breeding states. However, males were found to have significantly greater expression compared to females regardless of breeding state. Both males and females showed marked variation in measures of peripheral reproductive physiology with greater gonadal volumes and concentrations of sex steroids in the blood (i.e. testosterone in males; estrogen in females) during the breeding season as compared to the pre-breeding season. These findings suggest that the environmental cues regulating breeding in a tropical breeding bird ultimately exert their effects on physiology at the level of the median eminence and regulate the release of GnRH1. In addition, histological analysis of the song control system HVC, RA and Area X revealed that breeding males had significantly larger volumes of these brain nuclei as compared to non-breeding males, breeding females, and non-breeding females. Females did not exhibit a significant difference in the size of song control regions across breeding states. Together, these data show a marked sex difference in the extent to which there is breeding-associated variation in reproductive physiology and brain plasticity that is dependent on the reproductive

  2. A simplified model for assessing the impact to groundwater of swine farms at regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Viterbo, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Swine manure can be an excellent source of nutrients for crop production. Several swine farms are present in the territory of Regione Umbria and more than 200.000 of swine heads are present yearly in the whole territory while some municipalities host more than 30.000 heads over a relatively limited land. Municipality with elevated number of swine heads has registered particularly higher Nitrate concentration in groundwater that requires a management plan and intervention in order to determine the maximum allowed N loads in the specific region. Use of manure and fertilizers in agricultural field produce diffuse nitrogen (N) losses that are a major cause of excessive nitrate concentrations in ground and surface waters and have been of concern since decades. Excessive nitrate concentrations in groundwater can have toxic effects when used as drinking water and cause eutrophication in surface waters. For management and environmental planning purposes, it is necessary to assess the magnitude of diffuse N losses from agricultural fields and how they are influenced by factors such as management practices, type of fertilizers -organic or inorganic - climate and soil etc. There are several methods for assessing N leaching, they span from methods based on field test to complex models that require many input data. We use a simple index method that accounts for the type of fertilizer used - inorganic, swine or cattle manure- and hydrological and hydrogeological conditions. Hydrological conditions such as infiltration rates are estimated by a fully distributed hydrological model. Data on inorganic and organic fertilization are estimated at municipal level by using the nutrient crops needs and the statistics of swine and cattle heads within the municipality. The index method has been calibrated by using groundwater concentration as a proxy of N losses from agriculture. A time series of three years of data has been analyzed. The application of the simple index method allowed to

  3. Use of inactivated E.Coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to augment responses to respiratory vaccines in swine, various adjuvants were intranasally co-administered with an antigen to pigs. Detoxified E. coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced mucosal and systemic immunity to the model peptide, exhibiting their efficacy as mucosal adjuvants for...

  4. Factors Associated with Salmonella Prevalence in U.S. Swine Grower-Finisher Operations, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Kathe E; Fields, Victoria; Garber, Lindsey P; Kopral, Christine A

    2018-05-15

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen with diverse serotypes occurring in animal and human populations. The prevalence of the organism on swine farms has been associated with numerous risk factors, and although there are strong veterinary public health controls for preventing Salmonella from entering food, there remains interest in eradicating or controlling the organism in the preharvest environment. In this study, using data collected via the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2012 study, we describe nontyphoidal Salmonella and specific serotype prevalence on U.S. grower-finisher swine operations and investigate associations between Salmonella detection and numerous factors via multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and regression analysis. MCA plots, complementary to univariate analyses, display relationships between covariates and Salmonella detection at the farm level. In the univariate analysis, Salmonella detection varied with feed characteristics and farm management practices, reports of diseases on farms and vaccinations administered, and administration of certain antimicrobials. Results from the univariate analysis reinforce the importance of biosecurity in managing diseases and pathogens such as Salmonella on farms. All multivariable regression models for the likelihood of Salmonella detection were strongly affected by multicollinearity among variables, and only one variable, pelleted feed preparation, remained in the final model. The study was limited by its cross-sectional nature, timelines of data collection, and reliance on operator-reported data via a convenience sample.

  5. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L Nicholson

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Mechanisms contributing to the persistent carriage and high prevalence rates of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA strains in swine herds and production facilities have not been investigated. One explanation for the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. In this report, the ability of swine LA-MRSA strains, including ST398, ST9, and ST5, to form biofilms was quantified and compared to several swine and human isolates. The contribution of known biofilm matrix components, polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA, was tested in all strains as well. All MRSA swine isolates formed robust biofilms similar to human clinical isolates. The addition of Dispersin B had no inhibitory effect on swine MRSA isolates when added at the initiation of biofilm growth or after pre-established mature biofilms formed. In contrast, the addition of proteinase K inhibited biofilm formation in all strains when added at the initiation of biofilm growth and was able to disperse pre-established mature biofilms. Of the LA-MRSA strains tested, we found ST398 strains to be the most sensitive to both inhibition of biofilm formation and dispersal of pre-formed biofilms by DNaseI. Collectively, these findings provide a critical first step in designing strategies to control or eliminate MRSA in swine herds.

  6. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...-AB06 Swine Contract Library AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA... Library (SCL). The statutory authority for the library lapsed on September 30, 2005. On October 5, 2006... maintenance of a library of marketing contracts offered by certain packers to producers for the purchase of...

  7. Defining the breeding goal for a sheep breed including production and functional traits using market data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, A; Ragkos, A; Rose, G; Roustemis, D; Arsenos, G

    2017-11-16

    In this study, the economic values for production and functional traits of dairy sheep are estimated through the application of a profit function model using farm-level technical and economic data. The traits incorporated in the model were milk production, prolificacy, fertility, milking speed, longevity and mastitis occurrence. The economic values for these traits were derived as the approximate partial derivative of the specified profit function. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted in order to examine how potential changes in input and output prices would affect the breeding goal. The estimated economic values of the traits revealed their economic impact on the definition of the breeding goal for the specified production system. Milk production and fertility had the highest economic values (€40.30 and €20.28 per standard genetic deviation (SDa)), while, mastitis only had a low negative value of -0.57 €/SDa. Therefore, breeding for clinical mastitis will have a minor impact on farm profitability because it affects a small proportion of the flock and has low additive variance. The production traits, which include milk production, prolificacy and milking speed, contributed most to the breeding goal (70.0%), but functional traits still had a considerable share (30.0%). The results of this study highlight the importance of the knowledge of economic values of traits in the design of a breeding program. It is also suggested that the production and functional traits under consideration can be categorized as those which can be efficiently treated through genetic improvement (e.g. milk production and fertility) while others would be better dealt with through managerial interventions (e.g. mastitis occurrence). Also, sub-clinical mastitis that affects a higher proportion of flocks could have a higher contribution to breeding goals.

  8. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  9. [The present epidemiological status of African swine fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, G

    1986-01-01

    At present, African swine fever (ASF) persists as an enzootic infection both on the African continent and in Europe (Portugal, Spain, and Sardinia). The recent outbreaks of ASF in Belgium and in the Netherlands have again demonstrated the threat of this disease to the swine population in Germany. The main reasons for this threat are the great tenacity of this virus and its stability in meat and meat products together with an immense tourism into these enzootic areas. Epizootiological peculiarities, such as virus replication in ticks and inapparent infections in wild boars are the reason why eradication of the disease has failed so far, especially when pigs are allowed to roam the countryside.

  10. Identification of swine influenza virus epitopes and analysis of multiple specificities expressed by cytotoxic T cell subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Riber, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide binding and presentation are essential for antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and swine MHC class I molecules, also termed swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), thus play a crucial role in the process that leads...... to elimination of viruses such as swine influenza virus (SwIV). This study describes the identification of SLA-presented peptide epitopes that are targets for a swine CTL response, and further analyses multiple specificities expressed by SwIV activated CTL subsets. Findings: Four SwIV derived peptides were...

  11. Neutronics optimization of LiPb-He dual-cooled fuel breeding blanket for the fusion-driven sub-critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanliang; Wu Yican

    2002-01-01

    The concept of the liquid Li 17 Pb 83 and Helium gas dual-cooled Fuel Breeding Blanket (FBB) for the Fusion-Driven sub-critical System (FDS) is presented and analyzed. Taking self-sustaining tritium (TBR > 1.05) and annual output of 100 kg or more fissile 239 Pu (FBR > 0.238) as objective parameters, and based on the three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4A, a neutronics-optimized calculation of different cases was carried out and the concept is proved feasible. In addition, the total breeding ratio (Br = Tbr + Fbr) is listed corresponding to different cases

  12. Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D L; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Kumar, S Mathava; Du, B; Wei, Q; Wei, D

    2018-05-04

    Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

    2014-10-07

    The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system.

  14. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and characterization of potential probiotic strains with antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán-Vega, Sandra Rayén; Villena, Julio; Valdebenito, José; Salas, María José; Parra, Cristian; Ruiz, Alvaro; Kitazawa, Haruki; García, Apolinaria

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. The search of probiotics in human milk is a recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. To our knowledge, no reports regarding the potential probiotic effect of bacteria from swine milk have been published. In this work, we isolated several lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and evaluated them for them potential as probiotics. Among the isolated strains, Lactobacillus curvatus TUCO-5E showed antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens. TUCO-5E was able to reduce the growth of enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains as well as pathogenic salmonella. In vitro exclusion and displacement assays in intestinal epithelial cells showed a remarkable antagonistic effect for L. curvatus TUCO-5E against Salmonella sp. strain TUCO-I7 and Salmonella enterica ATCC 13096. Moreover, by using a mouse model of Salmonella infection, we were able to demonstrate that preventative administration of L. curvatus TUCO-5E for 5 consecutive days was capable of decreasing the number of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the liver and spleen of treated mice, compared with the controls, and prevented dissemination of the pathogen to the blood stream. Therefore, we have demonstrated here that swine milk is an interesting source of beneficial bacteria. In addition, the results of this work suggest that L. curvatus TUCO-5E is a good candidate to study in vivo the protective effect of probiotics against intestinal infection and damage induced by Salmonella infection in the porcine host.

  15. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This issue reports on the creation of the Agency's Subprogramme of Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production Systems (E1) through the merger of the Soils and Plant Breeding and Genetics Subprogrammes together with part of the Entomology Subprogramme activities. Implementation of a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Effects of Mutagenic Agents on the DNA Sequence in Plants, and the successful submission of a new CRP proposal on Pyramiding of Mutated Genes Contributing to Crop Quality and Resistance to Stress Affecting Quality were among the major activities of our Subprogramme during the last six months. We actively participated in the International Year of Rice (IYR 2004) events such as the Meeting of the Informal International Working Group on the International Year of Rice (IIWG) and the FAO Rice Conference on Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems (Rome, Italy), both in February this year. A lot of work has been concentrated this last semester on the preparation of Programme and Budget for the biennium 2006-2007 and the appraisal of TC proposals for the biennium 2005-2006. The Mutation Breeding Newsletter and the Mutation Breeding Review will merge to become the Mutation Breeding Newsletter and Reviews (MBN and R). Starting at the end of July, the MBN and R will appear on a regular basis

  16. Dark fermentation, anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells: An integrated system to valorize swine manure and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Sciarria, Tommy Pepè; Gao, Yong Chang; Scaglia, Barbara; Salati, Silvia; Zanardo, Marina; Quiao, Wei; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    This work describes how dark fermentation (DF), anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial fuel cells (MFC) and solid-liquid separation can be integrated to co-produce valuable biochemicals (hydrogen and methane), bioelectricity and biofertilizers. Two integrated systems (System 1: AD+MFC, and System 2: DF+AD+MFC) are described and compared to a traditional one-stage AD system in converting a mixture (COD=124±8.1gO2kg(-1)Fresh Matter) of swine manure and rice bran. System 1 gave a biomethane yield of 182 LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, while System 2 gave L yields of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane of 27.3±7.2LH2kg(-1)COD-added and 154±14LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, respectively. A solid-liquid separation (SLS) step was applied to the digested slurry, giving solid and liquid fractions. The liquid fraction was treated via the MFC-steps, showing power densities of 12-13Wm(-3) (500Ω) and average bioelectricity yields of 39.8Whkg(-1)COD to 54.2Whkg(-1)COD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Farmer management of gene flow: The impact of gender and breeding system on genetic diversity and crop improvement in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, H.A.C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In many tropical countries we can distinguish two seed systems: a formal seed system (comprising breeding companies and national institutes) and an informal seed system, often called farmer seed system (comprising of all farmer activities related to the transfer of seeds). These two systems are

  18. Parameter values for epidemiological models of foot-and-mouth disease in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Kinsley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD incursion, response strategies are required to control, contain and eradicate the pathogen as efficiently as possible. Infectious disease simulation models are widely used tools that mimic disease dispersion in a population and that can be useful in the design and support of prevention and mitigation activities. However, there are often gaps in evidence-based research to supply models with quantities that are necessary to accurately reflect the system of interest. The objective of this study was to quantify values associated with the duration of the stages of FMD infection (latent period, subclinical period, incubation period, and duration of infection, probability of transmission (within-herd and between-herd via spatial spread, and diagnosis of a vesicular disease within a herd using a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion. The latent period ranged from 1 to 7 days and incubation period ranged from 1 to 9 day; both were influenced by strain. In contrast, the subclinical period ranged from 0 to 6 days and was influenced by sampling method only. The duration of infection ranged from 1 to 10 days. The probability of spatial spread between an infected and fully susceptible swine farm was estimated as greatest within 5 km of the infected farm, highlighting the importance of possible long-range transmission through the movement of infected animals. Lastly, while most swine practitioners are confident in their ability to detect a vesicular disease in an average sized swine herd, a small proportion expect that up to half of the herd would need to show clinical signs before detection via passive surveillance would occur. The results of this study will be useful in within- and between-herd simulation models to develop efficient response strategies in the event an FMD in swine populations of disease-free countries or regions.

  19. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V.

    1983-01-01

    The virucidal effect of 60 Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  20. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  1. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J; Mocsari, E; di Gleria, M; Felkai, V [Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest [Hungary

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  2. Development of a swine-specific fecal pollution marker based on host differences in methanogen mcrA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnar, Jennifer A; Ufnar, David F; Wang, Shiao Y; Ellender, R D

    2007-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate methanogen diversity in animal hosts to develop a swine-specific archaeal molecular marker for fecal source tracking in surface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of swine mcrA sequences compared to mcrA sequences from the feces of five animals (cow, deer, sheep, horse, and chicken) and sewage showed four distinct swine clusters, with three swine-specific clades. From this analysis, six sequences were chosen for molecular marker development and initial testing. Only one mcrA sequence (P23-2) showed specificity for swine and therefore was used for environmental testing. PCR primers for the P23-2 clone mcrA sequence were developed and evaluated for swine specificity. The P23-2 primers amplified products in P23-2 plasmid DNA (100%), pig feces (84%), and swine waste lagoon surface water samples (100%) but did not amplify a product in 47 bacterial and archaeal stock cultures and 477 environmental bacterial isolates and sewage and water samples from a bovine waste lagoon and a polluted creek. Amplification was observed in only one sheep sample out of 260 human and nonswine animal fecal samples. Sequencing of PCR products from pig feces demonstrated 100% similarity to pig mcrA sequence from clone P23-2. The minimal amount of DNA required for the detection was 1 pg for P23-2 plasmid, 1 ng for pig feces, 50 ng for swine waste lagoon surface water, 1 ng for sow waste influent, and 10 ng for lagoon sludge samples. Lower detection limits of 10(-6) g of wet pig feces in 500 ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(-4) g of lagoon waste in estuarine water were established for the P23-2 marker. This study was the first to utilize methanogens for the development of a swine-specific fecal contamination marker.

  3. Endothelial cell proliferation in swine experimental aneurysm after coil embolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Mitome-Mishima

    Full Text Available After coil embolization, recanalization in cerebral aneurysms adversely influences long-term prognosis. Proliferation of endothelial cells on the coil surface may reduce the incidence of recanalization and further improve outcomes after coil embolization. We aimed to map the expression of proliferating tissue over the aneurysmal orifice and define the temporal profile of tissue growth in a swine experimental aneurysm model. We compared the outcomes after spontaneous thrombosis with those of coil embolization using histological and morphological techniques. In aneurysms that we not coiled, spontaneous thrombosis was observed, and weak, easily detachable proliferating tissue was evident in the aneurysmal neck. In contrast, in the coil embolization group, histological analysis showed endothelial-like cells lining the aneurysmal opening. Moreover, immunohistochemical and morphological analysis suggested that these cells were immature endothelial cells. Our results indicated the existence of endothelial cell proliferation 1 week after coil embolization and showed immature endothelial cells in septal tissue between the systemic circulation and the aneurysm. These findings suggest that endothelial cells are lead to and proliferate in the former aneurysmal orifice. This is the first examination to evaluate the temporal change of proliferating tissue in a swine experimental aneurysm model.

  4. Disease burden in four populations of dog and cat breeds compared to mixed-breed dogs and European shorthair cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, S F A; Meijndert, L E; Fieten, H; Carrière, B J; van Steenbeek, F G; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J; Nielen, M

    2017-05-01

    Current public and professional opinion is that many dog breeds suffer from health issues related to inherited diseases or extreme phenotypes. The aim of this historical comparative observational study was to evaluate the breed-related disease burden in three purebred dog populations (Chihuahua, French bulldog, Labrador retriever) and one purebred cat breed (Persian cats) in the Netherlands by comparison to a control population of mixed-breed dogs and European Shorthair cats. A qualitative query was performed, consisting of a literature review and collecting the expert opinions of University veterinary specialists, to gather insight into potential diseases of the study population. Next, a referral clinic case control study of the patients referred to specific medical disciplines in the University Clinic was performed. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the likelihood of a patient referred to a particular medical discipline being a certain breed. Together, the qualitative query and the case control study resulted in a list of potentially relevant diseases limited to five organ systems per breed. These were analysed in data from primary practices. Patient files from ten primary practices over a period of two years were manually extracted and examined. Four-hundred individual patient records per breed as well as 1000 non-breed records were randomly selected from the 10 practices, weighted per practice size. Records were then examined and the presence or absence of certain diseases was identified. To evaluate the disease burden per breed, proportional difference (PD) was estimated, as well as the animal's age at presentation in months. The results of the referral clinic case control study showed an overrepresentation (Odds Ratio>1.5) of the selected breeds in several medical specialties, while median age at presentation was in some cases significantly lower than in the non-breed animals. Results of the practice-based extended cross-sectional study showed

  5. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations......The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...

  6. Live poultry market workers are susceptible to both avian and swine influenza viruses, Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidang; Ma, Jun; White, Sarah K; Cao, Zhenpeng; Zhen, Yun; He, Shuyi; Zhu, Wanjun; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yongbiao; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2015-12-31

    Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinarians, and controls not exposed to animals were enrolled in this study and 11 (4 human, 3 swine, 3 avian, and 1 canine) influenza A viruses were used in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays (7 strains) and the cross-reactivity test (9 strains) in which 5 strains were used in both tests. Univariate analysis was performed to identify which variables were significantly associated with seropositivity. Odds ratios (OR) revealed that swine workers had a significantly higher risk of elevated antibodies against A/swine/Guangdong/L6/2009(H1N1), a classical swine virus, and A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2012(H1N1), a Eurasian avian-like swine virus than non-exposed controls. Poultry farm workers were at a higher risk of infection with avian influenza H7N9 and H9N2. LPM workers were at a higher risk of infection with 3 subtypes of avian influenza, H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2. Interestingly, the OR also indicated that LPM workers were at risk of H1N1 swine influenza virus infection, perhaps due to the presence of pigs in the LPM. While partial confounding by cross-reactive antibodies against human viruses or vaccines cannot be ruled out, our data suggests that animal exposed people as are more likely to have antibodies against animal influenza viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Serological and molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in swine herds in China, 2006–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chunxia; Wang, Qiao; Cao, Sanjie; Zhao, Qin; Wen, Yiping; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in swine. JEV is prevalent throughout China in human; however, spatiotemporal analysis of JEV in Chinese swine herds has not been reported previously. Herein, we present serological and molecular epidemiological results and estimates of prevalence of JEV infections among swine herds in various regions of China. The results suggest that JEV infections are widespread and genotype I and III strains co-exist in the same regions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor JEV infection status among swine herds in China. PMID:28693301

  9. Genetic Reassortment Among the Influenza Viruses (Avian Influenza, Human Influenza and Swine Influenza in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a hazardous virus and harm to respiratory tract. The virus infect birds, pigs, horses, dogs, mammals and humans. Pigs are important hosts in ecology of the influenza virus because they have two receptors, namely NeuAc 2,3Gal and NeuAc 2,6Gal which make the pigs are sensitive to infection of influenza virus from birds and humans and genetic reassortment can be occurred. Classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses had been circulated in pigs in North America and other countries for 80 years. In 1998, triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses that contains genes of human influenza A virus (H3N2, swine influenza virus (H1N1 and avian influenza are reported as cause an outbreaks in pigs in North America. Furthermore, the circulation of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus resulting reassortant H1N1 swine influenza and reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses cause infection in humans. Humans who were infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A virus (H1N1 usually made direct contact with pigs. Although without any clinical symptoms, pigs that are infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A (H1N1 can transmit infection to the humans around them. In June 2009, WHO declared that pandemic influenza of reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus (novel H1N1 has reached phase 6. In Indonesia until 2009, there were 1005 people were infected by H1N1 influenza A and 5 of them died. Novel H1N1 and H5N1 viruses have been circulated in humans and pigs in Indonesia. H5N1 reassortant and H1N1 viruses or the seasonal flu may could arise because of genetic reassortment between avian influenza and humans influenza viruses that infect pigs together.

  10. Simultaneous determination of sulfonamides, tetracyclines and tiamulin in swine wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Weiwei; Qiang, Zhimin; Adams, Craig; Zhang, Heqing; Chen, Liping

    2008-08-22

    Little is known about the contamination level of antibiotics in swine wastewater in China. The highly complex matrix of swine wastewater, which generally has a chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration as high as 15,000 mg/L, makes it difficult to detect antibiotics at trace levels. In this work, a highly selective and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of three classes of commonly used veterinary antibiotics including five sulfonamides, three tetracyclines and one macrolide in swine wastewater using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The method detection limits (MDL) in the swine wastewater were determined to be between 5 and 91 ng/L, depending on specific antibiotics. Except sulfamethizole, all the other eight antibiotics were detected in the swine wastewaters collected from three concentrated swine feeding plants located in the Beijing (China) area, showing a concentration range of 0.62-32.67 microg/L. These results reveal the representative concentration levels of selected antibiotics in the swine wastewaters of Beijing area.

  11. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  12. Investigating the breeding capabilities of hybrid soliton reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catsaros, N.; Gaveau, B.; Jaekel, M.-T.; Jejcic, A.; Maillard, J.; Maurel, G.; Savva, P.; Silva, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ANET code simulates innovative reactor designs including Accelerator Driven Systems. • Preliminary analysis of thermal hybrid soliton reactor examines breeding capabilities. • Subsequent studies will aim at optimizing parameters examined in this analysis. • Breeding capacity could be obtained while preserving efficiency and reactor stability. -- Abstract: Nuclear energy industry asks for an optimized exploitation of available natural resources and a safe operation of reactors. A closed fuel cycle requires the mass of fissile material depleted in a reactor to be equal to or less than the fissile mass produced in the same or in other reactors. In this work, a simple closed cycle scheme is investigated, grounded on the use of a conceptual thermal water-cooled and moderated subcritical hybrid soliton reactor (HSR). The concept is a specific Accelerator Driven System (ADS) operating at lower power than usual pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This type of reactor can be inherently safe, since shutdown is achieved by simply interrupting the accelerator's power supply. In this work a preliminary investigation is attempted concerning the existence of conditions under which the operation of a thermal HSR in breeding regime is possible. For this purpose, a conceptual encapsulated core has been defined by choosing the magnitude of a set of parameters which are important from the neutronic point of view, such as core geometry and fuel composition. Indications of breeding operation regime for thermal HSR systems are sought by performing preliminary simulations of this core. For this purpose, the Monte Carlo code ANET, which is being developed based on the high energy physics code GEANT is utilized, as being capable of simulating particles’ transport and interactions produced, including also simulation of low energy neutrons transport. A simple analytical model is also developed and presented in order to investigate the conditions under which breeding in

  13. Feed additives shift gut microbiota and enrich antibiotic resistance in swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; An, Xin-Li; Huang, Fu-Yi; Rensing, Christopher; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2018-04-15

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging environmental contaminants posing a threat to public health. Antibiotics and metals are widely used as feed additives and could consequently affect ARGs in swine gut. In this study, high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (HT-qPCR) based ARG chip and next-generation 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data were analyzed using multiple statistical approaches to profile the antibiotic resistome and investigate its linkages to antibiotics and metals used as feed additives and to the microbial community composition in freshly collected swine manure samples from three large-scale Chinese pig farms. A total of 146 ARGs and up to 1.3×10 10 total ARG copies per gram of swine feces were detected. ARGs conferring resistance to aminoglycoside, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) and tetracycline were dominant in pig gut. Total abundance of ARGs was positively correlated with in-feed antibiotics, microbial biomass and abundance of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) (Padditives and community composition (16.5%). These results suggest that increased levels of in-feed additives could aggravate the enrichment of ARGs and MGEs in swine gut. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  15. Molecular evolution of H1N1 swine influenza in Guangdong, China, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mengkai; Huang, Junming; Bu, Dexin; Yu, Zhiqing; Fu, Xinliang; Ji, Chihai; Zhou, Pei; Zhang, Guihong

    2018-06-01

    Swine are the main host of the H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV), however, H1N1 can also infect humans and occasionally cause serious respiratory disease. To trace the evolution of the SIV in Guangdong, China, we performed an epidemic investigation during the period of 2016-2017. Nine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from swine nasal swabs. Antigenic analysis revealed that these viruses belonged to two distinct antigenic groups, represented by A/Swine/Guangdong/101/2016 and A/Swine/Guangdong/52/2017. Additionally, three genotypes, known as GD52/17-like, GD493/17-like and GD101/16-like, were identified by phylogenetic analysis. Importantly, the genotypes including a minimum of 4 pdm/09-origin internal genes have become prevalent in China in recent years. A total of 2966 swine serum samples were used to perform hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests, and the results showed that the seroprevalence values of SW/GD/101/16 (32.2% in 2016, 32.1% in 2017) were significantly higher than the seroprevalence values of SW/GD/52/17 (18.0% in 2016, 16.7% in 2017). Our study showed that the three reassortant genotypes of H1N1 SIV currently circulating in China are stable, but H1N1pdm09 poses challenges to human health by the introduction of internal genes into these reassortant genotypes. Strengthening SIV surveillance is therefore critical for SIV control and minimizing its potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal aptitude of Cinta Senese sows and behaviour of piglets throughout suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ania

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of ethological studies on swine species were carried out in order to test their productive and reproductive performances. Depending on genetic type, age, breeding and weaning system sows and piglets behaviour were studied. Maternal aptitude of sows was studied to get reasons of piglets mortality during weaning...

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDIES REGARDING THE NITROGEN COMPOUNDS IN WASTE WATERS FROM SMITHFIELD – PERIAM SWINE FARM, TIMIS COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA NISTOR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented study was to analyse and compare the nitrogen compounds in waste waters from a swine farm from the west of Romania and the environmental impact on the quality of surface water and groundwater. Water samples were taken from sites likely to be potentially sensitive to pollution, above, near and below the waste water discharge in the Mureş river and biopond units. Nitrogen concentrations from 652 mg/l at the pomp station 1 to 12.1 mg/l downstream 1 km after the discharge in the Mureş stream exceed the standard limits accepted for the surface waters. As regarding the ammonia concentrations are also very high, in the analysed samples for the old cleaning system, but lies under the admitted limits in the new system of wastewater cleaning. In conclusion, wastewater from Periam swine farm had a minor pollution impact for surface waters including for Mureş River, while in the new system some values for the nitrogen compounds lies over those obtained in the old system of wastewater cleaning.

  18. TEKNIK DAN MANAJEMEN PRODUKSI BIBIT BABI DI BANJAR DAUH UMA, DESA PENGOTAN, KABUPATEN BANGLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NLG SUMARDANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The short course of management of animal husbandry and using Artificial Insemination (AI on swine wasconducted on September 6th 2014 at Dauh Uma Pengotan Village, Regency of Bangli. There were 15 farmers whomerged into group as participants of this activity. The aimed of this activity was to increase litter size of swinewith AI program in breeding management. The used method of activity was giving counseling about breedingand health management of animal husbandry in breeding farm, AI program, and then practiced inseminate onswine. Based on the process of short course it was concluded that, the response of participants on AI was veryenthusiastic in joining the activity.Keywords : animal husbandry, breeding, artificial insemination, litter size, swine.

  19. Guinea pig model for evaluating the potential public health risk of swine and avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.

  20. Hepatitis E virus infection in North Italy: high seroprevalence in swine herds and increased risk for swine workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, L; Angeloni, G; Salata, C; Vonesch, N; D'Amico, W; Campagna, G; Natale, A; Zuliani, F; Ceglie, L; Monne, I; Vascellari, M; Capello, K; DI Martino, G; Inglese, N; Palù, G; Tomao, P; Bonfanti, L

    2017-01-01

    We determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence and detection rate in commercial swine herds in Italy's utmost pig-rich area, and assessed HEV seropositivity risk in humans as a function of occupational exposure to pigs, diet, foreign travel, medical history and hunting activities. During

  1. Hepatitis E virus infection in North Italy : high seroprevalence in swine herds and increased risk for swine workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413306046; Angeloni, Giorgia; Salata, C; Vonesch, N; D'Amico, W; Campagna, G; Natale, Alda; Zuliani, Federica; Ceglie, Letizia; Monne, Isabella; Vascellari, M; Capello, Katia; DI Martino, G; Inglese, N; Palù, G; Tomao, P; Bonfanti, L.

    2017-01-01

    We determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence and detection rate in commercial swine herds in Italy's utmost pig-rich area, and assessed HEV seropositivity risk in humans as a function of occupational exposure to pigs, diet, foreign travel, medical history and hunting activities. During

  2. Lumbricidae as transitory hosts in Metastrongylus infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastrongylidosis or lungworm disease in swine is a disease caused by several types of nematodes of the genus Metastrongylus. Metastrongylidae are biohelminths whose causes use transitory hosts for their development and maintaining their biological cycle, and in this case they are numerous species of Lumbricidae (earthworms. Depending on the geographic environment, numerous representatives of Lumbricidae persist as transitory hosts. In our environment, these are dominant earthworm species of the genus Eisenia spp, Dandreobena spp, Allopbophora spp, Lubricus spp, Octoiasium spp, Bimastus spp, and rarely those from the genus Heledrillus spp. Swine are infected perorally with Metastrongylidae when they ingest infected earthworms.

  3. Perfluorocarbon in Delayed Recompression with a Mixed Gender Swine Model of Decompression Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, William A; Hall, Aaron A; Auker, Charles R; Mahon, Richard T

    2018-01-01

    Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are fluorinated hydrocarbons that dissolve gases to a much greater degree than plasma and hold promise in treating decompression sickness (DCS). The efficacy of PFC in a mixed gender model of DCS and safety in recompression therapy has not been previously explored. Swine (25 kg; N = 104; 51 male and 53 female) were randomized into normal saline solution (NSS) or PFC emulsion treatment groups and subjected to compression on air in a hyperbaric chamber at 200 fsw for 31 min. Then the animals were decompressed and observed for signs of DCS. Afterwards, they were treated with oxygen and either PFC (4 cc · kg-1) or NSS (4 cc · kg-1). Surviving animals were observed for 4 h, at which time they underwent recompression therapy using a standard Navy Treatment Table 6. After 24 h the animals were assessed and then euthanized. Survival rates were not significantly different between NSS (74.04%) and PFC (66.67%) treatment groups. All swine that received recompression treatment survived to the end of the study and no seizures were observed in either PFC or NSS animals. Within the saline treated swine group there were no significant differences in DCS survival between male (75.00%, N = 24) and female (73.08%, N = 26) swine. Within the PFC treated swine, survival of females (51.85%, N = 27) was significantly lower than males (81.48%, N = 27). In this large animal mixed gender efficacy study in DCS, PFC did not improve mortality or spinal cord injury, but appears safe during recompressive therapy. Gender differences in DCS treatment with PFC will need further study.Cronin WA, Hall AA, Auker CR, Mahon RT. Perfluorocarbon in delayed recompression with a mixed gender swine model of decompression sickness. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):14-18.

  4. Findings of bacterial microflora in piglets infected with conventional swine plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.

  5. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2−–N and NH4+–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge deodorization reactor and anaerobic digestion-partial oxidation treatment process treating swine manure and its corresponding control artificial wastewaters. Ammonium removal dropped from 98.0 ± 0.6% to 66.9 ± 2.7% and nearly absent when the organic load in the feeding increased from 232 mg COD/L to 1160 mg COD/L and 2320 mg COD/L. The presence of organic carbon had limited effect on nitrite and total nitrogen removal. At a COD to N ratio of 0.9, COD inhibitory organic load threshold concentration was 727 mg COD/L. Mass balance indicated that denitrifiers played an important role in nitrite, nitrate and organic carbon removal. These results demonstrated that anammox system had the potential to effectively treat swine manure that can achieve high nitrogen standards at reduced costs.

  6. 76 FR 7721 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... for the 6 BIPs in Slovenia. BVIS veterinary inspectors are present at the BIPs during working hours, but do not conduct inspections outside normal working hours without prior notice. Slovenian road... Slovenia to the region of the European Union that we recognize as a low-risk region for classical swine...

  7. New influenza A virus reassortments have been found in Danish swine in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    ” viruses which have been circulating in Danish pigs since it was found for the first time in 1981. ii) H1N2 reassortant viruses which comprise HA from “avian like” H1N1 and NA from swine H3N2. The reassortant H1N2 virus was discovered in Danish pig for the first time in 2003 and is now well established......In 2011 a passive surveillance for influenza A virus was conducted in Danish swine. Tested samples were clinical samples from affected pigs submitted to the Danish National Veterinary Institute for swine influenza virus detection. In total 713 samples from 276 herds were analysed and about 24......% of the samples were positive for swine influenza virus. All influenza positive samples were tested for the H1N1pdm09 virus by a real time RT-PCR assay specific for the pandemic HA gene and 26% of the samples were positive. Subtyping of 90 samples by sequencing revealed the presence of; i) H1N1 “avian like...

  8. Swine Influenza Virus (H1N2) Characterization and Transmission in Ferrets, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Vasquez, Nicolás; Karlsson, Erik A; Jimenez-Bluhm, Pedro; Meliopoulos, Victoria; Kaplan, Bryan; Marvin, Shauna; Cortez, Valerie; Freiden, Pamela; Beck, Melinda A; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2017-02-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene (HA) has suggested that commercial pigs in Chile harbor unique human seasonal H1-like influenza viruses, but further information, including characterization of these viruses, was unavailable. We isolated influenza virus (H1N2) from a swine in a backyard production farm in Central Chile and demonstrated that the HA gene was identical to that in a previous report. Its HA and neuraminidase genes were most similar to human H1 and N2 viruses from the early 1990s and internal segments were similar to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in vivo and transmitted in ferrets by respiratory droplet. Antigenically, it was distinct from other swine viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition analysis suggested that antibody titers to the swine Chilean H1N2 virus were decreased in persons born after 1990. Further studies are needed to characterize the potential risk to humans, as well as the ecology of influenza in swine in South America.

  9. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu? Treatment ? Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Th?ophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebu...

  10. Evidence for Cross-species Influenza A Virus Transmission Within Swine Farms, China: A One Health, Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Anderson, Benjamin D; Bi, Zhen-Qiang; Lu, Bing; Wang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chuang-Xin; Chen, Shan-Hui; Qian, Yan-Hua; Song, Shao-Xia; Li, Min; Lednicky, John A; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Meng-Na; Cao, Wu-Chun; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-02-01

    Our understanding of influenza A virus transmission between humans and pigs is limited. Beginning in 2015, we used a One Health approach and serial sampling to prospectively study 299 swine workers and 100 controls, their 9000 pigs, and 6 pig farm environments in China for influenza A viruses (IAVs) using molecular, culture, and immunological techniques. Study participants were closely monitored for influenza-like illness (ILI) events. Upon enrollment, swine workers had higher serum neutralizing antibody titers against swine H1N1 and higher nasal wash total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and specific IgA titers against swine H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Over a period of 12 months, IAVs were detected by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in 46 of 396 (11.6%) environmental swabs, 235 of 3300 (7.1%) pig oral secretion, 23 of 396 (5.8%) water, 20 of 396 (5.1%) aerosol, and 19 of 396 (4.8%) fecal-slurry specimens. Five of 32 (15.6%) participants with ILI events had nasopharyngeal swab specimens that were positive for IAV, and 17 (53.1%) demonstrated 4-fold rises in neutralization titers against a swine virus. Reassorted Eurasian avian-lineage H1N1, A(H1N1)pdm09-like, and swine-lineage H3N2 viruses were identified in pig farms. The A(H1N1)pdm09-like H1N1 viruses identified in swine were nearly genetically identical to the human H1N1 viruses isolated from the participants with ILI. There was considerable evidence of A(H1N1)pdm09-like, swine-lineage H1N1, and swine-lineage H3N2 viruses circulating, likely reassorting, and likely crossing species within the pig farms. These data suggest that stronger surveillance for novel influenza virus emergence within swine farms is imperative. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Vienna R; Bevins, Sarah N

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar) densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.

  12. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vienna R. Brown

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV, which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.

  13. indigenous cattle breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.

  14. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...

  15. Characterization of local goat breeds using RAP-DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Barzinji, Yousif M. S.; Hamad, Aram O.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted on different colors of local goat breeds. A number of 216 does were sampled from the seven groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. From the twenty used RAPD primers 12 of them were amplified, and presence of bands. The total fragment number of 12 primers over all the goat breed samples was 485 fragments. Out of the 485 fragments, 90 of them were Polymorphic fragments numbers (PFN). From all bands obtained, 20 of them possessed unique bands. The highest unique band was found in locus RAP 6 which has 4 unique bands, three of them in the Maraz Brown and one in the local Koor. Nei's gene diversity and Shanon's information index in this study were averaged 0.38 and 0.60, respectively. The genetic distance among several goat breeds ranged from 9.11 to 43.33%. The highest genetic distance 43.33% recorded between Maraz goat and other goat breeds and between local Koor and other goat (except Maraz goats) breeds (37.79%). However, the lowest genetic distance recorded between local white and Pnok. The distance between (local Black and Pnok) and (local Black and local white) was 22.75%. In conclusions, the high distance among these goat breeds, polymorphism and high numbers of unique bands found in present study indicates that these goat breeds have the required amount of genetic variation to made genetic improvement. This study helps us to clarify the image of the genetic diversity of the local goat breeds and the breeders can used it for mating system when need to make the crossing among these goat breeds.

  16. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  17. Alternative risk financing instruments for swine epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Swine epidemics can have very large devastating financial consequences. Governments generally bear the direct losses, such as the value of destroyed animals. Consequential losses, such as the losses resulting from empty buildings and movement standstills, are completely borne by the farmers (and

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from commercial probiotic products used in cattle and swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Giok, Felicia; Shi, Xiaorong; Soto, Jose; Narayanan, Sanjeev K; Tokach, Mike D; Apley, Mike D; Nagaraja, T G

    2018-04-03

    Probiotics, an antibiotic alternative, are widely used as feed additives for performance benefits in cattle and swine production systems. Among bacterial species contained in probiotics, Enterococcus faecium is common. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), particularly multidrug resistance, is a common trait among enterococci because of their propensity to acquire resistance and horizontally transfer AMR genes. Also, E. faecium is an opportunistic pathogen, and in the United States, it is the second most common nosocomial pathogen. There has been no published study on AMR and virulence potential in E. faecium contained in probiotic products used in cattle and swine in the United States. Therefore, our objectives were to determine phenotypic susceptibilities or resistance to antimicrobials, virulence genes (asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl) and assess genetic diversity of E. faecium isolated from commercial products. Twenty-two commercially available E. faecium-based probiotic products used in cattle (n = 13) and swine (n = 9) were procured and E. faecium was isolated and species confirmed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations was done by micro-broth dilution method using National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Systems Gram-positive Sensititre panel plate (CMV3AGPF), and categorization of strains as susceptible or resistant was as per Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute's guidelines. E. faecium strains from 7 products (3 for swine and 4 for cattle) were pan-susceptible to the 16 antimicrobials tested. Strains from 15 products (6 for swine and 9 for cattle) exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial and a high proportion of strains was resistant to lincomycin (10/22), followed by tetracycline (4/22), daptomycin (4/22), ciprofloxacin (4/22), kanamycin (3/22), and penicillin (2/22). Four strains were multidrug resistant, with resistant phenotypes ranging from 3 to 6 antimicrobials or class. None of the E

  19. Arsenic residues in livers of swine, lamb and poultry and in eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoeppler, H O

    1975-01-01

    The arsenic content of 3651 swine, 180 lamb livers, 420 egg samples and poultry livers from 175 poultry farms were determined colorimetrically. The analyses samples were all derived from bavarian farms. According to the proposed legal standards (3), 1.23% of the swine liver samples and 1.67% of the egg samples were above the tolerated values of 0.5 resp. 0.1 mg/kg. 14 references, 4 tables.

  20. Incidence, Diversity, and Molecular Epidemiology of Sapoviruses in Swine across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, G.; Zimsek-Mijovski, J.; Poljsak-Prijatelj, M.

    2010-01-01

    report on the incidence, genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of sapoviruses detected in domestic pigs in a comprehensive study conducted in six European countries (Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia and Spain) between 2004 and 2007. A total of 1,050 swine fecal samples from 88 pig farms......) to human sapovirus strains. Sapoviruses are commonly circulating and endemic agents in swine herds throughout Europe. Highly heterogenous and potential new genogroups of sapoviruses were found in pigs; however, no "human-like" sapoviruses were detected....

  1. Tritium transport modeling at system level for the EUROfusion dual coolant lithium-lead breeding blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgorri, F. R.; Moreno, C.; Carella, E.; Rapisarda, D.; Fernández-Berceruelo, I.; Palermo, I.; Ibarra, A.

    2017-11-01

    The dual coolant lithium lead (DCLL) breeding blanket is one of the four breeder blanket concepts under consideration within the framework of EUROfusion consortium activities. The aim of this work is to develop a model that can dynamically track tritium concentrations and fluxes along each part of the DCLL blanket and the ancillary systems associated to it at any time. Because of tritium nature, the phenomena of diffusion, dissociation, recombination and solubilisation have been modeled in order to describe the interaction between the lead-lithium channels, the structural material, the flow channel inserts and the helium channels that are present in the breeding blanket. Results have been obtained for a pulsed generation scenario for DEMO. The tritium inventory in different parts of the blanket, the permeation rates from the breeder to the secondary coolant and the amount of tritium extracted from the lead-lithium loop have been computed. Results present an oscillating behavior around mean values. The obtained average permeation rate from the liquid metal to the helium is 1.66 mg h-1 while the mean tritium inventory in the whole system is 417 mg. Besides the reference case results, parametric studies of the lead-lithium mass flow rate, the tritium extraction efficiency and the tritium solubility in lead-lithium have been performed showing the reaction of the system to the variation of these parameters.

  2. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  3. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  4. Effect of turning frequency and season on composting materials from swine high-rise facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composting of swine manure has several advantages, liquid slurries are converted to solid, the total volume of material is reduced and the stabilized product is more easily transported off-site. Despite this, swine waste is generally stored, treated and applied in its liquid form. The high-rise fini...

  5. The influence of cross-breeding Zlotnicka Spotted native breed sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To sum up, it is possible to say that the raw meat of Zlotnicka Spotted pigs and their cross-breeds with Duroc and Polish Large White breeds is characterised by good quality and because of its considerable intramuscular fat content, it has a high culinary and processing value, especially for ripening products. Key words: Pigs ...

  6. Genetic drift of HA and NA in Danish swine influenza virus from the period 2003-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    . Currently at least three influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) are endemic in the Danish swine population, and since 2010 the pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09) have also frequently been detected. The focus in this study will be on H1N1 and H1N2, since the prevalence of H3N2 have declined over the past years...... will provide a more complete picture of the molecular epidemiology of the H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza viruses in Denmark. A thorough knowledge of the antigenic drift in surface genes is very important concerning evaluation of the zoonotic potential of existing and future swine influenza virus strains......The aim of this study is to analyze; the genetic drift in hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from influenza viruses isolated from Danish swine over the past decade; the antigenic evolution and relatedness between swine influenza virus strains of the H1 subtype by antigenic cartography...

  7. Surveillance programs in Denmark has revealed the circulation of novel reassortant influenza A viruses in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    avH1N1 and H3N2 which is different from the dominating European H1N2 subtype (1). The prevalence of the H1N1pdm09 virus in swine has increased since 2009 in some countries including Denmark. Here we present the results of the national passive surveillance program on influenza in swine performed from...... by the combination of the gene segments hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In most European countries, the avian-like (av)H1N1, the 2009 pandemic variant (H1N1pdm09), H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes have constituted the dominating SIV subtypes during recent years. In Denmark, the H1N2 subtype is a reassortant between......Swine influenza is a respiratory disease caused by multiple subtypes of influenza A virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is enzootic in swine populations in Europe, Asia, North and South America. The influenza A virus genome consist of eight distinct gene segments and SIV subtypes are defined...

  8. LIMITED ANTIBODY EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS IN FERAL SWINE (SUS SCROFA) IN THE USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Miller, Ryan S; Anderson, Theodore D; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Lewis, Jonathan R; Mihalco, Rebecca L; Gortázar, Christian; Gidlewski, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle ( Bos taurus ) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis . Efforts have been made in the US to eradicate the disease in cattle, but spillover into wildlife and subsequent spillback have impeded progress in some states. In particular, infection in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) has been followed by infection in cattle in some Midwestern states. Infection has also been documented in feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) on the Hawaiian island of Molokai and in various European countries, but no large-scale survey of antibody exposure to the bacteria has been conducted in feral swine in the US. We tested 488 sera from feral swine collected near previously documented outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and captive cervids, in addition to 2,237 feral swine sera collected across the US from 1 October 2013 to 30 September 2014. While all but one of the samples were antibody negative, the results are important for establishing baseline negative data since feral swine are capable reservoirs and could be implicated in future outbreaks of the disease.

  9. Genetic analysis of human and swine influenza A viruses isolated in Northern Italy during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, C; Ebranati, E; Pariani, E; Faccini, S; Luppi, A; Baioni, L; Manfredi, R; Carta, V; Merenda, M; Affanni, P; Colucci, M E; Veronesi, L; Zehender, G; Foni, E

    2018-02-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infection in swine plays an important role in the ecology of influenza viruses. The emergence of new IAVs comes through different mechanisms, with the genetic reassortment of genes between influenza viruses, also originating from different species, being common. We performed a genetic analysis on 179 IAV isolates from humans (n. 75) and pigs (n. 104) collected in Northern Italy between 2010 and 2015, to monitor the genetic exchange between human and swine IAVs. No cases of human infection with swine strains were noticed, but direct infections of swine with H1N1pdm09 strains were detected. Moreover, we pointed out a continuous circulation of H1N1pdm09 strains in swine populations evidenced by the introduction of internal genes of this subtype. These events contribute to generating new viral variants-possibly endowed with pandemic potential-and emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance at both animal and human level. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Construction of a recombinant baculovirus expressing swine hepatitis E Virus ORF2 and preliminary research on its immune effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Hu, Y; Yuan, P; Yang, Y; Wang, K; Xie, L Y; Huang, S L; Liu, J; Ran, L; Song, Z H

    2018-03-01

    In the swine hepatitis E virus (HEV), open reading frame 2 (ORF2) is rich in antigenic determinants and neutralizing epitopes that could induce immune protection. We chose the Bac-to-Bac® Baculovirus Expression System to express fragments containing the critical neutralizing antigenic sites within the HEV ORF2 protein of pigs to obtain a recombinant baculovirus. The fragment of swine HEV ORF2 region (1198-1881bp) was cloned into vector pFastBacTM. A recombinant baculovirus, rBacmid-ORF2, was obtained after transposition and transfection. The molecular mass of the recombinant protein was 26 kDa. Mice were immunized by the intraperitoneal and oral routes with cell lysates of recombinant baculovirus rBacmid-ORF2. Serum and feces of the mice were collected separately at 0, 14, 28, and 42 d after immunization and the antibody levels of IgG and secretory IgA against swine HEV were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results suggested that rBacmid-ORF2 induced antibodies of the humoral and mucosal immune responses in mice and that the oral route was significantly superior to the intraperitoneal route. This is the first study to demonstrate that that recombinant baculovirus swine HEV ORF2 could induce humoral and mucosal immune responses in mice. Copyright© by the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  11. Swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terris, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Swine have become an important animal model in many areas of biomedical research for a variety of reasons. They are suited for studies in nephrology and renal physiology because they are the only mammal, with the exception of the dwarf water buffalo, which has been shown to have kidneys morphologically similar to the human. Maturational characteristics of fetal and neonatal kidney are similar to those of the newborn human infant. Therefore, studies to evaluate the pyeloureteral dynamics of human like multipapillary kidneys or developmental studies related to the newborn human cannot be conducted adequately in any other mammal. The following overview addresses the morphology and pelvic and ureteral dynamics of swine and human kidneys, maturation of renal hemodynamics in the neonate, renal function and the effects of anesthesia and diruetics on renal function in the pig. Additionally, the use of swine in other areas of interest to the nephrologist and renal physiologist are considered, eg, renal response to exercise, irradiation therapy, kidney preservation and renal transplantation

  12. Heat Stress Effects on Growing-Finishing Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the factors that create heat stress, the response of the animals while under heat stress, and the signs of heat-stressed swine are essential to making rational decisions for the selection, design, and management of their environments. Heat stressors include combinations of environment...

  13. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  14. Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Sandbulte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.

  15. Using minced horseradish roots and peroxides for the deodorization of swine manure: a pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govere, Ephraim M; Tonegawa, Masami; Bruns, Mary Ann; Wheeler, Eileen F; Kephart, Kenneth B; Voigt, Jean W; Dec, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    Enzymes that have proven to be capable of removing toxic compounds from water and soil may also be useful in the deodorization of animal manures. Considering that pork production in the US is a $40-billion industry with over half a million workers, odor control to protect air quality in the neighboring communities must be considered an essential part of managing livestock facilities. This pilot scale (20-120 L) study tested the use of minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) roots (1:10 roots to swine slurry ratio), with calcium peroxide (CaO(2) at 34 mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2) at 68 mM), to deodorize swine slurry taken from a 40,000-gallon storage pit at the Pennsylvania State University's Swine Center. Horseradish is known to contain large amounts of peroxidase, an enzyme that, in the presence of peroxides, can polymerize phenolic odorants and thus reduce the malodor. Twelve compounds commonly associated with malodor (seven volatile fatty acids or VFAs, three phenolic compounds and two indolic compounds) were used as odor indicators. Their concentration in swine slurry before and after treatment was determined by gas chromatography (GC) to assess the deodorization effect. The pilot scale testing demonstrated a complete removal of phenolic odorants (with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L(-1)) from the swine slurry, which was consistent with our previous laboratory experiments using 30-mL swine slurry samples. Horseradish could be recycled (reused) five times while retaining significant reduction in the concentration of phenolic odorants. In view of these findings, inexpensive plant materials, such as horseradish, represent a promising tool for eliminating phenolic odorants from swine slurry.

  16. Application of microsatellite markers as potential tools for traceability of Girgentana goat breed dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, Maria Teresa; Tortorici, Lina; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tolone, Marco; Portolano, Baldassare

    2015-08-01

    In livestock, breed assignment may play a key role in the certification of products linked to specific breeds. Traceability of farm animals and authentication of their products can contribute to improve breed profitability and sustainability of animal productions with significant impact on the rural economy of particular geographic areas and on breed and biodiversity conservation. With the goal of developing a breed genetic traceability system for Girgentana dairy products, the aim of this study was to identify specific microsatellite markers able to discriminate among the most important Sicilian dairy goat breeds, in order to detect possible adulteration in Girgentana dairy products. A total of 20 microsatellite markers were analyzed on 338 individual samples from Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Specific microsatellite markers useful for traceability of dairy products were identified. Eight microsatellite markers showed alleles present at the same time in Maltese and Derivata di Siria and absent in Girgentana and, therefore, they were tested on DNA pools of the three breeds. Considering the electropherograms' results, only FCB20, SRCRSP5, and TGLA122 markers were tested on DNA samples extracted from cheeses of Girgentana goat breed. These three microsatellite markers could be applied in a breed genetic traceability system of Girgentana dairy products in order to detect adulteration due to Maltese and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerobic treatment of swine manure to enhance anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoe, Dominic; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Bo; Scott Todd, Matthew; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic treatment of swine manure was coupled with anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation. A 14-day aerobic treatment reduced the total solid content of swine manure by >15%. Ammonia and carbon dioxide were stripped by the air supplied, and this off-gas was further used to aerate the culture of Chlorella vulgaris. The microalgal growth rates in Bristol medium and the wastewater with the off-gas increased from 0.08 to 0.22 g/L/d and from 0.15 to 0.24 g/L/d, respectively. Meanwhile, the aerobically treated swine manure showed a higher methane yield during anaerobic digestion. The experimental results were used to establish a demonstration unit consisting of a 100 L composter, a 200 L anaerobic digester, a 60 L tubular photobioreactor, and a 300 L micro-open raceway pond.

  18. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Maria Rathmann

    2014-01-01

    of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly...... occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular...

  19. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....

  20. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  1. Genetic diversity of dog breeds: within-breed diversity comparing genealogical and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, G; Verrier, E; Meriaux, J C; Rognon, X

    2009-06-01

    The genetic diversity of 61 dog breeds raised in France was investigated. Genealogical analyses were performed on the pedigree file of the French kennel club. A total of 1514 dogs were also genotyped using 21 microsatellite markers. For animals born from 2001 to 2005, the average coefficient of inbreeding ranged from 0.2% to 8.8% and the effective number of ancestors ranged from 9 to 209, according to the breed. The mean value of heterozygosity was 0.62 over all breeds (range 0.37-0.77). At the breed level, few correlations were found between genealogical and molecular parameters. Kinship coefficients and individual similarity estimators were, however, significantly correlated, with the best mean correlation being found for the Lynch & Ritland estimator (r = 0.43). According to both approaches, it was concluded that special efforts should be made to maintain diversity for three breeds, namely the Berger des Pyrénées, Braque Saint-Germain and Bull Terrier.

  2. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) effect on methane yield: verification in continuously fed digesters. • AAS resulted in 98% increase of the methane yield of swine manure fibers in continuously fed digesters. • ADM1 was successfully adapted to simulating anaerobic digestion of swine manure. • Modification of hydrolysis kinetics was necessary for an adequate simulation of the digestion of AAS-treated fibers. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per 0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly contribute to the methane production. In the second place, ADM1 was used to describe biogas production from the codigestion of manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The model predictions regarding biogas production and methane content were in good agreement with the experimental data. It was shown that, AAS treatment significantly increased the disintegration and hydrolysis rate of the carbohydrate compounds of the fibers. The effect of the addition of AAS treated fibers on the kinetics of the conversion of other key compounds such as volatile fatty acids was negligible.

  3. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.R.; Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; Miles, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram −, Gram +, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH 3 , CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram + bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require practical, safe

  4. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, M.R., E-mail: mike.mclaughlin@ars.usda.gov; Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; Miles, D.M.

    2015-11-01

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram −, Gram +, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram + bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require

  5. INTRODUCTION OF EXOTIC BREEDS IN EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK FARMING SYSTEM OF BURKINA FASO: ASSESSMENT AND PROSPECTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Soudre; Moustapha Grema; Stephane A. R. Tapsoba; Moumouni Sanou; Amadou Traore; Hamidou Hamadou Tamboura.

    2018-01-01

    A study on the situation of exotic cattle breeds introduced in Burkina Faso was conducted in the province of Soum (Djibo) located in the north of the country, a Sahel area of West Africa. The aim of the study was to i) assess the adaptation of exotic breeds with high productive potential in a difficult climatic context and ii) evaluate their productivity in comparison with the native breeds. A participatory survey associated with field visits were conducted to assess the survival and adaptati...

  6. Virulence determinants within the E2 glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Camille Melissa; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Lohse, Louise

    Classical Swine Fever is a highly contagious disease of pigs caused by Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a member of the pestivirus genus within the family Flaviviridae. The E2 glycoprotein of CSFV has been shown to be an important factor for the virulence of the virus. In a recent study, we have......Kos (with the SL motif). The results indicate that the E2 residues 763-64 play an important role in CSFV virulence....

  7. How commercial and non-commercial swine producers move pigs in Scotland: a detailed descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Boden, Lisa A; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Auty, Harriet K; Gunn, George J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-06-25

    The impact of non-commercial producers on disease spread via livestock movement is related to their level of interaction with other commercial actors within the industry. Although understanding these relationships is crucial in order to identify likely routes of disease incursion and transmission prior to disease detection, there has been little research in this area due to the difficulties of capturing movements of small producers with sufficient resolution. Here, we used the Scottish Livestock Electronic Identification and Traceability (ScotEID) database to describe the movement patterns of different pig production systems which may affect the risk of disease spread within the swine industry. In particular, we focused on the role of small pig producers. Between January 2012 and May 2013, 23,169 batches of pigs were recorded moving animals between 2382 known unique premises. Although the majority of movements (61%) were to a slaughterhouse, the non-commercial and the commercial sectors of the Scottish swine industry coexist, with on- and off-movement of animals occurring relatively frequently. For instance, 13% and 4% of non-slaughter movements from professional producers were sent to a non-assured commercial producer or to a small producer, respectively; whereas 43% and 22% of movements from non-assured commercial farms were sent to a professional or a small producer, respectively. We further identified differences between producer types in several animal movement characteristics which are known to increase the risk of disease spread. Particularly, the distance travelled and the use of haulage were found to be significantly different between producers. These results showed that commercial producers are not isolated from the non-commercial sector of the Scottish swine industry and may frequently interact, either directly or indirectly. The observed patterns in the frequency of movements, the type of producers involved, the distance travelled and the use of haulage

  8. Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in anaerobic digestion and land application of swine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Qianwen; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Meixue; Tong, Juan; Wang, Rui; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    Swine farm and the adjacent farmland are hot spots of ARGs. However, few studies have investigated the on-site occurrence of ARGs distributed in the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by land application of swine wastewater. Two typical swine farms, in southern and northern China respectively, with AD along with land application were explored on ARG distributions. ARGs were highly abundant in raw swine wastewater, AD effectively reduced the copy number of all detected ARGs (0.21–1.34 logs removal), but the relative abundance with different resistance mechanisms showed distinctive variation trends. The reduction efficiency of ARGs was improved by stable operational temperature and longer solid retention time (SRT) of AD. ARGs in soil characterized the contamination from the irrigation of the digested liquor. The total ARGs quantity in soil fell down by 1.66 logs in idle period of winter compared to application period of summer in the northern region, whereas the total amount was steady with whole-year application in south. Some persistent (sul1 and sul2) and elevated ARGs (tetG and ereA) in AD and land application need more attention. - Highlights: • Swine farm and the adjacent farmland are hot spots of ARGs. • Mesophilic anaerobic digestion reduced the most detected ARGs quantities. • ARG levels in soils varied with different land application procedures. • Persistent and elevated ARGs in AD and land application need more attention. - Anaerobic digestion reduced the copy number of ARGs in swine wastewater, and winter idle dissipated their quantities in soil.

  9. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...... viruses under all conditions tested. The implications for disease spread are discussed....

  10. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  11. Molecular characterization of a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus containing genes from the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 virus in swine from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Haibo; Xu, Lihua; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Lu, Xiangyun; Wu, Nanping

    2016-06-01

    Pandemic outbreaks of H1N1 swine influenza virus have been reported since 2009. Reassortant H1N2 viruses that contain genes from the pandemic H1N1 virus have been isolated in Italy and the United States. However, there is limited information regarding the molecular characteristics of reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses in eastern China. Active influenza surveillance programs in Zhejiang Province identified a novel H1N2 influenza virus isolated from pigs displaying clinical signs of influenza virus infection. Whole-genome sequencing was performed and this strain was compared with other influenza viruses available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the novel strain contained genes from the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 and swine H3N2 viruses. BALB/c mice were infected with the isolated virus to assess its virulence in mice. While the novel H1N2 isolate replicated well in mice, it was found to be less virulent. These results provide additional evidence that swine serve as intermediate hosts or 'mixing vessels' for novel influenza viruses. They also emphasize the importance of surveillance in the swine population for use as an early warning system for influenza outbreaks in swine and human populations.

  12. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    A. Blasco

    2008-01-01

    Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries) and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selec...

  13. Comparative Metagenomic Analysis of Electrogenic Microbial Communities in Differentially Inoculated Swine Wastewater-Fed Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Khilyas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs are promising new technologies for efficient removal of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters, including that generated from swine farming. We inoculated two pairs of laboratory-scale MFCs with sludge granules from a beer wastewater-treating anaerobic digester (IGBS or from sludge taken from the bottom of a tank receiving swine wastewater (SS. The SS-inoculated MFC outperformed the IGBS-inoculated MFC with regard to COD and VFA removal and electricity production. Using a metagenomic approach, we describe the microbial diversity of the MFC planktonic and anodic communities derived from the different inocula. Proteobacteria (mostly Deltaproteobacteria became the predominant phylum in both MFC anodic communities with amplification of the electrogenic genus Geobacter being the most pronounced. Eight dominant and three minor species of Geobacter were found in both MFC anodic communities. The anodic communities of the SS-inoculated MFCs had a higher proportion of Clostridium and Bacteroides relative to those of the IGBS-inoculated MFCs, which were enriched with Pelobacter. The archaeal populations of the SS- and IGBS-inoculated MFCs were dominated by Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, respectively. Our results show a long-term influence of inoculum type on the performance and microbial community composition of swine wastewater-treating MFCs.

  14. A multiplex RT-PCR assay for the rapid and differential diagnosis of classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Arce, Heidy; Pérez, Lester J; Frías, Maria T; Rosell, Rosa; Tarradas, Joan; Núñez, José I; Ganges, Llilianne

    2009-11-18

    Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease causing severe economic losses in pig production almost worldwide. All pestivirus species can infect pigs, therefore accurate and rapid pestivirus detection and differentiation is of great importance to assure control measures in swine farming. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex, highly sensitive and specific RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation between CSFV and other pestivirus infections in swine. The universal and differential detection was based on primers designed to amplify a fragment of the 5' non-coding genome region for the detection of pestiviruses and a fragment of the NS5B gene for the detection of classical swine fever virus. The assay proved to be specific when different pestivirus strains from swine and ruminants were evaluated. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be as little as 0.89TCID(50). The assay analysis of 30 tissue homogenate samples from naturally infected and non-CSF infected animals and 40 standard serum samples evaluated as part of two European Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests conducted by the European Community Reference Laboratory, Hanover, Germany proved that the multiplex RT-PCR method provides a rapid, highly sensitive, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis for classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections in swine.

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors for the presence of ruminant pestviruses in the Dutch swine population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Quak, J.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Swine can be infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV), as well as ruminant pestiviruses: bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Border disease virus (BDV). Cross-reactions between pestiviruses occur, both regarding protective immunity and in diagnostic tests. The presence of BVDV and BDV

  16. Prevalence, serotype, virulence characteristics, clonality and antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from swine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Swine are the only known animal reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE), a human pathogen. Since YE is a fecal organism of swine, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, serotype, virulence plasmid (pYV)-associated characteristics, clonality, and antibiotic su...

  17. Treatment with interferon-alpha delays disease in swine infected with a highly virulent CSFV strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically significant, highly contagious swine disease. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is an enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, classified as a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae (Becher et al.,...

  18. Ammonia emissions from Swine waste lagoons in the Utah great basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lowry A; Weaver, Kim H; Dotson, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    In animal production systems (poultry, beef, and swine), current production, storage, and disposal techniques present a challenge to manage wastes to minimize the emissions of trace gases within relatively small geographical areas. Physical and chemical parameters were measured on primary and secondary lagoons on three different swine farming systems, three replicates each, in the Central Great Basin of the United States to determine ammonia (NH3) emissions. Nutrient concentrations, lagoon water temperature, and micrometeorological data from these measurements were used with a published process model to calculate emissions. Annual cycling of emissions was determined in relation to climatic factors and wind speed was found the predominating factor when the lagoon temperatures were above about 3 degrees C. Total NH3 emissions increased in the order of smallest to largest: nursery, sow, and finisher farms. However, emissions on an animal basis increased from nursery animals being lowest to sow animals being highest. When emissions were compared to the amount of nitrogen (N) fed to the animals, NH3 emissions from sows were lowest with emissions from finisher animals highest. Ammonia emissions were compared to similar farm production systems in the humid East of the United States and found to be similar for finisher animals but had much lower emissions than comparable humid East sow production. Published estimates of NH3 emissions from lagoons ranged from 36 to 70% of feed input (no error range) compared to our emissions determined from a process model of 9.8% with an estimated range of +/-4%.

  19. Community-based livestock breeding programmes: essentials and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J P; Rischkowsky, B; Haile, A; Philipsson, J; Mwai, O; Besbes, B; Valle Zárate, A; Tibbo, M; Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

    2015-04-01

    Breeding programmes described as community-based (CBBP) typically relate to low-input systems with farmers having a common interest to improve and share their genetic resources. CBBPs are more frequent with keepers of small ruminants, in particular smallholders of local breeds, than with cattle, pigs or chickens with which farmers may have easier access to alternative programmes. Constraints that limit the adoption of conventional breeding technologies in low-input systems cover a range of organizational and technical aspects. The analysis of 8 CBBPs located in countries of Latin-America, Africa and Asia highlights the importance of bottom-up approaches and involvement of local institutions in the planning and implementation stages. The analysis also reveals a high dependence of these programmes on organizational, technical and financial support. Completely self-sustained CBBPs seem to be difficult to realize. There is a need to implement and document formal socio-economic evaluations of CBBPs to provide governments and other development agencies with the information necessary for creating sustainable CBBPs at larger scales. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. [Status of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Meng; Zhang, Tian; Yang, Guang

    2017-11-01

    Seeds and seedlings are the material basis of traditional Chinese medicine materials production, and the construction of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases is beneficial to the production of high-quality traditional Chinese medicine materials. The construction of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases is one of the major topics of Chinese medica resources census pilot. Targets, tasks of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases based on Chinese medica resources census pilot were expounded.Construction progress including hardware construction, germplasm conservation and breeding, procedures and standardsestablishment, social servicesare presented. Development counter measures were proposed for the next step: perfect the standard and system, maintain and strengthen the breeding function, strengthen the cultivation of multi-level talents, explore market development model, joint efforts to deepen services and development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Removal of excess nutrients by Australian zeolite during anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, D Thushari N; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B; Scales, Peter; Sommer, Sven G; Chen, Deli

    2018-03-21

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using natural and NaCl-treated Australian zeolites to simultaneously remove excess nutrients from anaerobically digested swine manure. Ion adsorption and desorption properties of Australian zeolite during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure were investigated. Two experiments were conducted: the first was an adsorption experiment with multi-component solutions that corresponded with the ionic composition of swine manure digestates. The second experiment determined the effects of zeolite dose rates during anaerobic digestion of swine manure on the removal of N, P and K from solution. Adsorption isotherms confirmed selectivity for K + over NH 4 + by Australian natural and sodium zeolites. Therefore, NH 4 + removal was considerably reduced when there was simultaneous K + uptake. Natural zeolite desorbed more Ca 2+ during K + and NH 4 + adsorption than sodium zeolite. The ion exchange reaction was independent of the presence of P. P removal was very dependent on the pH of the medium. Natural Australian zeolite was shown to be a potential sorbent for the removal of NH 4 + , K + and P during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure. However, the application of high concentrations of zeolite at higher pH values (> 7.5) might not be appropriate for anaerobic digestion, because zeolite desorbed more Ca 2+ ions into the solution at the higher doses of zeolite and then availability of P for microbial growth might be reduced as a result of PO 4 3- precipitation with Ca 2+ at the higher pH.

  2. Characterization of the fecal microbiome in different swine groups by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Je; Kim, Jinu; Lee, Jong-Soo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Kim, Hongik

    2014-08-01

    Swine have a complex microbial community within their gastrointestinal tract that plays a critical role in both health and disease. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing was used to identify the possible core microorganisms in the gut of swine groups that differ in meat quality and weight grades (level 1 as higher meat quality and level 2 as lower meat quality). Samples were taken from the rectum and/or stool from ten animals, DNA was extracted, and the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified. Two bacterial populations (Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes) dominated and were shared between the two groups. Significant differences between the groups were found at the genus level. The genera Lactobacillus and Oscillibacter were found in slightly higher proportions in the level 2 group (12.6 and 12.4% of the classified reads, respectively) than those of level 1 (9.6 and 7.7%, respectively). By contrast, the proportion of reads assigned to the genus Roseburia in the level 1 group (13.0%) was higher than that of level 2 (4.8%). The largest differences were related to the genera Clostridium, Oscillibacter, and Roseburia as core microorganisms. Moreover, two genera, Roseburia and Clostridium, related to level 1 produced linoleic acid or short chain fatty acids that might contribute to swine health and development. In conclusion, the presence of core bacteria in the swine gut is associated with meat quality with reduced body fat in swine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cost-effective treatment of swine wastes through recovery of energy and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Adib; Aponte-Morales, Veronica; Wang, Meng; Dilbeck, Merrill; Lahav, Ori; Zhang, Qiong; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Ergas, Sarina J

    2017-11-01

    Wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are challenging to treat because they are high in organic matter and nutrients. Conventional swine waste treatment options in the U.S., such as uncovered anaerobic lagoons, result in poor effluent quality and greenhouse gas emissions, and implementation of advanced treatment introduces high costs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance and life cycle costs of an alternative system for treating swine CAFO waste, which recovers valuable energy (as biogas) and nutrients (N, P, K + ) as saleable fertilizers. The system uses in-vessel anaerobic digestion (AD) for methane production and solids stabilization, followed by struvite precipitation and ion exchange (IX) onto natural zeolites (chabazite or clinoptilolite) for nutrient recovery. An alternative approach that integrated struvite recovery and IX into a single reactor, termed STRIEX, was also investigated. Pilot- and bench-scale reactor experiments were used to evaluate the performance of each stage in the treatment train. Data from these studies were integrated into a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to assess the cost-effectiveness of various process alternatives. Significant improvement in water quality, high methane production, and high nutrient recovery (generally over 90%) were observed with both the AD-struvite-IX process and the AD-STRIEX process. The LCCA showed that the STRIEX system can provide considerable financial savings compared to conventional systems. AD, however, incurs high capital costs compared to conventional anaerobic lagoons and may require larger scales to become financially attractive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pandemic H1N1 2009 ('swine flu'): diagnostic and other challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1 2009 ('swine flu') virus was 'the virus of the year 2009' because it affected the lives of many people in this year. H1N1 was first described in California in April 2009 and spread very rapidly all over the globe. The fast global penetration of the swine flu caused the WHO in Geneva to call the infection with H1N1 a new pandemic with a rapid escalation of the different pandemic phases that ended on 11 June 2009, with the declaration of phase 6 (full-blown pandemic). This had far-reaching consequences for the local health authorities in the different affected countries and created awareness in the public and fear in the experts and even more so in many lay people. The consequences were: setting up reliable diagnostic tests as soon as possible; enhanced production, distribution and stock creation of the few drugs that were available to treat newly infected persons; and development, production, distribution and stock creation of new and appropriate anti-H1N1 swine flu vaccines. This all resulted in enormous costs in the local healthcare systems and also required smart and diligent logistics, because demand for all this was, in most cases, much higher than availability. Fortunately, the pandemic ended quite quickly (there was no 'second wave' as had been anticipated by some experts) and the death toll was moderate, compared with other influenza pandemic in the past and even to the regular annual appearance of the seasonal flu. This favorable outcome, however, provoked some harsh criticism that the WHO and healthcare systems in general had over-reacted and by doing so, a lot of money was thrown out of the window. This article describes the history of the H1N1 pandemic, the diagnostic challenges and resolutions, touches on treatment and vaccination very briefly and also comments on the criticism and arguments that came up immediately at the end and following the termination of the pandemic situation.

  5. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  6. Recycling the Wastewater from Swine Farm for Soilless Culture Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadang, Nattayana; Vasanaand, Nimnuan; Intaravichai, Pantipa; Chattay, Patchariya; Thipvisaid Na Tawan

    2006-09-01

    Swine farm wastewater was used in solution for hydroponics. The solution comprised swine farm wastewater influent and chemical nutrients. Water spinaches were selected for planting in foam containers. The sizes of the container were 50 x 42 x 16 centimeters. In this experiment, the ratios of influent and chemical nutrient solution were 3:1 and 1:1. The result shows that the growth of water spinaches from both solutions are almost the same. The weight of them is 78.3 and 77.3 grams each, respectively. Consequently, the result was expanded to the experiment in the field. The solution comprised swine farm wastewater influent and chemical nutrients at the ratio 1:1 was used for planting 6 kinds of vegetables. They were planted in the area of 7.2 x 2.0 meters. it was found that the weight of Chinese cabbage and Chinese white cabbage are highly significant difference when growing in chemical nutrient solution compared with growing in the solution of wastewater influent and chemical nutrient at the ratio 1:1. Moreover, water spinaches which planted in chemical nutrient solution gave the significant difference while 3 kinds of as lads gave no significant difference.

  7. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  8. Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    -Antimicrobial consumption by Danish swine farms from 1992 to 2008 was determined and evaluated in light of policies to regulate antimicrobial consumption, changes in disease patterns, and productivity data. Trend analyses of productivity data were conducted before and after a ban on use of antimicrobial growth promoters......Objective-To evaluate changes in antimicrobial consumption and productivity by Danish swine farms during 1992 to 2008. Sample Population-All Danish swine farms for antimicrobial consumption data and a representative sample of Danish swine herds for productivity data. Procedures...... of antimicrobials in 1994 and termination of AGP use by January 2000. Pig production increased from 18.4 to 271 million pigs, and the mean number of pigs per sow per year raised for slaughter increased from 21 in 1992 to 25 in 2007 Average daily gain for weaning ( 35 kg) pigs was higher...

  9. Monitoring of microbial hazards at farms, slaughterhouses, and processing lines of swine in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, M J; Chung, M S; Lee, J H; Park, J

    2001-09-01

    This study was executed to investigate microbiological hazards at swine farms, slaughterhouses, dressing operations, and local markets for the application of the hazard analysis critical control point system in Korea by analyzing total aerobic plate count (APC) and presence of pathogens. Six integrated pig farms and meat packers were selected from six different provinces, and samples were collected from pig carcasses by swabbing and excision methods at the slaughterhouses, processing rooms, and local markets, respectively. APCs of water in water tanks were relatively low, 1.9 to 3.1 log10 CFU/ml; however, they were increased to 4.6 to 6.9 log10 CFU/ml when sampled from water nipples in the pigpen. APCs of feeds in the feed bins and in the pigpens were 4.4 to 5.4 and 5.2 to 6.7 log10 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium perfringens were detected from water and feed sampled in pigpens and pigpen floors. S. aureus was the most frequently detected pathogenic bacteria in slaughterhouses and processing rooms. Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica were also detected from the processing rooms of the Kyonggi, Kyongsang, and Cheju provinces. Even though APCs were maintained at the low level of 3.0 log10 CFU/g during slaughtering and processing steps, those of final pork products produced by the same companies showed relatively high numbers when purchased from the local market. These results indicated that the cold chain system for transporting and merchandising of pork products was deficient in Korea. Water supply and feed bins in swine farms and individual operations can be identified as critical control points to reduce microbiological hazards in swine farms, slaughterhouses, and processing plants.

  10. Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cows bred to Afrikaner bulls were less (P < 0.05) productive than cows bred to other Bos taurus sires. An increase in proportion Afrikaner breeding in dam resulted in longer calving intervals and a decline in cow productivity, but these differences were not always significant. A breeding strategy for the retainment of superior ...

  11. Radiation effects on vitamin A and β-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-01-01

    In this study, vitamin A and β-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  12. Recent developments in cattle, pig, sheep and horse breeding - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Svitáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to summarize new genetic approaches and techniques in the breeding of cattle, pigs, sheep and horses. Often production and reproductive traits are treated separately in genetic evaluations, but advantages may accrue to their joint evaluation. A good example is the system in pig breeding. Simplified breeding objectives are generally no longer appropriate and consequently becoming increasingly complex. The goal of selection for improved animal performance is to increase the profit of the production system; therefore, economic selection indices are now used in most livestock breeding programmes. Recent developments in dairy cattle breeding have focused on the incorporation of molecular information into genetic evaluations and on increasing the importance of longevity and health in breeding objectives to maximize the change in profit. For a genetic evaluation of meat yield (beef, pig, sheep, several types of information can be used, including data from performance test stations, records from progeny tests and measurements taken at slaughter. The standard genetic evaluation method of evaluation of growth or milk production has been the multi-trait animal model, but a test-day model with random regression is becoming the new standard, in sheep as well. Reviews of molecular genetics and pedigree analyses for performance traits in horses are described. Genome – wide selection is becoming a world standard for dairy cattle, and for other farm animals it is under development.

  13. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka spotted x Duroc (ZS x D) ...

  14. The use of optical markers for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Takahiro

    2003-01-01

    The use of radiation for mutation breeding has produced many kinds of practical varieties in crops and ornamental plants over the last several decades. Cold-tolerant rice and disease-resistant apple and pears are well-known varieties resulting from radiation breeding in Japan, and X-ray mutations were used routinely for the expansion of petal color in the chrysanthemum. Recently, the use of ion-beams for mutation induction was investigated as an effective source for producing varieties in cereal crops and flowers in Japan and China (Harten, 1998). Although we have not produced many varieties through radiation breeding, the success rate could increase with the addition of more resources. The success of mutation breeding greatly depends on the rate of mutation, the number of screened plants, and the mutation efficiency. The mutation rate is mainly a function of the total dose of the mutagen employed, although it can be modified by physical and biological factors. A large number of reports have been produced and effective methods of mutation treatments, such as gamma rays, established. Using higher doses inevitably brings about mortality, high pollen and seed sterility, and deleterious mutations. A practical useful dosage is usually found in the range much less than the maximum dose that can be applied. To increase the efficiency of mutation breeding, improvement of screening methods is more important than trials used for raising mutation probabilities. For this reason, we began studies to develop non-destructive and non-invasive optical high-throughput screening systems to increase the efficiency of mutation breeding. (author)

  15. Controlled Cortical Impact in Swine: Pathophysiology and Biomechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manley, Geoffrey T; Rosenthal, Guy; Lam, Maggie; Morabito, Diane; Yan, Donghong; Derugin, Nikita; Bollen, Andrew; Knudson, M. M; Panter, S. S

    2005-01-01

    ...), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were collected for 10 hours after injury. Following injury, ICP and HR increased above baseline values in all swine with a more pronounced elevation in animals impacted to a depth of depression of 12 mm...

  16. Pollination patterns and plant breeding systems in the Galapagos: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Susana; Heleno, Ruben; Olesen, Jens M; McMullen, Conley K; Traveset, Anna

    2012-11-01

    Despite the importance of the Galápagos Islands for the development of central concepts in ecology and evolution, the understanding of many ecological processes in this archipelago is still very basic. One such process is pollination, which provides an important service to both plants and their pollinators. The rather modest level of knowledge on this subject has so far limited our predictive power on the consequences of the increasing threat of introduced plants and pollinators to this unique archipelago. As a first step toward building a unified view of the state of pollination in the Galápagos, a thorough literature search was conducted on the breeding systems of the archipelago's flora and compiled all documented flower-visitor interactions. Based on 38 studies from the last 100 years, we retrieved 329 unique interactions between 123 flowering plant species (50 endemics, 39 non-endemic natives, 26 introduced and eight of unknown origin) from 41 families and 120 animal species from 13 orders. We discuss the emergent patterns and identify promising research avenues in the field. Although breeding systems are known for pollinator fauna does not represent a constraint to the integration of new plant species into the native communities. Most interactions detected (approx. 90 %) come from a single island (most of them from Santa Cruz). Hymenopterans (mainly the endemic carpenter bee Xylocopa darwinii and ants), followed by lepidopterans, were the most important flower visitors. Dipterans were much more important flower visitors in the humid zone than in the dry zone. Bird and lizard pollination has been occasionally reported in the dry zone. Strong biases were detected in the sampling effort dedicated to different islands, time of day, focal plants and functional groups of visitors. Thus, the existing patterns need to be confronted with new and less biased data. The implementation of a community-level approach could greatly increase our understanding of pollination

  17. The incidence and pattern of pneumonia in pigs slaughtered at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pneumonia has been identified as a major disease condition limiting the swine production in West Africa; however the data on its implications to swine health has not been fully elucidated. The pattern and prevalence of pneumonia in slaughtered pigs was determined in respect to the age, sex and breed of pigs slaughtered ...

  18. Prevalence of African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asambe, A; Sackey, A K B; Tekdek, L B

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from a total of 460 pigs, including 416 from 74 piggeries and 44 from Makurdi slaughter slab. The samples were analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit to detect the presence of ASFV antibodies, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to detect antibodies to CSFV. Our findings showed a total ASF prevalence of 13 (2.8%), while prevalences of 7 (1.7%) and 6 (13.6%) were observed in piggeries and in Makurdi slaughter slab, respectively. However, no CSFV antibody sera were detected in this study. Relatively higher ASFV antibody-positive pigs were detected in the slaughter slab than in piggeries. The difference in prevalence of ASF between the two locations was significantly associated (p = 0.017). These findings suggest the presence of ASFV antibody-positive pig in Benue State, Nigeria. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of these diseases among pigs in Nigeria to prevent any fulminating outbreak are recommended.

  19. Shedding of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Oral Fluid of Infected Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Amy C; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Park, So Lee; Ayers, Victoria B; Hettenbach, Susan M; Higgs, Stephen; McVey, D Scott; Noronha, Leela; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2018-05-09

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Maintenance of JEV in nature involves enzootic transmission by competent Culex mosquitoes among susceptible avian and swine species. Historically, JEV has been regarded as one of the most important arthropod-borne viruses in Southeast Asia. Oronasal shedding of JEV from infected amplification hosts was not recognized until the recent discovery of vector-free transmission of JEV among domestic pigs. In this study, oral shedding of JEV was characterized in domestic pigs and miniature swine representing the feral phenotype. A rope-based sampling method followed by the detection of viral RNA using RT-qPCR allowed the collection and detection of JEV in oral fluid samples collected from intradermally challenged animals. The results suggest that the shedding of JEV in oral fluid can be readily detected by molecular diagnostic assays at the acute phase of infection. It also demonstrates the feasibility of this technique for the diagnosis and surveillance of JEV in swine species.

  20. Hepatitis E virus infection in central China reveals no evidence of cross-species transmission between human and swine in this area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animal were reported as reservoirs. Swine stands out as the major reservoir for HEV infection in humans, as suggested by the close genetic relationship of swine and human virus. Since 2000, Genotype 4 HEV has become the dominant cause of hepatitis E disease in China. Recent reports showed that genotype 4 HEV is freely transmitted between humans and swine in eastern and southern China. However, the infection status of HEV in human and swine populations in central China is still unclear. This study was conducted in a rural area of central China, where there are many commercial swine farms. A total of 1476 serum and 554 fecal specimens were collected from the general human and swine populations in this area, respectively. The seroepidemiological study was conducted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conserved genomic sequences of open reading frame 2 were detected using reverse transcription-PCR. The results indicated that the overall viral burden of the general human subjects was 0.95% (14/1476, while 7.0% (39/554 of the swine excreted HEV in stool. The positive rate of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in the serum samples was 7.9% (117/1476 and 1.6% (24/1476, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 150 nt partial sequence of the capsid protein gene showed that the 53 swine and human HEV isolates in the current study all belonged to genotype 4, clustering into three major groups. However, the HEV isolates prevalent in the human and swine populations were classified into known distinct subgenotypes, which suggested that no cross-species transmission between swine and humans had taken place in this area. This result was confirmed by cloning and phylogenetic analysis of the complete capsid protein gene sequence of three representative HEV strains in the three major groups. The cross reactivity between anti-HEV IgG from human sera and the two representative strains from swine in

  1. 233U breeding and neutron multiplying blankets for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.G.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    In this work, along with a previous paper three possible uses of 14-MeV deuterium--tritium fusion neutrons are investigated: energy production, neutron multiplication, and fissile-fuel breeding. The results presented include neutronic studies of fissioning and nonfissioning thorium systems, tritium breeding systems, various fuel options (UO 2 , UC, UC 2 , etc.), and uranium as well as refractory metal first-wall neutron-multiplying regions. A brief energy balance and an estimate of potential revenues for fusion devices are given to help illustrate the potentials of these designs

  2. Classical Swine Fever—An Updated Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities. PMID:28430168

  3. Classical Swine Fever-An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-04-21

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities.

  4. Carcass traits of improved and indigenous lamb breeds of North-Western Turkey under an intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omur Kocak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the carcass quality of Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds in north-western Turkey under an intensive production system. After weaning at approximately 85 days of age, 46 lambs from Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds were fattened for 56 days. Slaughter weights were 47.39, 45.68, 47.27, 31.08 and 29.82 kg and chilled carcass weights were 23.35, 22.33, 23.51, 14.33 and 13.75 kg, respectively (P<0.001. Improved Turkish Merino and Ramlic and indigenous Kivircik lambs had higher carcass measurements than indigenous Chios and Imroz lambs. Chios lamb carcasses had the highest tail root fat yellowness and tail percentage while having the lowest fatness score, omental and mesenteric fat percentage and kidney knob and channel fat percentage. Turkish Merino lambs had higher shoulder percentage, lean percentage and lean/total fat ratio in the hind leg and produced less total fat in the hind leg than Ramlic and Kivircik lambs. These results indicate that improved Turkish Merino might be used to produce high quality lamb carcasses in north-western Turkey. Among indigenous breeds Kivircik showed an outstanding carcass production performance.

  5. Molucular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, S.J.; Langat, P.; Reid, S.; Lam, T.; Cotten, M.; Kelly, M.; Reeth, Van K.; Qiu, Y.; Simon, G.; Bonin, E.; Foni, E.; Chiapponi, C.; Larsen, L.; Hjulsager, C.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Urbaniak, K.; Durrwald, R.; Schlegel, M.; Huovilainen, A.; Davidson, I.; Dan, A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Edwards, S.; Bublot, M.; Vila, T.; Maldonado, J.; Valls, L.; Brown, I.H.; Pybus, O.G.; Kellam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data

  6. Phytotoxicity of effluents from swine slaughterhouses using lettuce and cucumber seeds as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Michel David; Lucia, Thomaz; Correa, Luciara; Neto, José Eduardo Pereira; Correa, Érico Kunde

    2017-08-15

    This study evaluated the phytotoxic effects of raw and treated effluents from a swine slaughterhouse on cucumber and lettuce seeds and determined correlations among physicochemical characteristics of such effluents and the germination of seeds used as bioindicators. Physicochemical parameters were characterized for both effluents and their phytotoxicity was determined through the germination index (GI), the root length (RL) and the number of germinated seeds (SG) for both plant species. The effluents treatment system was efficient to reduce the concentration of some physicochemical parameters to levels within those recommended by the Brazilian legislation, except for P, ammoniacal N and TKN concentration. Although phytotoxicity of the treated effluent was less in comparison to the raw effluent, the GI for cucumber and lettuce seeds submitted to each of the tested effluents was lower than 80%. Thus, both effluents were phytotoxic for the tested bioindicators (peffluent. The Zn concentration in the treated effluent showed a negative correlation (peffluents from swine slaughterhouses may impair the germination of the evaluated plant species if used for agricultural purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  8. Prokaryote community dynamics in anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure, rice straw and industrial clay residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Janet; Theuerl, Susanne; Bergmann, Ingo; Klocke, Michael; Guerra, Gilda; Romero-Romero, Osvaldo

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the addition of rice straw and clay residuals on the prokaryote methane-producing community structure in a semi-continuously stirred tank reactor fed with swine manure. Molecular techniques, including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and a comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of the prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes, were performed. The results showed a positive effect of clay addition on methane yield during the co-digestion of swine manure and rice straw. At the digestion of swine manure, the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal family Methanosarcinaceae, particularly Methanosarcina species, were predominant. During the co-digestion of swine manure and rice straw the microbial community changed, and with the addition of clay residual, the phylum Bacteroidetes predominated. The new nutritional conditions resulted in a shift in the archaeal family Methanosarcinaceae community as acetoclastic Methanosaeta species became dominant.

  9. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer

  10. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  11. DNA-informed breeding of rosaceous crops: promises, progress and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Cameron P

    2017-01-01

    Crops of the Rosaceae family provide valuable contributions to rural economies and human health and enjoyment. Sustained solutions to production challenges and market demands can be met with genetically improved new cultivars. Traditional rosaceous crop breeding is expensive and time-consuming and would benefit from improvements in efficiency and accuracy. Use of DNA information is becoming conventional in rosaceous crop breeding, contributing to many decisions and operations, but only after past decades of solved challenges and generation of sufficient resources. Successes in deployment of DNA-based knowledge and tools have arisen when the ‘chasm’ between genomics discoveries and practical application is bridged systematically. Key steps are establishing breeder desire for use of DNA information, adapting tools to local breeding utility, identifying efficient application schemes, accessing effective services in DNA-based diagnostics and gaining experience in integrating DNA information into breeding operations and decisions. DNA-informed germplasm characterization for revealing identity and relatedness has benefitted many programs and provides a compelling entry point to reaping benefits of genomics research. DNA-informed germplasm evaluation for predicting trait performance has enabled effective reallocation of breeding resources when applied in pioneering programs. DNA-based diagnostics is now expanding from specific loci to genome-wide considerations. Realizing the full potential of this expansion will require improved accuracy of predictions, multi-trait DNA profiling capabilities, streamlined breeding information management systems, strategies that overcome plant-based features that limit breeding progress and widespread training of current and future breeding personnel and allied scientists. PMID:28326185

  12. Assessment of tritium breeding requirements for fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents an assessment of tritium-breeding requirements for fusion power reactors. The analysis is based on an evaluation of time-dependent tritium inventories in the reactor system. The method presented can be applied to any fusion systems in operation on a steady-state mode as well as on a pulsed mode. As an example, the UWMAK-I design was analyzed and it has been found that the startup inventory requirement calculated by the present method significantly differs from those previously calculated. The effect of reactor-parameter changes on the required tritium breeding ratio is also analyzed for a variety of reactor operation scenarios

  13. Antibiotic Resistant Microbiota in the Swine Intestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The healthy swine intestine is populated by upwards of 500 bacterial species, mainly obligate anaerobes. Our research focuses on the roles of these commensal bacteria in antimicrobial resistance and on interventions to reduce the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In comparisons of intes...

  14. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelme-Ayala, Pamela [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); El-Din, Mohamed Gamal, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Smith, Richard [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Code, Kenneth R. [IOWC Technologies Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Leonard, Jerry [Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. {yields} This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. {yields} Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. {yields} Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. {yields} Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH{sub 3}), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl{sup -}) and 50% of the phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH{sub 3}, nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  15. Breeding system in the dichogamous hermaphrodite Silene acutifolia (Caryophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buide, M L; Guitian, J

    2002-12-01

    The breeding system of the dichogamous hermaphrodite species Silene acutifolia, endemic to north-west Spain and north and central Portugal, is examined. Pollen germinability and style-stigma receptivity were analysed to determine whether protandry is a barrier to self-fertilization. By 48 h after anthesis, pollen germinability had declined to approx. 10 %. The short straight styles are not receptive when flowers first open. They gradually elongate and curve outwards, develop stigma papillae and become receptive. There is no clear separation between stigma and style: the stigma papillae appear in a line along the length of the style. Fruit set is high regardless of pollen source; however, seed set is significantly reduced after both spontaneous and facilitated autogamy. Seed set following spontaneous autogamy was 30 % (86 % in controls) in 1998 and 33 % (87 % in controls) in 1999. Seed set following facilitated autogamy was 62 % (86 % in controls) in 1998 and 67 % (89 % in controls) in 1999. Thus, separation of the male and female phases does not prevent production of seeds by self-pollination, although it does reduce the likelihood of this. Furthermore, results of the present experiments indicate that this species has no self-incompatibility mechanisms (self-compatibility index = 0.98). The selfing rate in the study population was 0.41, which is supported by the lack of self-incompatibility systems and by the incomplete protandry. Copyright 2002 Annals of Botany Company

  16. Characterization of Viral Load, Viability and Persistence of Influenza A Virus in Air and on Surfaces of Swine Production Facilities.

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    Victor Neira

    Full Text Available Indirect transmission of influenza A virus (IAV in swine is poorly understood and information is lacking on levels of environmental exposure encountered by swine and people during outbreaks of IAV in swine barns. We characterized viral load, viability and persistence of IAV in air and on surfaces during outbreaks in swine barns. IAV was detected in pigs, air and surfaces from five confirmed outbreaks with 48% (47/98 of oral fluid, 38% (32/84 of pen railing and 43% (35/82 of indoor air samples testing positive by IAV RT-PCR. IAV was isolated from air and oral fluids yielding a mixture of subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2. Detection of IAV RNA from air was sustained during the outbreaks with maximum levels estimated between 7 and 11 days from reported onset. Our results indicate that during outbreaks of IAV in swine, aerosols and surfaces in barns contain significant levels of IAV potentially representing an exposure hazard to both swine and people.

  17. [Therapeutic qualities of a lente preparation of swine insulins manufactured by Pharmachem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, D; Bozadzhieva, E; Pampulov, L; Penchev, I; Uzunova, B

    1977-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of swine insulin preparation Lente, "Pharmachim" production was studied in 50 diabetics. Its hypoglycemizing activitis compared with that of standardized insulin Lente--"Novo", extract of bovine pancreas. The Bulgarian preparation was found to be very similar to the preparation Lente-Novo in its pharma-codynamic properties and could successfully be used in the diabetes melitus treatment. Insulin Lente Pharmachim is presumed to have lower antigenicity as an extract of swine pancreas, which is actually its great advantage for the therapeutic practice.

  18. In vitro reassortment between endemic H1N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic swine influenza viruses generates attenuated viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available The pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 influenza virus was first reported in humans in the spring of 2009 and soon thereafter was identified in numerous species, including swine. Reassortant viruses, presumably arising from the co-infection of pH1N1 and endemic swine influenza virus (SIV, were subsequently identified from diagnostic samples collected from swine. In this study, co-infection of swine testicle (ST cells with swine-derived endemic H1N2 (MN745 and pH1N1 (MN432 yielded two reassortant H1N2 viruses (R1 and R2, both possessing a matrix gene derived from pH1N1. In ST cells, the reassortant viruses had growth kinetics similar to the parental H1N2 virus and reached titers approximately 2 log(10 TCID(50/mL higher than the pH1N1 virus, while in A549 cells these viruses had similar growth kinetics. Intranasal challenge of pigs with H1N2, pH1N1, R1 or R2 found that all viruses were capable of infecting and transmitting between direct contact pigs as measured by real time reverse transcription PCR of nasal swabs. Lung samples were also PCR-positive for all challenge groups and influenza-associated microscopic lesions were detected by histology. Interestingly, infectious virus was detected in lung samples for pigs challenged with the parental H1N2 and pH1N1 at levels significantly higher than either reassortant virus despite similar levels of viral RNA. Results of our experiment suggested that the reassortant viruses generated through in vitro cell culture system were attenuated without gaining any selective growth advantage in pigs over the parental lineages. Thus, reassortant influenza viruses described in this study may provide a good system to study genetic basis of the attenuation and its mechanism.

  19. Efficient Breeding by Genomic Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Deniz; Sánchez, Julio I

    2016-01-01

    Selection in breeding programs can be done by using phenotypes (phenotypic selection), pedigree relationship (breeding value selection) or molecular markers (marker assisted selection or genomic selection). All these methods are based on truncation selection, focusing on the best performance of parents before mating. In this article we proposed an approach to breeding, named genomic mating, which focuses on mating instead of truncation selection. Genomic mating uses information in a similar fashion to genomic selection but includes information on complementation of parents to be mated. Following the efficiency frontier surface, genomic mating uses concepts of estimated breeding values, risk (usefulness) and coefficient of ancestry to optimize mating between parents. We use