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Sample records for swim bladder volume

  1. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

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    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  2. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early-life stage fathead ...

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    The present study investigated whether inhibition of deiodinase, the enzyme which converts thyroxine (T4) to the more biologically-active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact inflation of the posterior and/or anterior chamber of the swim bladder, processes previously demonstrated to be thyroid-hormone regulated. Two experiments were conducted using a model deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid (IOP). In the first study, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos were exposed to 0.6, 1.9, or 6.0 mg IOP/L or control water in a flow-through system until reaching 6 days post-fertilization (dpf) at which time posterior swim bladder inflation was assessed. To examine effects on anterior swim bladder inflation, a second study was conducted with 6 dpf larvae exposed to the same IOP concentrations until reaching 21 dpf. Fish from both studies were sampled for T4/T3 measurements, gene transcription analyses, and thyroid histopathology. In the embryo study, incidence and length of inflated posterior swim bladders were significantly reduced in the 6.0 mg/L treatment at 6 dpf. Incidence of inflation and length of anterior swim bladder in larval fish were significantly reduced in all IOP treatments at 14 dpf, but inflation recovered by 18 dpf. Throughout the larval study, whole body T4 concentrations were significantly increased and T3 concentrations were significantly decreased in all IOP treatments. Consistent with hypothesized compensatory responses, sig

  3. Intra- and Intersexual swim bladder dimorphisms in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus): Implications of swim bladder proximity to the inner ear for sound pressure detection.

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    Mohr, Robert A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Ryan D; Forlano, Paul M; Fay, Richard R; Ketten, Darlene R; Cox, Timothy C; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-11-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish. Micro-computerized tomography revealed that females and type II males have prominent, horn-like rostral swim bladder extensions that project toward the inner ear end organs (saccule, lagena, and utricle). The rostral swim bladder extensions were longer, and the distance between these swim bladder extensions and each inner-ear end organ type was significantly shorter in both females and type II males compared to that in type I males. Our results revealed that the normalized swim bladder length of females and type II males was longer than that in type I males while there was no difference in normalized swim bladder width among the three sexual phenotypes. We predict that these intrasexual and intersexual differences in swim bladder morphology among midshipman sexual phenotypes will afford greater sound pressure sensitivity and higher frequency detection in females and type II males and facilitate the detection and localization of conspecifics in shallow water environments, like those in which midshipman breed and nest. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dioxin inhibition of swim bladder development in zebrafish: is it secondary to heart failure?

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    Yue, Monica S; Peterson, Richard E; Heideman, Warren

    2015-05-01

    The swim bladder is a gas-filled organ that is used for regulating buoyancy and is essential for survival in most teleost species. In zebrafish, swim bladder development begins during embryogenesis and inflation occurs within 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Embryos exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) before 96 h post fertilization (hpf) developed swim bladders normally until the growth/elongation phase, at which point growth was arrested. It is known that TCDD exposure causes heart malformations that lead to heart failure in zebrafish larvae, and that blood circulation is a key factor in normal development of the swim bladder. The adverse effects of TCDD exposure on the heart occur during the same period of time that swim bladder development and growth occurs. Based on this coincident timing, and the dependence of swim bladder development on proper circulatory development, we hypothesized that the adverse effects of TCDD on swim bladder development were secondary to heart failure. We compared swim bladder development in TCDD-exposed embryos to: (1) silent heart morphants, which lack cardiac contractility, and (2) transiently transgenic cmlc2:caAHR-2AtRFP embryos, which mimic TCDD-induced heart failure via heart-specific, constitutive activation of AHR signaling. Both of these treatment groups, which were not exposed to TCDD, developed hypoplastic swim bladders of comparable size and morphology to those found in TCDD-exposed embryos. Furthermore, in all treatment groups swim bladder development was arrested during the growth/elongation phase. Together, these findings support a potential role for heart failure in the inhibition of swim bladder development caused by TCDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Does the hearing sensitivity in thorny catfishes depend on swim bladder morphology?

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    Angelika Zebedin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thorny catfishes exhibit large variations in swim bladder morphology. These organs are of different sizes, forms and may have simple or branched diverticula. The swim bladder plays an important role in otophysans because it enhances their hearing sensitivity by transmitting sound pressure fluctuations via ossicles to the inner ear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate if a form-function relationship exists, the swim bladder morphology and hearing ability were analyzed in six species. The morphology was quantified by measuring the length, width and height and calculating a standardized swim bladder length (sSBL, which was then used to calculate the relative swim bladder length (rSBL. Hearing was measured using the auditory evoked potential (AEP recording technique. Two species had simple apple-shaped and four species heart-shaped (cordiform bladders. One of the latter species had short unbranched diverticula on the terminal margin, two had a secondary bladder and two had many long, branched diverticula. The rSBL differed significantly between most of the species. All species were able to detect frequencies between 70 Hz and 6 kHz, with lowest thresholds found between 0.5 and 1 kHz (60 dB re 1 µPa. Hearing curves were U-shaped except in Hemidoras morrisi in which it was ramp-like. Mean hearing thresholds of species possessing smaller rSBLs were slightly lower (maximum 8.5 dB than those of species having larger rSBLs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current findings reveal a relationship between swim bladder form and its function among thorny catfishes. Relatively smaller swim bladders resulted in relatively better hearing. This is in contrast to a prior inter-familial study on catfishes in which species with large unpaired bladders possessed higher sensitivity at higher frequencies than species having tiny paired and encapsulated bladders.

  6. Relationship between swim bladder morphology and hearing abilities--a case study on Asian and African cichlids.

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    Tanja Schulz-Mirbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several teleost species have evolved anterior extensions of the swim bladder which come close to or directly contact the inner ears. A few comparative studies have shown that these morphological specializations may enhance hearing abilities. This study investigates the diversity of swim bladder morphology in four Asian and African cichlid species and analyzes how this diversity affects their hearing sensitivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied swim bladder morphology by dissections and by making 3D reconstructions from high-resolution microCT scans. The auditory sensitivity was determined in terms of sound pressure levels (SPL and particle acceleration levels (PAL using the auditory evoked potential (AEP recording technique. The swim bladders in Hemichromis guttatus and Steatocranus tinanti lacked anterior extensions and the swim bladder was considerably small in the latter species. In contrast, Paratilapia polleni and especially Etroplus maculatus possessed anterior extensions bringing the swim bladder close to the inner ears. All species were able to detect frequencies up to 3 kHz (SPL except S. tinanti which only responded to frequencies up to 0.7 kHz. P. polleni and E. maculatus showed significantly higher auditory sensitivities at 0.5 and 1 kHz than the two species lacking anterior swim bladder extensions. The highest auditory sensitivities were found in E. maculatus, which possessed the most intimate swim bladder-inner ear relationship (maximum sensitivity 66 dB re 1 µPa at 0.5 kHz. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that anterior swim bladder extensions seem to improve mean absolute auditory sensitivities by 21-42 dB (SPLs and 21-36 dB (PALs between 0.5 and 1 kHz. Besides anterior extensions, the size of the swim bladder appears to be an important factor for extending the detectable frequency range (up to 3 kHz.

  7. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  8. Thyroid disrupting effects of halogenated and next generation chemicals on the swim bladder development of zebrafish.

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    Godfrey, Amy; Hooser, Blair; Abdelmoneim, Ahmed; Horzmann, Katharine A; Freemanc, Jennifer L; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2017-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter thyroid function and adversely affect growth and development. Halogenated compounds, such as perfluorinated chemicals commonly used in food packaging, and brominated flame retardants used in a broad range of products from clothing to electronics, can act as thyroid disruptors. Due to the adverse effects of these compounds, there is a need for the development of safer next generation chemicals. The objective of this study was to test the thyroid disruption potential of old use and next generation halogenated chemicals. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to three old use compounds, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and two next generation chemicals, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxdie (DOPO) and perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA). Sub-chronic (0-6days post fertilization (dpf)) and chronic (0-28dpf) exposures were conducted at 1% of the concentration known to kill 50% (LC 50 ) of the population. Changes in the surface area of the swim bladder as well as in expression levels of genes involved in the thyroid control of swim bladder inflation were measured. At 6dpf, zebrafish exposed to all halogenated chemicals, both old use and next generation, had smaller posterior swim bladder and increased expression in the gene encoding thyroid peroxidase, tpo and the genes encoding two swim bladder surfactant proteins, sp-a and sp-c. These results mirrored the effects of thyroid hormone-exposed positive controls. Fish exposed to a TPO inhibitor (methimazole, MMI) had a decrease in tpo expression levels at 28dpf. Effects on the anterior swim bladder at 28dpf, after exposure to MMI as well as both old and new halogenated chemicals, were the same, i.e., absence of SB in ∼50% of fish, which were also of smaller body size. Overall, our results suggest thyroid disruption by the halogenated compounds tested via the swim bladder surfactant system. However

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF GELATIN FROM SWIM BLADDER OF YELLOWFIN TUNA (THUNNUS ALBACORES AS INFLUENCED BY EXTRACTING TEMPERATURES

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    O. Kaewdang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin was extracted from the swim bladder of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores at different temperatures (60, 70 and 80°C with the extraction yields of 35.6%, 41.1% and 47.3% (dryweight basis, respectively. The α-chains of gelatin decreased with increasing extraction temperatures.Similar amino acid compositions were noticeable among all gelatins, in which glycine constituted the major amino acid. Imino acids ranged from 169 to 172 residues/1,000 residues. Thegel strength of gelatin extracted at lower temperature was higher than that of gelatins extracted at higher temperatures. Gelling and melting temperatures for swim bladder gelatin were 11.07-15.24 and 20.36-22.33°C, respectively. Higher gelling and melting points were observed for gelatin extracted at lower temperatures. Microstructure of gel of gelatin extracted at 60°C was finerwith smaller voids, compared with others. FTIR spectra of obtained gelatins revealed the significant loss of molecular order of the triple-helix. Thus, extraction temperatures showed the directimpact on characteristics of gelatin from swim bladder.

  10. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early life stage fathead minnows exposed to a deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid.

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    Cavallin, Jenna E; Ankley, Gerald T; Blackwell, Brett R; Blanksma, Chad A; Fay, Kellie A; Jensen, Kathleen M; Kahl, Michael D; Knapen, Dries; Kosian, Patricia A; Poole, Shane T; Randolph, Eric C; Schroeder, Anthony L; Vergauwen, Lucia; Villeneuve, Daniel L

    2017-11-01

    Inflation of the posterior and/or anterior swim bladder is a process previously demonstrated to be regulated by thyroid hormones. We investigated whether inhibition of deiodinases, which convert thyroxine (T4) to the more biologically active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact swim bladder inflation. Two experiments were conducted using a model deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid (IOP). First, fathead minnow embryos were exposed to 0.6, 1.9, or 6.0 mg/L or control water until 6 d postfertilization (dpf), at which time posterior swim bladder inflation was assessed. To examine anterior swim bladder inflation, a second study was conducted with 6-dpf larvae exposed to the same IOP concentrations until 21 dpf. Fish from both studies were sampled for T4/T3 measurements and gene transcription analyses. Incidence and length of inflated posterior swim bladders were significantly reduced in the 6.0 mg/L treatment at 6 dpf. Incidence of inflation and length of anterior swim bladder were significantly reduced in all IOP treatments at 14 dpf, but inflation recovered by 18 dpf. Throughout the larval study, whole-body T4 concentrations increased and T3 concentrations decreased in all IOP treatments. Consistent with hypothesized compensatory responses, deiodinase-2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was up-regulated in the larval study, and thyroperoxidase mRNA was down-regulated in all IOP treatments in both studies. These results support the hypothesized adverse outcome pathways linking inhibition of deiodinase activity to impaired swim bladder inflation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2942-2952. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  11. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

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    Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology, Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Kubota, Akira, E-mail: akubota@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Timme-Laragy, Alicia R., E-mail: atimmelaragy@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Division of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Woodin, Bruce, E-mail: bwoodin@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC{sub 50} values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox

  12. Evaluating Variations of Bladder Volume Using an Ultrasound Scanner in Rectal Cancer Patients during Chemoradiation: Is Protocol-Based Full Bladder Maintenance Using a Bladder Scanner Useful to Maintain the Bladder Volume?

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    Hong In Yoon

    Full Text Available The maintenance of full bladder is important to reduce radiation-induced toxicities and maintain the therapeutic consistency in locally advanced rectal cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy (RT. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of protocol-based full bladder maintenance by assessing bladder volume variation using an ultrasound bladder scanner to maintain bladder volume.From March 2011 to May 2011, twenty consecutive rectal cancer patients receiving external beam RT participated in this prospective study. Protocol-based full bladder maintenance consisted of education, training and continuous biofeedback by measuring bladder volume. Bladder volume was measured by bladder scan immediately before simulation CT scan and before each treatment three times weekly during the RT period. The relative bladder volume change was calculated. Intra-patient bladder volume variations were quantified using interquartile range (IQR of relative bladder volume change in each patient. We compared intra-patient bladder volume variations obtained (n=20 with data from our previous study patients (n=20 performing self-controlled maintenance without protocol.Bladder volumes measured by bladder scan highly correlated with those on simulation CT scan (R=0.87, p<0.001. Patients from this study showed lower median IQR of relative bladder volume change compared to patients of self-controlled maintenance from our previous study, although it was not statistically significant (median 32.56% vs. 42.19%, p=0.058. Upon logistic regression, the IQR of relative bladder volume change was significantly related to protocol-based maintenance [relative risk 1.045, 95% confidence intervals (CI 1.004-1.087, p=0.033]. Protocol-based maintenance included significantly more patients with an IQR of relative bladder volume change less than 37% than self-controlled maintenance (p=0.025.Our findings show that bladder volume could be maintained more consistently during

  13. X-ray volume imaging in bladder radiotherapy verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Ann M.; Stratford, Julia; McCarthy, Claire; Davies, Julie; Sykes, Jonathan R.; Amer, Ali; Marchant, Tom; Cowan, Richard; Wylie, James; Logue, John; Livsey, Jacqueline; Khoo, Vincent S.; Moore, Chris; Price, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical utility of X-ray volume imaging (XVI) for verification of bladder radiotherapy and to quantify geometric error in bladder radiotherapy delivery. Methods and Materials: Twenty subjects undergoing conformal bladder radiotherapy were recruited. X-ray volume images and electronic portal images (EPIs) were acquired for the first 5 fractions and then once weekly. X-ray volume images were co-registered with the planning computed tomography scan and clinical target volume coverage assessed in three dimensions (3D). Interfraction bladder volume change was described by quantifying changes in bladder volume with time. Bony setup errors were compared from both XVI and EPI. Results: The bladder boundary was clearly visible on coronal XVI views in nearly all images, allowing accurate 3D treatment verification. In 93.5% of imaged fractions, the clinical target volume was within the planning target volume. Most subjects displayed consistent bladder volumes, but 25% displayed changes that could be predicted from the first three XVIs. Bony setup errors were similar whether calculated from XVI or EPI. Conclusions: Coronal XVI can be used to verify 3D bladder radiotherapy delivery. Image-guided interventions to reduce geographic miss and normal tissue toxicity are feasible with this technology

  14. Image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer: bladder volume variation and its relation to margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muren, Ludvig; Redpath, Anthony Thomas; Lord, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    : The correlation between the relative bladder volume (RBV, defined as repeat scan volume/planning scan volume) and the margins required to account for internal motion was first studied using a series of 20 bladder cancer patients with weekly repeat CT scanning during treatment. Both conformal RT (CRT) and IGRT......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To control and account for bladder motion is a major challenge in radiotherapy (RT) of bladder cancer. This study investigates the relation between bladder volume variation and margins in conformal and image-guided RT (IGRT) for this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... these patients were given fluid intake restrictions on alternating weeks during treatment. RESULTS: IGRT gave the strongest correlation between the RBV and margin size (R(2)=0.75; p10mm were required in only 1% of the situations when the RBV1, whereas isotropic margins >10...

  15. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early-life stage fathead minnows exposed to a deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid (article)

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    The present study investigated whether inhibition of deiodinase, the enzyme which converts thyroxine (T4) to the more biologically-active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact inflation of the posterior and/or anterior chamber of the swim bladder, processes previously ...

  16. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early-life stage fathead minnows exposed to a deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated whether inhibition of deiodinase, the enzyme which converts thyroxine (T4) to the more biologically-active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact inflation of the posterior and/or anterior chamber of the swim bladder, processes previously ...

  17. Characterization of Collagen from Swim Bladder Waste of Yellow-pike (Muraenesox talabon by Acid and Hydrothermal Extraction

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    I Wayan Darya Kartika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIndonesian capture fisheries production reached ± 6.4 million tons in 2014. This number was predictedresulted a huge fishery waste, one of them was swim bladder that potentially contain collagen, so it needs tobe developed. This aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the swim bladder (proportionand chemical content and collagen characteristics (yield and physicochemical properties extracted fromthe swim bladder cunang (Muraenesox talabon. Swim bladder waste had proportion 0.57 to 0.67% of wholeyellow-piked conger body weight and 24.74% protein/100 g wet weight (equivalent to 93.39% of protein/100gram dry. The waste had a potency of collagen, which is characterized by the high proportion of theamino acids glycine, proline, hydroxyproline and alain. Acid extraction and hydrothermal process resultedcollagen extracts, identified from a spectrum of amide I, amide II and amide III functional groups. Collagenextracted with acid process contained a higher glycine than hydrothermal one, but instead hydrothermalprocess produced extract with a higher proline, hydroxyproline and alanine composition.

  18. The origin and evolution of the surfactant system in fish: insights into the evolution of lungs and swim bladders.

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    Daniels, Christopher B; Orgeig, Sandra; Sullivan, Lucy C; Ling, Nicholas; Bennett, Michael B; Schürch, Samuel; Val, Adalberto Luis; Brauner, Colin J

    2004-01-01

    Several times throughout their radiation fish have evolved either lungs or swim bladders as gas-holding structures. Lungs and swim bladders have different ontogenetic origins and can be used either for buoyancy or as an accessory respiratory organ. Therefore, the presence of air-filled bladders or lungs in different groups of fishes is an example of convergent evolution. We propose that air breathing could not occur without the presence of a surfactant system and suggest that this system may have originated in epithelial cells lining the pharynx. Here we present new data on the surfactant system in swim bladders of three teleost fish (the air-breathing pirarucu Arapaima gigas and tarpon Megalops cyprinoides and the non-air-breathing New Zealand snapper Pagrus auratus). We determined the presence of surfactant using biochemical, biophysical, and morphological analyses and determined homology using immunohistochemical analysis of the surfactant proteins (SPs). We relate the presence and structure of the surfactant system to those previously described in the swim bladders of another teleost, the goldfish, and those of the air-breathing organs of the other members of the Osteichthyes, the more primitive air-breathing Actinopterygii and the Sarcopterygii. Snapper and tarpon swim bladders are lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelial cells, respectively, containing membrane-bound lamellar bodies. Phosphatidylcholine dominates the phospholipid (PL) profile of lavage material from all fish analyzed to date. The presence of the characteristic surfactant lipids in pirarucu and tarpon, lamellar bodies in tarpon and snapper, SP-B in tarpon and pirarucu lavage, and SPs (A, B, and D) in swim bladder tissue of the tarpon provide strong evidence that the surfactant system of teleosts is homologous with that of other fish and of tetrapods. This study is the first demonstration of the presence of SP-D in the air-breathing organs of nonmammalian species and SP-B in actinopterygian

  19. Cone Beam CT Imaging Analysis of Interfractional Variations in Bladder Volume and Position During Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Don; Parliament, Matthew; Rathee, Satyapal; Ghosh, Sunita; Ko, Lawrence; Murray, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify daily bladder size and position variations during bladder cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten bladder cancer patients underwent daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging of the bladder during radiotherapy. Bladder and planning target volumes (bladder/PTV) from CBCT and planning CT scans were compared with respect to bladder center-of-mass shifts in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) coordinates, bladder/PTV size, bladder/PTV margin positions, overlapping areas, and mutually exclusive regions. Results: A total of 262 CBCT images were obtained from 10 bladder cancer patients. Bladder center of mass shifted most in the y coordinate (mean, -0.32 cm). The anterior bladder wall shifted the most (mean, -0.58 cm). Mean ratios of CBCT-derived bladder and PTV volumes to planning CT-derived counterparts were 0.83 and 0.88. The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume (± standard deviation [SD]) outside the planning CT counterpart was 29.24 cm 3 (SD, 29.71 cm 3 ). The mean planning CT-derived bladder volume outside the CBCT counterpart was 47.74 cm 3 (SD, 21.64 cm 3 ). The mean CBCT PTV outside the planning CT-derived PTV was 47.35 cm 3 (SD, 36.51 cm 3 ). The mean planning CT-derived PTV outside the CBCT-derived PTV was 93.16 cm 3 (SD, 50.21). The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume outside the planning PTV was 2.41 cm 3 (SD, 3.97 cm 3 ). CBCT bladder/ PTV volumes significantly differed from planning CT counterparts (p = 0.047). Conclusions: Significant variations in bladder and PTV volume and position occurred in patients in this trial.

  20. Molecular fingerprinting of the myxozoan community in common carp suffering Swim Bladder Inflammation (SBI) identifies multiple etiological agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Hartigan, Ashlie; Patra, Sneha; Pecková, Hana; Eszterbauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, AUG 28 2014 (2014), s. 398 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) M200961205; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cyprinus carpio carpio * swim bladder inflammation * fish disease * Myxozoa * molecular diagnostic * rDNA * in situ hybridisation Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  1. Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re just learning to swim, stay in the shallow end. Don't push or jump on others. ... and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours ...

  2. Therapeutic Effect of Polysaccharide of Large Yellow Croaker Swim Bladder on Lupus Nephritis of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhong Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effect of polysaccharide of large yellow croaker swim bladder (PLYCSB on lupus nephritis has been studied in vivo. A high concentration (50 mg/kg dose of PLYCSB reduced the levels of serum inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ compared to a low concentration (25 mg/kg dose and control mice. SCr, BUN, TC and TG serum levels of PLYCSB treated mice were lower than those of control mice, and TP and ALB serum levels were higher than control mice. Control mice tested ds-DNA positive at the 6th week, and 50 mg/kg treated mice tested at the 10th week after the experiment began. The output of urine protein of 50 mg/kg PLYCSB treated mice was most closely comparable to the normal mice. The glomerular number of 50 mg/kg PLYCSB treated mice was more than the 25 mg/kg dose and control groups, and the 50 mg/kg dose group showed the lowest glomerular sclerosis index in lupus nephritis mice. By RT-PCR and western blot assay, PLYCSB significantly induced inflammation in kidney tissues of mice by downregulating NF-κB-p65, TGF-β1, Fas, FasL and upregulating IκB-α. These results suggest that PLYCSB showed a potential curative effect on lupus nephritis as a drug or functional food.

  3. Defining bowel dose volume constraints for bladder radiotherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, F; Waters, R; Gulliford, S; Hall, E; James, N; Huddart, R A

    2015-01-01

    Increases to radiotherapy dose are constrained by normal tissue effects. The relationship between bowel dose volume data and late bowel toxicity in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with radical radiotherapy was assessed. The bowel was contoured retrospectively on radiotherapy plans of 47 patients recruited to the BC2001 trial (CRUK/01/004). The relationship between bowel volume at various dose levels and prospectively collected late bowel toxicity was explored. Fifteen per cent and 6% of patients experienced grade 1 and grade 2 or more late bowel toxicity, respectively. The mean bowel volume was significantly less at doses ≥50 Gy in those treated with reduced high dose volume radiotherapy compared with standard radiotherapy. The probability of late bowel toxicity increased as bowel volume increased (P ≤ 0.05 for dose levels 30-50 Gy). No grade 2 or more late bowel toxicity was observed in patients with bowel volumes under the thresholds given in the model that predict for 25% probability of late bowel toxicity. There is a dose volume effect for late bowel toxicity in radical bladder radiotherapy. We have modelled the probability of late bowel toxicity from absolute bowel volumes to guide clinicians in assessing radical bladder radiotherapy plans. Thresholds predicting for a 25% probability of late bowel toxicity are proposed as dose volume constraints. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Pad-weighing test performed with standardized bladder volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, G; Rosenkilde, P; Gammelgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The result of the one-hour pad-weighing test proposed by the International Continence Society has been demonstrated to depend on the urine load during the test. To increase reproducibility of the pad-weighing test by minimizing the influence of variation in urine load the test was done...... with a standardized bladder volume (50% of the cystometric bladder capacity). Twenty-five female patients with stress or mixed incontinence underwent two separate tests. Test-retest results were highly correlated (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). Nonetheless, analysis of test-retest differences revealed a variation up...... to +/- 24 g between two tests. It is concluded that this setup (i.e., standardized bladder volume) of the one-hour pad-weighing test allows for a more reliable assessment of urinary incontinence for quantitative purposes....

  5. Noninvasive Evaluation of Bladder Wall Mechanical Properties as a Function of Filling Volume: Potential Application in Bladder Compliance Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nenadic

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method to monitor bladder wall mechanical properties as a function of filling volume, with the potential application to bladder compliance assessment. The proposed ultrasound bladder vibrometry (UBV method uses ultrasound to excite and track Lamb waves on the bladder wall from which its mechanical properties are derived by fitting measurements to an analytical model. Of particular interest is the shear modulus of bladder wall at different volumes, which we hypothesize, is similar to measuring the compliance characteristics of the bladder.Three experimental models were used: 1 an ex vivo porcine model where normal and aberrant (stiffened by formalin bladders underwent evaluation by UBV; 2 an in vivo study to evaluate the performance of UBV on patients with clinically documented compliant and noncompliant bladders undergoing UDS; and 3 a noninvasive UBV protocol to assess bladder compliance using oral hydration and fractionated voiding on three healthy volunteers.The ex vivo studies showed a high correlation between the UBV parameters and direct pressure measurement (R2 = 0.84-0.99. A similar correlation was observed for 2 patients with compliant and noncompliant bladders (R2 = 0.89-0.99 undergoing UDS detrusor pressure-volume measurements. The results of UBV on healthy volunteers, performed without catheterization, were comparable to a compliant bladder patient.The utility of UBV as a method to monitor changes in bladder wall mechanical properties is validated by the high correlation with pressure measurements in ex vivo and in vivo patient studies. High correlation UBV and UDS in vivo studies demonstrated the potential of UBV as a bladder compliance assessment tool. Results of studies on healthy volunteers with normal bladders demonstrated that UBV could be performed noninvasively. Further studies on a larger cohort are needed to fully validate the use of UBV as a clinical tool for bladder compliance assessment.

  6. Real-time bladder volume monitoring by the application of a new implantable bladder volume sensor for a small animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sup Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although real-time monitoring of bladder volume together with intravesical pressure can provide more information for understanding the functional changes of the urinary bladder, it still entails difficulties in the accurate prediction of real-time bladder volume in urodynamic studies with small animal models. We studied a new implantable bladder volume monitoring device with eight rats. During cystometry, microelectrodes prepared by the microelectromechanical systems process were placed symmetrically on both lateral walls of the bladder, and the expanded bladder volume was calculated. Immunohistological study was done after 1 week and after 4 weeks to evaluate the biocompatibility of the microelectrode. From the point that infused saline volume into the bladder was higher than 0.6 mL, estimated bladder volume was statistically correlated with the volume of saline injected (p<0.01. Additionally, the microelectromechanical system microelectrodes used in this study showed reliable biocompatibility. Therefore, the device can be used to evaluate changes in bladder volume in studies with small animals, and it may help to provide more information about functional changes in the bladder in laboratory studies. Furthermore, owing to its biocompatibility, the device could be chronically implanted in conscious ambulating animals, thus allowing a novel longitudinal study to be performed for a specific purpose.

  7. Implantable bladder volume sensor based on resistor ladder network composed of conductive hydrogel composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi Kyung Kim; Hyojung Kim; Jung, Yeon Su; Adem, Kenana M A; Bawazir, Sarah S; Stefanini, Cesare; Lee, Hyunjoo J

    2017-07-01

    An accurate bladder volume monitoring system is a critical component in diagnosis and treatment of urological disorders. Here, we report an implantable bladder volume sensor with a multi-level resistor ladder which estimates the bladder volume through discrete resistance values. Discretization allows the sensor output to be resilient to the long-term drift, hysteresis, and degradation of the sensor materials. Our sensor is composed of biocompatible polypyrrole/agarose hydrogel composite. Because Young's modulus of this composite is comparable to that of the bladder wall, the effect of mechanical loading of the sensor on the bladder movement is minimized which allows more accurate volume monitoring. We also demonstrate the patterning and molding capability of this material by fabrication various structures. Lastly, we successfully demonstrate the functionality of the multi-level resistor ladder sensor as a bladder volume sensor by attaching the sensor on the pig's bladder and observing the impedance change of the sensor.

  8. Effect of drying and frying conditions on physical and chemical characteristics of fish maw from swim bladder of seabass (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthusamran, Sittichoke; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2015-12-01

    Swim bladder is generated as a by-product during evisceration. It has been used for the production of fish maw, in which several processing parameters determine the characteristics or quality of the resulting fish maw. The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of fish maws from seabass swim bladder as influenced by drying and frying conditions. The expansion ratio and oil uptake content of fish maw increased as the moisture content of swim bladder increased (P frying and frying temperatures increased, the expansion ratio of fish maw increased (P frying was performed at a temperature higher than 200 °C. The oil uptake contents of fish maw with frying temperatures of 180 and 200 °C were in the range of 451.06-578.06 g kg(-1) , whereas the lower contents (378.60-417.17 g kg(-1) ) were found in those having frying temperatures of 220-240 °C. Hardness of fish maw decreased but no changes in fracturability were observed with increasing pre-frying temperature when subsequent frying was carried out 200 °C. Drying temperatures, moisture content, pre-frying and frying temperatures were the factors influencing the characteristics and properties of fish maws from seabass swim bladder. Fish maw could be prepared by pre-frying swim bladder, dried at 60 °C to obtain 150 g kg(-1) moisture content, at 110 °C for 5 min, followed by frying at 200 °C for 20 s. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Bladder volume variations of cervical cancer patient in radiation therapy using ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jong Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The bladder volume change was measured using ultrasonography for helping decrease the side effects and other organ variations in the location of radiation therapy for cervical cancer patients. An experiment was performed targeting patients who were treated with radiation therapy at PNUH within the period from September to December 2015. To maintain the bladder volume, each patient was instructed to drink 500 cc water before and after CT simulation, 60 minutes before the dry run. Also, the bladder volume was measured in each patient CT scan, and a 3D conformal therapy plan was designed. The bladder volumes measured before and after the CT simulation, dry run, and radiation treatment planning were compared and analyzed. The average volume and average error of the bladder that were obtained from the measurement based on the CT scan images had the lowest standard deviation in the CT simulation. This means that the values that were obtained before and after the CT simulation were statistically relevant and correlative. Moreover, the bladder volume measured via ultrasonography was larger size, the average volume in the CT scan. But the values that were obtained Dry run and after the CT simulation were not statistically relevant. Drinking a certain amount of water helps a patient maintain his/her bladder volume for a dry run. Even then, it is difficult to maintain the bladder volume for the dry run. Also, whether or not the patients followed the directions for the dry run correctly is important.

  10. Vaginal Motion and Bladder and Rectal Volumes During Pelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy After Hysterectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhingran, Anuja, E-mail: ajhingra@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Salehpour, Mohammad [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sam, Marianne; Levy, Larry; Eifel, Patricia J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate variations in bladder and rectal volume and the position of the vaginal vault during a 5-week course of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after hysterectomy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients were instructed how to fill their bladders before simulation and treatment. These patients underwent computed tomography simulations with full and empty bladders and then underwent rescanning twice weekly during IMRT; patients were asked to have full bladder for treatment. Bladder and rectal volumes and the positions of vaginal fiducial markers were determined, and changes in volume and position were calculated. Results: The mean full and empty bladder volumes at simulation were 480 cc (range, 122-1,052) and 155 cc (range, 49-371), respectively. Bladder volumes varied widely during IMRT: the median difference between the maximum and minimum volumes was 247 cc (range, 96-585). Variations in rectal volume during IMRT were less pronounced. For the 16 patients with vaginal fiducial markers in place throughout IMRT, the median maximum movement of the markers during IMRT was 0.59 cm in the right-left direction (range, 0-0.9), 1.46 cm in the anterior-posterior direction (range, 0.8-2.79), and 1.2 cm in the superior-inferior direction (range, 0.6-2.1). Large variations in rectal or bladder volume frequently correlated with significant displacement of the vaginal apex. Conclusion: Although treatment with a full bladder is usually preferred because of greater sparing of small bowel, our data demonstrate that even with detailed instruction, patients are unable to maintain consistent bladder filling. Variations in organ position during IMRT can result in marked changes in the position of the target volume and the volume of small bowel exposed to high doses of radiation.

  11. Comparison of doses according to change of bladder volume in treatment of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    In the case of radiation therapy for prostate cancer, a balloon infused with a certain amount of air through the anus is used to reduce rectal dose. Because of the reason, radiation therapy for prostate cancer has acquired CBCT for daily image induction. In order to maintain the anatomical structure most similar to the first CT taken before treatment, it is pretreated, but it can not be said to be perfectly consistent. In two actual treatment regimens, the volume of the bladder was measured as 45.82 cc and 63.43 cc, and the equivalent diameter was 4.4 cm and 4.9 cm. As a result of this study, the mean volume of the bladder was estimated to be 56.2 cc, 105.6 cc by 20 CBCT. The mean dose of CBCT was 1.74% and the mean Bladder mean dose was 96.67%. In case B, PTV mean dose was 4.31%, Bladder mean Dose was estimated to be 97.35%. The changes in the volume of the bladder resulted in changes in the dose of PTV and bladder. The correlation coefficient of bladder dose according to the change of bladder volume showed linearity of mean dose R2= -0.94. The correlation coefficient of the PTV dose according to the volume change of the bladder showed linearity of mean dose R2= 0.04. It was found that the dose change of PTV was larger than that of bladder according to the change of bladder volume.

  12. Bladder filling variations during concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients: early experience of bladder volume assessment using ultrasound scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jee Suk; Yoon, Hong In; Cha, Hye Jung; Chang, Yoon Sun; Cho, Yeo Na; Keum, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub

    2013-01-01

    To describe the early experience of analyzing variations and time trends in bladder volume of the rectal cancer patients who received bladder ultrasound scan. We identified 20 consecutive rectal cancer patients who received whole pelvic radiotherapy (RT) and bladder ultrasound scan between February and April 2012. Before simulation and during the entire course of treatment, patients were scanned with portable automated ultrasonic bladder scanner, 5 times consecutively, and the median value was reported. Then a radiation oncologist contoured the bladder inner wall shown on simulation computed tomography (CT) and calculated its volume. Before simulation, the median bladder volume measured using simulation CT and bladder ultrasound scan was 427 mL (range, 74 to 1,172 mL) and 417 mL (range, 147 to 1,245 mL), respectively. There was strong linear correlation (R = 0.93, p < 0.001) between the two results. During the course of treatment, there were wide variations in the bladder volume and every time, measurements were below the baseline with statistical significance (12/16). At 6 weeks after RT, the median volume was reduced by 59.3% to 175 mL. Compared to the baseline, bladder volume was reduced by 38% or 161 mL on average every week for 6 weeks. To our knowledge, this study is the first to prove that there are bladder volume variations and a reduction in bladder volume in rectal cancer patients. Moreover, our results will serve as the basis for implementation of bladder training to patients receiving RT with full bladder.

  13. A randomized trial comparing bladder volume consistency during fractionated prostate radiation therapy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, L.

    2014-01-10

    Organ motion is a contributory factor to the variation in location of the prostate and organs at risk during a course of fractionated prostate radiation therapy (RT). A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed with the primary endpoint to provide evidence-based bladder-filling instructions to achieve a consistent bladder volume (BV) and thus reduce the bladder-related organ motion. The secondary endpoints were to assess the incidence of acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for patients and patients’ satisfaction with the bladder-filling instructions.

  14. Should the bladder be full or empty during gynecologic brachytherapy applications? A bladder dose volume histogram analysis and implications for treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusenbery, Kathryn E.; Lewandowski, Loretta A.; Higgins, Patrick D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic radiation cystitis is an uncommon but debilitating late complication of definitive external beam (EB) and brachytherapy (BT) for cervix cancer. During BT an indwelling catheter is usually placed in the bladder, collapsing it closer to the BT sources. We have devised a method to deliver BT with a full bladder. The difference in bladder dose in the full and empty state were analyzed during definitive EBT and BT for cervix cancer. Methods: The technique of Lyman and Wolbarst (1) were used to evaluate the bladder complication probability for a representative cervix cancer patient undergoing EBT and BT. DVHs were generated from CT scans obtained with a full and empty bladder. Three possible dose prescriptions were analyzed. Results: The DVH for the full and empty situations are shown. With the bladder full, the volume of bladder predicted to receive ≥ 80 Gy was approximately 10% for all dose schemes evaluated, whereas with the bladder empty, up to 50% of the bladder volume received ≥ 80 Gy. Conclusions: A distended bladder improves the DVH. A technique for performing full bladder LDR brachytherapy will be discussed

  15. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of a coating material for an implantable bladder volume sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As the applications for implantable medical devices have increased, the need for biocompatible packaging materials has become important. Recently, we reported an implantable sensor for real-time monitoring of the changes in bladder volume, which necessitated finding a safe coating material for use in bladder tissue. At present, materials like polyethylene glycol (PEG, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and parylene-C are used in biomedical devices or as coating materials, owing to their excellent safety in various medical fields. However, few studies have assessed their safety in bladder tissue, therefore, we evaluated the biocompatibility of PEG, PDMS and parylene-C in the bladder. All three materials turned out to be safe in in vitro tests of live/dead staining and cell viability. In vivo tests with hematoxylin and eosin and immunofluorescence staining with MAC387 showed no persistent inflammation. Therefore, we consider that the three materials are biocompatible in bladder tissue. Despite this safety, however, PEG has biodegradable characteristics and thus is not suitable for use as packaging. We suggest that PDMS and parylene-C can be used as safe coating materials for the implantable bladder volume sensor reported previously.

  16. Associations between volume changes and spatial dose metrics for the urinary bladder during local versus pelvic irradiation for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares-Magaz, Oscar; Moiseenko, Vitali; Hopper, Austin; Pettersson, Niclas Johan; Thor, Maria; Knopp, Rick; Deasy, Joseph O; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Einck, John

    2017-06-01

    Inter-fractional variation in urinary bladder volumes during the course of radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer causes deviations between planned and delivered doses. This study compared planned versus daily cone-beam CT (CBCT)-based spatial bladder dose distributions, for prostate cancer patients receiving local prostate treatment (local treatment) versus prostate including pelvic lymph node irradiation (pelvic treatment). Twenty-seven patients (N = 15 local treatment; N = 12 pelvic treatment) were treated using daily image-guided RT (1.8 Gy@43-45 fx), adhering to a full bladder/empty rectum protocol. For each patient, 9-10 CBCTs were registered to the planning CT, using the clinically applied translations. The urinary bladder was manually segmented on each CBCT, 3 mm inner shells were generated, and semi and quadrant sectors were created using axial/coronal cuts. Planned and delivered DVH metrics were compared across patients and between the two groups of treatment (t-test, p bladder volume variations and the dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the bladder and its sectors were evaluated (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r s ). Bladder volumes varied considerably during RT (coefficient of variation: 16-58%). The population-averaged planned and delivered DVH metrics were not significantly different at any dose level. Larger treatment bladder volumes resulted in increased absolute volume of the posterior/inferior bladder sector receiving intermediate-high doses, in both groups. The superior bladder sector received less dose with larger bladder volumes for local treatments (r s  ± SD: -0.47 ± 0.32), but larger doses for pelvic treatments (r s  ± SD: 0.74 ± 0.24). Substantial bladder volume changes during the treatment course occurred even though patients were treated under a full bladder/daily image-guided protocol. Larger bladder volumes resulted in less bladder wall spared at the posterior-inferior sector, regardless the

  17. High-intensity high-volume swimming induces more robust signaling through PGC-1α and AMPK activation than sprint interval swimming in m. triceps brachii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to test whether high-intensity high-volume training (HIHVT) swimming would induce more robust signaling than sprint interval training (SIT) swimming within the m. triceps brachii due to lower metabolic and oxidation. Nine well-trained swimmers performed the two training procedures on sep...

  18. High-intensity high-volume swimming induces more robust signaling through PGC-1α and AMPK activation than sprint interval swimming in m. triceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco J; Aragón-Vela, Jerónimo; Robles-Sanchez, Cándido; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Hebberecht, Marina; Salmeron, Luis M; Huertas, Jesus R

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to test whether high-intensity high-volume training (HIHVT) swimming would induce more robust signaling than sprint interval training (SIT) swimming within the m. triceps brachii due to lower metabolic and oxidation. Nine well-trained swimmers performed the two training procedures on separate randomized days. Muscle biopsies from m. triceps brachii and blood samples were collected at three different time points: a) before the intervention (pre), b) immediately after the swimming procedures (post) and c) after 3 h of rest (3 h). Hydroperoxides, creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were quantified from blood samples, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and the AMPKpTHR172/AMPK ratio were quantified by Western blot analysis. PGC-1α, sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), superoxide-dismutase 2 (SOD2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels were also quantified. SIT induced a higher release of LDH (p < 0.01 at all time points) and CK (p < 0.01 at post) than HIHVT, but neither SIT nor HIHVT altered systemic hydroperoxides. Additionally, neither SIRT3 nor SOD2 mRNA levels increased, while PGC-1α transcription increased at 3 h after SIT (p < 0.01) and after HIHVT (p < 0.001). However, PGC-1α protein was higher after HIHVT than after SIT (p < 0.05). Moreover, the AMPKpTHR172/AMPK ratio increased at post after SIT (p < 0.05), whereas this effect was delayed after HIHVT as it increased after 3 h (p < 0.05). In addition, VEGF transcription was higher in response to HIHVT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, SIT induces higher muscular stress than HIHVT without increasing systemic oxidation. In addition, HIHVT may induce more robust oxidative adaptations through PGC-1α and AMPK.

  19. 640-slice DVCT multi-dimensionally and dynamically presents changes in bladder volume and urine flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yunshan; Fang, Kewei; Mao, Chongwen; Xiang, Shutian; Wang, Jin; Li, Yingwen

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the application of 640-slice dynamic volume computed tomography (DVCT) to excretory cystography and urethrography. A total of 70 healthy subjects were included in the study. Excretory cystography and urethrography using 640-slice DVCT was conducted to continuously record the motions of the bladder and the proximal female and male urethra. The patients' voiding process was divided into early, early to middle, middle, middle to late, and late voiding phases. The subjects were analyzed using DVCT and conventional CT. The cross-sectional areas of various sections of the male and female urethra were evaluated, and the average urine flow rate was calculated. The 640-slice DVCT technique was used to dynamically observe the urine flow rate and changes in bladder volume at all voiding phases. The urine volume detected by 640-slice DVCT exhibited no significant difference compared with the actual volume, and no significant difference compared with that determined using conventional CT. Furthermore, no significant difference in the volume of the bladder at each phase of the voiding process was detected between 640-slice DVCT and conventional CT. The results indicate that 640-slice DVCT can accurately evaluate the status of the male posterior urethra and female urethra. In conclusion, 640-slice DVCT is able to multi-dimensionally and dynamically present changes in bladder volume and urine flow rate, and could obtain similar results to conventional CT in detecting urine volume, as well as the status of the male posterior urethra and female urethra. PMID:29467853

  20. Shoulder pain in elite swimmers: primarily due to swim-volume-induced supraspinatus tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Mya Lay; Walton, Judie; Linklater, James; Appleyard, Richard; Kirkbride, Brent; Kuah, Donald; Murrell, George A C

    2010-02-01

    Shoulder pain in elite swimmers is common, and its pathogenesis is uncertain. HYPOTHESIS/STUDY DESIGN: The authors used a cross-sectional study design to test Jobe's hypothesis that repetitive forceful swimming leads to shoulder laxity, which in turn leads to impingement pain. Eighty young elite swimmers (13-25 years of age) completed questionnaires on their swimming training, pain and shoulder function. They were given a standardised clinical shoulder examination, and tested for glenohumeral joint laxity using a non-invasive electronic laxometer. 52/80 swimmers also attended for shoulder MRI. 73/80 (91%) swimmers reported shoulder pain. Most (84%) had a positive impingement sign, and 69% of those examined with MRI had supraspinatus tendinopathy. The impingement sign and MRI-determined supraspinatus tendinopathy correlated strongly (r(s)=0.49, ptendinopathy (r(s)=0.37, ptendinopathy (r(s)=0.14, p=0.32). The number of hours swum/week (r(s)=0.39, ptendinopathy. Swimming stroke preference did not. These data indicate: (1) supraspinatus tendinopathy is the major cause of shoulder pain in elite swimmers; (2) this tendinopathy is induced by large amounts of swimming training; and (3) shoulder laxity per se has only a minimal association with shoulder impingement in elite swimmers. These findings are consistent with animal and tissue culture findings which support an alternate hypothesis: the intensity and duration of load to tendon fibres and cells cause tendinopathy, impingement and shoulder pain.

  1. Comparison between prostate volume and intravesical prostatic protrusion in detecting bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A K M S; Alam, A K M K; Habib, A K M K; Rashid, M M; Rahman, H; Islam, A K M A; Jahan, M U

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the correlation of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) and prostate volume (PV) with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). This study was conducted in the department of urology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh, between July 2009 to September 2010. Fifty benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients were included in the study. Their evaluation consisted of history along with International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), digital rectal examination (DRE), transabdominal ultrasonography to measure prostate volume, intravesical prostatic protrusion & post voidal residual (PVR) urine and pressure-flow studies to detect bladder outflow obstruction (BOO). Statistical analysis included Unpaired 't' test, Chi-square test and Spearman's Rank correlation test. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the correlation of PV and IPP with BOO. Mean prostate volume was significantly larger in bladder outlet obstructed patients (PProstate volume & intravesical prostatic protrusion measured through transabdominal ultrasonography are noninvasive and accessible method that significantly correlates with bladder outlet obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and the correlation of IPP is much more stronger than that of prostate volume.

  2. Bladder volume at onset of vesicoureteral reflux is an independent risk factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Siobhan E; Arlen, Angela M; Storm, Douglas W; Kieran, Kathleen; Cooper, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Improved identification of children with vesicoureteral reflux at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infection may impact management decisions. We hypothesized that reflux occurring earlier during bladder filling increases the duration of exposure of the kidneys to bacteria, and, therefore, increases the risk of pyelonephritis. Children with vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram data were identified. Bladder volume at onset of reflux was normalized for age. Demographics, reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction and breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections were assessed. Median followup was 24 months (IQR 12 to 52). A total of 208 girls and 47 boys were analyzed with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 3.1 ± 2.6 years. On univariate analysis history of febrile urinary tract infection (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-2.85, p = 0.01), dilating vesicoureteral reflux (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.05-2.42, p = 0.03) and bladder-bowel dysfunction (HR 1.66, 95% CI 0.99-2.75, p = 0.05) were associated with an increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection. Median bladder volume at onset of reflux in children with breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection was significantly less (33.1%) than in those without infection (49.5%, p = 0.003). Reflux onset at 35% predicted bladder capacity or less was associated with a significantly increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection on multivariate analysis (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05-2.38, p = 0.03). Children with early filling vesicoureteral reflux are at increased risk for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection independent of reflux grade. Bladder volume at onset of reflux should be recorded during cystograms since it provides additional prognostic information about the risk of pyelonephritis and resolution, and may assist with counseling and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  3. New exogenous stages of oocysts, sporocysts, and sporozoites of Goussia cichlidarum Landsberg and Paperna 1985 (Sporozoa: Coccidia) and impact of endogenous stages on the swim bladder of tilapias in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mansy, Amina

    2008-01-01

    Obviously, the present study reports the coccidian parasite so-called Goussia cichlidarum for the first time in Egypt. Altogether, 25 exogenous stages were clearly distinguished from specimens of naturally infected fishes of Oreochromis niloticus, O. auraeus, and Tilapia zillii from different locations. The total prevalence of infection was about 41%. Mostly, infected fish grossly seemed with a healthy body, although severe lesions have been detected microscopically in massive infection. Portions of thick wall swim bladder have been placed in vitro. The released parasitic stages have been photographed, sketched, measured, described, and compared with previously described species. Oocysts, sporocysts, and sporozoites have also been differentiated morphologically and morphometrically. Maturity stages of sporozoites containing sporocysts within either an oocyst or those released and sporulated outside the oocyst were considerably discernible. In addition, endogenous stages have also been investigated in histological sections included gamonts, merozoites, oocysts, and different stages of sporozoites.

  4. Correlation between cystometric volumes, ATP release, and pH in women with overactive bladder versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Mansfield, Kylie J; Allen, Wendy; Millard, Richard J; Burcher, Elizabeth; Moore, Kate H

    2013-09-01

    In the bladder, ATP is an important signaling molecule, which is released by bladder stretch and acid. We hypothesized that ATP might play a unique role in patients with OAB, characterized by low bladder volumes at first desire to void (FDV) and maximal cystometric capacity (MCC) and symptoms of frequency/urgency [mild bladder pain syndrome (BPS)]. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between ATP release and urodynamic parameters, as well as urine pH, in OAB patients. Routine cystometry was performed in a consecutive series of 249 women. The voided urodynamic fluid (VUF) was stored at -20°C and ATP measured using bioluminescence. Catheter urine was collected for pH measurement. Correlations between two factors were tested by linear regression analysis. Subjects with urinary tract infection, voiding dysfunction, and detrusor overactivity (DO) were excluded. For OAB patients (n = 25), there was an inverse correlation between ATP concentration in VUF and FDV (r(2)  = 0.25; P = 0.01) but not MCC. This was not seen in controls (n = 69). In OAB, but not controls, there was a significant reverse correlation (r(2)  = 0.16; P = 0.047) between ATP in VUF and urine pH. Urine pH was not significantly correlated with MCC in either group. In OAB patients, ATP is an important factor for initial perception of need to urinate (as indicated by FDV). This is similar to our previous findings in patients with DO, suggesting that ATP may mediate initial afferent sensation in patients with bladder dysfunctions characterized by urgency. ATP release was also strongly affected by urine pH, in patients with OAB (at FDV). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An improved distance-to-dose correlation for predicting bladder and rectum dose-volumes in knowledge-based VMAT planning for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Phillip D. H.; Carver, Robert L.; Fontenot, Jonas D.

    2018-01-01

    The overlap volume histogram (OVH) is an anatomical metric commonly used to quantify the geometric relationship between an organ at risk (OAR) and target volume when predicting expected dose-volumes in knowledge-based planning (KBP). This work investigated the influence of additional variables contributing to variations in the assumed linear DVH-OVH correlation for the bladder and rectum in VMAT plans of prostate patients, with the goal of increasing prediction accuracy and achievability of knowledge-based planning methods. VMAT plans were retrospectively generated for 124 prostate patients using multi-criteria optimization. DVHs quantified patient dosimetric data while OVHs quantified patient anatomical information. The DVH-OVH correlations were calculated for fractional bladder and rectum volumes of 30, 50, 65, and 80%. Correlations between potential influencing factors and dose were quantified using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (R). Factors analyzed included the derivative of the OVH, prescribed dose, PTV volume, bladder volume, rectum volume, and in-field OAR volume. Out of the selected factors, only the in-field bladder volume (mean R  =  0.86) showed a strong correlation with bladder doses. Similarly, only the in-field rectal volume (mean R  =  0.76) showed a strong correlation with rectal doses. Therefore, an OVH formalism accounting for in-field OAR volumes was developed to determine the extent to which it improved the DVH-OVH correlation. Including the in-field factor improved the DVH-OVH correlation, with the mean R values over the fractional volumes studied improving from  -0.79 to  -0.85 and  -0.82 to  -0.86 for the bladder and rectum, respectively. A re-planning study was performed on 31 randomly selected database patients to verify the increased accuracy of KBP dose predictions by accounting for bladder and rectum volume within treatment fields. The in-field OVH led to significantly more precise

  6. Swimming physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmér, I

    1992-05-01

    Swimming takes place in a medium, that presents different gravitational and resistive forces, respiratory conditions and thermal stress compared to air. The energy cost of propulsion in swimming is high, but a considerable reduction occurs at a given velocity as result of regular swim training. In medley swimmers the energy cost is lowest for front crawl, followed by backstroke, butterfly and breast-stroke. Cardiac output is probably not limiting for performance since swimmers easily achieve higher values during running. Maximal heart rate, however, is lowered by approx. 10 beats/min during swimming compared to running. Most likely active muscle mass is smaller and rate of power production lesser in swimming. Local factors, such as peripheral circulation, capillary density, perfusion pressure and metabolic capacity of active muscles, are important determinants of the power production capacity and emphasize the role of swim specific training movements. Improved swimming technique and efficiency are likely to explain much of the continuous progress in performance. Rational principles based on improved understanding of the biomechanics and physiology of swimming should be guidelines for swimmers and coaches in their efforts to explore the limits of human performance.

  7. Patient preferences for clean intermittent catheterisation and transurethral indwelling catheterisation for treatment of abnormal post-void residual bladder volume after vaginal prolapse surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, R. A.; Nieuwkerk, P. T.; Burger, M. P.; Emanuel, M. H.; Roovers, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    To determine patient preferences for clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC) relative to transurethral indwelling catheterisation (TIC) as the treatment of abnormal post-void residual bladder volume (PVR) following vaginal prolapse surgery. Scenario-based preference assessment during face-to-face

  8. When treating prostate cancer with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy the impact of bladder filling status on the volume and integral dose distribution of the target and critical organs should be kept in mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Li Yexiong; Guang Ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), we tried to prospectively assess the impact of the filling status of bladder on the volume and the integral dose distribution to the target and surrounding critical organs. Methods: Ten patients with stage T1-T2N0M0 prostate cancer were studied. All patients received 3DCRT to the prostate and inferior seminal vesicle. One hour before CT simulation, the bladder was first voided, and then 400 ml of oral contrast solution was given at every half hour before the CT scan. Urethral catheterization was used for voiding or distending the bladder. When distending the bladder, 250-300 ml of contrast was injected into the bladder with the patient fixed at the supine position. Two sets of transverse images were taken for the whole pelvis in empty and full bladder. After the target and critical organs (bladder, rectum, pelvic small bowel, and femoral heads) were contoured, a treatment plan of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy was made using the CMS Focus-Xio treatment planning system. The volume and mean doses of CTV, PTV, rectum, bladder, femoral heads, and small bowel with the bladder empty and full were evaluated. The percentage of volume which received 50 Gy in the rectum and bladder, 30 Gy in the femoral heads, and the maximal dose to the pelvic small bowel were also assessed . The variability of volume and dose distribution in these targets or organs was compared between the empty and full bladder status. Results: Comparing to the bladder empty status, full bladder led to a mean increase of 499% in the bladder volume, (67±9) ml and (336±48) ml (P=0.000), respectively. No volume change was found in the CTV, PTV, rectum, femoral heads and pel- vic small bowel(P=0.153,0.501,0.929,0.771,0.081). The mean dose to the bladder in full status was only 35% of that in empty status, (1501±201 ) cGy and (4267±216) cGy(P =0.000), respectively. The mean dose to the pelvic small

  9. Bladder Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  10. Neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your bladder at all Have signs of a bladder infection (fever, burning when you urinate, frequent urination) Urinate small amounts, frequently Alternative Names Neurogenic detrusor overactivity; NDO; Neurogenic bladder sphincter dysfunction; NBSD ...

  11. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  12. Bladder Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  13. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 1. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming - Lift-based Propulsion. Jaywant H Arakeri. General Article Volume 14 Issue 1 January 2009 pp 32-46. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sithamparam, S; Ahmad, R; Sabarudin, A; Othman, Z; Ismail, M

    2017-01-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients. (paper)

  15. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithamparam, S.; Ahmad, R.; Sabarudin, A.; Othman, Z.; Ismail, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients.

  16. External Validation and Optimization of International Consensus Clinical Target Volumes for Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Abhinav V. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Christodouleas, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wu, Tianming [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Smith, Norman D.; Steinberg, Gary D. [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Liauw, Stanley L., E-mail: sliauw@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: International consensus (IC) clinical target volumes (CTVs) have been proposed to standardize radiation field design in the treatment of patients at high risk of locoregional failure (LRF) after radical cystectomy. The purpose of this study was to externally validate the IC CTVs in a cohort of postsurgical patients followed up for LRF and identify revisions that might improve the IC CTVs' performance. Methods and Materials: Among 334 patients with pT3 to pT4 bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy, LRF developed in 58 (17%), of whom 52 had computed tomography scans available for review. Images with LRF were exported into a treatment planning system, and IC CTVs were contoured and evaluated for adequacy of coverage of each LRF with respect to both the patient and each of 6 pelvic subsites: common iliac (CI) region, obturator region (OR), external and internal iliac region, presacral region, cystectomy bed, or other pelvic site. Revisions to the IC contours were proposed based on the findings. Results: Of the 52 patients with documented LRF, 13 (25%) had LRFs that were outside of the IC CTV involving 17 pelvic subsites: 5 near the CI CTV, 5 near the OR CTV, 1 near the external and internal iliac region, and 6 near the cystectomy bed. The 5 CI failures were located superior to the CTV, and the 5 OR failures were located medial to the CTV. Increasing the superior boundary of the CI to a vessel-based definition of the aortic bifurcation, as well as increasing the medial extension of the OR by an additional 9 mm, decreased the number of patients with LRF outside of the IC CTV to 7 (13%). Conclusions: Modified IC CTVs inclusive of a slight adjustment superiorly for the CI region and medially for the OR may reduce the risk of pelvic failure in patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy.

  17. Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder with Cone Beam CT Scan: Use of Individualized Internal Target Volumes for a Single Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Saini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While planning radiation therapy (RT for a carcinoma of the urinary bladder (CaUB, the intra-fractional variation of the urinary bladder (UB volume due to filling-up needs to be accounted for. This internal target volume (ITV is obtained by adding internal margins (IM to the contoured bladder. This study was planned to propose a method of acquiring individualized ITVs for each patient and to verify their reproducibility. Methods: One patient with CaUB underwent simulation with the proposed ‘bladder protocol’. After immobilization, a planning CT scan on empty bladder was done. He was then given 300 ml of water to drink and the time (T was noted. Planning CT scans were performed after 20 min (T+20, 30 min (T+30 and 40 min (T+40. The CT scan at T+20 was co-registered with the T+30 and T+40 scans. The bladder volumes at 20, 30 and 40 min were then contoured as CTV20, CTV30 and CTV40 to obtain an individualized ITV for our patient. For daily treatment, he was instructed to drink water as above, and the time was noted; treatment was started after 20 min. Daily pre- and post-treatment cone beam CT (CBCT scans were done. The bladder visualized on the pre-treatment CBCT scan was compared with CTV20 and on the post-treatment CBCT scan with CTV30. Results: In total, there were 65 CBCT scans (36 pre- and 29 post-treatment. Individualized ITVs were found to be reproducible in 93.85% of all instances and fell outside in 4 instances. Conclusions: The proposed bladder protocol can yield a reproducible estimation of the ITV during treatment; this can obviate the need for taking standard IMs.

  18. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is

  19. Urodynamic Features and Significant Predictors of Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Patients With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Small Prostate Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minyong; Kim, Myong; Choo, Min Soo; Paick, Jae-Seung; Oh, Seung-June

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the clinical and urodynamic features of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) according to their prostate size. We analyzed 2039 LUTS/BPH patients who underwent urodynamic study between October 2004 and August 2013. We divided the patients into three groups according to their prostate size: small (≤30 mL), moderately enlarged (31-80 mL), and large prostate (≥81 mL) groups. We compared the groups regarding age, International Prostatic Symptom Score, maximal flow rate (Qmax), postvoided residual (PVR), serum prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume measured by ultrasonography, and urodynamic findings. Patients with a small prostate had better urodynamic outcomes than those with larger prostates in overall population. Although the total prostate volume significantly correlated with the bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) index (r  =  0.51), BOO patients with a small prostate had similar Qmax, higher PVR, and lower voiding efficiency, compared to those with larger prostates. Moreover, urodynamic parameters indicating bladder abnormalities, including low compliance and involuntary detrusor contraction positivity, were similar among the groups in BOO patients. A higher proportion of detrusor underactivity was also observed in the small prostate group in BOO patients. Finally, when adjusting for potential confounding variables, we identified serum prostate-specific antigen levels (odds ratio, 1.34) and Qmax (odds ratio, 0.77) as significant predictors for BOO in LUTS/BPH patients with a small prostate. BOO patients with a small prostate showed higher PVR and poor voiding efficiency, as well as similar urodynamic bladder abnormalities, compared to those with moderately enlarged and large prostates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of dose volume histogram parameters to estimate late bladder and rectum complications after high-dose (70-78 Gy) conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, L.J.; Brink, M. van den; Bruce, A.; Gras, L.; Velde, A. te; Lebesque, J.V.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) parameters can be used to identify risk groups for developing late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) complications after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, and to examine the effect of using different morbidity scoring systems on the results of these analyses. Materials and Methods: DVH parameters were analyzed for 130 patients with localized prostate cancer, treated with conformal radiotherapy in a dose-escalating protocol (70-78 Gy, 2 Gy per fraction). The incidence of late (> 6 months) GI and GU complications was scored based on questionnaires and classified using the RTOG/EORTC and the SOMA/LENT scoring system. Moreover, patients were classified as being a rectal bleeder or no rectal bleeder and a distinction was made between non-severe and severe (requiring one or more laser treatments) rectal bleeding. The median follow-up time was 22 months. It was investigated whether the relative and absolute rectal wall volumes, irradiated to various dose levels (≥ 60 Gy, ≥ 65 Gy, ≥ 70 Gy and ≥ 75 Gy) were correlated with the observed actuarial incidences of GI complications. First, the analysis was performed using volume as a continuous variable. Subsequently, for each dose level in the DVH the rectal wall volumes were dichotomized using different volumes as cut-off levels. Twenty cut-off levels were tested on their ability to discriminate between high and low risk for developing GI complications (Fig.). The relationship between bladder wall volumes irradiated to various dose levels and observed actuarial GU complications was investigated using the absolute bladder wall volumes, measured as a continuous variable. For both GI and GU complications, the role of the prescribed radiation dose and the maximum radiation dose in the rectal and bladder wall was analyzed as well. Results: None of the DVH parameters of the rectal wall was significantly correlated with the actuarial incidences of

  1. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun KIR

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000: 103-104

  2. International Prostatic Symptom Score-voiding/storage subscore ratio in association with total prostatic volume and maximum flow rate is diagnostic of bladder outlet-related lower urinary tract dysfunction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hong Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive values of the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS-T and voiding to storage subscore ratio (IPSS-V/S in association with total prostate volume (TPV and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax in the diagnosis of bladder outlet-related lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. METHODS: A total of 298 men with LUTS were enrolled. Video-urodynamic studies were used to determine the causes of LUTS. Differences in IPSS-T, IPSS-V/S ratio, TPV and Qmax between patients with bladder outlet-related LUTD and bladder-related LUTD were analyzed. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV for bladder outlet-related LUTD were calculated using these parameters. RESULTS: Of the 298 men, bladder outlet-related LUTD was diagnosed in 167 (56%. We found that IPSS-V/S ratio was significantly higher among those patients with bladder outlet-related LUTD than patients with bladder-related LUTD (2.28±2.25 vs. 0.90±0.88, p1 or >2 was factored into the equation instead of IPSS-T, PPV were 91.4% and 97.3%, respectively, and NPV were 54.8% and 49.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of IPSS-T with TPV and Qmax increases the PPV of bladder outlet-related LUTD. Furthermore, including IPSS-V/S>1 or >2 into the equation results in a higher PPV than IPSS-T. IPSS-V/S>1 is a stronger predictor of bladder outlet-related LUTD than IPSS-T.

  3. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Marcel R; van Lin, Emile N J Th; van der Vight, Lisette P; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Visser, Andries G

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 SD = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations.

  4. Estimation of the incidence of late bladder and rectum complications after high-dose (70-78 Gy) conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, using dose-volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, Liesbeth J.; Brink, Mandy van den; Bruce, Allison M.; Shouman, Tarek; Gras, Luuk; Velde, Annet te; Lebesque, Joos V.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH) parameters can be used to identify risk groups for developing late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) complications after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: DVH parameters were analyzed for 130 patients with localized prostate cancer, treated with conformal radiotherapy in a dose-escalating protocol (70-78 Gy, 2 Gy per fraction). The incidence of late (>6 months) GI and GU complications was classified using the RTOG/EORTC and the SOMA/LENT scoring system. In addition, GI complications were divided in nonsevere and severe (requiring one or more laser treatments or blood transfusions) rectal bleeding. The median follow-up time was 24 months. We investigated whether rectal and bladder wall volumes, irradiated to various dose levels, correlated with the observed actuarial incidences of GI and GU complications, using volume as a continuous variable. Subsequently, for each dose level in the DVH, the rectal wall volumes were dichotomized using different volumes as cutoff levels. The impact of the total radiation dose, and the maximum radiation dose in the rectal and bladder wall was analyzed as well. Results: The actuarial incidence at 2 years for GI complications ≥Grade II was 14% (RTOG/EORTC) or 20% (SOMA/LENT); for GU complications ≥Grade III 8% (RTOG/EORTC) or 21% (SOMA/LENT). Neither for GI complications ≥Grade II (RTOG/EORTC or SOMA/LENT), nor for GU complications ≥Grade III (RTOG/EORTC or SOMA/LENT), was a significant correlation found between any of the DVH parameters and the actuarial incidence of complications. For severe rectal bleeding (actuarial incidence at 2 years 3%), four consecutive volume cutoff levels were found, which significantly discriminated between high and low risk. A trend was observed that a total radiation dose ≥ 74 Gy (or a maximum radiation dose in the rectal wall >75 Gy) resulted in a higher incidence of severe rectal bleeding (p

  5. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  6. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in the prognostic evaluation of primary flat carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Jacobsen, F

    1991-01-01

    bladder biopsies from 22 patients with primary flat carcinoma in situ (Bergkvist grades III-IV). On average, nuclear vv was 77 microns 3 in nine biopsies with morphologically normal urothelium, 292 microns 3 in 56 isolated primary lesions and 266 microns 3 in lesions of luminal urothelium in 13 biopsies...... carcinoma in situ (nuclear vv = 261 microns 3), the survival was the same in patients with nuclear vv above and below the cut-off point (2P = 0.16). However, the survival curves showed a tendency to differ in the first 2-8 years of observation. Stereological estimates of nuclear vv provide objective...

  7. Swimming pool granuloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001357.htm Swimming pool granuloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin ...

  8. ARC Code TI: Swim

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Swim is a software information service for the grid built on top of Pour, which is an information service framework developed at NASA. Swim provides true software...

  9. Diarrhea and Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pool What to Do if You Have Diarrhea Diarrhea and Swimming Diarrhea and swimming don’t mix! ... small amount of pool water to become infected. Diarrhea and Spreading Illness at the Pool Infectious diarrhea ...

  10. Laryngoscopy during swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil S; Swanton, Laura L; van van Someren, Ken

    2017-01-01

    that precipitates their symptoms. This report provides the first description of the feasibility of performing continuous laryngoscopy during exercise in a swimming environment. The report describes the methodology and safety of the use of continuous laryngoscopy while swimming. Laryngoscope, 2017....

  11. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bladder cancer care at Mayo Clinic Symptoms Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include: Blood in urine (hematuria) Painful urination Pelvic pain If you have hematuria, your urine may appear bright red or cola colored. Sometimes, urine may not look any different, ...

  12. Volume and hormonal effects for acute side effects of rectum and bladder during conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, Stephanie T.H.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Slot, Annerie; Tabak, Hans; Koper, Peter C.M.; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify dosimetric variables predictive of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity and to determine whether hormonal therapy (HT) is independently associated with acute GI and GU toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with conformal radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This analysis was performed on 336 patients participating in a multicenter (four hospitals) randomized trial comparing 68 Gy and 78 Gy. The clinical target volume consisted of the prostate with or without the seminal vesicles, depending on the risk of seminal vesicle involvement. The margin from the clinical target volume to the planning target volume was 1 cm. For these patients, the treatment plan for a total dose of 68 Gy was used, because nearly all toxicity appeared before the onset of the 10-Gy boost. Acute toxicity ( 3 months before RT). Results: Acute GI toxicity Grade 2 or worse was seen in 46% of the patients. Patients with long-term neoadjuvant HT experienced less Grade 2 or worse toxicity (27%) compared with those receiving short-term neoadjuvant HT (50%) and no HT (50%). The volumes of the prostate and seminal vesicles were significantly smaller in both groups receiving neoadjuvant HT compared with those receiving no HT. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, including the two statistically significant clinical variables neoadjuvant HT and hospital, a volume effect was found for the relative, as well as absolute, rectal wall volumes exposed to intermediate and high doses. Of all the length parameters, the relative rectal length irradiated to doses of ≥5 Gy and ≥30 Gy and absolute lengths receiving ≥5-15 and 30 Gy were significant. Acute GU toxicity Grade 2 or worse was reported in 56% of cases. For patients with pretreatment GU symptoms, the rate was 93%. The use of short-term and long-term neoadjuvant HT resulted in more GU toxicity (73% and 71%) compared with no HT (50%). In multivariate analysis, containing the variables

  13. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  14. Adaptive radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pos, Floris J.; Hulshof, Maarten; Lebesque, Joos; Lotz, Heidi; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Moonen, Luc; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) in combination with a partial bladder irradiation. Twenty-one patients with solitary T1-T4 N0M0 bladder cancer were treated to the bladder tumor + 2 cm margin planning target volume (PTV(CONV)). During the first treatment week, five daily

  15. Knee pain in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeo, S A

    1999-04-01

    The high volume of training in competitive swimming results in cumulative overload injuries. Knee pain ranks second to shoulder pain as a common complaint in competitive swimmers. Most knee pain occurs on the medial side of the knee and, most commonly, in breaststroke swimmers; however, knee pain may accompany all strokes. This article reviews the incidence of knee pain, the biomechanic and anatomic factors predisposing to injury, specific injury patterns, injury diagnosis, and the treatment and prevention of injury to the knee in swimmers.

  16. [Bladder lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, C; Fall, P A; Ndoye, A; Diao, B; Diallo, A B; Gueye, S M; Ba, M; Diagne, B A

    2001-01-01

    to study the particularities of the bladder lithiasis in our countries. This was a retrospective study of 94 cases (62 men and 32 women) of bladder lithiasis over a period of 13 years. The lithogenic factors; clinic, paraclinic and therapeutic aspects have been studied. Morphoconstitutional analysis has been carded out in collaboration with Cristal Laboratory (St Cloud hospital center in France). mean age was 24.2+/-20.7 years old. The principals mains of consultation were: dysuria (n =36), mictionnal pain (n = 28), hematuria (n = 15). Facilitating factors have been found in 27% of cases. In 10 cases, there was an association bladdder lithiasis and bladdder-vaginal fistula. Radiologic test was dominated by intraveinous urographic (53.19 of cases). The metabolic test showed hypercalcemia and cristalluria in 2 cases. In 7,45 % of cases, we have founding a renal failure. An urinary tract infection have been noticed in 42 % of cases. Open surgery has been the main treatement (96 %) associating in 15 % of cases the treatement of an uropathy. In one case the bladder lithiasis weighed 1120 g. The morphologic and spectrophotometric analysis of the lithiasis have been achieved in 13 % of cases showing the predominance of struvite. the bladder lithiasis is still common in our countries; it could be good for us to access endoorporeals and extracorporeals therapeutic equipements in orderto reduce the indications of open surgery.

  17. Swimming Behavior of Individual Zooplankters During Night-Time Foraging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGehee, Duncan

    1998-01-01

    Amatzia Genin, Jules Jaffe, Duncan McGehee developed a method for automatically tracking individual plankters swimming through the imaging volume, and applied the method to track approximately 280,000 animals...

  18. Observations on side-swimming rainbow trout in water recirculation aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Christopher; Davidson, John; Kinman, Christin; Kenney, P Brett; Bæverfjord, Grete; Summerfelt, Steven

    2014-12-01

    During a controlled 6-month study using six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRASs), it was observed that Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in all WRASs exhibited a higher-than-normal prevalence of side swimming (i.e., controlled, forward swimming but with misaligned orientation such that the fish's sagittal axis is approximately parallel to the horizontal plane). To further our understanding of this abnormality, a substudy was conducted wherein side swimmers and normally swimming fish were selectively sampled from each WRAS and growth performance (length, weight), processing attributes (fillet yield, visceral index, ventrum [i.e., thickness of the ventral "belly flap"] index), blood gas and chemistry parameters, and swim bladder morphology and positioning were compared. Side swimmers were found to be significantly smaller in length and weight and had less fillet yield but higher ventrum indices. Whole-blood analyses demonstrated that, among other things, side swimmers had significantly lower whole-blood pH and higher Pco2. Side swimmers typically exhibited swim bladder malformations, although the positive predictive value of this subjective assessment was only 73%. Overall, this study found several anatomical and physiological differences between side-swimming and normally swimming Rainbow Trout. Given the reduced weight and fillet yield of market-age side swimmers, producers would benefit from additional research to reduce side-swimming prevalence in their fish stocks.

  19. Pathogenesis of reduced or increased bladder sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoyama, Kuniko; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Chiharu; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamanishi, Tomonori; Takahashi, Osamu; Sugiyama, Megumi; Kishi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Emina

    2011-03-01

    Pathogenesis of reduced or increased bladder sensation is not well known. Hence, we systematically investigated the frequency of reduced or increased bladder sensation in neurologic/mental diseases. We analyzed 911 patients who were referred from within our hospital. Data registries included a diagnosis, a lower urinary tract symptom questionnaire, a urodynamic study, and neurological examinations. Reduced bladder sensation is defined as bladder volume at the first sensation >300 ml. Increased bladder sensation is defined as bladder volume at the first sensation sensation (33.3-43.8% in diabetic neuropathy, etc.). Myelopathies are the second most common cause (17.4-25.0% in multiple sclerosis, etc.). Less common is brain diseases (9.6% in multiple system atrophy, etc.). In contrast, myelopathies are the most common cause of increased bladder sensation without DO (25.0-40.0% in spinal forms of systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, etc.). Neuropathies are the second most common (17.3-22.2% in post-pelvic organ surgery, diabetic neuropathy, etc.). Less common is brain/mental diseases (20.0% in psychogenic bladder dysfunction, 8.1% in Parkinson's disease, etc.). The present study revealed that neuropathies are the most common cause of reduced bladder sensation in neurologic/mental diseases. Increased bladder sensation without DO occurs mainly in peripheral and central sensory pathway lesions, as well as in basal ganglia lesions and psychogenic bladder dysfunction. Reduced and increased bladder sensation should be a major treatment target for maximizing patients' quality of life. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2016-01-01

    recovery periods and LIT swam continuously for 1 h at low intensity (average HR = 73 ± 3 % HRmax). Fasting blood samples were taken and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: After HIT, resting plasma [insulin] was lowered (17 ± 34 %; P ... adhesion molecule 1 had decreased (P intermittent swimming is an effective and time-efficient training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function...

  1. Assessment of Bladder Motion for Clinical Radiotherapy Practice Using Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBain, Catherine A.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Buckley, David L.; Sykes, Jonathan S.; Green, Melanie M.; Cowan, Richard A.; Hutchinson, Charles E.; Moore, Christopher J.; Price, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Organ motion is recognized as the principal source of inaccuracy in bladder radiotherapy (RT), but there is currently little information on intrafraction bladder motion. Methods and Materials: We used cine-magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) to study bladder motion relevant to intrafraction RT delivery. On two occasions, a 28 minute cine-MRI sequence was acquired from 10 bladder cancer patients and 5 control participants immediately after bladder emptying, after abstinence from drinking for the preceding hour. From the resulting cine sequences, bladder motion was subjectively assessed. To quantify bladder motion, the bladder was contoured in imaging volume sets at 0, 14, and 28 min to measure changes to bladder volumes, wall displacements, and center of gravity (COG) over time. Results: The dominant source of bladder motion during imaging was bladder filling (up to 101% volume increase); rectal and small bowel movements were transient, with minimal impact. Bladder volume changes were similar for all participants. However for bladder cancer patients, wall displacements were larger (up to 58 mm), less symmetrical, and more variable compared with nondiseased control bladders. Conclusions: Significant and individualized intrafraction bladder wall displacements may occur during bladder RT delivery. This important source of inaccuracy should be incorporated into treatment planning and verification.

  2. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to ...

  3. Environmental calcium and variation in yolk sac size influence swimming performance in larval lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deslauriers, David; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Genz, Janet

    2018-01-01

    , because the yolk sac is likely to affect drag forces during swimming. Testing swimming performance of larval A. fulvescens reared in four different calcium treatments spanning the range of 4-132 mg l-1 [Ca2+], this study found no treatment effects on the sprint swimming speed. A novel test of volitional...... environmental calcium concentrations are declining, partly due to anthropogenic activity. As calcium is important for muscle contraction and fatigue resistance, declining calcium levels could constrain swimming performance. Similarly, swimming performance could be influenced by variation in yolk sac volume...... swimming performance, however, revealed reduced swimming performance in the low calcium environment. Specifically, volitionally swimming larvae covered a shorter distance before swimming cessation in the low calcium environment compared to the other treatments. Moreover, sprint swimming speed in larvae...

  4. Cystocele (Prolapsed Bladder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bladder Control Problems in Women (Urinary Incontinence) Kegel Exercises Cystocele (Prolapsed Bladder) Cystocele (Prolapsed Bladder) What ... a vaginal pessary, or surgery. Pelvic floor, or Kegel, exercises involve strengthening pelvic floor muscles. Strong pelvic ...

  5. Quality versus Quantity Debate in Swimming: Perceptions and Training Practices of Expert Swimming Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Frank J; Comyns, Thomas M; Warrington, Giles D

    2017-06-01

    The debate over low-volume, high-intensity training versus high-volume, low-intensity training, commonly known as Quality versus Quantity, respectively, is a frequent topic of discussion among swimming coaches and academics. The aim of this study was to explore expert coaches' perceptions of quality and quantity coaching philosophies in competitive swimming and to investigate their current training practices. A purposeful sample of 11 expert swimming coaches was recruited for this study. The study was a mixed methods design and involved each coach participating in 1 semi-structured interview and completing 1 closed-ended questionnaire. The main findings of this study were that coaches felt quality training programmes would lead to short term results for youth swimmers, but were in many cases more appropriate for senior swimmers. The coaches suggested that quantity training programmes built an aerobic base for youth swimmers, promoted technical development through a focus on slower swimming and helped to enhance recovery from training or competition. However, the coaches continuously suggested that quantity training programmes must be performed with good technique and they felt this was a misunderstood element. This study was a critical step towards gaining a richer and broader understanding on the debate over Quality versus Quantity training from an expert swimming coaches' perspective which was not currently available in the research literature.

  6. Quality Versus Quantity Debate in Swimming: Perceptions and Training Practices of Expert Swimming Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent Frank J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate over low-volume, high-intensity training versus high-volume, low-intensity training, commonly known as Quality versus Quantity, respectively, is a frequent topic of discussion among swimming coaches and academics. The aim of this study was to explore expert coaches’ perceptions of quality and quantity coaching philosophies in competitive swimming and to investigate their current training practices. A purposeful sample of 11 expert swimming coaches was recruited for this study. The study was a mixed methods design and involved each coach participating in 1 semi-structured interview and completing 1 closed-ended questionnaire. The main findings of this study were that coaches felt quality training programmes would lead to short term results for youth swimmers, but were in many cases more appropriate for senior swimmers. The coaches suggested that quantity training programmes built an aerobic base for youth swimmers, promoted technical development through a focus on slower swimming and helped to enhance recovery from training or competition. However, the coaches continuously suggested that quantity training programmes must be performed with good technique and they felt this was a misunderstood element. This study was a critical step towards gaining a richer and broader understanding on the debate over Quality versus Quantity training from an expert swimming coaches’ perspective which was not currently available in the research literature.

  7. Geneva 24 hours swim

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  8. Geneva 24 Hours Swim

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  9. A bladder diverticulum model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Süleyman; Kuzdan, Özgür; Özaydın, Seyithan; Başdaş, Cemile Beşik; Özaydın, İpek; Erdoğan, Cankat; Sander, Serdar

    2016-10-01

    Shuttling of some of the bladder volume into the bladder diverticulum (BD) can cause urinary retention, lower urinary tract dysfunction, infection, and stone formation. This experimental study is the first to create a rabbit BD to study micturition physiology (urodynamics and pathology) that mimics clinical findings. The study included 16 New Zealand adult male rabbits in the BD group and 16 sham-operated controls. BD creation consisted of a lower midline laparotomy and bladder entry via the spacing between the detrusor muscle fibers and the mucosa, posterolaterally from the bladder wall. The detrusor was excised to provide a mucosal prolapsus, creating a narrow BD neck (Figure). The sham group underwent bladder exposure with a midline incision. All rabbits underwent urodynamic study preoperatively and postoperatively, consisting of postmicturition residue (PMR), maximum bladder capacity (MBC), voiding detrusor pressure (VPdet), filling detrusor pressure (FPdet), compliance, and urine flow (Qflow). The animals were then sacrificed and their bladders assessed for pathology and stone formation. Preoperative MBC, Pdet, and Qmax were within reference ranges. No animals had PMR or urinary tract infections (UTIs). The BD group showed urodynamic and pathologic bladder changes, including decreased (28%) cystometric bladder capacity and compliance (Sham: 26.8 ± 0.4; BD: 4.46 ± 1.08, p = 0.0001) and increased post-void residual PMR (8.3 ± 2.4 mL). Pathology revealed increased bladder detrusor thickness correlated with urodynamic findings of increased filling detrusor pressures (Sham: 1.58 ± 0.2; BD: 4.89 ± 0.93, p = 0.0001). Urodynamics revealed intermittent BD bladder contraction during the filling phases. Eight BD group rabbits had UTIs; five had stone formation (4-9 mm). In the literature, it has not been determined whether lower urinary tract disorders (LUTD) could cause diverticula, or if a congenital diverticula could be reason for LUTD. Anatomical

  10. The paediatric neuropathic bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A neurogenic bladder can be defined as a dysfunctinal urinary bladder caused by disease of the central nervous system or peripheral nerves involved in the control of micturition (urination). In pathophysiological terms, a neurogenic bladder is caused by a spinal reflex arc that occurs when the bladder becomes autonomous.

  11. 2007 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  12. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  13. 2006 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  14. 2009 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  15. 2008 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  16. 2010 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  17. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  18. ISOLATED REDUCED NOCTURNAL BLADDER RESERVOIR FUNCTION - A NEW TYPE OF NOCTURNAL ENURESIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Britt; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Rittig, Søren

    PURPOSE Bladder reservoir function in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) is assessed by maximal voided volumes (MVV) registered on frequency-volume charts during daytime. Although a degree of association is evident, MVV does not necessarily reflect the nocturnal bladder...... below their MVV and MVVAge, the latter could be viewed as isolated reduced nocturnal bladder reservoir function. This indicates bladder reservoir function abnormalities during sleep that is not assessed by day recordings. Physicians treating children with MNE should consider anticholinergic...

  19. Inter-fraction bladder filling variations and time trends for cervical cancer patients assessed with a portable 3-dimensional ultrasound bladder scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rozilawati; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Quint, Sandra; Mens, Jan Willem; Pree, Ilse de; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: For cervical cancer patients, bladder filling variations may result in inadequate EBRT target coverage, unless large safety margins are used. For a group of patients who received full bladder instructions, inter-fraction variations and time trends in bladder volume were quantified, and a 3D ultrasound (US) scanner was tested for on-line bladder volume measurements. Methods and materials: For 24 patients, the bladder volume was measured with US at the time of the planning CT scan, and twice weekly during the course of RT. Comparisons of US with planning CT were used to assess the bladder scanner accuracy. Patients were treated in prone on a belly board, EPID images were acquired to correlate set-up errors with bladder filling variations. Results: Measured US and CT bladder volumes were strongly correlated (R = 0.97, slope 1.1 ± 0.1). The population mean bladder volume at planning of 378 ± 209 ml (1 SD) reduced to 109 ± 88 ml (1 SD) in week 6, a reduction by 71% (average reduction 46 ml/week), revealing a large inter-fraction time trend. Intra-patient variation in bladder volume during RT was 168 ml (1 SD) (range 70-266 ml). Rotation around the LR axis was significantly correlated with bladder volume changes. Conclusions: Despite a full bladder instruction, bladder volumes reduced dramatically during treatment, implying large time trends in target position of these patients. The portable US scanner provides a quick and reliable measurement of the bladder volume, which might assist future online treatment adaptation

  20. Swimming performance assessment in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2011-05-20

    Swimming performance tests of fish have been integral to studies of muscle energetics, swimming mechanics, gas exchange, cardiac physiology, disease, pollution, hypoxia and temperature. This paper describes a flexible protocol to assess fish swimming performance using equipment in which water velocity can be controlled. The protocol involves one to several stepped increases in flow speed that are intended to cause fish to fatigue. Step speeds and their duration can be set to capture swimming abilities of different physiological and ecological relevance. Most frequently step size is set to determine critical swimming velocity (U(crit;)), which is intended to capture maximum sustained swimming ability. Traditionally this test has consisted of approximately ten steps each of 20 min duration. However, steps of shorter duration (e.g. 1 min) are increasingly being utilized to capture acceleration ability or burst swimming performance. Regardless of step size, swimming tests can be repeated over time to gauge individual variation and recovery ability. Endpoints related to swimming such as measures of metabolic rate, fin use, ventilation rate, and of behavior, such as the distance between schooling fish, are often included before, during and after swimming tests. Given the diversity of fish species, the number of unexplored research questions, and the importance of many species to global ecology and economic health, studies of fish swimming performance will remain popular and invaluable for the foreseeable future.

  1. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-06-21

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  2. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan; Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  3. Bladder sensation measures and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David E; Neil, Nancy J; Govier, Fred E; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2009-09-01

    We performed a prospective multicomponent study to determine whether subjective and objective bladder sensation instruments may provide data on sensory dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder. We evaluated 70 prospectively enrolled patients with urodynamics and questionnaires on validated urgency (Urgency Perception Score), general overactive bladder (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire). We first sought a correlation between sensory specific (Urgency Perception Score) and quality of life questionnaire scores. We then assessed a correlation between sensory questionnaire scores and urodynamic variables, exploring the hypothesis that certain urodynamic parameters may be bladder sensation measures. We evaluated 2 urodynamic derivatives (first sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity) to increase sensory finding discrimination. We noted a moderate correlation between the Urgency Perception Score (0.56) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (0.74) vs the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (each p Perception Score and bladder capacity (-0.25, p sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity statistically significantly correlated with the Urgency Perception Score despite the lesser or absent correlation associated with the individual components of these derivatives. Bladder sensation questionnaires may be valuable to identify patients with sensory dysfunction and provide additional data not obtained in generalized symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic variables correlated with bladder sensation questionnaire scores and may be an objective method to assess sensory dysfunction.

  4. SWIMMING – THE STRUCTURE AND VOLUME OF TRAINING LOADS IN THE FOUR-YEAR TRAINING CYCLE OF AN ELITE OLYMPIC ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomiński Paweł

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The improvement of outcomes in sport requires the creation of appropriate conditions for training and the search for more effective forms of its organisation and effective technology. Starting with this belief, the aim of the work is to identify the size and structure of the training loads and determine the effectiveness of the training process of an elite athlete in the Olympic macrocycle (2004-2008. Material and methods. We analysed loads in the four-year training cycle from 2004 to 2008. The parameters of the loads relating to the intensity (T1-T5 and type of training (general, special, and specific were analysed. The present study also attempted to assess the impact of the work on the results obtained. Due to the nature of the competitive effort, we used the measurable parameter of distance (m, km in the load analysis depending on the type and intensity of the physical effort. Results. This work reports on the implementation of a specially designed four-year training programme. The material gathered and the conclusions resulting from its analysis have made it possible to identify organisational and training solutions suitable for the athletic proficiency phase. The analysis of training loads indicated that in the training of a highly skilled swimmer, the general work is particularly important and that the largest volume was realised in the second intensity range (T2. Conclusions. The positive training and competition outcomes were the result of a deliberate training process. The training proved to be effective, leading to an increase in the athlete’s training status. This was achieved primarily owing to the training loads, which were accurately planned and implemented according to the special requirements of the race distance and the individual characteristics of the swimmer.

  5. Stirring by swimming bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc, E-mail: jeanluc@math.wisc.ed [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 480 Lincoln Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Institute for Mathematics and Applications, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, 207 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Childress, Stephen [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2010-07-26

    We consider the stirring of an inviscid fluid caused by the locomotion of bodies through it. The swimmers are approximated by non-interacting cylinders or spheres moving steadily along straight lines. We find the displacement of fluid particles caused by the nearby passage of a swimmer as a function of an impact parameter. We use this to compute the effective diffusion coefficient from the random walk of a fluid particle under the influence of a distribution of swimming bodies. We compare with the results of simulations. For typical sizes, densities and swimming velocities of schools of krill, the effective diffusivity in this model is five times the thermal diffusivity. However, we estimate that viscosity increases this value by two orders of magnitude.

  6. SU-E-J-83: CBCT Based Rectum and Bladder Dose Tracking in the Prostate Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z; Wang, J; Yang, Z; Hu, W [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to monitor the volume changes of bladder and rectum and evaluate the dosimetric changes of bladder and rectum using daily cone-beam CT for prostate radiotherapy. Methods: The data of this study were obtained from 12 patients, totally 222 CBCTs. All the volume of the bladder and the rectum on the CBCT were normalized to the bladder and the rectum on their own original CT to monitory the volume changes. To evaluate dose delivered to the OARs, volumes that receive 70Gy (V70Gy), 60Gy, 50Gy, 40Gy and 30Gy are calculated for the bladder and the rectum, V20Gy and V10Gy for rectum additionally. And the deviation of the mean dose to the bladder and the rectum are also chosen as the evaluation parameter. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify the mean dose change of the volume change using SPSS 19. Results: The results show that the variances of the normalize volume of the bladder and the rectum are 0.15–0.58 and 0.13–0.50. The variances of V70Gy, V60Gy, V50Gy, V40Gy and V30Gy of bladder are bigger than rectum for 11 patients. The linear regression analysis indicated a negative correlation between the volume and the mean dose of the bladder (p < 0.05). A 10% increase in bladder volume will cause 5.1% (±4.3%) reduction in mean dose. Conclusion: The bladder volume change is more significant than that for rectum for the prostate cancer patient. The volume changes of rectum are not significant except air gap in the rectum. Bladder volume varies will cause significant dose change. The bladder volume monitoring before fractional treatment delivery would be crucial for accuracy dose delivery.

  7. Bladder outlet obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002238.htm Bladder outlet obstruction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is a blockage at the base ...

  8. Portable bladder ultrasound: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound. TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION Data from the National Population Health Survey indicate prevalence rates of urinary incontinence are 2.5% in women and 1.4 % in men in the general population. Prevalence of urinary incontinence is higher in women than men and prevalence increases with age. Identified risk factors for urinary incontinence include female gender, increasing age, urinary tract infections (UTI), poor mobility, dementia, smoking, obesity, consuming alcohol and caffeine beverages, physical activity, pregnancy, childbirth, forceps and vacuum-assisted births, episiotomy, abdominal resection for colorectal cancer, and hormone replacement therapy. For the purposes of this review, incontinence populations will be stratified into the following; the elderly, urology patients, postoperative patients, rehabilitation settings, and neurogenic bladder populations. Urinary incontinence is defined as any involuntary leakage of urine. Incontinence can be classified into diagnostic clinical types that are useful in planning evaluation and treatment. The major types of incontinence are stress (physical exertion), urge (overactive bladder), mixed (combined urge and stress urinary incontinence), reflex (neurological impairment of the central nervous system), overflow (leakage due to full bladder), continuous (urinary tract abnormalities), congenital incontinence, and transient incontinence (temporary incontinence). Postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, which is the amount of urine in the bladder immediately after urination, represents an important component in continence assessment and bladder management to provide quantitative feedback to the patient and continence care team regarding the effectiveness of the voiding technique. Although there is no standardized definition of normal PVR urine volume, measurements greater than 100 mL to 150 mL are considered an indication for urinary

  9. Prostate cancer treated with image-guided helical TomoTherapy {sup registered} and image-guided LINAC-IMRT. Correlation between high-dose bladder volume, margin reduction, and genitourinary toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, Sonia; Wendt, Thomas G. [University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jena (Germany); Schwedas, Michael; Salz, Henning [University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section of Medical Physics, Jena (Germany); Foller, Susan [University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Urology, Jena (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    We compared different image-guidance (IG) strategies for prostate cancer with high-precision IG intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using TomoTherapy {sup registered} (Accuray Inc., Madison, WI, USA) and linear accelerator (LINAC)-IMRT and their impact on planning target volume (PTV) margin reduction. Follow-up data showed reduced bladder toxicity in TomoTherapy patients compared to LINAC-IMRT. The purpose of this study was to quantify whether the treatment delivery technique and decreased margins affect reductions in bladder toxicity. Setup corrections from 30 patients treated with helical TomoTherapy and 30 treated with a LINAC were analyzed. These data were used to simulate three IG protocols based on setup error correction and a limited number of imaging sessions. For all patients, gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was documented and correlated with the treatment delivery technique. For fiducial marker (FM)-based RT, a margin reduction of up to 3.1, 3.0, and 4.8 mm in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, respectively, could be achieved with calculation of a setup correction from the first three fractions and IG every second day. Although the bladder volume was treated with mean doses of 35 Gy in the TomoTherapy group vs. 22 Gy in the LINAC group, we observed less GU toxicity after TomoTherapy. Intraprostate FMs allow for small safety margins, help decrease imaging frequency after setup correction, and minimize the dose to bladder and rectum, resulting in lower GU toxicity. In addition, IMRT delivered with TomoTherapy helps to avoid hotspots in the bladder neck, a critical anatomic structure associated with post-RT urinary toxicity. (orig.) [German] Wir haben im Rahmen der Prostatakarzinombehandlung verschiedene bildgefuehrte (IG) Strategien der hochpraezisen intensitaetsmodulierten Radiotherapie (IMRT) unter Einsatz der Tomotherapie (TomoTherapy {sup registered}, Accuray Inc., Madison

  10. Cohort profile: The Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) and the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Liedberg, Fredrik; Hagberg, Oskar; Aljabery, Firas; Ströck, Viveka; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Gårdmark, Truls; Sherif, Amir; Malmström, Per-Uno; Garmo, Hans; Jahnson, Staffan; Holmberg, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To monitor the quality of bladder cancer care, the Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) was initiated in 1997. During 2015, in order to study trends in incidence, effects of treatment and survival of men and women with bladder cancer, we linked the SNRUBC to other national healthcare and demographic registers and constructed the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe). Participants The SNRUBC is a nationwide register with detailed information on 97% of bladder cancer cases in Sweden as compared with the Swedish Cancer Register. Participants in the SNRUBC have registered data on tumour characteristics at diagnosis, and for 98% of these treatment data have been captured. From 2009, the SNRUBC holds data on 88% of eligible participants for follow-up 5 years after diagnosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, and from 2011, data on surgery details and complications for 85% of participants treated with radical cystectomy. The BladderBaSe includes all data in the SNRUBC from 1997 to 2014, and additional covariates and follow-up data from linked national register sources on comorbidity, socioeconomic factors, detailed information on readmissions and treatment side effects, and causes of death. Findings to date Studies based on data in the SNRUBC have shown inequalities in survival and treatment indication by gender, regions and hospital volume. The BladderBaSe includes 38 658 participants registered in SNRUBC with bladder cancer diagnosed from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2014. The BladderBaSe initiators are currently in collaboration with researchers from the SNRUBC investigating different aspects of bladder cancer survival. Future plans The SNRUBC and the BladderBaSe project are open for collaborations with national and international research teams. Collaborators can submit proposals for studies and study files can be uploaded to servers for remote access and analysis. For more information, please contact the corresponding

  11. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    OpenAIRE

    Maladen, Ryan D.; Ding, Yang; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numeric...

  12. ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDENTS’ STATUS AND THE RESULTS’ SUCCESS IN SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Vuković

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The sample consisted of 31 tested students in 2009/10 academic year and 43 tested students in 2008/09. all of them were the second year male students at Faculty of Physical Education and Sport at the University in East Sarajevo, the students were 22 years and± 6 months old, on this sample, there was done the results’ comparison in the following parameters: 11 variables of the anthropological statusand 2 variables of the swimming the crawl at 50m and swimming the backstroke. The predicting variable of the anthropological status consisted of: height, weight, shoulders width, hips width, the skin’s fold of the back, the skin’s fold of the upper arm, the skin’s fold of the abdomen, the volume of the upper arm, the volume of the thigh, the volume of the shank and the diameter of the joint of the knee, the measuring variables referred to the results’ success in swimming the crawl at 50m and swimming the backstroke. The method of the study Apart from the descriptive statistics by which the measures of central tendencies are expressed: mean, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, there was used regressive analysis, for the correlation of the results of the anthropological status with the results of the swimming the crawl at 50m and swimming the backstroke. The results of the research and the conclusions There was done the results’ comparison of one group of students consisting of 31 tested male students in 2009/10 and 43 tested students in 2008/09. the comparison was shown by the measures of central tendencies of the descriptive statistics and by the regressive analysis of the group of 11 predicting variables of the anthropological students’ status and by the results of 2 measuring variables shown by the swimming the crawl at 50m and swimming the backstroke. Applying the regressive analysis there was got the list of the data which contained the data about the parameters of the regression and statistical quantities relevant for

  13. Giant bladder diverticulum : A rare cause of bladder outlet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant bladder diverticula are rare causes of bladder outlet obstruction in children and have rarely been reported. In this paper, we present three children with giant bladder diverticula who presented with bladder outlet obstruction within a year. Micturating cystourethrogram is important for investigating bladder outlet ...

  14. Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia for Bladder Cancer: A Preclinical Dosimetry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea D.; Etienne, Wiguins; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; McNerny, Katie L.; Mashal, Alireza; Nouls, John; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Beyer, Wayne F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes a preclinical investigation of the feasibility of thermotherapy treatment of bladder cancer with Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH), performed by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Materials and Methods The bladders of twenty-five female rats were instilled with magnetite-based nanoparticles, and hyperthermia was induced using a novel small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder, CO). We aimed to increase the bladder lumen temperature to 42°C in <10 min and maintain that temperature for 60 min. Temperatures were measured within the bladder lumen and throughout the rat with seven fiberoptic probes (OpSens Technologies, Quebec, Canada). An MRI analysis was used to confirm the effectiveness of the catheterization method to deliver and maintain various nanoparticle volumes within the bladder. Thermal dosimetry measurements recorded the temperature rise of rat tissues for a variety of nanoparticle exposure conditions. Results Thermal dosimetry data demonstrated our ability to raise and control the temperature of rat bladder lumen ≥1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C with minimal heating of surrounding normal tissues. MRI scans confirmed the homogenous nanoparticle distribution throughout the bladder. Conclusion These data demonstrate that our MFH system with magnetite-based nanoparticles provide well-localized heating of rat bladder lumen with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues. PMID:24050253

  15. Bladder wall dose from administered radiopharmaceuticals: the effects of variations in urine flow rate, voiding interval and initial bladder content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.; Veall, N.; Wootton, R.

    1982-01-01

    Equations are given for calculating the dose to the surface of the bladder wall for any values of the parameters, urine flow-rate, bladder voiding period and initial content, for any administered radiopharmaceutical with known biokinetics. The necessary relationships which describe the variation in dose to the bladder wall per unit of cumulated activity in contents with increasing volume of contents are given for 31 radionuclides. Two commonly used renal radiopharmaceuticals, 131 I Hippuran and 99 Tcsup(m) DTPA, are used to illustrate the effects of the above three physiological variables on the dose to the bladder wall and it may be concluded that, for radiopharmaceuticals which are rapidly transferred to the bladder, substantial dose reduction can be achieved by optimising these parameters. Thus, where possible, the patient should be well hydrated, the radiopharmaceutical should be administered when the bladder is partly filled and the voiding period should be about 1.5 h. (author)

  16. The Impact of Baby Swimming on Introductory and Elementary Swimming Training

    OpenAIRE

    Břízová, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    THESIS ANNOTATION Title: The Impact of Baby Swimming on Introductory and Elementary Swimming Training Aim: To assess the impact of 'baby swimming' on the successfulness in introductory and partly in elementary swimming training, and to find out whether also other circumstances (for example the length of attendance at 'baby swimming') have some influence on introductory swimming training. Methods: We used a questionnaire method for the parents of children who had attended 'baby swimming' and f...

  17. Swimming level of pupils from elementary schools with own swimming pool

    OpenAIRE

    Zálupská, Klára

    2012-01-01

    Title: Swimming level of pupils from primary school with private swimming pool. Work objectives: The aim is to identify assess level of swimming of pupils from first to ninth grade of primary school with a private pool in Chomutov district using continuous swimming test with regular swimming lessons, which is started in the first grade and persists until the ninth grade. The condition was organizing a school swimming lessons once a week for 45 minutes in all grades. Methodology: Swimming leve...

  18. In the making: SA-PIV applied to swimming practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houwelingen, Josje; van de Water, Willem; Kunnen, Rudie; van Heijst, Gertjan; Clercx, Herman

    2017-11-01

    To understand and optimize the propulsion in human swimming, a deep understanding of the hydrodynamics of swimming is required. This is usually based on experiments and numerical simulations under laboratory conditions.. In this study, we bring basic fluid mechanics knowledge and experimental measurement techniques to analyze the flow towards the swimming practice itself. A flow visualization setup is build and placed in a regular swimming pool. The measurement volume contains five homogeneous air bubble curtains illuminated by ambient light. The bubbles in these curtains act as tracer particles. The bubble motion is captured by six cameras placed in the side wall of the pool. It is intended to apply SA-PIV (synthetic aperture PIV) for analyzing the flow structures on multiple planes in the measurement volume. The system has been calibrated and the calibration data are used to refocus on the planes of interest. Multiple preprocessing steps need to be executed to obtain the proper quality of images before applying PIV. With a specially programmed video card to process and analyze the images in real-time feedback about swimming performance will become possible. We report on the first experimental data obtained by this system.

  19. Exstrophy of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollohan, J

    1999-03-01

    Exstrophy of the bladder is a rare congenital defect that occurs when the abdominal wall and underlying structures, including the ventral wall of the bladder, fail to fuse in utero. As a result, the lower urinary tract is exposed, and the everted bladder appears through the abdominal opening. Various surgical interventions have been employed with variable success in the hope of achieving complete dryness, full control over delivery of urine, freedom from catheters and external appliances, and a protected upper urinary tract. The most popular surgical approach is the primary bladder closure with secondary bladder neck reconstruction. Comprehensive nursing, medical, and surgical care are necessary to preserve renal and sexual function. The many complex problems experienced by these infants and their families call for a multidisciplinary approach. This article reviews occurrence, clinical presentation, and management of exstrophy of the bladder.

  20. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has ex...... can be challenging, and misdiagnosis as a psychological problem, overactive bladder, or chronic urinary infection has plagued patients with the problem....

  1. Baby swimming and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystad, Wenche; Håberg, Siri E; London, Stephanie J; Nafstad, Per; Magnus, Per

    2008-05-01

    To estimate the effect of baby swimming in the first 6 months of life on respiratory diseases from 6 to 18 months. We used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in children born between 1999 and 2005 followed from birth to the age of 18 months (n = 30,870). Health outcomes: lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), wheeze and otitis media between 6 and 18 months of age. baby swimming at the age of 6 months. The effect of baby swimming was estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. About 25% of the children participated in baby swimming. The prevalence of LRTI was 13.3%, wheeze 40.0% and otitis media 30.4%. Children who were baby swimming were not more likely to have LRTI, to wheeze or to have otitis media. However, children with atopic mothers who attended baby swimming had an increased risk of wheeze, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 1.24 (95% CI 1.11, 1.39), but not LRTI or otitis media. This was also the case for children without respiratory diseases before 6 months aOR 1.08 (95%CI 1.02-1.15). Baby swimming may be related to later wheeze. However, these findings warrant further investigation.

  2. Swimming Performance and Metabolism of Golden Shiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swimming ability and metabolism of golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, was examined using swim tunnel respirometery. The oxygen consumption and tail beat frequencies at various swimming speeds, an estimation of the standard metabolic rate, and the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was determ...

  3. Swimming ability and physiological response to swimming fatigue in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... The swimming endurance of kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus (11.04 ± 2.43 g) at five swimming speeds (23.0, 26.7, 31.0, 34.6 and 38.6 cm s-1) was determined in a circulating flume at 25.7 ± 0.7°C. The plasma glucose and total protein, hepatopancreas and pleopods muscle glycogen ...

  4. Swimming ability and physiological response to swimming fatigue in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The swimming endurance of kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus (11.04 ± 2.43 g) at five swimming speeds (23.0, 26.7, 31.0, 34.6 and 38.6 cm s-1) was determined in a circulating flume at 25.7 ± 0.7°C. The plasma glucose and total protein, hepatopancreas and pleopods muscle glycogen concentrations were ...

  5. The Antimuscarinic Agent Tolterodine Regulates Bladder Extracellular Matrix in Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Xin Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Antimuscarinic agents can delay the progression of bladder dysfunction caused by bladder outlet obstruction (BOO. To date, the relationship between muscarinic receptor activity and the bladder extracellular matrix (ECM remains unclear. Thus, an animal model of partial BOO (PBOO in female rats was established to explore the variation in bladder wall ECM proteins under PBOO conditions with antimuscarinic agent administration. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham, PBOO, and PBOO plus tolterodine. Picrosirius red staining was used to examine the smooth muscle and collagen content of bladder samples. Gene microarray and RT-PCR were performed to survey the expression of ECM proteins, receptors, and metabolism regulators in the rat bladder. Positive results were further evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Picrosirius red staining showed that smooth muscle volume significantly increased in the PBOO and PBOO plus tolterodine groups (p < 0.05, while collagen significantly increased in the PBOO group (p < 0.05 but not in the PBOO plus tolterodine group. Gene microarray and RT-PCR revealed that none of the collagen subtypes exhibited significant changes after PBOO establishment and tolterodine administration. However, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs increased significantly in the PBOO plus tolterodine group (p < 0.05. Additionally, PBOO inhibited the expression of non-collagen ECM proteins in the rat bladder wall, while tolterodine induced the expression of non-collagen ECM proteins and ECM receptors. Conclusions: Tolterodine decreased the volume of collagen in PBOO rat bladder wall, possibly via MMPs, and regulated the expression of ECM proteins and receptors.

  6. SU-F-J-05: The Effect of Air Pockets in the Urinary Bladder During Bladder Hyperthermia Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooneveldt, G.; Kok, H.P.; Bakker, A.; Geijsen, E.D.; Reijke, T.M. de; Crezee, J. [Academisch Medisch Centrum / Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Hyperthermia combined with Mitomycin C is used for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), using a phased array system of microwave antennas for bladder heating. Often some air is present in the bladder, which effectively blocks the microwave radiation, potentially preventing proper treatment of that part of the bladder. Air can be a relevant fraction of the bladder content and large air pockets are expected to have a noticeable influence on achieved temperatures. Methods: We analysed 14 NMIBC patients treated at our institute with our AMC-4 hyperthermia device with four 70MHz antennas around the pelvis. A CT scan was made after treatment and a physician delineated the bladder on the CT scan. On the same scan, the amount of air present in the bladder was delineated. Using our in-house developed hyperthermia treatment planning system, we simulated the treatment using the clinically applied device settings. We did this once with the air pocket delineated on the CT scan, and once with the same volume filled with bladder tissue. Results: The patients had on average 4.2ml (range 0.8–10.1ml) air in the bladder. The bladder volume was delineated by the physician, that is including air pocket and bladder wall, was on average 253ml (range 93–452ml). The average volume in which changes exceeded 0.25°C was 22ml (range 0–108 ml), with the bladder being up to 2°C cooler when an air pocket was present. Except for extreme cases, there was no evident relation between the quantity of air and the difference in temperature. Conclusion: The effect of an air pocket in the bladder during bladder hyperthermia treatment varies strongly between patients. Generally, this leads to lower temperatures in the bladder, potentially affecting treatment quality, and suggesting that care need be taken to minimise the size of air pockets during hyperthermia treatments. The KWF Dutch Cancer Society financially supported this work, grant UVA 2012-5539.

  7. On burst-and-coast swimming performance in fish-like locomotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M-H, E-mail: mhsuan@mail.nkmu.edu.t, E-mail: meng.hsuan.chung@gmail.co [Institute of Ocean Engineering and Technology, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung City 81143, Taiwan (China)

    2009-09-15

    Burst-and-coast swimming performance in fish-like locomotion is studied via two-dimensional numerical simulation. The numerical method used is the collocated finite-volume adaptive Cartesian cut-cell method developed previously. The NACA00xx airfoil shape is used as an equilibrium fish-body form. Swimming in a burst-and-coast style is computed assuming that the burst phase is composed of a single tail-beat. Swimming efficiency is evaluated in terms of the mass-specific cost of transport instead of the Froude efficiency. The effects of the Reynolds number (based on the body length and burst time), duty cycle and fineness ratio (the body length over the largest thickness) on swimming performance (momentum capacity and the mass-specific cost of transport) are studied quantitatively. The results lead to a conclusion consistent with previous findings that a larval fish seldom swims in a burst-and-coast style. Given mass and swimming speed, a fish needs the least cost if it swims in a burst-and-coast style with a fineness ratio of 8.33. This energetically optimal fineness ratio is larger than that derived from the simple hydromechanical model proposed in literature. The calculated amount of energy saving in burst-and-coast swimming is comparable with the real-fish estimation in the literature. Finally, the predicted wake-vortex structures of both continuous and burst-and-coast swimming are biologically relevant.

  8. On burst-and-coast swimming performance in fish-like locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M-H

    2009-09-01

    Burst-and-coast swimming performance in fish-like locomotion is studied via two-dimensional numerical simulation. The numerical method used is the collocated finite-volume adaptive Cartesian cut-cell method developed previously. The NACA00xx airfoil shape is used as an equilibrium fish-body form. Swimming in a burst-and-coast style is computed assuming that the burst phase is composed of a single tail-beat. Swimming efficiency is evaluated in terms of the mass-specific cost of transport instead of the Froude efficiency. The effects of the Reynolds number (based on the body length and burst time), duty cycle and fineness ratio (the body length over the largest thickness) on swimming performance (momentum capacity and the mass-specific cost of transport) are studied quantitatively. The results lead to a conclusion consistent with previous findings that a larval fish seldom swims in a burst-and-coast style. Given mass and swimming speed, a fish needs the least cost if it swims in a burst-and-coast style with a fineness ratio of 8.33. This energetically optimal fineness ratio is larger than that derived from the simple hydromechanical model proposed in literature. The calculated amount of energy saving in burst-and-coast swimming is comparable with the real-fish estimation in the literature. Finally, the predicted wake-vortex structures of both continuous and burst-and-coast swimming are biologically relevant.

  9. The Effect of Swimming on the Lung Functions in Healthy Young Male Population of Amritsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Shashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to study the effects of swimming on the lung functions in adult male population of Amritsar. Many exercise physiologists study the effect of exercise on pathology, and the mechanisms by which exercise can reduce or reverse disease progression. The present study was undertaken to study the effects swimming on the lung functions. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs of swimming trainees were compared with those of controls. We evaluated PFTs in 50 healthy subjects who participated in a 3 months of swimming plan. Pulmonary function tests were recorded before the commencement of swimming and at the end of swimming and compared the values so obtained with 50 healthy non- swimmers who were chosen as controls. The controls were the physiotherapy students from Khalsa College Amritsar. Both were in the age group of 18- 20 years. The PFTs were carried out with a computerized spirometer “Med-Spiror”. The various data was collected, compiled, statistically analysed and valid conclusions were drawn. Higher lung volumes and flow rates were achieved in swimming trainees after their training period, as compared to their own values obtained before their training period and to those of controls. Regular exercise enhances physical capabilities and physiological responses of the human body and also in the lungs. The cause of improved of various respiratory functions and flow rates after  swimming duration was better mechanical factors and lower airway resistance influenced during the training period. Key words: Pulmonary; Expiration; Swimming; Pulmonary Function Test

  10. Bladder necrosis: 'A man without a bladder'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosschieter, Judith; Oudshoorn, Frederik H K; Meuleman, Eric J H; Nieuwenhuijzen, Jakko A

    2018-02-17

    Since the use of antibiotics, bladder necrosis has become a rare condition. We report a case of bladder necrosis in a 90-year-old man following urinary retention. After insertion of a transurethral catheter (TUC), 2 L of urine was evacuated. In the following days, the TUC became intermittently blocked. Adequate bladder drainage could not be obtained despite intensive rinsing and placement of a suprapubic catheter. On surgical exploration necrosis of almost the entire bladder wall, except for the trigone, was encountered. Surgical debridement of the non-viable bladder wall without opening the abdominal cavity was conducted, and a TUC was placed in the Retzius cavity to ensure evacuation of urine. Since the patient was haemodynamically unstable, construction of a urinary diversion was waived and urinary drainage of the Retzius cavity by the TUC was accepted, resulting in adequate urinary drainage without compromising renal function. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  12. Free Swimming in Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Carney, Jackson; Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    A free-swimming potential flow analysis of unsteady ground effect is conducted for two-dimensional airfoils via a method of images. The foils undergo a pure pitching motion about their leading edge, and the positions of the body in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are determined by the equations of motion of the body. It is shown that the unconstrained swimmer is attracted to a time-averaged position that is mediated by the flow interaction with the ground. The robustness of this fluid-mediated equilibrium position is probed by varying the non-dimensional mass, initial conditions and kinematic parameters of motion. Comparisons to the foil's fixed-motion counterpart are also made to pinpoint the effect that free swimming near the ground has on wake structures and the fluid-mediated forces over time. Optimal swimming regimes for near-boundary swimming are determined by examining asymmetric motions.

  13. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  14. Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground.

    OpenAIRE

    Baštová, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Title: Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground. Objectives: To obtain and analyze data on the level ground swimming literacy field hockey woman player. Their perception swimming literacy for life, the use of non-specific regeneration and as a training resource. Methods: Analysis of scientific literature, survey, case study, data analysis and graphical presentation of results. Results of the work: field hockey player as swimming literate, benefits swimming but not used as a means of...

  15. Water Evaporation in Swimming Baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which are repres...... are represented in instructions for carrying out and running swimming baths. If you follow the instructions you can achieve less investments, less heat consumption and a better comfort to the bathers....

  16. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  17. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has...

  18. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If You Have Questions Print en español Ultrasonido: vejiga What It Is A bladder ultrasound is a safe and painless test that ... Exam: Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Urinary ... only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  19. Long neglected neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnani, Pooja; Gupta, Ruchi; Kedia, Nikhil; Pattewar, Sainath; Bahadur, Madan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    Urinary diversion is indicated for the management of the neurogenic bladder. However, there is a risk for developing pyocystitis in this type of patients. We present a case of young female who presented with a history of frequent urinary tract infection (UTI) post urinary diversion for neurogenic bladder. Ever since she underwent simple cystectomy, there have been no further episodes of UTI.

  20. Long neglected neurogenic bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Binnani; Ruchi Gupta; Nikhil Kedia; Sainath Pattewar; Madan Mohan Bahadur

    2011-01-01

    Urinary diversion is indicated for the management of the neurogenic bladder. However, there is a risk for developing pyocystitis in this type of patients. We present a case of young female who presented with a history of frequent urinary tract infection (UTI) post urinary diversion for neurogenic bladder. Ever since she underwent simple cystectomy, there have been no further episodes of UTI.

  1. Developments in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L.; Niijima, T.; Prout, G.; Schroder, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Guidelines for Radiation Therapy in Clinical Research on Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Situ; Policy on Monitoring and Reporting Results; Standardization of Protocol Formnd The Role of Cytology in the Diagnosis, Detection and Follow-up of Bladder Cancer

  2. The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Jane E; Gillespie, James I

    2013-01-01

    It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent "noise," generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the β 3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by

  3. Swimming with the Shoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Ann

    2017-10-01

    This article responds to Yuli Rahmawati and Peter Charles Taylor's piece and explores my role as a science teacher, science teacher educator and researcher in two contexts, Sierra Leone and Bhutan. In the first part of the article I reflect on my 3 years as a science teacher in Sierra Leone and demonstrate resonances with Yuli's accounts of culture shock and with her positioning of herself in a third space. I also reflect on the importance of colleagues in helping me reshape my identity as a science teacher in this new context. The second part of the article reflects on much shorter periods of time in Bhutan and my work as a teacher educator and researcher where, unlike Sierra Leone, it was not possible because of the short periods I worked there, to occupy a third space. I close by discussing how in Bhutan, but also Sierra Leone, collaboration with colleagues allowed me to contribute my own expertise, despite my lack of a deep understanding of the cultural context, in a way that was as valuable as possible. I liken this way of collaborative working in my professional life as `swimming with the shoal'.

  4. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  5. Swimming mechanics and propulsive efficiency in the chambered nautilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Thomas R.

    2018-01-01

    The chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) encounters severe environmental hypoxia during diurnal vertical movements in the ocean. The metabolic cost of locomotion (Cmet) and swimming performance depend on how efficiently momentum is imparted to the water and how long on-board oxygen stores last. While propulsive efficiency is generally thought to be relatively low in jet propelled animals, the low Cmet in Nautilus indicates that this is not the case. We measured the wake structure in Nautilus during jet propulsion swimming, to determine their propulsive efficiency. Animals swam with either an anterior-first or posterior-first orientation. With increasing swimming speed, whole cycle propulsive efficiency increased during posterior-first swimming but decreased during anterior-first swimming, reaching a maximum of 0.76. The highest propulsive efficiencies were achieved by using an asymmetrical contractile cycle in which the fluid ejection phase was relatively longer than the refilling phase, reducing the volume flow rate of the ejected fluid. Our results demonstrate that a relatively high whole cycle propulsive efficiency underlies the low Cmet in Nautilus, representing a strategy to reduce the metabolic demands in an animal that spends a significant part of its daily life in a hypoxic environment. PMID:29515819

  6. Swimming mechanics and propulsive efficiency in the chambered nautilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Thomas R.; Askew, Graham N.

    2018-02-01

    The chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) encounters severe environmental hypoxia during diurnal vertical movements in the ocean. The metabolic cost of locomotion (Cmet) and swimming performance depend on how efficiently momentum is imparted to the water and how long on-board oxygen stores last. While propulsive efficiency is generally thought to be relatively low in jet propelled animals, the low Cmet in Nautilus indicates that this is not the case. We measured the wake structure in Nautilus during jet propulsion swimming, to determine their propulsive efficiency. Animals swam with either an anterior-first or posterior-first orientation. With increasing swimming speed, whole cycle propulsive efficiency increased during posterior-first swimming but decreased during anterior-first swimming, reaching a maximum of 0.76. The highest propulsive efficiencies were achieved by using an asymmetrical contractile cycle in which the fluid ejection phase was relatively longer than the refilling phase, reducing the volume flow rate of the ejected fluid. Our results demonstrate that a relatively high whole cycle propulsive efficiency underlies the low Cmet in Nautilus, representing a strategy to reduce the metabolic demands in an animal that spends a significant part of its daily life in a hypoxic environment.

  7. Influence of pre-school swimming on level of swimming abilities of early schol age children

    OpenAIRE

    Velová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    My thesis paper is focused on children swimming from their birth to early school age. The pivotal part of the paper is the comparison of swimming abilities between primary school children who have passed pre-school swimming training and those who have had no training at all. Theoretical framework of the paper is then focused on general swimming theory, characteristics of children's evolutionary stages within the context of swimming and definition of basic swimming skills.

  8. Fesoterodine for the Treatment of Nocturnal Urgency in Patients with Overactive Bladder Syndrome: An Analysis of Responders and Nonresponders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusid, Johnathan A; Weiss, Jeffrey P; Carlsson, Martin O; Mangan, Erin K

    2017-11-01

    A recent study demonstrated improvement in nocturnal urgency in patients with overactive bladder when treated with fesoterodine. In the current study we aimed to determine which bladder diary parameters predict the response to fesoterodine in these patients. Patients with nocturnal urgency completed a 2-week, single-blind placebo run-in followed by 1:1 double-blind randomization to 12 weeks of fesoterodine or placebo. We analyzed bladder diary parameter changes from baseline to week 12, including the actual number of night voids (total number of nocturia episodes), maximum voided volume, nocturnal bladder capacity, Nocturnal Bladder Capacity Index (NBCi) (actual number of night voids - nocturnal urine volume/maximum voided volume - 1), nocturnal urine volume, the nocturia index (nocturnal urine volume/maximum voided volume) and the nocturnal polyuria index (nocturnal urine volume/24-hour volume). Additionally, we analyzed OAB-q (Overactive Bladder Questionnaire) changes. There was a linear relationship between the likelihood of being a responder for NBCi and the nocturia index. Responders had a significant decrease in nocturnal urine volume relative to baseline (-181.7 ml, p overactive bladder syndrome and low nocturnal bladder capacity with a mismatch between nocturnal urine production and bladder capacity may benefit from fesoterodine. Symptom improvement appears to be mediated by increases in typical rather than maximum nocturnal voided volumes. Symptom improvement was associated with improved quality of life. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. Mahfouz

    Stem cells;. Bladder tissue engineering;. Decellularization;. Bladder acellular matrix. Abstract. A wide range of injuries could affect the bladder and lead to eventual loss ... Tissue engineering relies upon three essential pillars; the scaffold, the cells seeded on scaffolds and lastly ..... Clinical trials in bladder tissue engineering.

  10. Neurophysiological modeling of bladder afferent activity in the rat overactive bladder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Mahipal; van Asselt, Els; van Mastrigt, Ron; Clavica, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    The overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome-based urinary dysfunction characterized by "urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia". Earlier we developed a mathematical model of bladder nerve activity during voiding in anesthetized rats and found that the nerve activity in the relaxation phase of voiding contractions was all afferent. In the present study, we applied this mathematical model to an acetic acid (AA) rat model of bladder overactivity to study the sensitivity of afferent fibers in intact nerves to bladder pressure and volume changes. The afferent activity in the filling phase and the slope, i.e., the sensitivity of the afferent fibers to pressure changes in the post-void relaxation phase, were found to be significantly higher in AA than in saline measurements, while the offset (nerve activity at pressure ~0) and maximum pressure were comparable. We have thus shown, for the first time, that the sensitivity of afferent fibers in the OAB can be studied without cutting nerves or preparation of single fibers. We conclude that bladder overactivity induced by AA in rats is neurogenic in origin and is caused by increased sensitivity of afferent sensors in the bladder wall.

  11. Paraganglioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder are tumors of chromaffin tissue originating from the sympathetic innervations of the urinary bladder wall and are extremely rare. Being functional, in most of the cases they are recognized by their characteristic presentation of hypertensive crisis and postmicturition syncope. A silent presentation of a bladder paraganglioma is very unusual but quite dangerous as they are easily misdiagnosed and adequate peri-operative attention is not provided. Here, we are presenting one such silent paraganglioma in adult women who presented with only a single episode of hematuria and severe hypertensive crisis occur during its trans-urethral resection.

  12. Swimming and other activities: applied aspects of fish swimming performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Farrell, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities such as hydropower development, water withdrawals, and commercial fisheries often put fish species at risk. Engineered solutions designed to protect species or their life stages are frequently based on assumptions about swimming performance and behaviors. In many cases, however, the appropriate data to support these designs are either unavailable or misapplied. This article provides an overview of the state of knowledge of fish swimming performance – where the data come from and how they are applied – identifying both gaps in knowledge and common errors in application, with guidance on how to avoid repeating mistakes, as well as suggestions for further study.

  13. Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Bladder Diseases: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades de la vejiga: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National ...

  14. The shoulder in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A B; Jobe, F W; Collins, H R

    1980-01-01

    Shoulder pain is the most common orthopaedic problem in competitive swimming. In a group of 137 of this country's best swimmers, 58 had had symptoms of "swimmer's shoulder." Population characteristics of this group indicated that symptoms increased with the caliber of the athlete, were slightly more common in men, and were related to sprint rather than distance swimming. The use of hand-paddle training exacerbated symptoms, which were more common during the early and middle season. Consideration of shoulder mechanics in swimming reveals that freestyle, butterfly, and backstroke require similar motions; a swimmer using any of these strokes is susceptible to developing shoulder pain. Swimmer's shoulder represents chronic irritation of the humeral head and rotator cuff on the coracoacromial arch during abduction of the shoulder, the so-called impingement syndrome. Treatment included stretching, rest, ice therapy, oral antiinflammatory agents, judicious use of injectable steroids, and surgery as a last resort.

  15. Paramecium swimming in capillary tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Saikat; Um, Soong Ho; Jung, Sunghwan

    2012-04-01

    Swimming organisms in their natural habitat need to navigate through a wide range of geometries and chemical environments. Interaction with boundaries in such situations is ubiquitous and can significantly modify the swimming characteristics of the organism when compared to ideal laboratory conditions. We study the different patterns of ciliary locomotion in glass capillaries of varying diameter and characterize the effect of the solid boundaries on the velocities of the organism. Experimental observations show that Paramecium executes helical trajectories that slowly transition to straight lines as the diameter of the capillary tubes decreases. We predict the swimming velocity in capillaries by modeling the system as a confined cylinder propagating longitudinal metachronal waves that create a finite pressure gradient. Comparing with experiments, we find that such pressure gradient considerations are necessary for modeling finite sized ciliary organisms in restrictive geometries.

  16. Isolated Inguinal Bladder Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    BAYSAL, Tamer; SOYLU, Ahmet; ERDOĞAN, Özgül

    2010-01-01

    Isolated urinary bladder herniation into the inguinal canal is rare. It is often diagnosed intraoperatively during surgery or is identified after intraoperative injury. Early diagnosis with radiologic imaging is important to avoid complications during repair surgery. Computed tomography seems the best imaging choice to outline the details of herniation. We report an incidentally discovered case of inguinal bladder herniation with intravenous pyelography and computed tomography findings. ...

  17. Long neglected neurogenic bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Binnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary diversion is indicated for the management of the neurogenic bladder. However, there is a risk for developing pyocystitis in this type of patients. We present a case of young female who presented with a history of frequent urinary tract infection (UTI post urinary diversion for neurogenic bladder. Ever since she underwent simple cystectomy, there have been no further episodes of UTI.

  18. Engineering functional bladder tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Maya; Madduri, Srinivas; Gobet, Rita; Sulser, Tullio; Milleret, Vinzent; Hall, Heike; Atala, Anthony; Eberli, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    End stage bladder disease can seriously affect patient quality of life and often requires surgical reconstruction with bowel tissue, which is associated with numerous complications. Bioengineering of functional bladder tissue using tissue-engineering techniques could provide new functional tissues for reconstruction. In this review, we discuss the current state of this field and address different approaches to enable physiologic voiding in engineered bladder tissues in the near future. In a collaborative effort, we gathered researchers from four institutions to discuss the current state of functional bladder engineering. A MEDLINE® and PubMed® search was conducted for articles related to tissue engineering of the bladder, with special focus on the cells and biomaterials employed as well as the microenvironment, vascularisation and innervation strategies used. Over the last decade, advances in tissue engineering technology have laid the groundwork for the development of a biological substitute for bladder tissue that can support storage of urine and restore physiologic voiding. Although many researchers have been able to demonstrate the formation of engineered tissue with a structure similar to that of native bladder tissue, restoration of physiologic voiding using these constructs has never been demonstrated. The main issues hindering the development of larger contractile tissues that allow physiologic voiding include the development of correct muscle alignment, proper innervation and vascularization. Tissue engineering of a construct that will support the contractile properties that allow physiologic voiding is a complex process. The combination of smart scaffolds with controlled topography, the ability to deliver multiple trophic factors and an optimal cell source will allow for the engineering of functional bladder tissues in the near future. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Swimming in an Unsteady World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, M. A. R.

    2016-02-01

    When animals swim in marine habitats, the water through which they move is usually flowing. Therefore, an important part of understanding the physics of how animals swim in nature is determining how they interact with the fluctuating turbulent water currents in their environment. The research systems we have been using to address this question are microscopic marine animals swimming in turbulent, wavy water flow over spatially-complex communities of organisms growing on surfaces. Field measurements of water motion were used to design realistic turbulent flow in a laboratory wave-flume over different substrata, particle-image velocimetry was used to measure fine-scale, rapidly-varying water velocity vector fields, and planar laser-induced fluorescence was used to measure concentrations of chemical cues from the substratum. We used individual-based models of small animals swimming in this unsteady flow to determine how their trajectories and contacts with substrata were affected by their locomotion through the water, rotation by local shear, response to odors, and transport by ambient flow. We found that the shears, accelerations, and odor concentrations encountered by small swimmers fluctuate rapidly, with peaks much higher than mean values lasting fractions of a second. We identified ways in which the behavior of small, weak swimmers can bias how they are transported by ambient flow (e.g. sinking during brief encounters with shear or odor enhances settlement onto substrata below, whereas constant swimming enhances contact with surfaces above or beside larvae). Although microscopic organisms swim slowly relative to ambient water flow, their locomotory behavior in response to the rapidly-fluctuating shears and odors they encounter can affect where they are transported by ambient water movement.

  20. Bladder cancer and schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma-associated bladder cancer was believed, for several decades, to be a completely unique entity of disease, different from urothelial cancer. This was probably due to its distinct clinico pathologic and demographic features that varied from those of urothelial entity. The carcinogenesis is an extremely complex process resulting from the accumulation of many genetic and epigenetic changes leading to alterations in the cell proliferation regulation process. In bladder cancer, many of these carcinogenic cascades were not fully documented or somewhat conflicting. In spite of the efforts performed, much is still needed to explore the presence or absence of the carcinogenic difference with a different etiology. The control of schistosomiasis in certain countries and the subsequent decrease in the intensity of infestation showed changing of features approaching that of urothelial tumors. However the schistosoma-associated bladder cancer presented in more advanced stages than schistosoma-non associated urothelial cancer. More recently, data are gathered that, upon applying the same treatment protocol and management care, stage by stage comparison of the treatment end-results were found to be similar in bladder cancer patients with a different etiology. All treatment options; including radical cystectomy with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy or tri modality bladder preserving treatment seem to lead to similar end-results regardless of etiologic factor(s) implicated in bladder cancer development.

  1. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  2. Modelling swimming hydrodynamics to enhance performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho, D.A.; Rouboa, A.; Barbosa, Tiago M.; Silva, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Swimming assessment is one of the most complex but outstanding and fascinating topics in biomechanics. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology is one of the different methods that have been applied in swimming research to observe and understand water movements around the human body and its application to improve swimming performance. CFD has been applied attempting to understand deeply the biomechanical basis of swimming. Several studies have been conducted willing to analy...

  3. Tumor motion and deformation during external radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, Heidi T.; Pos, Floris J.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Herk, Marcel van; Lebesque, Joos V.; Duppen, Joop C.; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: First, to quantify bladder-tumor motion in 3 dimensions during a 4-week to 5-week course of external radiotherapy. Second, to relate the motion to the tumor location on the bladder wall. Third, to extensively evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) shape and volume changes during the course of the treatment. Methods and Materials: Multiple repeat computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for 21 bladder cancer patients. These scans were matched to the rigid bony anatomy. For each patient, the main direction and magnitude of the tumor movement was determined by use of principle-component analysis. To study GTV shape changes, all GTVs were registered to the GTV in the planning CT scan, and the residual shape errors were determined by measurement of edge variations perpendicular to the median surface. Results: Gross tumor volume translations were largest in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior direction (SD, 0.1 to ∼0.9 cm). The translations were strongly correlated with the tumor location on the bladder wall. The average value of the local standard deviations of the GTV shape ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.35 cm. Conclusions: Despite large differences in bladder filling, variations in GTV shape were small compared with variations in GTV position. Geometric uncertainties in the GTV position depended strongly on the tumor location on the bladder wall

  4. Adaptive radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Hulshof, Maarten; Lebesque, Joos; Lotz, Heidi; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Moonen, Luc; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) in combination with a partial bladder irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with solitary T1-T4 N0M0 bladder cancer were treated to the bladder tumor + 2 cm margin planning target volume (PTV CONV ). During the first treatment week, five daily computed tomography (CT) scans were made immediately before or after treatment. In the second week, a volume was constructed encompassing the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) on the planning scan and the five CT scans (GTV ART ). The GTV ART was expanded with a 1 cm margin for the construction of a PTV ART . Starting in the third week, patients were treated to PTV ART . Repeat CT scans were used to evaluate treatment accuracy. Results: On 5 of 91 repeat CT scans (5%), the GTV was not adequately covered by the PTV ART . On treatment planning, there was only one scan in which the GTV was not adequately covered by the 95% isodose. On average, the treatment volumes were reduced by 40% when comparing PTV ART with PTV CONV (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The adaptive strategy for bladder cancer is an effective way to deal with treatment errors caused by variations in bladder tumor position and leads to a substantial reduction in treatment volumes

  5. 43 CFR 423.36 - Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Swimming. 423.36 Section 423.36 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Swimming. (a) You may swim, wade, snorkel, scuba dive, raft, or tube at your own risk in Reclamation waters...

  6. 36 CFR 331.10 - Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Swimming. 331.10 Section 331.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.10 Swimming. Swimming is prohibited unless authorized in writing by the District...

  7. 36 CFR 327.5 - Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Swimming. 327.5 Section 327.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND REGULATIONS... Swimming. (a) Swimming, wading, snorkeling or scuba diving at one's own risk is permitted, except at...

  8. Energetics of swimming of schooling fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    schools. Oxygen consumption of swimming fish increases exponentially or as a power function with respect to swimming speed, and hence the decrease in oxygen saturation through the school is related to the swimming speed of the school. A model describing the oxygen saturation in a fish school from front...

  9. Cohort profile: The Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) and the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Liedberg, Fredrik; Hagberg, Oskar; Aljabery, Firas; Ströck, Viveka; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Gårdmark, Truls; Sherif, Amir; Malmström, Per-Uno; Garmo, Hans; Jahnson, Staffan; Holmberg, Lars

    2017-09-27

    To monitor the quality of bladder cancer care, the Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) was initiated in 1997. During 2015, in order to study trends in incidence, effects of treatment and survival of men and women with bladder cancer, we linked the SNRUBC to other national healthcare and demographic registers and constructed the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe). The SNRUBC is a nationwide register with detailed information on 97% of bladder cancer cases in Sweden as compared with the Swedish Cancer Register. Participants in the SNRUBC have registered data on tumour characteristics at diagnosis, and for 98% of these treatment data have been captured. From 2009, the SNRUBC holds data on 88% of eligible participants for follow-up 5 years after diagnosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, and from 2011, data on surgery details and complications for 85% of participants treated with radical cystectomy. The BladderBaSe includes all data in the SNRUBC from 1997 to 2014, and additional covariates and follow-up data from linked national register sources on comorbidity, socioeconomic factors, detailed information on readmissions and treatment side effects, and causes of death. Studies based on data in the SNRUBC have shown inequalities in survival and treatment indication by gender, regions and hospital volume. The BladderBaSe includes 38 658 participants registered in SNRUBC with bladder cancer diagnosed from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2014. The BladderBaSe initiators are currently in collaboration with researchers from the SNRUBC investigating different aspects of bladder cancer survival. The SNRUBC and the BladderBaSe project are open for collaborations with national and international research teams. Collaborators can submit proposals for studies and study files can be uploaded to servers for remote access and analysis. For more information, please contact the corresponding author. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  10. Characterization of a Murine Model of Bioequivalent Bladder Wound Healing and Repair Following Subtotal Cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifpour, Mona; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Kelkar, Sneha S; Mohs, Aaron; Mendelsohn, Cathy; Schneider, Kerry; Marini, Frank; Christ, George J

    2017-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated restoration of a bioequivalent bladder within 8 weeks of removing the majority of the bladder (subtotal cystectomy or STC) in rats. The goal of the present study was to extend our investigations of bladder repair to the murine model, to harness the power of mouse genetics to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the observed robust bladder regrowth. Female C57 black mice underwent STC, and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-STC, bladder repair and function were assessed via cystometry, ex vivo pharmacologic organ bath studies, and T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histology was also performed to measure bladder wall thickness. We observed a time-dependent increase in bladder capacity (BC) following STC, such that 8 and 12 weeks post-STC, BC and micturition volumes were indistinguishable from those of age-matched non-STC controls and significantly higher than observed at 4 weeks. MRI studies confirmed that bladder volume was indistinguishable within 3 months (11 weeks) post-STC. Additionally, bladders emptied completely at all time points studied (i.e., no increases in residual volume), consistent with functional bladder repair. At 8 and 12 weeks post-STC, there were no significant differences in bladder wall thickness or in the different components (urothelium, lamina propria, or smooth muscle layers) of the bladder wall compared with age-matched control animals. The maximal contractile response to pharmacological activation and electrical field stimulation increased over time in isolated tissue strips from repaired bladders but remained lower at all time points compared with controls. We have established and validated a murine model for the study of de novo organ repair that will allow for further mechanistic studies of this phenomenon after, for example, genetic manipulation.

  11. The influence of elements of synchronized swimming on technique of the selected swimming strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Široký, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Title: The influence of elements of synchronized swimming on technique of the selected swimming strokes Objectives: The objective of the thesis is to assess the effect of the elements of synchronized swimming at improving the techniques of swimming. Methods: The results were detected by overt observation with active participation and subsequent scaling on the ordinal scale 1 to 5. Results: The results show that the influence of the elements of synchronized swimming on improving the technique ...

  12. Spontaneous Bladder Perforation in an Infant Neurogenic Bladder: Laparoscopic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cabezalí Barbancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder perforation is an uncommon event in childhood. It is usually associated with bladder augmentation. We are presenting a case of bladder rupture in an infant with neurogenic bladder without prior bladder surgery. Three days after lipomyelomeningocele excision the patient showed signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. The ultrasound exploration revealed significant amount of intraperitoneal free fluid and therefore a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A posterior bladder rupture was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Currently, being 3 years old, she keeps successfully dry with clean intermittent catheterization. Neurogenic bladder voiding function can change at any time of its evolution and lead to complications. Early diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture is of paramount importance, so it is essential to think about it in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

  13. The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauga, Eric [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Powers, Thomas R [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912-9104 (United States)], E-mail: elauga@ucsd.edu, E-mail: Thomas_Powers@brown.edu

    2009-09-15

    Cell motility in viscous fluids is ubiquitous and affects many biological processes, including reproduction, infection and the marine life ecosystem. Here we review the biophysical and mechanical principles of locomotion at the small scales relevant to cell swimming, tens of micrometers and below. At this scale, inertia is unimportant and the Reynolds number is small. Our emphasis is on the simple physical picture and fundamental flow physics phenomena in this regime. We first give a brief overview of the mechanisms for swimming motility, and of the basic properties of flows at low Reynolds number, paying special attention to aspects most relevant for swimming such as resistance matrices for solid bodies, flow singularities and kinematic requirements for net translation. Then we review classical theoretical work on cell motility, in particular early calculations of swimming kinematics with prescribed stroke and the application of resistive force theory and slender-body theory to flagellar locomotion. After examining the physical means by which flagella are actuated, we outline areas of active research, including hydrodynamic interactions, biological locomotion in complex fluids, the design of small-scale artificial swimmers and the optimization of locomotion strategies.

  14. The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauga, Eric; Powers, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Cell motility in viscous fluids is ubiquitous and affects many biological processes, including reproduction, infection and the marine life ecosystem. Here we review the biophysical and mechanical principles of locomotion at the small scales relevant to cell swimming, tens of micrometers and below. At this scale, inertia is unimportant and the Reynolds number is small. Our emphasis is on the simple physical picture and fundamental flow physics phenomena in this regime. We first give a brief overview of the mechanisms for swimming motility, and of the basic properties of flows at low Reynolds number, paying special attention to aspects most relevant for swimming such as resistance matrices for solid bodies, flow singularities and kinematic requirements for net translation. Then we review classical theoretical work on cell motility, in particular early calculations of swimming kinematics with prescribed stroke and the application of resistive force theory and slender-body theory to flagellar locomotion. After examining the physical means by which flagella are actuated, we outline areas of active research, including hydrodynamic interactions, biological locomotion in complex fluids, the design of small-scale artificial swimmers and the optimization of locomotion strategies.

  15. Sports Medicine Meets Synchronized Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Betty J.; And Others

    This collection of articles contains information about synchronized swimming. Topics covered include general physiology and cardiovascular conditioning, flexibility exercises, body composition, strength training, nutrition, coach-athlete relationships, coping with competition stress and performance anxiety, and eye care. Chapters are included on…

  16. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    shark). Redrawn from Review of Fish. Swimming Modes for Aquatic. Locomotion, IEEE Journal of. Oceanic Engineering, Vol.24,. No.2, pp. 237–252, 1999, D M. Lane, M Sfakiotakis and J B C. Davies, Heriot-Watt University. undulatory → oscillatory caudaltail¯n (B C F ) m otions are know n collectively as. B C F sw im m ers.

  17. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  18. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  19. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    forces generated by their °apping tails. A nguilliform sw im m .... In natural systems, like a human walking or a ¯sh swimming, there is always unsteadiness. ... (L) mainly from the wings balances the weight (W). b) For the fish shown here the thrust is mainly from the flapping tail. Lift from fins and buoyancy (FB ) bal- ance the ...

  20. The Effect of Swimming Experience on Acquisition and Retention of Swimming-Based Taste Aversion Learning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2010-01-01

    Swimming endows rats with an aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. The present study explored whether the experience of swimming before or after the taste-swimming trials interferes with swimming-based taste aversion learning. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single preexposure to 20 min of swimming was as effective as four or…

  1. Bladder activation: afferent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2002-05-01

    The major function of the lower urinary tract is to store and periodically evacuate urine from the bladder. This requires coordination of the smooth muscles of the bladder and urethra, and of the striated muscles of the outflow region and pelvic floor by a complex neural control system. Lumbosacral afferent fibers (pelvic afferents), but also afferents in the hypogastric and pudendal nerves, are of major importance for the regulation of the mechanisms for continence and micturition. In the bladder, afferent nerves have been identified suburothelially as well as in the detrusor muscle. Suburothelially, they form a plexus that lies immediately beneath the epithelial lining. This plexus is particularly dense in the bladder neck and the trigone. The most important afferents for the micturition process are myelinated Adelta-fibers and unmyelinated C-fibers. Immunocytochemical and tracing studies have revealed that numerous peptides, including substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, enkephalins, and cholecystokinin are localized either alone, or in combination, in afferent pathways of the bladder and urethra. The receptors on these nerves include: vanilloid receptors, purinoceptors, tachykinin, and prostanoid receptors. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been found to mediate excitation of small-diameter sensory neurons via P2X3 receptors, and it has been proposed that in the bladder, distention causes release of ATP from the urothelium. ATP, in turn, can activate P2X3 receptors on suburothelial afferent nerve terminals to evoke a neural discharge. However, it is most likely that a cascade of inhibitory and stimulatory transmitters/mediators, as well as ATP, are involved in the transduction mechanisms underlying the activation of afferent fibers during bladder filling.

  2. Intra-fractional bladder motion and margins in adaptive radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Caroline; Vestergaard, Anne; Høyer, Morten

    2015-01-01

    and to estimate population-based and patient-specific intra-fractional margins, also relevant for a future re-optimisation strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nine patients treated in a clinical phase II ART trial of daily plan selection for bladder cancer were included. In the library plans, 5 mm isotropic margins......BACKGROUND: The bladder is a tumour site well suited for adaptive radiotherapy (ART) due to large inter-fractional changes, but it also displays considerable intra-fractional motion. The aim of this study was to assess target coverage with a clinically applied method for plan selection ART...... were added to account for intra-fractional changes. Pre-treatment and weekly repeat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) series were acquired in which a full three-dimensional (3D) volume was scanned every second min for 10 min (a total of 366 scans in 61 series). Initially, the bladder clinical target...

  3. A Primer for the Primary Care Physician: Management of Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, Margaret E; Barker, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome affects millions of women in the U.S. and is defined by urinary urgency, urinary frequency, and small volume voids, with or without nocturia and incontinence. Overactive bladder is a diagnosis of exclusion, and several therapies exist for the management of this condition. This article outlines a systematic approach that the primary care physician can take when treating a patient with overactive bladder. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  4. Toll-like receptor 7 is overexpressed in the bladder of Hunner-type interstitial cystitis, and its activation in the mouse bladder can induce cystitis and bladder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Koji; Aizawa, Naoki; Akiyama, Yoshiyuki; Kamei, Jun; Masumori, Naoya; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Homma, Yukio; Igawa, Yasuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is associated with the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome, well-known diseases accompanying interstitial cystitis (IC). We studied TLR7 expression in the bladder of patients with Hunner-type IC (HIC) and its functional roles in bladder inflammation and nociception using mice. Bladder biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with HIC. Specimens from the noncancerous portion of the bladder of patients with bladder cancer served as controls. The specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction of TLR7. Loxoribine (LX), a TLR7 agonist, was instilled in the bladder of C57BL/6N female mice, and TLR7-mRNA expression and histological changes of the bladder, bladder pain-like licking behavior, voiding behavior, cystometry, and bladder afferent nerve activities were investigated. The effects of hydroxychloroquine, a TLR7 antagonist, on the LX-induced changes on cystometry and voiding behavior were studied. The number of TLR7 immuno-reactive cells and the mRNA expression of TLR7 were significantly increased in HIC specimens. Intravesical instillation of LX induced edema, congestion, inflammation, and significantly increased TLR7-mRNA expression in the mouse bladder. Loxoribine-instillation also significantly increased licking behavior, voiding frequency, and afferent nerve activities associated with decreased single-voided volume and intercontraction interval of micturitions. Hydroxychloroquine reversed the LX-induced cystometric and voiding behavioral changes. Toll-like receptor 7 was up-regulated in the bladder mucosa of patients with HIC, and activation of TLR7 in the mouse bladder induced cystitis with sensory hyperactivity of the bladder. Blocking the TLR7 pathway may be an innovative treatment target of HIC.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Registry: Malignant tumor of urinary bladder Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (1 link) MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Bladder Cancer General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  6. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer Atezolizumab Avelumab Bavencio (Avelumab) Cisplatin Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Durvalumab ...

  7. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  8. Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

    2014-04-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. The artificial bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgrandchamps, F; Griffith, D P

    1999-04-01

    An artificial bladder should provide adequate urine storage, allow volitional complete evacuation of urine and preserve renal function. Moreover, its structure has to be biocompatible, resistant to urinary encrustation and tolerant to bacterial infection. Various solutions have been proposed over the years to achieve these multiple requirements. However, most of these solutions and their corresponding prototypes did not advance beyond the stage of a preliminary report of experimental data. This review will bring out the 'proof of principal' in alloplastic prosthetic bladder, including type of alloplast and design concept and the recent development in tissue engineering approaches.

  10. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has...... experienced the symptoms for at least 6 weeks in the absence of any confusable diseases that may give rise to the symptoms. Symptoms compatible with the diagnosis are now thought to affect up to 3% of the female population in the United States with a 5:1 female-to-male preponderance. Diagnosis and treatment...

  11. Segmental irradiation of the bladder with neodymium YAG laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, M.S.; Mador, D.R.; Tulip, J.; Ritchie, B.; Moore, R.; Lakey, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Neodymium YAG laser energy source can be readily adapted for cystoscopic use by some simple modifications of existing urologic equipment. Both the fiberoptic resectoscope and a deflecting cystourethroscope have been adapted for this purpose. Fixation of the fiber tip 1 cm. from the target and use of a divergent beam of 36 degrees allows the delivery of standardized dosage to a relatively large bladder tissue volume. Animal experiments involving 35 mongrel dogs established that repetitive overlapping doses of 200 joules ech can successfully treat a large area of bladder resulting in a full thickness bladder wall injury. This technique has been used in 4 high risk patients with infiltrating bladder cancer without adverse sequelae. The ability to reliably produce a full thickness lesion may give this modality a therapeutic advantage over conventional cautery techniques especially for the treatment of residual infiltrative carcinoma

  12. The NLRP3 Inflammasome Mediates Inflammation Produced by Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Francis M; Hill, Hayden M; Wood, Case M; Edmondson, Andrew T; Dumas, Aliya; Foo, Wen-Chi; Oelsen, James M; Rac, Goran; Purves, J Todd

    2016-05-01

    While bladder outlet obstruction is well established to elicit an inflammatory reaction in the bladder that leads to overactive bladder and fibrosis, little is known about the mechanism by which this is initiated. NLRs (NOD-like receptors) and the structures that they form (inflammasomes) have been identified as sensors of cellular damage, including pressure induced damage, and triggers of inflammation. Recently we identified these structures in the urothelium. In this study we assessed the role of the NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3) inflammasome in bladder dysfunction resulting from bladder outlet obstruction. Bladder outlet obstruction was created in female rats by inserting a 1 mm outer diameter transurethral catheter, tying a silk ligature around the urethra and removing the catheter. Untreated and sham operated rats served as controls. Rats with bladder outlet obstruction were given vehicle (10% ethanol) or 10 mg/kg glyburide (a NLRP3 inhibitor) orally daily for 12 days. Inflammasome activity, bladder hypertrophy, inflammation and bladder function (urodynamics) were assessed. Bladder outlet obstruction increased urothelial inflammasome activity, bladder hypertrophy and inflammation, and decreased voided volume. Glyburide blocked inflammasome activation, reduced hypertrophy and prevented inflammation. The decrease in voided volume was also attenuated by glyburide mechanistically as an increase in detrusor contraction duration and voiding period. Results suggest the importance of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the induction of inflammation and bladder dysfunction secondary to bladder outlet obstruction. Arresting these processes with NLRP3 inhibitors may prove useful to treat the symptoms that they produce. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer using deformable image registration of empty and full bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Caine, H.; Hunt, P.

    2015-01-01

    A common objective of various adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies for bladder cancer is to reduce irradiation of normal tissue, thereby reduce the risk of radiation induced toxicity, and maintain or improve the target coverage. Bladder radiotherapy, typically involves generous margins (up to 20...... bladder cancer patients and a total of 100 fractions. It was found that the smaller a-PTV, a-PTV4 and a-PTV3, were appropriate in 87% of the fractions, while a-PTV2 and a-PTV1 were required in 12% of the fractions respectively. The use of the a-PTVs reduced the PTV volume by 32% (28-36%) as compared...... to conv-PTV. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study indicate that the use of a-PTVs could result in substantial decrease in the course averaged planning target volume. This reduction in the PTV is likely to decrease the radiation related toxicity and benefit bladder cancer patients. Currently...

  14. Generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam CT using a patient-specific bladder shape model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoot, A. J. A. J. van de; Schooneveldt, G.; Wognum, S.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Bel, A.; Hoogeman, M. S.; Chai, X.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), independent of gender and treatment position (prone or supine), using only pretreatment imaging data. Methods: Data of 20 patients, treated for tumors in the pelvic region with the entire bladder visible on CT and CBCT, were divided into four equally sized groups based on gender and treatment position. The full and empty bladder contour, that can be acquired with pretreatment CT imaging, were used to generate a patient-specific bladder shape model. This model was used to guide the segmentation process on CBCT. To obtain the bladder segmentation, the reference bladder contour was deformed iteratively by maximizing the cross-correlation between directional grey value gradients over the reference and CBCT bladder edge. To overcome incorrect segmentations caused by CBCT image artifacts, automatic adaptations were implemented. Moreover, locally incorrect segmentations could be adapted manually. After each adapted segmentation, the bladder shape model was expanded and new shape patterns were calculated for following segmentations. All available CBCTs were used to validate the segmentation algorithm. The bladder segmentations were validated by comparison with the manual delineations and the segmentation performance was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), surface distance error (SDE) and SD of contour-to-contour distances. Also, bladder volumes obtained by manual delineations and segmentations were compared using a Bland-Altman error analysis. Results: The mean DSC, mean SDE, and mean SD of contour-to-contour distances between segmentations and manual delineations were 0.87, 0.27 cm and 0.22 cm (female, prone), 0.85, 0.28 cm and 0.22 cm (female, supine), 0.89, 0.21 cm and 0.17 cm (male, supine) and 0.88, 0.23 cm and 0.17 cm (male, prone), respectively. Manual local adaptations improved the segmentation

  15. Generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam CT using a patient-specific bladder shape model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoot, A. J. A. J. van de, E-mail: a.j.schootvande@amc.uva.nl; Schooneveldt, G.; Wognum, S.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Bel, A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoogeman, M. S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Chai, X. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Palo Alto, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), independent of gender and treatment position (prone or supine), using only pretreatment imaging data. Methods: Data of 20 patients, treated for tumors in the pelvic region with the entire bladder visible on CT and CBCT, were divided into four equally sized groups based on gender and treatment position. The full and empty bladder contour, that can be acquired with pretreatment CT imaging, were used to generate a patient-specific bladder shape model. This model was used to guide the segmentation process on CBCT. To obtain the bladder segmentation, the reference bladder contour was deformed iteratively by maximizing the cross-correlation between directional grey value gradients over the reference and CBCT bladder edge. To overcome incorrect segmentations caused by CBCT image artifacts, automatic adaptations were implemented. Moreover, locally incorrect segmentations could be adapted manually. After each adapted segmentation, the bladder shape model was expanded and new shape patterns were calculated for following segmentations. All available CBCTs were used to validate the segmentation algorithm. The bladder segmentations were validated by comparison with the manual delineations and the segmentation performance was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), surface distance error (SDE) and SD of contour-to-contour distances. Also, bladder volumes obtained by manual delineations and segmentations were compared using a Bland-Altman error analysis. Results: The mean DSC, mean SDE, and mean SD of contour-to-contour distances between segmentations and manual delineations were 0.87, 0.27 cm and 0.22 cm (female, prone), 0.85, 0.28 cm and 0.22 cm (female, supine), 0.89, 0.21 cm and 0.17 cm (male, supine) and 0.88, 0.23 cm and 0.17 cm (male, prone), respectively. Manual local adaptations improved the segmentation

  16. Stepwise cystometry : a new method to investigate properties of the urinary bladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.L.R.A. Coolsaet (Bo)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractThe urinary bladder has a twofold function : 1. to store urine and 2. to expel it if necessary under complete voluntary control. The bladder can store various volumes of urine at a low and approximately constant intravesical pressure until capacity is reached. In the literature, this

  17. Urothelial Tight Junction Barrier Dysfunction Sensitizes Bladder Afferents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rued, Anna C.; Taiclet, Stefanie N.; Birder, Lori A.; Kullmann, F. Aura

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic voiding disorder that presents with pain in the urinary bladder and surrounding pelvic region. A growing body of evidence suggests that an increase in the permeability of the urothelium, the epithelial barrier that lines the interior of the bladder, contributes to the symptoms of IC/BPS. To examine the consequence of increased urothelial permeability on pelvic pain and afferent excitability, we overexpressed in the urothelium claudin 2 (Cldn2), a tight junction (TJ)-associated protein whose message is significantly upregulated in biopsies of IC/BPS patients. Consistent with the presence of bladder-derived pain, rats overexpressing Cldn2 showed hypersensitivity to von Frey filaments applied to the pelvic region. Overexpression of Cldn2 increased the expression of c-Fos and promoted the activation of ERK1/2 in spinal cord segments receiving bladder input, which we conceive is the result of noxious stimulation of afferent pathways. To determine whether the mechanical allodynia observed in rats with reduced urothelial barrier function results from altered afferent activity, we examined the firing of acutely isolated bladder sensory neurons. In patch-clamp recordings, about 30% of the bladder sensory neurons from rats transduced with Cldn2, but not controls transduced with GFP, displayed spontaneous activity. Furthermore, bladder sensory neurons with tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) action potentials from rats transduced with Cldn2 showed hyperexcitability in response to suprathreshold electrical stimulation. These findings suggest that as a result of a leaky urothelium, the diffusion of urinary solutes through the urothelial barrier sensitizes bladders afferents, promoting voiding at low filling volumes and pain. PMID:28560313

  18. Swimming and Persons with Mild Persistant Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Arandelovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR in patients with mild persistent asthma. This study included 65 patients with mild persistent asthma, who were divided into two groups: experimental group A (n = 45 and control group B (n = 20. Patients from both groups were treated with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and short-acting β2 agonists salbutamol as needed. Our program for patients in group A was combined asthma education with swimming (twice a week on a 1-h basis for the following 6 months. At the end of the study, in Group A, we found a statistically significant increase of lung function parameters FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (3.55 vs. 3.65 (p < 0.01, FVC (forced vital capacity (4.27 vs. 4.37 (p < 0.05, PEF (peak expiratory flow (7.08 vs. 7.46 (p < 0.01, and statistically significant decrease of BHR (PD20 0.58 vs. 2.01 (p < 0.001. In Group B, there was a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 3.29 vs. 3.33 (p < 0.05 and although FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were improved, it was not significant. When Groups A and B were compared at the end of the study, there was a statistically significant difference of FVC (4.01 vs. 4.37, FEV1 (3.33 vs. 3.55, PEF (6.79 vs.7.46, and variability (p <0.001, and statistically significantly decreased BHR in Group A (2.01 vs. 1.75 (p < 0.001. Engagement of patients with mild persistent asthma in recreational swimming in nonchlorinated pools, combined with regular medical treatment and education, leads to better improvement of their parameters of lung function and also to more significant decrease of their airway hyperresponsiveness compared to patients treated with traditional medicine

  19. Nutritional recommendations for synchronized swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sherry; Benardot, Dan; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed. Because of the aesthetic nature of the sport, which prioritizes leanness, the risks of energy and macronutrient deficiencies are of significant concern. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and disordered eating/eating disorders are also of concern for these female athletes. An approach to the healthy management of body composition in synchronized swimming is outlined. Synchronized swimmers should be encouraged to consume a well-balanced diet with sufficient energy to meet demands and to time the intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to optimize performance and body composition. Micronutrients of concern for this female athlete population include iron, calcium, and vitamin D. This article reviews the physiological demands of synchronized swimming and makes nutritional recommendations for recovery, training, and competition to help optimize athletic performance and to reduce risks for weight-related medical issues that are of particular concern for elite synchronized swimmers.

  20. Cetacean Swimming with Prosthetic Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode-Oke, Ayodeji; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Fish, Frank

    2016-11-01

    During entanglement in fishing gear, dolphins can suffer abrasions and amputations of flukes and fins. As a result, if the dolphin survives the ordeal, swimming performance is altered. Current rehabilitation technques is the use of prosthesis to regain swimming ability. In this work, analyses are focused on two dolphins with locomotive impairment; Winter (currently living in Clearwater Marine Aquarium in Florida) and Fuji (lived in Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium in Japan). Fuji lost about 75% of its fluke surface to necrosis (death of cells) and Winter lost its tail due to amputation. Both dolphins are aided by prosthetic tails that mimic the shape of a real dolphin tail. Using 3D surface reconstruction techniques and a high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow solver, we were able to elucidate the kinematics and hydrodynamics and fluke deformation of these swimmers to clarify the effectiveness of prostheses in helping the dolphins regain their swimming ability. Associated with the performance, we identified distinct features in the wake structures that can explain this gap in the performance compared to a healthy dolphin. This work was supported by ONR MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  1. SU-F-T-397: Evaluating the Impact of Bladder Filling Status for the Organs at Risk Dose Distribution in Cervical Cancer Patients with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

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    Zhang, JY [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Hong, DL [The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of bladder filling status of the organs at risk (OARs) on dose distribution during intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer patients. Methods: Twelve cervical cancer patients treated with IMRT were selected for this study. The prescription dose was 45Gy/25 fractions with the 6 MV photon beam. All patients performed two CT scans, one with an empty bladder, the other one with bladder filled. For the registration of two CT scans, the fusion was automatically carried out upon the bony anatomy. The OARs (bladder, rectum, pelvic bone and small intestine) were delineated to planning CT to evaluate the dose distributions. These dose distributions were compared between empty bladder and bladder filling. Results: The bladder volume with empty bladder and bladder filling was 403.2±124.13cc and 101.4±87.5cc, respectively. There were no statistical differences between empty bladder and bladder filling in the mean value of pelvic bone V10Gy, V20Gy, V40Gy; rectum V40Gy and V45Gy. The bladder V40Gy and V45Gy were lower in the bladder filling group than in the empty bladder group (63.7%±5.8% vs 87.5%±7.8%, 45.1%±9.5% vs 62.4%±11.8%, respectively). The V45Gy for small intestine in the bladder filling group was significantly less than the empty bladder group (146.7cc±95.3cc vs 245.7cc±101.8cc). Conclusion: Our study finds that the bladder filling status did not have a significant impact on dose distribution in the rectum and pelvic bone. However, the changes of bladder filling have a large impact on bladder and small intestine doses. A full bladder is strongly recommended during treatment for cervical cancer patients.

  2. SU-F-T-397: Evaluating the Impact of Bladder Filling Status for the Organs at Risk Dose Distribution in Cervical Cancer Patients with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, JY; Hong, DL

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of bladder filling status of the organs at risk (OARs) on dose distribution during intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer patients. Methods: Twelve cervical cancer patients treated with IMRT were selected for this study. The prescription dose was 45Gy/25 fractions with the 6 MV photon beam. All patients performed two CT scans, one with an empty bladder, the other one with bladder filled. For the registration of two CT scans, the fusion was automatically carried out upon the bony anatomy. The OARs (bladder, rectum, pelvic bone and small intestine) were delineated to planning CT to evaluate the dose distributions. These dose distributions were compared between empty bladder and bladder filling. Results: The bladder volume with empty bladder and bladder filling was 403.2±124.13cc and 101.4±87.5cc, respectively. There were no statistical differences between empty bladder and bladder filling in the mean value of pelvic bone V10Gy, V20Gy, V40Gy; rectum V40Gy and V45Gy. The bladder V40Gy and V45Gy were lower in the bladder filling group than in the empty bladder group (63.7%±5.8% vs 87.5%±7.8%, 45.1%±9.5% vs 62.4%±11.8%, respectively). The V45Gy for small intestine in the bladder filling group was significantly less than the empty bladder group (146.7cc±95.3cc vs 245.7cc±101.8cc). Conclusion: Our study finds that the bladder filling status did not have a significant impact on dose distribution in the rectum and pelvic bone. However, the changes of bladder filling have a large impact on bladder and small intestine doses. A full bladder is strongly recommended during treatment for cervical cancer patients.

  3. Voiding diary might serve as a useful tool to understand differences between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Han; Oh, Shin Ah; Oh, Seung-June

    2014-02-01

    To identify the voiding characteristics of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder. Between September 2005 and June 2010, 3-day voiding diaries of 49 consecutive bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients and 301 overactive bladder patients were prospectively collected at an outpatient clinic and retrospectively analyzed. The characteristics of the two groups were not significantly different. However, all voiding variables including volume and frequency were significantly different except for the total voided volume: patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis showed significantly higher voiding frequencies, smaller maximal and mean voided volume, and more constant and narrower ranges of voided volume compared with overactive bladder patients (P interstitial cystitis were shorter and more consistent during the day and night (P interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder patients differ significantly according to 3-day voiding diary records. These findings provide additional information regarding the differences between these two diseases in the outpatient clinical setting. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Change of Ultrasound Estimated Bladder Weight and Bladder Wall Thickness After Treatment of Bladder Outlet Obstruction With Dutasteride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ha Na; Lee, Young-Suk; Han, Deok Hyun; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the change of bladder wall hypertrophy to relieve bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) by treatment with 5α-reductase inhibitor. Men who have BOO confirmed by urodynamic study (BOO index ≥40) were treated with dutasteride 0.5 mg once a day for 6 months. We measured ultrasound estimated bladder weight (UEBW), UEBW divided by body surface area (UEBW/BSA), and bladder wall thickness (BWT) before and after treatment. Changes in LUTS parameters were assessed by using the International Prostate Symptom Score, uroflowmetry, residual urine volume, prostate volume, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and LUTS outcome scores (LOS). Correlation between the change of LUTS parameters and UEBW, UEBW/BSA, and BWT were evaluated. We assessed the changes of bladder wall hypertrophy according to the results of benefit, satisfaction, and willingness to continue (BSW) questionnaire. Thirty patients completed the 6-month study. The mean UEBW was 47.10 ± 7.79 g before and 50.07 ± 5.39 g after dutasteride treatment (P = 0.259). The mean UEBW/BSA was 26.47 ± 4.30 g/m 2 before and 28.2 ± 3.53 g/m 2 after treatment (P = 0.253), and there was no definite change in mean BWT after treatment (P = 0.301). Most LUTS parameters including LOS significantly improved. Increased BOO index value was related to decreased BWT (ρ = 0.361, P = 0.049). There was no definite change in mean UEBW, UEBW/BSA, and BWT according to the results of the BSW questionnaire. There was no change in UEBW, UEBW/BSA and BWT despite improving most clinical parameters suggesting BOO. The changes of bladder wall hypertrophy parameters still have limitations to directly reflect the relief of BOO. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Chronic kidney disease in neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Bong Mo; Oh, Dong-Jin; Choi, Moon Hee; Choi, Hye Min

    2018-03-01

    It was believed that neurogenic bladder (NB) might be a risk factor of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, data are limited regarding the real incidence or risk of CKD in NB. In addition, serum creatinine (sCr), a classical marker of renal function, is not reliable in NB patients because they present muscle wasting due to disuse or denervation. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of CKD in NB patients using serum Cystatin-C. Secondly, we aimed to identify the risk factors for CKD development in NB. This was a cross-sectional study in a public hospital, a specialized center for patients who were victims of industrial accidents. Serum Cystatin-C was checked at the regular laboratory test in the structured NB programme of the hospital, and 313 patients were included in the study. The overall prevalence of CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) bladder volume, recurrent urinary tract infection, and proteinuria were significantly associated with CKD in the multivariable analysis. Chronic kidney disease prevalence was more than three times higher in NB patients than in the general population despite recent progress in the medical care of NB. Co-morbid diabetes, small bladder volume, recurrent urinary tract infection, and proteinuria seem to be the risk factors for CKD development in NB. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Leiomyoma of Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of leiomyoma of urinary bladder, a rare benign tumor, is presented. The patient was a 45-year-old woman with long duration history of dysuria. Intravenous urography (IVU, ultrasound (US, computed tomography (CT and biopsy diagnosed this case accurately. The clinical presentation, imaging findings and management of this benign tumor are discussed.

  7. Postmenopausal overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Tomaszewski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder storage symptoms have a severe impact on many areas as regards the quality of life including health-related, social, psychological and working functions. Pharmacotherapy of lower urinary tract stores (LUTS has been developed to optimize neural control of the lower urinary tract in pathologic states. The bladder can be overactive or underactive. Overactive bladder (OAB is highly prevalent and is associated with considerable morbidity, especially in aging population. Therefore, an effective treatment of OAB must result in a meaningful reduction in urinary symptoms. Pharmacotherapy for the OAB must be individualized based on the degree of bother, medication side-effect profile, concomitant comorbidities and current medication regimen. Antimuscarinic agents will continue to represent the current gold standard for the first-line pharmacological management of OAB. Alternatively to antimuscarinic therapy, 3-adrenergic receptor agonists, due to their efficacy and favorable adverse event profile, are a novel and attractive option of pharmacological treatment of overactive bladder symptoms. A combination of selective antimuscarinic and 3-adrenergic receptor agonists, agents with the different mechanism of action, gives a new treatment option for the patient with OAB according to its harms profile. A number of putative novel therapeutic agents is under clinical evaluations that may ultimately provide alternative or combination treatment options for OAB in the nearest future.

  8. Radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    Methods of treating bladder cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as various combinations of these. The author investigated clinically and histopathologically the therapeutic results of preoperative irradiation in cases of bladder cancer. 1. The survival rates (crude survival rates) in forty cases of bladder cancer were 90% after one year, 62.5% after three years and 46% after five years from the treatment. 2. As the result of irradiation, urogram improved in 25%, which was comparatively remarkable in high stage cases. There were no cases of deterioration of urogram findings caused by irradiation. Cystoscopy revealed disappearance or remarkable shrinkage of the tumors in 35% of the total cases and effects of the irradiation was observed not correlated to the stage and grade. 3. With respect to the histopathological changes, the changes became greater as the dosage increased and the higher the stage and grade were the more remarkable tendency was observed. 4. From our clinical observations such as urogram, cystoscopy and histopathologically, we estimated the optimum dosage of preoperative irradiation for bladder cancer is 3000 - 4000 rad. Thus, we concluded that the radiotherapy is effective in reducing both surgical invasion and postoperative recurrence. (author)

  9. Bladder function in 17β-estradiol-induced nonbacterial prostatitis model in Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Kawai, Yuko; Oka, Michiko; Oyama, Tatsuya; Hashizume, Kazumi; Wada, Naoki; Hori, Jun-ichi; Tamaki, Gaku; Kita, Masafumi; Iwata, Tatsuya; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2013-06-01

    To investigate bladder function in a model of nonbacterial prostatitis (NBP) induced in castrated rats by 17β-estradiol injection. Ten-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, sham and NBP (both N = 8). NBP was induced by castration followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol for 30 days. On the 31st day after surgery, we investigated (1) voiding behavior, (2) bladder blood flow (BBF), (3) prostate and bladder weight, and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and CXCL1) levels and (4) bladder contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), carbachol and KCl. (1) Voiding behavior (average micturition volume, total urine volume and number of micturitions) and (2) BBF were not significantly different between the sham and NBP groups. (3) NBP led to a significant decrease in prostatic weight and increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels in the prostate, but NBP did not cause a significant change in bladder weight or proinflammatory cytokine levels in the bladder. (4) Bladder contractile forces in response to EFS, carbachol and KCl were not significantly affected by NBP. In this rat model, NBP did not cause a significant change in the level of proinflammatory cytokines in the bladder and affect bladder function.

  10. Kinematics of swimming garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Yonatan

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the kinematics of swimming garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) using a novel nonlinear regression-based digitization method to establish quantitative statistical support for non-constant wavelengths in the undulatory pattern exhibited by swimming snakes. We find that in swimming snakes, the growth of the amplitude of the propulsive wave head-to-tail is strongly correlated (p < 0.005) with the head-to-tail growth in the wavelength. We investigate correlations between kinematic parameters and steady swimming speed, and find a very strong positive correlation between swimming speed and undulation frequency. We furthermore find a statistically well-supported positive correlation between swimming speed and both the initial amplitude of the propulsive wave at the head and the degree of amplitude growth from head to tail.

  11. Enhanced active swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Emily E; Lauga, Eric Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Swimming microorganisms often self propel in fluids with complex rheology. While past theoretical work indicates that fluid viscoelasticity should hinder their locomotion, recent experiments on waving swimmers suggest a possible non-Newtonian enhancement of locomotion. We suggest a physical mechanism, based on fluid-structure interaction, leading to swimming in a viscoelastic fluid at a higher speed than in a Newtonian one. Using Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model, we solve for the...

  12. HYDRODINAMICS AND SWIMMING TEHNIQUE AS PARAMETERS FOR SUCCESSFULL SWIMMING AT THE AGE 10–12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Dimitrić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to confirm that swimming technique and hydrodynamic parameters of a swimmer are relevant for successful swimming. Total of 63 boys, at the age of 10-12, participated in this research. There were 15 criterion morphology and specific motoric skills variables as well as one predictive variable derived from FINA points. We have concluded that hydrodynamic and swimming technique significantly contributes for successful swimming. These facts should use trainers as guidance for workout plan.

  13. Urodynamic characteristics might be variable in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients with different non-bladder co-morbid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Ming; Fan, Yu-Hua; Lin, Alex T L

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the impact of non-bladder co-morbid conditions on the urodynamic characteristics of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis completed the screening questionnaires for chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, temporo-mandibular disorders, multiple chemical sensitivities, tension/migraine headache, and localized myofascial pain disorder. They underwent either conventional pressure-flow urodynamic studies or video-urodynamic studies. Urodynamic variables were compared between patients with and those without co-morbid conditions. Of 111 patients (16 males and 95 females) with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis, 87 (78.4%) had at least one co-morbid condition (62% males vs 82% females, p = 0.005). Those with concomitant irritable bowel syndrome were younger and had urodynamic characteristics of smaller catheter-free voided volume, lower catheter-free average flow rate, smaller bladder volume on the first desire to void, and more prevalent dysfunctional voiding than those without irritable bowel syndrome. Patients with concomitant localized myofascial pain disorder also had larger bladder volume at the first desire to void and lower pressure at maximum flow than those without co-morbid myofascial pain disorder. There were no significant differences in urodynamic parameters between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients with and those without other co-morbidities. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients, especially females, are more likely to have non-bladder co-morbidities, especially tension/migraine headache and localized myofascial pain. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis Patients with co-morbid irritable bowel syndrome are younger and more likely to have abnormal urodynamic findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  14. The Swimming Ability of Children with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benčuriková Ľubomíra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on findings of a pilot research to determine the level of swimming ability of children with weak respiratory system aged between 10 - 11 years, who attended special classes for asthmatics. Swimming ability was assessed by 25 m free style swimming test. The results of asthmatics were compared with healthy peers (Benčuriková 2006; Kováčová 2010; Labudová 2011. The results confirmed that the level of swimming capability of asthmatic children, despite their handicap, is significantly higher than their healthy peers.

  15. Tethered swimming can be used to evaluate force contribution for short-distance swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Keskinen, Kari L; Badillo, Juan J; Marques, Mário C

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to compare stroke and the physiological responses between maximal tethered and free front crawl swimming and (b) to evaluate the contribution of force exertion for swimming performance over short distances. A total of 34 male swimmers, representing various levels of competitive performance, participated in this study. Each participant was tested in both a 30-second maximal tethered swimming test and a 50-m free swimming test. The tethered force parameters, the swimming speed, stroke (stroke rate [SR]), and the physiological responses (increase in blood lactate concentration [ΔBLa], heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion) were recorded and calculated. The results showed no differences in stroke and the physiological responses between tethered and free swimming, with a high level of agreement for the SR and ΔBLa. A strong correlation was obtained between the maximum impulse of force per stroke and the speed (r = 0.91; p swimming performance. The relationship between the swimming speed and maximum force tended to be nonlinear, whereas linear relationships were observed with the maximum impulse. This study demonstrates that tethered swimming does not significantly alter stroke and the physiological responses compared with free swimming, and that the maximum impulse per stroke should be used to evaluate the balance between force and the ability to effectively apply force during sprint swimming. Consequently, coaches can rely on tethered forces to identify strength deficits and improve swimming performance over short distances.

  16. Neuromodulation attenuates bladder hyperactivity in a rat cystitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin; Nickles, Angela; Nelson, Dwight E

    2013-12-06

    We investigated the regulation of urinary bladder function by electrical stimulation of the L6 spinal nerve (SN) using cystometry in normal rats and in rats with cystitis induced by intravesical infusion of dilute acetic acid. In anesthetized rats, a cannula was placed into the bladder dome for saline/acetic acid infusion and intravesical pressure monitoring. Threshold pressure (TP), basal pressure (BP) and inter-contraction interval (ICI) were measured from the bladder pressure recording and void volume (VV) was measured by weighing the voided fluid. Comparison of cystometrograms obtained with infusion of saline or acetic acid showed that acetic acid decreases TP, ICI and VV. These excitatory effects, characteristic of acetic acid induced bladder hyperactivity, were significantly reversed by bilateral SN stimulation (P Hz and at motor threshold (0.19 ± 0.01 milliamps) increased ICI (265%) and VV (217%). In rats perfused with acetic acid, the corresponding increases produced by SN stimulation were 350% for ICI and 383% for VV. The percentage increases in the acetic acid-treated group were not significantly higher than those in saline-treated group. Using continuous flow cystyometry, we find that SN stimulation can produce effects on micturition consistent with its effects on isovolumetric model, and consistent with the therapeutic effect observed with InterStim® therapy in overactive bladder patients. Although the effect of SN stimulation was slightly greater in bladder irritated over normal rats, the difference was not statistically significant.

  17. Presumptive migrating gall bladder mucocoele in two dogs with gall bladder rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, R K; Thornton, L; Lim, C K; Murakami, M; Nakamura, Y; Gal, A

    2017-12-13

    A 10-year-old neutered female soft-coated wheaten terrier and a 10-year-old, entire female Pomeranian were presented for vomiting and anorexia. Using ultrasound, an oval structure with a stellate, kiwifruit-like appearance typical of a gall bladder mucocoele was observed in the caudal abdomen of the soft-coated wheaten terrier and adjacent to the liver in the Pomeranian. There was also a moderate volume of abdominal effusion in both dogs. Cytology of the peritoneal fluid indicated a sterile exudative process but varied between the two dogs, with an absence of bile pigment in the soft-coated wheaten terrier and marked bile peritonitis in the Pomeranian. An entire free-floating ectopic mucocoele was confirmed via exploratory laparotomy with concomitant gall bladder rupture and common bile duct obstruction. Both dogs recovered completely after surgery. This is the first report of cases of gall bladder rupture with entire free-floating gall bladder mucocoeles in dogs. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Innovation in Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, H Barton; Lamm, Donald L; Kamat, Ashish M; Keefe, Stephen; Taylor, John A; Ingersoll, Molly A

    2016-10-01

    Bladder cancer is understudied despite its high prevalence and its remarkable response to immunotherapy. Indeed, funding for studies to explore mechanisms of tumor immunity and novel new therapeutics is disproportionately lower for bladder cancer in comparison with malignancies of the breast, prostate, or lung. However, the recent successes of checkpoint blockade therapy suggest that new therapeutic strategies are on the horizon for bladder cancer. Here, we give a perspective into the evolution of bladder cancer therapy, focusing on strategies to treat high-risk nonmuscle invasive disease, followed by a discussion of recent advances in the treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer and their potential applicability to lower stage disease. Finally, we explore immunotherapeutic strategies, which have been demonstrated to be successful in the treatment of other malignancies, for their potential to treat and cure patients with nonmuscle and muscle invasive bladder cancer.

  19. Radiotherapy in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozan, R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992, the problem of the vesical radiotherapy is not resolved. The author presents the situation and the different techniques of radiotherapy in bladder cancers: external radiotherapy, only and associated with surgery, interstitial curietherapy and non-classical techniques as per operative radiotherapy, neutron therapy and concurrent radiotherapy with chemotherapy. In order to compare their efficiency, the five-year survival are given in all cases.(10 tabs)

  20. Pathophysiology of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakhar, Mai A; Al-Shaiji, Tariq F; Hassouna, Magdy M

    2012-08-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common disorder that negatively affects the quality of life of our patients and carries a large socioeconomic burden. According to the International Continence Society, it is characterized as urinary urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually, with frequency and nocturia in the absence of causative infection. The pathophysiology of this disease entity varies between neurogenic, myogenic, or idiopathic factors. This paper provides a review of the contemporary theories behind the pathophysiology of OAB.

  1. Should simultaneous ureteral reimplantation be performed during sigmoid bladder augmentation to reduce vesicoureteral reflux in neurogenic bladder cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Yang, Yong; Wu, Zhi-jin; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Chao-hua; Zhang, Xiao-dong

    2015-05-01

    To assess the necessity of performing simultaneous collateral reimplantation during sigmoid bladder augmentation (SBA) to reduce vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in low-compliance neuropathic bladder with associated VUR. We retrospectively identified 31 patients who underwent SBA alone or with simultaneous ureteral reimplantation at our hospital. The video urodynamics data, VUR status, renal function, and clinical symptoms were studied during follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 57 months (range 12-117). All patients displayed significantly increased safe cystometric capacity (P bladder compliance (P bladder volumes due to augmentation. The patients' improving renal function benefited most from the enlarged bladder and partly from increased antireflux resistance of vesico-ureter anastomosis. Twelve (38.7%) had recurrent febrile urinary tract infection after SBA, and one (3.2%) suffered from vesico-ureter anastomosis contracture after ureteral reimplantation. A preoperative intravesical VUR pressure of 20 cmH2O is not an effective cutoff point for whether ureteral reimplantation should be simultaneously performed during SBA. Augmentation appears to be more important than reimplantation for protecting kidney from damage due to febrile urinary tract infection after SBA. Simultaneous reimplantation may be not necessary during SBA in neurogenic bladder.

  2. Halliwickov koncept učenja plavanja in ocenjevanje plavalnih veščin: The Halliwick concept of teaching of swimming and assessment of swimming skills: The Halliwick concept of teaching of swimming and assessment of swimming skills:

    OpenAIRE

    Groleger, Katja; Vidmar, Gaj; Vrečar, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The Halliwick concept of teaching of swimming is a comprehensive programme of adaptation to water, learning to breathe, moving in water and swimming, aimed mainly at persons with movement and/or learning disabilities of different age. Assessment of swimming ability is an integral part of the Halliwick concept. The system of Halliwick badges is used, which has recently been supplemented by the Swimming With Independent Measurement (SWIM). There is no data on sensitivity of the SWIM test in the...

  3. Superficial Bladder Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Schenkman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer treatment remains a challenge despite significant improvements in preventing disease progression and improving survival. Intravesical therapy has been used in the management of superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder (i.e. Ta, T1, and carcinoma in situ with specific objectives which include treating existing or residual tumor, preventing recurrence of tumor, preventing disease progression, and prolonging survival. The initial clinical stage and grade remain the main determinant factors in survival regardless of the treatment. Prostatic urethral mucosal involvement with bladder cancer can be effectively treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG intravesical immunotherapy. Intravesical chemotherapy reduces short-term tumor recurrence by about 20%, and long-term recurrence by about 7%, but has not reduced progression or mortality. Presently, BCG immunotherapy remains the most effective treatment and prophylaxis for TCC (Ta, T1, CIS and reduces tumor recurrence, disease progression, and mortality. Interferons, Keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (KLH, bropirimine and Photofrin-Photodynamic Therapy (PDT are under investigation in the management of TCC and early results are encouraging. This review highlights and summarizes the recent advances in therapy for superficial TCC.

  4. Clinical implications of underactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Jin Ko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Underactive bladder (UAB is a common urologic condition but a complex disease that causes troublesome lower urinary tract symptoms. Currently, management of UAB remains unsatisfactory. Also, many urological diseases can be combined with UAB. In these combined cases, the treatment results may be affected by UAB component. This review focuses on the clinical implications of UAB in patients with common urologic conditions, including bladder outlet obstruction, overactive bladder syndrome and stress urinary incontinence.

  5. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    R F Sholan; G Sh Garaev; G M Nasrullaeva

    2018-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 0...

  6. Contemporary Management of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Fradet, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Bladder cancer is currently the fifth most common cancer in Western society, and its incidence appears to be increasing. Important advances have recently occurred in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder neoplasms. Presentation is not unique, and physician awareness is important to identify patients who are at risk for bladder neoplasia and consequently require further investigation. A diagnostic approach and contemporary management are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:21229043

  7. Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injury - bladder and urethra; Bruised bladder; Urethral injury; Bladder injury; Pelvic fracture; Urethral disruption ... Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  8. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed cons...

  9. Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Causes in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder outlet obstruction: Causes in men? My doctor says I might have bladder outlet obstruction. What does that mean? Answers from Erik P. Castle, M.D. Bladder outlet obstruction in men is a blockage that slows ...

  10. Prevalence of postoperative bladder distension and urinary retention detected by ultrasound measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamonerie, L; Marret, E; Deleuze, A; Lembert, N; Dupont, M; Bonnet, F

    2004-04-01

    Postoperative bladder distension and urinary retention are commonly underestimated. Ultrasound enables accurate measurement of bladder volume and thus makes it possible to determine the prevalence of postoperative bladder distension. Using ultrasound, we measured the volume of the bladder contents at the time of discharge from the recovery room in 177 adult patients who had undergone thoracic, vascular, abdominal, orthopaedic or ENT surgery. Forty-four per cent of the patients had a bladder volume >500 ml and 54% of the 44%, who had no symptoms of bladder distension, were unable to void spontaneously within 30 min. The risk factors for urinary retention were age >60 yr (odds ratio (OR) 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-4.38), spinal anaesthesia (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.32-11.89) and duration of surgery >120 min (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.39-6.61). Before discharge from the recovery room it seems worthwhile to systematically check the bladder volume with a portable ultrasound device in patients with risk factors.

  11. Heart rates and swim speeds of emperor penguins diving under sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, G L; Ponganis, P J; Castellini, M A; Ponganis, E P; Ponganis, K V; Thorson, P H; Eckert, S A; LeMaho, Y

    1992-04-01

    Heart rate during overnight rest and while diving were recorded from five emperor penguins with a microprocessor-controlled submersible recorder. Heart rate, cardiac output and stroke volume were also measured in two resting emperor penguins using standard electrocardiography and thermodilution measurements. Swim velocities from eight birds were obtained with the submersible recorder. The resting average of the mean heart rates was 72 beats min-1. Diving heart rates were about 15% lower than resting rates. Cardiac outputs of 1.9-2.9 ml kg-1 s-1 and stroke volumes of 1.6-2.7 ml kg-1 were similar to values recorded from mammals of the same body mass. Swim velocities averaged 3 m s-1. The swim speeds and heart rates suggest that muscle O2 depletion must occur frequently: therefore, many dives require a significant energy contribution from anaerobic glycolysis.

  12. Are we accurately predicting bladder capacity in infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel F.G.; Lavallée, Luke T.; Dubois, Claude; Leonard, Michael; Guerra, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Estimating bladder capacity is an important component in the evaluation of many urological disorders. For estimates to be of clinical value, precise reference ranges are needed. While accepted reference ranges have been established in adults and older children, none have been validated in infants. We endeavour to determine the normal bladder capacity of children less than 1 year of age. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children aged 0 to 12 months with cutaneous stigmata of spinal dysraphism who were referred to the urology clinic to rule out tethered cord between October 2004 and July 2011. Patients with normal urologic assessment, who did not have surgery during the time they were followed, were included in the study cohort. Urodynamic studies were performed using the Laborie Medical Technologies UDS-600. Bladder filling occurred via a catheter at a rate of 10% of the expected total bladder capacity/minute. Bladder capacity was defined as the volume of filling when the child voided around the catheter. We collected data, including age at urodynamics, bladder capacity, detrusor pressure at capacity, bladder compliance and length of follow-up. Result: In total, 46% (84/183) of patients had a normal urologic assessment and met the inclusion criteria. The median age was 9.0 months (interquartile range [IQR] 6.8–11.0). The average bladder capacity was 48.9 mL (standard deviation [SD] 32.8) and the mean detrusor pressure at capacity was 8.5 cmH2O (SD 10.0). Mean compliance was 14.1 mL/cmH2O (SD 13.6). The average length of follow-up was 40.7 months (SD 26.2) and during this interval no patients were found to have urologic or neurologic abnormalities and none underwent tethered cord release. Conclusion: Bladder capacity in infants with a median age of 9.0 months was found to be 48.9 mL. This is less than half of the volume predicted by a commonly employed formula. A novel method of estimating bladder capacity in infants is required

  13. Preventive Effect of Hydrogen Water on the Development of Detrusor Overactivity in a Rat Model of Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Nomiya, Masanori; Aikawa, Ken; Kimura, Junko

    2016-03-01

    Bladder ischemia and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of bladder dysfunction caused by bladder outlet obstruction. H2 reportedly acts as an effective antioxidant. We investigated whether oral ingestion of H2 water would have a beneficial effect on bladder function in a rat model of bladder outlet obstruction. H2 water was made by dissolving H2 gas in ordinary drinking water using a hydrogen water producing apparatus. The bladder outlet obstruction model was surgically induced in male rats. Rats with obstruction were fed H2 water or ordinary drinking water. On week 4 postoperatively cystometry was performed. Oxidative stress markers and the bladder nerve growth factor level were determined. Bladder tissues were processed for pharmacological studies and histological analysis. The micturition interval and micturition volume significantly decreased in obstructed rats given ordinary drinking water. These decreases were significantly suppressed by oral ingestion of H2 water. Increased post-void residual volume in obstructed rats was significantly reduced by H2 water. Obstruction led to a significant increase in bladder weight, oxidative stress markers and nerve growth factor. H2 water significantly suppressed these increases without affecting bladder weight. There was no significant difference in histological findings between rats with bladder obstruction given H2 water and ordinary drinking water. Decreased responses of detrusor muscle strips from obstructed bladders to KCl, carbachol and electrical field stimulation were reversed by H2 water ingestion. Results suggest that H2 water could ameliorate bladder dysfunction secondary to bladder outlet obstruction by attenuating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. OVERACTIVE BLADDER SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Vishnevskiy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder is a specific syndrome characterized by bladder dysfunction that is clinically manifested by imperative urination (pollakiuria, urgency, urgent incontinence and nocturia. This state is very widely spread among children: every fifth child aged 4 to 7 shows typical bladder dysfunction. Quite often if urinary distresses are not studied well enough such children are falsely diagnosed with monosymptom enuresis, which, according to our information, actually happens in only 3,9% of cases. When examining children with urinary disorders it is reasonable to be geared to the protocol of European urologist association. According to this protocol, treatment should be started with antimuscarinimedications. The only antimuscarinic medication for treating children with hyperactive bladder that is legal in Russia is oxybutinin (Driptane, that is presently considered to be the «golden standard» of pharmaceutical treatment of overactive bladder for patients of any age. This statement is based on the modern idea of overactive bladder pathogenesis, that presupposes detrusorhypersensibility to acetylcholine. However, in some cases it might be reasonable to use some other medications, physiotherapy, sometimes as part of complex therapy. If individual dosage is observed, which will enable preventing or significantly lowering possible side effects, oxybutinin will be still considered «the golden standard» for treating overactive bladder for years to come in cases when detrusor hypersensibility to acetylcholine is the key component of bladder dysfunction pathogenesis.Key words: overactive bladder, oxybutinin, urination disorder, children.

  15. Strouhal number for free swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mehdi; van Buren, Tyler; Floryan, Daniel; Smits, Alexander; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we present experimental results to explore the implications of free swimming for Strouhal number (as an outcome) in the context of a simple model for a fish that consists of a 2D virtual body (source of drag) and a 2D pitching foil (source of thrust) representing cruising with thunniform locomotion. The results validate the findings of Saadat and Haj-Hariri (2012): for pitching foils thrust coefficient is a function of Strouhal number for all gaits having amplitude less than a certain critical value. Equivalently, given the balance of thrust and drag forces at cruise, Strouhal number is only a function of the shape, i.e. drag coefficient and area, and essentially a constant for high enough swimming speeds for which the mild dependence of drag coefficient on the speed vanishes. Furthermore, a dimensional analysis generalizes the findings. A scaling analysis shows that the variation of Strouhal number with cruising speed is functionally related to the variation of body drag coefficient with speed. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533.

  16. Growing swimming algae for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Ottavio

    Biofuel production from photosynthetic microalgae is not commercially viable due to high processing costs. New engineering and biological solutions are being sought to reduce these costs by increasing processing efficiency (productivity per energy input). Important physics, however, is ignored. For example, the fluid dynamics of algal suspensions in photobioreactors (ponds or tube arrays) is non-trivial, particularly if the algae swim. Cell reorientation by passive viscous and gravitational torques (gyrotaxis) or active reorientation by light (phototaxis) cause swimming algae in suspension to structure in flows, even turbulent ones. This impacts the distribution and dispersion of swimmers, with significant consequences for photobioreactor operation and design. In this talk, I will describe a theory that predicts swimmer dispersion in laminar pipe flows. I will then then present experimental tests of the theory, as well as new results on the circadian suspension dynamics of the algaChlamydomonas reinhardtii in lab-scale photobioreactors. Finally, I will briefly consider the implications of our work, and related active matter research, for improving algal bioprocessing efficiency. Winton Programme for the Physics of Sustainability.

  17. Image-Based 3D Treatment Planning for Vaginal Cylinder Brachytherapy: Dosimetric Effects of Bladder Filling on Organs at Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Jennifer; Shen Sui; De Los Santos, Jennifer F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL (United States); Kim, Robert Y., E-mail: rkim@uabmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric effects of bladder filling on organs at risk (OARs) using three-dimensional image-based treatment planning for vaginal cylinder brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with endometrial or cervical cancer underwent postoperative high-dose rate vaginal cylinder brachytherapy. For three-dimensional planning, patients were simulated by computed tomography with an indwelling catheter in place (empty bladder) and with 180 mL of sterile water instilled into the bladder (full bladder). The bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and small bowel (OARs) were contoured, and a prescription dose was generated for 10 to 35 Gy in 2 to 5 fractions at the surface or at 5 mm depth. For each OAR, the volume dose was defined by use of two different criteria: the minimum dose value in a 2.0-cc volume receiving the highest dose (D{sub 2cc}) and the dose received by 50% of the OAR volume (D{sub 50%}). International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) bladder and rectum point doses were calculated for comparison. The cylinder-to-bowel distance was measured using the shortest distance from the cylinder apex to the contoured sigmoid or small bowel. Statistical analyses were performed with paired t tests. Results: Mean bladder and rectum D{sub 2cc} values were lower than their respective ICRU doses. However, differences between D{sub 2cc} and ICRU doses were small. Empty vs. full bladder did not significantly affect the mean cylinder-to-bowel distance (0.72 vs. 0.92 cm, p = 0.08). In contrast, bladder distention had appreciable effects on bladder and small bowel volume dosimetry. With a full bladder, the mean small bowel D{sub 2cc} significantly decreased from 677 to 408 cGy (p = 0.004); the mean bladder D{sub 2cc} did not increase significantly (1,179 cGy vs. 1,246 cGy, p = 0.11). Bladder distention decreased the mean D{sub 50%} for both the bladder (441 vs. 279 cGy, p = 0.001) and the small bowel (168 vs. 132 cGy, p = 0.001). Rectum

  18. Basic Land Drills for Swimming Stroke Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Teaching swimming strokes can be a challenging task in physical education. The purpose of the article is to introduce 12 on land drills that can be utilized to facilitate the learning of swimming strokes, including elementary back stroke, sidestroke, front crawl, back stroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. Each drill consists of four components…

  19. Propulsive force in front crawl swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, M.A.M.; de Groot, G.; Hollander, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the propulsive forces in front crawl arm swimming, derived from a three-dimensional kinematic analysis, these values were compared with mean drag forces. The propulsive forces during front crawl swimming using the arms only were calculated using three-dimensional kinematic analysis

  20. Swimming and muscle structure in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierts, I.L.Y.

    1999-01-01

    In this series of studies the relations between swimming behaviour of fish in general and extreme swimming responses in particular (called fast starts or escape responses) and the structure and ontogeny of the muscle system was investigated. Special attention was paid to relate functional

  1. Swimming dynamics of bidirectional artificial flagella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namdeo, S.; Khaderi, S. N.; Onck, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    We study magnetic artificial flagella whose swimming speed and direction can be controlled using light and magnetic field as external triggers. The dependence of the swimming velocity on the system parameters (e. g., length, stiffness, fluid viscosity, and magnetic field) is explored using a

  2. Absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall for different radiopharmaceuticals using dynamic S-values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, M.; Minarik, D.; Mattsson, S.; Leide-Svegborn; Johansson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim and background: the urinary bladder wall is a radiosensitive organ that can receive a high absorbed dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Current dynamic models estimate the photon and electron absorbed dose at the inner surface of the bladder wall. The aim of this work has been to create a more realistic estimation of the mean absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall from different radiopharmaceuticals. This calculation also uses dynamic specific absorption fractions (SAF) that changes with bladder volume and are gender specific. Materials and Methods: the volume of the urinary bladder content was calculated using a spherical approximation with a urinary inflow of 1.0 ml/min and 0.5 ml/min during day and night time, respectively. The activity in the bladder content was described using a bi-exponential extraction from the body. The absorbed dose to the bladder wall was estimated using linear interpolation of SAF values from different bladder volumes, ranging from 10 ml to 800 ml. Administration of the activity was assumed to start at 09:00 with an initial voiding after 40 minutes and a voiding interval of 3.5 hours during the day. A six hour night gap, starting at midnight, with a voiding right before and after the night period, was used. Calculations were made, with the same assumptions, for an earlier dynamic bladder model and with a static SAF value from the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms for a bladder containing 200 ml. Values for the absorbed dose per unit administered activity for 19 commonly used radiopharmaceuticals were calculated, e.g. 18 F-FDG, 99m Tc-pertechnetate, 99m Tc-MAG3 and 123 I-NaI. Results and conclusion: the results of the estimates of the absorbed doses to the inner bladder wall were a factor of ten higher than the estimates mean absorbed doses. The mean absorbed doses to the bladder wall were slightly higher for females than males, due to a smaller female

  3. Prey capture by freely swimming flagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Dolger, Julia; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiorboe, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Flagellates are unicellular microswimmers that propel themselves using one or several beating flagella. Here, we explore the dependence of swimming kinematics and prey clearance rate on flagellar arrangement and determine optimal flagellar arrangements and essential trade-offs. To describe near-cell flows around freely swimming flagellates we consider a model in which the cell is represented by a no-slip sphere and each flagellum by a point force. For uniflagellates pulled by a single flagellum the model suggests that a long flagellum favors fast swimming, whereas high clearance rate is favored by a very short flagellum. For biflagellates with both a longitudinal and a transversal flagellum we explore the helical swimming kinematics and the prey capture sites. We compare our predictions with observations of swimming kinematics, prey capture, and flows around common marine flagellates. The Centre for Ocean Life is a VKR Centre of Excellence supported by the Villum Foundation.

  4. Energetics of swimming of schooling fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    Soc for experimental Biol Annual Meeting - Salzburg 2012 John F. Steffensen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) When a fish school swims through the water, every individual consumes a certain amount of oxygen, which means that less will be available for the trailing fish in the school. In 1967 Mc......Farland and Moss reported that the oxygen saturation decreased approximately 30% from the front to the rear of an approximately 150-m long school of mullets swimming in normoxic water. They also observed that the decline in oxygen saturation at the rear resulted in the school disintegrating into smaller separate...... schools. Oxygen consumption of swimming fish increases exponentially or as a power function with respect to swimming speed, and hence the decrease in oxygen saturation through the school is related to the swimming speed of the school. A model describing the oxygen saturation in a fish school from front...

  5. Is swimming during pregnancy a safe exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Kogevinas, Manolis; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise in pregnancy is recommended in many countries, and swimming is considered by many to be an ideal activity for pregnant women. Disinfection by-products in swimming pool water may, however, be associated with adverse effects on various reproductive outcomes. We examined...... the association between swimming in pregnancy and preterm and postterm birth, fetal growth measures, small-for-gestational-age, and congenital malformations. METHODS: We used self-reported exercise data (swimming, bicycling, or no exercise) that were prospectively collected twice during pregnancy for 74......,486 singleton pregnancies. Recruitment to The Danish National Birth Cohort took place 1996-2002. Using Cox, linear and logistic regression analyses, depending on the outcome, we compared swimmers with physically inactive pregnant women; to separate a possible swimming effect from an effect of exercise...

  6. Intravesical TRPV4 blockade reduces repeated variate stress-induced bladder dysfunction by increasing bladder capacity and decreasing voiding frequency in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Liana

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with functional lower urinary tract disorders including interstitial cystitis (IC)/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) and overactive bladder (OAB) often report symptom (e.g., urinary frequency) worsening due to stress. One member of the transient receptor potential ion channel vanilloid family, TRPV4, has recently been implicated in urinary bladder dysfunction disorders including OAB and IC/BPS. These studies address the role of TRPV4 in stress-induced bladder dysfunction using an animal model of stress in male rats. To induce stress, rats were exposed to 7 days of repeated variate stress (RVS). Quantitative PCR data demonstrated significant (P ≤ 0.01) increases in TRPV4 transcript levels in urothelium but not detrusor smooth muscle. Western blot analyses of split urinary bladders (i.e., urothelium and detrusor) showed significant (P ≤ 0.01) increases in TRPV4 protein expression levels in urothelial tissues but not detrusor smooth muscle. We previously showed that RVS produces bladder dysfunction characterized by decreased bladder capacity and increased voiding frequency. The functional role of TRPV4 in RVS-induced bladder dysfunction was evaluated using continuous, open outlet intravesical infusion of saline in conjunction with administration of a TRPV4 agonist, GSK1016790A (3 μM), a TRPV4 antagonist, HC067047 (1 μM), or vehicle (0.1% DMSO in saline) in control and RVS-treated rats. Bladder capacity, void volume, and intercontraction interval significantly decreased following intravesical instillation of GSK1016790A in control rats and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased following administration of HC067047 in RVS-treated rats. These results demonstrate increased TRPV4 expression in the urothelium following RVS and that TRPV4 blockade ameliorates RVS-induced bladder dysfunction consistent with the role of TRPV4 as a promising target for bladder function disorders. PMID:24965792

  7. Resistive force theory for sand swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Maladen, Ryan; Li, Chen; Goldman, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    We discuss a resistive force theoryfootnotetextMaladen et. al, Science, 325, 314, 2009 that predicts the ratio of forward speed to wave speed (wave efficiency, η) of the sandfish lizard as it swims in granular media of varying volume fraction φ using a sinusoidal traveling wave body motion. In experiment η 0.5 independent of φ and is intermediate between η 0.2 for low Re Newtonian fluid undulatory swimmers like nematodes and η 0.9 for undulatory locomotion on a deformable surface. To predict η in granular media, we developed a resistive force model which balances thrust and drag force over the animal profile. We approximate the drag forces by measuring the force on a cylinder (a ``segment'' of the sandfish) oriented at different angles relative to the displacement direction. The model correctly predicts that η is independent of φ because the ratio of thrust to drag is independent of φ. The thrust component of the drag force is relatively larger in granular media than in low Re fluids, which explains why η in frictional granular media is greater than in viscous fluids.

  8. Evidence for Bladder Urothelial Pathophysiology in Functional Bladder Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Susan K.; Birder, Lori A.; Chai, Toby C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of the role of urothelium in regulating bladder function is continuing to evolve. While the urothelium is thought to function primarily as a barrier for preventing injurious substances and microorganisms from gaining access to bladder stroma and upper urinary tract, studies indicate it may also function in cell signaling events relating to voiding function. This review highlights urothelial abnormalities in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), feline interstitial cystitis (FIC), and nonneurogenic idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). These bladder conditions are typified by lower urinary tract symptoms including urinary frequency, urgency, urgency incontinence, nocturia, and bladder discomfort or pain. Urothelial tissues and cells from affected clinical subjects and asymptomatic controls have been compared for expression of proteins and mRNA. Animal models have also been used to probe urothelial responses to injuries of the urothelium, urethra, or central nervous system, and transgenic techniques are being used to test specific urothelial abnormalities on bladder function. BPS/IC, FIC, and OAB appear to share some common pathophysiology including increased purinergic, TRPV1, and muscarinic signaling, increased urothelial permeability, and aberrant urothelial differentiation. One challenge is to determine which of several abnormally regulated signaling pathways is most important for mediating bladder dysfunction in these syndromes, with a goal of treating these conditions by targeting specific pathophysiology. PMID:24900993

  9. Evidence for Bladder Urothelial Pathophysiology in Functional Bladder Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Keay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the role of urothelium in regulating bladder function is continuing to evolve. While the urothelium is thought to function primarily as a barrier for preventing injurious substances and microorganisms from gaining access to bladder stroma and upper urinary tract, studies indicate it may also function in cell signaling events relating to voiding function. This review highlights urothelial abnormalities in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC, feline interstitial cystitis (FIC, and nonneurogenic idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB. These bladder conditions are typified by lower urinary tract symptoms including urinary frequency, urgency, urgency incontinence, nocturia, and bladder discomfort or pain. Urothelial tissues and cells from affected clinical subjects and asymptomatic controls have been compared for expression of proteins and mRNA. Animal models have also been used to probe urothelial responses to injuries of the urothelium, urethra, or central nervous system, and transgenic techniques are being used to test specific urothelial abnormalities on bladder function. BPS/IC, FIC, and OAB appear to share some common pathophysiology including increased purinergic, TRPV1, and muscarinic signaling, increased urothelial permeability, and aberrant urothelial differentiation. One challenge is to determine which of several abnormally regulated signaling pathways is most important for mediating bladder dysfunction in these syndromes, with a goal of treating these conditions by targeting specific pathophysiology.

  10. Normal bladder wall thickness measurement in healthy Iranian children, a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Atoosa; Kazemian, Afarin; Toghiani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Normal bladder function is necessary for micturition. Many causes such as urinary tract infection, bladder outlet obstruction, and neuropathic bladder can influence bladder wall thickness (BWT). This study was designed to determine normal BWT in Iranian children. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in Isfahan in 2012 comprising 82 children aged 2-14 years without any urinary complaint. We measured thickness of posterior and lateral walls of the bladder in all children. Mean bladder wall thickness (MBWT) and mean bladder volume (BV) were also calculated. Results: In this study, we included 82 children (40 boys and 42 girls). Patients’ mean age was 6.43 ± 2.89 years, mean weight was 21.32 ± 8.40 kg, mean height was 111.57 ± 20.51 cm, and mean Body Mass Index was 17.12 ± 4.93. Mean lateral bladder wall thickness (LBWT) was 1.75 ± 0.32 mm and mean posterior bladder wall thickness (PBWT) was 1.59 ± 0.34 mm. Mean BV was 111.65 ± 72.11 ml and MBWT was 1.67 ± 0.28 mm. BVW all Index (BVWI) was 1249.05 ± 701.67. Conclusions: LBWT was1.75 ± 0.32 mm and PBWT was 1.59 ± 0.34 mm. PMID:25250302

  11. Normal bladder wall thickness measurement in healthy Iranian children, a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normal bladder function is necessary for micturition. Many causes such as urinary tract infection, bladder outlet obstruction, and neuropathic bladder can influence bladder wall thickness (BWT.This study was designed to determine normal BWT in Iranian children. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in Isfahan in 2012 comprising 82 children aged 2-14 years without any urinary complaint. We measured thickness of posterior and lateral walls of the bladder in all children. Mean bladder wall thickness (MBWT and mean bladder volume (BV were also calculated. Results: In this study, we included 82 children (40 boys and 42 girls. Patients′ mean age was 6.43 ± 2.89 years, mean weight was 21.32 ± 8.40 kg, mean height was 111.57 ± 20.51 cm, and mean Body Mass Index was 17.12 ± 4.93. Mean lateral bladder wall thickness (LBWT was 1.75 ± 0.32 mm and mean posterior bladder wall thickness (PBWT was 1.59 ± 0.34 mm. Mean BV was 111.65 ± 72.11 ml and MBWT was 1.67 ± 0.28 mm. BVW all Index (BVWI was 1249.05 ± 701.67. Conclusions: LBWT was1.75 ± 0.32 mm and PBWT was 1.59 ± 0.34 mm.

  12. Evaluation of delivered dose for a clinical daily adaptive plan selection strategy for bladder cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutkenhaus, Lotte J; Visser, Jorrit; de Jong, Rianne; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Bel, Arjan

    2015-07-01

    To account for variable bladder size during bladder cancer radiotherapy, a daily plan selection strategy was implemented. The aim of this study was to calculate the actually delivered dose using an adaptive strategy, compared to a non-adaptive approach. Ten patients were treated to the bladder and lymph nodes with an adaptive full bladder strategy. Interpolated delineations of bladder and tumor on a full and empty bladder CT scan resulted in five PTVs for which VMAT plans were created. Daily cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were used for plan selection. Bowel, rectum and target volumes were delineated on these CBCTs, and delivered dose for these was calculated using both the adaptive plan, and a non-adaptive plan. Target coverage for lymph nodes improved using an adaptive strategy. The full bladder strategy spared the healthy part of the bladder from a high dose. Average bowel cavity V30Gy and V40Gy significantly reduced with 60 and 69ml, respectively (pstrategy yielded similar bladder coverage and improved coverage for lymph nodes, with a significant reduction in bowel cavity V30Gy and V40Gy only, while other sparing was limited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Virtual 3D bladder reconstruction for augmented medical records from white light cystoscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Angst, Roland; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate that necessitates lifelong surveillance to detect mucosal lesions. Examination with white light cystoscopy (WLC), the standard of care, is inherently subjective and data storage limited to clinical notes, diagrams, and still images. A visual history of the bladder wall can enhance clinical and surgical management. To address this clinical need, we developed a tool to transform in vivo WLC videos into virtual 3-dimensional (3D) bladder models using advanced computer vision techniques. WLC videos from rigid cystoscopies (1280 x 720 pixels) were recorded at 30 Hz followed by immediate camera calibration to control for image distortions. Video data were fed into an automated structure-from-motion algorithm that generated a 3D point cloud followed by a 3D mesh to approximate the bladder surface. The highest quality cystoscopic images were projected onto the approximated bladder surface to generate a virtual 3D bladder reconstruction. In intraoperative WLC videos from 36 patients undergoing transurethral resection of suspected bladder tumors, optimal reconstruction was achieved from frames depicting well-focused vasculature, when the bladder was maintained at constant volume with minimal debris, and when regions of the bladder wall were imaged multiple times. A significant innovation of this work is the ability to perform the reconstruction using video from a clinical procedure collected with standard equipment, thereby facilitating rapid clinical translation, application to other forms of endoscopy and new opportunities for longitudinal studies of cancer recurrence.

  14. Functional and biochemical characteristics of urinary bladder muscarinic receptors in long-term alloxan diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Jeová Nina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To re-examine the function of the urinary bladder in vivo as well as to determine the functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors in long-term alloxan-induced diabetes rats. Methods Two-month-old male Wistar rats were injected with alloxan and the animals showing blood glucose levels >300mg/dL together with age-paired untreated animals were kept for 11 months. Body weight, bladder weight, blood glucose, and urinary volume over a period of 24 hours were determined in both groups of animals. A voiding cystometry in conscious control and diabetic rats was performed to determine maximal micturition pressure, micturition contraction interval and duration as well as voided and post-voiding residual volume. In addition, concentration-response curves for bethanechol in isolated bladder strips, as well as [3H]-N methyl-scopolamine binding site characteristics in bladder homogenates were determined. Results Mean bladder weight was 162.5±21.2mg versus 290±37.9mg in control and treated animals, respectively (pmuscarinic receptors were also not statistically different. Conclusion Bladder function in vivo is altered in chronic alloxan-induced diabetes rats without changes in functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors. PMID:26466064

  15. Detection of Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Bladder Cancer using Maximum Standardised Uptake Value and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Results from a High-volume Centre Including Long-term Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vind-Kezunovic, Stefan; Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Ipsen, Pia; Høyer, Søren; Bell, Cathrine; Bjerggaard Jensen, Jørgen

    2017-06-23

    Preoperative staging with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) is used for the evaluation of metastatic disease in patients with invasive bladder cancer. The use of quantification with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of regional lymph nodes (LNs) has been suggested to increase the diagnostic ability for detection of malignancy. Assessment of the utility and clinical relevance of SUVmax in 18 F-FDG PET in detecting regional nodal metastases in patients considered for radical cystectomy. From 2011 to 2014, we identified a total of 119 patients with urothelial carcinoma who underwent radical cystectomy with extended LN dissection; additionally, 12 patients were identified by preoperative biopsy. All patients underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT before treatment recommendation. Pathological findings were compared with preoperative PET/CT staging and analysed in a regional- or patient-based model according to SUVmax values. In total, 2291 LNs were identified in 131 patients; locoregional involvement of 85 LNs were confirmed in 34 patients. SUVmax >2 analysis: sensitivity±95% confidence interval of 79.4% (62.1-91.3) and specificity 66.5% (55.7-75.3). SUVmax >4 based analysis: sensitivity was 61.8% (43.6-77.8) and specificity was 84.5% (75.8-91.1). Two years of follow-up implied that higher SUVmax is correlated with higher recurrence risk, independent of conventional pathological findings. 18 F-FDG PET/CT using SUVmax of LNs is a useful tool for preoperative evaluation of pelvic LN metastases from invasive bladder cancer and contributes to the selection of patients for personalized treatment. In this report, we establish that it is possible to identify disease from bladder cancer in the lymphatic tissue surrounding the bladder using a scan analysis. This assists in the selection of treatment for patients with bladder cancer and may spare patients from unnecessary procedures. Copyright © 2017

  16. Some equipment for graphite research in swimming pool reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, M.; Arragon, Ph.; Dupont, G.; Gentil, J.; Tanis, G.

    1964-01-01

    The irradiation devices described are used for research concerning reactors of the natural uranium type, moderated by graphite and cooled by carbon dioxide. The devices are generally designed for use in swimming pool reactors. The following points have been particularly studied: - maximum use of the irradiation volume, - use of the simplest technological solutions, - standardization of certain constituent parts. This standardization calls for precision machining and careful assembling; these requirements are also true when a relatively low irradiation temperature is required and the nuclear heating is pronounced. Finally, the design of these devices is suitable for the irradiation of other fissile or non-fissile materials. (authors) [fr

  17. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Brendan R. [St George' s Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Weber, Martin A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Bockenhauer, Detlef [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Nephrology, London (United Kingdom); Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  18. Molecular Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiologyBladder cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of urothelial cancer and is associated with thehighest costs of all cancer types due to intensive patient surveillance. Because bladder tumorsfrequently recur, patients need to be monitored extensively [1-4]. Incidence increases

  19. Vulvar Metastasis from Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a very rare entity; few cases are reported in the English literature. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of a patient with vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder followed by a brief review of the reported cases in the literature.

  20. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Brendan R.; Weber, Martin A.; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  1. Swimming of the Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chris; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    When the weather gets hot, nursing honey bees nudge foragers to collect water for thermoregulation of their hive. While on their mission to collect water, foragers sometimes get trapped on the water surface, forced to interact with a different fluid environment. In this study, we present the survival strategy of the honey bees at the air-water interface. A high-speed videography and shadowgraph were used to record the honey bees swimming. A unique thrust mechanism through rapid vibration of their wings at 60 to 150 Hz was observed. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  2. The critical velocity in swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Prampero, Pietro E; Dekerle, Jeanne; Capelli, Carlo; Zamparo, Paola

    2008-01-01

    In supra-maximal exercise to exhaustion, the critical velocity (cv) is conventionally calculated from the slope of the distance (d) versus time (t) relationship: d = I + St. I is assumed to be the distance covered at the expense of the anaerobic capacity, S the speed maintained on the basis of the subject's maximal O(2) uptake (VO2max) This approach is based on two assumptions: (1) the energy cost of locomotion per unit distance (C) is constant and (2) VO2max is attained at the onset of exercise. Here we show that cv and the anaerobic distance (d (anaer)) can be calculated also in swimming, where C increases with the velocity, provided that VO2max its on-response, and the C versus v relationship are known. d (anaer) and cv were calculated from published data on maximal swims for the four strokes over 45.7, 91.4 and 182.9 m, on 20 elite male swimmers (18.9 +/- 0.9 years, 75.9 +/- 6.4 kg), whose VO2max and C versus speed relationship were determined, and compared to I and S obtained from the conventional approach. cv was lower than S (4, 16, 7 and 11% in butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl) and I (=11.6 m on average in the four strokes) was lower than d (anaer). The latter increased with the distance: average, for all strokes: 38.1, 60.6 and 81.3 m over 45.7, 91.4 and 182.9 m. It is concluded that the d versus t relationship should be utilised with some caution when evaluating performance in swimmers.

  3. Immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuge O

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Fuge,1 Nikhil Vasdev,1 Paula Allchorne,2 James SA Green2 1Department of Urology, Lister Hospital, Stevenage, UK; 2Department of Urology, Bartshealth NHS Trust, Whipps Cross Rd, London, UK Abstract: It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest

  4. Basic bladder neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J Quentin

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of normal lower urinary tract function is a complex process that requires coordination between the central nervous system and the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system. This article provides an overview of the basic principles that are recognized to regulate normal urine storage and micturition, including bladder biomechanics, relevant neuroanatomy, neural control of lower urinary tract function, and the pharmacologic processes that translate the neural signals into functional results. Finally, the emerging role of the urothelium as a sensory structure is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Body roll in swimming: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psycharakis, Stelios G; Sanders, Ross H

    2010-02-01

    In this article, we present a critical review of the swimming literature on body roll, for the purposes of summarizing and highlighting existing knowledge, identifying the gaps and limitations, and stimulating further research. The main research findings can be summarized as follows: swimmers roll their shoulders significantly more than their hips; swimmers increase hip roll but maintain shoulder roll when fatigued; faster swimmers roll their shoulders less than slower swimmers during a 200-m swim; roll asymmetries, temporal differences in shoulder roll and hip roll, and shoulder roll side dominance exist in front crawl swimming, but there is no evidence to suggest that they affect swimming performance; and buoyancy contributes strongly to generating body roll in front crawl swimming. Based on and stimulated by current knowledge, future research should focus on the following areas: calculation of body roll for female swimmers and for backstroke swimming; differences in body roll between breathing and non-breathing cycles; causes of body roll asymmetries and their relation to motor laterality; body roll analysis across a wide range of velocities and swimming distances; exploration of the association between body roll and the magnitude and direction of propulsive/resistive forces developed during the stroke cycle; and the influence of kicking actions on the generation of body roll.

  6. Krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica) swim faster at night

    KAUST Repository

    Klevjer, Thor A.

    2011-05-01

    Krill are key members in marine food webs, and measurement of swimming speed is vital to assess their bioenergetic budgets, feeding, and encounters with predators. We document a consistent and marked diel signal in swimming speed of krill in their natural habitat that is not related to diel vertical migration. The results were obtained using a bottom-mounted, upward-looking echo sounder at 150-m depth in the Oslofjord, Norway, spanning 5 months from late autumn to spring at a temporal resolution of ~1–2 records s−1. Swimming speed was assessed using acoustic target tracking of individual krill. At the start of the registration period, both daytime and nocturnal average swimming speeds of Meganyctiphanes norvegica were ~ 3.5 cm s−1 (~ 1 body lengths ([bl] s−1) in waters with oxygen concentrations of ~ 15–20% O2 saturation. Following intrusion of more oxygenated water, nocturnal average swimming speeds increased to ~ 10 cm s−1 (~ 3 bl s−1), i.e., more than double that of daytime swimming speeds in the same period. We hypothesize that krill activity during the first period was limited by oxygen, and the enhanced swimming at night subsequent to the water renewal is due to increased feeding activity under lessened danger of predation in darkness.

  7. Increased bladder wall thickness is associated with severe symptoms and reduced bladder capacity in patients with bladder pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Wu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: There are obvious differences in bladder CT scans of patients with symptoms of bladder pain due to different etiology. Increased BWT was associated with increased pain scores and decreased bladder capacity in patients with KC and IC. BWT on a CT scan might be considered a marker for the severity of bladder inflammation.

  8. SWIM EVERYDAY TO KEEP DEMENTIA AWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Singh

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A sound mind resides in a sound body. Many individuals with an active lifestyle show sharp mental skills at an advanced age. Regular exercise has been shown to exert numerous beneficial effects on brawn as well as brain. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of swimming on memory of rodents. A specially designed hexagonal water maze was used for the swimming exposures of animals. The learning and memory parameters were measured using exteroceptive behavioral models such as Elevated plus-maze, Hebb-Williams maze and Passive avoidance apparatus. The rodents (rats and mice were divided into twelve groups. The swimming exposure to the rodents was for 10- minute period during each session and there were two swimming exposures on each day. Rats and mice were subjected to swimming for -15 and -30 consecutive days. Control group animals were not subjected to swimming during above period. The learning index and memory score of all the animals was recorded on 1st, 2nd, 15th, 16th, 30th and 31st day employing above exteroceptive models. It was observed that rodents that underwent swimming regularly for 30- days showed sharp memories, when tested on above behavioral models whereas, control group animals showed decline in memory scores. Those animals, which underwent swimming for 15- days only showed good memory on 16th day, which however, declined after 30-days. These results emphasize the role of regular physical exercise particularly swimming in the maintenance and promotion of brain functions. The underlying physiological mechanism for improvement of memory appears to be the result of enhanced neurogenesis.

  9. Lymphatic vessel density and function in experimental bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saban, Marcia R; Wu, Xue-Ru; Saban, Ricardo; Towner, Rheal; Smith, Nataliya; Abbott, Andrew; Neeman, Michal; Davis, Carole A; Simpson, Cindy; Maier, Julie; Mémet, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    studies of Gd-Cy5.5 confirmed its temporal distribution between CD31-positive blood vessels and LYVE-1 positive lymphatic vessels. SV40-lacZ mice permit the visualization of lymphatics during bladder cancer progression. Gd-Cy5.5, as a double contrast agent for NIRF and MRI, permits to quantify delivery, transport rates, and volumes of macromolecular fluid flow through the interstitial-lymphatic continuum. Our results open the path for the study of lymphatic activity in vivo and in real time, and support the role of lymphangiogenesis during bladder cancer progression

  10. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Misseri, Rosalia; Whittam, Benjamin; Lingeman, James E; Amstutz, Sable; Ring, Joshua D; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2016-04-01

    Bladder and renal calculi after bladder augmentation are thought to be primarily infectious, yet few studies have reported stone composition. The primary aim was to assess bladder stone composition after augmentation, and renal stone composition in those with subsequent nephrolithiasis. The exploratory secondary aim was to screen for possible risk factors for developing infectious stones. Patients treated for bladder stones after bladder augmentation at the present institution between 1981 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, surgeries and stone composition. Patients without stone analysis were excluded. Stones containing struvite, carbonate apatite or ammonium acid ureate were classified as infectious. The following variables were analyzed for a possible association with infectious bladder stone composition: gender, history of cloacal exstrophy, ambulatory status, nephrolithiasis, recurrent urea-splitting urinary tract infections, first vs recurrent stones, timing of presentation with a calculus, history of bladder neck procedures, catheterizable channel and vesicoureteral reflux. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. Of the 107 patients with bladder stones after bladder augmentation, 85 met inclusion criteria. Median age at augmentation was 8.0 years (follow-up 10.8 years). Forty-four patients (51.8%) recurred (14 multiple recurrences, 143 bladder stones). Renal calculi developed in 19 (22.4%) patients with a bladder stone, and 10 (52.6%) recurred (30 renal stones). Overall, 30.8% of bladder stones were non-infectious (Table). Among patients recurring after an infectious bladder stone, 30.4% recurred with a non-infectious one. Among patients recurring after a non-infectious stone, 84.6% recurred with a non-infectious one (P = 0.005). Compared with bladder stones, renal stones were more likely to be non-infectious (60.0%, P = 0.003). Of patients with recurrent renal calculi after an infectious stone, 40.0% recurred with

  11. A Review of Swimming Cues and Tips for Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Kelsey; Barney, David

    2016-01-01

    Swimming is a low-impact activity that causes little stress on joints so it can be done for a lifetime. Many teachers may wish to teach swimming but do not have cues or ideas for doing so. This article reviews swimming cues, relays and equipment that can help a physical education teacher include a swimming unit in their curriculum. Certification…

  12. Swimming without a spine: Computational modeling and analysis of the swimming hydrodynamics of the Spanish Dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuoyu; Mittal, Rajat

    2017-10-16

    Incompressible flow simulations are used to study the swimming of a Spanish Dancer (Hexabranchus sanguineus), a soft-bodied invertebrate marine gastropod that swims by combining body pitching with undulations of its large mantle. A simple model based on a field video is employed as the basis for the model and coupling of the flow with the body acceleration enables us to examine the free swimming of this animal. Simulations indicate propulsive efficiencies of up to about 57% and terminal swimming speeds of 1.33 body lengths per cycle. Examination of the effect of body planform on the swimming hydrodynamics suggests that the planform of this animal is likely adapted to enhance its swimming performance. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Effect of Naftopidil on Bladder Microcirculation in a Rat Model of Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Takai, Shun; Matsukawa, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Masaki; Gotoh, Momokazu

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of naftopidil on bladder capillary blood flow using bladder outlet obstruction model rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group, bladder-outlet-obstruction group, and bladder-outlet-obstruction + naftopidil group. Bladder-outlet-obstruction surgery was performed in the bladder-outlet-obstruction and bladder-outlet-obstruction + naftopidil groups. The control group received sham-operation. The bladder-outlet-obstruction + naftopidil group were treated with naftopidil (30 mg/kg) for 14 days after bladder-outlet-obstruction operation, while the control and bladder-outlet-obstruction groups were treated with vehicle. Continuous cystometry was performed 14 days after the surgery. Bladder blood flow was measured after 14 days using a pencil lens charge-coupled device microscopy system. The bladder was then harvested for histology and measuring 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine tissue level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In cystometry, the bladder-outlet-obstruction rats showed bladder overactivity, while naftopidil treatment improved the cystometric pattern. The blood flow through the submucosal capillaries of the bladder base in the bladder-outlet-obstruction group was lesser than that in the control, whereas the bladder-outlet-obstruction + naftopidil group showed significantly greater blood flow than the bladder-outlet-obstruction group. The bladder tissue in the bladder-outlet-obstruction group showed a tendency to contain more hypertrophic detrusor muscle and inflammatory cells compared to those in the control group, while naftopidil treatment suppressed these histological changes. The 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in the bladder tissue significantly differed among the three groups (the bladder-outlet-obstruction group > the bladder-outlet-obstruction + naftopidil group > the control group). Naftopidil improved bladder overactivity as well as the impaired bladder

  14. Electrical stimulation of dog pudendal nerve regulates the excitatory pudendal-to-bladder reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-he Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pudendal nerve plays an important role in urine storage and voiding. Our hypothesis is that a neuroprosthetic device placed in the pudendal nerve trunk can modulate bladder function after suprasacral spinal cord injury. We had confirmed the inhibitory pudendal-to-bladder reflex by stimulating either the branch or the trunk of the pudendal nerve. This study explored the excitatory pudendal-to-bladder reflex in beagle dogs, with intact or injured spinal cord, by electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve trunk. The optimal stimulation frequency was approximately 15-25 Hz. This excitatory effect was dependent to some extent on the bladder volume. We conclude that stimulation of the pudendal nerve trunk is a promising method to modulate bladder function.

  15. Does this man with lower urinary tract symptoms have bladder outlet obstruction?: The Rational Clinical Examination: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Karen A; Dahm, Philipp; Wong, Camilla L

    2014-08-06

    Early, accurate diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms may reduce the need for invasive testing (ie, catheter placement, urodynamics), and prompt early treatment to provide symptomatic relief and avoid complications. To systematically review the evidence on (1) the diagnostic accuracy of office-based tests for bladder outlet obstruction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms; and (2) the accuracy of the bladder scan as a measure of urine volume because management decisions rely on measuring postvoid bladder residual volumes. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1950-March 2014), along with reference lists from retrieved articles were searched to identify studies of diagnostic test accuracy among males with lower urinary tract symptoms due to bladder outlet obstruction. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library (1950-March 2014) were searched to identify studies of urine volumes measured with a bladder scanner vs those measured with bladder catheterization. Prospective studies were selected if they compared 1 or more office-based, noninvasive diagnostic test with the reference test or were invasive urodynamic studies, and if urine volumes were measured with a bladder scanner and bladder catheterization. For the bladder outlet obstruction objective, 8628 unique citations were identified. Ten studies (1262 patients among 9 unique cohorts) met inclusion criteria. For the bladder scan objective, 2254 unique citations were identified. Twenty studies (n = 1397 patients) met inclusion criteria. The first main outcome and measure was the diagnostic accuracy of individual symptoms and questionnaires compared with the reference standard (urodynamic studies) for the diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction in males with lower urinary tract symptoms. The second was the correlation between urine volumes measured with a bladder scanner and those measured with bladder catheterization. Among

  16. Giant bladder diverticulum in a boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Ozcakir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the bladder diverticula in children are seen commonly which is association with infravesical obstruction or neurogenic bladder function, the case of giant congenital bladder diverticula are rare. In this paper, an 11 years old boy with giant bladder diverticula presenting urinary infections is evaluated in terms of diagnosis and management by current literature.

  17. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, I; McMahon, S B; O'Reilly, B A

    2013-08-01

    The bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a spectrum of urological symptoms characterised by bladder pain with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. There is no evidence-based management approach for the diagnosis or treatment of BPS. The objective of this study was to critically review and summarise the evidence relating to the diagnosis and treatment of the bladder pain syndrome. A review of published data on the diagnosis and treatment of the BPS was performed. Our search was limited to English-language articles, on the "diagnosis", and "management" or "treatment" of "interstitial cystitis" and the "bladder pain syndrome" in "humans." Frequency, urgency and pain on bladder filling are the most common symptoms of BPS. All urodynamic volumes are reduced in patients with BPS. Associated conditions include psychological distress, depression, history of sexual assault, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Cystoscopy remains the test for definitive diagnosis, with visualisation of haemorrhage on cystoreduction. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is essential in the management of this condition. Orally administered amitriptyline is an efficacious medical treatment for BPS. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and local anaesthetic, with/without hydrodistension are among new treatment strategies. Sacral or pudendal neuromodulation is effective, minimally invasive and safe. Surgery is reserved for refractory cases. There remains a paucity of evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BPS. We encountered significant heterogeneity in the assessment of symptoms, duration of treatment and follow up of patients in our literature review.

  18. Swimming championship finalist positions on success in international swimming competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustres, I; Martín, R; Fernández, L; González-Ravé, J M

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal was to determine whether the achievement of finalist positions in the Junior Championship was associated with the achievement of success in the International Swimming Federation (FINA) World Championship (WC). Secondary goals included analyzing the effect of various factors (gender, age, country, etc) on swimmers' performances. Data were obtained from FINA information about the finalists from 2007 to 2015 WCs and finalists from 2006 to 2013 Junior-WCs (2400 entries). Final filtered database just included swimmers who participated in both junior and senior WCs (719 entries). A univariate general linear model (GLM) was used to examine the association between time; origin (swimmer who participated in Junior WC or not); maintenance years (number of years achieving finalist positions); country; and age, adjusting for year of competition. An ordinal logistic regression (OLR) model was used to identify predictors of achieving the top positions. The origin variable was not significant in either the GLM or the OLR. The only significant variables in the GLM were maintenance years (F4,706 = 7.689; p getting better positions as you get more WCs (odds = 1.85). In conclusion, no evidence was obtained to conclude finalist position in Junior WC have influence in achieve success in FINA WC. Maintenance years in WCs have a positive impact to achieve better positions.

  19. Swimming championship finalist positions on success in international swimming competitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Yustres

    Full Text Available The primary goal was to determine whether the achievement of finalist positions in the Junior Championship was associated with the achievement of success in the International Swimming Federation (FINA World Championship (WC. Secondary goals included analyzing the effect of various factors (gender, age, country, etc on swimmers' performances. Data were obtained from FINA information about the finalists from 2007 to 2015 WCs and finalists from 2006 to 2013 Junior-WCs (2400 entries. Final filtered database just included swimmers who participated in both junior and senior WCs (719 entries. A univariate general linear model (GLM was used to examine the association between time; origin (swimmer who participated in Junior WC or not; maintenance years (number of years achieving finalist positions; country; and age, adjusting for year of competition. An ordinal logistic regression (OLR model was used to identify predictors of achieving the top positions. The origin variable was not significant in either the GLM or the OLR. The only significant variables in the GLM were maintenance years (F4,706 = 7.689; p < .05 and year of competition (F4,706 = 23.239; p < .05. The OLR revealed a strong association (p < .001 between the position variable and maintenance years, getting better positions as you get more WCs (odds = 1.85. In conclusion, no evidence was obtained to conclude finalist position in Junior WC have influence in achieve success in FINA WC. Maintenance years in WCs have a positive impact to achieve better positions.

  20. Automation of water supply and recirculation-filtration of water at a swimming pool using Zelio PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper proposes the use of the Zelio PLC for the automation of the water supply and recirculation-filtration system of a swimming pool. To do this, the Zelio SR3B261BD - 24V DC with 10 digital inputs (24V DC) and 10 digital outputs (relay contacts) was used. The proposed application makes the control of the water supply pumps and the water recirculation-filtration from a swimming pool. The recirculation-filtration systems for pools and swimming pools are designed to ensure water cleaning and recirculation to achieve optimum quality and lasting service life. The water filtration process is one of the important steps in water treatment in polls and swimming pools. It consists in recirculation of the entire volume of water and begins by absorbing the water in the pool by means of a pump followed by the passing of water through the filter, disinfectant and pH dosing, and reintroducing the water back into the pool or swimming pool through the discharge holes. Filters must to work 24 hours a day to remove pollutants from pools or swimming pools users. Filtration removes suspension particles with different origins. All newly built pools and swimming pools must be fitted with water recirculation systems, and existing ones will be equipped with water recirculation and water treatment systems.

  1. Urethral morphology and bladder instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausegger, K A; Fotter, R; Sorantin, E; Schmidt, P

    1991-01-01

    In order to calculate the relationship between Spinning top urethra (STU) and bladder instability 160 voiding cystourethrogramms (VCU), performed in 102 girls, have been analysed retrospectively. 28 girls had STU, 16 of those had bladder instability as well (57%). We could not find the highly positive correlation between unstable bladder and STU as reported by other authors, although there was a statistically positive correlation between STU and bladder instability. However the confidence interval was very broad (38%-75%). We conclude that bladder instability may contribute to STU but cannot render the etiological explanation for all cases. STU seems to be a polyetiological sign. In our opinion only the combination of STU and bladder instability has a diagnostic impact, since several therapeutical concepts are available in cases of bladder instability. The finding of STU in the VCU should alert the examiner's attention to functional disorders of the lower urinary tract. If no instability can be found, STU should be considered to be a normal variant.

  2. Urethral morphology and bladder instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausegger, K.A.; Fotter, R.; Sorantin, E. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Radiologische Klinik); Schmidt, P. (Rehabilitationszentrum, Schallerbach (Austria))

    1991-05-01

    In order to calculate the relationship between Spinning top urethra (STU) and bladder instability 160 voiding cystourethrogramms (VCU), performed in 102 girls, have been analysed retrospectively. 28 girls had STU, 16 of those had bladder instability as well (57%). We could not find the highly positive correlation between unstable bladder and STU as reported by other authors, although there was a statistically positive correlation between STU and bladder instability. However the confidence interval was very broad (38%-75%). We conclude that bladder instability may contribute to STU but cannot render the etiological explanation for all cases. STU seems to be a polyetiological sign. In our opinion only the combination of STU and bladder instability has a diagnostic impact, since several therapeutical concepts are available in cases of bladder instability. The finding of STU in the VCU should alert the examiner's attention to functional disorders of the lower urinary tract. If no instability can be found, STU should be considered to be a normal variant. (orig.).

  3. Bladder Injury During Cesarean Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarney, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean section is the most common surgery performed in the United States with over 30% of deliveries occurring via this route. This number is likely to increase given decreasing rates of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) and primary cesarean delivery on maternal request, which carries the inherent risk for intraoperative complications. Urologic injury is the most common injury at the time of either obstetric or gynecologic surgery, with the bladder being the most frequent organ damaged. Risk factors for bladder injury during cesarean section include previous cesarean delivery, adhesions, emergent cesarean delivery, and cesarean section performed at the time of the second stage of labor. Fortunately, most bladder injuries are recognized at the time of surgery, which is important, as quick recognition and repair are associated with a significant reduction in patient mortality. Although cesarean delivery is a cornerstone of obstetrics, there is a paucity of data in the literature either supporting or refuting specific techniques that are performed today. There is evidence to support double-layer closure of the hysterotomy, the routine use of adhesive barriers, and performing a Pfannenstiel skin incision versus a vertical midline subumbilical incision to decrease the risk for bladder injury during cesarean section. There is also no evidence that supports the creation of a bladder flap, although routinely performed during cesarean section, as a method to reduce the risk of bladder injury. Finally, more research is needed to determine if indwelling catheterization, exteriorization of the uterus, and methods to extend hysterotomy incision lead to bladder injury. PMID:24876830

  4. Swimming of Paramecium in confined channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghwan

    2012-02-01

    Many living organisms in nature have developed a few different swimming modes, presumably derived from hydrodynamic advantage. Paramecium is a ciliated protozoan covered by thousands of cilia with a few nanometers in diameter and tens of micro-meters in length and is able to exhibit both ballistic and meandering motions. First, we characterize ballistic swimming behaviors of ciliated microorganisms in glass capillaries of different diameters and explain the trajectories they trace out. We develop a theoretical model of an undulating sheet with a pressure gradient and discuss how it affects the swimming speed. Secondly, investigation into meandering swimmings within rectangular PDMS channels of dimension smaller than Paramecium length. We find that Paramecium executes a body-bend (an elastic buckling) using the cilia while it meanders. By considering an elastic beam model, we estimate and show the universal profile of forces it exerts on the walls. Finally, we discuss a few other locomotion of Paramecium in other extreme environments like gel.

  5. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  6. Muscle dynamics in fish during steady swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shadwick, RE; Steffensen, JF; Katz, SL

    1998-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. Recent research in fish locomotion has been dominated by an interest in the dynamic mechanical properties of the swimming musculature. Prior observations have indicated that waves of muscle activation travel along the body of an undulating fish faster than the resulting waves of muscular...... position in swimming fish. Quantification of muscle contractile properties in cyclic contractions relies on in vitro experiments using strain and activation data collected in vivo. In this paper we discuss the relation between these parameters and body kinematics. Using videoradiographic data from swimming...... constant cross-section of red muscle along much of the body suggests that positive power for swimming is generated fairly uniformly along the length of the fish....

  7. Real-time bladder lesion registration and navigation: a phantom study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Agenant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in men, with a recurrence rate of 33-64%. Tumor documentation during cystoscopy of the bladder is suboptimal and might play a role in these high recurrence rates. OBJECTIVE: In this project, a bladder registration and navigation system was developed to improve bladder tumor documentation and consequently increase reproducibility of the cystoscopy. MATERIALS/METHODS: The bladder registration and navigation system consists of a stereo-tracker that tracks the location of a newly developed target, which is attached to the endoscope during cystoscopy. With this information the urology registration and navigation software is able to register the 3D position of a lesion of interest. Simultaneously, the endoscopic image is captured in order to combine it with this 3D position. To enable navigation, navigational cues are displayed on the monitor, which subsequently direct the cystoscopist to the previously registered lesion. To test the system, a rigid and a flexible bladder phantom was developed. The system's robustness was tested by measuring the accuracy of registering and navigating the lesions. Different calibration procedures were compared. It was also tested whether system accuracy is limited by using a previously saved calibration, to avoid surgical delay due to calibration. Urological application was tested by comparing a rotational camera (fixed to the rotating endoscope to a non-rotational camera (dangling by gravity used in standard urologic practice. Finally, the influence of volume differences on registering and navigating was tested. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The bladder registration and navigation system has an acceptable accuracy for bladder lesion registration and navigation. Limitations for patient determinants included changes in bladder volume and bladder deformation. In vivo studies are required to measure the effect of these limitations and functionality in urological

  8. Bladder Diverticulitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Silberman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder diverticulum, an outpouching of the mucosa through the muscular wall of the bladder, is a multifactorial disease process that can be either acquired or congenital. Although small diverticuli are usually asymptomatic, a large diverticulum may result in hematuria, urinary tract infection, acute abdomen due to its rupture, acute urinary retention, or neoplasm formation. We describe the case of an elderly gentleman who presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and was ultimately diagnosed with bladder diverticulitis, a disease not previously described in the literature.

  9. Bladder Capacity is a Biomarker for a Bladder Centric versus Systemic Manifestation in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen J; Zambon, João; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Langefeld, Carl D; Matthews, Catherine A; Badlani, Gopal; Bowman, Heather; Evans, Robert J

    2017-08-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome presents a significant clinical challenge due to symptom heterogeneity and the myriad associated comorbid medical conditions. We recently reported that diminished bladder capacity may represent a specific interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome subphenotype. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between anesthetic bladder capacity, and urological and nonurological clinical findings in a cohort of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had undergone therapeutic urinary bladder hydrodistention. This is a retrospective chart review of prospectively collected data on women diagnosed with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome between 2011 and 2015 who underwent bladder hydrodistention. Assessments in each patient included a detailed history and physical examination, ICPI (Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index), ICSI (Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index) and PUF (Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency Patient Symptom Scale). Bladder capacity was determined during bladder hydrodistention with the patient under general anesthesia. Mean age was 45.8 years and mean bladder capacity was 857 ml in the 110 enrolled patients. We found a significant inverse correlation between bladder capacity and scores on 3 gold standard interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome metrics, including ICPI (p = 0.0014), ICSI (p = 0.0022) and PUF (p = 0.0009) as well as urination frequency (p = 0.0025). Women with higher bladder capacity were significantly more likely to report depression (p = 0.0059) and irritable bowel syndrome (p = 0.022). Low bladder capacity while under anesthesia was significantly associated with high symptom scores on 3 validated interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome questionnaires as well as with urinary frequency. However, it was not associated with depression or other common systemic pain problems. These results suggest that low bladder capacity is a marker for a bladder

  10. Increased bladder permeability in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Wisniewski, Amy B.; VanGordon, Samuel; Lin, HsuehKung; Kropp, Bradley P.; Towner, Rheal A.

    2015-01-01

    The definition of interstitial cystitis (IC) has evolved over the years from being a well-defined entity characterized by diagnostic lesion (Hunner’s ulcer) in the urothelium to a clinical diagnosis by exclusion [painful bladder syndrome (PBS)]. Although the etiology is unknown, a central theme has been an association with increased permeability of the bladder. This article reviews the evidence for increased permeability being important to the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and in treating the disorder. Recent work showing cross-communication among visceral organs is also reviewed to provide a basis for understanding IC/PBS as a systemic disorder of a complex, interconnected system consisting of the bladder, bowel and other organs, nerves, cytokine-responding cells and the nervous system. PMID:26751576

  11. Bladder dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome is highly prevalent and progresses to megacystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Ruth; Dias, Renuka P; Barrett, Timothy; McCarthy, Liam

    2018-02-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a rare genetic defect in WFS1 or WSF2(CISD2). It includes diabetes mellitus and insipidis, sensorineural deafness, optic atrophy, but not bladder dysfunction. However, this has appeared a common finding in our national referral clinic, and we sought to quantify this problem. Data were collected from a multidisciplinary team managing all Wolfram patients in the UK. The following was analyzed: age, date of non-invasive urodynamics (NIU), symptoms, bladder capacity, voided volume, post-void residual and uroflow pattern. Bladder capacity was given as percentage predicted bladder capacity (PBC). Bladders were divided into normal, overactive (OAB), and underactive (UAB). Symptoms, bladder behavior, and genotyping were correlated. Data were expressed as median (interquartile range). Forty patients with Wolfram syndrome were identified, and 38 underwent NIU. This showed normal bladder function (n=4), OAB (n=9), UAB (n=25). Symptoms were present in only 11 children. The different patterns of bladder behavior (OAB vs. normal vs. UAB) were significantly associated with different %PBC (36 (29-59)% vs. 105 (93-233)% vs. 100 (77.5-337)%; pWolfram syndrome (~90%), but most children cope (symptoms ~30%). With time there is a significant progression to megacystis, which may represent an underlying neuropathic myogenic failure and is likely to require intervention in the future. Level II (National cohort study of prognosis). Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Invasive bladder cancer: Our experience with bladder sparing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervek, Jozica; Cufer, Tanja; Zakotnik, Branko; Kragelj, Borut; Borstnar, Simona; Matos, Tadeja; Zumer-Pregelj, Mirjana

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a disease associated with several unresolved therapeutic questions. Radical cystectomy still represents the most frequent treatment approach. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect and feasibility of bladder-sparing treatment by transurethral resection (TUR) and sequential chemoradiotherapy in patients with biopsy-proven invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: After maximal TUR, 105 patients were treated with two to four cycles of methotrexate, cisplatinum, and vinblastine polychemotherapy. In complete responders, the treatment was continued by radiotherapy (50 Gy to the bladder and 40 Gy to the regional lymph nodes), whereas in nonresponders, cystectomy was performed when feasible. Results: Complete response after TUR and chemotherapy was achieved in 52% of patients. After a median follow-up of 42 months, 52 of 75 patients (69%) selected for bladder preservation were without evidence of disease in the bladder. Freedom from local failure in complete responders to chemotherapy was 80% [95% confidence interval (CI), 69-91%) at 4 years. The actuarial survival of the entire group was 58% (95% CI, 47-69%), whereas the survival rate with the bladder intact was 45% (95% CI, 34-56%) at 4 years. Survival was significantly better in patients who responded to chemotherapy (79%) than in nonresponders (35%, p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in survival between nonresponders who underwent cystectomy and nonresponders who completed treatment with radiotherapy (approximately 30% at 3 years). Conclusion: The present study confirms that MIBC is a heterogeneous disease, and that in more than half of patients who are affected, a bladder-sparing approach is safe. Our study has also demonstrated that in nonresponders, radical cystectomy as the treatment of choice is questionable

  13. Front Crawl Swimming Performance and Bi-Lateral Force Asymmetry during Land-Based and Tethered Swimming Tests

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Karini B.; Bento, Paulo C. Barauce; Pereira, Gleber; Payton, Carl; Rodacki, André L.F.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether land-based and tethered swimming strength tests can explain swimming performance in 200-meter front crawl and, whether these tests were able to identify bilateral symmetry in force production. In the first session, eighteen swimmers completed a maximum effort 200 m front crawl swim (swimming performance) and 15 seconds maximal effort tethered front crawl swim. In the second session, participants performed the upper extremity isometric strengt...

  14. M-CHOLINOLYTICS IN RHEABILITATION OF CHILDREN WITH VOIDING DISFUNCTION AND URNARY BLADDER HYPERACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kazanskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction is a common problem in pediatrics. Hyperactive urinary bladder is the most frequent cause of voiding dysfunction. Macholinolytic drugs are the first choice treatment for urinary bladder hyperactivity. The «urination pathology» center has investigated the efficacy of an macholinolytic, oxybutynin. The study included 25 children (aged 6–14 with different causes of voiding dysfunction and bladder hyperactivity. Oxybutynin was administered with a dosage of 5 mg twice a day, the follow up period was 8 weeks. The control evaluation of urodynamics (voiding rhythm, uroflowmetry, residual urine volume was performed at 4–8 weeks. Symptoms of bladder hyperactivity have been eliminated in 50% of patients, the bladder capacity has increased in 70% of cases, the frequency of night and day incontinence has diminished. The report demonstrates that oxybutynin has been most effective in patients with urinary bladder volume between 80 and 100 ml. the side effects, as dryness of mucous membranes and voiding difficulties, have been rarely observed. These side effects could be avoided by individual dose titration.Key words: voiding dysfunction, urinary bladder hyperactivity, oxybutynin, children.

  15. Dienogest. A possible conservative approach in bladder endometriosis. Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Stefano; Nappi, Luigi; Pontis, Alessandro; Sedda, Federica; Luisi, Stefano; Mais, Valerio; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2015-05-01

    Deep endometriosis involvement of the bladder is uncommon but it is symptomatic in most of the cases. Although laparoscopic excision is very effective, some patients with no pregnancy desire require a medical approach. We performed a pilot study on the effect of a new progestin dienogest on bladder endometriosis. Six patients were treated for 12 months with dienogest 2 mg/daily. Pain, urinary symptoms, quality of life, nodule volume and side effects were recorded. During treatment, symptoms improved very quickly and the nodules exhibit a remarkable reduction in size. Dienogest may be an alternative approach to bladder endometriosis.

  16. Interstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vesicoureteral Reflux The Urinary Tract & How It Works Interstitial Cystitis (Painful Bladder Syndrome) View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic, or long-lasting, condition ...

  17. Inhibition of HIF Reduces Bladder Hypertrophy and Improves Bladder Function in Murine Model of Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Nao; Malykhina, Anna P; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2016-04-01

    Posterior urethral valves are the most common cause of partial bladder outlet obstruction in the pediatric population. However, to our knowledge the etiology and the detailed mechanisms underlying pathological changes in the bladder following partial bladder outlet obstruction remain to be elucidated. Recent findings suggest that hypoxia and associated up-regulation of HIFs (hypoxia-inducible factors) have a key role in partial bladder outlet obstruction induced pathology in the bladder. We examined the effects of pharmacological inhibition of HIF pathways by 17-DMAG (17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin) in pathophysiological phenotypes after partial bladder outlet obstruction. Partial bladder outlet obstruction was surgically created in male C57BL/6J mice. The animals received oral administration of 17-DMAG or vehicle daily starting from the initiation of obstruction up to 5 days. Sham operated mice served as controls. Bladders were harvested from each group 2, 4 and 7 days postoperatively, and analyzed for histological and biochemical changes. Bladder function was assessed by in vitro muscle contractility recordings. Partial bladder outlet obstruction caused a significant increase in the bladder mass accompanying enhanced collagen deposition in the bladder wall while 17-DMAG treatment suppressed those increases. Treatment with 17-DMAG attenuated the degree of up-regulation of HIFs and their target genes involving the development of tissue fibrosis in obstructed bladders. Treatment with 17-DMAG improved the decreased responses of obstructed bladder strips to electrical field stimulation and KCl. In vivo 17-DMAG treatment decreased partial bladder outlet obstruction induced pathophysiological changes in the bladder. HIF pathway inhibition has a potential clinical implication for the development of novel pharmacological therapies to treat bladder pathology associated with partial bladder outlet obstruction. Copyright © 2016 American Urological

  18. [Chlorine concentrations in the air of indoor swimming pools and their effects on swimming pool workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luna, Álvaro; Burillo, Pablo; Felipe, José Luis; Gallardo, Leonor; Tamaral, Francisco Manuel

    2013-01-01

    To describe chlorine levels in the air of indoor swimming pools in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and relate them to other chemical parameters in the installation and to the health problems perceived by swimming pool workers. We analyzed 21 pools with chlorine as chemical treatment in Castilla-La Mancha. The iodometry method was applied to measure chlorine concentrations in the air. The concentrations of free and combined chlorine in water, pH and temperature were also evaluated. Health problems were surveyed in 230 swimming pool workers in these facilities. The mean chlorine level in the air of swimming pools was 4.3 ± 2.3mg/m(3). The pH values were within the legal limits. The temperature parameters did not comply with regulations in 17 of the 21 pools analyzed. In the pools where chlorine values in the air were above the legal regulations, a significantly higher percentage of swimming pool workers perceived eye irritation, dryness and irritation of skin, and ear problems. Chlorine values in the air of indoor swimming pools were higher than those reported in similar studies. Most of the facilities (85%) exceeded the concentration of 1.5mg/m(3) established as the limit for the risk of irritating effects. The concentration of chlorine in indoor swimming pool air has a direct effect on the self-perceived health problems of swimming pool workers. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Intraspinal schwannoma and neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, K S; Ho, C S; Tai, P A; Kung, W M

    2018-04-01

    Most lumbar intradural schwannomas present initially as radiculopathies with sensory disturbances. However, neurogenic bladder dysfunction may be one of the earliest manifestations and can cause long-term disability. We present the case of a patient with a L3-4 schwannoma (newly diagnosed owing to recurrent urinary retention and urinary tract infection) who finally underwent surgical resection. Improvement of bladder sensation was documented by urodynamic study and the patient was subsequently weaned off her Foley catheter with satisfactory outcome.

  20. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  1. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Moda, Y; Sone, A; Tanaka, H; Hino, Y

    1994-01-01

    We encountered a rare patient with Hunter's syndrome who exhibited urinary retention as a result of a neurogenic bladder, uninhibited detrusor contractions, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Neurological findings were consistent with cervical myelopathy and cervical MR imaging showed very narrow segments at the cord level C2-4. We speculate that this Hunter's syndrome patient has cervical myelopathy and that this neurological dysfunction causes the neurogenic bladder. PMID:8014981

  2. Swimming performance in surf: the influence of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, M; Reilly, T; Rees, A; Spray, G; Golden, F

    2008-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis (H1) that surf swimming involves a quantifiable experience component. Sixty-five beach lifeguards with (n = 35) and without surf experience (n = 30) completed: a best effort 200-m swim in a 25-m pool, a calm and a surf sea; an anthropometric survey; maximum effort 30-s swim bench test; 50-m pool swim (25 m underwater). In both groups, time to swim 200 m was slower in calm seas than in the pool and slower in surf than in either calm seas or the pool (p surf conditions (p surf experience as a predictor of surf swim time (R(2) = 0.32, p surf swimming. This limits the usefulness of pool swim times and other land-based tests as predictors of surf swimming performance. The hypothesis (H1) is accepted.

  3. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Sholan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 000 women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult and is substantially based on clinical symptoms. Pelvic pain, urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia are the basic complaints in this pathology. The diagnosis requires exclusion of diseases with similar manifestations. So interstitial cystitis is frequently misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethral obstruction or diverticulosis, chronic prostatitis, bladder cancer, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and chronic pelvic pain. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is uncertain, which makes etiologic treatment impossible. Currently scientific discussions on the causes of disease continue as well as different treatment regimens are offered, but are often ineffective, palliative and temporary. The treatment for intersticial cystitis should focus on restoring normal bladder function, prevention of relapse of symptoms and improvement of patients’ quality of life. The literature review presents current view on the terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  4. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  5. Mitomycin C Intravesical Chemotherapy in Conjunction With Synergo® Radiofrequency-Induced Hyperthermia for Treatment of Carcinoma in Situ Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Patients Unresponsive to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, With or Without Papillary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-20

    Bladder Cancer; Bladder Neoplasm; Bladder Tumors; Cancer of Bladder; Cancer of the Bladder; Malignant Tumor of Urinary Bladder; Neoplasms, Bladder; Urinary Bladder Cancer; Carcinoma in Situ of Bladder; Papillary Carcinoma of Bladder (Diagnosis); BCG-Unresponsive Bladder Cancer

  6. Buoyancy of gas-filled bladders at great depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, Imants G.

    2018-02-01

    At high hydrostatic pressures exceeding 20 MPa or 200 bar, equivalent to depths exceeding ca.2000 m, the behaviour of gases deviates significantly from the predictions of standard equations such as Boyle's Law, the Ideal Gas Law and Van der Waals equation. The predictions of these equations are compared with experimental data for nitrogen, oxygen and air at 0 °C and 15 °C, at pressures up to 1100 bar (110 MPa) equivalent to full ocean depth of ca. 11000 m. Owing to reduced compressibility of gases at high pressures, gas-filled bladders at full ocean depth have a density of 847 kg m-3 for Oxygen, 622 kg m-3 for Nitrogen and 660 kg m-3 for air providing potentially useful buoyancy comparable with that available from man-made materials. This helps explain why some of the deepest-living fishes at ca. 7000 m depth (700 bar or 70 MPa) have gas-filled swim bladders. A table is provided of the density and buoyancy of oxygen, nitrogen and air at 0 °C and 15 °C from 100 to 1100 bar.

  7. Intermittent Swimming with a Flexible Propulsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoz, Emre; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    Aquatic animals use a variety of swimming gaits to propel themselves efficiently through the oceans. One type of gait known as intermittent or burst-and-coast swimming is used by species such as saithe, cod and trout. Recent studies have shown that this gait can save up to 60% of a swimmer's energy by exploiting an inviscid Garrick mechanism. These detailed studies have examined the effects of an intermittent swimming gait on rigid propulsors, yet the caudal fins of intermittent swimmers are in fact highly flexible propulsors. In this respect, to gain a comprehensive understanding of intermittent swimming, the effect of elasticity on the swimming performance and wake flow of an intermittent swimmer is investigated. To accomplish this a torsional spring structural model is strongly coupled to a fast boundary element method solver that captures the fluid-structure interaction of a two-dimensional self-propelled intermittently pitching hydrofoil. It is shown that flexibility introduces extra vortices to the coasting phase of motion that can either promote or diminish thrust production depending upon the hydrofoil parameters. An optimal intermittent flexible swimmer is shown to increase its efficiency by as much as 28% when compared to an optimal continuous flexible swimmer. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  8. Propulsive force asymmetry during tethered-swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, K B; Pereira, G; Papoti, M; Bento, P C B; Rodacki, A

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether: i) tethe-red-swimming can be used to identify the asymmetry during front crawl swimming style; ii) swimmers that perform unilateral breathing present greater asymmetry in comparison to others that use bilateral breathing; iii) swimmers of best performance present smaller asymmetry than their counterparts; iv) repeated front crawl swimming movements influence body asymmetry. 18 swimmers were assessed for propulsive force parameters (peak force, mean force, impulse and rate of force development) during a maximal front crawl tethered-swimming test lasting 2 min. A factorial analysis showed that propulsive forces decreased at the beginning, intermediate and end of the test (pforce parameters (p>0.05). When performance was considered (below or above mean group time), a larger asymmetry was found in the sub-group of lower performance in comparison to those of best performance (pforces can be detected using tethered-swimming. The propulsive forces decreased during the test but asymmetries did not change under testing conditions. Although breathing preference did not influence asymmetry, swimmers with best performance were less asymmetric than their counterparts. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Patient resources available to bladder cancer patients: a pilot study of healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheryl T; Mei, Minghua; Ashley, Jan; Breslow, Gene; O'Donnell, Michael; Gilbert, Scott; Lemmy, Simon; Saxton, Claire; Sagalowsky, Arthur; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Latini, David M

    2012-01-01

    To survey thought leaders attending an annual bladder cancer conference about resources available to survivors at, primarily, large academic centers treating a high volume of patients. Bladder cancer is a disease with high treatment burden. Support groups and survivorship programs are effective at managing physical and psychosocial impairments experienced by patients. The Institute of Medicine recommends increased resources for cancer survivorship, but no description of current resources exists for bladder cancer patients. Preceding the 4th annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank meeting in August 2009, we carried out an Internet-based survey of registrants that queried respondents about institutional resources and support systems devoted to bladder cancer survivors. Data were collected using SurveyMonkey.com, and descriptive statistics were computed. A total of 43 eligible respondents included urologists (77%), medical oncologists (16%), and other physicians or health professionals (7%). Physician respondents represented 22 academic centers and 2 private groups. Although 63% of respondent institutions had a National Cancer Institute designation, only 33% had an active bladder cancer support group. Survivorship clinics were available in 29% of institutions, and peer support networks, community resources for education, and patient navigation were available in 58%, 13%, and 25% of respondent institutions, respectively. Resources for bladder cancer survivors vary widely and are lacking at several academic centers with high-volume bladder cancer populations. Bladder cancer providers are often unaware of available institutional resources for patients. Urologists need to advocate for additional survivor resources and partner with other disciplines to provide appropriate care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrafraction Bladder Motion in Radiation Therapy Estimated From Pretreatment and Posttreatment Volumetric Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroudi, Farshad; Pham, Daniel; Bressel, Mathias; Gill, Suki; Kron, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The use of image guidance protocols using soft tissue anatomy identification before treatment can reduce interfractional variation. This makes intrafraction clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) changes more important, including those resulting from intrafraction bladder filling and motion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the required intrafraction margins for soft tissue image guidance from pretreatment and posttreatment volumetric imaging. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-T4) underwent an adaptive radiation therapy protocol using daily pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with weekly posttreatment CBCT. A total of 235 pairs of pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT images were retrospectively contoured by a single radiation oncologist (CBCT-CTV). The maximum bladder displacement was measured according to the patient's bony pelvis movement during treatment, intrafraction bladder filling, and bladder centroid motion. Results: The mean time between pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT was 13 minutes, 52 seconds (range, 7 min 52 sec to 30 min 56 sec). Taking into account patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling, the required margins to cover intrafraction changes from pretreatment to posttreatment in the superior, inferior, right, left, anterior, and posterior were 1.25 cm (range, 1.19-1.50 cm), 0.67 cm (range, 0.58-1.12 cm), 0.74 cm (range, 0.59-0.94 cm), 0.73 cm (range, 0.51-1.00 cm), 1.20 cm (range, 0.85-1.32 cm), and 0.86 cm (range, 0.73-0.99), respectively. Small bladders on pretreatment imaging had relatively the largest increase in pretreatment to posttreatment volume. Conclusion: Intrafraction motion of the bladder based on pretreatment and posttreatment bladder imaging can be significant particularly in the anterior and superior directions. Patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling all contribute to changes between

  11. Intrafraction Bladder Motion in Radiation Therapy Estimated From Pretreatment and Posttreatment Volumetric Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroudi, Farshad, E-mail: farshad.foroudi@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Pham, Daniel [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Gill, Suki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The use of image guidance protocols using soft tissue anatomy identification before treatment can reduce interfractional variation. This makes intrafraction clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) changes more important, including those resulting from intrafraction bladder filling and motion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the required intrafraction margins for soft tissue image guidance from pretreatment and posttreatment volumetric imaging. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-T4) underwent an adaptive radiation therapy protocol using daily pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with weekly posttreatment CBCT. A total of 235 pairs of pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT images were retrospectively contoured by a single radiation oncologist (CBCT-CTV). The maximum bladder displacement was measured according to the patient's bony pelvis movement during treatment, intrafraction bladder filling, and bladder centroid motion. Results: The mean time between pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT was 13 minutes, 52 seconds (range, 7 min 52 sec to 30 min 56 sec). Taking into account patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling, the required margins to cover intrafraction changes from pretreatment to posttreatment in the superior, inferior, right, left, anterior, and posterior were 1.25 cm (range, 1.19-1.50 cm), 0.67 cm (range, 0.58-1.12 cm), 0.74 cm (range, 0.59-0.94 cm), 0.73 cm (range, 0.51-1.00 cm), 1.20 cm (range, 0.85-1.32 cm), and 0.86 cm (range, 0.73-0.99), respectively. Small bladders on pretreatment imaging had relatively the largest increase in pretreatment to posttreatment volume. Conclusion: Intrafraction motion of the bladder based on pretreatment and posttreatment bladder imaging can be significant particularly in the anterior and superior directions. Patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling all contribute to changes between

  12. Continuous Flushing of the Bladder in Rodents Reduces Artifacts and Improves Quantification in Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Deleye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the partial volume effect (PVE of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG tracer accumulation in the bladder on the positron emission tomographic (PET image quantification in mice and rats suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To improve the accuracy, we implemented continuous bladder flushing procedures. Female mice and rats were scanned using microPET/computed tomography (CT at baseline and after induction of acute colitis by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS intrarectally. During the scans, the bladder was continuously flushed in one group, whereas in the other group, no bladder flushing was performed. As a means of in vivo and ex vivo validation of the inflammation, animals also underwent colonoscopy and were sacrificed for gamma counting (subpopulation and to score the colonic damage both micro- and macroscopically as well as biochemically. At baseline, the microPET signal in the colon of both mice and rats was significantly higher in the nonflushed group compared to the flushed group, caused by the PVE of tracer activity in the bladder. Hence, the colonoscopy and postmortem analyses showed no significant differences at baseline between the flushed and nonflushed animals. TNBS induced significant colonic inflammation, as revealed by colonoscopic and postmortem scores, which was not detected by microPET in the mice without bladder flushing, again because of spillover of bladder activity in the colonic area. MicroPET in bladder-flushed animals did reveal a significant increase in 18F-FDG uptake. Correlations between microPET and colonoscopy, macroscopy, microscopy, and myeloperoxidase yielded higher Spearman rho values in mice with continuously flushed bladders during imaging. Comparable, although somewhat less pronounced, results were shown in the rat. Continuous bladder flushing reduced image artifacts and is mandatory for accurate image quantification in the pelvic region for both mice

  13. Bladder preservation using chemoradiation therapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toyofumi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Sato, Mototaka; Mori, Naoki; Sekii, Ken-Ichiro; Itatani, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the long-term results and molecular markers of outcome with selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer using chemoradiation therapy. We examined locally invasive bladder cancer in 32 patients (30 men, 2 women; mean age at treatment 68.1 years) who underwent bladder-sparing protocols in the Department of Urology at Sumitomo Hospital between 2000 and 2005. The clinical stage was T2, T3, and T4 in 13, 16, and 3 patients, respectively. Our protocol includes aggressive transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and 46 Gy radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week) to the pelvis with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy (20 mg/body/day, 5 days/week, the first and fourth week, intravenously). The initial evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine cytology, and cystoscopy with a biopsy. During follow-up, if the patients developed superficial recurrence, they was treated with TURBT and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), while patients with invasive recurrence were advised to undergo a salvage cystectomy. We examined the association between the expression of the Bcl-2 family in pretreatment TUR specimens and patient outcome. The mean follow-up was 54.6 months. The first assessment after the induction chemoradiotherapy showed that bladder preservation was achieved in 27 patients (84.4%). The actuarial local control rate with an intact bladder was 56.3% (18 patients) at 3 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 90.6, 84.0, and 66.9%, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 75.0, 67.2, and 33.3% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Bcl-x positivity was significantly associated with a poor cancer-specific survival rate (log-rank test, p=0.038). Chemoradiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer can achieve survival rates similar to those in patients treated with radical cystectomy, with successful bladder preservation. Our results suggest that the expression of Bcl-x is a

  14. Videourodynamic characteristics of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome-The role of bladder outlet dysfunction in the pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2018-03-05

    To investigate the characteristics of videourodynamic study (VUDS) in females with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) focusing on the etiologies of bladder outlet dysfunction (BOD) and their associations with clinical and urodynamic parameters. IC/BPS females with complete data on symptom assessment, VUDS, the potassium sensitivity test, and cystoscopic hydrodistention were reviewed retrospectively. Diagnoses of bladder dysfunction (hypersensitive bladder, HSB) and BOD including dysfunctional voiding (DV), poor relaxation of the external urethral sphincter (PRES), and bladder neck dysfunction (BND) were made by VUDS. The clinical and urodynamic parameters between patients with normal and abnormal VUDS diagnoses were analyzed. A total of 348 IC/BPS female patients (mean age 48.8 ± 13.5) were enrolled. HSB was found in 307 (88.2%) patients and BOD in 209 (60.1%). The causes of BOD included DV in 40 (11.5%), PRES in 168 (48.3%), and BND in 1 (0.3%). Patients with DV and BND had higher, and those with PRES had lower detrusor pressures at maximum flow rate (Q max ) than those with normal tracings. For all BOD patients, univariate logistic regression revealed a significant positive correlation of disease duration and negative correlations of urodynamic volume parameters with BOD in IC/BPS patients. Multivariate logistic regression found a cut-off value of Q max  ≦ 11 mL/s predicted BOD in IC/BPS with a receiver operating characteristic area of 0.81 (sensitivity = 82.0%, specificity = 68.5%). HSB and BOD are common findings on VUDS in IC/BPS females. BOD is associated with duration and hypersensitive bladder. A Q max  ≦ 11 mL/s predicts BOD in IC/BPS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  16. Timing of blood transfusion and not ABO blood type is associated with survival in patients treated with radical cystectomy for nonmetastatic bladder cancer: Results from a single high-volume institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschini, Marco; Bianchi, Marco; Rossi, Martina Sofia; Dell׳Oglio, Paolo; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Fossati, Nicola; Mattei, Agostino; Damiano, Rocco; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Salonia, Andrea; Montorsi, Francesco; Briganti, Alberto; Colombo, Renzo; Gallina, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Perioperative transfusions have been recently associated to poor outcomes as an indirect consequence of immune-hematological changes related to transfusion itself and blood type. We tested the role of blood transfusion on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and overall mortality (OM), considering the effect of ABO system, Rh factor, and timing of transfusions. The study focused on 728 patients with bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy at a single tertiary care referral center between January 1995 and August 2013 with complete ABO blood type information. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the effect of transfusions, stratified according to ABO type and Rh factor, on CSM and OM. The same endpoints were tested in Cox regression models, after adjusting for all available confounders. A total of 341 (46.8%), 277 (38.0%), 83 (11.4%), and 27 (3.7%) patients had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. Overall, 630 (86.5%) and 98 (13.5%) patients were Rh-and Rh+, respectively. At a median follow-up time of 65 months, 225 (30.9%) and 282 (38.7%) patients recorded CSM and OM, respectively. At univariable analyses, ABO blood type and Rh status were not associated to either CSM or OM (all P>0.2). Similar results were observed when ABO blood type and Rh factor were tested in multivariable models (all P>0.3). Conversely, Charlson score, preoperative hemoglobin, number of nodes removed, pathological T stage, and number of positive nodes were associated to both CSM and OM (all Pblood units in the postoperative period (P>0.05) was associated with an increase of CSM and OM. Although ABO type or Rh factor or both were associated with several adverse outcomes in many cancers, we were not able to confirm this association in bladder cancer. Based on our results, the effect of transfusion on survival is independent by ABO type but is associated to the timing of blood supply administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SWIMMING BEHAVIOR OF DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE CALANOID COPEPOD TEMORA-LONGICORNIS AT DIFFERENT FOOD CONCENTRATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDUREN, LA; VIDELER, JJ

    1995-01-01

    The swimming behaviour of developmental stages of the marine calanoid copepod Temora longicornis was studied using 2-dimensional observations under a microscope and a 3-dimensional filming technique to analyze swimming mode, swimming speed and swimming trajectories under different food

  18. Swimming type inspection device and system thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Arata; Kimura, Motohiko; Ito, Tomoyuki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a swimming type inspection device which can be reduced in the size, easily accessible to each portion of a reactor, and increase the degree of freedom of swimming and visual range, and facilitate visual inspection. The swimming type inspection device comprises two photographing devices, a device which can obtain propelling force by rotation of impellers, two second propelling devices having impellers disposed in perpendicular to the rotating axis of the impellers of the first propelling device, a control device for controlling control signals of first and second propelling devices and driving devices therefor and control image signals of the photographing devices, and transmission section for wireless transmitting of the control signals and the image signals. (N.H.)

  19. Swimming and feeding of mixotrophic biflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dölger, Julia; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    with variable position next to a no-slip sphere. Utilizing the observations and the model we find that puller force arrangements favour feeding, whereas equatorial force arrangements favour fast and quiet swimming. We determine the capture rates of both passive and motile prey, and we show that the flow......Many unicellular flagellates are mixotrophic and access resources through both photosynthesis and prey capture. Their fitness depends on those processes as well as on swimming and predator avoidance. How does the flagellar arrangement and beat pattern of the flagellate affect swimming speed......, predation risk due to flow-sensing predators, and prey capture? Here, we describe measured flows around two species of mixotrophic, biflagellated haptophytes with qualitatively different flagellar arrangements and beat patterns. We model the near cell flows using two symmetrically arranged point forces...

  20. Quiet swimming at low Reynolds number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Wadhwa, Navish; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The stresslet provides a simple model of the flow created by a small, freely swimming and neutrally buoyant aquatic organism and shows that the far field fluid disturbance created by such an organism in general decays as one over distance squared. Here we discuss a quieter swimming mode...... that eliminates the stresslet component of the flow and leads to a faster spatial decay of the fluid disturbance described by a force quadrupole that decays as one over distance cubed. Motivated by recent experimental results on fluid disturbances due to small aquatic organisms, we demonstrate that a three......-Stokeslet model of a swimming organism which uses breast stroke type kinematics is an example of such a quiet swimmer. We show that the fluid disturbance in both the near field and the far field is significantly reduced by appropriately arranging the propulsion apparatus, and we find that the far field power laws...

  1. Swimming economy: determinant factors and assessment issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Novaes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Swimming economy is an important parameter in the control of the training process, since it has been demonstrated that this concept is related to the swimming performance. Swimming economy is affected by physiological and biomechanical constraints, therefore being a concept that reflects the swimmers´ adaptation to the liquid environment in those two domains. A review of the literature about swimming economy is presented, focusing some of the most relevant studies that have been conducted on this issue. Other than the biomechanical and physiological constraints, the swimming economy is influenced by other factors such as: swimming velocity, technical ability, training status, gender, age and anthropometric characteristics. Therefore a multitude of aspects are pertinent in the assessment of swimming economy and in the application of this concept in the control of the swimmers’ training process. A proper assessment of the swimming economy requires the direct measurement of the oxygen uptake. The choice of the protocol to assess the swimming economy must be carefully done. Particular attention must be paid to the oxygen uptake kinetics across the different levels of exercise intensity. Therefore, both exercise intensity and duration are to be considered. The attainment of swimming velocities as close as possible to the competition velocity is also an important issue. Although few studies have measured directly the oxygen uptake of top-level performers during swimming, the literature shows that a discontinuous protocol, with increasing exercise bouts of duration between three and six minutes seem appropriate to assess the swimming economy. RESUMO Economia de nado é um parâmetro importante no controle do processo de treinamento, desde que foi demonstrado que este conceito é relacionado ao desempenho de nado. Economia de nado é afetada por aspectosfisiológicos e biomecânicos, sendo então um conceito que reflete a adaptação de nadadores ao

  2. Virulent Naegleria fowleri in indoor swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, V; Skvárová, J; Cerva, L; Nebáznivá, D

    1980-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri was isolated from water during a hygienic inspection of a swimming pool in December 1977. This swimming pool was identified as a source of the infectious agent in the years 1962-1965, when a large outbreak of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) occurred. First two strains of N. fowleri, pathogenic for white mice after intracerebral and intranasal inoculation, were isolated from water of outlet troughs, additional strains were then isolated from various places; particularly from a cavity in the damaged wall of the pool. The incubation temperature did not inhibit a simultaneous growth of amoebae of the genera Acanthamoeba, Flabellula, Hartmannella and Vahlkampfia in the primocultures. Epidemiological investigations did not reveal any new case of PAME in relation with the occurrence of pathogenic N. fowleri in the swimming pool.

  3. Analysis of swimming performance: perceptions and practices of US-based swimming coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Robert; Corley, Gavin; Godfrey, Alan; Osborough, Conor; Newell, John; Quinlan, Leo Richard; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2016-01-01

    In elite swimming, a broad range of methods are used to assess performance, inform coaching practices and monitor athletic progression. The aim of this paper was to examine the performance analysis practices of swimming coaches and to explore the reasons behind the decisions that coaches take when analysing performance. Survey data were analysed from 298 Level 3 competitive swimming coaches (245 male, 53 female) based in the United States. Results were compiled to provide a generalised picture of practices and perceptions and to examine key emerging themes. It was found that a disparity exists between the importance swim coaches place on biomechanical analysis of swimming performance and the types of analyses that are actually conducted. Video-based methods are most frequently employed, with over 70% of coaches using these methods at least monthly, with analyses being mainly qualitative in nature rather than quantitative. Barriers to the more widespread use of quantitative biomechanical analysis in elite swimming environments were explored. Constraints include time, cost and availability of resources, but other factors such as sources of information on swimming performance and analysis and control over service provision are also discussed, with particular emphasis on video-based methods and emerging sensor-based technologies.

  4. Propulsive efficiency of frog swimming with different feet and swimming patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jizhuang, Fan; Wei, Zhang; Bowen, Yuan; Gangfeng, Liu

    2017-04-15

    Aquatic and terrestrial animals have different swimming performances and mechanical efficiencies based on their different swimming methods. To explore propulsion in swimming frogs, this study calculated mechanical efficiencies based on data describing aquatic and terrestrial webbed-foot shapes and swimming patterns. First, a simplified frog model and dynamic equation were established, and hydrodynamic forces on the foot were computed according to computational fluid dynamic calculations. Then, a two-link mechanism was used to stand in for the diverse and complicated hind legs found in different frog species, in order to simplify the input work calculation. Joint torques were derived based on the virtual work principle to compute the efficiency of foot propulsion. Finally, two feet and swimming patterns were combined to compute propulsive efficiency. The aquatic frog demonstrated a propulsive efficiency (43.11%) between those of drag-based and lift-based propulsions, while the terrestrial frog efficiency (29.58%) fell within the range of drag-based propulsion. The results illustrate the main factor of swimming patterns for swimming performance and efficiency. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Propulsive efficiency of frog swimming with different feet and swimming patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jizhuang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic and terrestrial animals have different swimming performances and mechanical efficiencies based on their different swimming methods. To explore propulsion in swimming frogs, this study calculated mechanical efficiencies based on data describing aquatic and terrestrial webbed-foot shapes and swimming patterns. First, a simplified frog model and dynamic equation were established, and hydrodynamic forces on the foot were computed according to computational fluid dynamic calculations. Then, a two-link mechanism was used to stand in for the diverse and complicated hind legs found in different frog species, in order to simplify the input work calculation. Joint torques were derived based on the virtual work principle to compute the efficiency of foot propulsion. Finally, two feet and swimming patterns were combined to compute propulsive efficiency. The aquatic frog demonstrated a propulsive efficiency (43.11% between those of drag-based and lift-based propulsions, while the terrestrial frog efficiency (29.58% fell within the range of drag-based propulsion. The results illustrate the main factor of swimming patterns for swimming performance and efficiency.

  6. Determination of a quantitative parameter to evaluate swimming technique based on the maximal tethered swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncin, Rafael; Mezêncio, Bruno; Ferreira, Jacielle Carolina; Rodrigues, Sara Andrade; Huebner, Rudolf; Serrão, Julio Cerca; Szmuchrowski, Leszek

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a new force parameter, associated with swimmers' technique and performance. Twelve swimmers performed five repetitions of 25 m sprint crawl and a tethered swimming test with maximal effort. The parameters calculated were: the mean swimming velocity for crawl sprint, the mean propulsive force of the tethered swimming test as well as an oscillation parameter calculated from force fluctuation. The oscillation parameter evaluates the force variation around the mean force during the tethered test as a measure of swimming technique. Two parameters showed significant correlations with swimming velocity: the mean force during the tethered swimming (r = 0.85) and the product of the mean force square root and the oscillation (r = 0.86). However, the intercept coefficient was significantly different from zero only for the mean force, suggesting that although the correlation coefficient of the parameters was similar, part of the mean velocity magnitude that was not associated with the mean force was associated with the product of the mean force square root and the oscillation. Thus, force fluctuation during tethered swimming can be used as a quantitative index of swimmers' technique.

  7. Urinary Bladder Dysfunction in Transgenic Sickle Cell Disease Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, Mário Angelo; Leiria, Luiz Osório Silveira; da Silva, Fábio Henrique; Alexandre, Eduardo Costa; Renno, Andre; Mónica, Fabiola Zakia; de Nucci, Gilberto; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Antunes, Edson; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Urological complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), include nocturia, enuresis, urinary infections and urinary incontinence. However, scientific evidence to ascertain the underlying cause of the lower urinary tract symptoms in SCD is lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate urinary function, in vivo and ex vivo, in the Berkeley SCD murine model (SS). Urine output was measured in metabolic cage for both wild type and SS mice (25-30 g). Bladder strips and urethra rings were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. In isolated detrusor smooth muscle (DSM), relaxant response to mirabegron and isoproterenol (1nM-10μM) and contractile response to (carbachol (CCh; 1 nM-100μM), KCl (1 mM-300mM), CaCl2 (1μM-100mM), α,β-methylene ATP (1, 3 and 10 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1-32 Hz) were measured. Phenylephrine (Phe; 10nM-100μM) was used to evaluate the contraction mechanism in the urethra rings. Cystometry and histomorphometry were also performed in the urinary bladder. SS mice present a reduced urine output and incapacity to produce typical bladder contractions and bladder emptying (ex vivo), compared to control animals. In DSM, relaxation in response to a selective β3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron) and to a non-selective β-adrenergic (isoproterenol) agonist were lower in SS mice. Additionally, carbachol, α, β-methylene ATP, KCl, extracellular Ca2+ and electrical-field stimulation promoted smaller bladder contractions in SS group. Urethra contraction induced by phenylephrine was markedly reduced in SS mice. Histological analyses of SS mice bladder revealed severe structural abnormalities, such as reductions in detrusor thickness and bladder volume, and cell infiltration. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that SS mice display features of urinary bladder dysfunction, leading to impairment in urinary continence, which may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the enuresis and infections

  8. Urinary Bladder Dysfunction in Transgenic Sickle Cell Disease Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Angelo Claudino

    Full Text Available Urological complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD, include nocturia, enuresis, urinary infections and urinary incontinence. However, scientific evidence to ascertain the underlying cause of the lower urinary tract symptoms in SCD is lacking.Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate urinary function, in vivo and ex vivo, in the Berkeley SCD murine model (SS.Urine output was measured in metabolic cage for both wild type and SS mice (25-30 g. Bladder strips and urethra rings were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. In isolated detrusor smooth muscle (DSM, relaxant response to mirabegron and isoproterenol (1nM-10μM and contractile response to (carbachol (CCh; 1 nM-100μM, KCl (1 mM-300mM, CaCl2 (1μM-100mM, α,β-methylene ATP (1, 3 and 10 μM and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1-32 Hz were measured. Phenylephrine (Phe; 10nM-100μM was used to evaluate the contraction mechanism in the urethra rings. Cystometry and histomorphometry were also performed in the urinary bladder.SS mice present a reduced urine output and incapacity to produce typical bladder contractions and bladder emptying (ex vivo, compared to control animals. In DSM, relaxation in response to a selective β3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron and to a non-selective β-adrenergic (isoproterenol agonist were lower in SS mice. Additionally, carbachol, α, β-methylene ATP, KCl, extracellular Ca2+ and electrical-field stimulation promoted smaller bladder contractions in SS group. Urethra contraction induced by phenylephrine was markedly reduced in SS mice. Histological analyses of SS mice bladder revealed severe structural abnormalities, such as reductions in detrusor thickness and bladder volume, and cell infiltration.Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that SS mice display features of urinary bladder dysfunction, leading to impairment in urinary continence, which may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the enuresis and infections

  9. Paramecium swimming in a capillary tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Saikat; Jung, Sunghwan

    2010-03-01

    Micro-organisms exhibit different strategies for swimming in complex environments. Many micro-swimmers such as paramecium congregate and tend to live near wall. We investigate how paramecium moves in a confined space as compared to its motion in an unbounded fluid. A new theoretical model based on Taylor's sheet is developed, to study such boundary effects. In experiments, paramecia are put inside capillary tubes and their swimming behavior is observed. The data obtained from experiments is used to test the validity of our theoretical model and understand how the cilia influence the locomotion of paramecia in confined geometries.

  10. Infections Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit the Information for Aquatics Professionals page. Pinworm & Swimming Pinworm infections are rarely spread through the use of swimming pools. Pinworm infections occur when a person swallows pinworm eggs ...

  11. Estimating energy expenditure during front crawl swimming using accelerometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Van Thiel, David H

    2014-01-01

    The determination of energy expenditure is of major interest in training load and performance assessment. Small, wireless accelerometer units have the potential to characterise energy expenditure during swimming. The correlation between absorbed oxygen versus flume swimming speed and absorbed...

  12. Medical management of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvpreet S Ubee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB, as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat.

  13. Front Crawl Swimming Performance and Bi-Lateral Force Asymmetry during Land-Based and Tethered Swimming Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karini B. dos Santos, Paulo C. Barauce Bento, Gleber Pereira, Carl Payton, André L.F. Rodacki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate whether land-based and tethered swimming strength tests can explain swimming performance in 200-meter front crawl and, whether these tests were able to identify bilateral symmetry in force production. In the first session, eighteen swimmers completed a maximum effort 200 m front crawl swim (swimming performance and 15 seconds maximal effort tethered front crawl swim. In the second session, participants performed the upper extremity isometric strength test. Peak force production of tethered swimming and isometric strength tests were significantly correlated for the strongest and weakest sides (r = 0.58 and r = 0.63, respectively; p < 0.05, but only peak force production during tethered swimming correlated with 200 m swimming performance time (r = -0.55, p < 0.05. Bilateral asymmetries in peak force and rate of force development were similar between the tethered swimming and isometric strength tests (peak force: 13%, p = 0.24; rate of force development: 15%, p = 0.88 However, both tests detected significant difference of peak force and rate of force development between body sides. The tethered swimming test can partially explain the 200 m front crawl swimming performance. In addition, the land-based and tethered swimming tests may be used to identify bilateral asymmetry of swimming

  14. Front Crawl Swimming Performance and Bi-Lateral Force Asymmetry during Land-Based and Tethered Swimming Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Karini B; Bento, Paulo C Barauce; Pereira, Gleber; Payton, Carl; Rodacki, André L F

    2017-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether land-based and tethered swimming strength tests can explain swimming performance in 200-meter front crawl and, whether these tests were able to identify bilateral symmetry in force production. In the first session, eighteen swimmers completed a maximum effort 200 m front crawl swim (swimming performance) and 15 seconds maximal effort tethered front crawl swim. In the second session, participants performed the upper extremity isometric strength test. Peak force production of tethered swimming and isometric strength tests were significantly correlated for the strongest and weakest sides (r = 0.58 and r = 0.63, respectively; p force production during tethered swimming correlated with 200 m swimming performance time (r = -0.55, p force and rate of force development were similar between the tethered swimming and isometric strength tests (peak force: 13%, p = 0.24; rate of force development: 15%, p = 0.88) However, both tests detected significant difference of peak force and rate of force development between body sides. The tethered swimming test can partially explain the 200 m front crawl swimming performance. In addition, the land-based and tethered swimming tests may be used to identify bilateral asymmetry of swimming.

  15. Bladder hernia: Multidetector computed tomography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Gadodia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of bladder in inguinal hernia is rare, with most cases diagnosed intraoperatively. Preoperative diagnosis is even rarer. We report a case of bladder as content of inguinal hernia diagnosed using multidetector computed tomography.

  16. Bladder Morphology Using 2 Different Catheter Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Urologic Injuries; Urologic Diseases; Bladder Infection; Urinary Tract Infections; Mucosal Inflammation; Mucosal Infection; Bladder Injury; Catheter-Related Infections; Catheter Complications; Catheter; Infection (Indwelling Catheter); Pelvic Floor Disorders; Urinary Incontinence

  17. Optimal bladder filling during high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer: a dosimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Mahantshetty

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare 3D dose volume histogram (DVH parameters of bladder and other organs at risk with different bladder filling protocol during high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT in cervical cancer, and to find optimized bladder volume. Material and methods : This dosimetric study was completed with 21 patients who underwent HDR-ICBT with computed tomography/magnetic resonance compatible applicator as a routine treatment. Computed tomography planning was done for each patient with bladder emptied (series 1, after 50 ml (series 2, and 100 ml (series 3 bladder filling with a saline infusion through the bladder catheter. Contouring was done on the Eclipse Planning System. 7 Gy to point A was prescribed with the standard loading patterns. Various 3D DVH parameters including 0.1 cc, 1 cc, 2 cc doses and mean doses to the OAR’s were noted. Paired t-test was performed. Results : The mean (± SD bladder volume was 64.5 (± 25 cc, 116.2 (± 28 cc, and 172.9 (± 29 cc, for series 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The 0.1 cm 3 ,1 cm 3 , 2 cm 3 mean bladder doses for series 1, series 2, and series 3 were 9.28 ± 2.27 Gy, 7.38 ± 1.72 Gy, 6.58 ± 1.58 Gy; 9.39 ± 2.28 Gy, 7.85 ± 1.85 Gy, 7.05 ± 1.59 Gy, and 10.09 ± 2.46 Gy, 8.33 ± 1.75 Gy, 7.6 ± 1.55 Gy, respectively. However, there was a trend towards higher bladder doses in series 3. Similarly, for small bowel dose 0.1 cm 3 , 1 cm 3 , and 2 cm 3 in series 1, 2, and 3 were 5.44 ± 2.2 Gy, 4.41 ± 1.84 Gy, 4 ± 1.69 Gy; 4.57 ± 2.89 Gy, 3.78 ± 2.21 Gy, 3.35 ± 2.02 Gy, and 4.09 ± 2.38 Gy, 3.26 ± 1.8 Gy, 3.05 ± 1.58 Gy. Significant increase in small bowel dose in empty bladder (series 1 compared to full bladder (series 3 (p = 0.03 was noted. However, the rectal and sigmoid doses were not significantly affected with either series. Conclusions : Bladder filling protocol with 50 ml and 100 ml was well tolerated and achieved a reasonably reproducible bladder volume

  18. [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Tovar, Anel Rogelio; Pineda-Rodríguez, Marco Elí; Puente-Gallegos, Francisco Edgardo; Zavala-Pompa, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an infrequent lesion. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who arrived at the emergency room with a history of 24-h gross hematuria. Imaging studies show a urinary bladder tumor with a 218 cc volume that during a 20-day period increased to 426 cc. Histopathological images with hematoxylin-eosin show an infiltrating solid mass with uneven borders. It is composed of neoplastic cells with evident nuclei predominance and scant cytoplasm (small cells). Chromogranin immunohistochemical staining shows a diffusely positive cytoplasmic granular pattern on neoplastic cells. High molecular weight cytokeratin staining shows a negative pattern on neoplastic cells along with a positive pattern on reporsurrounding normal urothelium. Tumoral mass is positive for synaptophysin and CD-56 and negative for CK-7 and CK-20. Patient therapy was based on radiation plus chemotherapy. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represents 0.35-0.70% of urinary bladder tumors. Histological and immunohistochemical identification are key elements in the diagnosis. Treatment approach is based on cisplatin-based chemotherapy plus radical cystectomy, except when metastatic disease is present.

  19. Lipase inhibition by orlistat: effects on gall-bladder kinetics and cholecystokinin release in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E M H; Van Ierland-Van Leeuwen, M L; Terpstra, A

    2004-03-01

    Obese subjects are at risk of developing gallstones as a result of the obese state and during weight reduction. To study whether orlistat, by lipase inhibition, impairs gall-bladder emptying, thus further predisposing weight-losing obese subjects to gallstone formation. Patients entering a randomized clinical trial of 1 month of diet, followed by treatment with placebo, 3 x 60 mg orlistat or 3 x 120 mg orlistat, underwent gall-bladder emptying studies measured by ultrasound. Meal-induced cholecystokinin release and gall-bladder emptying were investigated at the start, at randomization and after 1 and 12 months. One month of dieting did not change gall-bladder emptying and cholecystokinin release. After 1 month, placebo treatment resulted in a decreased fasting volume of 11%, compared with increases of 26% and 47% with 60 and 120 mg orlistat, respectively. Gall-bladder emptying increased by 9% with placebo and decreased by 15% and 53% with 60 and 120 mg orlistat, respectively. Fasting cholecystokinin values and cholecystokinin release decreased significantly in the orlistat group. After 1 year, a persistent but attenuated effect of orlistat on gall-bladder emptying and cholecystokinin release remained. Three of 40 patients developed gallstones, two on placebo with major weight loss and one on 60 mg orlistat. One month of lipase inhibition by orlistat significantly impaired gall-bladder motility, which persisted to some extent after 1 year. Obese subjects with diabetes or hyperlipidaemia, who are more at risk of gallstones, should be followed carefully.

  20. Modifying factors in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Nobuyuki; Fukushima, Shoji; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Nakanishi, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Ryohei; Imaida, Katsumi

    1983-01-01

    N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) is a potent carcinogen in the urinary bladder of animals. The BBN model of bladder cancer is an excellent model of human urinary bladder cancer and has already led to a greater knowledge of its pathogenesis. In our studies, histogenesis and morphological characteristics of BBN urinary bladder cancer were analyzed in different animal species such as rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs and also in different rat strains. Papillary or nodular hyperplas...

  1. Training optimization of swimming of school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Hudcová, Stanislava

    2011-01-01

    Subject matter: Training optimization of swimming of school-age children Objectives: The main goal of this research work is to suggest a model of advanced swimming training lessons with school-age children. Swimming training is practised in deep swimming pool. Next goal is to create an inventory of games and game disciplines which are suitable for training in deep water. Through the analysis of specialized literature and realization of experimental education we will be able to formulate new p...

  2. Specifies of teaching swimming to children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Baštová, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Title: Specifics of teaching swimming to children with autism spectrum disorder. Objectives: Creation and implementation of the concept of preparatory and basic swimming lessons for children with autism spectrum disorder. Evaluation of information on continuing education and the achieved level of swimming skills and swimming locomotion observed in children with autism spectrum disorder. Presentation and qualitative assessment of the four case studies and subsequent design of guidelines for sw...

  3. Pathophysiology of the underactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Aizawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Underactive bladder (UAB, which has been described as a symptom complex suggestive of detrusor underactivity, is usually characterized by prolonged urination time with or without a sensation of incomplete bladder emptying, usually with hesitancy, reduced sensation on filling, and slow stream often with storage symptoms. Several causes such as aging, bladder outlet obstruction, diabetes mellitus, neurologic disorders, and nervous injury to the spinal cord, cauda equine, and peripheral pelvic nerve have been assumed to be responsible for the development of UAB. Several contributing factors have been suggested in the pathophysiology of UAB, including myogenic failure, efferent and/or afferent dysfunctions, and central nervous system dysfunction. In this review article, we have described relationships between individual contributing factors and the pathophysiology of UAB based on previous reports. However, many pathophysiological uncertainties still remain, which require more investigations using appropriate animal models.

  4. Trigonalgia: An overlooked cause of bladder pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Aminu

    2015-12-04

    Dec 4, 2015 ... has shown a mean prevalence of 61% due to bladder pain syndrome excluding pregnancy and cancer [2]. E-mail address: sani aminu@hotmail.com. Peer review under responsibility of Pan African Urological Surgeons'. Association. Bladder pain denotes painful experience arising from the bladder.

  5. Tumour cell expansion in bladder epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Rebel (Annemarie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBladder cancer is common in western society. The major problem of patients with superficial bladder cancer is the high recurrence rate and multifocality of these tumours. In 70 % of the patients superficial bladder cancer recurs after local resection of the tumour within 15 years. The

  6. Dynamic Shape Capture of Free-Swimming Aquatic Life using Multi-view Stereo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, David

    2017-11-01

    The reconstruction and tracking of swimming fish in the past has either been restricted to flumes, small volumes, or sparse point tracking in large tanks. The purpose of this research is to use an array of cameras to automatically track 50-100 points on the surface of a fish using the multi-view stereo computer vision technique. The method is non-invasive thus allowing the fish to swim freely in a large volume and to perform more advanced maneuvers such as rolling, darting, stopping, and reversing which have not been studied. The techniques for obtaining and processing the 3D kinematics and maneuvers of tuna, sharks, stingrays, and other species will be presented and compared. The National Aquarium and the Naval Undersea Warfare Center and.

  7. Efficacy of a modified tapering protocol on swimming performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance assessment following tapering consisted of 2 swims over a distance of 200 m, with a recovery period of 5 hours between swims. After resuming normal ... Total time and split times for each length, stroke rate, distance per stroke, and stroke index in a performance swim were determined as well as heart rate (HR) ...

  8. Isolation of Fungi in Swimming pools in Enugu, Nigeria | Mbata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It has been established that swimming pools contribute to the spread of fungal infections in susceptible hosts. Objectives: To isolate and identify fungi associated with swimming pools. Methods: A total of 147 samples from water and related areas of each swimming pool were tested for the presence of fungi.

  9. The fluid dynamics of swimming by jumping in copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Houshuo; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Copepods swim either continuously by vibrating their feeding appendages or erratically by repeatedly beating their swimming legs resulting in a series of small jumps. The two swimming modes generate different hydrodynamic disturbances and therefore expose the swimmers differently to rheotactic pr...

  10. Ion-swimming speed variation of Vibrio cholerae cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work we report the variation in swimming speed of Vibrio cholerae with respect to the change in concentration of sodium ions in the medium. We have also studied the variation in swimming speed with respect to temperature. We find that the swimming speed initially shows a linear increase with the increase of ...

  11. Mechanoreceptor afferent activity compared with receptor field dimensions and pressure changes in feline urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J W; Armour, J A

    1992-11-01

    The relationship between vesical mechanoreceptor field dimensions and afferent nerve activity recorded in pelvic plexus nerve filaments was examined in chloralose-anesthetized cats. Orthogonal receptor field dimensions were monitored with piezoelectric ultrasonic crystals. Reflexly generated bladder contractile activity made measurements difficult, therefore data were collected from cats subjected to actual sacral rhizotomy. Afferent activity was episodic and was initiated at different pressure and receptor field dimension thresholds. Maximum afferent activity did not correlate with maximum volume or pressure. Furthermore, activity was not linearly related to intravesical pressure, receptor field dimensions, or calculated wall tension. Pressure-length hysteresis of the receptor fields occurred. The responses of identified afferent units and their associated receptor field dimensions to brief contractions elicited by the ganglion stimulant 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (2.5-20 micrograms i.a.), studied under constant volume or constant pressure conditions, are compatible with bladder mechanoreceptors behaving as tension receptors. Because activity generated by bladder mechanoreceptors did not correlate in a simple fashion with intravesical pressure or receptor field dimensions, it is concluded that such receptors are influenced by the viscoelastic properties of the bladder wall. Furthermore, as a result of the heterogeneity of the bladder wall, receptor field tension appears to offer a more precise relationship with the activity of bladder wall mechanoreceptors than does intravesical pressure.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of the squid mantle muscles and giant axon during slow swimming and jet escape propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalçınkaya, Bahar Hazal; Erikli, Şükrü; Özilgen, Burak Arda; Olcay, Ali Bahadır; Sorgüven, Esra; Özilgen, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Squids have two substantially different types of muscle fibers: superficial mitochondria rich fibers, which perform aerobic respiration during slow swimming, and central mitochondria poor fibers, which perform anaerobic respiration during jet escape. A detailed thermodynamic analysis shows that during slow swimming, 3.82 J/(kg s) of chemical exergy is consumed, and a total muscle work of 0.28 J/(kg s) is produced. 0.27 J/(kg s) of this is produced by the fin to generate lift, and the rest by the mantle volume contraction. During the jet escape at a speed of 3 mantle length/s, squid consumes an exergy of 9.97 J/(kg s) and produces a muscle work of 0.16 J/(kg s). Exergy destruction rates during slow swimming and jet escape modes are 3.54 and 9.81 J/(kg s), respectively. Exergy destroyed because of the action potential propagation in the squid giant axon is calculated as 0.03 and 0.10 J/(kg s) for the slow and fast swimming modes, respectively. - Highlights: • Slow and fast swimming modes of a squid is thermodynamically analyzed. • As swimming speed increases, respiration mode switches from aerobic to anaerobic, and respiration efficiency decreases. • During fast swimming ca. 2.6 times more chemical exergy is consumed. • Both muscles and giant axon destroy nearly 3 times more exergy during jet escape. • Contraction efficiency decreases from 36.8% to 4.7% as the volume of the passive tissue increases from 5% to 95%.

  13. The use of ultrasound-estimated bladder weight in diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor overactivity in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Housami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Measurement of bladder weight using ultrasound estimates of bladder wall thickness and bladder volume is an emerging clinical measurement technique that may have a role in the diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. We have reviewed available literature on this technique to assess current clinical status. Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out within PubMed and MedLine to identify relevant publications. These were then screened for relevance. Preliminary results from our clinical experiments using the technique are also included. Results: We identified 17 published papers concerning the technique which covered clinical studies relating ultrasound-estimated bladder wall thickness to urodynamic diagnosis in men, women, and children together with change in response to treatment of bladder outlet obstruction. The original manual technique has been challenged by a commercially available automated technique. Conclusion: Ultrasound-estimated bladder weight is a promising non-invasive technique for the categorization of storage and voiding disorders in both men and women. Further studies are needed to validate the technique and assess accuracy of diagnosis.

  14. Do all frogs swim alike? The effect of ecological specialization on swimming kinematics in frogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Robovská-Havelková, P.; Aerts, P.; Roček, Zbyněk; Přikryl, Tomáš; Fabre, A.-C.; Herrel, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 20 (2014), s. 3637-3644 ISSN 0022-0949 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * kinematics * locomotion * swimming Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2014

  15. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

      "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD) is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women ...

  16. Swimming obstructed by dead-water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, S.P.M; Nuland, F.S.W.; Maas, L.; Toussaint, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In nautical literature, ‘dead-water’ refers to the obstructive effect encountered by ships moving in stratified water due to the ship generating waves on an interface that separates different water masses. To investigate the hypothesis that open water swimming may also be obstructed by an encounter

  17. Swimming obstructed by dead-water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, S.P.; Nuland, F.S.; Maas, L.R.; Toussaint, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In nautical literature, 'dead-water' refers to the obstructive effect encountered by ships moving in stratified water due to the ship generating waves on an interface that separates different water masses. To investigate the hypothesis that open water swimming may also be obstructed by an encounter

  18. Surveillance and Conformity in Competitive Youth Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Underpinned by a Foucauldian analysis of sporting practices, this paper identifies the disciplinary mechanism of surveillance at work in competitive youth swimming. It highlights the ways in which swimmers and their coaches are subject to and apply this mechanism to produce embodied conformity to normative behaviour and obedient, docile bodies.…

  19. Healthy Swimming Is a Partnership Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    While one cannot control the water chemistry, he/she can control personal hygiene and facility cleanliness. Giardia and cryptosporidium (crypto) are only two of the many recreational water illnesses (RWIs) that can turn happy swim memories into serious illness situations. In this article, the author discusses three factors that determine how…

  20. Biomechanics of swimming in developing larval fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voesenek, Cees J.; Muijres, Florian T.; Leeuwen, Van Johan L.

    2018-01-01

    Most larvae of bony fish are able to swim almost immediately after hatching. Their locomotory system supports several vital functions: fish larvae make fast manoeuvres to escape from predators, aim accurately during suction feeding and maymigrate towards suitable future habitats. Owing to their

  1. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. What Research Tells the Coach About Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, John A.

    This booklet is designed to make research findings about swimming available with interpretations for practical application. Chapter 1, "Physical Characteristics of Swimmers," discusses somatotyping, body composition, and growth. Chapter 2, "Physiological Characteristics of Swimmers," discusses resting rate, vital capacity, effects of water…

  3. Aerobic and anaerobic performances in tethered swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoti, M; da Silva, A S R; Araujo, G G; Santiago, V; Martins, L E B; Cunha, S A; Gobatto, C A

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the critical force (CritF) and anaerobic impulse capacity (AIC) - estimated by tethered swimming - reflect the aerobic and anaerobic performance of swimmers. 12 swimmers performed incremental test in tethered swimming to determine lactate anaerobic threshold (AnTLAC), maximal oxygen uptake ( ˙VO2MAX) and force associated with the ˙VO2MAX (i ˙VO2MAX). The swimmers performed 4 exhaustive (tlim) exercise bouts (100, 110, 120 and 130% i ˙VO2MAX) to compute the CritF and AIC (F vs. 1/tlim model); a 30-s all-out tethered swimming bout to determine their anaerobic fitness (ANF); 100, 200, and 400-m time-trials to determine the swimming performance. CritF (57.09±11.77 N) did not differ from AnTLAC (53.96±11.52 N, (P>0.05) but was significantly lower than i ˙VO2MAX (71.02±8.36 N). In addition, CritF presented significant correlation with AnTLAC (r=0.76; Pswimming. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. How do amoebae swim and crawl?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Howe

    Full Text Available The surface behaviour of swimming amoebae was followed in cells bearing a cAR1-paGFP (cyclic AMP receptor fused to a photoactivatable-GFP construct. Sensitized amoebae were placed in a buoyant medium where they could swim toward a chemoattractant cAMP source. paGFP, activated at the cell's front, remained fairly stationary in the cell's frame as the cell advanced; the label was not swept rearwards. Similar experiments with chemotaxing cells attached to a substratum gave the same result. Furthermore, if the region around a lateral projection near a crawling cell's front is marked, the projection and the labelled cAR1 behave differently. The label spreads by diffusion but otherwise remains stationary in the cell's frame; the lateral projection moves rearwards on the cell (remaining stationary with respect to the substrate, so that it ends up outside the labelled region. Furthermore, as cAR1-GFP cells move, they occasionally do so in a remarkably straight line; this suggests they do not need to snake to move on a substratum. Previously, we suggested that the surface membrane of a moving amoeba flows from front to rear as part of a polarised membrane trafficking cycle. This could explain how swimming amoebae are able to exert a force against the medium. Our present results indicate that, in amoebae, the suggested surface flow does not exist: this implies that they swim by shape changes.

  5. Swimming of the pea crab (Pinnotheres pisum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, C.P.C.; Muller, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic organisms have to deal with different hydrodynamic regimes, depending on their size and speed during locomotion. The pea crab swims by beating the third and fourth pereiopod on opposite sides as pairs. Using particle tracking velocimetry and high-speed video recording, we quantify the

  6. [Lumbar hypermobility: where swimming becomes hydrotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergeay, D; De Neve, M

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the clinical problem of lumbar hypermobility. The therapeutical possibilities are resumed briefly. The philosophy of medical training therapy ("Heilgymnastik") is described. More extensive the extra-advantages of hydrotherapy (methodical back-stroke swimming) are searched for in a theoretical deductive way. The authors found that: 1. swimming is a low-impact sport so far as the articulations are concerned, 2. back-stroke is done mainly in a lumbar kyphosis, 3. swimming is also an excellent cardiopulmonary training, 4. when swimming the muscles of the shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle are trained in a nearly isokinetic way (power-endurance), 5. the short transverso-spinal muscles are indirectly trained in their tonic more than phasic stretch reflex (posture function), 6. the muscles of the trunk are trained in a nearly isometric way in the appropriate angles (erect position), 7. the position of the head in the water facilitates the abdominal muscles (tonic neck reflex), 8. the cool temperature of the water generates training-enhancing stress-responses, 9. endurance-training is ideal for the postural function of the lower back muscles (especially the deeper layers near the spine) which are anatomical and physiological suited for this purpose, 10. warming-up and cooling-down procedures prepare the neuromuscular, the cardiovascular and metabolic functions before the workout-session (a cold shower afterwards acts to tonicize the skin and muscles).

  7. Sinusoidal cycling swimming pattern of reservoir fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, Martin; Kubečka, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2002), s. 456-471 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6017901; GA AV ČR IAA6017201; GA ČR GA206/02/0520 Keywords : sinusoidal swimming * echosounder * reservoir Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2002

  8. Extreme swimming: The oceanic migrations of anguillids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Righton, David; Aarestrup, Kim; Jellyman, Don

    2013-01-01

    to their natal habitat to spawn. In temperate species, the migrations are extreme, requiring larvae and adults to swim thousands of km before reaching their destination, but the migrations of tropical species (hundreds of km) are still remarkable in comparison with many other fish species. To achieve...

  9. Kick, Stroke and Swim: Complement Your Swimming Program by Engaging the Whole Body on Dry Land and in the Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Susan; Duell, Kelly; Dehaven, Carole; Heidorn, Brent

    2017-01-01

    The Kick, Stroke and Swim (KSS) program can be used to engage students in swimming-skill acquisition and fitness training using a variety of modalities, strategies and techniques on dry land. Practicing swim strokes and techniques on land gives all levels of swimmers--from beginner to competitive--a kinesthetic awareness of the individual…

  10. Swimming pool use and birth defect risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-09-01

    Swimming during pregnancy is recommended. However, the use of swimming pools is also associated with infection by water-borne pathogens and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, which are 2 mechanisms that are suspected to increase risk for birth defects. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between maternal swimming pool use during early pregnancy and risk for select birth defects in offspring. Data were evaluated for nonsyndromic cases with 1 of 16 types of birth defects (n = 191-1829) and controls (n = 6826) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2006. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each birth defect type. Separate analyses were conducted to assess any pool use (yes vs no) and frequent use (5 or more occasions in 1 month) during the month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy. There was no significant positive association between any or frequent pool use and any of the types of birth defects, even after adjustment for several potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, age at delivery, education, body mass index, folic acid use, nulliparity, smoking, annual household income, surveillance center, and season of conception). Frequent pool use was significantly negatively associated with spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99). Among offspring of women 20 years old or older, pool use was associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8), although not significantly so. We observed little evidence suggesting teratogenic effects of swimming pool use. Because swimming is a common and suggested form of exercise during pregnancy, these results are reassuring. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Unsteady propulsion by an intermittent swimming gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoz, Emre; Moored, Keith W.

    2018-01-01

    Inviscid computational results are presented on a self-propelled swimmer modeled as a virtual body combined with a two-dimensional hydrofoil pitching intermittently about its leading edge. Lighthill (1971) originally proposed that this burst-and-coast behavior can save fish energy during swimming by taking advantage of the viscous Bone-Lighthill boundary layer thinning mechanism. Here, an additional inviscid Garrick mechanism is discovered that allows swimmers to control the ratio of their added mass thrust-producing forces to their circulatory drag-inducing forces by decreasing their duty cycle, DC, of locomotion. This mechanism can save intermittent swimmers as much as 60% of the energy it takes to swim continuously at the same speed. The inviscid energy savings are shown to increase with increasing amplitude of motion, increase with decreasing Lighthill number, Li, and switch to an energetic cost above continuous swimming for sufficiently low DC. Intermittent swimmers are observed to shed four vortices per cycle that form into groups that are self-similar with the DC. In addition, previous thrust and power scaling laws of continuous self-propelled swimming are further generalized to include intermittent swimming. The key is that by averaging the thrust and power coefficients over only the bursting period then the intermittent problem can be transformed into a continuous one. Furthermore, the intermittent thrust and power scaling relations are extended to predict the mean speed and cost of transport of swimmers. By tuning a few coefficients with a handful of simulations these self-propelled relations can become predictive. In the current study, the mean speed and cost of transport are predicted to within 3% and 18% of their full-scale values by using these relations.

  12. Effect of dielectrophoretic force on swimming bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Phu; Marcos

    2015-07-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been applied widely in bacterial manipulation such as separating, concentrating, and focusing. Previous studies primarily focused on the collective effects of DEP force on the bacterial population. However, the influence of DEP force on the swimming of a single bacterium had not been investigated. In this study, we present a model to analyze the effect of DEP force on a swimming helically flagellated bacterium, particularly on its swimming direction and velocity. We consider a simple DEP force that acts along the X-direction, and its strength as well as direction varies with the X- and Y-positions. Resistive force theory is employed to compute the hydrodynamic force on the bacterium's flagellar bundle, and the effects of both DEP force and rotational diffusion on the swimming of the bacterium are simultaneously taken into consideration using the Fokker-Planck equation. We show the mechanism of how DEP force alters the orientation and velocity of the bacterium. In most cases, the DEP force dominantly influences the orientation of the swimming bacterium; however, when the DEP force strongly varies along the Y-direction, the rotational diffusion is also responsible for determining the bacterium's reorientation. More interestingly, the variance of DEP force along the Y-direction causes the bacterium to experience a translational velocity perpendicular to its primary axis, and this phenomenon could be utilized to focus the bacteria. Finally, we show the feasibility of applying our findings to achieve bacterial focusing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Segmentation of urinary bladder in CT urography (CTU) using CLASS with enhanced contour conjoint procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-03-01

    We are developing a computerized method for bladder segmentation in CT urography (CTU) for computeraided diagnosis of bladder cancer. A challenge for computerized bladder segmentation in CTU is that the bladder often contains regions filled with intravenous (IV) contrast and without contrast. Previously, we proposed a Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS) consisting of four stages: preprocessing and initial segmentation, 3D and 2D level set segmentation, and post-processing. In case the bladder is partially filled with contrast, CLASS segments the non-contrast (NC) region and the contrast (C) filled region separately and conjoins the contours with a Contour Conjoint Procedure (CCP). The CCP is not trivial. Inaccuracies in the NC and C contours may cause CCP to exclude portions of the bladder. To alleviate this problem, we implemented model-guided refinement to propagate the C contour if the level set propagation in the region stops prematurely due to substantial non-uniformity of the contrast. An enhanced CCP with regularized energies further propagates the conjoint contours to the correct bladder boundary. Segmentation performance was evaluated using 70 cases. For all cases, 3D hand segmented contours were obtained as reference standard, and computerized segmentation accuracy was evaluated in terms of average volume intersection %, average % volume error, and average minimum distance. With enhanced CCP, those values were 84.4±10.6%, 8.3±16.1%, 3.4±1.8 mm, respectively. With CLASS, those values were 74.6±13.1%, 19.6±18.6%, 4.4±2.2 mm, respectively. The enhanced CCP improved bladder segmentation significantly (p<0.001) for all three performance measures.

  14. Morphological and functional features of synchronous swimming sportswomen of high qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Rovnaya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : the studying of morphological and functional features of synchronous swimming sportswomen of high qualification, establishing of the interrelation between anthropometrical characteristics and functional characteristics of the external respiration system. Material: the research involved 12 sportswomen aged 17-18 years. Results : it is shown exceeding physiometric indicators (vital capacity of lungs by 64%, carpal dynamometry 21-22% in synchronous swimming sportswomen have been compared to the standards of physical development. External breathing parameters illustrated adaptation of the organism to the specific loads: an increase in tidal volume by 40%, elongation of the duration of the expiration by 62.5%. A correlation between vital capacity of lungs and inspiratory duration (r = 0,47, with the frequency of breathing and duration of the inspiration (r = -0,83 and duration of the expiration (r = -0,93, is showing an increase in the functional reserves. Conclusions : have been found that morphological indicators of synchronous swimming sportswomen did not differ from the standards and indicators for physiometric and functional indices of the external respiratory system considerably exceed the same-age girls' indicators characterized the range of functional reserves and the resulting correlations reflected the direction of the adaptation process in specific environments of synchronous swimming.

  15. Stress response of lead-exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during swimming performance and hypoxia challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, K.A. [National Biological Service, La Crosse, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States); Caldwell, C.A. [National Biological Service, La Crosse, WI (United States); Sandheinrich, M.B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Contaminants often invoke a stress response in aquatic organisms, and may compromise their capacity to respond to secondary stressors. This may reduce growth, reproduction and survival. The authors objectives were to assess the effects of lead and secondary stressors on hematology and blood chemistry of rainbow trout. After a 7 to 8-week aqueous exposure to Pb(100{micro}g/L), rainbow trout were challenged with forced swimming or hypoxia. Lead significantly reduced concentrations of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), but not other constituents in the blood. Lead did not affect the swimming endurance of the fish. Hematocrit, mean cell hemoglobin content, and mean cell volume were significantly lower in Pb-exposed trout following the swimming challenge. Although hypoxia resulted in increased hematocrit and plasma glucose concentrations, there were no significant differences between the Pb and control groups. Hypoxia did not affect plasma chloride concentrations, although concentrations increased in Pb-exposed trout. There was no difference in lactic acid concentrations between Pb-exposed and control fish after forced swimming or hypoxia.

  16. Automatic staging of bladder cancer on CT urography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, Sankeerth S.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Cha, Kenny H.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Weizer, Alon; Alva, Ajjai; Paramagul, Chintana; Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan

    2016-03-01

    Correct staging of bladder cancer is crucial for the decision of neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment and minimizing the risk of under- or over-treatment. Subjectivity and variability of clinicians in utilizing available diagnostic information may lead to inaccuracy in staging bladder cancer. An objective decision support system that merges the information in a predictive model based on statistical outcomes of previous cases and machine learning may assist clinicians in making more accurate and consistent staging assessments. In this study, we developed a preliminary method to stage bladder cancer. With IRB approval, 42 bladder cancer cases with CTU scans were collected from patient files. The cases were classified into two classes based on pathological stage T2, which is the decision threshold for neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment (i.e. for stage >=T2) clinically. There were 21 cancers below stage T2 and 21 cancers at stage T2 or above. All 42 lesions were automatically segmented using our auto-initialized cascaded level sets (AI-CALS) method. Morphological features were extracted, which were selected and merged by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. A leave-one-case-out resampling scheme was used to train and test the classifier using the 42 lesions. The classification accuracy was quantified using the area under the ROC curve (Az). The average training Az was 0.97 and the test Az was 0.85. The classifier consistently selected the lesion volume, a gray level feature and a contrast feature. This predictive model shows promise for assisting in assessing the bladder cancer stage.

  17. Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

  18. Leiomyoma of the bladder and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbaj, N.; Dafiri, R.; Imani, F.; Benslimane, L.; Benchekroun, A.

    1998-01-01

    Unlike epithelial tumors, connective tissue tumors are uncommon, representing only 3 % of all bladder tumors. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most frequent non-epithelial benign tumor of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MIR) is highly useful for diagnostic purposes and to determine the degree of extension. Only few reports of sonographic findings have been reported for leiomyoma of the bladder. The tumor usually develops within the bladder. Extra-vesicular formations have also been reported as well as a few intramural localizations. The characteristic feature is the absence of mucosal involvement. We analyzed the MRI findings in a case of leiomyoma of the bladder with intra and extra-vesicular development inflammatory reaction of the bladder wall and uterine adherences in a woman with a past history of chronic cystitis. The role of diagnostic MRI is discussed. (author)

  19. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  1. Bladder carcinoma. Apport MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.; Spittler, G.; Jacqmin, D.; Morel, M.

    1991-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the second most commun cause of urogenital tumor. It is suspected by abdominal ultrasound and prouved by cystoscopy with biopsy. At present, MR Imaging is the most accurate diagnostic modality for loco-regional staging. Urography is still useful to appreciate urinary tract [fr

  2. Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. Mahfouz

    promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis of the regenerated organs. The choice of the scaffold and the type of cells is a crucial and fundamental step in regenerative medicine. In this review article, we demonstrated these three crucial factors of bladder tissue engineering, with the pros and cons of each scaffold type and.

  3. A review of plan library approaches in adaptive radiotherapy of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Shane D; Leech, Michelle M

    2018-05-01

    Large variations in the shape and size of the bladder volume are commonly observed in bladder cancer radiotherapy (RT). The clinical target volume (CTV) is therefore frequently inadequately treated and large isotropic margins are inappropriate in terms of dose to organs at risk (OAR); thereby making adaptive radiotherapy (ART) attractive for this tumour site. There are various methods of ART delivery, however, for bladder cancer, plan libraries are frequently used. A review of published studies on plan libraries for bladder cancer using four databases (Pubmed, Science Direct, Embase and Cochrane Library) was conducted. The endpoints selected were accuracy and feasibility of initiation of a plan library strategy into a RT department. Twenty-four articles were included in this review. The majority of studies reported improvement in accuracy with 10 studies showing an improvement in planning target volume (PTV) and CTV coverage with plan libraries, some by up to 24%. Seventeen studies showed a dose reduction to OARs, particularly the small bowel V45Gy, V40Gy, V30Gy and V10Gy, and the rectal V30Gy. However, the occurrence of no suitable plan was reported in six studies, with three studies showing no significant difference between adaptive and non-adaptive strategies in terms of target coverage. In addition, inter-observer variability in plan selection appears to remain problematic. The additional resources, education and technology required for the initiation of plan library selection for bladder cancer may hinder its routine clinical implementation, with eight studies illustrating increased treatment time required. While there is a growing body of evidence in support of plan libraries for bladder RT, many studies differed in their delivery approach. The advent of the clinical use of the MRI-linear accelerator will provide RT departments with the opportunity to consider daily online adaption for bladder cancer as an alternate to plan library approaches.

  4. Enhanced susceptibility to urinary tract infection in the spinal cord-injured host with neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Zarine R; Ross, Sherry S; Dolber, Paul C; Wiener, John S; Tang, Yuping; Seed, Patrick C

    2013-08-01

    Neurogenic bladder predisposes to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) and renal failure, and susceptibility is commonly ascribed to urinary stasis from elevated residual urine volumes. Escherichia coli UTI was modeled in the spinal cord-injured (SCI) rat with the hypothesis that SCI animals would require fewer bacteria to establish infection, have an exaggerated inflammatory response, and have delayed clearance of infection compared to normal-voiding controls. T10 SCI rats and controls had median infectious doses (ID50) of 10(2) and 10(5) CFU, respectively. Mean residual volumes in the SCI animals did not correlate with susceptibility to initiation of UTI or outcome. In the acute infection, control and SCI rats developed acute cystitis and pyelitis without acute differences in histopathological scores of inflammation. However, in vivo imaging of infected animals revealed persistently higher levels of bacteria in the SCI urine and bladders than were seen for controls over 2 weeks. Likewise, at 2 weeks, acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates persisted in the bladders and kidneys of SCI rats, whereas inflammation largely resolved within the controls. Together these data demonstrate that SCI rats exhibit delayed clearance of infection and exaggerated inflammatory responses in bladders and kidneys; however, the severity of residual volumes does not predict increased susceptibility to UTI. These studies suggest that host-dependent mechanisms that are discrete from alterations in bladder physiology influence UTI susceptibility with the SCI-neurogenic bladder. This model will allow elucidation of SCI-neurogenic bladder-mediated changes in host response that yield UTI susceptibility and may lead to new preventative and therapeutic options.

  5. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in fish swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oufiero, Christopher E.; Whitlow, Katrina R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fish have a remarkable amount of variation in their swimming performance, from within species differences to diversity among major taxonomic groups. Fish swimming is a complex, integrative phenotype and has the ability to plastically respond to a myriad of environmental changes. The plasticity of fish swimming has been observed on whole-organismal traits such as burst speed or critical swimming speed, as well as underlying phenotypes such as muscle fiber types, kinematics, cardiovascular system, and neuronal processes. Whether the plastic responses of fish swimming are beneficial seems to depend on the environmental variable that is changing. For example, because of the effects of temperature on biochemical processes, alterations of fish swimming in response to temperature do not seem to be beneficial. In contrast, changes in fish swimming in response to variation in flow may benefit the fish to maintain position in the water column. In this paper, we examine how this plasticity in fish swimming might evolve, focusing on environmental variables that have received the most attention: temperature, habitat, dissolved oxygen, and carbon dioxide variation. Using examples from previous research, we highlight many of the ways fish swimming can plastically respond to environmental variation and discuss potential avenues of future research aimed at understanding how plasticity of fish swimming might evolve. We consider the direct and indirect effects of environmental variation on swimming performance, including changes in swimming kinematics and suborganismal traits thought to predict swimming performance. We also discuss the role of the evolution of plasticity in shaping macroevolutionary patterns of diversity in fish swimming. PMID:29491937

  6. Energetics of median and paired fin swimming, body and caudal fin swimming, and gait transition in parrotfish (Scarus schlegeli) and triggerfish (Rhinecanthus aculeatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsmeyer, Keith E; Steffensen, John Fleng; Herskin, Jannik

    2002-01-01

    To determine the energetic costs of rigid-body, median or paired-fin (MPF) swimming versus undulatory, body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming, we measured oxygen consumption as a function of swimming speed in two MPF swimming specialists, Schlegel's parrotfish and Picasso triggerfish. The parrotfish swam.......1 L s(-1) (30 min U(crit)). In both species, the rates of increase in oxygen consumption with swimming speed were higher during BCF swimming than during rigid-body MPF swimming. Our results indicate that, for these species, undulatory swimming is energetically more costly than rigid-body swimming......, and therefore support the hypothesis that MPF swimming is more efficient. In addition, use of the BCF gait at higher swimming speed increased the cost of transport in both species beyond that predicted for MPF swimming at the same speeds. This suggests that, unlike for terrestrial locomotion, gait transition...

  7. Segmentation of inner and outer bladder wall using deep-learning convolutional neural network in CT urography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Marshall; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Cha, Kenny; Chan, Heang-Ping; Samala, Ravi; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.

    2017-03-01

    We are developing a computerized system for detection of bladder cancer in CT urography. In this study, we used a deep-learning convolutional neural network (DL-CNN) to segment the bladder wall. This task is challenging due to differences in the wall between the contrast and non-contrast-filled regions, significant variations in appearance, size, and shape of the bladder among cases, overlap of the prostate with the bladder wall, and the wall being extremely thin compared to the overall size of the bladder. We trained a DL-CNN to estimate the likelihood that a given pixel would be inside the wall of the bladder using neighborhood information. A segmented bladder wall was then obtained using level sets with this likelihood map as a term in the level set energy formulation to obtain contours of the inner and outer bladder walls. The accuracy of the segmentation was evaluated by comparing the segmented wall outlines to hand outlines for a set of 79 training cases and 15 test cases using the average volume intersection % as the metric. For the training set, the inner wall achieved an average volume intersection of 90.0+/-8.7% and the outer wall achieved 93.7+/-3.9%. For the test set, the inner wall achieved an average volume intersection of 87.6+/-7.6% and the outer wall achieved 87.2+/-9.3%. The results show that the DL-CNN with level sets was effective in segmenting the inner and outer bladder walls.

  8. Modeling correlation indices between bladder and Foley′s catheter balloon dose with CT-based planning using limited CT slices in intracavitary brachytherapy for carcinoma of cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oinam Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To derive and validate an index to correlate the bladder dose with the catheter balloon dose using limited computed tomography (CT slices. Materials and Methods: Applicator geometry reconstructed from orthogonal radiographs were back-projected on CT images of the same patients for anatomy-based dosimetric evaluation. The correlation indices derived using power function of the catheter balloon dose and the bladder volume dose were validated in 31 patients with cervical cancer. Results: There was significant correlation between International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU-38 balloon reference dose (Dr and the dose received by 25% bladder volume (D 25 (P < 0.0001. Significant correlation was also found between the reference dose of mid-balloon point (D rm and the dose to D 25 (P < 0.0001. Average percentage difference [100 x (observed index - expected index / expected index] of observed value of I′ 25 (index for the dose to D25 bladder with respect to mid-balloon reference point from that of expected value was 0.52%, when the index was modeled with reference dose alone. Similarly the average percentage difference for I′10cc (index for the dose to 10 cc volume of bladder with respect to mid balloon point was 0.84%. When this index was modeled with absolute bladder volume and reference dose, standard deviation of the percentage difference between observed and expected index for D rm reduced by approximately 2% when compared to D r . Conclusion: For clinical applications, correlation index modeled with reference dose and volume predicts dose to absolute volume of bladder. Correlation index modeled with reference dose gives a good estimate of dose to relative bladder volume. From our study, we found D rm to be a better indicator of bladder dose than D r .

  9. A Correlational Analysis of Tethered Swimming, Swim Sprint Performance and Dry-land Power Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, I; Barbosa, A C; Nocentini, R K; Pereira, L A; Kobal, R; Kitamura, K; Abad, C C C; Figueiredo, P; Nakamura, F Y

    2016-03-01

    Swimmers are often tested on both dry-land and in swimming exercises. The aim of this study was to test the relationships between dry-land, tethered force-time curve parameters and swimming performances in distances up to 200 m. 10 young male high-level swimmers were assessed using the maximal isometric bench-press and quarter-squat, mean propulsive power in jump-squat, squat and countermovement jumps (dry-land assessments), peak force, average force, rate of force development (RFD) and impulse (tethered swimming) and swimming times. Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated among the variables. Peak force and average force were very largely correlated with the 50- and 100-m swimming performances (r=- 0.82 and -0.74, respectively). Average force was very-largely/largely correlated with the 50- and 100-m performances (r=- 0.85 and -0.67, respectively). RFD and impulse were very-largely correlated with the 50-m time (r=- 0.72 and -0.76, respectively). Tethered swimming parameters were largely correlated (r=0.65 to 0.72) with mean propulsive power in jump-squat, squat-jump and countermovement jumps. Finally, mean propulsive power in jump-squat was largely correlated (r=- 0.70) with 50-m performance. Due to the significant correlations between dry-land assessments and tethered/actual swimming, coaches are encouraged to implement strategies able to increase leg power in sprint swimmers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. TGF-β/MAPK signaling mediates the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on urinary control and interstitial cystitis after urinary bladder transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya; Song, Ya-Jun; Song, Bo; Huang, Chi-Bing; Ling, Qing; Yu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of the transforming growth factor-β/mitogen activated protein kinase (TGF-β/MAPK) signaling pathway in the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on urinary control and interstitial cystitis in a rat model of urinary bladder transplantation. A urinary bladder transplantation model was established using Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were assigned to normal (blank control), negative control (phosphate-buffered saline injection), BMSCs (BMSC injection), sp600125 (MAPK inhibitor injection), or protamine sulfate (protamine sulfate injection) groups. Immunohistochemistry, urodynamic testing, hematoxylin-eosin staining, Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and MTT assay were used to assess BMSC growth, the kinetics of bladder urinary excretion, pathological changes in bladder tissue, bladder tissue ultrastructure, the expression of TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway-related proteins, levels of inflammatory cytokines, and the effects of antiproliferative factor on cell proliferation. Compared with normal, negative control, BMSCs, and sp600125 groups, rats in the PS group exhibited decreased discharge volume, maximal micturition volume, contraction interval, and bladder capacity but increased residual urine volume, bladder pressure, bladder peak pressure, expression of TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway-related proteins, levels of inflammatory cytokines, and growth inhibition rate. Levels of inflammatory cytokines and the growth inhibition rate were positively correlated with the expression of TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway-related proteins. Our findings demonstrate that the TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway mediates the beneficial effects of BMSCs on urinary control and interstitial cystitis.

  11. Modifying factors in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuyuki; Fukushima, Shoji; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Nakanishi, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Ryohei; Imaida, Katsumi

    1983-01-01

    N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) is a potent carcinogen in the urinary bladder of animals. The BBN model of bladder cancer is an excellent model of human urinary bladder cancer and has already led to a greater knowledge of its pathogenesis. In our studies, histogenesis and morphological characteristics of BBN urinary bladder cancer were analyzed in different animal species such as rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs and also in different rat strains. Papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia) is found to be a preneoplastic lesion of the rat urinary bladder. Therefore, the promoting and inhibitory effects of various chemicals in two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis were judged by measuring PN hyperplasia in rats. Dose-dependent and organ-specific effects of the urinary bladder promoter, saccharin, in the induction of PN hyperplasia were shown in rats after initiation by BBN. The promoting effect of saccharin was seen more clearly in the urinary bladder of rats after potent initiation. A strain difference in susceptibility of the urinary bladder to the promoter was also shown. These results suggest that the above various factors may also have modifying activities on urinary bladder carcinogenesis in man. PMID:6832095

  12. Management of vesicoureteral reflux in neurogenic bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Q. Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR is a significant risk factor for pyelonephritis and renal scarring. VUR can occur through a defective ureterovesical junction (UVJ or an overwhelmed normal UVJ mechanism such as in bladder dysfunction of congenital, acquired, or behavioral etiology. There are numerous causes for the development of a neurogenic bladder from spinal dysraphisms to spinal cord trauma and even centrally based abnormalities in children with apparently normal motor function (inappropriately termed nonneurogenic neurogenic bladder. The foundation of managing reflux in these neurogenic bladders is to maintain low bladder pressures which will commonly mean that compliance will be normal as well. There have been several publications that have shown that if bladder pressures are lowered simply with clean intermittent catheterization and medications that the reflux can resolve spontaneously. Alternatively, the patients that are in need of bladder augmentation can have spontaneous resolution of their reflux with the resulting increase in capacity. Surgical intervention is called for when bladder capacity is adequate and the reflux persists or if it is part of a larger operation to increase capacity and to manage outlet resistance. In some instances, reimplantation is necessary because the ureters interfere with the bladder neck procedure. Aside from open and robotic surgical intervention the use of endoscopic injectable agents is beginning to become more popular especially when combined with intravesical botulinum toxin A injections. Great strides are being made in the management of patients with neurogenic bladders and we are seeing more choices for the urologist to be able to manage these patients.

  13. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht

    Swimming pools are used around the world for recreational, rehabilitation and physical activity and therefore it is imperative that the water and air quality are safe for the health of the bathers. Chlorination is by far the most widely applied method to control pool water quality and to prevent...... spreading of pathogens between swimmers because of its residual disinfection effect. In addition to potential contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, swimming pool water is polluted by organic matter deposited from the bathers such as saliva, urine, sweat, hair and personal care products. Since chlorine...... is a strong oxidant it oxidizes the organic matter in the pool water and forms disinfection byproducts (DBPs). More than 100 different DBPs have been identified. Some of these have been found to be genotoxic and may pose an increased cancer risk for the bathers. The aim of this thesis was to give an overview...

  14. Swimming Dynamics of the Lyme Disease Spirochete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Dhruv K.; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2012-11-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, swims by undulating its cell body in the form of a traveling flat wave, a process driven by rotating internal flagella. We study B. burgdorferi’s swimming by treating the cell body and flagella as linearly elastic filaments. The dynamics of the cell are then determined from the balance between elastic and resistive forces and moments. We find that planar, traveling waves only exist when the flagella are effectively anchored at both ends of the bacterium and that these traveling flat waves rotate as they undulate. The model predicts how the undulation frequency is related to the torque from the flagellar motors and how the stiffness of the cell body and flagella affect the undulations and morphology.

  15. Addition of fraction in swimming context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, R. I. I.; Gunawan, M. S.; Zulkardi

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to produce learning trajectory that can help students in learning fractions by using swimming context. The study involved 37 fourth grade students with different capabilities in Elementary School IBA, South Sumatra, Indonesia. This study used an instructional theory called Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI). This research used design research method with three stages: preliminary design, the design experiment, and retrospective analysis. Several techniques used for collecting data including a video recording of students interaction in the group discussion, students’ work, and interviewing the students. To conclude, the swimming context could stimulate students’ informal knowledge about the meaning of fractions in which it can be used in the additional learning either the same denominator or different denominator.

  16. Exogenous glycosaminoglycans coat damaged bladder surfaces in experimentally damaged mouse bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurst Robert E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstital cystitis is often treated with exogenous glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, chondroitin sulphate (Uracyst, hyaluronate (Cystistat or the semi-synthetic pentosan polysulphate (Elmiron. The mechanism of action is presumed to be due to a coating of the bladder surface to replace the normally present chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate lost as a result of the disease. This study used fluorescent labelled chondroitin sulphate to track the distribution of glycosaminoglycans administered intravesically to mouse bladder that had been damaged on the surface. Methods The surfaces of mouse bladders were damaged by 3 mechanisms – trypsin, 10 mM HCl, and protamine sulphate. Texas Red-labeled chondroitin sulphate was instilled into the bladders of animals with damaged bladders and controls instilled only with saline. Bladders were harvested, frozen, and sectioned for examination by fluorescence. Results The normal mouse bladder bound a very thin layer of the labelled chondroitin sulphate on the luminal surface. Trypsin- and HCl-damaged bladders bound the labelled chondroitin sulphate extensively on the surface with little penetration into the bladder muscle. Protamine produced less overt damage, and much less labelling was seen, presumably due to loss of the label as it complexed with the protamine intercalated into the bladder surface. Conclusion Glycosaminoglycan administered intravesically does bind to damaged bladder. Given that the changes seen following bladder damage resemble those seen naturally in interstitial cystitis, the mechanisms proposed for the action of these agents is consistent with a coating of damaged bladder.

  17. Controlled-frequency breath swimming improves swimming performance and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, K M; Guenette, J A; Smoliga, J M; Zavorsky, G S

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue can negatively impact athletic performance, but swimming has beneficial effects on the respiratory system and may reduce susceptibility to fatigue. Limiting breath frequency during swimming further stresses the respiratory system through hypercapnia and mechanical loading and may lead to appreciable improvements in respiratory muscle strength. This study assessed the effects of controlled-frequency breath (CFB) swimming on pulmonary function. Eighteen subjects (10 men), average (standard deviation) age 25 (6) years, body mass index 24.4 (3.7) kg/m(2), underwent baseline testing to assess pulmonary function, running economy, aerobic capacity, and swimming performance. Subjects were then randomized to either CFB or stroke-matched (SM) condition. Subjects completed 12 training sessions, in which CFB subjects took two breaths per length and SM subjects took seven. Post-training, maximum expiratory pressure improved by 11% (15) for all 18 subjects (P swimming may improve muscular oxygen utilization during terrestrial exercise in novice swimmers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Anaerobic critical velocity in four swimming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, H P; Fernandes, R J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess critical velocity in order to control and evaluate anaerobic swimming training. 51 highly trained male swimmers performed maximal 15, 25, 37.5 and 50 m in the 4 swimming techniques to determine critical velocity from the distance-time relationship. Anaerobic critical velocity was compared with 100 m swimming performance and corresponding partials. Complementarily, 9 swimmers performed a 6×50 m (4 min interval) training series at front crawl individual anaerobic critical velocity, capillary blood lactate concentrations being assessed after each repetition. The mean±SD values of anaerobic critical velocity and its relationship with the 100 m event were: 1.61±0.07 (r=0.60, p=0.037), 1.53±0.05 (r=0.81, p=0.015), 1.33±0.05 (r=0.83, p=0.002), and 1.75±0.05 (r=0.74, p=0.001), for butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl, respectively. However, differences between anaerobic critical velocity and performance were observed (with exception of the second half of the 100 m swimming events in breaststroke and butterfly). Lactate concentration values at the end of the series were 14.52±1.06 mmol.l (-1), which suggests that it was indeed an anaerobic training set. In this sense, anaerobic critical velocity can be used to prescribe anaerobic training intensities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Propulsive force symmetry generated during butterfly swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n6p704   The aim of the study was to analyze the hand force symmetry in butterfly swimming. Fourteen male and female swimmers (18.4 ± 4.9 years old, 71.8 ± 14.6 kg of body mass, 1.78 ± 0.09 m of height and mean performance that corresponds to 74.9 ± 5.8% of the world record. Subjects performed three trials of 25 m of butterfly swimming at maximal speed. Mean and maximum forces were estimated for each hand using pressure sensors of the Aquanex System (Swimming Technology Research, USA. The comparisons between force values for dominant and non-dominant hands were made through Student’s T test for dependent samples (p<0.05. In addition, the symmetry Index (SI was calculated as a relative measure of the force applied by each hand. The mean and maximum force for the dominant hand corresponded, respectively, to 55.7 ± 14.7 N and 114.7 ± 39.6 N. For the non-dominant hand, values were 51.2 ± 14.7 N for mean force and 110.7 ± 36.7 N for maximum force. Significant differences were found between dominant and non-dominant hands for both variables (p<0.01. The symmetry index analysis showed mean values of 8.9% for mean force and of 12.6% for maximum force, and most swimmers presented values higher than 10% for mean and/or maximum forces. Further studies should be performed in order to investigate the relationship between hand force symmetry and swimming performance.

  20. Swimming Three Ice Miles within Fifteen Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjepanovic, Mirko; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Knechtle, Beat

    2017-08-31

    Ice Mile swimming (1608 m in water of below 5 °Celsius) is becoming increasingly popular. This case study aimed to identify body core temperature and selected haematological and biochemical parameters before and after repeated Ice Miles. An experienced ice swimmer completed three consecutive Ice Miles within 15 h. Swim times, body core temperatures, and selected urinary and haematological parameters were recorded. Body core temperature reached its maximum between 5, 8 and 15 min after immersion (37.7°C, 38.1°C, and 38.0°C, respectively). The swimmer suffered hypothermia during the first Ice Mile (35.4°C) and body core temperature dropped furthermore to 34.5°C during recovery after the first Ice Mile. He developed a metabolic acidosis in both the first and the last Ice Mile (pH 7.31 and pH 7.34, respectively). We observed hyperkalaemia ([K⁺] > 5.5 mM) after the second Ice Mile (6.9 mM). This was followed by a drop in [K⁺] to3.7 mM after the third Ice Mile. Anticipatory thermogenesis (i.e. an initial increase of body core temperature after immersion in ice cold water) seems to be a physiological response in a trained athlete. The results suggest that swimming in ice-cold water leads to a metabolic acidosis, which the swimmer compensates with hyperventilation (i.e. leading to respiratory alkalosis). The shift of serum [K⁺] could increase the risk of a cardiac arrhythmia. Further studies addressing the physiology and potential risks of Ice Mile swimming are required to substantiate this finding.

  1. Swimming in a granular frictional fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    X-ray imaging reveals that the sandfish lizard swims within granular media (sand) using axial body undulations to propel itself without the use of limbs. To model the locomotion of the sandfish, we previously developed an empirical resistive force theory (RFT), a numerical sandfish model coupled to an experimentally validated Discrete Element Method (DEM) model of the granular medium, and a physical robot model. The models reveal that only grains close to the swimmer are fluidized, and that the thrust and drag forces are dominated by frictional interactions among grains and the intruder. In this talk I will use these models to discuss principles of swimming within these granular ``frictional fluids". The empirical drag force laws are measured as the steady-state forces on a small cylinder oriented at different angles relative to the displacement direction. Unlike in Newtonian fluids, resistive forces are independent of speed. Drag forces resemble those in viscous fluids while the ratio of thrust to drag forces is always larger in the granular media than in viscous fluids. Using the force laws as inputs, the RFT overestimates swimming speed by approximately 20%. The simulation reveals that this is related to the non-instantaneous increase in force during reversals of body segments. Despite the inaccuracy of the steady-state assumption, we use the force laws and a recently developed geometric mechanics theory to predict optimal gaits for a model system that has been well-studied in Newtonian fluids, the three-link swimmer. The combination of the geometric theory and the force laws allows us to generate a kinematic relationship between the swimmer's shape and position velocities and to construct connection vector field and constraint curvature function visualizations of the system dynamics. From these we predict optimal gaits for forward, lateral and rotational motion. Experiment and simulation are in accord with the theoretical prediction, and demonstrate that

  2. Volumetric flow around a swimming lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Andrea M.; Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.; Leftwich, Megan C.; Tytell, Eric D.

    2015-11-01

    A primary experimental technique for studying fluid-structure interactions around swimming fish has been planar dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV). Typically, two components of the velocity vector are measured in a plane, in the case of swimming studies, directly behind the animal. While useful, this approach provides little to no insight about fluid structure interactions above and below the fish. For fish with a small height relative to body length, such as the long and approximately cylindrical lamprey, 3D information is essential to characterize how these fish interact with their fluid environment. This study presents 3D flow structures along the body and in the wake of larval lamprey, P etromyzon m arinus , which are 10-15 cm long. Lamprey swim through a 1000 cm3 field of view in a standard 10 gallon tank illuminated by a green laser. Data are collected using the three component velocimeter V3V system by TSI, Inc. and processed using Insight 4G software. This study expands on previous works that show two pairs of vortices each tail beat in the mid-plane of the lamprey wake. NSF DMS 1062052.

  3. Three-link Swimming in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, R. L.; Ding, Yang; Masse, Andrew; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Many animals move within in granular media such as desert sand. Recent biological experiments have revealed that the sandfish lizard uses an undulatory gait to swim within sand. Models reveal that swimming occurs in a frictional fluid in which inertial effects are small and kinematics dominate. To understand the fundamental mechanics of swimming in granular media (GM), we examine a model system that has been well-studied in Newtonian fluids: the three-link swimmer. We create a physical model driven by two servo-motors, and a discrete element simulation of the swimmer. To predict optimal gaits we use a recent geometric mechanics theory combined with empirically determined resistive force laws for GM. We develop a kinematic relationship between the swimmer's shape and position velocities and construct connection vector field and constraint curvature function visualizations of the system dynamics. From these we predict optimal gaits for forward, lateral and rotational motion. Experiment and simulation are in accord with the theoretical predictions; thus geometric tools can be used to study locomotion in GM.

  4. The swimming of a perfect deforming helix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koens, Lyndon; Zhang, Hang; Mourran, Ahmed; Lauga, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Many bacteria rotate helical flagellar filaments in order to swim. When at rest or rotated counter-clockwise these flagella are left handed helices but they undergo polymorphic transformations to right-handed helices when the motor is reversed. These helical deformations themselves can generate motion, with for example Rhodobacter sphaeroides using the polymorphic transformation of the flagellum to generate rotation, or Spiroplasma propagating a change of helix handedness across its body's length to generate forward motion. Recent experiments reported on an artificial helical microswimmer generating motion without a propagating change in handedness. Made of a temperature sensitive gel, these swimmers moved by changing the dimensions of the helix in a non-reciprocal way. Inspired by these results and helix's ubiquitous presence in the bacterial world, we investigate how a deforming helix moves within a viscous fluid. Maintaining a single handedness along its entire length, we discuss how a perfect deforming helix can create a non-reciprocal swimming stroke, identify its principle directions of motion, and calculate the swimming kinematics asymptotically.

  5. Bladder dose accumulation based on a biomechanical deformable image registration algorithm in volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E S; Muren, L P; Sørensen, T S

    2012-01-01

    Variations in bladder position, shape and volume cause uncertainties in the doses delivered to this organ during a course of radiotherapy for pelvic tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of dose accumulation based on repeat imaging and deformable image registration (DIR...... in individual patients between the doses from the initial treatment plan and the accumulated bladder doses. Hence, the use of repeat imaging has a potential for improved accuracy in treatment dose reporting....

  6. Multielectrode array recordings of bladder and perineal primary afferent activity from the sacral dorsal root ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Tim M.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Weber, Douglas J.

    2011-10-01

    The development of bladder and bowel neuroprostheses may benefit from the use of sensory feedback. We evaluated the use of high-density penetrating microelectrode arrays in sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for recording bladder and perineal afferent activity. Arrays were inserted in S1 and S2 DRG in three anesthetized cats. Neural signals were recorded while the bladder volume was modulated and mechanical stimuli were applied to the perineal region. In two experiments, 48 units were observed that tracked bladder pressure with their firing rates (79% from S2). At least 50 additional units in each of the three experiments (274 total; 60% from S2) had a significant change in their firing rates during one or more perineal stimulation trials. This study shows the feasibility of obtaining bladder-state information and other feedback signals from the pelvic region with a sacral DRG electrode interface located in a single level. This natural source of feedback would be valuable for providing closed-loop control of bladder or other pelvic neuroprostheses.

  7. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... chromosome for three tumors. Single locus alterations were detected in three tumors, while three other tumors revealed changes in two or more loci. In one tumor we found microsatellite instability in all five loci analyzed on chromosome 9. The alterations detected were either minor 2-base pair changes...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  8. Bladder injuries frequently missed in polytrauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanweer Karim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanweer Karim, Margaret Topno, Vinod Sharma, Raymond Picardo, Ankur HastirSurgery, MGM Medical College, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: Bladder injuries are very common in patients who have had road traffic accidents. The method of diagnosis and management of such injuries is well established and accepted. However, trauma to the bladder can be associated with other life-threatening injuries which are frequently missed, and often diagnosed during laparotomy for other reasons. The aim of this study was to diagnose bladder injury in polytrauma patients as early as possible, taking into consideration the fact that these patients are hemodynamically unstable and require rapid evaluation and management. In order to achieve our objective, we used bedside sonography with retrograde instillation of normal saline to diagnose bladder injury in addition to use of the conventional retrograde cystogram.Keywords: bladder injury, bladder rupture, retrograde cystogram

  9. UTIs in patients with neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Mona S; Mure, Amanda; Gomez, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) remain one of the most prevalent and frustrating morbidities for neurogenic bladder patients, and death attributed to urosepsis in the spinal cord injury (SCI) patient is higher when compared to the general population. Risk factors include urinary stasis, high bladder pressures, bladder stones, and catheter use. While classic symptoms of UTI include dysuria, increased frequency and urgency, neurogenic bladder patients present differently with increased spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, urinary incontinence, and vague pains. Multiple modalities have been assessed for prevention including catheter type, oral supplements, bladder irrigation, detrusor injections and prophylactic antimicrobials. Of these, bladder inoculation with E. coli HU2117, irrigation with iAluRil(®), detrusor injections, and weekly prophylaxis with alternating antibiotics appear to have a positive reduction in UTI but require further study. Ultimately, treatment for symptomatic UTI should account for the varied flora and possible antibiotic resistances including relying on urine cultures to guide antibiotic therapy.

  10. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed...... in the clinical bladder material and a small subset of the genes showed a high correlation to SOX4 expression. The present data suggest a role of SOX4 in the bladder cancer disease....... the SOX4 protein and, thus, did an evaluation of SOX4 protein expression in 2,360 bladder tumors using a tissue microarray with clinical annotation. We found a correlation (P bladder cell line HU609, SOX4...

  11. Scrotal Herniation of Bladder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hamidi Madani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inguinal bladder hernia is a rare clinical condition, with 1–3% of all inguinal hernias involving the bladder. Any portion of the bladder may herniate, from a small portion or a diverticulum to most of the bladder. We present a 55-year-old male with an intermittent right scrotal mass of 6 months’ duration. The mass lesion protruded through the right inguinal canal before voiding and reduced after that. Scrotal sonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion in the scrotum that stretched cranially to the intra-abdominal portion of the bladder. Excretory urography showed a duplicated system in the left kidney and deviation of the left orifice to the right side of the trigon. Finally, cystography illustrated herniation of the bladder to the right scrotum. Surgical repair of the hernia was done with mesh. Follow-up cystography one month postoperatively revealed no herniation.

  12. Sunitinib malate provides activity against murine bladder tumor growth and invasion in a preclinical orthotopic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eddie Shu-yin; Patel, Amit R; Hansel, Donna E; Larchian, William A; Heston, Warren D

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of sunitinib on localized bladder cancer in a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model. We used an established orthotopic mouse bladder cancer model in syngeneic C3H/He mice. Treatment doses of 40 mg/kg of sunitinib or placebo sterile saline were administrated daily by oral gavage. Tumor volume, intratumoral perfusion, and in vivo vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression were measured using a targeted contrast-enhanced micro-ultrasound imaging system. The findings were correlated with the total bladder weight, tumor stage, and survival. The effects of sunitinib malate on angiogenesis and cellular proliferation were measured by immunostaining of CD31 and Ki-67. Significant inhibition of tumor growth was seen after sunitinib treatment compared with the control. The incidence of extravesical extension of the bladder tumor and hydroureter in the sunitinib-treated group (30% and 20%, respectively) was lower than the incidence in the control group (66.7% and 55.6%, respectively). Sunitinib therapy prolonged the survival in mice, with statistical significance (log-rank test, P = .03). On targeted contrast-enhanced micro-ultrasound imaging, in vivo vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression was reduced in the sunitinib group and correlated with a decrease in microvessel density. The results of our study have demonstrated the antitumor effects of sunitinib in the mouse localized bladder cancer model. Sunitinib inhibited the growth of bladder tumors and prolonged survival. Given that almost 30% of cases in our treatment arm developed extravesical disease, sunitinib might be suited as a part of a multimodal treatment regimen for bladder cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of intravesical recurrence after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, Mizuki; Miyanaga, Naoto; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the pattern of recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The subjects were 77 patients with T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer whose bladder was preserved by intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation. The patterns of the first recurrences were retrospectively analyzed. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months, 17 patients (22.1%) experienced intravesical recurrence without metastasis, 14 (82.4%) of which were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence and 3 (17.6%) of which were muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at the same site as the initial tumor site in all three cases, whereas non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at different sites in 64% of the patients in that group. The peak hazard of the non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence was observed at around a year after treatment. Recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer was of a significantly lower histological grade with lower Ki-67-labeling indices than the initial muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Twelve (85.7%) of 14 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence achieved disease-free status. The multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity, grade and tumor size were significantly correlated with the recurrence (P=0.0001, 0.0442 and 0.0412, respectively). Most of the recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The recurrence pattern and characteristics of the tumors did not differ from those of primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with high-risk factors would be candidates for prophylactic intravesical therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence. (author)

  14. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  15. Amoeboid swimming: a generic self-propulsion of cells in fluids by means of membrane deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farutin, Alexander; Rafaï, Salima; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Duperray, Alain; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2013-11-27

    Microorganisms, such as bacteria, algae, or spermatozoa, are able to propel themselves forward thanks to flagella or cilia activity. By contrast, other organisms employ pronounced changes of the membrane shape to achieve propulsion, a prototypical example being the Eutreptiella gymnastica. Cells of the immune system as well as dictyostelium amoebas, traditionally believed to crawl on a substratum, can also swim in a similar way. We develop a model for these organisms: the swimmer is mimicked by a closed incompressible membrane with force density distribution (with zero total force and torque). It is shown that fast propulsion can be achieved with adequate shape adaptations. This swimming is found to consist of an entangled pusher-puller state. The autopropulsion distance over one cycle is a universal linear function of a simple geometrical dimensionless quantity A/V(2/3) (V and A are the cell volume and its membrane area). This study captures the peculiar motion of Eutreptiella gymnastica with simple force distribution.

  16. SWIMMING CLASSES IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bielec

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of modern physical education is not only to develop motor abilities of the students, but most of all prevent them from epidemic youth diseases such as obesity or postural defects. Positive attitudes to swimming as a long-life physical activity, instilled in adolescence should be beneficial in adult life. The group of 130 boys and 116 girls of 7th grade junior high school (mean age 14.6 was asked in the survey to present their opinion of obligatory swimming lessons at school. Students of both sexes claimed that they liked swimming classes because they could improve their swimming skills (59% of answers and because of health-related character of water exercises (38%. 33% of students regarded swimming lessons as boring and monotonous, and 25% of them complained about poor pool conditions like chlorine smell, crowded lanes, too low temperature. Majority of the surveyed students saw practical role of swimming in saving others life.

  17. Dog Ear-Like Bladder Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Cuce

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hernia content involving a bladder segment occurs in 1-4 % of cases of the inguinal hernias. Inguinoscrotal bladder hernias are usually found incidentally on radiological examinations or at the time of herniorrhaphy. We present an adult case that has a left inguinal bladder hernia detected and evaluated by sonography, intravenous pyelography (IVP, and computerized tomography (CT. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(3.000: 187-189

  18. Bladder Management in Children: Intermittent Catheterization Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Suzanne Marie; Korcal, Layna; Thomas, Ginger

    2018-03-01

    Clean intermittent catheterization (IC) of the bladder is one example of advanced medical care required by students with special health care needs. The success of a child's intermittent catheterization program in a community setting such as a school is dependent on an educated team. This article discusses indications and problems that arise with IC bladder management in the pediatric population. The article also provides information about current best practice for IC management to assist school nurses in the optimization of bladder health.

  19. Occupational exposure to solvents and bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between exposure to selected solvents and the risk of bladder cancer. This study is based on the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) database and comprises 113,343 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed in Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden...... of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, aromatic hydrocarbon solvents, benzene and toluene and the risk of bladder cancer....

  20. Fesoterodine: a novel muscarinic receptor antagonist for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fesoterodine is a newly approved drug for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the preclinical and clinical data on fesoterodine. METHODS: The study involved a search of the Medline database and the proceedings volumes of urological

  1. Application of the Mitrofanoff principle in children with severe impairment of bladder function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, H. A.; Ekkelkamp, S.; Moorman-Voestermans, C. G.; Vos, A.

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of children with severe impairment of bladder function requires a large-volume, low-pressure reservoir combined with a continent, easily catheterizable valve. The Mitrofanoff principle (MP) appears to meet these requirements. Between 1986 and 1993, the MP was applied in 15 children (4

  2. A comparison of morbidity following conformal versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jimmi; Holmberg, Mats; Jakobsen, Annette Ross; Agerbæk, Mads; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Høyer, Morten

    2014-10-01

    In radiotherapy (RT) of urinary bladder cancer, the use of intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) opens for sparing of considerable intestinal volumes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute and late toxicities following either conformal RT (CRT) or IMRT for bladder cancer, and to correlate the toxicities to dose-volume parameters. The study included 116 consecutively treated patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who received either CRT (n = 66) or IMRT (n = 50) during 2007-2010. Acute side effects were retrospectively collected whereas late effects were assessed by a cross-sectional evaluation by telephone interview of 44 recurrence-free patients. Acute and late toxicities were scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) version 3.0. Acute diarrhoea grade ≥ 2 was more frequent in patients treated by CRT (56%) compared to IMRT (30%) (p = 0.008). Logistic regression analysis showed a correlation between acute diarrhoea and bowel cavity dose-volume parameters in the 10-50 Gy range. Severe late toxicity (grade ≥ 3) was recorded in 10% of the total cohort, with no statistical difference between the IMRT and CRT groups. Patients treated with IMRT for bladder cancer had significantly less acute diarrhoea compared to those treated with CRT, but there was no significant difference in late morbidity between the groups. The risk of acute diarrhoea was related to the volume of bowel irradiated.

  3. The Physiology and Mechanics of Undulatory Swimming: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Medicinal Leeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The medicinal leech is a useful animal model for investigating undulatory swimming in the classroom. Unlike many swimming organisms, its swimming performance can be quantified without specialized equipment. A large blood meal alters swimming behavior in a way that can be used to generate a discussion of the hydrodynamics of swimming, muscle…

  4. Laryngoscopy during swimming: A novel diagnostic technique to characterize swimming-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil S; Swanton, Laura L; van van Someren, Ken; Morris, Tessa E; Furber, Matthew; Backer, Vibeke; Hull, James H

    2017-10-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a key differential diagnosis for respiratory symptoms in athletes and is particularly prevalent in aquatic athletes. A definitive diagnosis of EILO is dependent on laryngoscopy, performed continuously, while an athlete engages in the sport that precipitates their symptoms. This report provides the first description of the feasibility of performing continuous laryngoscopy during exercise in a swimming environment. The report describes the methodology and safety of the use of continuous laryngoscopy while swimming. Laryngoscope, 127:2298-2301, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  6. Bladder Control Problems and Bedwetting in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Clinical Trials Hematuria: Blood in the Urine Interstitial Cystitis (Painful Bladder Syndrome) Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Kidney Infection Definition & ...

  7. Zebrafish swimming in the flow: a particle image velocimetry study

    OpenAIRE

    Mwaffo, Violet; Zhang, Peng; Romero Cruz, Sebastián; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice for the study of a number of biomechanics problems, including balance development, schooling, and neuromuscular transmission. The precise quantification of the flow physics around swimming zebrafish is critical toward a mechanistic understanding of the complex swimming style of this fresh-water species. Although previous studies have elucidated the vortical structures in the wake of zebrafish swimming in placid water, the flow physics of zebrafish ...

  8. The swimming literacy of women in term sof self rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Vokurková, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Work name: The swimming literacy of women in term of self rescue Aim of work: To acquire and analyze data about the level of the swimming literacy and self rescue skills of women aged 18 - 72 years, whether they can handle and use them. Method: Literature search, creation of the questionnaire, implementation survey, data analysis and graphical presentation of results. Results: The analysis of the swimming literacy and self rescue skills of women. Key words: literacy, physical literacy, swimmi...

  9. Microvascular Injury in Ketamine-Induced Bladder Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC remains unclear. In this study, bladder microvascular injury was investigated as a possible contributing mechanism. A total of 36 KC patients with exposure to ketamine for more than 6 months, and 9 control subjects, were prospectively recruited. All participants completed questionnaires, including the O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis symptom index (ICSI and the interstitial cystitis problem index (ICPI. All KC patients received a urodynamic study and radiological exams. Bladder tissues were obtained from cystoscopic biopsies in the control group and after hydrodistention in the KC group. Double-immunofluorescence staining of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1 and the endothelial marker, cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31, was performed to reveal the existence of NMDAR1 on the endothelium. Electron microscopy (EM was applied to assess the microvascular change in the urinary bladder and to measure the thickening of the basement membrane (BM. A proximity ligation assay (PLA was used to quantify the co-localization of the endothelial CD31 receptor and the mesenchymal marker [fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP-1]. The Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. The mean ICSI [14.38 (± 4.16] and ICPI [12.67 (± 3.54] scores of the KC group were significantly higher than those (0 and 0, respectively of the control group (both p < 0.001. The KC patients had decreasing cystometric bladder capacity (CBC with a mean volume of 65.38 (± 48.67 mL. NMDAR1 was expressed on endothelial cells in both groups under immunofluorescence staining. Moreover, KC patients had significant BM duplication of microvessels in the mucosa of the urinary bladder under EM. The co-expression of the endothelial marker CD31 and mesenchymal marker FSP1 was significantly stained and calculated under PLA. In conclusion, microvascular injury and mesenchymal phenotypic

  10. Childhood bladder stones-an endemic disease of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, B.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder calculi are one of the commonest health problems in young children especially in rural and underprivileged areas. Methods: All children of bladder stones operated at District Headquarter Hospital Mithi from July 2009 to June 2012 were included in this cross-sectional study. Data was collected regarding age, sex, address (rural or urban), body weight, duration of breast feeding, weaning, detailed dietary history regarding milk type, volume, amount of water intake, recurrent diarrhoea, urinary tract infection (UTI), family history, and socioeconomic history. Urine analysis, complete blood count (CBC), renal function, ultra sound abdomen, X-ray kidney, ureter, and bladder (KUB) was done in all patients. All patients had cystolithotomy and were followed up till complete recovery. Results: A total of 113 children (97 males and 16 females) operated at District Headquarter Hospital Mithi Tharparker were included in study. All patients belonged to local desert areas of Tharparker. Age ranged from 18 months to 14 year (mean age 8.6 year). Most frequent symptom was difficulty in micturition in 76 (67.25%) patients, urinary retention in 18 (15.9%) and stone with pyuria and fever in 12 (10.6%) patients. Recurrent episodes of diarrhoea (more than 3 episodes per year) in 73(65%) patients, recurrent UTI in 51 (45.6%), family history of stone disease in 6 (5%) and associated rectal prolapse in 3(2.6%) patients. On x-ray KUB 111 (98%) patients had single stone in bladder, 2 (2%) had multiple stones and an associated renal and ureteric stone in 5 (4.5%). Mild anaemia (Hb 7-10 gm%) was seen in 35 (39.55%) patients, moderate anaemia (Hb 5-7 gm %) was seen in 21(24%) and severe anaemia (Hb less than 5 gm%) was seen in 14 (16%) patients. All patients had open cystolithotomy for removal of stones under general anaesthesia. Conclusion: Bladder stones are public health problem. Majority of affected patients were less than 5 years old. Low protein diet, dehydration, use of goat milk

  11. Comparative analysis of the effects of belly board and bladder distension in postoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Kim, D.Y.; Cho, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effect of reducing the irradiated small-bowel volume with the use of belly board, bladder distension or both methods combined, in patients with rectal cancer undergoing postoperative pelvic radiotherapy. Patients and methods: This study enrolled 20 consecutive patients with rectal cancer who were scheduled to receive postoperative pelvic radiotherapy. All patients underwent four sets of CT scans under four different methods as follows: group I: empty bladder without the use of a belly board; group II: empty bladder with the use of a belly board; group III: bladder distension without the use of a belly board; group IV: bladder distension with the use of a belly board. The conventional three-field treatment plan was made using a three-dimensional treatment planning system. The irradiated small-bowel volume was calculated at 10% intervals from 10% to 100% of the prescribed dose. Results: The volume of the irradiated small bowel decreased in the order of group I, group II, group III, and group IV at all dose levels (p 3 (33.9±12.9%) in group II, 76.6±30.5 cm 3 (55.1±17.8%) in group III, and 98.5±36.7 cm 3 (70.7±14.5%) in group IV. Conclusion: Bladder distension was a more effective method than the belly board for reducing the irradiated small-bowel volume in postoperative pelvic radiotherapy of rectal cancer patients. The combination of the belly board and bladder distension showed an additive effect and was the most effective method for reducing the irradiated small-bowel volume. (orig.)

  12. Roll and Yaw of Paramecium swimming in a viscous fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghwan; Jana, Saikat; Giarra, Matt; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2012-11-01

    Many free-swimming microorganisms like ciliates, flagellates, and invertebrates exhibit helical trajectories. In particular, the Paramecium spirally swims along its anterior direction by the beating of cilia. Due to the oblique beating stroke of cilia, the Paramecium rotates along its long axis as it swims forward. Simultaneously, this long axis turns toward the oral groove side. Combined roll and yaw motions of Paramecium result in swimming along a spiral course. Using Particle Image Velocimetry, we measure and quantify the flow field and fluid stress around Paramecium. We will discuss how the non-uniform stress distribution around the body induces this yaw motion.

  13. Morning Exercise: Enhancement of Afternoon Sprint-Swimming Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Courtney J; Pyne, David B; Thompson, Kevin G; Raglin, John S; Rattray, Ben

    2017-05-01

    An exercise bout completed several hours prior to an event may improve competitive performance later that same day. To examine the influence of morning exercise on afternoon sprint-swimming performance. Thirteen competitive swimmers (7 male, mean age 19 ± 3 y; 6 female, mean age 17 ± 3 y) completed a morning session of 1200 m of variedintensity swimming (SwimOnly), a combination of varied-intensity swimming and a resistance-exercise routine (SwimDry), or no morning exercise (NoEx). After a 6-h break, swimmers completed a 100-m time trial. Time-trial performance was faster in SwimOnly (1.6% ± 0.6, mean ± 90% confidence limit, P confidence limit], P = .04), body (0.2°C ± 0.1°C, P = .02), and skin temperatures (0.3°C ± 0.3°C, P = .02) were higher in SwimDry than in NoEx. Completion of a morning swimming session alone or together with resistance exercise can substantially enhance sprint-swimming performance completed later the same day.

  14. Biomechanical Analysis of the Swim-Start: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Vantorre, Didier Chollet, Ludovic Seifert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer’s chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert, inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement, and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique. Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii the time in transition (i

  15. Zebrafish swimming in the flow: a particle image velocimetry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Mwaffo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice for the study of a number of biomechanics problems, including balance development, schooling, and neuromuscular transmission. The precise quantification of the flow physics around swimming zebrafish is critical toward a mechanistic understanding of the complex swimming style of this fresh-water species. Although previous studies have elucidated the vortical structures in the wake of zebrafish swimming in placid water, the flow physics of zebrafish swimming against a water current remains unexplored. In an effort to illuminate zebrafish swimming in a dynamic environment reminiscent of its natural habitat, we experimentally investigated the locomotion and hydrodynamics of a single zebrafish swimming in a miniature water tunnel using particle image velocimetry. Our results on zebrafish locomotion detail the role of flow speed on tail beat undulations, heading direction, and swimming speed. Our findings on zebrafish hydrodynamics offer a precise quantification of vortex shedding during zebrafish swimming and demonstrate that locomotory patterns play a central role on the flow physics. This knowledge may help clarify the evolutionary advantage of burst and cruise swimming movements in zebrafish.

  16. Enhanced angiogenesis and relaxation of bladder as early response to bladder outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun Seob; Lee, Hong Jun; Doo, Seung Whan; An, Jin; Kim, Seung U

    2013-01-01

    To provide insights into the pathogenesis of bladder insult secondary to bladder outlet obstruction. Six-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 80) were divided into eight groups, 10 rats each, according to the duration of bladder outlet obstruction, including 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and 1 week. Cystometric parameters were evaluated at 72 h and 1 week after bladder outlet obstruction. Bladder tissues were harvested and Masson's trichrome staining was carried out. Each slide was inspected microscopically and the mean percent collagen area was examined. Changes of collagen deposition and pathological expression of several factors including hypoxia inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1 and nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid of bladders were evaluated. A significant time-dependent increase in the bladder weight after 6 h and the percent of collagen area after 24 h of bladder outlet obstruction were found. Increase in hypoxia inducible factor-1α, transforming growth factor-β1, inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid expression, time-dependent increase in vascular endothelial growth factor, neuronal nitric oxide synthase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid expression after 6 h of bladder outlet obstruction was found. The intercontraction interval decreased significantly after 72 h of bladder outlet obstruction. Cellular remodeling in the bladder secondary to bladder outlet obstruction starts in the early hours and it includes enhanced angiogenesis and bladder relaxation. Early relief from bladder outlet obstruction is helpful to preserve bladder structure and function. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  17. Do Foley catheters adequately drain the bladder? Evidence from CT imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avulova, Svetlana; Li, Valery J.; Khusid, Johnathan A. [Department of Urology, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Choi, Woo S. [Radiology, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Weiss, Jeffrey P., E-mail: johnathan.khusid@downstate.edu [Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Introduction: The Foley catheter has been widely assumed to be an effective means of draining the bladder. However, recent studies have brought into question its efficacy. The objective of our study is to further assess the adequacy of Foley catheter for complete drainage of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Consecutive catheterized patients were identified from a retrospective review of contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced computed tomographic (CT) abdomen and pelvis studies completed from 7/1/2011-6/30/2012. Residual urine volume (RUV) was measured using 5mm axial CT sections as follows: The length (L) and width (W) of the bladder in the section with the greatest cross sectional area was combined with bladder height (H) as determined by multiplanar reformatted images in order to calculate RUV by applying the formula for the volume (V) of a sphere in a cube:V=(π/6)⁎L⁎W⁎H). Results: RUVs of 167 (mean age 67) consecutively catheterized men (n=72) and women (n=95) identified by CT abdomen and pelvis studies were calculated. The mean RUV was 13.2 mL (range: 0.0 mL-859.1 mL, standard deviation: 75.9 mL, margin of error at 95% confidence:11.6 mL). Four (2.4%) catheterized patients had RUVs of >50 mL, two of whom had an improperly placed catheter tip noted on their CT-reports. Conclusions: Previous studies have shown that up to 43% of catheterized patients had a RUV greater than 50 mL, suggesting inadequacy of bladder drainage via the Foley catheter. Our study indicated that the vast majority of patients with Foley catheters (97.6%), had adequately drained bladders with volumes of <50 mL. (author)

  18. Effects of taper on swimming force and swimmer performance after an experimental ten-week training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoti, Marcelo; Martins, Luis E B; Cunha, Sergio A; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how an 11-day taper after an 8.5-week experimental training cycle affected lactate levels during maximal exercise, mean force, and performance in training swimmers, independent of shaving, psychological changes, and postcompetition effects. Fourteen competition swimmers with shaved legs and torsos were recruited from the São Paulo Aquatic Federation. The training cycle consisted of a basic training period (endurance and quality phases) of 8.5 weeks, with 5,800 m.d(-1) mean training volume and 6 d.wk(-1) frequency; and a taper period (TP) of 1.5 weeks' duration that incorporated a 48% reduction in weekly volume without altering intensity. Attained swimming force (SF) and maximal performance over 200-m maximal swim (Pmax) before and after taper were measured. After taper, SF and Pmax improved 3.6 and 1.6%, respectively (p swimming velocity, but not in the same proportion as force after taper, suggesting that there are other factors influencing performance in faster swimming.

  19. Neurogenic bladder and chronic urinary retention associated with MDMA abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuerle, John R; Barrueto, Fermin

    2008-06-01

    The use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, known as "ecstasy"), a synthetic amphetamine and "club drug," has been associated with acute, transient urinary retention. We report a case of neurogenic bladder and chronic urinary retention associated with MDMA abuse. A 21-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED) because he had abdominal pain and difficulty urinating. He had experienced difficulty in initiating urination over the past 1.5 months, with periods of 24 to 36 hours between voids and large volumes of urine. The patient had a chronic pattern of MDMA use, taking 4 tablets/day for 3 months. Two weeks before coming to the ED, he had been admitted to an inpatient drug rehabilitation center. During the time since that admission, the patient had visited EDs repeatedly for insertion and removal of Foley catheters to relieve the urinary retention until he could be admitted to a urologic service. Cystometrogram was abnormal, finding no sensation of bladder fullness after instillation of 350 mL of saline and inability to generate a voluntary voiding pressure. Cystoscopy revealed no outlet obstruction. The findings were consistent with neurogenic bladder. The patient was given prescriptions for bethanecol and phenazopyridine, and told to continue a 10-day course of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim for urinary tract infection. He was discharged with a Foley catheter in place. Symptoms of urinary retention persisted at 1-year follow-up, despite self-catheterization and complete cessation of MDMA use. Chronic MDMA use may lead to neurogenic bladder and chronic urinary retention.

  20. TUNING IN TO FISH SWIMMING WAVES - BODY FORM, SWIMMING MODE AND MUSCLE FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WARDLE, CS; VIDELER, JJ; ALTRINGHAM, JD

    Most fish species swim with lateral body undulations running from head to tail, These waves run more slowly than the waves of muscle activation causing them, reflecting the effect of the interaction between the fish's body and the reactive forces from the water, The coupling between both waves

  1. Front crawl swimming analysis using accelerometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa, Hugo G; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Thiel, David V

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical characteristics such as stroke rate and stroke length can be used to determine the velocity of a swimmer and can be analysed in both a swimming pool and a flume. The aim of the present preliminary study was to investigate the differences between the acceleration data collected from ...... movements (0.64 ≤ r ≤ 0.75). The correlation coefficients are (0.75 ≤ r ≤ 0.83) and (0.82 ≤ r ≤ 0.89) for the other two axes....

  2. Water Penetration into Middle Ear Through Ventilation Tubes in Children While Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: Water penetration into the middle ear through ventilation tubes and middle ear infection are not likely when surface swimming. Children with ventilation tubes can enjoy swimming without protection in clean chlorinated swimming pools.

  3. Giant bladder lithiasis: case report and bibliographic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego Vilar, Daniel; Beltran Persiva, José; Pérez Mestre, Mateo; Povo Martin, Iván José; Miralles Aguado, Jaume; Garau Perelló, Carmen; De Francia, Jose Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Urinary lithiasis is a very frequent urological disease but bladder lithiasis is very uncommon.Patients usually refer voiding symptoms and hematuria. The diagnosis is made after imaging tests. We report a clinical case describing a giant bladder stone and perform a bibliographic review. A 43 year old man with the diagnosis of giant bladder stone (more than 10 cm diameter). We searched Medline using the terms: giant bladder stone, giant bladder lithiasis, bladder lithiasis, giant bladder lithiasis. We made the diagnosis of giant bladder stone after a simple kidney, ureter and bladder (KUB) X Ray. The treatment for this patient was a cystolithotomy. We found more than 230 reports at Medline and chose the most referred ones and the last 10 years reports. Giant bladder lithiasis is a very rare pathology. The gold standard for diagnosis is cystoscopy but sometimes with a KUB Xray or an ultrasound is enough. Because of its size, cistolitotomy is the correct treatment for giant bladder stone.

  4. Energetics of median and paired fin swimming, body and caudal fin swimming, and gait transition in parrotfish (Scarus schlegeli) and triggerfish (Rhinecanthus aculeatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsmeyer, Keith E; Steffensen, John Fleng; Herskin, Jannik

    2002-01-01

    , and therefore support the hypothesis that MPF swimming is more efficient. In addition, use of the BCF gait at higher swimming speed increased the cost of transport in both species beyond that predicted for MPF swimming at the same speeds. This suggests that, unlike for terrestrial locomotion, gait transition......To determine the energetic costs of rigid-body, median or paired-fin (MPF) swimming versus undulatory, body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming, we measured oxygen consumption as a function of swimming speed in two MPF swimming specialists, Schlegel's parrotfish and Picasso triggerfish. The parrotfish swam...... exclusively with the pectoral fins at prolonged swimming speeds up to 3.2 total lengths per second (L s(-1); 30 min critical swimming speed, U(crit)). At higher speeds, gait transferred to a burst-and-coast BCF swimming mode that resulted in rapid fatigue. The triggerfish swam using undulations of the soft...

  5. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided...... by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong...... effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF...

  6. Bladder exstrophy associated with complete urethral duplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.E. Mensah

    ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Case report. Bladder exstrophy associated with complete urethral duplication: Bladder can be augmented with dorsal urethral mucosa. J.E. Mensaha,∗. , K.N. Ampadua, M.Y. Kyeia, B. Edusieb.

  7. Suprapubic prostatectomy with and without continuous bladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... without continuous bladder irrigation is simple to perform, safe and easy to learn. This procedure permits patient ambulation as soon as spinal anesthesia wears out, reducing the risk of the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis. With the radical removal of bladder infusion solutions and reduced need for nursing attention ...

  8. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Per-Uno; Agrawal, Sachin; Bläckberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    The management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has evolved from the first reports on bladder endoscopy and transurethral resection to the introduction of adjuvant intravesical treatment. However, disease recurrence and progression remain an ongoing risk, placing a heavy burden on he...

  9. Bladder diverticulitis on PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Wosnitzer, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Diverticula are commonly seen in hollow viscous organs. One common complication of diverticula is infection, known as diverticulitis. Although diverticulitis has been extensively described with respect to the colon, not many cases describe diverticulitis of the urinary bladder. We report a case of diverticulitis of the bladder to emphasize the imaging findings on PET/CT and to discuss management and possible complications.

  10. Bladder pressure sensors in an animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koldewijn, E. L.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Schaafsma, E.; Wijkstra, H.; Debruyne, F. M.; Brindley, G. S.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary incontinence due to detrusor hyperreflexia might be inhibited on demand if changes in bladder pressure could be detected by sensors and transferred into pudendal nerve electrostimulation. The aim of this study is to investigate how the bladder wall reacts on different sensor implants.

  11. NEOADJUVANT RADIOTHERAPY FOR BLADDER CARCINOMA IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate the impact of preoperative accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy in the management of bladder carcinoma in Egyptian patients. Patients and Methods Between December 1996 and February 2000, 104 Egyptian patients with pathologically proven infiltrative bladder carcinoma were enrolled in ...

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma in bladder extrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral-Ribeiro, J; Silva, C; Sousa, L; Pérez García, D; Ribeiro dos Santos, A

    2005-01-01

    Bladder extrophy is a rare congenital malformation that nowadays is surgically corrected in neonatal period. We present a case report of a 71-year-old male with a verrucous squamous cell carcinoma arising in a classical uncorrected form of bladder extrophy.

  13. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Taweel W

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Waleed Al Taweel, Raouf SeyamDepartment of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury.Keywords: neurogenic bladder, spinal cord injury, urodynamics, intestine, intermittent catheterization

  14. Bladder dysfunction in advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, Kristian; Nielsen, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often have lower urinary tract symptoms. Seventy-four percent of patients with early-to-moderate disease report more than one bladder disturbance symptom. Severe bladder symptoms are reported in 27-39% of PD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  15. Study of Maximum Swimming Speed Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) for Fisheries Management

    OpenAIRE

    Primeswari, Ridha; ', Nofrizal; Sari, T. Ersti Yulika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the swimming speed of the free swimming intank and flume tank, an outdoor durability of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and maximumswimming speed tilapia in flume tank. Therefore, to use experimental methods. Free swimmingspeed was 0,25 BL/sec, maximum swimming speed of fish occurs when the fish are given ashock to swim. Negative correlation between speed and endurance swimming R2 = 0,7295 showsa fish swimming endurance decreases at higher speeds. S...

  16. Photodynamic management of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A.; Stepp, H.; Beyer, W.; Pongratz, T.; Sroka, R.; Bader, M.; Kriegmair, M.; Zaak, D.; Waidelich, R.; Karl, A.; Hofstetter, A.; Stief, C.; Baumgartner, R.

    2009-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is among the most expensive oncological diseases. Any improvement in diagnosis or therapy carries a high potential for reducing costs. Fluorescence cystoscopy relies on a selective formation of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or more general photoactive porphyrins (PAP) in malignant urothelium upon instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its hexyl-derivative h-ALA. Fluorescence cystoscopy equipment has been developed with the aim to compensate for the undesired distortion caused by the tissue optical properties by displaying the red fluorescence simultaneously with the backscattered blue light. Many clinical studies proved a high sensitivity in detecting flat carcinoma in situ and small papillary malignant tumours. As a result, recurrence rates were significantly decreased in most studies. The limitation lies in a low specificity, caused by false positive findings at inflamed bladder wall. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently being investigated as a promising tool to overcome this limitation. H-ALA-PDT (8 or 16 mM h-ALA in 50 ml instillation for 1-2 h, white light source, catheter applicator) has recently been investigated in a phase I study. 17 patients were applied 100 J/cm2 (3 patients received incrementing doses of 25 - 50 - 100 J/cm2) during approx. 1 hour irradiation time in 3 sessions, 6 weeks apart. PDT was performed without any technical complications. Complete photobleaching of the PpIX-fluorescence, as intended, could be achieved in 43 of 45 PDT-sessions receiving 100 J/cm2. The most prominent side effects were postoperative urgency and bladder pain, all symptoms being more severe after 16 mM h-ALA. Preliminary evaluation shows complete response assessed at 3 months after the third PDT-session (i.e. 6 months after first treatment) in 9 of 12 patients. 2 of these patients were free of recurrence until final follow-up at 84 weeks.

  17. Treatment of urethral obstruction secondary to caudal bladder displacement, trigonal invagination, and urethral kinking in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakubo, Kayo; Palm, Carrie A; Korner, Amber L; Culp, William T N

    2017-10-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 15-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was evaluated for a 7-week history of stranguria, pollakiuria, and intermittent urethral obstruction. CLINICAL FINDINGS On initial evaluation, the patient had persistent stranguria with lack of urine production; after multiple unsuccessful attempts to urinate, a large volume of urine was produced. Prior to voiding the large volume, the urinary bladder was not palpable during examination. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed caudal displacement of the urinary bladder, and the urethra and trigone could not be located ultrasonographically. Positive-contrast cystourethrography and CT confirmed caudal displacement of the urinary bladder and also revealed trigonal invagination and urethral kinking; dysuria was attributed to these findings. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Surgical repositioning of the lower urinary tract was performed. The urinary bladder was moved cranially and was fixed in place along the left lateral aspect of the body wall by cystopexy. After surgery, positive-contrast cystourethrography revealed a more cranial positioning of the urinary bladder and straightening of the urethra with no urethral kinking or trigonal invagination. Immediately after surgery, stranguria had resolved and the patient was able to void normally. Two years after surgery, the dog was reported to be urinating normally. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical correction of caudal urinary bladder displacement with cystopexy led to resolution of trigonal invagination, urethral kinking, and urethral obstruction in the dog of the present report. Trigonal invagination and urethral kinking, although uncommon findings, should be considered as possible causes of dysuria in dogs.

  18. Individualized Nonadaptive and Online-Adaptive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Strategies for Cervical Cancer Patients Based on Pretreatment Acquired Variable Bladder Filling Computed Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, M.L.; Hoogeman, M.S.; Mens, J.W.; Quint, S.; Ahmad, R.; Dhawtal, G.; Heijmen, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To design and evaluate individualized nonadaptive and online-adaptive strategies based on a pretreatment established motion model for the highly deformable target volume in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients, nine to ten variable bladder filling computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired at pretreatment and after 40 Gy. Individualized model-based internal target volumes (mbITVs) accounting for the cervix and uterus motion due to bladder volume changes were generated by using a motion-model constructed from two pretreatment CT scans (full and empty bladder). Two individualized strategies were designed: a nonadaptive strategy, using an mbITV accounting for the full-range of bladder volume changes throughout the treatment; and an online-adaptive strategy, using mbITVs of bladder volume subranges to construct a library of plans. The latter adapts the treatment online by selecting the plan-of-the-day from the library based on the measured bladder volume. The individualized strategies were evaluated by the seven to eight CT scans not used for mbITVs construction, and compared with a population-based approach. Geometric uniform margins around planning cervix–uterus and mbITVs were determined to ensure adequate coverage. For each strategy, the percentage of the cervix–uterus, bladder, and rectum volumes inside the planning target volume (PTV), and the clinical target volume (CTV)-to-PTV volume (volume difference between PTV and CTV) were calculated. Results: The margin for the population-based approach was 38 mm and for the individualized strategies was 7 to 10 mm. Compared with the population-based approach, the individualized nonadaptive strategy decreased the CTV-to-PTV volume by 48% ± 6% and the percentage of bladder and rectum inside the PTV by 5% to 45% and 26% to 74% (p < 0.001), respectively. Replacing the individualized nonadaptive strategy by an online-adaptive, two-plan library further decreased the percentage of

  19. Overactive bladder syndrome - management and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Janine; McLeod, Nicholas; Thani-Gasalam, Ruban; Rashid, Prem

    2012-11-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome is a symptom-based clinical diagnosis. It is characterised by urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia, with or without urge urinary incontinence. These symptoms can often be managed in the primary care setting. This article provides a review on overactive bladder syndrome and provides advice on management for the general practitioner. Overactive bladder syndrome can have a significant effect on quality of life, and affects 12-17% of the population. Prevalence increases with age. The management of overactive bladder syndrome involves exclusion of underlying pathology. First line treatment includes lifestyle interventions, pelvic floor exercises, bladder training and antimuscarinic agents. Failure of conservative management necessitates urology referral. Second line therapies are more invasive, and include botulinum toxin, neuromodulation or surgical interventions such as augmentation cystoplasty or urinary diversion.

  20. [Etiology and pathogenesis of overactive bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bschleipfer, T; Wagenlehner, F; Weidner, W

    2011-04-01

    The symptom complex"overactive bladder" (OAB) affects more than 10% of adult individuals. The etiopathology is complex and multifactorial. Foremost, urinary tract infection, bladder cancer, foreign bodies, and history of radiation or intravesical instillation of chemotherapeutics must be excluded. In many cases, OAB is caused by neurogenic disorders that activate involuntary detrusor contractions (detrusor overactivity, DO). Also, non-neurogenic disorders such as bladder outlet obstruction or dysfunctions of the female pelvic floor/slack ligaments that affect the urothelium, suburothelium, detrusor and bladder afferents are substantially involved in the pathogenesis of OAB. Until now, circulatory disorders have not been adequately taken into consideration but seem to be another etiological factor that causes OAB. Henceforth, molecular changes of bladder afferents and circulatory disorders in patients suffering from OAB have to be investigated in more detail.

  1. Occupational variation in incidence of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; MacLeod, Jill; Demers, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare occupational variation of the risk of bladder cancer in the Nordic countries and Canada. Methods: In the Nordic Occupational Cancer study (NOCCA), 73 653 bladder cancer cases were observed during follow-up of 141.6 million person......: Elevated risks of bladder cancer were observed among hairdressers, printers, sales workers, plumbers, painters, miners and laundry workers. Teachers and agricultural workers had reduced risk of bladder cancer in both cohorts. Chimney-sweeps, tobacco workers and waiters had about 1.5-fold risk in the Nordic...... countries; no risk estimates for these categories were given from the CanCHEC cohort. Conclusion: We observed different occupational patterns in risk of bladder cancer in Nordic countries and Canada. The only occupation with similarly increased risk was observed among sales workers. Differences in smoking...

  2. Mechanical krill models for studying coordinated swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alice; Lai, Hong Kuan; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    The global biomass of Homo sapiens is about a third of the biomass of Euphausia superba, commonly known as the Antarctic krill. Krill participate in organized social behavior. Propulsive jets generated by individual krill in a school have been suggested to be important in providing hydrodynamic sensory cues. The importance of body positions and body angles on the wakes generated is challenging to study in free swimming krill. Our solution to study the flow fields of multiple krill was to develop mechanical krill robots. We designed krillbots using mostly 3D printed parts that are actuated by stepper motors. The krillbot limb lengths, angles, inter-limb spacing and pleopod stroke frequency were dynamically scaled using published data on free-swimming krill kinematics. The vertical and horizontal spacing between krillbots, as well as the body angle, are adjustable. In this study, we conducted particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements with two tethered krillbots in a flow tank with no background flow. One krillbot was placed above and behind the other. Both krillbots were at a zero-degree body angle. Wake-body interactions visualized from PIV data will be presented.

  3. Viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming

    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm, with sperm orienting in the same direction within each cluster, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. A long-chain polyacrylamide solution was used as a model viscoelastic fluid such that its rheology can be fine-tuned to mimic that of bovine cervical mucus. In viscoelastic fluid, sperm formed dynamic clusters, and the cluster size increased with elasticity of the polyacrylamide solution. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian fluids of similar viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction is facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function. We will discuss what the orientation fluctuation within a cluster reveals about the interaction strength. Supported by NIH Grant 1R01HD070038.

  4. Body dynamics and hydrodynamics of swimming larvae: a computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Müller, U.K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.; Liu, H.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the mechanics of fish swimming, we need to know the forces exerted by the fluid and how these forces affect the motion of the fish. To this end, we developed a 3-D computational approach that integrates hydrodynamics and body dynamics. This study quantifies the flow around a swimming

  5. Modulation of the anticonvulsant effect of swim stress by agmatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahremand, Taraneh; Payandemehr, Pooya; Riazi, Kiarash; Noorian, Ali Reza; Payandemehr, Borna; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2018-01-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous l-arginine metabolite with neuroprotective effects in the stress-response system. It exerts anticonvulsant effects against several seizure paradigms. Swim stress induces an anticonvulsant effect by activation of endogenous antiseizure mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the interaction of agmatine with the anticonvulsant effect of swim stress in mice on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure threshold. Then we studied the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway and endogenous opioid system in that interaction. Swim stress induced an anticonvulsant effect on PTZ seizures which was opioid-independent in shorter than 1-min swim durations and opioid-dependent with longer swims, as it was completely reversed by pretreatment with naltrexone (NTX) (10mg/kg), an opioid receptor antagonist. Agmatine significantly enhanced the anticonvulsant effect of opioid-independent shorter swim stress, in which a combination of subthreshold swim stress duration (45s) and subeffective dose of agmatine (1mg/kg) revealed a significantly higher seizure threshold compared with either one. This effect was significantly reversed by NO synthase inhibitor N G -nitro-l-arginine (L-NAME (Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), 5mg/kg), suggesting an NO-dependent mechanism, and was unaffected by NTX (10mg/kg), proving little role for endogenous opioids in the interaction. Our data suggest that pretreatment of animals with agmatine acts additively with short swim stress to exert anticonvulsant responses, possibly by mediating NO pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomechanical aspects of peak performance in human swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toussaint, H.M.; Truijens, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Peak performances in sport require the full deployment of all the powers an athlete possesses. How factors such as mechanical power output, technique and drag, each individually, but also in concert, determine swimming performance is the subject of this enquiry. This overview of swimming

  7. The Complex Hydrodynamics of Swimming in the Spanish Dancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuoyu; Mittal, Rajat

    2016-11-01

    The lack of a vertebra seems to have freed marine gastropods to explore and exploit a stupendous variety of swimming kinematics. In fact, examination of just a few animals in this group reveal locomotory modes ranging from insect-like flapping, to fish-like undulatory swimming, jet propulsion, and rajiform (manta-like) swimming. There are also a number of marine gastropods that have bizarre swimming gaits with no equivalent among fish or marine mammals. In this latter category is the Spanish Dancer (Hexabranchus sanguineus) a sea slug that swims with a complex combination of body undulations and flapping parapodia. While the neurobiology of these animals has been relatively well-studied, less is known about their propulsive mechanism and swimming energetics. In this study, we focus on the hydrodynamics of two distinct swimmers: the Spanish Dancer, and the sea hare Aplysia; the latter adopts a rajiform-like mode of swimming by passing travelling waves along its parapodia. In the present study an immersed boundary method is employed to examine the vortex structures, hydrodynamic forces and energy costs of the swimming in these animals. NSF Grant No. 1246317.

  8. Health risks associated with swimming at an inland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming exposure to fecally-contaminated oceans and lakes has been associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness. Although treated and untreated sewage are often discharged to rivers, the health risks of swimming exposure on rivers has been less frequently ...

  9. Mitigating the impact of swimming pools on domestic water demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is a water-scarce country where the sustainable provision of water to its citizens is one of the most significant challenges faced. A recent study in Cape Town, South Africa, investigated the impact of residential swimming pools on household water demand and found that, on average, the presence of a swimming ...

  10. Protection of swimming-induced oxidative stress in some vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... study of transaminase activities in liver and kidney. Results lead to conclude that the composite extract of above three plant parts has a therapeutic protective effect on forced swimming-induced oxidative stress in vital organs. Keywords: Brain tissues, metabolic organs, oxidative stress, phytotherapy, swimming, vitamin-E.

  11. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.734 Navesink River (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1 through...

  12. Peculiarities of a backstroke swimming technique acceleration in elementary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Sheyko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to research the possibility of intensification and improvement of the efficiency of swimming training for adults by use of accelerated learning backstroke swimming techniques. Material & Methods: the study involved a total of 43 people aged 30–40 years. Applied: analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature; analysis of the learning process of swimming training for adults; development and approbation of an accelerated backstroke swimming technique on the base of the recreational sports complex LLC «Technocom» (Kharkiv, Author's swimming school of U. Blyzniuk, teacher observation, experiment. Results: a study shows that developing of swimming skills of people tested occurs faster and more effectively if the accelerated procedure is used. Backstroke swimming skill formation time for examinees: check group had 26 to 36 lessons, there were 25 to 32 exercises with and without use of supporting means; the experimental group had 12 to 24 lessons with use of 15 exercises without supporting means. Conclusions: as a result of the experiment, it was found that the use of the proposed accelerated training method allows to intensify backstroke swimming learning process for people aged 30–40, due to training course total duration reduction (2 times and number of exercises used, and also allows to master quicker the main improving distance according to age of the engaged.

  13. Geometric Aspects of Force Controllability for a Swimming Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khapalov, A. Y.

    2008-01-01

    We study controllability properties (swimming capabilities) of a mathematical model of an abstract object which 'swims' in the 2-D Stokes fluid. Our goal is to investigate how the geometric shape of this object affects the forces acting upon it. Such problems are of interest in biology and engineering applications dealing with propulsion systems in fluids

  14. Relationship between Muscle Strength and Front Crawl Swimming Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gola Radosław

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. competitive performance in swimming depends on a number of factors including, among others, the development of relevant muscle groups. The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between muscle strength and swimming velocity and the role of individual muscle groups in front crawl swimming. Methods. sixteen physical education university students participated in the study. The strength values, defined as torque produced during isometric contractions, of eight upper and lower extremity muscle groups were measured. Data were compared with participants' front crawl swim times in the 25m and 50m distances. Results. correlation analysis demonstrated a relationship between muscle strength and swimming velocity. statistically significant relationships were observed between swimming velocity and the torque values of the elbow flexor and shoulder extensor muscles as well as the sum of upper extremity muscle torque values (p ⋋ 0.05. Conclusions. The results indicate the need for a focus on training those muscle groups identified as having a statistically significant relationship with swimming velocity for a given distance, as the sample showed deficiencies in the strength of those muscle groups responsible for generating propulsive force in the front crawl. Additionally, the collected data can serve as a diagnostic tool in evaluating the development of muscle groups critical for swimming performance.

  15. The determination of drag in front crawl swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toussaint, H.M.; Roos, P.E.; Kolmogorov, S.

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of drag while swimming (i.e. active drag) is a controversial issue. Therefore, in a group of six elite swimmers two active drag measurement methods were compared to assess whether both measure the same retarding force during swimming. In method 1 push-off forces are measured directly

  16. Children's Activity Levels and Lesson Context during Summer Swim Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamberger, Benjamin; Wahl-Alexander, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Summer swim programs provide a unique opportunity to engage children in PA as well as an important lifesaving skill. Offering summer swim programs is critical, especially for minority populations who tend to have higher rates of drowning, specifically in youth populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the lesson context and…

  17. Assessing Water Quality: Staphylococci as Microbial Indicators in Swimming Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jo. Bechaida T.; Adera, Tilahun

    1991-01-01

    This study suggests that staphylococci may be the preferred microbial indicators of swimming pool water quality because these organisms met all criteria for best microbial indicators in terms of amount of recovery, resistance to disinfectants, and risk to bathers using water samples from nine swimming pools in Linn and Benton Counties, Oregon. (30…

  18. Mitigating the impact of swimming pools on domestic water demand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demand. The study shows the need to reduce the impact of swimming pools. This could include: pool covers to reduce evaporation, the recycling of backwash water, the use of rainwater to top up swimming pools, water use surcharges and, finally, appropriate regulation and enforcement to prevent the use of municipal water ...

  19. Physiological responses to swimming fatigue of juvenile white-leg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swimming performance is one of the crucial factors determining the lifestyle and survival of Penaeid shrimps. This study examined under controlled laboratory conditions, the physiological responses to swimming fatigue of juvenile white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (8.85 ± 0.05 cm TL) exposed to different current ...

  20. A meta-analysis of steady undulatory swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weerden, J. Fransje; Reid, Daniel A. P.; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.

    The mechanics underlying undulatory swimming are of great general interest, both to biologists and to engineers. Over the years, more data of the kinematics of undulatory swimming have been reported. At present, an integrative analysis is needed to determine which general relations hold between

  1. Glucocorticoids facilitate the retention of acquired immobility during forced swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H D; De Korte, C C; De Kloet, E R

    1985-01-01

    The adrenalectomy-induced decrease in the level of immobility during a 5 min retest period in the Porsolt swimming test could be reversed by glucocorticoids administered s.c. 15 min after the initial forced swimming exposure. The synthetic glucocorticoids dexamethasone and RU 28362 were active in

  2. How to improve hygienic behaviour in holiday park swimming pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, I.; Keuten, M.G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on contamination of swimming pool water showed that the hygienic behaviour of swimmers is the most important factor. The suggested hygienic behaviour is; having a pre-swim shower and using the toilet when nature calls. Knowing the importance of hygienic behaviour is one thing,

  3. Wild-type Zebrafish subjected to swim-training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide microarray analysis of the effects of swim-training on zebrafish larval development. Zebrafish were subjected to swim-training from 5 days post fertilization (dpf) until 10 dpf. Subsequently, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis of trained and control fish at 10 dpf. The goal

  4. Swimming efficiency in a shear-thinning fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganguia, Herve; Pietrzyk, Kyle; Pak, On Shun

    2017-12-01

    Micro-organisms expend energy moving through complex media. While propulsion speed is an important property of locomotion, efficiency is another factor that may determine the swimming gait adopted by a micro-organism in order to locomote in an energetically favorable manner. The efficiency of swimming in a Newtonian fluid is well characterized for different biological and artificial swimmers. However, these swimmers often encounter biological fluids displaying shear-thinning viscosities. Little is known about how this nonlinear rheology influences the efficiency of locomotion. Does the shear-thinning rheology render swimming more efficient or less? How does the swimming efficiency depend on the propulsion mechanism of a swimmer and rheological properties of the surrounding shear-thinning fluid? In this work, we address these fundamental questions on the efficiency of locomotion in a shear-thinning fluid by considering the squirmer model as a general locomotion model to represent different types of swimmers. Our analysis reveals how the choice of surface velocity distribution on a squirmer may reduce or enhance the swimming efficiency. We determine optimal shear rates at which the swimming efficiency can be substantially enhanced compared with the Newtonian case. The nontrivial variations of swimming efficiency prompt questions on how micro-organisms may tune their swimming gaits to exploit the shear-thinning rheology. The findings also provide insights into how artificial swimmers should be designed to move through complex media efficiently.

  5. Contouring and Constraining Bowel on a Full-Bladder Computed Tomography Scan May Not Reflect Treatment Bowel Position and Dose Certainty in Gynecologic External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaparpalvi, Ravindra, E-mail: ryaparpa@montefiore.org; Mehta, Keyur J.; Bernstein, Michael B.; Kabarriti, Rafi; Hong, Linda X.; Garg, Madhur K.; Guha, Chandan; Kalnicki, Shalom; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate, in a gynecologic cancer setting, changes in bowel position, dose-volume parameters, and biological indices that arise between full-bladder (FB) and empty-bladder (EB) treatment situations; and to evaluate, using cone beam computed tomography (CT), the validity of FB treatment presumption. Methods and Materials: Seventeen gynecologic cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed. Empty-bladder and FB CTs were obtained. Full-bladder CTs were used for planning and dose optimization. Patients were given FB instructions for treatment. For the study purpose, bowel was contoured on the EB CTs for all patients. Bowel position and volume changes between FB and EB states were determined. Full-bladder plans were applied on EB CTs for determining bowel dose-volume changes in EB state. Biological indices (generalized equivalent uniform dose and normal tissue complication probability) were calculated and compared between FB and EB. Weekly cone beam CT data were available in 6 patients to assess bladder volume at treatment. Results: Average (±SD) planned bladder volume was 299.7 ± 68.5 cm{sup 3}. Median bowel shift in the craniocaudal direction between FB and EB was 12.5 mm (range, 3-30 mm), and corresponding increase in exposed bowel volume was 151.3 cm{sup 3} (range, 74.3-251.4 cm{sup 3}). Absolute bowel volumes receiving 45 Gy were higher for EB compared with FB (mean 328.0 ± 174.8 vs 176.0 ± 87.5 cm{sup 3}; P=.0038). Bowel normal tissue complication probability increased 1.5× to 23.5× when FB planned treatments were applied in the EB state. For the study, the mean percentage value of relative bladder volume at treatment was 32%. Conclusions: Full-bladder planning does not necessarily translate into FB treatments, with a patient tendency toward EB. Given the uncertainty in daily control over bladder volume for treatment, we strongly recommend a “planning-at-risk volume bowel” (PRV{sub B}owel) concept to account for bowel motion

  6. Testosterone Modifies Alterations to Detrusor Muscle after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Juvenile Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Flum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to posterior urethral valves (PUV arise in boys during adolescence. The reasons for this have previously been attributed to increased urine output as boys experience increased growth. Additionally, there are few choices for clinicians to effectively treat these complications. We formed the new hypothesis that increased androgen levels at this time of childhood development could play a role at the cellular level in obstructed bladders. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of testosterone on bladder detrusor muscle following injury from partial bladder outlet obstruction (PO in mice. A PO model was surgically created in juvenile male mice. A group of mice were castrated by bilateral orchiectomy at time of obstruction (CPO. Testosterone cypionate was administered to a group of castrated, obstructed mice (CPOT. Bladder function was assessed by voiding stain on paper (VSOP. Bladders were analyzed at 7 and 28 days by weight and histology. Detrusor collagen to smooth muscle ratio (Col/SM was calculated using Masson’s trichrome stain. All obstructed groups had lower max voided volumes (MVV than sham mice at 1 day. Hormonally intact mice (PO continued to have lower MVV at 7 and 28 days while CPO mice improved to sham levels at both time points. In accordance, PO mice had higher bladder-to-body weight ratios than CPO and sham mice demonstrating greater bladder hypertrophy. Histologically, Col/SM was lower in sham and CPO mice. When testosterone was restored in CPOT mice, MVV remained low at 7 and 28 days compared to CPO and bladder-to-body weight ratios were also greater than CPO. Histologic changes were also seen in CPOT mice with higher Col/SM than sham and CPO mice. In conclusion, our findings support a role for testosterone in the fibrotic changes that occur after obstruction in male mice. This suggests that while other changes may occur in adolescent boys that cause complication in boys

  7. EFFECT OF FLEXIBILITY ON THE RESULTS OF DOLPHIN SWIMMING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slađana Tošić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the impact of flexibility on the results in swimming, we conducted a study on a sample of 50 female patients aged 11-14 years of age who are in the training process in the swimming clubs „Nis 2005“ and „Sveti Nikola“ in Nis. The study is applied to 14 measuring instruments that were divided into three groups: Measuring instruments for the assessment of flexibility (11; Measuring instruments for assessing the results of swimming (1; Measuring instruments for evaluation of morphological characteristics (2. The regression analysis determined the impact of flexibility on the results in swimming. The regression analysis didn't confirmed the assumption that there is a statistically significant effect of flexibility variables on results in swimming for female swimmers

  8. EFFECTS OF THREE FEEDBACK CONDITIONS ON AEROBIC SWIM SPEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez Soriano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold: (a to develop an underwater chronometer capable to provide feedback while the athlete is swimming, as well as being a control tool for the coach, and (b to analyse its feedback effect on swim pace control compared with feedback provided by the coach and with no feedback, in 25 m and 50 m swimming pools. 30 male swimmers of national level volunteer to participate. Each swimmer swam 3 x 200 m at aerobic speed (AS and 3 x 200 m just under the anaerobic threshold speed (AnS, each swam repetition with a different feedback condition: chronometer, coach and without feedback. Results (a validate the chronometer system developed and (b show that swimmers pace control is affected by the type of feedback provided, the swim speed elected and the size of the swimming pool

  9. Development and application of the condom catheter method for non-invasive measurement of bladder pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R van Mastrigt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A non-invasive method to measure the bladder pressure in males using a condom catheter has been developed. The measurement technique, its validation and limitations, a diagnostic nomogram to non-invasively diagnose bladder outlet obstruction (BOO, and results of large-scale application are discussed. Methods: Modified incontinence condoms are attached to the penis. During voiding the flow of urine is mechanically interrupted. The subsequent maximum pressure in the condom reflects the isovolumetric bladder pressure. The method was validated in a group of 46 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms who were simultaneously studied invasively and non-invasively. Subsequently it was applied in a non-invasive epidemiological study in 1020 healthy males. Results: The reproducibility of the measured isovolumetric bladder pressure is comparable to that of conventional pressure-flow parameters. The measured pressure can be used to diagnose bladder outlet obstruction with a diagnostic accuracy (Area Under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.98, which compares most favorably with the area under the curve of 0.79 of Q max in the same population. During condom catheter measurements, both the involuntary interruption of voiding and the forced diuresis increase post-void residual volume. This increase does not affect the accuracy of the pressure measurements. Conclusions: We conclude that in males bladder pressure can successfully be measured non-invasively using the condom catheter method. By combining the measured volumetric bladder pressure with a separately measured free flow rate, BOO can non-invasively and accurately be diagnosed.

  10. Correlation of bladder base elevation with pelvic floor hypertonicity in women with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Fei-Chi; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether the bladder base elevation as revealed by cystogram under fluoroscopy is associated with pelvic floor hypertonicity or bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women. Sixty-two women who were referred to our videourodynamic laboratory for assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were included in this retrospective analysis. Thirty-one of these women with bladder base elevation-revealed by cystogram under fluoroscopy during videourodynamic study-served as the experimental group, and another group of 31 women without bladder base elevation served as control. None of the patients had neuropathy, previous pelvic surgery or chronic urinary retention. The clinical symptoms, urodynamic diagnosis, and parameters were compared between the two groups. The mean voiding pressure (Pdet.Qmax) and postvoid residual (PVR) were significantly greater, and maximum flow rate (Qmax) and voided volume were significantly lower in the bladder base elevation group. When a Pdet.Qmax of >or=35 cmH2O combined with a Qmax of elevation group had BOO than controls (51.6% vs. 9.7%, P=0.0003). Pelvic floor muscle electromyogram (EMG) was dyscoordinated during the voiding phase in 18 (58.1%) and 9 (29%) of the patients with and without bladder base elevation, respectively (P=0.0212). Women with LUTS and bladder base elevation revealed in the filling phase of videourodynamic study had significantly higher voiding pressure and incidence of dyscoordinated pelvic floor EMG activities during voiding, suggesting a higher incidence of BOO and pelvic floor hypertonicity. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. The molecular basis of urgency: regional difference of vanilloid receptor expression in the human urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Mansfield, Kylie J; Kristiana, Ika; Vaux, Kenneth J; Millard, Richard J; Burcher, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Treatments targeting vanilloid receptor TRPV1 are effective in some bladder disorders. Our aim was to determine the expression profiles of TRPV1 in regions of human bladder and test the hypothesis that there would be an upregulation of TRPV1 in mucosa of patients with bladder hypersensitivity but not idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO). Women with sensory urgency (SU), interstitial cystitis (IC), and IDO were investigated by videourodynamics and cystoscopy. Control biopsies were used for comparison. Biopsies were dissected into mucosa and muscle, and evaluated for TRPV1 mRNA expression using quantitative competitive RT-PCR (QC-RT-PCR). TRPV1 mRNA from SU trigonal mucosa was significantly higher than control trigonal mucosa or SU bladder body mucosa. In contrast, in IDO patients, there was no difference between trigonal mucosa and body mucosa. In IC biopsies, RNA quality was substandard and unable to be used for analysis. The most striking finding was that TRPV1 mRNA expressed in SU trigonal mucosa was significantly inversely correlated with the bladder volume at first sensation of filling during cystometry. No such relationship was seen for IDO trigonal mucosa. No difference was seen in bladder body mucosa from any disease groups compared with age-matched control. The symptoms of SU were associated with the increased expression of TRPV1 mRNA in the trigonal mucosa. No upregulation or regional differences of TRPV1 mRNA were seen in IDO patients. TRPV1 may play a role in SU and premature first bladder sensation on filling.

  12. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  13. Behavior of Lipiodol Markers During Image Guided Radiotherapy of Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Herk, Marcel van; Kamer, Jeroen B. van de; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; De Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to identify the tumor. A planning CT scan was made, followed by daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans during treatment. To study the accuracy of using these markers for image guidance, uncertainties U1 and U2 were calculated, which were defined as the difference between submask registration (covering single marker) and the average of all submask registrations and the difference between the submask registration and the general mask registration (including all markers), respectively. Finally, to study tumor deformation, the relative movement of each marker pair was correlated with the relative bladder volume (RBV). Results: The analyzed patients had 2.3 marker injections on average. The lipiodol spot size was 0.72 ± 1.1 cm 3 . The intensity of spots in both CT and CBCT was significantly higher than the surrounding bladder tissue. The uncertainties U1 and U2 were comparable, and the uncertainties in left-right direction (0.14-0.19 cm) were smaller than those in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior directions (0.19-0.32 cm). The relative marker movement of within-zone marker pairs was much smaller (and has less dependence on the RBV) than across-zones marker pairs. Conclusions: Lipiodol markers are a feasible method to track bladder tumor by using online CBCT. Tumor deformation is observed, especially for tumors that cross the defined bladder zones.

  14. Non-bladder conditions in female Taiwanese patients with interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu-Hua; Lin, Alex T L; Lu, Shing-Hwa; Chuang, Yao-Chi; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2014-08-01

    To detect non-bladder conditions in patients with interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome. A total of 122 female interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome patients and a control group of 122 age-matched female patients with stress urinary incontinence completed screening questionnaires for irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, multiple chemical sensitivities, tension and migraine headache, localized myofascial pain disorder, and fibromyalgia. Interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome patients also completed questionnaires on interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome symptom severity, including the O'Leary-Sant symptom index, and the visual analog scale for pain and urgency. Interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome patients were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome than controls (37.5% vs 11.5%), and tension/migraine headache (38.7% vs 15.7%; all P interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome symptoms as measured by the visual analog scale of pain (P = 0.008) and O'Leary-Sant bother index (P = 0.035). Interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome patients are more likely to have multiple non-bladder conditions. These conditions correlate with the severity of interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome symptoms. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  15. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi Jeanet; Nørgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results......-intended radiation therapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15-21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22-27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10-18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1-5) in 2013. One......-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24-39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16-31) in 2013. CONCLUSION: This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database...

  16. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  17. Adverse Events of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection between Patients with Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis--Different Mechanisms of Action of Botox on Bladder Dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2016-03-16

    Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injections have been proposed to treat both overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) in patients with refractory conditions. We compared adverse events (AEs) after BoNT-A treatment between IC/BPS and OAB in women. IC/BPS patients who failed conventional treatments were enrolled to receive suburothelial injections of BoNT-A (100 U) followed by hydrodistention. Age matched OAB female patients refractory to antimuscarinic agents underwent BoNT-A (100 U) injections. The bladder capacity, maximum flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual (PVR), and voiding efficiency (VE) at baseline, 3 and 6 months, and the post-treatment AEs were analyzed between groups. Finally, 89 IC/BPS and 72 OAB women were included. In the OAB group, the bladder capacity and PVR increased, and VE decreased significantly at three and six months after BoNT-A treatment. In the IC/BPS group, the Qmax increased significantly at six months. There were significant differences in changes of capacity, Qmax, PVR and VE between the two groups. Moreover, OAB patients suffered more frequently from events of hematuria, UTI, and large PVR (>200 mL), but less frequently from events of straining to void. In conclusion, OAB women had higher PVR volume and lower VE than those in IC/BPS after BoNT-A injections. These results imply that the bladder contractility of OAB patients are more susceptible to BoNT-A, which might reflect the different mechanisms of action of Botox on bladder dysfunction. Further investigations to confirm this hypothesis are warranted.

  18. Adverse Events of Intravesical Onabotulinum Toxin A Injection between Patients with Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis—Different Mechanisms of Action of Botox on Bladder Dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Chen Kuo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A injections have been proposed to treat both overactive bladder (OAB and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS in patients with refractory conditions. We compared adverse events (AEs after BoNT-A treatment between IC/BPS and OAB in women. IC/BPS patients who failed conventional treatments were enrolled to receive suburothelial injections of BoNT-A (100 U followed by hydrodistention. Age matched OAB female patients refractory to antimuscarinic agents underwent BoNT-A (100 U injections. The bladder capacity, maximum flow rate (Qmax, post-void residual (PVR, and voiding efficiency (VE at baseline, 3 and 6 months, and the post-treatment AEs were analyzed between groups. Finally, 89 IC/BPS and 72 OAB women were included. In the OAB group, the bladder capacity and PVR increased, and VE decreased significantly at three and six months after BoNT-A treatment. In the IC/BPS group, the Qmax increased significantly at six months. There were significant differences in changes of capacity, Qmax, PVR and VE between the two groups. Moreover, OAB patients suffered more frequently from events of hematuria, UTI, and large PVR (>200 mL, but less frequently from events of straining to void. In conclusion, OAB women had higher PVR volume and lower VE than those in IC/BPS after BoNT-A injections. These results imply that the bladder contractility of OAB patients are more susceptible to BoNT-A, which might reflect the different mechanisms of action of Botox on bladder dysfunction. Further investigations to confirm this hypothesis are warranted.

  19. Adverse Events of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection between Patients with Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis—Different Mechanisms of Action of Botox on Bladder Dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2016-01-01

    Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injections have been proposed to treat both overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) in patients with refractory conditions. We compared adverse events (AEs) after BoNT-A treatment between IC/BPS and OAB in women. IC/BPS patients who failed conventional treatments were enrolled to receive suburothelial injections of BoNT-A (100 U) followed by hydrodistention. Age matched OAB female patients refractory to antimuscarinic agents underwent BoNT-A (100 U) injections. The bladder capacity, maximum flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual (PVR), and voiding efficiency (VE) at baseline, 3 and 6 months, and the post-treatment AEs were analyzed between groups. Finally, 89 IC/BPS and 72 OAB women were included. In the OAB group, the bladder capacity and PVR increased, and VE decreased significantly at three and six months after BoNT-A treatment. In the IC/BPS group, the Qmax increased significantly at six months. There were significant differences in changes of capacity, Qmax, PVR and VE between the two groups. Moreover, OAB patients suffered more frequently from events of hematuria, UTI, and large PVR (>200 mL), but less frequently from events of straining to void. In conclusion, OAB women had higher PVR volume and lower VE than those in IC/BPS after BoNT-A injections. These results imply that the bladder contractility of OAB patients are more susceptible to BoNT-A, which might reflect the different mechanisms of action of Botox on bladder dysfunction. Further investigations to confirm this hypothesis are warranted. PMID:26999201

  20. Down-regulation of LncRNA TUG1 enhances radiosensitivity in bladder cancer via suppressing HMGB1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huijuan; Hu, Xigang; Zhang, Hongzhi; Li, Wenbo

    2017-04-04

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to regulate the sensitivity of different cancer cells to chemoradiotherapy. Aberrant expression of lncRNA Taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) has been found to be involved in the development of bladder cancer, however, its function and underlying mechanism in the radioresistance of bladder cancer remains unclear. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was conducted to measure the expression of TUG1 and HMGB1 mRNA in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. HMGB1 protein levels were tested by western blot assays. Different doses of X-ray were used for radiation treatment of bladder cancer cells. Colony survival and cell viability were detected by clonogenic assay and CCK-8 Kit, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. A xenograft mouse model was constructed to observe the effect of TUG1 on tumor growth in vivo. The levels of TUG1 and HMGB1 were remarkably increased in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. Radiation treatment markedly elevated the expression of TUG1 and HMGB1. TUG1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis and decreased colony survival in SW780 and BIU87 cells under radiation. Moreover, TUG1 depletion suppressed the HMGB1 mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, overexpression of HMGB1 reversed TUG1 knockdown-induced effect in bladder cancer cells. Radiation treatment dramatically reduced the tumor volume and weight in xenograft model, and this effect was more obvious when combined with TUG1 silencing. LncRNA TUG1 knockdown enhances radiosensitivity of bladder cancer by suppressing HMGB1 expression. TUG1 acts as a potential regulator of radioresistance of bladder cancer, and it may represent a promising therapeutic target for bladder cancer patients.