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Sample records for swift iodine ion

  1. Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of swift heavy ion induced metal silicide is a new advancement in materials science research. We have investigated the mixing at Co/Si interface by swift heavy ion beam induced irradiation in the electronic stopping power regime. Irradiations were undertaken at room temperature using 120 MeV Au ions at the ...

  2. Photoluminescence and Raman studies in swift heavy ion irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Swift heavy ions (SHI) cause intense electronic excita- tions along the ion trajectory when they pass through material that may result in defect production or amorphiza- tion or phase transformation on nanometer scale (Bolse et al 2004; Wang et al 2004). Thus, it is interesting to know the effect of strong electronic excitation ...

  3. Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. The present work deals with the mixing of iron and silicon by swift heavy ions in high-energy range. The thin film was deposited on a n-Si (111) substrate at 10. –6 torr and at room temperature. Irradia- tions were undertaken at room temperature using 120 MeV Au. +9 ions at the Fe/Si interface to investigate ion.

  4. Photoluminescence and Raman studies in swift heavy ion irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photoluminescence and Raman studies in swift heavy ion irradiated polycrystalline aluminum oxide ... Polymers Volume 32 Issue 5 October 2009 pp 515-519 ... A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission with peak at ∼447 nm and two sharp emissions with peak at ∼ 679 and ∼ 695 nm are observed in pristine when ...

  5. Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    search. We have investigated the mixing at Co/Si interface by swift heavy ion beam induced irradiation in the ... films are often employed in semiconductor technology and are used as ... rements at Co/Si interface were carried out online in the.

  6. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablinsky, Clarissa; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, T. R.

    2015-05-14

    We have examined microstructural evolution in irradiated ceria (CeO2) using swift heavy ion irradiation, electron microscopy, and atomistic simulation. CeO2, a UO2 fuel surrogate, was irradiated with gold ions at an energy of 1 GeV to fluences up to 1x1014 ions/cm2. Transmission electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showed that the ion tracks were of similar size at all fluences, and that there was no chemical change in the ion track core. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at the lower energy and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  7. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pakarinen, Janne [Inst. for Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol, (Belgium); Gan, Jian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Severin, Daniel [GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Trautmann, Christina [GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Allen, Todd R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Energy Physics Dept.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  8. Dislocation loop formation by swift heavy ion irradiation of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khara, Galvin S.; Murphy, Samuel T.; Duffy, Dorothy M.

    2017-07-01

    A coupled two-temperature, molecular dynamics methodology is used to simulate the structural evolution of bcc metals (Fe and W) and fcc metals (Cu and Ni) following irradiation by swift heavy ions. Electronic temperature dependent electronic specific heat capacities and electron-phonon coupling strengths are used to capture the full effects of the variation in the electronic density of states. Tungsten is found to be significantly more resistant to damage than iron, due both to the higher melting temperature and the higher thermal conductivity. Very interesting defect structures, quite different from defects formed in cascades, are found to be created by swift heavy ion irradiation in the bcc metals. Isolated vacancies form a halo around elongated interstitial dislocation loops that are oriented along the ion path. Such configurations are formed by rapid recrystallization of the molten cylindrical region that is created by the energetic ion. Vacancies are created at the recrystallization front, resulting in excess atoms at the core which form interstitial dislocation loops on completion of crystallization. These unique defect structures could, potentially, be used to create metal films with superior mechanical properties and interesting nanostructures.

  9. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargus, William

    2014-10-01

    Iodine (I2) has been considered as a potential electrostatic spacecraft thruster propellant for approximately 2 decades, but has only recently been demonstrated. Energy conversion efficiency appears to be on par with xenon without thruster modification. Intriguingly, performance appears to exceed xenon at high acceleration potentials. As part of a continuing program for the development of non-intrusive plasma diagnostics for advanced plasma spacecraft propulsion, we have identified the I II 5d5D4 o state as metastable, and therefore containing a reservoir of excited state ions suitable for laser probing. The 5d5D4 o - 6p5P3 transition at 695.878 nm is convenient for diode laser excitation with the 5s5S2 o - 6p5P3 transition at 516.12 nm as an ideal candidate for non-resonant fluorescence collection. We have constructed a Penning type iodine microwave discharge lamp optimized for I II production for table-top measurements. This work demonstrates I II laser-induced fluorescence in a representative iodine discharge and will validate our previous theoretical work based on the limited available historical I II spectral data.

  10. Wake potential of swift ion in amorphous carbon target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahnam, Nabil janan; Ahmad, Khalid A.; Aboo Al-Numan, Abdullah Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    The wake potential and wake phenomena for swift proton in an amorphous carbon target were studied by utilising various dielectric function formalisms, including the Drude dielectric function, the Drude-Lorentz dielectric function and quantum dielectric function. The Drude model results exhibited a damped oscillatory behaviour in the longitudinal direction behind the projectile; the pattern of these oscillations decreases exponentially in the transverse direction. In addition, the wake potential extends slightly ahead of the projectile which also depends on the proton coordinate and velocity. The effect of electron binding on the wake potential, characterised by the ratio ωp2/ω02 = 10 to 0.1, has been studied alongside the Drude-Lorentz dielectric function and quantum dielectric function formalisms; the results evidently show that the wake potential dip depth decreases with more oscillations when the electron density ratio ωp2/ω02 decreases from 10 to 0.1. One of the primary objectives of the present work is to construct a reasonably realistic procedure for simulating the response of target to swift ions by combining an expression for the induced wake potential along with several important dielectric function models; the aim of this research is to reduce computational complexity without sacrificing accuracy. This is regarded as being an efficient strategy in that it creates suitable computer simulation procedures which are relevant to actual solids. After comparing this method with other models, the main differences and similarities have been noted while the end results have proved encouraging.

  11. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  12. Swift heavy ion modifications of astrophysical water ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dartois, E., E-mail: emmanuel.dartois@ias.u-psud.fr [CNRS-INSU, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, 91405 Orsay (France); Université Paris Sud, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, bât. 121, 91405 Orsay (France); Augé, B. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CEA, CNRS, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen-Basse Normandie), UMR 6252, CIMAP – CIRIL – Ganil, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); CNRS-INSU, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, 91405 Orsay (France); Université Paris Sud, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, bât. 121, 91405 Orsay (France); Rothard, H.; Boduch, P. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CEA, CNRS, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen-Basse Normandie), UMR 6252, CIMAP – CIRIL – Ganil, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Brunetto, R. [CNRS-INSU, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, 91405 Orsay (France); Université Paris Sud, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, bât. 121, 91405 Orsay (France); and others

    2015-12-15

    In the relatively shielded environments provided by interstellar dense clouds in our Galaxy, infrared astronomical observations have early revealed the presence of low temperature (10–100 K) ice mantles covering tiny grain “cores” composed of more refractory material. These ices are of specific interest because they constitute an interface between a solid phase under complex evolution triggered by energetic processes and surface reactions, with a rich chemistry taking place in the gas phase. The interstellar ice mantles present in these environments are immersed, in addition to other existing radiations fields, in a flux of cosmic ray particles that can produce new species via radiolysis processes, but first affects their structure, which may change and also induces desorption of molecules and radicals from these grains. Theses cosmic rays are simulated by swift ions in the laboratory for a better understanding of astrophysical processes.

  13. Irradiation effects of swift heavy ions in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmani, Orkhan

    2011-12-22

    In the this thesis irradiation effects of swift heavy ions in matter are studied. The focus lies on the projectiles charge exchange and energy loss processes. A commonly used computer code which employs rate equations is the so called ETACHA code. This computer code is capable to also calculate the required input cross-sections. Within this thesis a new model to compute the charge state of swift heavy ions is explored. This model, the so called matrix method, takes the form of a simple algebraic expression, which also requires cross-sections as input. In the present implementation of the matrix method, cross-sections are taken from the ETACHA code, while excitation and deexcitation processes are neglected. Charge fractions for selected ion/target combinations, computed by the ETACHA code and the matrix method are compared. It is shown, that for sufficient large ion energies, both methods agree very well with each other. However, for lower energies pronounced differences are observed. These differences are believed to stem from the fact, that no excited states as well as the decay of theses excited states are included in the present implementation of the matrix method. Both methods are then compared with experimental measurements, where significant deviations are observed for both methods. While the predicted equilibrium charge state by both methods is in good agreement with the experiments, the matrix method predicts a much too large equilibrium thickness compared to both the ETACHA calculation as well as the experiment. Again, these deviations are believed to stem from the fact, that excitation and the decay of excited states are not included in the matrix method. A possible way to include decay processes into the matrix method is presented, while the accuracy of the applied capture cross-sections is tested by comparison with scaling rules. Swift heavy ions penetrating a dielectric are known to induced structural modifications both on the surface and in the bulk

  14. Model of wet chemical etching of swift heavy ions tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, S. A.; Malakhov, A. I.; Rymzhanov, R. A.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    A model of wet chemical etching of tracks of swift heavy ions (SHI) decelerated in solids in the electronic stopping regime is presented. This model takes into account both possible etching modes: etching controlled by diffusion of etchant molecules to the etching front, and etching controlled by the rate of a reaction of an etchant with a material. Olivine ((Mg0.88Fe0.12)2SiO4) crystals were chosen as a system for modeling. Two mechanisms of chemical activation of olivine around the SHI trajectory are considered. The first mechanism is activation stimulated by structural transformations in a nanometric track core, while the second one results from neutralization of metallic atoms by generated electrons spreading over micrometric distances. Monte-Carlo simulations (TREKIS code) form the basis for the description of excitations of the electronic subsystem and the lattice of olivine in an SHI track at times up to 100 fs after the projectile passage. Molecular dynamics supplies the initial conditions for modeling of lattice relaxation for longer times. These simulations enable us to estimate the effects of the chemical activation of olivine governed by both mechanisms. The developed model was applied to describe chemical activation and the etching kinetics of tracks of Au 2.1 GeV ions in olivine. The estimated lengthwise etching rate (38 µm · h-1) is in reasonable agreement with that detected in the experiments (24 µm · h-1).

  15. Conducting ion tracks generated by charge-selected swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Srashti, E-mail: srashti.3@gmail.com [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Physics & Astrophysics, Delhi University, New Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Gehrke, H.G., E-mail: h.gehrke@fz-juelich.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Krauser, J., E-mail: jkrauser@hs-harz.de [Harz University of Applied Sciences, 38855 Wernigerode (Germany); Trautmann, C., E-mail: C.Trautmann@gsi.de [Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Severin, D., E-mail: D.Severin@gsi.de [Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bender, M., E-mail: M.Bender@gsi.de [Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Rothard, H., E-mail: rothard@ganil.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique, CIMAP-CIRIL-Ganil, F-14070 Caen (France); Hofsäss, H., E-mail: hans.hofsaess@phys.uni-goettingen.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Conducting ion tracks in tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) thin films were generated by irradiation with swift heavy ions of well-defined charge state. The conductivity of tracks and the surface topography of the films, showing characteristic hillocks at each track position, were investigated using conductive atomic force microscopy measurements. The dependence of track conductivity and hillock size on the charge state of the ions was studied using 4.6 MeV/u Pb ions of charge state 53+, 56+ and 60+ provided by GANIL, as well as 4.8 MeV/u Bi and Au ions of charge state from 50+ to 61+ and 4.2 MeV/u {sup 238}U ions in equilibrium charge state provided by UNILAC of GSI. For the charge state selection at GSI, an additional stripper-foil system was installed at the M-branch that now allows routine irradiations with ions of selected charge states. The conductivity of tracks in ta-C increases significantly when the charge state increases from 51+ to 60+. However, the conductivity of individual tracks on the same sample still shows large variations, indicating that tracks formed in ta-C are either inhomogeneous or the conductivity is limited by the interface between ion track and Si substrate.

  16. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A.S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Wilhelm, R.A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Sorokin, M. [National Research Centre ’Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV {sup 129}Xe{sup (33–40)+} and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I{sup 9+} and 374 MeV–2.2 GeV {sup 197}Au{sup 25+}. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  17. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Iodine Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about iodine? Disclaimer What is iodine and what does it do? Iodine is a ...

  18. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER Q1AU 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. Air Force Research ...MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQR 5 Pollux Drive. 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT Edwards AFB CA 93524-7048 NUMBER(S...a halogen the natural state is diatomic (I2) with a molecular mass of 253.8 amu. Atomic iodine (I) only has an ionization energy of 10.45 eV. The

  19. Mixing induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at Fe/Si interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The present work deals with the mixing of metal and silicon by swift heavy ions in high-energy range. Threshold value for the defect creation in metal Fe calculated was found to be ~ 40 keV/nm. A thin film of Fe (10 nm) was deposited on Si (100) at a pressure of 4 × 10–8 Torr and was irradiated with 95 MeV Au ions ...

  20. Tuning the conductivity of vanadium dioxide films on silicon by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hofsäss

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the generation of a persistent conductivity increase in vanadium dioxide thin films grown on single crystal silicon by irradiation with 1 GeV 238U swift heavy ions at room temperature. VO2 undergoes a temperature driven metal-insulator-transition (MIT at 67 °C. After room temperature ion irradiation with high electronic energy loss of 50 keV/nm the conductivity of the films below the transition temperature is strongly increased proportional to the ion fluence of 5·109 U/cm2 and 1·1010 U/cm2. At high temperatures the conductivity decreases slightly. The ion irradiation slightly reduces the MIT temperature. This observed conductivity change is persistent and remains after heating the samples above the transition temperature and subsequent cooling. Low temperature measurements down to 15 K show no further MIT below room temperature. Although the conductivity increase after irradiation at such low fluences is due to single ion track effects, atomic force microscopy (AFM measurements do not show surface hillocks, which are characteristic for ion tracks in other materials. Conductive AFM gives no evidence for conducting ion tracks but rather suggests the existence of conducting regions around poorly conducting ion tracks, possible due to stress generation. Another explanation of the persistent conductivity change could be the ion-induced modification of a high resistivity interface layer formed during film growth between the vanadium dioxide film and the n-Silicon substrate. The swift heavy ions may generate conducting filaments through this layer, thus increasing the effective contact area. Swift heavy ion irradiation can thus be used to tune the conductivity of VO2 films on silicon substrates.

  1. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced modification of structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interaction in our case. Vanishing of these impurity peaks at higher fluences may be due to overlapping of the ion tracks leading to amorphization of these phases. Figure 1. Evolution of XRD pattern with 200 MeV Ag ion irra- diation fluence for BiFeO3 thin films grown on Si(100) substrate. Impurity peaks corresponding to ...

  2. Swift heavy ion induced nano-dimensional phase separation in liquid immiscible binary Mn-Bi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Khan, S. A.; Sudheer Babu, P.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2014-08-01

    Pulsed laser deposited 60 nm thin film of homogeneous Mn0.82Bi0.18 composite has been irradiated by 100 MeV Au ions at fluence 1 × 1013 ions/cm2, and investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, magnetic hysteresis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nanoindentation measurements. Dispersed nanostructures of soft Bi-rich phase of about 20 nm diameter emerged in a hard Mn-rich matrix on irradiation. Such structures, as synthesized by the present novel swift heavy ion irradiation approach, are usable as self-lubricating thin films.

  3. Swift heavy ion induced nano-dimensional phase separation in liquid immiscible binary Mn–Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.K., E-mail: sanjeev@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Khan, S.A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sudheer Babu, P. [Department of Physics, RGUKT, Nuzvid 521201 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-08-01

    Pulsed laser deposited 60 nm thin film of homogeneous Mn{sub 0.82}Bi{sub 0.18} composite has been irradiated by 100 MeV Au ions at fluence 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}, and investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, magnetic hysteresis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nanoindentation measurements. Dispersed nanostructures of soft Bi-rich phase of about 20 nm diameter emerged in a hard Mn-rich matrix on irradiation. Such structures, as synthesized by the present novel swift heavy ion irradiation approach, are usable as self-lubricating thin films.

  4. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced electrical degradation in deca-nanometer MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yao; Yang, Zhimei; Gong, Min [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Gao, Bo; Li, Yun; Lin, Wei; Li, Jinbo; Xia, Zhuohui [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2016-09-15

    In this work, degradation of the electrical characteristics of 65 nm nMOSFETs under swift heavy ion irradiation is investigated. It was found that a heavy ion can generate a localized region of physical damage (ion latent track) in the gate oxide. This is the likely cause for the increased gate leakage current and soft breakdown (SBD) then hard breakdown (HBD) of the gate oxide. Except in the case of HBD, the devices retain their functionality but with degraded transconductance. The degraded gate oxide exhibits early breakdown behavior compatible with the model of defect generation and percolation path formation in the percolation model.

  5. Tuning the conductivity of vanadium dioxide films by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt, Paul; Hofsaess, Hans; Gehrke, Hans-Gregor [II. Physikalisches Institut, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Krauser, Johann [Hochschule Harz, University of Applied Sciences, Friedrichstrasse 57-59, 38855 Wernigerode (Germany); Trautmann, Christina [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Ramanathan, Shriram [Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate the generation of a persistent conductivity increase in vanadium dioxide thin films by irradiation with swift heavy ions at room temperature. VO{sub 2} undergoes a temperature driven metal-insulator-transition (MIT) at 67 C. After the ion irradiation the conductivity of the films we observe a strong increase in conductivity below the transition temperature proportional to the ion fluence. This change in conductivity is persistent and remains after several cycles of heating. Low temperature measurements down to 15 K show no further MIT below room temperature. Although the conductivity increase after irradiation at such low fluences is due to single ion track effects, atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements do not show surface hillocks, which are characteristic for ion tracks in other materials. AFM measurements with conducting tip give no evidence for conducting ion tracks but indicate the existence of conducting regions around poorly conducting ion tracks, possible due to stress generation.

  6. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on surface resistance of DyBa 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 58; Issue 5-6. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on surface resistance of DyBa2Cu3O7- thin films at microwave frequencies. Ujwala Ail Tamalika Banerjee A R Bhangale D Kanjilal R Pinto. Physics of Vortex State Volume 58 Issue 5-6 May-June 2002 pp 959-963 ...

  7. A FTIR characterization of a haemocompatible material obtained by swift heavy ion radiation grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapoz, S.; Betz, N.; Le Moel, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Recherche sur l`Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules

    1996-01-01

    In order to prepare materials destined to be used as vascular prothesis, a radiation grafting of styrene, induced by swift heavy ions in polyvinylidene fluoride films, was performed. A substitution of the grafted polystyrene with sulfonate and aspartic acid sulfamide groups, which confers to the polymer anticoagulant properties, was achieved. The material was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy at each step of the synthesis. (authors). 5 refs., 2 figs.

  8. The Erosion of Frozen Argon by Swift Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Graversen, O.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore...

  9. Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 30; Issue 2 ... Ion beam mixing; XRD; Schottky barrier height; series resistance. ... – measurements for both pristine and irradiated samples have been carried out at room temperature, series resistance and barrier heights for both as deposited and irradiated samples ...

  10. Mechanical response to swift ion irradiation-induced nano-tracks in silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Páramo, Ángel R., E-mail: angel.rodriguez.paramo@upm.es [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Sordo, F. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Consorcio ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Cosimet, Paseo Landabarri, 2 1" a planta, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Garoz, D.; Peña-Rodríguez, O.; Prada, A. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Olivares, J. [Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales UAM, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Óptica, CSIC, c/Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Crespillo, M.L. [Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales UAM, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Perlado, J.M.; Rivera, A. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-06-01

    Ion irradiation on dielectric materials produces several processes, such ionization and defect formation followed by a decay governed by thermal processes such as heat diffusion and atomic rearrangement. Finally in the irradiated region the mechanical properties are altered, strain and stress fields appear, a densification takes places and other properties such as the refractive index are affected. In order to simulate the mechanical response of silica to swift ion irradiation we use a methodology based on molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element methods (FEM). We use information from MD to obtain the local densification generated by an incoming swift ion. Finally we calculate the densification in the ion track using FEM. This method provides information on the strain and stress field along the material as a function of ion irradiation fluence. For this work an experimental campaign using Br ions from 5 to 50 MeV has been done at CMAM accelerator (Madrid). We measured the refractive index and we observe that for high fluences the refractive index decreases. The effect of the strain field on the density could explain the decrease in the refractive index. We check this hypothesis using our methodology coupling MD and FEM.

  11. Quartz modification by Zn ion implantation and swift Xe ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privezentsev, Vladimir [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, Vaclav [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Didyk, Alexander; Skuratov, Vladimir [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Steinman, Edward; Tereshchenko, Alexey; Kolesnikov, Nikolay [Institute of Solid-State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Trifonov, Alexey; Sakharov, Oleg [National Research University ' ' MIET' ' , Zelenograd, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ksenich, Sergey [National University of Science and Technology ' ' MISiS' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    The quartz slides were implanted by {sup 64}Zn{sup +} ions with dose of 5 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} and energy of 100 keV. After implantation, the amorphous metallic Zn nanoparticles with an average radius of 3.5 nm were created. The sample surface becomes nonuniform, its roughness is increased and its values rise up to 6 nm compared to virgin state, and the roughness maximum is at a value of about 0.8 nm. The surface is made up of valleys and hillocks which have a round shape with an average diameter about 200 nm. At the center of these hillocks are pores with a depth up to 6 nm and a diameter of about 20 nm. After implantation in UV-vis diapason, the optical transmission decreases while PL peak (apparently due to oxygen deficient centers) at wavelength of 400 nm increases. Then the samples were subjected to swift Xe ion irradiation with the fluences of 1 x 10{sup 12}-7.5 x 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2} and energy of 167 MeV. After Xe irradiation, the sample surface roughness shat down to values of 0.5 nm and the roughness maximum is at a value of about 0.1 nm. Optical transmission in UV-vis diapason increases. The PL peak at wavelength of 400 nm is decreased while a PL peak at wavelength of 660 nm is raised. This peak is presumably due to non-bridging oxygen hole centers or/and NPs with structure Si(core)/SiO{sub 2}(shell). HRTEM image of Zn-implanted quartz subsurface layer. One can see the Zn amorphous nanoparticles, which confirms the electron diffraction pattern (insert). (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Charge-state related effects in sputtering of LiF by swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, B. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Bender, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boduch, P. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Grande, P.L. [Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lebius, H.; Lelièvre, D. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Marmitt, G.G. [Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rothard, H. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Seidl, T.; Severin, D.; Voss, K.-O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Toulemonde, M., E-mail: toulemonde@ganil.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Sputtering experiments with swift heavy ions in the electronic energy loss regime were performed by using the catcher technique in combination with elastic recoil detection analysis. The angular distribution of particles sputtered from the surface of LiF single crystals is composed of a jet-like peak superimposed on a broad isotropic distribution. By using incident ions of fixed energy but different charges states, the influence of the electronic energy loss on both components is probed. We find indications that isotropic sputtering originates from near-surface layers, whereas the jet component may be affected by contributions from depth up to about 150 nm.

  13. Enhancement of Ammonia Sensitivity in Swift Heavy Ion Irradiated Nanocrystalline SnO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Rani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Swift heavy ion irradiation is an effective technique to induce changes in the microstructure and electronic energy levels of materials leading to significant modification of properties. Here we report enhancement of ammonia (NH3 sensitivity of SnO2 thin films subjected to high-energy Ni+ ion irradiation. Sol-gel-derived SnO2 thin films (100 nm thickness were exposed to 75 MeV Ni+ ion irradiation, and the gas response characteristics of irradiated films were studied as a function of ion fluence. The irradiated films showed p-type conductivity with a much higher response to NH3 compared to other gases such as ethanol. The observed enhancement of NH3 sensitivity is discussed in context of ion beam generated electronic states in the SnO2 thin films.

  14. Two waveguide layers in lithium niobate crystal formed by swift heavy Kr ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Huang, Qing; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Kong, Wei-Jin; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Lian; Zhou, Yu-Fan; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2015-05-01

    We report the formation of two waveguide layers in a lithium niobate crystal by irradiation with swift heavy Kr ions with high (GeV) energies and ultralow fluences. The micro-Raman spectra are measured at different depths in the irradiated layer and show that the high electronic energy loss can cause lattice damage along the ion trajectory, while the nuclear energy loss causes damage at the end of the ion track. Two waveguide layers are formed by confinement with two barriers associated with decreases in the refractive index that are caused by electronic and nuclear energy losses, respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275117, U1432120, and 11274188) and the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China.

  15. Femto-clock for the electron kinetics in swift heavy ion tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, N.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a conceptual idea for developing a technique for the monitoring of transient states of the electronic system of materials irradiated with swift heavy ions (SHIs). The method is based on spectroscopic measurements of photon emission due to radiative decay of holes from different inner shells of ionized target atoms. Since a hole in each shell of each element decays with its own characteristic time, it potentially allows the extraction of femtosecond time-resolved information about the excited electronic system in the valence and conduction band of a target. We suggest that prior ion implantation could be used for constructing a selected time grid for this technique. We also discuss the shift of the ionization potentials in atoms multiple-ionized by a direct SHI impact that should allow us to distinguish the track core within a few angstroms around the ion trajectory from the periphery of a track.

  16. Swift heavy ion induced surface and microstructural evolution in metallic glass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Hysen, E-mail: hysenthomas@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022, Kerala (India); Thomas, Senoy [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022, Kerala (India); Ramanujan, Raju V. [School of Materials Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue 639 798 (Singapore); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Al- Omari, I.A.; Al-Harthi, Salim [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khoud, Muscat (Oman); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: mraiyer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022, Kerala (India)

    2012-09-15

    Swift heavy ion induced changes in microstructure and surface morphology of vapor deposited Fe-Ni based metallic glass thin films have been investigated by using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ion beam irradiation was carried out at room temperature with 103 MeV Au{sup 9+} beam with fluences ranging from 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The atomic force microscopy images were subjected to power spectral density analysis and roughness analysis using an image analysis software. Clusters were found in the image of as-deposited samples, which indicates that the film growth is dominated by the island growth mode. As-deposited films were amorphous as evidenced from X-ray diffraction; however, high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed a short range atomic order in the samples with crystallites of size around 3 nm embedded in an amorphous matrix. X-ray diffraction pattern of the as-deposited films after irradiation does not show any appreciable changes, indicating that the passage of swift heavy ions stabilizes the short range atomic ordering, or even creates further amorphization. The crystallinity of the as-deposited Fe-Ni based films was improved by thermal annealing, and diffraction results indicated that ion beam irradiation on annealed samples results in grain fragmentation. On bombarding annealed films, the surface roughness of the films decreased initially, then, at higher fluences it increased. The observed change in surface morphology of the irradiated films is attributed to the interplay between ion induced sputtering, volume diffusion and surface diffusion.

  17. Swift heavy ion induced single event upsets in high density UV-EPROM's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahiwale, S.S. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 7 (India); Shinde, N.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Mie University (Japan); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 7 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 7 (India)], E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2008-04-15

    A few high density UV-EPROM's (32Kb x 8) were irradiated with 5.41 MeV energy {alpha}-particles with fluences from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 8} alphas/cm{sup 2} and 100 MeV nickel, iodine and silver ions for low fluences between 5 x 10{sup 7} and 10{sup 8} ions/cm{sup 2}. The energy and ion species was selected on the basis of predicted threshold values of linear energy transfer (LET) in silicon. The program which was stored in the memory found to be changed from 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 state, respectively. On the basis of changed states, the cross-sections ({sigma}) were calculated to investigate the single event effects/upsets. No upset was observed in case of {alpha}-particle since it has very low LET, but the SEU cross-section found to be more in case of Iodine i.e. 2.29 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} than that of nickel, 2.12 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} and silver, 2.26 x 10{sup -3}. This mainly attributes that LET for iodine is more as compared to silver and nickel ions, which deposits large amount of energy near the sensitive node of memory cell in the form of electron-hole pairs required to change the state. These measured SEU cross-section were also compared with theoretically predicted values along with the Weibull distribution fit to the ion induced experimental SEU data. The theoretical predicted SEU cross-section 3.27 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} found to be in good agreement with the measured SEU cross-section.

  18. Carbonization of polyimide by swift heavy ion irradiations: Effects of stopping power and velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantini, J.-M. [DMN/SRMA, CEA/SACLAY, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jean-marc.costantini@cea.fr; Salvetat, J.-P. [CRMD, CNRS, 1B rue de la Ferollerie, F-45071, Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Couvreur, F. [DMN/SEMI, CEA/SACLAY, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bouffard, S. [CIRIL, CEA-CNRS-ISMRA, rue Claude Bloch, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2005-07-01

    We have studied the carbonization of polyimide Kapton-H (pyromellitic dianhydride-oxydialinine, PMDA-ODA) thin films under heavy ion irradiations in the electronic slowing down regime. Irradiations were performed with 650-MeV Ni, 843-MeV Xe, 2.6-GeV Xe, 1.1-GeV Ta, and 707-MeV Pb ions that were transmitted through the polymer films with the electronic stopping power ranging between 3.5 and 17 keV nm{sup -1}. Room-temperature ac/dc electrical conductivity measurements, together with ESR, UV-visible optical absorption, and micro-Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the irradiated films. These new data are compared to our previous results obtained with heavy ion irradiations in the 1-MeV uma{sup -1} energy range. At the largest fluences near 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} the resulting carbonaceous material is found to be 8-9 orders of magnitude less conducting than with the slower ions. Such large dc-conductivity deviations are confirmed by the spin-lattice relaxation times deduced from the ESR line saturation measurements that are two orders of magnitude longer with the swift ions than with the slower ions. The evolution of the Raman spectra also shows that the appearance of a conjugated sp{sup 2}-bonded structure is delayed with respect to the slow ion case, and is probably incomplete in the observed fluence range. The yield of paramagnetic centers is found to decrease when the ion energy increases. This is interpreted by an ion-velocity effect on damage due to a dilution of the deposited energy in the ion tracks. We think that this also induces a smaller sp{sup 2} cluster density impeding charge transport in the carbonaceous material.

  19. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t have enough iodine to do its job, feedback systems in the body cause the thyroid to ... FDA-approved products (ThyroShield, Iosat) and on the Internet as food supplements. Potassium iodide should only be ...

  20. Characterization of radiation damage induced by swift heavy ions in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Christian

    2016-05-15

    Graphite is a classical material in neutron radiation environments, being widely used in nuclear reactors and power plants as a moderator. For high energy particle accelerators, graphite provides ideal material properties because of the low Z of carbon and its corresponding low stopping power, thus when ion projectiles interact with graphite is the energy deposition rather low. This work aims to improve the understanding of how the irradiation with swift heavy ions (SHI) of kinetic energies in the range of MeV to GeV affects the structure of graphite and other carbon-based materials. Special focus of this project is given to beam induced changes of thermo-mechanical properties. For this purpose the Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and glassy carbon (GC) (both serving as model materials), isotropic high density polycrystalline graphite (PG) and other carbon based materials like carbon fiber carbon composites (CFC), chemically expanded graphite (FG) and molybdenum carbide enhanced graphite composites (MoC) were exposed to different ions ranging from {sup 131}Xe to {sup 238}U provided by the UNILAC accelerator at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. To investigate structural changes, various in-situ and off-line measurements were performed including Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. Thermo-mechanical properties were investigated using the laser-flash-analysis method, differential scanning calorimetry, micro/nano-indentation and 4-point electrical resistivity measurements. Beam induced stresses were investigated using profilometry. Obtained results provided clear evidence that ion beam-induced radiation damage leads to structural changes and degradation of thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of graphite. PG transforms towards a disordered sp2 structure, comparable to GC at high fluences. Irradiation-induced embrittlement is strongly reducing the lifetime of most high-dose exposed accelerator components. For

  1. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olejniczak, Andrzej, E-mail: aolejnic@chem.uni.torun.pl [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Skuratov, Vladimir A. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-01

    The effect of irradiation with swift heavy ions on the structure and properties of carbon nanotubes was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. It was found that disordering of the system occurred mainly at the surface. No ordering phenomena have been observed over a whole range of both fluences and electronic stopping powers studied. The disorder parameter (i.e., the ratio of the D and G band intensities (I{sub D}/I{sub G})) increases non-linearly with the irradiation dose, showing a tendency to saturate at high fluences. The increase in the disorder parameter upon irradiation was proportional to the square root of the ion fluence. The radiation stability of the few-walled nanotubes was ca. 1.6 higher than that of the single-walled ones. The irradiation with both the Xe and Kr ions leads to essentially the same increase in the I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio with respect to the deposited electronic energy density. In the case of the Ar ion irradiation, the observed increase in the I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio is much lower, suggesting that the electronic stopping power threshold for defects creation in carbon nanotubes is lower than that for graphite.

  2. The effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on the structural properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/clay nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet, E-mail: manpreet.kaur@abesit.in [ABES Institute of Technology,Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Surinder [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Mehta, Rajeev [Department of Chemical Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala (India)

    2016-05-23

    Radiation has been used as a processing technique to modify structural, chemical, physical and morphological properties of polymers and its nanocomposite and can thus be used as a method to control the rate of degradation. The swift heavy ions (SHI) irradiation effects on the structural properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanocomposites containing 5 wt% organo-montmorillonite (OMMT) clay by irradiating with 50 MeV Li{sup 3+} and 180 MeV Ag{sup 8+} ions has been studied at different fluences. The structural responses of PLGA nanocomposite under the influence of SHI were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The presence of clay and irradiation by swift heavy ions (SHI) brings out interesting changes in structural properties of nanocomposite.

  3. Defect induced modification of structural, topographical and magnetic properties of zinc ferrite thin films by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, Lisha [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India); Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi 110067 (India); Joy, P.A. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India); Vijaykumar, B. Varma; Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: mraiyer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Zinc ferrite films exhibited room temperature ferrimagnetic property. • On ion irradiation amorphisation of films were observed. • The surface morphology undergoes changes with ion irradiation. • The saturation magnetisation decreases on ion irradiation. - Abstract: Swift heavy ion irradiation provides unique ways to modify physical and chemical properties of materials. In ferrites, the magnetic properties can change significantly as a result of swift heavy ion irradiation. Zinc ferrite is an antiferromagnet with a Neel temperature of 10 K and exhibits anomalous magnetic properties in the nano regime. Ion irradiation can cause amorphisation of zinc ferrite thin films; thus the role of crystallinity on magnetic properties can be examined. The influence of surface topography in these thin films can also be studied. Zinc ferrite thin films, of thickness 320 nm, prepared by RF sputtering were irradiated with 100 MeV Ag ions. Structural characterization showed amorphisation and subsequent reduction in particle size. The change in magnetic properties due to irradiation was correlated with structural and topographical effects of ion irradiation. A rough estimation of ion track radius is done from the magnetic studies.

  4. The effect of He and swift heavy ions on nanocrystalline zirconium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse van Vuuren, A., E-mail: arnojvv@gmail.com [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Neethling, J.H. [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Skuratov, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Uglov, V.V. [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus); Petrovich, S. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade University, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that swift heavy ion irradiation may significantly modulate hydrogen and helium behaviour in some materials. This phenomenon is of considerable practical interest for ceramics in general and also for candidate materials for use as inert matrix fuel hosts. These materials will accumulate helium via (n, α) reactions and will also be subjected to irradiation by fission fragments. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was used to study nanocrystalline ZrN irradiated with 30 keV He to fluences between 10{sup 16} and 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}, 167 MeV Xe to fluences between 5 × 10{sup 13} and 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} and also 695 MeV Bi to a fluence of 1.5 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}. He/Bi and He/Xe irradiated samples were annealed at temperatures between 600 and 1000 °C and were analysed using SEM, XTEM and selected area diffraction. The results indicated that post irradiation heat treatment induces exfoliation at a depth that corresponds to the end-of-range of 30 keV He ions. SEM and XTEM analysis of He/Xe irradiated samples revealed that electronic excitation effects, due to Xe ions, suppress helium blister formation and consequently the exfoliation processes. He/Bi samples however do not show the same effects. This suggests that nanocrystalline ZrN is prone to the formation of He blisters which may ultimately lead material failure. These effects may however be mitigated by electronic excitation effects from certain SHIs.

  5. Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals produced by swift carbon ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuechen; Dong, Ningning; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Akhmadaliev, Sh; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2012-04-23

    We report on the fabrication of ridge waveguide in Nd:GGG crystal by using swift C(5+) ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation. At room temperature continuous wave laser oscillation at wavelength of ~1063 nm has been realized through the optical pump at 808 nm with a slope efficiency of 41.8% and the pump threshold is 71.6 mW. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  6. Effect of swift-ion irradiation on DNA molecules: A molecular dynamics study using the REAX force field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottländer, Dominik [Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Biomedical Engineering, Knoxville, TN 37996-2210 (United States); Mücksch, Christian [Physics Department and Research Center OPTIMAS, University Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Urbassek, Herbert M., E-mail: urbassek@rhrk.uni-kl.de [Physics Department and Research Center OPTIMAS, University Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Modern REAX potentials allow to use molecular dynamics simulation to study bond breaking and reformation in biomolecules. We use this technique to simulate the effects of a swift-ion track on a B-DNA fragment in water. We monitor the number of single- and double-strand breaks as a function of the deposited energy. In addition we compare the results of direct DNA heating with the effect of hydrolysis which we model by heating only the water environment.

  7. Characterization of ion track morphology formed by swift heavy ion irradiation in silicon oxynitride films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota–Santiago P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy possess interesting optical and mechanical properties. Here, we present direct evidence for the formation of ion tracks in 1 µm thick silicon oxynitride of different stoichiometries. The tracks were created by irradiation with 185 MeV Au13+ ions. The samples were studied using spectral reflectometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, with the track morphology characterised by means of small angle X–ray scattering (SAXS. The radial density of the ion tracks resembles a core–shell structure with a typical radius of ~ 1.8 + 2.4 nm in the case of Si3N4 and 2.3 + 3.2 nm for SiO2.

  8. Effects of model approximations for electron, hole, and photon transport in swift heavy ion tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymzhanov, R. A.; Medvedev, N. A.; Volkov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The event-by-event Monte Carlo code, TREKIS, was recently developed to describe excitation of the electron subsystems of solids in the nanometric vicinity of a trajectory of a nonrelativistic swift heavy ion (SHI) decelerated in the electronic stopping regime. The complex dielectric function (CDF) formalism was applied in the used cross sections to account for collective response of a matter to excitation. Using this model we investigate effects of the basic assumptions on the modeled kinetics of the electronic subsystem which ultimately determine parameters of an excited material in an SHI track. In particular, (a) effects of different momentum dependencies of the CDF on scattering of projectiles on the electron subsystem are investigated. The 'effective one-band' approximation for target electrons produces good coincidence of the calculated electron mean free paths with those obtained in experiments in metals. (b) Effects of collective response of a lattice appeared to dominate in randomization of electron motion. We study how sensitive these effects are to the target temperature. We also compare results of applications of different model forms of (quasi-) elastic cross sections in simulations of the ion track kinetics, e.g. those calculated taking into account optical phonons in the CDF form vs. Mott's atomic cross sections. (c) It is demonstrated that the kinetics of valence holes significantly affects redistribution of the excess electronic energy in the vicinity of an SHI trajectory as well as its conversion into lattice excitation in dielectrics and semiconductors. (d) It is also shown that induced transport of photons originated from radiative decay of core holes brings the excess energy faster and farther away from the track core, however, the amount of this energy is relatively small.

  9. Total iodine quantification in fluids and tissues from iodine- or iodide-supplemented rats by ion chromatography following microwave-assisted digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Guadalupe; Muñoz-Torres, Carolina; Orozco-Esquivel, Teresa; Anguiano, Brenda; Aceves, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Iodine is a crucial component of thyroid hormones, and several reports have shown that iodine per se is implicated in the physiopathology of other organs. Innovative ion chromatography detection following a four-step temperature ramp microwave digestion in 25-50 mM nitric acid was developed to measure total iodine in biological fluids and tissue samples from female Sprague-Dawley rats supplemented with 0.05% molecular iodine (I2) or 0.05% potassium iodide (I(-)) in drinking water. The reported method allows the measurement of total iodine with a limit of quantification of 13.7 μg L(-1), recoveries of 96.3-100.3%, and intra- and inter-assay variations, of 3.5% and 7.4% respectively. Analysis of biological fluids showed that after 48 hours, iodine-supplemented animals exhibited significantly higher levels of total iodine in both serum and urine compared with those supplemented with iodide. The half-life of iodine in serum and urine measured over the first 48 h showed similar patterns for both the I2 (7.89 and 7.76 hours) and I(-) (8.27 and 8.90 hours) supplements. Differential uptake patterns were observed in tissues after 6 days of supplements, with I(-) preferentially retained by thyroid, lactating mammary gland, and milk, and a slightly but significantly higher capture of I2 in pituitary, ovary, and virgin mammary gland. We developed a rapid, selective, and accurate digestion method to process fluid and tissue samples that permits reproducible measurements of total iodine by ion chromatography; iodine or iodide supplement show a similar serum and urine half-life, but organ-specific uptake depends on the chemical form of the iodine supplement.

  10. Diffusion kinetics of the glucose/glucose oxidase system in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Dietmar, E-mail: fink@xanum.uam.mx [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, DF (Mexico); Vacik, Jiri; Hnatowicz, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Muñoz Hernandez, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, DF (Mexico); Garcia Arrelano, H. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Lerma, Av. de las Garzas No. 10, Col. El Panteón, Lerma de Villada, Municipio de Lerma, Estado de México CP 52005 (Mexico); Alfonta, Lital [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kiv, Arik [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Application of swift heavy ion tracks in biosensing. • Obtaining yet unknown diffusion coefficients of organic matter across etched ion tracks. • Obtaining diffusion coefficients of organics in etched ion tracks of biosensors. • Comparison with Renkin’s equation to predict the effective etched track diameter in the given experiments. - Abstract: For understanding of the diffusion kinetics and their optimization in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors, recently a diffusion simulation was performed. This simulation aimed at yielding the degree of enrichment of the enzymatic reaction products in the highly confined space of the etched ion tracks. A bunch of curves was obtained for the description of such sensors that depend only on the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of the products to that of the analyte within the tracks. As hitherto none of these two diffusion coefficients is accurately known, the present work was undertaken. The results of this paper allow one to quantify the previous simulation and hence yield realistic predictions of glucose-based biosensors. At this occasion, also the influence of the etched track radius on the diffusion coefficients was measured and compared with earlier prediction.

  11. Kinetics of amorphization induced by swift heavy ions in {alpha}-quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Rodriguez, O., E-mail: ovidio.pena@uam.es [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (CMAM-UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Optica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (IO-CSIC), C/Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Manzano-Santamaria, J. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (CMAM-UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Euratom/CIEMAT Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain); Rivera, A. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G. [Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (CELLS-ALBA), 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Olivares, J. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (CMAM-UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Optica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (IO-CSIC), C/Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Agullo-Lopez, F. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (CMAM-UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    The kinetics of amorphization in crystalline SiO{sub 2} ({alpha}-quartz) under irradiation with swift heavy ions (O{sup +1} at 4 MeV, O{sup +4} at 13 MeV, F{sup +2} at 5 MeV, F{sup +4} at 15 MeV, Cl{sup +3} at 10 MeV, Cl{sup +4} at 20 MeV, Br{sup +5} at 15 and 25 MeV and Br{sup +8} at 40 MeV) has been analyzed in this work with an Avrami-type law and also with a recently developed cumulative approach (track-overlap model). This latter model assumes a track morphology consisting of an amorphous core (area {sigma}) and a surrounding defective halo (area h), both being axially symmetric. The parameters of the two approaches which provide the best fit to the experimental data have been obtained as a function of the electronic stopping power S{sub e}. The extrapolation of the {sigma}(S{sub e}) dependence yields a threshold value for amorphization, S{sub th} Almost-Equal-To 2.1 keV/nm; a second threshold is also observed around 4.1 keV/nm. We believe that this double-threshold effect could be related to the appearance of discontinuous tracks in the region between 2.1 and 4.1 keV/nm. For stopping power values around or below the lower threshold, where the ratio h/{sigma} is large, the track-overlap model provides a much better fit than the Avrami function. Therefore, the data show that a right modeling of the amorphization kinetics needs to take into account the contribution of the defective track halo. Finally, a short comparative discussion with the kinetic laws obtained for elastic collision damage is given.

  12. Recrystallization effects of swift heavy {sup 209}Bi ions irradiation on electrical degradation in 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhimei; Ma, Yao; Gong, Min [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Yun [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Huang, Mingmin [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Gao, Bo [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhao, Xin, E-mail: zhaoxin1234@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, the phenomenon that the recrystallization effects of swift heavy {sup 209}Bi ions irradiation can partially recovery damage with more than 1 × 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2} is investigated by the degradation of the electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode (SBD) with swift heavy ion irradiation. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Current-Voltage (I-V) measurements clearly indicated that E{sub 0.62} defect induced by swift heavy ion irradiation, which was a recombination center, could result in the increase of reverse leakage current (I{sub R}) at fluence less than 1 × 10{sup 9} ions/cm{sup 2} and the recovery of I{sub R} at fluence more than 1 × 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2} in 4H-SiC SBD. The variation tendency of I{sub R} is consisted with the change of E{sub 0.62} defect. Furthermore, it is reasonable explanation that the damage or defect formed at low fluence in SiC may be recovered by further swift heavy ion irradiation with high fluence, which is due to the melting with the ion tracks of the amorphous zones through a thermal spike and subsequent epitaxial recrystallization initiated from the neighboring crystalline regions.

  13. Online in situ x-ray diffraction setup for structural modification studies during swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, C.; Lebius, H.; Bouffard, S.; Quentin, A.; Ramillon, J. M.; Madi, T.; Guillous, S.; Been, T.; Guinement, P.; Lelievre, D.; Monnet, I. [CIMAP, CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN, BP 5133, 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2012-01-15

    The high energy density of electronic excitations due to the impact of swift heavy ions can induce structural modifications in materials. We present an x-ray diffractometer called ALIX (''Analyse en Ligne sur IRRSUD par diffraction de rayons X''), which has been set up at the low-energy beamline (IRRadiation SUD - IRRSUD) of the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds facility, to allow the study of structural modification kinetics as a function of the ion fluence. The x-ray setup has been modified and optimized to enable irradiation by swift heavy ions simultaneously to x-ray pattern recording. We present the capability of ALIX to perform simultaneous irradiation-diffraction by using energy discrimination between x-rays from diffraction and from ion-target interaction. To illustrate its potential, results of sequential or simultaneous irradiation-diffraction are presented in this article to show radiation effects on the structural properties of ceramics. Phase transition kinetics have been studied during xenon ion irradiation of polycrystalline MgO and SrTiO{sub 3}. We have observed that MgO oxide is radiation-resistant to high electronic excitations, contrary to the high sensitivity of SrTiO{sub 3}, which exhibits transition from the crystalline to the amorphous state during irradiation. By interpreting the amorphization kinetics of SrTiO{sub 3}, defect overlapping models are discussed as well as latent track characteristics. Together with a transmission electron microscopy study, we conclude that a single impact model describes the phase transition mechanism.

  14. Swift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Cecil

    2015-01-01

    If you are an experienced Objective-C programmer and are looking for quick solutions to many different coding tasks in Swift, then this book is for you. You are expected to have development experience, though not necessarily with Swift.

  15. Non-triiodide based autoinhibition by iodide ion in the trithionate-iodine reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseko, György; Horváth, Attila K

    2010-06-17

    The trithionate-iodine reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically in a slightly acidic medium at 25.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C in acetate/acetic acid buffer monitoring the absorbance at 468 nm at the isosbestic point of the iodine-triiodide ion system in the absence and presence of initially added iodide ion at I = 0.5 M ionic strength adjusted by sodium perchlorate. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be S(3)O(6)(2-) + 4I(2) + 6H(2)O --> 3SO(4)(2-) + 8I(-) + 12H(+). It is also shown that the consumption of iodine is inhibited by iodide ion, but it cannot be simply explained via the fast equilibrium formation of triiodide ion. A five-step kinetic model with four fitted and fixed kinetic parameters is proposed and discussed in detail, on the basis of which all the most important characteristics of the measured kinetic curves are adequately explained.

  16. Selective binding of oligonucleotide on TiO{sub 2} surfaces modified by swift heavy ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente Pérez-Girón, J. [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Emerging Viruses Department Heinrich Pette Institute, Hamburg 20251 (Germany); Hirtz, M. [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); McAtamney, C.; Bell, A.P. [Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Antonio Mas, J. [Laboratorio de Genómica del Centro de Apoyo Tecnológico, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Campus de Alcorcón 28922, Madrid (Spain); Jaafar, M. [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Luis, O. de [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica, Fisiología y Genética Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Campus de Alcorcón, 28922 Madrid (Spain); Fuchs, H. [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Physical Institute and Center for Nanotechnology (CeNTech), Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 10, University of Münster (Germany); and others

    2014-11-15

    We have used swift heavy-ion beam based lithography to create patterned bio-functional surfaces on rutile TiO{sub 2} single crystals. The applied lithography method generates a permanent and well defined periodic structure of micrometre sized square holes having nanostructured TiO{sub 2} surfaces, presenting different physical and chemical properties compared to the surrounding rutile single crystal surface. On the patterned substrates selective binding of oligonucleotides molecules is possible at the surfaces of the holes. This immobilisation process is only being controlled by UV light exposure. The patterned transparent substrates are compatible with fluorescence detection techniques, are mechanically robust, have a high tolerance to extreme chemical and temperature environments, and apparently do not degrade after ten cycles of use. These qualities make the patterned TiO{sub 2} substrates useful for potential biosensor applications.

  17. Stability of Y-Ti-O nanoparticles in ODS alloys during heat treatment and high temperature swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratov, V.A. [FLNR, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, Dubna (Russian Federation); Sohatsky, A.S.; Kornieieva, K. [FLNR, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); O' Connell, J.H.; Neethling, J.H. [CHRTEM, NMMU, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Nikitina, A.A.; Ageev, V.S. [JSC VNIINM, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zdorovets, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Volkov, A.D. [Nazarbayev University, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2016-12-15

    Aim of this report is to compare the morphology of swift (167 and 220 MeV) Xe ion induced latent tracks in Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles during post-irradiation heat treatment and after irradiation at different temperatures in pre-thinned TEM foils and TEM targets prepared from hundreds microns thick irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel. No difference in track parameters was found in room temperature irradiated nanoparticles in pre-thinned and conventional samples. Microstructural data gathered from pre-thinned foils irradiated in the temperature range 350-650 C or annealed at similar temperatures demonstrate that amorphous latent tracks interact with the surrounding matrix, changing the track and nanoparticle morphology, while such effect is not observed in conventional ODS material treated at the same conditions. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. [Determination of iodine and its species in plant samples using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Chen, Guang; Chen, Yuhong

    2011-07-01

    A method was established for the determination of iodine and its species in plant samples using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP/ MS). Alkaline extraction and IC-ICP/MS were applied as the sample pre-treatment method and the detection technique respectively, for iodate and iodide determination. Moreover, high-temperature pyrolysis absorption was adopted as the pre-treatment method for total iodine analysis, which finally converted all the iodine species into iodide and measured the iodide by IC-ICP/MS. The recoveries of iodine for alkaline extraction and high-temperature pyrolysis absorption were 89.6%-97.5% and 95.2%-111.2%, respectively. The results were satisfactory. The detection limit of iodine was 0.010 mg/kg. The iodine and its speciation contents in several kinds of plant samples such as seaweeds, kelp, cabbage, tea leaf and spinach were investigated. It was shown that the iodine in seaweeds mainly existed as organic iodine; while the ones in kelp, cabbage, tea leaf and spinach mainly existed as inorganic iodine.

  19. Development of dual-beam system using an electrostatic accelerator for in-situ observation of swift heavy ion irradiation effects on materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M., E-mail: matsuda.makoto@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA-Tokai), Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Asozu, T.; Sataka, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA-Tokai), Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Iwase, A. [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    We have developed the dual beam system which accelerates two kinds of ion beams simultaneously especially for real-time ion beam analysis. We have also developed the alternating beam system which can efficiently change beam species in a short time in order to realize efficient ion beam analysis in a limited beam time. The acceleration of the dual beam is performed by the 20 UR Pelletron™ tandem accelerator in which an ECR ion source is mounted at the high voltage terminal [1,2]. The multi-charged ions of two or more elements can be simultaneously generated from the ECR ion source, so dual-beam irradiation is achieved by accelerating ions with the same charge to mass ratio (for example, {sup 132}Xe{sup 11+} and {sup 12}C{sup +}). It enables us to make a real-time beam analysis such as Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) method, while a target is irradiated with swift heavy ions. For the quick change of the accelerating ion beam, the program of automatic setting of the optical parameter of the accelerator has been developed. The switchover time for changing the ion beam is about 5 min. These developments have been applied to the study on the ion beam mixing caused by high-density electronic excitation induced by swift heavy ions.

  20. Development of dual-beam system using an electrostatic accelerator for in-situ observation of swift heavy ion irradiation effects on materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M.; Asozu, T.; Sataka, M.; Iwase, A.

    2013-11-01

    We have developed the dual beam system which accelerates two kinds of ion beams simultaneously especially for real-time ion beam analysis. We have also developed the alternating beam system which can efficiently change beam species in a short time in order to realize efficient ion beam analysis in a limited beam time. The acceleration of the dual beam is performed by the 20 UR Pelletron™ tandem accelerator in which an ECR ion source is mounted at the high voltage terminal [1,2]. The multi-charged ions of two or more elements can be simultaneously generated from the ECR ion source, so dual-beam irradiation is achieved by accelerating ions with the same charge to mass ratio (for example, 132Xe11+ and 12C+). It enables us to make a real-time beam analysis such as Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) method, while a target is irradiated with swift heavy ions. For the quick change of the accelerating ion beam, the program of automatic setting of the optical parameter of the accelerator has been developed. The switchover time for changing the ion beam is about 5 min. These developments have been applied to the study on the ion beam mixing caused by high-density electronic excitation induced by swift heavy ions.

  1. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced phase transformation in undoped and niobium doped titanium dioxide composite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Subodh K., E-mail: subodhkgtm@gmail.com [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Chettah, Abdelhak [LGMM Laboratory, Université 20 Août 1955-Skikda, BP 26, 21000 Skikda (Algeria); Singh, R.G. [Department of Physics, Bhagini Nivedita College, Delhi University, Delhi 110043 (India); Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Study reports the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation induced phase transformation in undoped and Niobium doped anatase TiO{sub 2} composite thin films. Investigations were carried out at different densities of electronic excitations (EEs) using 120 MeV Ag and 130 MeV Ni ions irradiations. Films were initially annealed at 900 °C and results revealed that undoped films were highly stable in anatase phase, while the Nb doped films showed the composite nature with the weak presence of Niobium penta-oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) phase. The effect at low density of EEs in undoped film show partial anatase to rutile phase transformation; however doped film shows only further growth of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase beside the anatase to rutile phase transformation. At higher density of EEs induced by Ag ions, registered continuous ion track of ∼3 nm in lattice which leads to nano-crystallization followed by decomposition/amorphization of rutile TiO{sub 2} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} phases in undoped and doped films, respectively. However, Ni ions are only induced discontinuous sequence of ion tracks with creation of damage and disorder and do not show amorphization in the lattice. The in-elastic thermal spike calculations were carried out for anatase TiO{sub 2} phase to understand the effect of EEs on anatase to rutile phase transformation followed by amorphization in NTO films in terms of continuous and discontinuous track formation by SHI irradiation.

  2. Swift heavy ion-irradiation effects on microstructure, surface morphology and optical properties of PbS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, Ananta; Kalita, M. P. C.; Singh, F.; Sarma, K. C.; Sarma, B. K.

    2016-05-01

    Chemically deposited PbS nanocrystalline thin films are irradiated by 100 MeV Si8+ swift heavy ions of fluences 1 × 1011, 1 × 1012 and 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. Detailed investigation on the effects of irradiation on microstructure is carried out by X-ray diffraction line profile analysis applying Williamson-Hall and modified Williamson-Hall methods, and transmission electron microscope observation, while atomic force microscope is used for studying the modifications in surface morphology. The band gaps are obtained from electronic absorption spectroscopy measurements, and photoluminescence spectra are recorded by spectrofluorometer. The pristine and irradiated films are polycrystalline in nature with spherical crystallites having face-centered cubic phase. The crystallite size of the pristine film is 20 nm, while films irradiated with ion fluences 1 × 1011, 1 × 1012 and 1 × 1013 ions/cm2 are 21, 20 and 20 nm, respectively. The lattice strain (dislocation density) of the pristine film is 8.9 × 10-3 (6.6 × 1016 m-2), while films irradiated with ion fluences 1 × 1011, 1 × 1012 and 1 × 1013 ions/cm2 are 8.6 × 10-3 (6.1 × 1016 m-2), 8.7 × 10-3 (6.4 × 1016 m-2) and 9.1 × 10-3 (7.0 × 1016 m-2), respectively. The dislocations present in both the pristine and irradiated films are edge in nature. The surface morphology changes significantly with elongation of the particles, increase in particle size and interparticle separation and slight decrease in rms roughness after irradiation. The band gap of the pristine film is 2.51 eV which remains unaltered after irradiation. Photoluminescence intensity increases significantly after irradiation which can be useful in enhancing the performance of different photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes, lasers and luminescence-based sensors.

  3. The near-infrared waveguide properties of an LGS crystal formed by swift Kr{sup 8+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yu-Fan; Liu, Peng; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Lian [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials and Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation (MOE), Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Sun, Jian-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Guang [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Xue-Lin, E-mail: xuelinwang@sdu.edu.cn [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials and Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation (MOE), Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we report on the optical properties in the near-infrared region of a LGS crystal planar waveguide formed by swift heavy ion irradiation. The planar optical waveguide in a LGS crystal was fabricated by 330 MeV Kr{sup 8+}-ion implantation at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. The initial beam had an energy of 2.1 GeV and was slowed down by passing it through a 259 μm thick Al foil. The guided mode was measured using a prism coupler at a wavelength of 1539 nm. The near-field intensity distribution of the mode was recorded by a CCD camera using the end-face coupling method. The FD-BPM was used to simulate the guided mode profile. The lattice damage induced by SHI irradiation in the LGS crystal was studied using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are consistent with the stopping power distributions of the Kr{sup 8+} ions simulated by SRIM and with the micro-photograph of the waveguide taken by a microscope using polarized light.

  4. Optical behaviour of swift heavy ions irradiated poly(vinyl alcohol) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kalpana; Pal Chahal, Rishi; Mahendia, Suman; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol films were irradiated to 90 MeV O 6+ and 150 MeV Si 14+ ions at fluence ranging from 1010 to 1012 ions/cm2. The observed changes in optical energy gap of this polymer have been investigated and results are tried to be explained in terms of energy transferred by the incident ions. It has been noticed that the value of optical energy gap decreases with increasing energy loss during the ion-polymer interaction process.

  5. Swift heavy ion track formation in SrTiO3 and TiO2 under random, channeling and near-channeling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlušić, M.; Jakšić, M.; Lebius, H.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Heller, R.; Schleberger, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conditions for ion track formation in single crystal SrTiO3 and TiO2 (rutile) after irradiations using swift heavy ion beams with specific energies below 1 MeV/amu were investigated in this work. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy in channeling was used to measure ion tracks in the bulk, while atomic force microscopy was used for observation of ion tracks on the surfaces. Variations in the ion track sizes and respective thresholds were observed after irradiations under random, channeling and near-channeling conditions close to normal incidence. These variations are attributed to the specifics of the electronic stopping power of swift heavy ions under the investigated conditions. In the case of ion channeling, electronic stopping power is reduced and observed ion tracks are smaller. The opposite was found under the near-channeling conditions when lowering of the ion track formation threshold was observed. We attribute this finding to the oscillating electronic stopping power with large peak values. For both materials, thresholds for bulk and surface ion track formation were found to be surprisingly close, around 10 keV nm-1. Obtained results are compared with predictions of the analytical thermal spike model.

  6. Nano-porosity in GaSb induced by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluth, P., E-mail: patrick.kluth@anu.edu.au; Schnohr, C. S.; Giulian, R.; Araujo, L. L.; Lei, W.; Rodriguez, M. D.; Afra, B.; Bierschenk, T.; Ridgway, M. C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Sullivan, J.; Weed, R. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, AMPL, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Li, W.; Ewing, R. C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1005 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    Nano-porous structures form in GaSb after ion irradiation with 185 MeV Au ions. The porous layer formation is governed by the dominant electronic energy loss at this energy regime. The porous layer morphology differs significantly from that previously reported for low-energy, ion-irradiated GaSb. Prior to the onset of porosity, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy indicates the formation of small vacancy clusters in single ion impacts, while transmission electron microscopy reveals fragmentation of the GaSb into nanocrystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix. Following this fragmentation process, macroscopic porosity forms, presumably within the amorphous phase.

  7. Influence of electronic energy deposition on the structural modification of swift heavy-ion-irradiated amorphous germanium layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, T.; Schnohr, C. S.; Kluth, P.; Giulian, R.; Araujo, L. L.; Sprouster, D. J.; Ridgway, M. C.; Wesch, W.

    2011-02-01

    Swift heavy-ion (SHI) irradiation of amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers leads to a strong volume expansion accompanied by a nonsaturating irreversible plastic deformation (ion hammering), which are consequences of the high local electronic energy deposition within the region of the a-Ge layer. We present a detailed study of the influence of SHI irradiation parameters on the effect of plastic deformation and structural modification. Specially prepared a-Ge layers were irradiated using two SHI energies and different angles of incidence, thus resulting in a variation of the electronic energy deposition per depth ɛe between 14.0 and 38.6 keV nm-1. For all irradiation parameters used a strong swelling of the irradiated material was observed, which is caused by the formation and growth of randomly distributed voids, leading to a gradual transformation of the amorphous layer into a sponge-like porous structure as established by cross-section scanning electron microscopy investigations. The swelling depends linearly on the ion fluence and on the value of ɛe, thus clearly demonstrating that the structural changes are determined solely by the electronic energy deposited within the amorphous layer. Plastic deformation shows a superlinear dependence on the ion fluence due to the simultaneous volume expansion. This influence of structural modification on plastic deformation is described by a simple approach, thus allowing estimation of the deformation yield. With these results the threshold values of the electronic energy deposition for the onset of both structural modification and plastic deformation due to SHI irradiation are determined. Furthermore, based on these results, the longstanding question concerning the reason for the structural modification observed in SHI-irradiated crystalline Ge is answered.

  8. Transformation of multi walled carbon nanotubes irradiated by swift heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishalli; Avasthi, D. K.; Srivastava, Alok; Dharamvir, Keya

    2017-09-01

    The radiation stability of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) buckypaper (BP) has been studied under extreme conditions. Samples of thick mat of MWCNT, called buckypaper, have been prepared by vacuum filtration method and were irradiated by 120 MeV Au ions with fluences ranging from 3 × 1011 ions/cm2 to 5 × 1013 ions/cm2. The samples were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface imaging studies indicate the decrease in the average diameter of nanotubes under ion irradiation due to the sputtering of atoms from the CNT surface. Raman studies demonstrate initial healing at lower fluence, defect production at higher fluences and amorphization at highest fluence.

  9. Effects of O{sup 7+} swift heavy ion irradiation on indium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokulakrishnan, V. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Parthiban, S. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); CENIMAT-I3N and CEMOP-UNINOVA, Materials Science Department, FCT-UNL, Caparica Campus, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Elangovan, E. [CENIMAT-I3N and CEMOP-UNINOVA, Materials Science Department, FCT-UNL, Caparica Campus, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ramamurthi, K., E-mail: krmurthin@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Jeganathan, K. [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Martins, R.; Fortunato, E. [CENIMAT-I3N and CEMOP-UNINOVA, Materials Science Department, FCT-UNL, Caparica Campus, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The structural, morphology and electrical properties of indium oxide thin films. {yields} From the XRD, the ion irradiation has changed the preferred orientation from (2 2 2) to (4 0 0). {yields} RMS roughness is significantly reduced to 10 nm for an ion fluency of 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. {yields} The mobility of ion irradiated films (1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) is decreased from 76.6 to 43 cm{sup 2}/V s. {yields} The average transmittance (400-2500 nm) of the as-deposited IO film is decreased from 81% to 72% after SHI irradiation. - Abstract: Indium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis were irradiated by 100 MeV O{sup 7+} ions with different fluences of 5 x 10{sup 11}, 1 x 10{sup 12} and 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the structure of indium oxide with cubic bixbyite. The strongest (2 2 2) orientation observed from the as-deposited films was shifted to (4 0 0) after irradiation. Furthermore, the intensity of the (4 0 0) orientation was decreased with increasing fluence together with an increase in (2 2 2) intensity. Films irradiated with maximum fluence exhibited an amorphous component. The mobility of the as-deposited indium oxide films was decreased from {approx}78.9 to 43.0 cm{sup 2}/V s, following irradiation. Films irradiated with a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} showed a better combination of electrical properties, with a resistivity of 4.57 x 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm, carrier concentration of 2.2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and mobility of 61.0 cm{sup 2}/V s. The average transmittance obtained from the as-deposited films decreased from {approx}81% to 72%, when irradiated with a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}. The surface microstructures confirmed that the irregularly shaped grains seen on the surface of the as-deposited films is modified as 'radish-like' morphology when irradiated with a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}.

  10. Mass spectrometric comparison of swift heavy ion-induced and anaerobic thermal degradation of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, V.; Hossain, U. H.; Walbert, T.; Seidl, T.; Ensinger, W.

    2018-03-01

    The study of polymers irradiated by highly energetic ions and the resulting radiation-induced degradation is of major importance for space and particle accelerator applications. The mechanism of ion-induced molecular fragmentation of polyethylene, polyethyleneimine and polyamide was investigated by means of mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the introduction of nitrogen and oxygen into the polymer influences the stability rendering aliphatic polymers with heteroatoms less stable. A comparison to thermal decomposition data from literature reveals that ion-induced degradation is different in its bond fracture mechanism. While thermal degradation starts at the weakest bond, which is usually the carbon-heteroatom bond, energetic ion irradiation leads in the first step to scission of all types of bonds creating smaller molecular fragments. This is due to the localized extreme energy input under non-equilibrium conditions when the ions transfer kinetic energy onto electrons. These findings are of relevance for the choice of polymers for long-term application in both space and accelerator facilities.

  11. Flight Development of Iodine BIT-3 RF Ion Propulsion System for SLS EM-1 CubeSats

    OpenAIRE

    Tsay, Michael; Frongillo, John; Model, Joshua; Zwahlen, Jurg; Malphrus, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Busek previously developed a 3cm RF ion thruster known as BIT-3 that was the world's first iodinefueled gridded ion thruster. The 60W prototype thruster completed a 500-hour endurance test on iodine and was shown capable of delivering 1.3mN thrust and 3200sec Isp nominally, excluding neutralizer flow. This exceptional performance, combined with the many benefits of iodine propellant, has led to a number of CubeSat flight opportunities on NASA's SLS EM-1 mission. The first confirmed EM-1 missi...

  12. Novel molecular-level evidence of iodine binding to natural organic matter from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen, E-mail: xuchen66@tamu.edu [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Chen, Hongmei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Sugiyama, Yuko [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); University of Hyogo, 1-1-12, Shinzaike-honcho, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0092 (Japan); Zhang, Saijin; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Chuang, Chia-ying; Schwehr, Kathleen A. [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Yeager, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Roberts, Kimberly A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Hatcher, Patrick G. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Santschi, Peter H. [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Major fractions of radioiodine ({sup 129}I) are associated with natural organic matter (NOM) in the groundwater and surface soils of the Savannah River Site (SRS). Electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) was applied to elucidate the interactions between inorganic iodine species (iodide and iodate) and a fulvic acid (FA) extracted from a SRS surface soil. Iodate is likely reduced to reactive iodine species by the lignin- and tannin-like compounds or the carboxylic-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), during which condensed aromatics and lignin-like compounds were generated. Iodide is catalytically oxidized into reactive iodine species by peroxides, while FA is oxidized by peroxides into more aliphatic and less aromatic compounds. Only 9% of the total identified organo-iodine compounds derived from molecules originally present in the FA, whereas most were iodine binding to newly-produced compounds. The resulting iodinated molecules were distributed in three regions in the van Krevelen diagrams, denoting unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignin and protein. Moreover, characteristics of these organo-iodine compounds, such as their relatively low O/C ratios (< 0.2 or < 0.4) and yet some degree of un-saturation close to that of lignin, have multiple important environmental implications concerning possibly less sterically-hindered aromatic ring system for iodine to get access to and a lower hydrophilicity of the molecules thus to retard their migration in the natural aquatic systems. Lastly, ∼ 69% of the identified organo-iodine species contains nitrogen, which is presumably present as -NH{sub 2} or -HNCOR groups and a ring-activating functionality to favor the electrophilic substitution. The ESI-FTICR-MS technique provides novel evidence to better understand the reactivity and scavenging properties of NOM towards radioiodine and possible influence of NOM on {sup 129}I migration. Highlights: ► IO{sub 3}{sup

  13. Transition metal swift heavy ion implantation on 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. Ashraf; Kumar, J. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Ramakrishnan, V. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvanthapuram (India); Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on the realization of Quantum Ring (QR) and Quantum Dot (QD) like structures on 4H-SiC through SHI implantation and on their Raman studies. 4H-SiC is SHI implanted with Transition Metal (TM) Ni ion at different fluences. It is observed that a vibrational mode emerges as the result of Ni ion implantation. The E{sub 2} (TO) and the A{sub 1} (LO) are suppressed as the fluence increases. In this paper Raman and AFM studies have been performed at room temperature and the queer anomalies are addressed so new devices can be fabricated.

  14. Cumulative approaches to track formation under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation: Phenomenological correlation with formation energies of Frenkel pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespillo, M.L., E-mail: mcrespil@utk.edu [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Agulló-López, F., E-mail: fal@uam.es [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Extensive survey formation energies Frenkel pairs and electronic stopping thresholds. • Correlation: track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation. • Formation energies Frenkel pairs discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms. • Amorphous track formation mechanisms: defect accumulation models versus melting. • Advantages cumulative models to deal with new hot topics: nuclear-electronic synergy. - Abstract: An extensive survey for the formation energies of Frenkel pairs, as representative candidates for radiation-induced point defects, is presented and discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms (CM) of track formation in dielectric materials under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. These mechanisms rely on the generation and accumulation of point defects during irradiation followed by collapse of the lattice once a threshold defect concentration is reached. The physical basis of those approaches has been discussed by Fecht as a defect-assisted transition to an amorphous phase. Although a first quantitative analysis of the CM model was previously performed for LiNbO{sub 3} crystals, we have, here, adopted a broader phenomenological approach. It explores the correlation between track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation for a broad range of materials. It is concluded that the threshold stopping powers can be roughly scaled with the energies required to generate a critical Frenkel pair concentration in the order of a few percent of the total atomic content. Finally, a comparison with the predictions of the thermal spike model is discussed within the analytical Szenes approximation.

  15. Cumulative approaches to track formation under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation: Phenomenological correlation with formation energies of Frenkel pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespillo, M. L.; Agulló-López, F.; Zucchiatti, A.

    2017-03-01

    An extensive survey for the formation energies of Frenkel pairs, as representative candidates for radiation-induced point defects, is presented and discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms (CM) of track formation in dielectric materials under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. These mechanisms rely on the generation and accumulation of point defects during irradiation followed by collapse of the lattice once a threshold defect concentration is reached. The physical basis of those approaches has been discussed by Fecht as a defect-assisted transition to an amorphous phase. Although a first quantitative analysis of the CM model was previously performed for LiNbO3 crystals, we have, here, adopted a broader phenomenological approach. It explores the correlation between track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation for a broad range of materials. It is concluded that the threshold stopping powers can be roughly scaled with the energies required to generate a critical Frenkel pair concentration in the order of a few percent of the total atomic content. Finally, a comparison with the predictions of the thermal spike model is discussed within the analytical Szenes approximation.

  16. Preparation of Al–Sb semiconductor by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    results in material modifications like structural changes, plastic deformation, or alteration at the phase composition. The observation of ion tracks in quartz and other insulators as well as the damage observed in semiconductors and metals indicate that a vivid motion of atoms must have taken place in a small cylinder along ...

  17. Swift heavy ion irradiation effect on Cu-doped CdS nanocrystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    of bonds due to bond cleavage and reconstruction. The effect of SHI irradiation on the surface roughness has also been investigated and it is observed that the surface roughness increases after irradiation. Acknowledgements. The authors are thankful to IUAC, New Delhi, for provid- ing ion irradiation facility to carry out this ...

  18. Modification of Fe-B based metallic glasses using swift heavy ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirby N.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS measurements of amorphous Fe80B20, Fe85B15, Fe81B13.5Si3.5C2, and Fe40Ni40B20 metallic alloys irradiated with 11.1 MeV/u 132Xe, 152Sm, 197Au, and 8.2 MeV/u 238U ions. SAXS experiments are nondestructive and give evidence for ion track formation including quantitative information about the size of the track radius. The measurements also indicate a cylindrical track structure with a sharp transition to the undamaged surrounding matrix material. Results are compared with calculations using an inelastic thermal spike model to deduce the critical energy loss for the track formation threshold. The damage recovery of ion tracks produced in Fe80B20 by 11.1 MeV/u 197Au ions was studied by means of isochronal annealing yielding an activation energy of 0.4 ± 0.1 eV

  19. Amorphization of Ta2O5 under swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Alex B.; Lang, Maik; Zhang, Fuxiang; Sun, Kai; Li, Weixing; Kluth, Patrick; Trautmann, Christina; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2017-09-01

    Crystalline Ta2O5 powder is shown to amorphize under 2.2 GeV 197Au ion irradiation. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structural transition from crystalline to fully-amorphous. Based on Rietveld refinement of XRD data, the initial structure is orthorhombic (P2mm) with a very large unit cell (a = 6.20, b = 40.29, c = 3.89 Å; V = 971.7 Å3), ideally containing 22 Ta and 55 O atoms. At a fluence of approximately 3 × 1011 ions/cm2, a diffuse amorphous background becomes evident, increasing in intensity relative to diffraction maxima until full amorphization is achieved at approximately 3 × 1012 ions/cm2. An anisotropic distortion of the orthorhombic structure occurred during the amorphization process, with an approximately constant unit cell volume. The amorphous phase fraction as a function of fluence was determined, yielding a trend that is consistent with a direct-impact model for amorphization. SAXS and TEM data indicate that ion tracks exhibit a core-shell morphology. Raman data show that the amorphous phase is comprised of TaO6 and TaO5 coordination-polyhedra in contrast to the TaO6 and TaO7 units that exist in crystalline Ta2O5. Analysis of Raman data shows that oxygen-deficiency increases with fluence, indicating a loss of oxygen that leads to an estimated final stoichiometry of Ta2O4.2 at a fluence of 1 × 1013 ions/cm2.

  20. Swift heavy ion irradiation of MgB{sub 2} thin films: a comparison between gold and silver ion irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Himanshu [Superconductivity Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Bhatt, Ravindra K [Department of Physics, G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145 (India); Agrawal, H M [Department of Physics, G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145 (India); Kushwaha, R P S [Department of Physics, G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145 (India); Kishan, H [Superconductivity Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2007-04-04

    The effect of 200 MeV Au ion irradiation on the temperature and field dependence of the critical current density, J{sub c}, of MgB{sub 2} thin films on sapphire substrates is reported. The results have been presented in comparison with those obtained after 200 MeV Ag ion irradiation of a similar film. After irradiation, the critical temperature T{sub c} decreased for all samples except for the one with a higher dose of gold ions, where it increased marginally. This observation was also confirmed from measurements of magnetization as a function of temperature with a constant applied field of 10{sup -2} T. The critical current density, J{sub c}, was estimated from the widths of magnetization loops using Bean's critical state model. It has been found that J{sub c} increases after irradiation, the enhancement being more pronounced for the Au ion irradiation. The higher enhancement of J{sub c} by Au ion irradiation may be attributed to higher flux-pinning efficiency of the irradiated samples. It has been concluded that, although the flux-line shear (FLS) model satisfactorily explains the silver ion irradiation induced enhancement of J{sub c}, some other mechanisms also seem to play a role in the J{sub c} enhancement by gold ion irradiation.

  1. Role of carrier concentration in swift heavy ion irradiation induced surface modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sushant; Ganesan, V.; Sulania, Indra; Das, B.

    2017-10-01

    Highly conducting SnO2 thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. One set of as-deposited films were annealed in air for 2 h at 850 °C. These as-deposited and annealed SnO2 thin films were irradiated using gold ions with energy of 120 MeV at different fluences ranging from 1 × 1011 to 3 × 1013 ions/cm2. Electrical measurement shows that as-deposited SnO2 films are in conducting state with n = 3.164 ×1020cm-3 and annealed SnO2 films are in insulating state. The amorphized latent tracks are created only above a certain threshold value of Se, which directly depends on the free electron concentration (n). The electronic energy loss (Se) of 120 MeV Au9+ ions in SnO2 is greater than the threshold energy loss (Seth) required for the latent track/molten zone formation in annealed SnO2 thin film, but is less than Seth required for as-deposited SnO2 film. Therefore, the latent tracks/molten zones are formed in the annealed SnO2 film and not in the as-deposited SnO2 film. Thermal spike model is used for the calculation of threshold energy loss and radius of melted zone. The possible mechanism of the structural changes and surface microstructure evolutions is briefly discussed in the light of ion's energy relaxation processes and target's conductivity. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of films shows that the morphologies of irradiated films are linked with carrier concentration of target materials.

  2. Effect of swift heavy Kr ions on complex permittivity of silicon PIN diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yun [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Su, Ping, E-mail: pingsu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Yang, Zhimei; Ma, Yao [Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Gong, Min, E-mail: mgong@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The complex permittivity has been studied on Si PIN irradiated by heavy Kr ions. • DLTS was used to investigate damages formed in PIN diode during irradiation. • The recombination of carriers has important influence on the complex permittivity. - Abstract: The complex permittivity has been researched on silicon PIN diodes irradiated by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in this article. The difference of complex permittivity spectra from 1 to 10^7 Hz between irradiated and unirradiated were observed and discussed. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were measured at room temperature (300 K) to study the change of electrical properties in diode after irradiation. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to investigate damages caused by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in diode. Two extra electron traps were observed, which were located at E{sub C}-0.31 eV and E{sub C}-0.17 eV. It indicated that new defects have been formed in PIN diode during irradiation. A comparison of the results illustrated that not only the carrier density but also the recombination of electron-hole pair have important influences on the properties of complex permittivity. These results offer a further indication of the mechanism about the complex permittivity property of semiconductor device, which could help to make the applications for the semiconductor device controlled by electric signals come true in the fields of optoelectronic integrated circuits, plasma antenna and so on.

  3. Fragmentation of water on swift {sup 3}He{sup 2+} ion impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabin, John R. [Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, P.O. Box 118435, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States); Institut for Fysik og Kemi, Suddansk Universitet, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)], E-mail: sabin@qtp.ufl.edu; Cabrerra-Trujillo, Remigio [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62251 (Mexico); Stolterfoht, Nikolaus [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Glienickerstrasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Deumens, Erik; Ohrn, Yngve [Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, P.O. Box 118435, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Charge exchange and fragmentation are the usual results in ion-molecule collision systems, and the specifics of the fragmentation process determine the chemical destiny of the target system. In this paper, we report recent progress on calculations of the fragmentation patterns for the model system He{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O for projectile energies of a few keV. The calculations are obtained using the electron-nuclear dynamics (END) method for solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation.

  4. Kinetics of color center formation in silica irradiated with swift heavy ions: Thresholding and formation efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano-Santamaria, J. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Euratom/CIEMAT Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain); Olivares, J. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Optica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Rivera, A.; Pena-Rodriguez, O. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Agullo-Lopez, F. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-08

    We have determined the cross-section {sigma} for color center generation under single Br ion impacts on amorphous SiO{sub 2}. The evolution of the cross-sections, {sigma}(E) and {sigma}(S{sub e}), show an initial flat stage that we associate to atomic collision mechanisms. Above a certain threshold value (S{sub e} > 2 keV/nm), roughly coinciding with that reported for the onset of macroscopic disorder (compaction), {sigma} shows a marked increase due to electronic processes. In this regime, a energetic cost of around 7.5 keV is necessary to create a non bridging oxygen hole center-E Prime (NBOHC/E Prime ) pair, whatever the input energy. The data appear consistent with a non-radiative decay of self-trapped excitons.

  5. Use of infrared multiphoton photodissociation with SWIFT for electrospray ionization and laser desorption applications in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado, A; Shen, J X; Vartanian, V H; Brodbelt, J

    1996-11-15

    Infrared multiphoton photodissociation (IRMPD) is combined with stored wave form inverse Fourier transforms (SWIFT) to effect dissociation and ion ejection in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The application of IRMPD to the structural characterization of biochemical ions generated by chemical ionization and electrospray ionization and the feasibility of utilizing infrared photons for the activation of laser-desorbed metal ion-crown ether complexes was examined. The effect of helium pressure on the dissociation efficiency and relative dissociation rate constants for systems with well-known thermochemistry was evaluated. The helium pressure is not detrimental to the IRMPD experiment when nominal pressures lower than 2 x 10(-5) Torr are used. At pressures close to nominally 8 x 10(-5) Torr of helium, collisonal deactivation dominates. Results show conventional CAD is a more selective dissociation technique; however, the amount of fragment ion information generated depends highly on the qz value. IRMPD, on the other hand, is independent of the value of qz such that low rf storage values can be utilized during the irradiation period. Thus, under these conditions, informative lower mass fragment ions are trapped and detected. A larger number of structurally informative fragments is generated upon irradiation with infrared photons relative to the CAD method because of the further excitation of primary fragment ions upon photoabsorption. SWIFT wave forms are successfully utilized to determine the extent of excitation of primary fragment ions as well as prove/disprove dissociation pathways of a variety of ions such as macrolide antibiotics and hydrogen-bonded complexes.

  6. Swift essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Whether you are a seasoned Objective-C developer or new to the Xcode platform, Swift Essentials will provide you with all you need to know to get started with the language. Prior experience with iOS development is not necessary, but will be helpful to get the most out of the book.

  7. Swift heavy ion irradiation effects on structural and magnetic characteristics of RFeO{sub 3} (R = Er, Ho and Y) crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Monita [Crystal Growth and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu 180006 (India); Kaur, Balwinder [Crystal Growth and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu 180006 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi 110067 (India); Joy, P.A. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India); Kulkarni, S.D. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India); Bamzai, K.K. [Crystal Growth and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu 180006 (India); Kotru, P.N. [Crystal Growth and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu 180006 (India)]. E-mail: pn_kotru@yahoo.com; Wanklyn, B.M. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    Magnetic studies have been carried out on single crystals of RFeO{sub 3} (R Er, Ho and Y) using vibrating sample magnetometer before and after swift heavy ion irradiation. Highly anisotropic character of the crystals is maintained even after irradiation. Irradiation causes decrease in magnetization and increase in Neel temperature of the crystals studied. The decrease in magnetization is attributed to amorphization caused by irradiation. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies confirm amorphization on irradiation of the RFeO{sub 3} (R = Er, Ho and Y) crystals.

  8. Anti-Biofilm Activity of Polyazolidinammonium Modified with Iodine Hydrate Ions against Microbial Biofilms of Uropathogenic Coliform Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaeva, O V; Tikhomirova, E I; Zayarsky, D A; Bespalova, N V; Glinskaya, E V; Shurshalova, N F; Al Bayati, B M; Babailova, A I

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of microbial biofilm formation by standard strain and by clinical strains of uropathogenic coliform bacteria was investigated in vitro and the effect of sublethal concentrations of the polymer compound polyazolidinammonium modified with iodine hydrate ions on the initial stages of biofilm formation was assessed. Treatment of immunological plate wells with the polymeric compound prevented film formation, especially in case of clinical E. coli strain carrying FimH virulence gene.

  9. High fluence swift heavy ion structure modification of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface and gate insulator in 65 nm MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yao [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Gao, Bo, E-mail: gaobo@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Gong, Min [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Willis, Maureen [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Yang, Zhimei [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Guan, Mingyue [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Li, Yun [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a study of the structure modification, induced by high fluence swift heavy ion radiation, of the SiO{sub 2}/Si structures and gate oxide interface in commercial 65 nm MOSFETs is performed. A key and novel point in this study is the specific use of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique instead of the conventional atomic force microscope (AFM) or scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques which are typically performed following the chemical etching of the sample to observe the changes in the structure. Using this method we show that after radiation, the appearance of a clearly visible thin layer between the SiO{sub 2} and Si is observed presenting as a variation in the TEM intensity at the interface of the two materials. Through measuring the EDX line scans we reveal that the Si:O ratio changed and that this change can be attributed to the migration of the Si towards interface after the Si-O bond is destroyed by the swift heavy ions. For the 65 nm MOSFET sample, the silicon substrate, the SiON insulator and the poly-silicon gate interfaces become blurred under the same irradiation conditions.

  10. Energetic Processing of N2:CH4 Ices Employing X-Rays and Swift Ions: Implications for Icy Bodies in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Fredson de A.; Pilling, Sergio; Rocha, Will R. M.; Rothard, Hermann; Boduch, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally address in this paper the physicochemical effects induced by ionizing photons (energies from 6 to 2000 eV) and swift heavy ions (15.7 MeV 16O5+) in the icy mixture containing N2:CH4 (19:1) at 12 K and 19 K, respectively. The experiments simulate the effect of solar photons and X-rays, cosmic rays, and solar energetic particles (medium-mass ions) on the surface of icy bodies in the outer solar system, such as Triton, Titan, Pluto, and several other Kuiper Belt objects. The ice samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at different fluences. From the energetic processing, the production of new molecules was observed. Among them, HCN, C2H4, C2H6, and N3 have the highest production yield. Molecular half-lives of the species of interest were calculated and extrapolated to the astrophysical environment. The effective destruction yield (in molecules/impact) of the parental species processed by the swift ions is up to six orders of magnitude higher than the value determined by employing X-rays. However, due to the differences between the fluxes of both ionizing radiation types in space, the half-lives of nitrogen and methane in the astrophysical scenarios addressed may have a huge variation. Photons dominate the chemical transformations at shorter distances from the Sun. Our results are a step toward a compilation of photochemical and radiolysis data that should allow the modeling of the abundance of astrophysical ices over long periods of time.

  11. Iodine adsorption on ion-exchange resins and activated carbons: batch testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-09-30

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows. The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers’ performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and Kd values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and Kd values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine

  12. Nanostructural characteristics of oxide-cap GaN nanotips by iodine-gallium ions etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhan-Shuo [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hung, Fei-Yi, E-mail: fyhung@mail.mse.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shoou-Jinn, E-mail: changsj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, Center for Micr/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Huang, Bohr-Ran [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, Bo-Cheng [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuan-Jen; Hsu, Wen-I. [Institute of Microelectronics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > 1D GaN nanostructures have attracted great attention in recent years. The dry-etching process has several advantages because of its simplicity, safety and convenience. Besides, the formation mechanism of 1D GaN nanostructures prepared using the dry-etching method is worth to research. Notably, GaN nanotips can be applied to the field emission measurement. We found that oxide-capping GaN nanotips were able to improve the field emission properties (turn-on field was 2.2 V/{mu}m) due to the lower work function of GaN resulted from the distribution of electron existed the interface between GaN and GaO. So, the present oxide-cap GaN nanotips possessed better field emission property, so that it may be considered as a candidate for an advanced field emission displayer. - Abstract: GaN nanotips array was fabricated by an iodine-assist enhanced focused ions beam etching (IFIBE) via the double masks silver oxide (AgO) and gallium oxide (GaO). The function of AgO is used to protect from the elimination of GaO so as to remain GaO on GaN nanotip. The different size of silver cluster was able to assist the formation of GaN nanotips through the double mask process (AgO and GaO). After IFIBE process, the silver mask disappeared and only gallium oxide with a polycrystalline structure was left on top. Oxide-capping GaN nanotips were able to improve the field emission properties (turn-on field was 2.2 V/{mu}m) due to the lower work function of GaN resulted from the distribution of electron existed the interface between GaN and GaO.

  13. Solution Synthesis of Iodine-Doped Red Phosphorus Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chung; Tseng, Kuan-Wei; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2017-02-08

    Red phosphorus (RP) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its earth abundance and a high theoretical capacity of 2596 mA h g-1. Although RP-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries have been reported, they were all in the form of carbon-P composites, including P-graphene, P-graphite, P-carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and P-carbon black, to improve P's extremely low conductivity and large volume change during cycling process. Here, we report the large-scale synthesis of red phosphorus nanoparticles (RPNPs) with sizes ranging from 100 to 200 nm by reacting PI3 with ethylene glycol in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in ambient environment. Unlike the insulator behavior of commercial RP (conductivity of <10 -12 S m-1), the conductivity of RPNPs is between 2.62 × 10-3 and 1.81 × 10-2 S m-1, which is close to that of semiconductor germanium (1.02 × 10-2 S m-1), and 2 orders of magnitude higher than silicon (5.35 × 10-4 S m-1). Around 3-5 wt % of iodine-doping was found in RPNPs, which was speculated as the key to significantly improve the conductivity of RPNPs. The significantly improved conductivity of RPNPs and their uniform colloidal nanostructures enable them to be used solely as active materials for LIBs anodes. The RPNPs electrodes exhibit a high specific capacity of 1700 mA h g-1 (0.2 C after 100 cycles, 1 C = 2000 mA g-1), long cycling life (∼900 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles at 1 C), and outstanding rate capability (175 mA h g-1 at the charge current density of 120 A g-1, 60 C). Moreover, as a proof-of-concept example, pouch-type full cells using RPNPs anodes and Li(Ni0.5Co0.3Mn0.2)O2 (NCM-532) cathodes were assembled to show their practical uses.

  14. Modification of photosensing property of CdS–Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} bi-layer by thermal annealing and swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Shaheed U.; Siddiqui, Farha Y. [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics (India); Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004 (India); Singh, Fouran; Kulriya, Pawan K. [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Phase, D.M. [UGC DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Sharma, Ramphal, E-mail: ramphalsharma@yahoo.com [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics (India); Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004 (India)

    2016-02-01

    The CdS–Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} bi-layer thin films have been deposited on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass substrates at room temperature by Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD) and bi-layer thin films were annealed in air atmosphere for 1 h at 250 {sup °}C. The air annealed sample was irradiated using Au{sup 9+} ions at the fluence 5 × 10{sup 11} ion/cm{sup 2} with 120 MeV energy. Effects of Swift Heavy Ion (SHI) irradiation on CdS–Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} bi-layer thin films were studied. The results are explained on the basis annealing and high electronic excitation, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Selective Electron Area Diffraction (SEAD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Raman Spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy and I–V characteristics. The photosensing property after illumination of visible light over the samples is studied. These as-deposited, annealed and irradiated bi-layer thin films are used to sense visible light at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of CdS–Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} bi-layer thin film (a) As-deposited (b) Annealed (c) irradiated sample respectively (d) Model of bi-layer photosensor device (e) Graph of illumination intensity verses photosensitivity. - Highlights: • CdS–Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} bi-layer thin film prepared at room temperature. • Irradiated using Au{sup 9+} ions at the fluence of 5 × 10{sup 11} ion/cm{sup 2} with 120 MeV energy. • Study of modification induced by irradiations. • Study of Photosensitivity after annealing and irradiation.

  15. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the United States, may be associated with low intelligence in children. WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF IODINE ... and Asia. TABLE 2. MEDIAN POPULATION URINARY IODINE VALUES AND IODINE NUTRITION MEDIAN URINARY IODINE CONCENTRATION (μg/ ...

  16. Towards swift ion bunch acceleration by high-power laser pulses at the Centre for Advanced Laser Applications (CALA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, F. H.; Haffa, D.; Bin, J. H.; Englbrecht, F.; Gao, Y.; Gebhard, J.; Hartmann, J.; Hilz, P.; Kreuzer, C.; Lehrack, S.; Ostermayr, T. M.; Rösch, T. F.; Speicher, M.; Würl, M.; Parodi, K.; Schreiber, J.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2017-07-01

    Laser-driven acceleration of ions has inspired novel applications, that can benefit from ion bunch properties different from conventionally (non-laser based) accelerated particle beams. Those differences range from extremely short bunch durations, broad energy spectra, large divergence angles and small source sizes to ultra-high ion bunch densities. So far, the main focus of research has been concentrating on the physics of the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasmas and the related mechanisms of ion acceleration. Now, the new Centre for Advanced Laser Applications (CALA) near Munich aims at pushing these ion bunches towards applications, including radiation therapy of tumors and the development of heavy ion bunches with solid-state-like density. These are needed for novel reaction mechanisms ('fission-fusion') to study the origin of heavy elements in the universe and to prepare for related studies at the upcoming EU-funded high-power laser facility ELI - Nuclear Physics in Bucharest.

  17. Swift heavy ion irradiation damage in Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-4V-1B: Study of the microstructure and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amroussia, Aida; Avilov, Mikhail; Boehlert, Carl J.; Durantel, Florent; Grygiel, Clara; Mittig, Wolfgang; Monnet, Isabelle; Pellemoine, Frederique

    2015-12-01

    The α + β alloy Ti-6Al-4V (wt.%) and the boron-modified Ti-6Al-4V-1B (wt.%), due to their low activation, corrosion resistance, good mechanical properties, and their commercial availability, were chosen as candidate materials for the beam dump for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIBs) at Michigan State University: a new generation accelerator with high power heavy ion beams. Through this study our goal is to establish the first irradiation data of the recently developed Ti-6Al-4V-1B (wt.%) alloy and investigate the changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V due to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation damage. The results of hardness measurements showed that the studied Ti-6Al-4V (wt.%) and Ti-6Al-4V-1B (wt.%) alloy, under the specified irradiation conditions, exhibited a high irradiation resistance. In fact, only a slight hardening was observed (∼13%) in the tested samples and no changes in the microstructure were observed. Temperature, dose and electronic excitation effects were also discussed.

  18. Effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites prepared by carbothermal evaporation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kuriakose

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ZnO–CuO nanocomposite thin films were prepared by carbothermal evaporation of ZnO and Cu, combined with annealing. The effects of 90 MeV Ni7+ ion irradiation on the structural and optical properties of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. XRD studies showed the presence of ZnO and CuO nanostructures in the nanocomposites. FESEM images revealed the presence of nanosheets and nanorods in the nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites was evaluated on the basis of degradation of methylene blue (MB and methyl orange (MO dyes under sun light irradiation and it was observed that swift heavy ion irradiation results in significant enhancement in the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites towards degradation of MB and MO dyes. The possible mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites is proposed. We attribute the observed enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnO–CuO nanocomposites to the combined effects of improved sun light utilization and suppression of the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in ZnO–CuO nanocomposites.

  19. Modification of the Structure and Nano-Mechanical Properties of LiF Crystals Under Irradiation with Swift Heavy Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jānis MANIKS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The modifications of the structure and hardness of LiF crystals under high-fluence irradiation with MeV- and GeV-energy Au ions have been studied using nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy. The formation of ion-induced dislocations and bulk nanostructures consisting of grains with nanoscale dimensions (50 nm - 100 nm has been observed. The structural modifications are accompanied by a strong ion-induced hardening which is related to dislocation impeding by assemblies of defect aggregates, dislocation loops of vacancy and interstitial types and grain boundaries. For MeV ions, the modifications are localized in a thin surface layer (few mm where much higher density of deposited energy is reached and deeper stage of aggregation of radiation defects is achieved than for GeV ions with the same absorbed energy.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.583

  20. Radiation damage induced by swift heavy ions in TiO{sub 2} sol–gel films nanocrystallines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazem, R. [USTHB, Faculté de Physique, BP. 32 El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Izerrouken, M., E-mail: izerrouken@yahoo.com [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria, BP. 43, Sebbala, Draria, Algiers (Algeria); Sari, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Birine, BP. 108, Ain-Oussara, Djelfa (Algeria); Kermadi, S. [UDTS, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP. 399, Alger gare, Algiers (Algeria); Msimanga, M. [NRF iThemba LABS, Gauteng Private Bag, 11 WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Benyagoub, A. [CIMAP, (ex-CIRIL-GANIL), CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-Université de Caen Basse Normandie, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP. 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); Maaza, M. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129, Cap Town (South Africa); Belgaid, M. [USTHB, Faculté de Physique, BP. 32 El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Boumaour, M. [UDTS, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP. 399, Alger gare, Algiers (Algeria)

    2013-06-01

    TiO{sub 2} films prepared by sol–gel were irradiated with 25.8 MeV Cu and 90 MeV Xe ions at room temperature under normal incidence. The irradiation with Cu and Xe ions were performed respectively at iThemba labs, South Africa and GANIL, Caen, France. The properties of radiation defects induced in TiO{sub 2} nanostructures were investigated using grazing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV–visible spectrophotometry. From GAXRD analysis, it is found that anatase (1 0 1) peak intensity decrease with increasing the fluence and disappear completely above a threshold ion fluence of 5 × 10{sup 12} ion/cm{sup 2}. This indicates that the crystallinity of the TiO{sub 2} film is destroyed upon irradiation due to the amorphous track formation. The track radius estimated from the Poisson’s law is about 2 and 4 nm after irradiation with 25.8 MeV Cu and 90 MeV Xe ions, respectively. According to the AFM analysis, the elaborated TiO{sub 2} films are composed of particles with a triangular shape of a size in the range of 200–500 nm. It is found that the particle size increases after irradiation with both Cu and Xe ions. In addition, the root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness for 780 nm × 780 nm area scans decreases exponentially with increasing fluence up to 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} in the case of Xe irradiation, but increases drastically above 2.68 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} in the case of Cu ion irradiation and reaches a mean value of ∼3 nm. The absorption measurements reveal that the optical band gap is not affected by both Xe and Cu ions irradiation.

  1. Evidence for an ultrafast breakdown of the BeO band structure due to swift argon and xenon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiwietz, G; Czerski, K; Roth, M; Grande, P L; Koteski, V; Staufenbiel, F

    2010-10-29

    Auger-electron spectra associated with Be atoms in the pure metal lattice and in the stoichiometric oxide have been investigated for different incident charged particles. For fast incident electrons, for Ar7+ and Ar15+ ions as well as Xe15+ and Xe31+ ions at velocities of 6% to 10% the speed of light, there are strong differences in the corresponding spectral distributions of Be-K Auger lines. These differences are related to changes in the local electronic band structure of BeO on a femtosecond time scale after the passage of highly charged heavy ions.

  2. Swift heavy ion-induced modification of Al sub 2 O sub 3 and MgO surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Skuratov, V A; Efimov, A E; Havancsak, K

    2003-01-01

    Surface topography changes in single-crystal alumina and magnesium oxide samples irradiated with 245 MeV Kr and 128-710 MeV Bi ions have been studied by atomic force microscopy. The surface response consists of nanoscale hillock-like defects associated with single ion impact. These defects are observed on the surfaces of Al sub 2 O sub 3 and MgO targets at ionizing energy loss values of about 25 and 15.8 keV/nm, respectively, which is less than the expected threshold values of amorphous latent track formation in these materials. Corresponding electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show no evidence of an amorphous core of the ion track in sapphire irradiated with Bi ions at surface electronic stopping power of 41 keV/nm. Possible mechanisms of hillocks formation, alternative to crystalline-amorphous phase transition are discussed.

  3. Sputtering and surface topography modification of bismuth thin films under swift {sup 84}Kr{sup 15+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, S. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, CRNA, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S., E-mail: souchaoui@gmail.com [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie H. Boumediene (USTHB), Faculte de Physique, Laboratoire SNIRM, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Ammi, H. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, CRNA, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Dib, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, CRNA, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Msimanga, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2012-12-01

    The sputtering and surface topography modification of bismuth thin films deposited onto Si substrates and irradiated by 27.5 MeV {sup 84}Kr{sup 15+} ions over the fluence range 10{sup 12}-10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} have been studied using three complementary techniques: Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The RBS analysis reveals a linear reduction of the initial thickness of the irradiated bismuth samples by {approx}4% up to 7% with increasing ion fluence corresponding to a mean sputtering yield of {approx}2.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} at/ion. Besides, significant sample surface topography changes occur upon ion irradiation consisting in grain growth and surface roughening clearly pointed out by performed AFM and XRD analyses. Moreover, a close correlation is observed between the variations versus ion fluence of the measured sputtering yield and the determined Bi surface grain size and compressive strain. These moderate Bi surface effects are similar to those pointed out previously for thin films irradiated by MeV heavy ions. They can be mainly caused by inelastic electronic collision mechanisms taking place within the Bi material electronic stopping power regime below the threshold for latent track formation.

  4. Swift heavy ion provoked structural, optical and electrical properties in SnO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhirami, K.M.; Matheswaran, P.; Gokul, B.; Sathyamoorthy, R. [Kongunadu Arts and Science College, PG and Research Department of Physics, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Materials Science Division, New Delhi (India)

    2013-06-15

    SnO{sub 2} thin films grown on glass substrates at 300 {sup circle} C by reactive thermal evaporation and annealed at 600 {sup circle} C were irradiated by 120 MeV Ag{sup 9+} ions. Though irradiation is known to induce lattice disorder and suppression of crystallinity, we observe grain growth at a certain fluence of irradiation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystalline nature of the films. The particle size estimated by Scherrer's formula for the irradiated films was in the range 10-25 nm. The crystallite size increases with increase in fluence up to 1 x 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup -2}, whereas after that the size starts decreasing. Atomic force microscope (AFM) results showed the surface modification of nanostructures for films irradiated with fluences of 1 x 10{sup 11} ions cm{sup -2} to 1 x 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup -2}. The UV-visible spectrum showed the band gap of the irradiated films in the range of 3.56 eV-3.95 eV. The resistivity decreases with fluence up to 5 x 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup -2} and starts increasing after that. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) reveals the composition of the films and sputtering of ions due to irradiation at higher fluence. (orig.)

  5. Swift for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Feiler, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Get up and running with Swift-swiftly Brimming with expert advice and easy-to-follow instructions,Swift For Dummies shows new and existing programmers how toquickly port existing Objective-C applications into Swift and getinto the swing of the new language like a pro. Designed from theground up to be a simpler programming language, it's never beeneasier to get started creating apps for the iPhone or iPad, orapplications for Mac OS X. Inside the book, you'll find out how to set up Xcode for a newSwift application, use operators, objects, and data types, andcontrol program flow with conditiona

  6. Radiolysis of N2-rich astrophysical ice by swift oxygen ions: implication for space weathering of outer solar system bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, F A; Pilling, S; Rocha, W R M; Rothard, H; Boduch, P

    2017-09-13

    In order to investigate the role of medium mass cosmic rays and energetic solar particles in the processing of N2-rich ice on frozen moons and cold objects in the outer solar system, the bombardment of an N2 : H2O : NH3 : CO2 (98.2 : 1.5 : 0.2 : 0.1) ice mixture at 16 K employing 15.7 MeV 16O5+ was performed. The changes in the ice chemistry were monitored and quantified by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate the formation of azide radicals (N3), and nitrogen oxides, such as NO, NO2, and N2O, as well as the production of CO, HNCO, and OCN-. The effective formation and destruction cross-sections are roughly on the order of 10-12 cm2 and 10-13 cm2, respectively. From laboratory molecular analyses, we estimated the destruction yields for the parent species and the formation yields for the daughter species. For N2, this value was 9.8 × 105 molecules per impact of ions, and for the most abundant new species (N3), it was 1.1 × 105 molecules per impact of ions. From these yields, an estimation of how many species are destroyed or formed in a given timescale (108 years) in icy bodies in the outer solar system was calculated. This work reinforces the idea that such physicochemical processes triggered by cosmic rays, solar wind, and magnetospheric particles (medium-mass ions) in nitrogen-rich ices may play an important role in the formation of molecules (including pre-biotic species precursors such as amino acids and other "CHON" molecules) in very cold astrophysical environments, such as those in the outer region of the solar system (e.g. Titan, Triton, Pluto, and other KBOs).

  7. Micro-Raman studies of swift heavy ion irradiation induced structural and conformational changes in polyaniline nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Somik [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Kumar, A., E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.i [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2010-09-15

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers doped with camphor sulfonic acid have been irradiated with 90 MeV O{sup 7+} ions at different fluences (3 x 10{sup 10}-1 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) using a 15UD Pelletron accelerator under ultra-high vacuum. XRD studies reveal a decrease in the domain length and an increase in the strain upon SHI irradiation. The increase in d-spacing corresponding to the (1 0 0) reflection of PAni nanofibers with increasing irradiation fluence has been attributed to the increase in the tilt angle of the chains with respect to the (a, b) basal plane of PAni. Decrease in the integral intensity upon SHI irradiation indicates amorphization of the material. Micro-Raman ({mu}R) studies confirm amorphization of the PAni nanofibers and also show that the PAni nanofibers get de-doped upon SHI irradiation. {mu}R spectroscopy also reveals a benzenoid to quinoid transition in the PAni chain upon SHI irradiation. TEM results show that the size of PAni nanofibers decreases with the increase in irradiation fluence, which has been attributed to the fragmentation of PAni nanofibers in the core of amorphized tracks caused by SHI irradiation.

  8. Study of molecular iodine, iodate ions, iodide ions, and triiodide ions solutions absorption in the UV and visible light spectral bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.

    2015-07-01

    The paper reports on experimental studies concerning the absorption spectra of molecular iodine and its \\text{IO}3- , I-, \\text{I}3- anions in the spectral band of 180-600 nm. Values of the absorption cross-sections of the above mentioned substances have been measured, and relations of absorption coefficients to concentrations have been studied. The results obtained demonstrate that the spectral band under consideration is likely to be successfully used for simultaneous real-time detection of substances containing iodine with an absorption method using laser emission sources in the UV and visible light spectral bands.

  9. Quantum multiscattering interferences in collision-induced coherent electron emission from diatomic molecules by swift ion impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueny, H.; Hansen, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    In the intramolecular scattering process, the interference between the rescattered electron waves emanating from each atomic center gives rise to additional oscillations superimposed on the Young-type oscillatory structure in the observed electron intensity. Here we explore numerically this behavior for coherent electron emission from the dimer Rb2 + by fast-moving highly charged ions, which is achieved by solving the two-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Well-defined modulations with higher frequency are observed in the momentum distribution of the ejected electron, which are well reproduced by additional quantitative calculations based on the third-order Born series. This demonstrates without ambiguity the dynamic interference induced by multiple scattering paths of the electron prior to emission. Furthermore, the dependence of the phenomenon on the emission direction of the electron and the orientation of the molecular axis also is investigated. The phenomenon is not specific to Rb2 + as investigated in the present study, but is broadly applicable to other systems with sufficiently large internuclear distances, thus opening new prospects for the investigation of electron emission process from large systems.

  10. Study of the point defect creation and of the excitonic luminescence in alkali halides irradiated by swift heavy ions; Etude de la creation de defauts ponctuels et de la luminescence excitonique d`halogenures d`alcalins irradies par les ions lourds de grande vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protin, L.

    1994-10-05

    The aim of this experimental thesis is to study the excitonic mechanisms and of the defect creation, in NaCl and KBr, under dense electronic excitations induced by swift heavy ion irradiations. In the first part, we present the main features of the interaction of swift heavy ions with solid targets, and after we review the well known radiolytic processes of the defect creation during X-ray irradiation. In the second chapter, we describe our experimental set-up. In the chapter III, we present our results of the in-situ optical absorption measurements. This results show that defect creation is less sensitive to the temperature than during a classical irradiation. Besides, we observe new mechanisms concerning the defect aggregation. In the chapter IV, we present the results of excitonic luminescence induced by swift by swift heavy ions. We observe that the luminescence yields only change with the highest electronic stopping power. In the chapter V, we perform thermal spike and luminescence yields calculations and we compare the numerical results to the experiments presented in the chapter IV. (author). 121 refs., 65 figs., 30 tabs.

  11. Use of ion-pairing reagent for improving iodine speciation analysis in seaweed by pressure-driven capillary electrophoresis and ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiannan; Wang, Dan; Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanchao; Xu, Zigang

    2015-01-30

    This study achieved resolution improvement for iodine speciation in the presence of an ion-pairing reagent by a pressure-driven capillary electrophoresis (CE) system. Addition of 0.01mM tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide (TBAH) as the ion-pairing reagent into the electrophoretic buffer resulted in the complete separation of four iodine species (I(-), IO3(-), mono-iodothyrosine-MIT and di-iodothyrosine-DIT), because of the electrostatic interaction between TBAH and the negatively charged analytes. A +16kV separation voltage was applied along the separation capillary (50μm i.d., 80cm total and 60cm effective) with the inlet grounded. The detection wavelength was fixed at 210nm, and the pressure-driven flow rate was set at 0.12mLmin(-1) with an injected volume of 2μL. The optimal electrolyte consisted of 2mM borate, 2mM TBAH and 80% methanol with pH adjusted to 8.5. Baseline separation of iodine species was achieved within 7min. The detection limits for I(-), IO3(-), MIT and DIT were 0.052, 0.040, 0.032 and 0.025mgL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations of peak heights and areas were all below 3% for 5mgL(-1) and 5% for 1mgL(-1). Application of the proposed method was demonstrated by speciation analysis of iodine in two seaweed samples. The developed method offered satisfactory recoveries in the 91-99% range and good precisions (iodine speciation in environmental, food and biological samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Process of iodine ion slowing down in a hydrogen target; Analyse du processus de ralentissement d`iode dans une cible d`hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardes, D.; Chabot, M.; Nectoux, M. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Mabong, S.; Maynard, G. [LPGP, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Roudskoi, I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-11-01

    The stopping power of iodine ions traversing a windowless hydrogen target has been measured varying the gas in a large pressure range (0 to 120 torr). Experimental measurements present the energy losses and the charge distributions of emerging ions. Those results enable us to test stopping power theories at high velocity and large perturbation parameter Z/v. Higher order correction terms for the stopping calculated with point like approximation for the charge or with more realistic atomic potential are compared with experimental energy losses. (authors) 1 ref., 2 figs.

  13. Beginning Swift programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Wei-Meng

    2014-01-01

    Enter the Swift future of iOS and OS X programming Beginning Swift Programming is your ideal starting point for creating Mac, iPhone, and iPad apps using Apple's new Swift programming language. Written by an experienced Apple developer and trainer, this comprehensive guide explains everything you need to know to jumpstart the creation of your app idea. Coverage includes data types, strings and characters, operators and functions, arrays and dictionaries, control flow, and looping, with expert guidance on classes, objects, class inheritance, closures, protocols, and generics. This succinct - ye

  14. Game development with Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Haney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    If you wish to create and publish fun iOS games using Swift, then this book is for you. You should be familiar with basic programming concepts. However, no prior game development or Apple ecosystem experience is required.

  15. An attempt to apply the inelastic thermal spike model to surface modifications of CaF2induced by highly charged ions: comparison to swift heavy ions effects and extension to some others material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, C; Khomrenkov, V; Wang, Y Y; Wang, Z G; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2017-03-08

    Surface damage appears on materials irradiated by highly charged ions (HCI). Since a direct link has been found between surface damage created by HCI with the one created by swift heavy ions (SHI), the inelastic thermal spike model (i-TS model) developed to explain track creation resulting from the electron excitation induced by SHI can also be applied to describe the response of materials under HCI which transfers its potential energy to electrons of the target. An experimental description of the appearance of the hillock-like nanoscale protrusions induced by SHI at the surface of CaF 2 is presented in comparison with track formation in bulk which shows that the only parameter on which we can be confident is the electronic energy loss threshold. Track size and electronic energy loss threshold resulting from SHI irradiation of CaF 2 is described by the i-TS model in a 2D geometry. Based on this description the i-TS model is extended to three dimensions to describe the potential threshold of appearance of protrusions by HCI in CaF 2 and to other crystalline materials (LiF, crystalline SiO 2 , mica, LiNbO 3 , SrTiO 3 , ZnO, TiO 2 , HOPG). The strength of the electron-phonon coupling and the depth in which the potential energy is deposited near the surface combined with the energy necessary to melt the material defines the classification of the material sensitivity. As done for SHI, the band gap of the material may play an important role in the determination of the depth in which the potential energy is deposited. Moreover larger is the initial potential energy and larger is the depth in which it is deposited.

  16. An attempt to apply the inelastic thermal spike model to surface modifications of CaF2 induced by highly charged ions: comparison to swift heavy ions effects and extension to some others material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, C.; Khomrenkov, V.; Wang, Y. Y.; Wang, Z. G.; Aumayr, F.; Toulemonde, M.

    2017-03-01

    Surface damage appears on materials irradiated by highly charged ions (HCI). Since a direct link has been found between surface damage created by HCI with the one created by swift heavy ions (SHI), the inelastic thermal spike model (i-TS model) developed to explain track creation resulting from the electron excitation induced by SHI can also be applied to describe the response of materials under HCI which transfers its potential energy to electrons of the target. An experimental description of the appearance of the hillock-like nanoscale protrusions induced by SHI at the surface of CaF2 is presented in comparison with track formation in bulk which shows that the only parameter on which we can be confident is the electronic energy loss threshold. Track size and electronic energy loss threshold resulting from SHI irradiation of CaF2 is described by the i-TS model in a 2D geometry. Based on this description the i-TS model is extended to three dimensions to describe the potential threshold of appearance of protrusions by HCI in CaF2 and to other crystalline materials (LiF, crystalline SiO2, mica, LiNbO3, SrTiO3, ZnO, TiO2, HOPG). The strength of the electron-phonon coupling and the depth in which the potential energy is deposited near the surface combined with the energy necessary to melt the material defines the classification of the material sensitivity. As done for SHI, the band gap of the material may play an important role in the determination of the depth in which the potential energy is deposited. Moreover larger is the initial potential energy and larger is the depth in which it is deposited.

  17. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  18. Study of secondary electron emission from thin carbon targets with swift charged particles: heavy ions, hydrogen ions; Etude experimentale de l`emission electronique secondaire de cibles minces de carbone sous l`impact de projectiles rapides: ions lourds, ions hydrogene (atomiques, moleculaires ou sous forme d`agregats)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billebaud, A.

    1995-07-12

    The main subject of this work is the study of electron emission from the two surfaces of thin solid targets bombarded with swift charged particles. The slowing down of swift ions in matter is mainly due to inelastic interaction with target electrons (ionization, excitation): the energy transfer to target electrons is responsible for the secondary electron emission process. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions of this phenomena are the subject of the first chapter. We focused on secondary electron emission induced by different kind of projectiles on thin carbon foils. In chapter two we describe hydrogen cluster induced electron emission measurement between 40 and 120 keV/proton. These projectiles, composed of several atoms, allowed us to study and highlight collective effects of the electron emission process. We extended our study of electron emission to molecular (H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}) and composite (H{sup -}, H{sup 0}) projectiles at higher energies (<= 2 MeV): we have designed an experimental set-up devoted to electron emission statistics measurements which allowed us to study, among others things, the role of projectile electrons in secondary electron emission. This experiment is described in the third chapter. Finally, the fourth chapter describes new measurements of electron emission induced by energetic (13 MeV/u) and highly charged argon ion provided by the medium energy beam line (SME) of GANIL (Caen), which have been analyzed in the framework of a semi-empirical model of secondary electron emission. This set of experiments brings new results on composite projectile interaction with matter, and on the consequences of high energy deposition in solids. (author).

  19. Modifications of structural and physical properties induced by swift heavy ions in Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellami, N., E-mail: neila.sellami@u-psud.fr [Univ. Paris Sud, ICMMO-LEMHE, Bât. 410, F-91405 Orsay (France); Sattonnay, G. [Univ. Paris Sud, ICMMO-LEMHE, Bât. 410, F-91405 Orsay (France); Grygiel, C.; Monnet, I. [CIMAP, CEA, CNRS, Université de Caen, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Debelle, A. [CSNSM, CNRS, IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, F- 91405 Orsay (France); Legros, C. [Univ. Paris Sud, ICMMO-LEMHE, Bât. 410, F-91405 Orsay (France); Menut, D. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Miro, S. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Simon, P. [CNRS UPR 3079 CEMHTI, 1D avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Bechade, J.L [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Thomé, L. [CSNSM, CNRS, IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, F- 91405 Orsay (France)

    2015-12-15

    The structural transformations induced by ionization processes in Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlores irradiated with swift heavy ions have been studied using XRD and Raman experiments. Results show that irradiation induces amorphization and that the phase transformation build-up can be accounted for in the framework of a model involving a single-impact mechanism. The radiation induced amorphization build-up is faster in Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} than in Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Moreover, a decrease of the thermal conductivity (measured by the laser flash method) is induced by irradiation both in Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}.

  20. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2011-01-01

    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  1. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Found Iodine is found in: Amiodarone (Cordarone) Chemicals (catalysts) for photography and engraving Dyes and inks Lugol's ... 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. What to Expect at the Emergency Room The health ...

  2. Elaboration by ion implantation of cobalt nano-particles in silica layers and modifications of their properties by electron and swift heavy ion irradiations; Elaboration par implantation ionique de nanoparticules de cobalt dans la silice et modifications de leurs proprietes sous irradiation d'electrons et d'ions de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Orleans, C

    2003-07-15

    This work aims to investigate the capability of ion irradiations to elaborate magnetic nano-particles in silica layers, and to modify their properties. Co{sup +} ions have been implanted at 160 keV at fluences of 2.10{sup 16}, 5.10{sup 16} and 10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 2}, and at temperatures of 77, 295 and 873 K. The dependence of the particle size on the implantation fluence, and more significantly on the implantation temperature has been shown. TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) observations have shown a mean diameter varying from 1 nm for implantations at 2.10{sup 16} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, to 9.7 nm at 10{sup 17} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 873 K. For high temperature implantations, two regions of particles appear. Simulations based on a kinetic 3-dimensional lattice Monte Carlo method reproduce quantitatively the features observed for implantations. Thermal treatments induce the ripening of the particles. Electron irradiations at 873 K induce an important increase in mean particle sizes. Swift heavy ion irradiations also induce the ripening of the particles for low fluences, and an elongation of the particles in the incident beam direction for high fluences, resulting in a magnetic anisotropy. Mechanisms invoked in thermal spike model could also explain this anisotropic growth. (author)

  3. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  4. Defect induced enhancement of exchange bias by swift heavy ion irradiation in zinc ferrite–FeNiMoB alloy based bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisha, R. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Hysen, T. [Christian College, Chengannur 689122, Kerala (India); Geetha, P.; Aravind, P.B. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Shareef, M.; Shamlath, A. [Central University of Kerala, Kasargod 671316, Kerala (India); Ojha, Sunil [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Bilayer films of FeNiMoB–zinc ferrite exhibiting exchange bias was prepared by RF sputtering. • The films were irradiated using 100 MeV Ag ions. • At a particular fluence of 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} high exchange field of 210 Oe obtained. • At higher fluences the exchange bias is decreased. - Abstract: Exchange biased systems consisting of ferromagnetic (FM)–antiferromagnetic (AFM) interfaces are increasingly being investigated because of their application potential in spin valves and tunnel junctions. In bilayer systems, ion irradiation is capable of modifying the interface and thereby offers unique opportunities to tailor exchange field. In the present study, irradiation with 100 MeV Ag{sup 8+} ions is utilized to alter the exchange bias field in zinc ferrite–FeNiMoB bilayer system. The thin films which were deposited by RF sputtering technique and annealed at 600 °C were irradiated at various fluences. Structural and magnetic studies were carried out by using Glancing X Ray Diffractometer (GXRD) and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (SQUID VSM) respectively. It was observed that the as deposited films exhibited exchange bias and on ion irradiation, bias field could be enhanced at certain fluences. The enhancement in bias field is attributed to defects created in the antiferromagnet as a result of ion irradiation. The experimental result is fitted in accordance with the diluted antiferromagnet model. Coercivity was also found to vary with ion fluence. Ion fluence was thus effectively used to enhance bias field as well as coercivity in the bilayer consisting of zinc ferrite–FeNiMoB.

  5. In situ and postradiation analysis of mechanical stress in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr induced by swift heavy-ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratov, V.A., E-mail: skuratov@jinr.r [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Bujnarowski, G. [Institute of Physics, Opole University, 45-052 Opole (Poland); Kovalev, Yu.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); O' Connell, J. [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Havanscak, K. [Eoetvoes University, Pazmany P. setany 1/A, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-10-01

    Optical spectroscopy and TEM techniques have been applied to study the radiation damage and correlated mechanical stresses in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr single crystals induced by (1-3) MeV/amu Kr, Xe and Bi ion irradiation. Mechanical stresses were evaluated in situ using a piezospectroscopic effect through the shift of the respective lines in ionoluminescence spectra. It was found that dose dependence of the stress level for Xe and Bi ions, when ionization energy loss exceeds the threshold of damage formation via electronic excitations, exhibits several alternate stages showing the build-up and relaxation of stresses. The beginning of relaxation stages is observed at fluences associated with beginning of individual ion track regions overlapping. The residual stress profiles through the ion irradiated layers were deduced from depth-resolved photostimulated spectra using laser confocal scanning microscopy set-up. It was determined that stresses are compressive in basal plane and tensile in perpendicular direction in all samples irradiated with high energy ions.

  6. Depth-dependent and surface damages in MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 and MgO irradiated with energetic iodine ions

    CERN Document Server

    Aruga, T; Ohmichi, T; Okayasu, S; Kazumata, Y; Jitsukawa, S

    2002-01-01

    Samples of polycrystalline ceramics of MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 irradiated at the ambient temperature with 85 MeV I sup 7 sup + iodine ions to doses up to 1x10 sup 1 sup 9 m sup - sup 2 is observed to be amorphized up to depths around 6 mu m from the ion-incident surface for a dose of 1.2x10 sup 1 sup 9 m sup - sup 2 , through a cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. A step height of 1 mu m is formed across the border between the masked and irradiated regions of the surface. The height of the step is observed to increase sharply from the irradiated area towards the edge at the border, forming a peak as tall as 1.5 mu m. A glossy, silver-gray film with a thickness less than 0.1 mu m is unexpectedly observed to have formed on the surface of samples of MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 and MgO, in about 3.5 years aging after the irradiation to 1.2x10 sup 1 sup 9 m sup - sup 2 , being left untouched in the air. The film is easily peeled off along grain boundaries and found to be amorphous from the electron diffraction patt...

  7. Structural, surface potential and optical studies of AlGaN based double heterostructures irradiated by 120 MeV Si{sup 9+} swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arivazhagan, P., E-mail: arivazhaganau2008@gmail.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai, 600 025 (India); Ramesh, R.; Balaji, M. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai, 600 025 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi (India); Baskar, K. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai, 600 025 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.77}N/Al{sub 0.14}Ga{sub 0.86}N based double heterostructure was irradiated using Si{sup 9+} ion at room temperature (RT) and liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) with four dissimilar ion fluence. The effect of Si{sup 9+} ion irradiation in dislocation densities and in-plane strain of GaN layer were discussed. The in-plane strain values of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers were calculated from asymmetric reciprocal space mapping (RSM). The surface modification and the variation in phase shift on Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.77}N surfaces due to the irradiation were measured by Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM). The capacitance of the tip-sample system was determined from EFM. The band edge emissions of heterostructures were measured by the room temperature phototluminescence (PL) and the shift in the Al{sub 0.14}Ga{sub 0.86}N active layer emission peaks towards the low energy side at low fluence ion irradiation has been noted. - Highlights: • Effects of Si{sup 9+} ion irradiation on AlGaN double heterostructures were investigated. • Dislocation densities of GaN reduced at liquid nitrogen temperature irradiation. • Variation in phase shift on Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.77}N surfaces was measured by EFM. • Capacitance per unit area values of AFM tip-sample surface system were calculated. • Si{sup 9+} irradiations play an important role to tune the energy gap in Al{sub 0.14}Ga{sub 0.86}N.

  8. Modifications induced by swift heavy ions on poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) and poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL). Part 2. Radicals characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouxhet, L.; Mestdagh, M.; Legras, R. E-mail: legras@poly.ucl.ac.be

    2000-12-01

    Modifications induced by different energetic heavy ions ({sub 40}Ar{sup 9+}, {sub 80}Kr{sup 15+}, {sub 129}Xe{sup 24+}, {sub 208}Pb{sup 53+} and {sub 208}Pb{sup 56+}) on poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) have been investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR). Indeed, film irradiation by heavy ions leads to, among other phenomena, the formation of radicals in the ion tracks. Thanks to ESR, it is possible to detect these radicals and to identify them or at least to characterize them by following the evolution of the radical signal as a function of parameters, like temperature, or the kinetic of disappearance of the radical species at ambient temperature in vacuum or ambient atmosphere. This study confirmed the generation of radicals by the irradiation of PHB/HV samples with energetic heavy ions reported in the literature. The study on PCL was not pursued after a few preliminary studies, revealing the presence of an ESR signal in the non-irradiated sample. Electronic stopping power has a major influence on radical decrease at ambient temperature. The ion used for the irradiation did not modify very much the radical signal and the evolution of the radicalar signal intensity with temperature. Different reasoning and experiments revealed that the glass transition temperature is a key temperature above which irreversible recombinations of the most stable radicals take place. A simulation study indicated that the most stable radical produced was probably a tertiary radical formed by the stabilization of the secondary radical resulting from the abstraction of a highly mobile hydrogen adjacent to the carbonyl.

  9. Determination of iodine in human milk and urine | Ayodele | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human milk and urine samples were collected from 84 healthy volunteer nursing mothers living in Kano, Nigeria. The samples were analyzed for their Iodine content using the Iodine-catalyzed reduction of Ceric ion by Arsenous acid. Separating the Iodine by solvent extraction eliminated interferences. Physiological ...

  10. Fractal and multifractal characteristics of swift heavy ion induced self-affine nanostructured BaF{sub 2} thin film surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, R. P.; Mittal, A. K. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Kumar, Manvendra, E-mail: kmanav@gmail.com; Pandey, A. C. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)

    2015-08-15

    Fractal and multifractal characteristics of self-affine surfaces of BaF{sub 2} thin films, deposited on crystalline Si 〈1 1 1〉 substrate at room temperature, were studied. Self-affine surfaces were prepared by irradiation of 120 MeV Ag{sup 9+} ions which modified the surface morphology at nanometer scale. The surface morphology of virgin thin film and those irradiated with different ion fluences are characterized by atomic force microscopy technique. The surface roughness (interface width) shows monotonic decrease with ion fluences, while the other parameters, such as lateral correlation length, roughness exponent, and fractal dimension, did not show either monotonic decrease or increase in nature. The self-affine nature of the films is further confirmed by autocorrelation function. The power spectral density of thin films surfaces exhibits inverse power law variation with spatial frequency, suggesting the existence of fractal component in surface morphology. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis based on the partition function approach is also performed on virgin and irradiated thin films. It is found that the partition function exhibits the power law behavior with the segment size. Moreover, it is also seen that the scaling exponents vary nonlinearly with the moment, thereby exhibiting the multifractal nature.

  11. Swift heavy-ion induced trap generation and mixing at Si/SiO{sub 2} interface in depletion n-MOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, N. [Ecotopia Science Institute, Division of Energy Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan) and Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)]. E-mail: nss@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2006-01-15

    Large channel depletion n-channel MOSFET (Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) is a basic Si-SiO{sub 2} structure to understand irradiation-induced modifications. The contribution of interface and oxide states denoted as {delta}N {sub IT} and {delta}N {sub OT}, respectively, was separated out by using I {sub D}-V {sub DS}, I {sub D}-V {sub GS} measurements. The threshold voltage shift {delta}V {sub T} (V {sub T-irrad} - V {sub T-virgin}) increased for all ions (50 MeV Li, B, F, P and Ni) over the fluence of 2 x 10{sup 11}-2 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The increase in {delta}N {sub IT} was associated to trap generation at Si-SiO{sub 2} interface, but a small change in {delta}N {sub OT} indicate less charge trapping in oxide. The electronic energy loss S {sub e} induced increase in {delta}N {sub IT} is not adequate to explain the large shift in threshold voltage. A rough estimate shows that the channel width, W should decrease by 40% for a large increase in {delta}N {sub IT}. Thus, the possible factor affecting reduction of W may be ion beam mixing induced broadening of Si-SiO{sub 2} interface.

  12. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with 1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSAT spacecraft includes full three-axis control using wheels, magnetic torque rods, inertial management unit, and a suite of sensors and optics. The spacecraft will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system.

  13. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  14. Removal efficiency of radioactive cesium and iodine ions by a flow-type apparatus designed for electrochemically reduced water production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeki Hamasaki

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 attracted people's attention, with anxiety over possible radiation hazards. Immediate and long-term concerns are around protection from external and internal exposure by the liberated radionuclides. In particular, residents living in the affected regions are most concerned about ingesting contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. Efficient removal of radionuclides from rainwater and drinking water has been reported using several pot-type filtration devices. A currently used flow-type test apparatus is expected to simultaneously provide radionuclide elimination prior to ingestion and protection from internal exposure by accidental ingestion of radionuclides through the use of a micro-carbon carboxymethyl cartridge unit and an electrochemically reduced water production unit, respectively. However, the removability of radionuclides from contaminated tap water has not been tested to date. Thus, the current research was undertaken to assess the capability of the apparatus to remove radionuclides from artificially contaminated tap water. The results presented here demonstrate that the apparatus can reduce radioactivity levels to below the detection limit in applied tap water containing either 300 Bq/kg of 137Cs or 150 Bq/kg of 125I. The apparatus had a removal efficiency of over 90% for all concentration ranges of radio-cesium and -iodine tested. The results showing efficient radionuclide removability, together with previous studies on molecular hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles as reactive oxygen species scavengers, strongly suggest that the test apparatus has the potential to offer maximum safety against radionuclide-contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water.

  15. Role of temperature in the radiation stability of yttria stabilized zirconia under swift heavy ion irradiation: A study from the perspective of nuclear reactor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Parswajit; Ghosh, Santanu; Sattonnay, Gaël; Singh, Udai B.; Grover, Vinita; Shukla, Rakesh; Amirthapandian, S.; Meena, Ramcharan; Tyagi, A. K.; Avasthi, Devesh K.

    2017-07-01

    The search for materials that can withstand the harsh radiation environments of the nuclear industry has become an urgent challenge in the face of ever-increasing demands for nuclear energy. To this end, polycrystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) pellets were irradiated with 80 MeV Ag6+ ions to investigate their radiation tolerance against fission fragments. To better simulate a nuclear reactor environment, the irradiations were carried out at the typical nuclear reactor temperature (850 °C). For comparison, irradiations were also performed at room temperature. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal degradation in crystallinity for the room temperature irradiated samples. No bulk structural amorphization was however observed, whereas defect clusters were formed as indicated by transmission electron microscopy and supported by thermal spike simulation results. A significant reduction of the irradiation induced defects/damage, i.e., improvement in the radiation tolerance, was seen under irradiation at 850 °C. This is attributed to the fact that the rapid thermal quenching of the localized hot molten zones (arising from spike in the lattice temperature upon irradiation) is confined to 850 °C (i.e., attributed to the resistance inflicted on the rapid thermal quenching of the localized hot molten zones by the high temperature of the environment) thereby resulting in the reduction of the defects/damage produced. Our results present strong evidence for the applicability of YSZ as an inert matrix fuel in nuclear reactors, where competitive effects of radiation damage and dynamic thermal healing mechanisms may lead to a strong reduction in the damage production and thus sustain its physical integrity.

  16. Source And Sink Of Iodine For Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed system for controlling concentration of iodine in potable water exploits temperature dependence of equilibrium partition of iodine between solution in water and residence in ion-exchange resin. Used to maintain concentration of iodine sufficient to kill harmful microbes, but not so great to make water unpalatable. Requires little attention, yet controls concentration of iodine more precisely than iodination and deiodination by manual techniques. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, system has terrestrial applications in regions where water must be kept potable, resupply difficult, and system must operate largely unattended.

  17. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Yarrington; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  18. SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the software development practice areas and processes which contribute to the ability of SWiFT software developers to provide quality software. These processes are designed to satisfy the requirements set forth by the Sandia Software Quality Assurance Program (SSQAP). APPROVALS SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan (SAND2016-0765) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Controls Engineer Jonathan Berg (6121) Date CHANGE HISTORY Issue Date Originator(s) Description A 2016/01/27 Jon Berg (06121) Initial release of the SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan

  19. Ionisation and dissociation of water induced by swift multicharged ions; Etude de l'ionisation et de la dissociation d'H{sub 2}O induites par collision avec des ions multicharges rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, S

    2006-02-15

    Ionization and dissociation of water molecules and water clusters induced by 11.7 MeV/A Ni{sup 25+} ions were carried out by imaging techniques. Branching ratios, ionisation cross sections and Kinetic Energy Released distributions have been measured together with fragmentation dynamics studies. Multiple ionization represents approximately 30% of the ionizing events. Double ionization produces in significant way atomic oxygen, considered as a possible precursor of the large production of HO{sub 2} radical in liquid water radiolysis by ions of high Linear Energy Transfer. We evidence a strong selectivity of bond breakage in the case of ion-induced HOD fragmentation. Once the molecule doubly ionized, the breakage of the O-H bond is found 6.5 times more probable than that of the O-D bond. A semi-classical calculation simulating the fragmentation dynamics on the potential energy surface of the ground-state of di-cation H{sub 2}O{sup 2+} makes possible to as well reproduce the preferential nature of the breakage of the O-H bond as the position and the shift of the kinetic energy distributions. First results concerning interaction with water clusters are also reported. Measurements in coincidence are carried out giving access to correlation, with the distributions in energy and angle of the emitted fragments. Mass spectrum points fast intra-cluster proton transfer, leading to the emission of protonated clusters. (author)

  20. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe it in. In addition, if dairy animals consume grass contaminated with iodine, the radioactive iodine will ... Requests Frequent Questions Follow. Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr Instagram Last updated on May 4, 2017

  1. Food of the Little Swift Apus affinis and African Black Swift Apus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food habits of the Little Swift Apus affinis and African Black Swift Apus barbatus were quantified at Kimberley, Northern Cape province and Makapansgat, Limpopo province, South Africa. As previously documented for other species, both of these swifts took a wide variety of aerial arthropods including spiders as well as ...

  2. Laser Induced Fluorescence for Singly Ionized Atomic Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Thomas; Scime, Earl

    2017-10-01

    While xenon is the standard propellant for a wide range of plasma thrusters, xenon is expensive and xenon propellant systems require heavy compressed gas tanks, pressure regulators, and other bulky hardware. Iodine has similar mass and is much easier to acquire than xenon. Iodines natural state of matter at room temperature is solid and is easily sublimated to gas with a simple heating element. This advantage for iodine is also a significant challenge when developing gas handling systems for iodine. Another challenge for iodine thrusters is a lack of well-defined spectroscopic diagnostics for single ionized iodine, specifically, a lack of a demonstrated laser induced fluorescence (LIF) scheme. We present emission spectroscopy measurements of iodine ion emission from the 6p5P3 - 5d5D4o transition at 695.878 nm and the 6p5P3 - 6s5S2o transition at 516.12 nm as a function of pressure and microwave power for a microwave excited iodine plasma in a sealed quartz cell at a pressure of 1 mTorr. The 5d5D4o state is metastable and was identified by Hargus et al. [48th AIAA Joint Propulsion, 2012] as a strong candidate for an iodine ion LIF scheme. We will also present preliminary LIF measurements using a tunable dye laser operating at 695.878 nm. Special thanks to Dr. William Hargus Jr. and Air Force Research Laboratory at Edwards AFB.

  3. Swift GRBs and the blast wave model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, P.A.; van der Horst, A.J.; Starling, R.L.C.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The complex structure of the light curves of Swift GRBs has made their interpretation and that of the blast wave caused by the burst, more difficult than in the pre-Swift era. We aim to constrain the blast wave parameters: electron energy distribution, p, density profile of the circumburst medium,

  4. Study of elementary transfer mechanisms during a collision between a swift multi-charged heavy ion and a neutral atom; Etude des mecanismes elementaires de transfert d`energie au cours d`une collision entre un ion lourd rapide multi-charge et un atome neutre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardin, P. [Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1995-12-31

    This work is dedicated to the study of the energy transfer mechanisms which occur during a collision between a swift multicharged heavy ion and a neutral atom. The elementary energy energy transfer mechanisms (scattering, excitation, ionization, capture) and their consequences on the target velocity after the collision (recoil velocity) are recalled in the first chapter. In the case of small projectile diffusion angles, we show that the recoil velocity component, transverse to the incident projectile direction, results principally from the diffusion mechanism, while the longitudinal component is due essentially to the mass transfer and the inelastic energy transfer mechanisms. Since the target recoil velocities are very small, we have built an experimental set-up which reduces the impreciseness on their measurement due to the target thermal spread using, as targets, cooled atoms of a supersonic jet (temperature < 1 K). The association of time of flight and localisation techniques allows us, for each ionised target atom, to determine the three recoil velocity components with a very good accuracy (a few tens of meters per second). In chapter three, we describe the data analysis method. And then we present in the last chapter the results we have obtained for the collision systems Xe{sup 44+}(6.7 MeV/A) + Ar => Xe{sup 44} + Ar{sup q+}+qe{sup -} (q ranging from 1 to 7); Xe{sup 44+} (6.7 MeV/A) + He => Xe{sup 44+} He{sup 1+,2+}+1e{sup -},2e{sup -}. We show that it is possible to interpret the recoil velocity in terms of kinetic energy transferred to the target and to the electrons ejected from the target. (author) 44 refs.

  5. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh,

  6. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrel, L. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPNS, CEN Cadarache, Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chopin, J. [Laboratoire d`Electrochimie Inorganique, ENSSPICAM, Marseille (France)

    1996-12-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40{sup o}C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H{sup +} ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I{sub 2}], [IO{sub 3}{sup -}], [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] and [H{sup +}]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs.

  7. [Iodine nutrition and thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lian; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang

    2013-08-01

    Iodine, an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland, is widely but unevenly distributed in the earth's environment. Great difference exists in the iodine nutritional status of populations residing in different region. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can injure the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency tigers endemic goiter, cretinism, and hyperthyroidism, while iodine excess can result in high iodine goiter, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism; also, iodine deficiency or excess may affect the histological type of thyroid cancer. In 1996, China began to implement the universal salt iodization policy, which has basically eliminated the iodine deficiency disorders nationwide; however, it also caused the changes in the spectra of other thyroid diseases including iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroid disease, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Individualized iodine nutritional status assessment for the populations, particularly those with thyroid diseases, will be beneficial.

  8. Retrospective reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution through the analysis of Iodine-129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Takeshi; Mao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-131 distribution released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was reconstructed through the iodine-129 measurements. From nearly 1,000 surface soil samples iodine was extracted by the pyro hydrolysis method. Extracted iodine was then mixed with carrier, purified and finally collected as silver iodide. Silver iodide sample was pressed into the cathode holder and set at the ion source of the MALT facility, The University of Tokyo. The isotopic ratio 129I/127I was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. From 129I data obtained, 131I deposition map was constructed. There observed various fine structures in the map which could not estimated neither by the simulation nor 137Cs distribution.

  9. Retrospective reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution through the analysis of Iodine-129

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuzaki Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine-131 distribution released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was reconstructed through the iodine-129 measurements. From nearly 1,000 surface soil samples iodine was extracted by the pyro hydrolysis method. Extracted iodine was then mixed with carrier, purified and finally collected as silver iodide. Silver iodide sample was pressed into the cathode holder and set at the ion source of the MALT facility, The University of Tokyo. The isotopic ratio 129I/127I was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. From 129I data obtained, 131I deposition map was constructed. There observed various fine structures in the map which could not estimated neither by the simulation nor 137Cs distribution.

  10. The first ten years of Swift supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter A.

    2015-09-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has proven to be an incredible platform for studying the multiwavelength properties of supernova explosions. In its first ten years, Swift has observed over three hundred supernovae. The ultraviolet observations reveal a complex diversity of behavior across supernova types and classes. Even amongst the standard candle type Ia supernovae, ultraviolet observations reveal distinct groups. When the UVOT data is combined with higher redshift optical data, the relative populations of these groups appear to change with redshift. Among core-collapse supernovae, Swift discovered the shock breakout of two supernovae and the Swift data show a diversity in the cooling phase of the shock breakout of supernovae discovered from the ground and promptly followed up with Swift. Swift observations have resulted in an incredible dataset of UV and X-ray data for comparison with high-redshift supernova observations and theoretical models. Swift's supernova program has the potential to dramatically improve our understanding of stellar life and death as well as the history of our universe.

  11. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  12. Iodine Deficiency and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Sviridonova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is а vital microelements that are essential for the normal human development and functions. Iodine deficiency is a global problem: about 2 billion individuals worldwide suffer from a lack of iodine. Despite goiter is the most visually noticeable manifestation of iodine deficiency, the most significant consequence of the iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. Moreover, moderate to severe iodine deficiency increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight and infant mortality. Babies in utero affected by iodine deficiency are at increased risk of mental developmental disorders, cretinism is their extreme degree. In addition, moderate to severe iodine deficiency in childhood negatively affects somatic growth. Iodine deficiency compensation improves cognitive and motor function in children. Iodine prophylaxis of deficient populations is an extremely effective approach to reduce the substantial adverse effects of iodine deficiency throughout the life cycle.

  13. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  14. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  15. Swift: Compiled Inference for Probabilistic Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yi; Li, Lei; Russell, Stuart; Bodik, Rastislav

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic program defines a probability measure over its semantic structures. One common goal of probabilistic programming languages (PPLs) is to compute posterior probabilities for arbitrary models and queries, given observed evidence, using a generic inference engine. Most PPL inference engines---even the compiled ones---incur significant runtime interpretation overhead, especially for contingent and open-universe models. This paper describes Swift, a compiler for the BLOG PPL. Swift-...

  16. Phase imaging in brain using SWIFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Lauri Juhani; Garwood, Michael; Gröhn, Olli; Corum, Curtis Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The majority of MRI phase imaging is based on gradient recalled echo (GRE) sequences. This work studies phase contrast behavior due to small off-resonance frequency offsets in brain using SWIFT, a FID-based sequence with nearly zero acquisition delay. 1D simulations and a phantom study were conducted to describe the behavior of phase accumulation in SWIFT. Imaging experiments of known brain phase contrast properties were conducted in a perfused rat brain comparing GRE and SWIFT. Additionally, a human brain sample was imaged. It is demonstrated how SWIFT phase is orientation dependent and correlates well with GRE, linking SWIFT phase to similar off-resonance sources as GRE. The acquisition time is shown to be analogous to TE for phase accumulation time. Using experiments with and without a magnetization transfer preparation, the likely effect of myelin water pool contribution is seen as a phase increase for all acquisition times. Due to the phase accumulation during acquisition, SWIFT phase contrast can be sensitized to small frequency differences between white and gray matter using low acquisition bandwidths.

  17. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  18. Swift-Hohenberg-type model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Anand; Dunkel, Joern

    Recent experiments from the Zvonimir Dogic Lab (Brandeis University) demonstrated that ATP-driven microtubule-kinesin bundles can self-assemble into two-dimensional active liquid crystals that exhibit a rich creation and annihilation dynamics of topological defects, reminiscent of particle-pair production processes in quantum systems. This remarkable discovery has sparked considerable theoretical and experimental interest. Here, we present and validate a minimal continuum theory for this new class of active matter systems by modifying the classical Landau-de Gennes theory for liquid crystals, obtaining a tensorial Swift-Hohenberg-type PDE. We simulate the resulting model numerically and develop an algorithm for tracking topological defects. We find that the resulting model agrees quantitatively with recently published data and predicts a regime of antipolar defect ordering. Ordered states go unstable as the activity parameter is increased, yet the chaotic defect dynamics still exhibit local antipolar ordering. Generally, our results suggest that complex nonequilibrium pattern-formation phenomena might be predictable from a few fundamental symmetry-breaking and scale-selection principles.

  19. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  20. Swift J0243.6+6124: Swift discovery of an accreting NS transient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennea, J. A.; Lien, A. Y.; Krimm, H. A.; Cenko, S. B.; Siegel, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    At 02:37UT on October 3, 2017, Swift/BAT triggered on a source which was identified as a possible GRB or Galactic transient (Cenko et al., GCN #21960). Continued Swift observations showed that the source was at a constant X-ray brightness over 6 orbits, ruling out the GRB nature (Kennea et al., GCN #21963).

  1. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  2. Charged iodide in chains behind the highly efficient iodine doping in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Ahmed; Tristant, Damien; Nie, Chunyang; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Headrick, Robert J.; Pasquali, Matteo; Kono, Junichiro; Meunier, Vincent; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Monthioux, Marc; Gerber, Iann C.; Puech, Pascal

    2017-11-01

    The origin of highly efficient iodine doping of carbon nanotubes is not well understood. Relying on first-principles calculations, we found that iodine molecules (I2) in contact with a carbon nanotube interact to form monoiodide or/and polyiodide from two and three I2 as a result of removing electrons from the carbon nanotube (p -type doping). Charge per iodine atom for monoiodide ion or iodine atom at end of iodine chain is significantly higher than that for I2. This atomic analysis extends previous studies showing that polyiodide ions are the dominant dopants. Moreover, we observed isolated I atoms in atomically resolved transmission electron microscopy, which proves the production of monoiodide. Finally, using Raman spectroscopy, we quantitatively determined the doping level and estimated the number of conducting channels in high electrical conductivity fibers composed of iodine-doped double-wall carbon nanotubes.

  3. Modifications induced by swift heavy ions in poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) and poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) films. Part 1. Thermal behaviour and molecular mass modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouxhet, L.; Legras, R. E-mail: legras@poly.ucl.ac.be

    2000-12-01

    Modifications induced by different energetic heavy ions in poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) have been investigated by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and steric exclusion chromatography (SEC). A certain dose of damages, depending mainly on the charge and mass of the ion and on the intensity of irradiation, has to be overcome in order to detect any effect on PHB/HV. Actually, at a given intensity of irradiation, superior to 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2}, the level of damage intensity increased with the increase in charge and mass of the ion. Moreover, according to the SEC results, there seems to be a critical mass and/or charge threshold above which the dominant type of damages changes. As a matter of fact, high-density irradiation with Ar{sup 9+} and Kr{sup 15+} resulted mainly in chain scission whereas cross-linking was dominant when irradiating the polymer with Xe{sup 24+} and Pb{sup 56+}. The irradiation of PCL in the conditions studied did not modify significantly the values of the melting point, the crystallisation temperature and the molecular masses of the system studied. The main effect of the irradiation detected by the DSC is the cross-linking of the polymer chains.

  4. Iodine Supplementation in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ghirri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely low birth weight preterm babies risk having a negative iodine balance status in the first weeks of life, exacerbating the hypothyroxinaemia of the prematurity. It is important to ensure that these babies are provided with an adequate iodine intake from the first days of life. Mothers and newborns should avoid environmental iodine excess during pregnancy or lactation.

  5. Leading-edge vortex lifts swifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, J J; Stamhuis, E J; Povel, G D E

    2004-12-10

    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60 degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel. Interactions with the flow were measured quantitatively with digital particle image velocimetry at Reynolds numbers realistic for the gliding flight of a swift between 3750 and 37,500. The results show that gliding swifts can generate stable leading-edge vortices at small (5 degrees to 10 degrees) angles of attack. We suggest that the flow around the arm-wings of most birds can remain conventionally attached, whereas the swept-back hand-wings generate lift with leading-edge vortices.

  6. Provenance management in Swift with implementation details.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadelha, L. M. R; Clifford, B.; Mattoso, M.; Wilde, M.; Foster, I. (Mathematics and Computer Science); ( CLS-CI); (Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro); (National Lab. for Scientific Computing, Brazil); (Univ. of Chicago)

    2011-04-01

    The Swift parallel scripting language allows for the specification, execution and analysis of large-scale computations in parallel and distributed environments. It incorporates a data model for recording and querying provenance information. In this article we describe these capabilities and evaluate interoperability with other systems through the use of the Open Provenance Model. We describe Swift's provenance data model and compare it to the Open Provenance Model. We also describe and evaluate activities performed within the Third Provenance Challenge, which consisted of implementing a specific scientific workflow, capturing and recording provenance information of its execution, performing provenance queries, and exchanging provenance information with other systems. Finally, we propose improvements to both the Open Provenance Model and Swift's provenance system.

  7. Long-term Results of the UCSF-LBNL Randomized Trial: Charged Particle With Helium Ion Versus Iodine-125 Plaque Therapy for Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Kavita K., E-mail: Kavita.mishra@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Quivey, Jeanne M.; Daftari, Inder K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cole, Tia B. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Patel, Kishan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Castro, Joseph R.; Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Char, Devron H. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Relevant clinical data are needed given the increasing national interest in charged particle radiation therapy (CPT) programs. Here we report long-term outcomes from the only randomized, stratified trial comparing CPT with iodine-125 plaque therapy for choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. Methods and Materials: From 1985 to 1991, 184 patients met eligibility criteria and were randomized to receive particle (86 patients) or plaque therapy (98 patients). Patients were stratified by tumor diameter, thickness, distance to disc/fovea, anterior extension, and visual acuity. Tumors close to the optic disc were included. Local tumor control, as well as eye preservation, metastases due to melanoma, and survival were evaluated. Results: Median follow-up times for particle and plaque arm patients were 14.6 years and 12.3 years, respectively (P=.22), and for those alive at last follow-up, 18.5 and 16.5 years, respectively (P=.81). Local control (LC) for particle versus plaque treatment was 100% versus 84% at 5 years, and 98% versus 79% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.0006). If patients with tumors close to the disc (<2 mm) were excluded, CPT still resulted in significantly improved LC: 100% versus 90% at 5 years and 98% versus 86% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.048). Enucleation rate was lower after CPT: 11% versus 22% at 5 years and 17% versus 37% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.01). Using Cox regression model, likelihood ratio test, treatment was the most important predictor of LC (P=.0002) and eye preservation (P=.01). CPT was a significant predictor of prolonged disease-free survival (log rank: P=.001). Conclusions: Particle therapy resulted in significantly improved local control, eye preservation, and disease-free survival as confirmed by long-term outcomes from the only randomized study available to date comparing radiation modalities in choroidal and ciliary body melanoma.

  8. Swift vs. Objective-C: A New Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian González García

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we compare the new programming language of Apple, Swift, with the main programming language of Apple before Swift, Objective-C. We are going to show the differences, characteristics and novelties to verify the words of Apple about Swift. With that we want to answer the next question: Is Swift a new programming language easier, more secure and quicker to develop than Objective-C?

  9. The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders among School Children in Metekel Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. ... field test kits and titration; a casual urine sample (5 ml) was taken from 30 children to measure urinary iodine spectrophotometrically, and 5 ml venous blood sample were collected from 37 children ...

  10. IceCube-171106A: Swift observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keivani, A.; Fox, D. B.; DeLaunay, J. J.; Kennea, J. A.; Evans, P. A.; Cowen, D. F.; Osborne, J. P.; Marshall, F. E.; Swift-IceCube Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Swift has observed the field of IceCube-171106A (Rev 0; subsequently updated to Rev 1, GCN #22105), utilizing the on-board 19-point tiling pattern to cover a region centered on RA,Dec (J2000) = (340.0d,+7.4d), with a radius of 0.8 & deg;.

  11. OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Amar; Varma, Sreedhar

    2015-01-01

    If you are an IT administrator and you want to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Basic knowledge of Linux and server technology is beneficial to get the most out of the book.

  12. Leading-Edge Vortex lifts swifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Povel, GDE

    2004-01-01

    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel.

  13. Swift Trust in Distributed Ad Hoc Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-04

    not visible or likely to be in close proximity . Page 22 Swift Trust in Distributed Ad hoc Teams Humansystems® mission ended, the servers were...simply allow less “ poetic license” when making judgements about other people. Perhaps asking about a more ambiguous behaviour or task would have yielded

  14. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...... iodine status in pregnant and breastfeeding women.......Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...

  15. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  16. Iodine supplementation improves cognition in mildly iodine-deficient children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rosie C; Rose, Meredith C; Skeaff, Sheila A; Gray, Andrew R; Morgan, Kirstie M D; Ruffman, Ted

    2009-11-01

    The effects of severe iodine deficiency during critical periods of brain development are well documented. There is little known about the consequences of milder forms of iodine deficiency on neurodevelopment. The objective was to determine whether supplementing mildly iodine-deficient children with iodine improves cognition. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 184 children aged 10-13 y in Dunedin, New Zealand. Children were randomly assigned to receive a daily tablet containing either 150 microg I or placebo for 28 wk. Biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary data were collected from each child at baseline and after 28 wk. Cognitive performance was assessed through 4 subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. At baseline, children were mildly iodine deficient [median urinary iodine concentration (UIC): 63 microg/L; thyroglobulin concentration: 16.4 microg/L]. After 28 wk, iodine status improved in the supplemented group (UIC: 145 microg/L; thyroglobulin: 8.5 microg/L), whereas the placebo group remained iodine deficient (UIC: 81 microg/L; thyroglobulin: 11.6 microg/L). Iodine supplementation significantly improved scores for 2 of the 4 cognitive subtests [picture concepts (P = 0.023) and matrix reasoning (P = 0.040)] but not for letter-number sequencing (P = 0.480) or symbol search (P = 0.608). The overall cognitive score of the iodine-supplemented group was 0.19 SDs higher than that of the placebo group (P = 0.011). Iodine supplementation improved perceptual reasoning in mildly iodine-deficient children and suggests that mild iodine deficiency could prevent children from attaining their full intellectual potential. The trial was registered with the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Register as ACTRN12608000222347.

  17. Recent Progress on GRBs with Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powerful explosions, visible to high red shift, and thought to be the signature of black hole formation. The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 bursts per year for 7 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. Evidence is building that the long and short duration subcategories of GRBs have very different origins: massive star core collapse to a black hole for long bursts and binary neutron star coalescence to a black hole for short bursts. The similarity to Type. II and Ia supernovae originating from young and old stellar progenitors is striking. Bursts are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z>S and one at z=9.4 giving metallicity measurements and other data on galaxies at previously inaccessible distances. The talk will present the latest results from Swift in GRB astronomy .

  18. How Swift is redefining time domain astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2015-09-01

    NASA's Swift satellite has completed ten years of amazing discoveries in time domain astronomy. Its primary mission is to chase gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but due to its scheduling flexibility it has subsequently become a prime discovery machine for new types of behavior. The list of major discoveries in GRBs and other transients includes the long-lived X-ray afterglows and flares from GRBs, the first accurate localization of short GRBs, the discovery of GRBs at high redshift (z > 8), supernova shock break-out from SN Ib, a jetted tidal disruption event, an ultra-long class of GRBs, high energy emission from flare stars, novae and supernovae with unusual characteristics, magnetars with glitches in their spin periods, and a short GRB with evidence of an accompanying kilonova. Swift has developed a dynamic synergism with ground based observatories. In a few years gravitational wave observatories will come on-line and provide exciting new transient sources for Swift to study.

  19. Atomic iodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.

    1978-05-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program.

  20. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  1. A new study of iodine complexes of oxidized gum arabic: An interaction between iodine monochloride and aldehyde groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akbar; Ganie, Showkat Ali; Mazumdar, Nasreen

    2018-01-15

    Gum arabic, a plant polysaccharide was oxidized with periodate to produce aldehyde groups by the cleavage of diols present in the sugar units. The oxidized gum was then iodinated with iodine monochloride (ICl) and the interaction between electrophilic iodine, I+ and reactive carbonyl groups of the modified gum was studied.Results of titrimetric estimation performed to determine the extent of oxidation and aldehyde content in the oxidized gum showed that degree of oxidation ranged between 19.68-50.19% which was observed to increase with periodate concentration; the corresponding aldehyde content was calculated to be 5.15-40.42%. Different strengths of ICl were used to iodinate the oxidized gum and the iodine content of the complexes varied from 6.11-11.72% as determined by iodometric titration. Structure elucidation of the iodine complexes conclusively established the attachment of ICl molecules to CHO groups. A reaction scheme has been proposed suggesting an electrophilic addition of the reagent to the aldehyde groups, a mechanism that was also supported by iodide ion release studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidehi Shah; Katie R. Kirsch; Diana Cervantes; David F. Zane; Tracy Haywood; Jennifer A. Horney

    2017-01-01

    Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s) from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Off...

  3. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  4. Lewis Swift celebrated comet hunter and the people's astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    This biography covers the life of Lewis Swift (1820-1913), who discovered 13 comets and nearly 1,200 other deep sky objects. All 13 comets found by Swift now bear his name, including three periodic comets with periods of 6 years (11P/Tempel-Swift-LINEAR), 9 years (64P/Swift-Gehrels), and 133 years (109P/Swift-Tuttle). Swift's enthusiasm and success as an amateur astronomer helped make him famous in the United States. With the help of others, Swift was able to buy a 16-inch refractor, the third largest telescope in the United States at the time. Hulbert Harrington Warner built "Warner Observatory" to house this telescope. As a prolific writer and lecturer, Swift's stories appeared in newspapers and magazines, while his lectures showed that he was able to explain anything in a way that everyone could understand.  When Warner went broke during the "Panic of 1893," Swift was forced to leave his home. Almost two dozen invitations arrived from around the United States asking him to bring his telescope to their ci...

  5. From an icosahedron to a plane: flattening dodecaiodo-dodecaborate by successive stripping of iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farràs, Pau; Vankova, Nina; Zeonjuk, Lei Liu; Warneke, Jonas; Dülcks, Thomas; Heine, Thomas; Viñas, Clara; Teixidor, Francesc; Gabel, Detlef

    2012-10-08

    It has been shown by electrospray ionization-ion-trap mass spectrometry that B(12)I(12)(2-) converts to an intact B(12) cluster as a result of successive stripping of single iodine radicals or ions. Herein, the structure and stability of all intermediate B(12)I(n)(-) species (n=11 to 1) determined by means of first-principles calculations are reported. The initial predominant loss of an iodine radical occurs most probably via the triplet state of B(12)I(12)(2-), and the reaction path for loss of an iodide ion from the singlet state crosses that from the triplet state. Experimentally, the boron clusters resulting from B(12)I(12)(2-) through loss of either iodide or iodine occur at the same excitation energy in the ion trap. It is shown that the icosahedral B(12) unit commonly observed in dodecaborate compounds is destabilized while losing iodine. The boron framework opens to nonicosahedral structures with five to seven iodine atoms left. The temperature of the ions has a considerable influence on the relative stability near the opening of the clusters. The most stable structures with five to seven iodine atoms are neither planar nor icosahedral. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2017-07-01

    The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx), HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect caused by the

  7. Prompt Emission Properties of Swift GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S.; Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J.; Fenimore, E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Palmer, D.; Parsons, A.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present the results from the second Swift BAT catalog of 476 gamma-ray bursts, which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. In addition to the spectral and temporal parameters extracted from the first BAT GRB catalog, 3324 time-resolved spectra have been extracted and analyzed. We show and discuss 1) the duration distribution, 2) the hardness of short GRBs, 3) Epeak distribution, 4) the line of death problem and 5) an additional power-law component in the prompt emission spectrum.

  8. GLAST Prospects for Swift-Era Afterglows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, L.J.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Meszaros, P.; /Penn State U.

    2011-11-23

    We calculate the GeV spectra of gamma-ray burst afterglows produced by inverse Compton scattering of these objects sub-MeV emission. We improve on earlier treatments by using refined afterglow parameters and new model developments motivated by recent Swift observations. We present time-dependent GeV spectra for standard, constant-parameter models, as well as for models with energy injection and with time-varying parameters, for a range of burst parameters. We evaluate the limiting redshift to which such afterglows can be detected by the GLAST Large Area Telescope, as well as by AGILE.

  9. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  10. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on surface resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This peak, associated with the order–disorder transition of the FLL, is rationalized within the Larkin–Ovchinnikov ... its spatial order. We have shown in an earlier communication [6] the observation of PE in. 959 ... feature close to Tc. Pinning of magnetic flux lines due to either inherent material disorder or due to defect sites ...

  11. Peak effect at microwave frequencies in swift heavy ion irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disorder, results in a peak in the critical current density Jc near Tc (Hc2), known as 'peak effect' (PE). The earliest understanding of the PE [4,5] is based on the collective pinning scenario that involves the softening of the elastic moduli (c66 and c44) of the flux line lattice. (FLL) near Tc (Hc2) where the superconducting order ...

  12. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced modification of structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modification of structure and surface morphology of the films under irradiation was studied using glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Fluence dependence of GIXRD peak intensity indicated formation of 10 nm diameter cylindrical amorphous columns in crystalline BFO due to ...

  13. Characterization of biodegradable polymers irradiated with swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salguero, N.G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Grosso, M.F. del, E-mail: delgrosso@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 C1033AAJ CABA (Argentina); Duran, H. [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 C1033AAJ CABA (Argentina); Gerencia de Desarrollo Tecnologico y Proyectos Especiales, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Mart Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Acute-Accent n, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, H. Yrigoyen 3100, CP 1650, San Martin, UNSAM (Argentina); Peruzzo, P.J. [CICPBA - Grupo de Materiales y Nanomateriales Polimericos, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT La Plata CONICET - Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Amalvy, J.I. [CICPBA - Grupo de Materiales y Nanomateriales Polimericos, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT La Plata CONICET - Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 116 y 48 (B1900TAG), La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad Regional La Plata, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, 60 y 124 (1900), La Plata (Argentina); and others

    2012-02-15

    In view of their application as biomaterials, there is an increasing interest in developing new methods to induce controlled cell adhesion onto polymeric materials. The critical step in all these methods involves the modification of polymer surfaces, to induce cell adhesion, without changing theirs degradation and biocompatibility properties. In this work two biodegradable polymers, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) were irradiated using carbon and sulfur beams with different energies and fluences. Pristine and irradiated samples were degradated by immersion in a phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 and then characterized. The analysis after irradiation and degradation showed a decrease in the contact angle values and changes in their crystallinity properties.

  14. Kinetic cartography of radioisotopes of iodine in the thyroid follicles of the new-born rats under low or standard iodine diet: Analyzed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS50): Contribution to the study of the consequences of Chernobyl; Cartographie cinetique des radioisotopes de l'iode dans le follicule thyroidien du rat nouveau-ne carence en iode ou non. Analyse par spectrometrie de masse d'ions secondaires (NanoSIMS50). Contribution a l'etude des consequences de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbast, M

    2008-03-15

    The most significant impact of the Chernobylsk accident is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among children in contaminated areas. To estimate the radiation dose provided by radioiodine released after Chernobylsk (iodine 131 and short-lived isotopes, iodine 132, 133, 134, 135), we used new-born rats to mimic the situation of fallout contamination (young age and iodine deficiency). The pups, under low iodine diet and under standard diet, were contaminated with {sup 129}I at ages varying between 2 to 15 days and sacrificed 1, 4, 8, 24 hours and 4, 8 days after contamination. The variation in intra colloidal iodine distribution from 1 hour to 8 days was performed using a new ionic nano probe (NanoSIMS50). This method permits to discriminate between the newly incorporated iodine (129) and the initial pool of iodine (127). SIMS observations permit to heterogeneous intra and inter follicular distribution of {sup 129}I. Iodine deficiency increases the absorbed amounts of iodine by a factor 10. Dosimetric estimations show an important contribution of short-lived radioiodine to the total thyrocyte dose. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the age and the iodine deficiency accelerate the absorption of iodine in follicles and that the contribution of short-lived iodine connate ne neglected. (author)

  15. Gliding Swifts Attain Laminar Flow over Rough Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; De Kat, R.

    2014-01-01

    Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1–2% of chord length on the upper surface—10,000 times rougher than sailplane

  16. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  17. Testing the blast wave model with Swift GRBs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, P.A.; Starling, R.L.C.; van der Horst, A.J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The complex structure of the light curves of Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) has made the identification of breaks, and the interpretation of the blast wave caused by the burst, more difficult than in the pre-Swift era. We aim to identify breaks, which are possibly hidden, and to constrain the blast

  18. Testing the blast wave model with Swift GRBs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, P.A.; Starling, R.L.C.; van der Horst, A.J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; de Pasquale, M.; Page, M.

    2011-01-01

    The complex structure of the light curves of Swift GRBs (e.g. superimposed flares and shallow decay) has made their interpretation and that of the blast wave caused by the burst, more difficult than in the pre-Swift era. We aim to constrain the blast wave parameters: electron energy distribution, p,

  19. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Christopher Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ennis, Brandon Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  20. The Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Daniel A.

    I will describe the Swift Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a comprehensive multiwavelengthprogram to characterize the demographics of the GRB host population and its redshift evolution from z=0 to z=7.Using unbiased selection criteria we have designated a subset of 119 Swift gamma-ray bursts which are now beingtargeted with intensive observational follow-up. Deep Spitzer imaging of every field has already been obtained andanalyzed, with major programs ongoing at Keck, GTC, Gemini, VLT, and Magellan to obtain complementaryoptical/NIR photometry and spectroscopy to enable full SED modeling and derivation of fundamental physicalparameters such as mass, extinction, and star-formation rate. Using these data I will present an unbiasedmeasurement of the GRB host-galaxy luminosity and mass distributions and their evolution with redshift, compareGRB hosts to other star-forming galaxy populations, and discuss implications for the nature of the GRB progenitor andthe ability of GRBs to serve as tools for measuring and studying cosmic star-formation in the distant universe.

  1. GRBs in the Era of Swift and Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racusin, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing both Swift and Fermi to study GRBs provides us with a unique broad spectral and temporal window into both prompt emission and afterglow studies. Swift has provided key information from GRB follow-up of LAT detected bursts) that has led to ground-based redshift measurements and afterglow broadband light curves and SEDs. We study the X-ray and optical afterglows of Fermi-LAT detected bursts in the context of the hundreds of GRBs discovered by Swift over the last 7 years) in order to better understand the origin of the high-energy gamma-rays. We also briefly describe the efforts to best facilitate joint Swift-Fermi observations. These initial results demonstrate the synergy between Swift and Fermi) and hint at the many interesting discoveries to come.

  2. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  3. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  4. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps...... strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine....... The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children...

  5. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  6. Radiochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures. (JRD)

  7. The iodine molecule insights into intra- and intermolecular perturbation in diatomic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lukashov, Sergey; Pravilov, Anatoly

    2018-01-01

    This book presents experimental and theoretical spectroscopic studies performed over the last 25 years on the iodine molecule’s excited states and their perturbations. It is going to be of interest to researchers who study intra- and intermolecular perturbations in diatomic molecules and more complex systems. The book offers a detailed treatment of the nonadiabatic perturbations of valence, ion pair and Rydberg states induced by intramolecular as well as intermolecular interactions in collisions or in weakly-bound complexes. It also provides an overview of current instrumentation and techniques as well as theoretical approaches describing intra- and intermolecular perturbations. The authors are experts in the use of spectroscopy for the study of intrinsic and collision-induced perturbations in diatomic iodine. They introduced new methods of two- and three-step optical population of the iodine ion-pair states. The iodine molecule has 23 valence states correlating with three dissociation limits, 20 so-called ...

  8. Supernova Classification Using Swift UVOT Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Madison; Brown, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    With the great influx of supernova discoveries over the past few years, the observation time needed to acquire the spectroscopic data needed to classify supernova by type has become unobtainable. Instead, using the photometry of supernovae could greatly reduce the amount of time between discovery and classification. For this project we looked at the relationship between colors and supernova types through machine learning packages in Python. Using data from the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT), each photometric point was assigned values corresponding to colors, absolute magnitudes, and the relative times from the peak brightness in several filters. These values were fed into three classifying methods, the nearest neighbors, decision tree, and random forest methods. We will discuss the success of these classification systems, the optimal filters for photometric classification, and ways to improve the classification.

  9. Electron loss and transfer for 20-110-keV iodine-rare-gas collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, B.; Orakzai, M. W.; Rahman, F.

    1989-05-01

    Atomic cross sections have been measured for the loss and transfer of an electron during a collision between a neutral iodine atom and a rare-gas atom. The neutral iodine beam, with energy between 20 to 110 keV, was unlikely to contain a significant mixture of metastable-state atoms because it was produced by neutralizing a negative-iodine-ion beam. The σ0+ cross section is largest for the argon and krypton targets, not for xenon, as might have been expected. The σ0- cross section is very small for the light targets and only becomes appreciable for xenon at the highest energy used.

  10. Aerodynamics of gliding flight in common swifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, P; Hedenström, A

    2011-02-01

    Gliding flight performance and wake topology of a common swift (Apus apus L.) were examined in a wind tunnel at speeds between 7 and 11 m s(-1). The tunnel was tilted to simulate descending flight at different sink speeds. The swift varied its wingspan, wing area and tail span over the speed range. Wingspan decreased linearly with speed, whereas tail span decreased in a nonlinear manner. For each airspeed, the minimum glide angle was found. The corresponding sink speeds showed a curvilinear relationship with airspeed, with a minimum sink speed at 8.1 m s(-1) and a speed of best glide at 9.4 m s(-1). Lift-to-drag ratio was calculated for each airspeed and tilt angle combinations and the maximum for each speed showed a curvilinear relationship with airspeed, with a maximum of 12.5 at an airspeed of 9.5 m s(-1). Wake was sampled in the transverse plane using stereo digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The main structures of the wake were a pair of trailing wingtip vortices and a pair of trailing tail vortices. Circulation of these was measured and a model was constructed that showed good weight support. Parasite drag was estimated from the wake defect measured in the wake behind the body. Parasite drag coefficient ranged from 0.30 to 0.22 over the range of airspeeds. Induced drag was calculated and used to estimate profile drag coefficient, which was found to be in the same range as that previously measured on a Harris' hawk.

  11. IODINE METABOLISM AND PROPHYLAXIS OF IODINE DEFICIENT DISEASES IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Troshina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of iodine metabolism in human organism, physiological need in this microelement, prevalence and criteria of diagnosis of iodine deficient diseases are presented in this article. The measures, essential to the iodine deficiency prophylaxis are described, and possible choices of compensation of iodine deficiency in provisions, including milk formulas, are discussed. recommendations of international expert medical societies, giving evidence of prophylaxis of thyroid gland diseases, related with iodine deficiency, are presented.Key words: children, iodine, prophylaxis.

  12. Observing iodine monoxide from satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Begoin, Mathias; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    Iodine and iodine monoxide (IO) belong to the group of reactive halogen species, and they may impact on atmospheric chemical composition and the radiation budget. Vice versa, sur-rounding conditions may influence the emissions and pathways of iodine compounds. Although atmospheric amounts of iodine are typically fairly small, the impact may still be substantial. Iodine radicals are photolytically released from precursors and may then cause catalytic ozone depletion. In this reaction with ozone, IO is produced, a molecule which plays a central role in the iodine cycling. Via self reactions of IO, higher iodine oxides form and initiate the formation of new particles, which may change the atmospheric radiation balance. Apart from that, many living species, including human beings, vertebrates in general, but also micro-and macroalgae species, e.g., depend on the supply with iodine. Consequently, it is necessary to understand the cycling of iodine through the different components of the Earth system. Although increas-ing research effort in the form of field, laboratory and modeling studies has strongly improved our knowledge and understanding of iodine abundances and impact, still many open questions remain. The relevance of iodine on a global scale is not well known yet; sources are not well quantified and release processes are not fully understood. Since recently, IO may be observed from space by the SCIAMACHY instrument on the EN-VISAT satellite, which is in a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. Nadir observations from SCIAMACHY have been analysed for the IO absorption signature in the visible wavelength range for several mission years. IO amounts are typically close to the limit of detectability of SCIAMACHY. Detecting such small quantities, careful attention needs to be paid to system-atic errors, spectral correlations and resulting retrieval artefacts. Subsequently, appropriate temporal averaging is utilised to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The resulting

  13. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  14. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution.

  15. Evaluation of Swift Start TCP in Long-Delay Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawas-Grodek, Frances J.; Tran, Diepchi T.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the test results of the Swift Start algorithm in single-flow and multiple-flow testbeds under the effects of high propagation delays, various slow bottlenecks, and small queue sizes. Although this algorithm estimates capacity and implements packet pacing, the findings were that in a heavily congested link, the Swift Start algorithm will not be applicable. The reason is that the bottleneck estimation is falsely influenced by timeouts induced by retransmissions and the expiration of delayed acknowledgment (ACK) timers, thus causing the modified Swift Start code to fall back to regular transmission control protocol (TCP).

  16. Beginning Swift games development for iOS

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwill, James

    2015-01-01

    Game apps are one of the most popular categories in the Apple iTunes App Store. Well, the introduction of the new Swift programming language will make game development even more appealing and easier to existing and future iOS app developers. In response, James Goodwill, Wesley Matlock and Apress introduce you to this book, Beginning Swift Games Development for iOS. In this book, you'll learn the fundamental elements of the new Swift language as applied to game development for iOS. In part 1, you'll start with a basic 2D game idea and build the game throughout the book introducing each Sprit

  17. Selective injection and isolation of ions in quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry using notched waveforms created using the inverse Fourier transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, M.H.; Cooks, R.G. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Broad-band excitation of ions is accomplished in the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer using notched waveforms created by the SWIFT (stored waveform inverse Fourier transform) technique. A series of notched SWIFT pulses are applied during the period of ion injection from an external Cs[sup +] source to resonantly eject all ions whose resonance frequencies fall within the frequency range of the pulse while injecting only those analyte ions whose resonance frequencies fall within the limits of the notch. This allows selective injection and accumulation of the ions of interest and continuous ejection of the unwanted ions. This is shown to result in significant improvement in S/N ratio, resolution, and sensitivity for the analyte ions of interest. Selective ion injection is demonstrated by injecting the protonated molecules of peptides VSV and gramicidin S and the intact cation of l-carnitine hydrochloride, using singly notched SWIFT pulses. Multiply notched SWIFT pulses are used to simultaneously inject ions of different m/z values of l-carnitine hydrochloride into the ion trap. A new coarse/fine ion isolation procedure, which employs a doubly notched SWIFT pulse, is demonstrated for isolating ions of a single m/z value of 4-bromobiphenyl from a population of trapped ions. 36 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...

  19. Seattle wide-area information for travelers (SWIFT) : architecture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-19

    The SWIFT (Seattle Wide-area Information For Travelers) Field Operational Test was intended to evaluate the performance of a large-scale urban Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) deployment in the Seattle area. The unique features of the SWIF...

  20. Sandia SWiFT Site Safe Work Planning Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility provides research site with multiple wind turbines at a scale useful for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. Safety of workers and the public is the top and overriding priority at SWiFT. Central to safe operations are formal planning processes . This manual provides an overview of test planning and work planning processes and requirements in adherence with the Sandia corporate Engineered Safety Work Planning and Control process. It is required reading for all SWiFT site staff, Sandia workers, and collaborators who oversee, conduct, or participate in test activities or who are involved in modifying Sandia SWiFT site assets.

  1. Spectrophotometric and Thermal Studies of the Reaction of Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    characteristic of the I3. – ion with C2v symmetry. .... Figure 2 Photometric titration curve for the [Ni(acac)2]-I2 system in chloroform at 361 nm. .... the absorptivity, g, and the oscillator strength, f, of the iodine complex in each solvent. The modified 1:1 Benesi-Hildebrand equation,27. C C. A. K. C. C a. 0 d. 0 a. 0 d. 0. 1. 1. = +. +.

  2. Iodination of Alcohols over Keggin-type Heteropoly Compounds: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    137. S. Afr. J. Chem., 2010, 63, 135–140,. . Table 1 Effect of different HPA-catalysts in iodination of benzyl alcohol.a. Group. Catalyst. Time (min). Yield (%)b. Single-addenda HPCs. PW12. 17. 90. H3PMo12O40. 30. 65. H4SiW12O40. 30. 80. HPC with paramagnetic ion. K5CoW12O40.

  3. Correlative Analysis of GRBs Detected by Swift and Suzaku- WAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H.A.; Sakamoto, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Sugita, S.; Ohno, M.; Sato, G.; Hara, R.; Ohmori, N.; Tanaka, H.; Yamauchi, M.; hide

    2009-01-01

    It is now well known that a complete understanding of the energetics of the prompt phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) requires full knowledge of the spectrum, extending at least as high as the peak energy (Epeak) of the vF(v) spectrum. Since most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have Epeak above the energy range (15-150 keV) of the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift, a full understanding of the prompt emission from Swift GRBs requires spectral fits over as broad an energy range as possible. This can be completed for bursts which are simultaneously detected by Swift BAT and the Suzaku Wide-band All-Sky Monitor (WAM), which covers the energy range from 50-5000 keV. Between the launch of Suzaku in July 2005 and the end of 2008, there were 44 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which triggered both Swift and WAM and an additional 41 bursts which triggered Swift and were detected by WAM, but did not trigger. A joint BAT-WAM team has cross-calibrated the two instruments using GRBs, and we are now able to perform joint fits on these bursts to determine spectral parameters including Epeak. The results of broad spectral fits allows us to understand the distribution of Epeak for Swift bursts and to calibrate Epeak estimators when Epeak is within the BAT energy range. For those bursts with spectroscopic redshifts, we can calculate the isotropic energy and study various correlations between Epeak and other global burst parameters. Here we present the results of joint Swift/BAT-Suzaku/WAM spectral fits for 77 of the bursts jointly detected by the two instruments. We show that the distribution of spectral fit parameters is consistent with distributions from earlier missions and confirm that Swift bursts are consistent with earlier reported relationships between Epeak and isotropic energy. We show through time-resolved spectroscopy that individual burst pulses are also consistent with this relationship.

  4. Adsorption of Acetic Acid, Cadmium ions, Lead ions and Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the yields of the saw dust were 44% at 600oC and 40% at 800oC with moisture content of 17% and 19% respectively. A detailed study of mass transfer processes indicated that activated carbon from these materials show good performance. @JASEM J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. Sept, 2011, Vol. 15 (3) 467 - 472 ...

  5. Adsorption of Acetic Acid, Cadmium ions, Lead ions and Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    pesticides, as plant nutrients and as a constituent of waste products. These heavy metals may include cadmium, zinc ... effluent might contain non-biodegradable matter, toxic heavy metals, organic matter and also might ..... (2003) Wastewater Engineering Treatment and. Reuse, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing.

  6. Resonant coherent excitation of channeled ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datz, S.; Moak, C.D.; Crawford, O.H.; Krause, H.F.; Dittner, P.F.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Miller, P.D.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.

    1978-03-27

    We have observed resonant excitation of swift channeled hydrogenlike ions (Z = 5 to Z = 9) and heliumlike F/sup 7 +/ which arises from a coherent periodic perturbation by the atoms in the bounding crystal rows. The resonance excitation was seen through the reduction in the transmission of fixed-charge-state ions through channels in thin crystals of Au and Ag.

  7. A novel spectrophotometric determination of some phenothiazines involving iodine monochloride from chloramine-T with iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtham, Malledevarapura D; Kumar, Mysore S Yogendra; Sathish, Mahadeshwarabetta A; Nagendrappa, Giddappa

    2004-11-01

    A novel, simple, sensitive spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of five phenothiazines. Chloramine-T with iodine in acetic acid produces iodine monochloride which oxidizes phenothiazines to absorbing cations. Those would associate later with unreacted ICl to form an ion pair, [Ph+] [ICl-(2)] in hydrochloric acid medium. These appear to provide exceptional color stability to the systems. A probable mechanism along with experimental stoichiometry and stability constants of such ion pairs is indicated. The method is not only successful in stabilizing the color of the systems, but also in making a unique observation of two regions of concentration of phenothiazines adhering separately to Beer's law. The results obtained from the analyses of pure samples and their drug formulations in both regions of concentration are comparable with those obtained either with a reported titrimetric method or with a British Pharmacopoeia (B.P.) UV-spectrophotometric method. The conditions required for the quantitative determination of phenothiazines are described and related analytical parameters are also calculated.

  8. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  9. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  10. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program, Busek Co. Inc. tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high flow iodine feed system,...

  11. Breast Milk Iodine and Iodine Status of Breast-Fed Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Golam Morshed Molla; M Iqbal Arslan; Mafruha Tazkin Milky

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Iodine status of breast-fed infants depends on iodine in breast milk and also number of feeding in 24 hours. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess both have bad impact on infant’s health. Objective: To measure the iodine in breast milk and to evaluate iodine status of their breast-fed infants. Materials and method: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Bioch...

  12. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed....... The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  13. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...

  14. Iodine in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Crill, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Methods for assessment of iodine nutrition in individuals include the urinary iodine concentration (UI), thyroid size and thyroid function tests. The UI measured in several

  15. EL FUTURO DE APPLE: SWIFT VERSUS OBJECTIVE-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian González García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hace unos meses Apple presentó un nuevo lenguaje de programación para sus plataformas: Swift. Con Swift, Apple pretende atraer a los programadores de los lenguajes de programación basados en la sintaxis de C++ y darles una mayor abstracción, que con Objective-C, para que sea más fácil programar para las plataformas de Apple. Por estas razones, se hace necesario contrastar lo pretendido por Apple y realizar un estudio del lenguaje de programación a fin de contrastar su objetivo. Para ello, se hicieron dos evaluaciones, una cualitativa y otra cuantitativa, con el propósito de verificar en qué medida Swift es un avance respecto a Objective-C.DThe Future of Apple: Swift Versus Objective-CABSTRACTFew months ago, Apple presented a new programming language: Swift. With Swift, Apple pretends to attract the programmers of the programming languages based on C++ syntax and gives them a higher abstraction than with Objective-C for being easier to programme to Apple’s platforms. For these reasons, it is necessary to contrast what is intended by Apple and do a study of the programming language to ascertain their goal. For this purpose, we did two evaluations, firstly a qualitative evaluation and after, a quantitative evaluation to verify in how much Swift is an advance with respect to Objective-C.Keywords: computer languages, computer programming, functional programming, object oriented programming, programming, software.

  16. [Prophylaxis iodine deficit: information support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhatdoeva, F A; Gerasimov, G A; Syrtsova, L E; Polesskiĭ, V A; Rasova, L K; Krasil'shchikov, M I

    2011-01-01

    An insufficient intake of micronutrients has massive and permanent nature and influence negatively to health, growth and vitality of the entire nation. One-third part of Russian schoolchildren suffer from deficiency of iron and iodine. Every year in Russia 215,000 children are born with brain damages associated with iodine deficiency. Raising the public awareness regarding the risks and prevention of micronutrient deficiency is the key issue of public health and nutrition. The study which included 4500 respondents in the Urals Federal District showed 2-4-fold increase awareness of the respondents in different positions after the communication campaign for prevention of micronutrient deficiency.

  17. Infinite Polyiodide Chains in the Pyrroloperylene-Iodine Complex: Insights into the Starch-Iodine and Perylene-Iodine Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Sheri; Evans, Hayden A; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V T; Labram, John G; Wu, Guang; Chabinyc, Michael L; Seshadri, Ram; Wudl, Fred

    2016-07-04

    We report the preparation and X-ray crystallographic characterization of the first crystalline homoatomic polymer chain, which is part of a semiconducting pyrroloperylene-iodine complex. The crystal structure contains infinite polyiodide I∞ (δ-) . Interestingly, the structure of iodine within the insoluble, blue starch-iodine complex has long remained elusive, but has been speculated as having infinite chains of iodine. Close similarities in the low-wavenumber Raman spectra of the title compound and starch-iodine point to such infinite polyiodide chains in the latter as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Iodine Gas Adsorption in Nanoporous Materials: A Combined Experiment–Modeling Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sava Gallis, Dorina F.; Ermanoski, Ivan; Greathouse, Jeffrey A.; Chapman, Karena W.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2017-02-13

    Here, we present a combined experimental and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) modeling study on the adsorption of iodine in three classes of nanoporous materials: activated charcoals, zeolites, and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). Iodine adsorption profiles were measured for the first time in situ, with a uniquely designed sorption apparatus. It was determined that pore size and pore environment are responsible for a dynamic adsorption profile, correlated with distinct pressure ranges. At pressures below 0.3 atm, iodine adsorption is governed by a combination of small pores and extra-framework components (e.g., Ag+ ions in the zeolite mordenite). At regimes above 0.3 atm, the amount of iodine gas stored relates with an increase in pore size and specific surface area. GCMC results validate the trends noted experimentally and in addition provide a measure of the strength of the adsorbate–adsorbent interactions in these materials.

  19. Is Gippsland environmentally iodine deficient? Water iodine concentrations in the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ashequr; Deacon, Nicholas; Panther, Barbara; Chesters, Janice; Savige, Gayle

    2010-12-01

      This paper provides evidence of environmental iodine deficiency in the Gippsland region.   Quantitative study; water samples were collected from 18 water treatment plants and four rain water tanks across Gippsland and water iodine concentrations were measured.   Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia.   This paper reports on the iodine concentration of drinking water from sources across Gippsland and examines the contribution of iodine from water to the Gippsland diet. This study also briefly examines the relationship between the concentration of iodine in water and distance from the sea. The cut-off value for water iodine concentrations considered to be indicative of environmental iodine deficiency is water from 18 Gippsland water treatment plants was 0.38 µg L(-1) and would therefore make negligible difference to the dietary intake of iodine. This finding also falls well below the suggested dietary intake of iodine from water estimated by the 22nd Australian Total Diet Study. Our study found no linear relationship between the water iodine concentration and distance from the sea.   As Gippsland has environmental iodine deficiency there is a greater probability that people living in this region are at higher risk of dietary iodine deficiency than those living in environmentally iodine sufficient regions. Populations living in areas known to have environmental iodine deficiency should be monitored regularly to ensure that problems of iodine deficiency, especially amongst the most vulnerable, are addressed promptly. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  20. Unusual Swift-BAT Detected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, James; Winter, L.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of our study were to analyze two odd AGN sources, NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212, and determine if they were Compton-thick and low-redshift ERO analogs. The sources are strange because initial Swift XRT data lead us to believe the sources could be Compton-thick, typical of Seyfert 2 galaxies but they have broadlines in their optical spectra, typical of Seyfert 1 galaxies. These are two contradictory categorizations which made these sources very unique. In addition to the puzzling spectra, their SEDs are similar to the SED of a high redshift ERO and unlike things we typically see at their lower redshift. In order to study these sources further, we acquired and reduced higher quality XMM-Newton X-ray data. We then modeled the two spectra using XSPEC and learned that both sources had many complex components. From the higher quality data, we determined that they were heavily obscured, but not to the point of being considered Compton-thick. Both of the spectral fit models were heavily dependent on partial covering and reflection models. We found very high covering fractions and high column densities in both of our models, which was consistent with the galaxies being heavily obscured as we initially assumed. Further, we believe that future study of the sources as low-redshift ERO analogs can assist in better understanding of the early universe EROs we often see. If further study confirms the analogous relationship, these sources provide a great opportunity to add to our scientific knowledge about ERO evolution.

  1. New potentiometric sensor for the determination of iodine species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kormosh, Zholt, E-mail: kormosh@univer.lutsk.ua; Savchuk, Tanya

    2012-12-01

    The characteristics, performance and application of novel triiodide potentiometric sensor based on ion-pair of Rhodamine B triiodide as a membrane carrier are described. The electrode has a linear dynamic range between 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M, with a Nernstian slope of 68 {+-} 1 mV pC{sup -1} and detection limit of 3.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M. Fast and stable response, good reproducibility, long-term stability, very good selectivity over a large number of common organic and inorganic anions, applicability over a pH range of 2-10 are demonstrated. The proposed sensor has been applied for potentiometric determination of some iodine species. - Graphical abstract: Materials Science and Engineering C, Volume 000, Issue 0, Pages 0000-0000 (2012). New Potentiometric sensor for the Determination of Iodine Species. Zholt Kormosh, Tanya Savchuk. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triiodide potentiometric sensor based on an ion-pair of Rhodamine B triiodide as a membrane carrier Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrode has a linear dynamic range between 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Nernstian slope of 68 {+-} 1 mV pC{sup -1} and detection limit of 3.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Indicator electrode in potentiometric determination of some iodine species.

  2. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most of these patients do not always present with typical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Treatment can be very challenging as drugs commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism have little effect on already formed thyroid hormone due to iodine excess. PMID:22053166

  3. Dietary flavonoids and iodine Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, van der J.P.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, H.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2003-01-01

    Flavonoids have inhibiting effects on the proliferation of cancer cells, including thyroidal ones. In the treatment of thyroid cancer the uptake of iodide is essential. Flavonoids are known to interfere with iodide organification ill vitro, and to cause goiter. The influence of flavonoids on iodine

  4. Determination of iodine and iodine compounds in marine samples by ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maiken Sødergreen; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    2014-01-01

    seaweed and fish, which contain elevated levels of iodine (fish typically 1-10 mg/kg and seaweed up to 8000 mg/kg). These marine food items may contain different iodine species, which may have different bioavailability and toxicity, and hence there is an increased interest in developing analytical methods......By now it is a well-known fact that iodine is an essential trace element for the growth and development of the human body. Because of iodine deficiency, some countries have added iodate to salt in order to increase the iodine intake. However, some people prefer iodine from more natural sources like...... for determining the different iodine species. For determining the total iodine concentration in marine samples five different extraction methods were compared. The most efficient and precise method was then used for determining the total concentration of iodine in seaweed and fish samples using inductively...

  5. Iodine Speciation in Marine Aerosol of the Atlantic Ocean (AMT21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodle, Chan; von Glasow, Roland; Baker, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Iodine chemistry in marine aerosol plays important roles in the marine boundary layer such as ozone destruction and new aerosol particle formation. In both cases, the speciation of iodine is an important factor in determining the role of iodine in these processes. Iodine has a complex chemistry in the gas and aerosol phases and to date the interactions and roles of individual iodine species are not well understood. This study will present results of a research cruise from the Atlantic Ocean, AMT21, which travelled from Avonmouth in the UK to Punta Arenas, Chile during September to November 2011. Aerosol samples were collected for 24 hours onto pre-cleaned glass fibre filters with a flow rate of ~1 m3 min-1, using a total suspended particulate sampler. Collected aerosol samples were extracted into ultra-pure water using mechanical shaking at room temperature. Iodine speciation in these extracts was measured using ion-chromatography coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma-Spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). Soluble organic iodine (SOI) was then determined by differences between the sum of inorganic iodine (iodide and iodate) and total soluble iodine determined by ICP-MS. Chemical analysis of major ions was also analysed by ion chromatography. Back trajectories were used to categorise air masses of aerosol, according to their origins and transport pathways. Results show considerable differences in the iodine speciation of fine and coarse aerosol particles. These differences of iodine proportions in both aerosol modes agree well with previous studies in the Atlantic. Iodate was dominant species in coarse mode aerosol, its concentration ranged from 4.4 to 58.4 pmol m-3 (median proportion 80%), while SOI and iodide were found in lower concentrations. SOI concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 6.4 pmol m-3 (median proportion 12%) and iodide concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 4.6 pmol m-3 (median proportion 9%) respectively. For fine mode aerosol, lower iodate concentrations were observed

  6. Transcutaneous iodine absorption in adult patients with thyroid cancer disinfected with povidone-iodine at operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Chisato; Kitano, Hiroya; Uruno, Takashi; Takamura, Yuuki; Ito, Yasuhiro; Miya, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Matsuzuka, Fumio; Amino, Nobuyuki; Kuma, Kanji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2005-06-01

    Povidone-iodine is used as disinfection in patients undergoing many kinds of operations. Several cases of thyroid dysfunction induced by transcutaneous absorption of povidone-iodine have been reported in small infants. However, transcutaneous absorption was not clearly reported in adults. The aim of this study was to assess transcutaneous absorption of iodine in patients who received single topical application with povidoneiodine and serial changes of urinary iodine excretion under the condition with a simple iodine-restricted diet in Japan, an iodine-sufficient area. Sixty-eight patients with thyroid carcinoma undergoing total thyroidectomy received single skin disinfection with either povidone-iodine (group A; n = 47) or chlohexidine gluconate, a noniodine containing biguanide (group B; n = 21). In group A, urinary iodine excretion on the first day after operation increased up to 7 times that of the preoperative value. The amounts of urinary iodine correlated positively with operating time. Increased urinary iodine, however, returned to preoperative values on the third or fifth day after operation. In group B, there was no increase in urinary iodine excretion and urinary iodine excretion was ranged from 54 to 193 microg/g of creatinine on the third day of operation. In conclusion, a large amount of povidone-iodine was absorbed through healthy skin even in adults. This may possibly interfere with scintigraphy or radioactive iodine treatment, or cause thyroid disinfection in susceptible patients.

  7. Accelerating Medical Research using the Swift Workflow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEF-PRAUN, Tiberiu; CLIFFORD, Benjamin; FOSTER, Ian; HASSON, Uri; HATEGAN, Mihael; SMALL, Steven L.; WILDE, Michael; ZHAO, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Both medical research and clinical practice are starting to involve large quantities of data and to require large-scale computation, as a result of the digitization of many areas of medicine. For example, in brain research – the domain that we consider here – a single research study may require the repeated processing, using computationally demanding and complex applications, of thousands of files corresponding to hundreds of functional MRI studies. Execution efficiency demands the use of parallel or distributed computing, but few medical researchers have the time or expertise to write the necessary parallel programs. The Swift system addresses these concerns. A simple scripting language, SwiftScript, provides for the concise high-level specification of workflows that invoke various application programs on potentially large quantities of data. The Swift engine provides for the efficient execution of these workflows on sequential computers, parallel computers, and/or distributed grids that federate the computing resources of many sites. Last but not least, the Swift provenance catalog keeps track of all actions performed, addressing vital bookkeeping functions that so often cause difficulties in large computations. To illustrate the use of Swift for medical research, we describe its use for the analysis of functional MRI data as part of a research project examining the neurological mechanisms of recovery from aphasia after stroke. We show how SwiftScript is used to encode an application workflow, and present performance results that demonstrate our ability to achieve significant speedups on both a local parallel computing cluster and multiple parallel clusters at distributed sites. PMID:17476063

  8. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Office and analyzed to describe spatial and temporal characteristics of rescues. Between 2005 and 2014, 3256 swift water rescues were reported from 136 of 254 (54% counties. Over half (54.6%, n = 1777 occurred in counties known as Flash Flood Alley, which includes Texas’ largest and fastest growing cities. Less than 1.0% (n = 18 were reported from 49 counties designated as completely rural, or with an urban population less than 2500. Increases in swift water rescues were seen between March and September and during major weather events such as tropical storms. Because county-level data was utilized and demographic data was missing in all but 2% (n = 47 of the incidents, our ability to identify populations at risk or target interventions in the future using this data is limited. Despite the frequency of flash flood events and swift water rescues in Texas, knowledge gaps persist that should be addressed through the conduct of interdisciplinary research by epidemiologists and climatologists and by disseminating evidence-based health education and safety programs, particularly in rapidly growing counties that make up Texas’ Flash Flood Alley.

  9. Urinary iodine as an iodine deficiency test in lung transplant recipients in order to prevent iodine deficiency disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanjek-Cichoracka, Anita; Żegleń, Sławomir; Woźniak-Grygiel, Elżbieta; Laszewska, Anna; Sindera, Piotr; Wojarski, Jacek; Ochman, Marek; Karolak, Wojtek; Zembala, Marian

    2014-10-07

    In Poland, lung transplantation (LTx) as a routine method began in 2004, and since then, the Silesian Center for Heart Disease in Zabrze 85 LTx has performed (54 single-lung transplantations, 30 double-lung transplantations, and 1 heart-lung) transplantation. The recommendation to take vitamin supplements (without specific indication of the iodine content) does not apply to another iodine prophylaxis in patients after lung transplantation, excluding patients with known thyroid disease. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid gland function based on hormones and urinary iodine (UI) concentration in patients after LTx. UI analysis was performed in 19 lung recipients (12 men and 7 women; mean age: 46.2 ± 12.47 years, BMI: 21 ± 2.25) and compared to TSH, free T3, and free T4. Sufficient UI was observed only in 2 (9%) samples. In 12 samples (54.5%), mild iodine deficiency was recorded, in 4 samples (18.2%) moderate iodine deficiency was noted, and in 3 (13.6%) severe iodine deficiency was found. No correlation between BMI and UI, as well as hormones concentration, was observed. No correlation was revealed when analyzed samples were divided by patient sex. Although thyroid gland hormones were in the normal range, we found moderate, mild, and severe iodine deficiency in the majority of analyzed samples. Measurements of urinary iodine in lung transplant recipients should accompany thyroid hormone measurements as an iodine deficiency test and in order to prevent iodine deficiency disorders.

  10. Power Performance Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the SWIFT is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

  11. EL FUTURO DE APPLE: SWIFT VERSUS OBJECTIVE-C

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian González García; Jordán Pascual Espada B.; Cristina Pelayo G-Bustelo; Juan Manuel Cueva Lovelle

    2015-01-01

    Hace unos meses Apple presentó un nuevo lenguaje de programación para sus plataformas: Swift. Con Swift, Apple pretende atraer a los programadores de los lenguajes de programación basados en la sintaxis de C++ y darles una mayor abstracción, que con Objective-C, para que sea más fácil programar para las plataformas de Apple. Por estas razones, se hace necesario contrastar lo pretendido por Apple y realizar un estudio del lenguaje de programación a fin de contrastar su objetivo. Para ello, se ...

  12. Implementing cloud storage with OpenStack Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Rajana, Kris; Varma, Sreedhar

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial-based book has a step-by-step approach for each topic, ensuring it is thoroughly covered and easy to follow. If you are an IT administrator who wants to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Whether your job is to build, manage, or use OpenStack Swift, this book is an ideal way to move your career ahead. Only basic Linux and server technology skills are expected, to take advantage of this book.

  13. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... in various regions of Denmark. One hundred and fifty-two healthy pregnant women admitted to five different Danish departments of obstetrics participated in the study. Iodine status was evaluated by measurement of iodine in spot urine at day five after delivery and by careful history of the intake of iodine...

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta A Koronowicz

    Full Text Available Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL and non-fortified (NFL lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL, differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI, and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment.

  15. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  16. Iodine status in pregnancy and household salt iodine content in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Ali, Hasmot; Kabir, Alamgir; Rashid, Mahbubur; Labrique, Alain; Salamatullah, Qauzi; West, Keith P

    2012-04-01

    Adequate maternal iodine intake is essential during pregnancy for the development of the foetus. To assess the extent of iodine insufficiency and its association with household iodized salt in rural Bangladesh, we measured urinary iodine and household salt iodine content among pregnant women in early (≤16 weeks, n = 1376) and late (≥32 weeks, n = 1114) pregnancy. Salt (∼20 g) and a spot urine sample (∼10 mL) were collected from women participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation in rural northwestern Bangladesh during home visits in early and late pregnancy. Salt iodine was analyzed by iodometric titration, and urinary iodine by the Ohashi method. Almost all salt samples had some detectable iodine, but over 75% contained <15 ppm. Median (interquartile range) urinary iodine concentrations were 66 (34-133) and 55 (28-110) µg L⁻¹ in early and late pregnancy, respectively; urinary iodine <150 µg L⁻¹ was found in ∼80% of women at both times in pregnancy. Although the risk of iodine insufficiency declined with increasing iodine content of household salt (P for trend <0.05), median urinary iodine did not reach 150 µg L⁻¹ until iodine in household salt was at least 32 ppm and 51 ppm during early and late pregnancy, respectively. Despite a national policy on universal salt iodization, salt iodine content remains insufficient to maintain adequate maternal iodine status throughout pregnancy in rural northern Bangladesh. Alternative measures like direct iodine supplementation during pregnancy could be considered to assure adequate iodine status during this high-risk period of life. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is required for adequate thyroid hormone production, which is essential for brain development, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Milk is the principal source of iodine in UK diets, and while small studies in Europe have shown organic milk to have a lower iodine concentration than conventional milk, no such study has been conducted in Britain. In view of the increasing popularity of organic milk in the UK, we aimed to compare the iodine concentration of retail organic and conventional milk and to evaluate regional influences in iodine levels. Samples of organic milk (n 92) and conventional milk (n 80), purchased from retail outlets in sixteen areas of the UK (southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland), were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled plasma MS. The region of origin of the milk was determined from information on the label. Organic milk was 42·1 % lower in iodine content than conventional milk (median iodine concentration 144·5 v. 249·5 ng/g; P difference in the iodine concentration of either conventional or organic milk by area of purchase. However, a difference was seen in iodine concentration of organic milk by region of origin (P organic milk has public-health implications, particularly in view of emerging evidence of iodine deficiency in UK population sub-groups, including pregnant women. Individuals who choose organic milk should be aware that their iodine intake may be compromised and should ensure adequate iodine intake from alternative sources.

  18. Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.

    2009-01-01

    , are considered in this article. Summary: There are two main ways in which urine can be collected for iodine measurement. The first is the collection of urine over a period, usually 24 hours. The second is the collection of a spot urinary sample. Urinary iodine values can be expressed as the content......Background: Iodine intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. However, the methods for urine collection and the reporting of the results vary. These methods, and their advantages and disadvantages...... or concentration and reported without modification or as a function of creatinine in the same sample. The 24-hour urine for iodine measurement is often considered as the “reference standard” for giving a precise estimate of the individual iodine excretion and thereby iodine intake. As 24-hour collections...

  19. The 105 month Swift-BAT data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Koss, Michael; Markwardt, Craig B.; Schawinski, Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Mushotzky, Richard; Petulante, Abigail; Ricci, Claudio; Lien, Amy; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; NASA GSFC Swift BAT team, BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    2018-01-01

    We present a new catalog of hard X-ray sources detected in the first 105 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board the Swift observatory. The 105 month Swift-BAT survey is a uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey with a sensitivity of 8.40×10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 over 90% of the sky and 7.24×10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 over 50% of the sky in the 14‑195 keV band. The Swift-BAT 105 month catalog provides 1632 (422 new detections) hard X-ray sources in the 14 ‑ 195 keV band above the 4.8σ significance level. Adding to the previously known hard X-ray sources, 34% (144/422) of the new detections are identified as Seyfert AGN in nearby galaxies (z journal and at the Swift-BAT 105 month Web site.

  20. Egg morphology of Swift Terns in South Africa | Gaglio | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphology of Swift Tern Thalasseus bergii bergii eggs was examined on Robben Island, South Africa. A recently formed colony was found abandoned en masse, probably following human disturbance, and 146 freshly laid eggs were collected. The mean ± SD nest density was 7 ± 2.5 nests m-2 and 3% of nests contained ...

  1. MAXI J1535-571: Swift detection and localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennea, J. A.; Evans, P. A.; Beardmore, A. P.; Krimm, H. A.; Romano, P.; Yamaoka, K.; Serino, M.; Negoro, H.

    2017-09-01

    As reported in GCN #21788, at 20:00:36UT Swift/BAT triggered on an outburst from a possible GRB (GRB 170902A) or, based upon its localization near the plane and the nature of the BAT trigger (long image trigger), a possible Galactic Transient.

  2. Swift Confirmation of new transient activity in NGC 6440

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramian, A.; Kennea, J. A.; Altamirano, D.; Beri, Aru; Heinke, C. O.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Tetarenko, A. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Degenaar, Nathalie

    2017-10-01

    Following report of enhanced X-ray brightness from the direction of the globular cluster NGC 6440 (ATel #10821), we observed this cluster on 2017-10-05 18:52:35 UT for 1.5 ks with Swift/XRT in Photon Counting mode.

  3. SWIFT: A Dynamical Model of Saccade Generation during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbert, Ralf; Nuthmann, Antje; Richter, Eike M.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical models have become an important tool for understanding the control of eye movements during reading. Main goals of the development of the SWIFT model (R. Engbert, A. Longtin, & R. Kliegl, 2002) were to investigate the possibility of spatially distributed processing and to implement a general mechanism for all types of eye movements…

  4. Time domain astronomy with Swift and Fermi | Gehrels | Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swift and Fermi are unveiling an unexpectedly rich tapestry of behavior in the transient γ−ray sky. Sources which were already known to be transient − such as pulsars, gamma-ray bursts, and blazars − have been studied in ever-increasing detail. For example, Fermi/LAT has detected 117 pulsars of which 56 are new.

  5. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    1996-12-01

    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs.

  6. Characterization of unknown iodinated disinfection byproducts during chlorination/chloramination using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Juan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang, Yahe; Shi, Quan [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Yang, Min, E-mail: yangmin@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs), formed from the reaction of disinfectant(s) with organic matter in the presence of iodide in raw water, have recently been focused because of their more cytotoxic and genotoxic properties than their chlorinated or brominated analogues. To date, only a few I-DBPs in drinking water have been identified. In this study, C18 solid phase extraction coupled with electrospray ionization ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize unknown I-DBPs in chloraminated/chlorinated water spiked with iodide and humic substances. In total, 178 formulas for one-iodine-containing products, 13 formulas for two-iodine-containing products, and 15 formulas for one-chlorine and one-iodine-containing products were detected in the chloraminated water sample, while only 9 formulas for one-iodine-containing products and 6 formulas for one-chlorine and one-iodine-containing products were found in the chlorinated water sample. Most I-DBPs have corresponding chlorine-containing analogues with identical CHO compositions. As indicated by the modified aromaticity index (AI{sub mod}), in the C18 extracts, more than 68% of the I-DBPs have aromatic structures or polycyclic aromatic structures. This result demonstrates that the use of chloramination as an alternative disinfection method may lead to the formation of abundant species of I-DBPs in the presence of iodide. Thus, the suitability of adopting chloramination as an alternative disinfection method should be reevaluated, particularly when iodide is present in raw water. - Highlights: • The formulas of 206 iodinated DBPs in chloraminated drinking water were proposed. • More than 68% of the I-DBPs might have aromatic or polycyclic aromatic structures. • Precursors with high aromaticity is preferential to form iodinated DBPs.

  7. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  8. Modeling the Swift Bat Trigger Algorithm with Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Philip B.; Lien, Amy Y.; Baker, John G.; Sakamoto, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    To draw inferences about gamma-ray burst (GRB) source populations based on Swift observations, it is essential to understand the detection efficiency of the Swift burst alert telescope (BAT). This study considers the problem of modeling the Swift / BAT triggering algorithm for long GRBs, a computationally expensive procedure, and models it using machine learning algorithms. A large sample of simulated GRBs from Lien et al. is used to train various models: random forests, boosted decision trees (with AdaBoost), support vector machines, and artificial neural networks. The best models have accuracies of greater than or equal to 97 percent (less than or equal to 3 percent error), which is a significant improvement on a cut in GRB flux, which has an accuracy of 89.6 percent (10.4 percent error). These models are then used to measure the detection efficiency of Swift as a function of redshift z, which is used to perform Bayesian parameter estimation on the GRB rate distribution. We find a local GRB rate density of n (sub 0) approaching 0.48 (sup plus 0.41) (sub minus 0.23) per cubic gigaparsecs per year with power-law indices of n (sub 1) approaching 1.7 (sup plus 0.6) (sub minus 0.5) and n (sub 2) approaching minus 5.9 (sup plus 5.7) (sub minus 0.1) for GRBs above and below a break point of z (redshift) (sub 1) approaching 6.8 (sup plus 2.8) (sub minus 3.2). This methodology is able to improve upon earlier studies by more accurately modeling Swift detection and using this for fully Bayesian model fitting.

  9. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine

  10. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently increased their recommended iodine intake during pregnancy from 200 to 250 µg/d and suggested that a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 150-249 µg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnant women. Thyrotropin concentrations in blood collected

  11. Iodine: It's Important in Patients that Require Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development because of inadequate thyroid hormone production. Four methods are generally recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition: urinary iodine concentration, thyroid size, and blood concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone

  12. Breast Milk Iodine and Iodine Status of Breast-Fed Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Morshed Molla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Iodine status of breast-fed infants depends on iodine in breast milk and also number of feeding in 24 hours. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess both have bad impact on infant’s health. Objective: To measure the iodine in breast milk and to evaluate iodine status of their breast-fed infants. Materials and method: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka with active cooperation of Kumudini Women’s Medical College Hospital, Mirzapur, Tangail involving fifty lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Early morning urine and breast milk samples were collected in dry and clean plastic container free from any chemical contamination. Urinary iodine was used as indicator for assessing iodine status. All statistical analyses were done by using SPSS (statistical programme for social science 12 version software package for Windows. Results: The median (range urinary iodine concentration of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants were 225.25 μg/L (61.50-530.00 and 225.75 μg/L (100.50-526.00 respectively. The median (range breast-milk iodine concentration was 157 μg/L (54.50-431.50 which was more than three times of recommended minimum concentration (50 μg/L. Only 2 (4% lactating mothers had mild biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE, 50-99 μg/L. There was no biochemical iodine deficiency of breast-fed infants. Iodine in breast milk of lactating mothers was positively correlated with their urinary iodine excretion (p<0.01. Infant’s urinary iodine was positively correlated with iodine concentration in breast milk (p<0.01 and with urinary iodine of lactating mothers (p<0.01. Conclusion: Lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants in this study were iodine sufficient. If iodine content of breast-milk is within normal range, 10-12 numbers of

  13. Iodine uptake and distribution in horticultural and fruit tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Caffagni; Nicola Pecchioni; Pierluigi Meriggi; Valerio Bucci; Emidio Sabatini; Nazareno Acciarri; Tommaso Ciriaci; Laura Pulcini; Nazzareno Felicioni; Massimiliano Beretta; Justyna Milc

    2012-01-01

    Iodine is an essential microelement for humans and iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is one of the most widespread nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world. Iodine biofortification of plants provides an attractive opportunity to increase iodine intake in humans and to prevent and control IDD. This study was conducted to investigate the iodine uptake and accumulation in edible portion of two fruit trees: plum and nectarine, and two horticultural crops: tomato and potato. Two type of iodine tre...

  14. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  15. Control of iodine deficiency using iodination of water in a goitre endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnagar, B; Eltom, M; Karlsson, F A; Bourdoux, P P; Gebre-Medhin, M

    1997-03-01

    Salt iodination is the method of choice for prevention of iodine deficiency in most parts of the world. However, establishment of such a program frequently involves considerable changes in the marketing and distribution patterns and requires years to achieve. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of using well-defined water sources containing iodine-saturated silicon matrices for providing adequate iodine supply to an iodine deficient population in Kordofan State, Western Sudan. A system of water iodination using silicon matrices containing 30% sodium iodide placed in polyethylene baskets was used in four villages using either traditional wells or hand pumps. Before and every 6 months after iodination of water, urine and blood samples were obtained for determination of iodine and thyroid-related hormones, respectively. Goitre assessment on the village populations were performed at the start and 2 years later. Improvements in iodine status were recorded in all the study villages. The water iodine concentrations increased and a higher iodine content was observed in the hand pumps compared to the traditional wells. The median urinary iodine concentrations increased significantly, from 0.19, 0.20, 0.19, 0.11 to 1.20, 1.10, 0.37, 0.30 mumol/l in the four villages, respectively. The percentages of subjects with serum TSH above 4 mU/l were decreased from more than 30% before iodination to less than 15% at 2 years after iodine supply and the mean serum thyroxine hormone values rose. The rates of goitre decreased from 69% to less than 25%. The study shows that this system is effective, cheap, safe and practically applicable under conditions prevailing in rural areas in developing countries with iodine deficiency.

  16. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindorfer, H; Krebs, M; Kautzky-Willer, A; Bancher-Todesca, D; Sager, M; Gessl, A

    2015-03-01

    In Austria, iodine deficiency has been considered to be eliminated owing to table salt fortification with iodine, but whether this also applies to pregnant women is unclear. Even mild iodine deficiency during gestation may lead to neurocognitive sequelae in the offspring. This is a cross-sectional investigation of urinary iodine excretion in 246 pregnant women (first trimester n=2, second trimester n=53, third trimester n=191, gestational diabetes mellitus n=115, no gestational diabetes mellitus n=131). The iodine content of morning spot urine samples was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Pregnant women in the Vienna area had a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of 87 μg/l. Only 13.8% of the cohort were in the recommended range of 150-249 μg/l, whereas 21.5% had a UIC of 0-49 μg/l, 40.2% had a UIC of 50-99 μg/l and 19.5% had a UIC of 100-149 μg/l. In all, 4.9% had a UIC over 250 μg/l. A total of 137 women of foreign origin had a significantly higher iodine excretion compared with Austrian-born women. Maternal or gestational age had no influence on UIC. Although 79 women on iodine supplementation had a significantly higher iodine concentration compared with women without iodine supplementation (97.3 vs 80.1 μg/l, P=0,006), their UIC was below the recommended range, indicating that doses of 100-150 μg per day are not sufficient to normalize iodine excretion. Sodium and iodine concentrations in the urine were tightly correlated (R=0.539, n=61), suggesting that low intake of iodized salt might contribute to insufficient iodine supply. This study shows that pregnant women in the Vienna area have a potentially clinically significant iodine deficiency and that currently recommended doses of iodine supplementation may not be sufficient.

  17. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  18. Urinary Iodine Excretion of Lactating Mothers Predicts the Iodine Content of Their Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forhadul Hoque Mollah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine is essential for normal growth, mental development and survival of infants. Bangladesh is an iodine deficient region. Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Routine measurement of breast milk iodine concentration is very difficult in our country due to some social and religious barriers. So, we designed this study in our population using urinary iodine as the indicator for assessing iodine status. Objectives: To assess the iodine status of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants and to propose a method on how to predict the iodine concentration in breast milk. Materials and Methods: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka with active cooperation of Kumudini Women’s Medical College Hospital, Mirzapur, Tangail involving fifty lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Early morning urine and breast milk samples were collected in dry and clean plastic container free from any chemical contamination. All statistical analyses were done by using SPSS (Statistical Programme for Social Science 12 version software package for windows. Results: The median (range urinary iodine concentration of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants were 225.25 μg/L (61.50-530.00 and 225.75 μg/L (100.50-526.50. 96% (48 mothers had no biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE ≥100μg/L, only 4% (2 mothers had mild biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE 50-99μg/L. There was no biochemical deficiency of breast-fed infants. The median (range breast-milk iodine concentration was 157 μg/L (54.50-431.50 which was more than three times of recommended minimum concentration (50 μg/L. Iodine in breast milk of lactating mothers positively correlated with their urinary iodine excretion (P<0.01. Infant’s urinary iodine positively correlated with iodine concentration in breast milk (P<0.01 and also

  19. Domination of thermodynamically demanding oxidative processes in reaction of iodine with hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Kristina Z.; Bubanja, Itana Nuša M.; Stanisavljev, Dragomir R.

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the degree of isothermal iodine conversion to iodate as one of the most intriguing steps of the Bray-Liebhafsky oscillator. The amount of the produced iodate, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, was determined by the stopped-flow titration with iodide ions. From five different experiments, high degree of iodine conversion to iodate (95.4 ± 0.6)% is obtained. It confirmed that, after the induction period of spontaneous hydrogen peroxide catalytic decomposition, reaction dynamics is dominated by thermodynamically demanding oxidative processes. Isothermal change of the reaction dynamics introduces some specific energy redistribution as a possible initiator of oxidizing radicals.

  20. Iodine-incorporated BiOCl core-shell structure and its high photocatalytic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Kun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine-incorporated BiOCl core-shell micro-spheres were first time fabricated using one-step approach under atmospheric pressure.Iodine anions were utilized as both structure directing agents for fabricating core-shell structure and doped ions incorporated in the framework of the core-shell BiOCl spheres to extend the light adsorption edge to visible light region.Super strong photocatalytic performance for this structure can be also obtained.This work provides a novel and easy pathway for creating advanced photocatalytic properties,serving as new promising functional materials for advanced water treatment technology.

  1. Structural modifications induced by ion irradiation and temperature in boron carbide B{sub 4}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, G., E-mail: g.victor@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Pipon, Y.; Bérerd, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Institut Universitaire de Technologie (IUT) Lyon-1, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Toulhoat, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); CEA-DEN, Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moncoffre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Djourelov, N. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko chaussee blvd, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); ELI-NP, IFIN-HH, 30 Reactorului Str, MG-6 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Miro, S. [CEA-DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Baillet, J. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Pradeilles, N.; Rapaud, O.; Maître, A. [SPCTS, UMR CNRS 7315, Centre Européen de la céramique, University of Limoges (France); Gosset, D. [CEA, Saclay, DMN-SRMA-LA2M, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-12-15

    Already used as neutron absorber in the current French nuclear reactors, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) is also considered in the future Sodium Fast Reactors of the next generation (Gen IV). Due to severe irradiation conditions occurring in these reactors, it is of primary importance that this material presents a high structural resistance under irradiation, both in the ballistic and electronic damage regimes. Previous works have shown an important structural resistance of boron carbide even at high neutron fluences. Nevertheless, the structural modification mechanisms due to irradiation are not well understood. Therefore the aim of this paper is to study structural modifications induced in B{sub 4}C samples in different damage regimes. The boron carbide pellets were shaped and sintered by using spark plasma sintering method. They were then irradiated in several conditions at room temperature or 800 °C, either by favoring the creation of ballistic damage (between 1 and 3 dpa), or by favoring the electronic excitations using 100 MeV swift iodine ions (S{sub e} ≈ 15 keV/nm). Ex situ micro-Raman spectroscopy and Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation technique with variable energy slow positrons were coupled to follow the evolution of the B{sub 4}C structure under irradiation.

  2. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with elemental iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. Oxidation of iodine in gas phase has been one of the greatest remaining uncertainties in iodine behaviour during a severe accident. In this study the possible formation of iodine oxide aerosol due to radiolytic oxidation of gaseous iodine is experimentally tested and the reaction products are analysed. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for ISTP program project CHIP conducted IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. The results from the experiments show an extensive particle formation when ozone and gaseous iodine react with each other. The formed particles were collected on filters, while gaseous iodine was trapped into bubbles. The particles were iodine oxides and the size of particles was approximately 100 nm. The transport of gaseous iodine through the facility decreased when both gaseous iodine and ozone were fed together into facility. Experimental study on radiolytic oxidation of iodine was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. (author)

  3. Examination of Urinary Iodine Status from a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine deficiency disorders are common throughout the developing world, yet they are considered one of the most preventable causes of mental retardation. Iodine deficiency has tremendous consequences on women and girls and can not only impair a woman's reproductive health, but it also has serious consequences for ...

  4. Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

    2009-03-01

    A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFICIENT AND DIRECT IODINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-09-07

    Sepideh Bahrami-Nasab, S. Mohamad Reza Nazifi and Ali Reza Pourali*. School of Chemistry, Damghan University, Damghan 36715/364, Iran. (Received September 7, 2013; revised December 27, 2013). ABSTRACT. An efficient and rapid method has been found for the iodination of aromatic compounds using iodine and ...

  6. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Bucková, K; Klimes, I; Seboková, E

    2003-01-01

    Iodine content in food of plant origin is lower in comparison with that of animal origin due to a low iodine concentration in soil. Urinary iodine excretion was assessed in 15 vegans, 31 lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians and 35 adults on a mixed diet. Iodine excretion was significantly lower in alternative nutrition groups - 172 microg/l in vegetarians and 78 microg/l in vegans compared to 216 microg/l in subjects on a mixed diet. One fourth of the vegetarians and 80% of the vegans suffer from iodine deficiency (iodine excretion value below 100 microg/l) compared to 9% in the persons on a mixed nutrition. The results show that under conditions of alternative nutrition, there is a higher prevalence of iodine deficiency, which might be a consequence of exclusive or prevailing consumption of food of plant origin, no intake of fish and other sea products, as well as reduced iodine intake in the form of sea salt. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFICIENT AND DIRECT IODINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT. An efficient and rapid method has been found for the iodination of aromatic compounds using iodine and polymer-supported periodic acid (PSPIA) as an oxidant under mild aprotic conditions. The reagent after the completion of the reaction was easily removed by filtration and was regenerated for further use.

  8. Iodine binding to humic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Bowley, Hannah E.; Young, Scott D.; Ander, E. Louise; Crout, Neil J.M.; Crout, N.M.J.; Watts, Michael J.; Bailey, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I-) and iodate (IO3-) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with 129I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 µg L-1 and stored at 10oC. Changes in the speciation of 129I-, 129IO3- and mixed (129I-+129IO3-) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with 129I- 25% of the added I- was transformed into organic iodine (Org-129I) within...

  9. Immobilization of iodine in soil-water systems and its relation to iodine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Iodine tends to accumulate in thyroid, and radioactive 131I and 129I are threatening to human health both short-term and long-term, respectively. It is thus important to understand iodine behavior in surface environments. Possible iodine species are I-, IO3-, I2, and organo-iodine species. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) connected to ICP-MS were used to determine iodine species in soil and pore water, respectively. Soil and pore water samples were collected at depths of 0 to 12 cm near a tube well in Yoro, Chiba, Japan, where surface soil is flooded with brine containing iodine of 5.8 mg/L. Soil samples were also collected at depths of 0 to 90 cm in Yakushima Island, Kagoshima, Japan. The soil samples were frozen, and iodine K-edge XANES were measured at BL01B1, SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). Soil samples were buried into resin and prepared as thin sections, and mapping of iodine in soil grain was obtained using μ-XRF analysis at BL37XU, SPring-8. HPLC-ICP-MS, equipped with anion exchange or size exclusion column, was used to determine iodine species in pore water. Yoro: The depth profile of iodine concentration in soil correlates quite well with that of organic carbon content. XANES spectra are almost identical to that of humic substances at any depth (Fig. 1). Iodine mapping shows that iodine exists in organic matter more than clay minerals and iron rich mineral. Iodine in pore water exists as I- and organic iodine bound to dissolved humic substances at 0-6 cm, and mainly as I- at 9-12 cm, respectively. Thus, iodine tends to be bound to organic materials in soil as organic iodine, where as iodine in pore water exists mainly as I-. Yakushima: Iodine concentration is higher in volcanic ash soil layer (25-55 cm) than surface organic rich soil layer (0-25 cm). XANES spectrum of volcanic ash soil was different from those of reference materials (Fig. 1). Volcanic ash soil in Yakushima contains imogolite and

  10. Correlative Analysis of GRBs detected by Swift, Konus and HETE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, Hans A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Donaghy, T.; Lamb, D. Q.; Pal'shin, V.; Golenetskii, S.; Ricker, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Swift has now detected a large enough sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to allow correlation studies of burst parameters. Such studies of earlier data sets have yielded important results leading to further understanding of burst parameters and classifications. This work focuses on seventeen Swift bursts that have also been detected either by Konus-Wind or HETE-II, providing high energy spectra and fits to E(sub peak). Eight of these bursts have spectroscopic redshifts and for others we can estimate redshifts using the variability/luminosity relationship. We can also compare E(sub peak) with E(sub iso), and for those bursts for which a jet break was observed in the afterglow we can derive E(sub g) and test the relationship between E(peak) and E(sub gamma). For all bursts we can derive durations and hardness ratios from the prompt emission.

  11. INTEGRAL detection of SWIFT J2037.2+4151

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    The source detected by SWIFT (ATEL #853) was independently found in archived JEM-X public data in 5 pointings covering 18200s between 2004-07-19, 19:14 UTC and 2004-07-20, 03:27 UTC. Positioned within 1.2 degrees of Cyg X-3 it has been inside the JEM-X field-of-view more than 400 times with an of...

  12. Immobilization of swift foxes with ketamine hydrochloride-xylazine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesco, R.L.; Sovada, Marsha A.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop field immobilization techniques that allow researchers to handle safely swift foxes (Vulpes velox) with minimal risk of stress or injury. We immobilized captive swift foxes to determine the safety and effectiveness of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride at different dosages. We attempted to determine appropriate dosages to immobilize swift foxes for an adequate field-handling period based on three anesthesia intervals (induction period, immobilization period, and recovery period) and physiologic responses (rectal temperature, respiration rate, and heart rate). Between October 1998–July 1999, we conducted four trials, evaluating three different dosage ratios of ketamine and xylazine (2.27:1.2, 5.68:1.2, and 11.4:1.2 mg/kg ketamine:mg/kg xylazine, respectively), followed by a fourth trial with a higher dosage at the median ratio (11.4 mg/kg ketamine:2.4 mg/kg xylazine). We found little difference in induction and recovery periods among trials 1–3, but immobilization time increased with increasing dosage (Pimmobilization period and recovery period increased in trial 4 compared with trials 1–3 (P≤0.03). There was a high variation in responses of individual foxes across trials, making it difficult to identify an appropriate dosage for field handling. Heart rate and respiration rates were depressed but all physiologic measures remained within normal parameters established for domestic canids. We recommend a dosage ratio of 10 mg/kg ketamine to 1 mg/kg xylazine to immobilize swift foxes for field handling.

  13. Learning iOS 8 game development using Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Shekar, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    This book is for novices as well as proficient game developers who want to learn more about game development using Swift. If you are from a 2D game development background and would like to learn the basics of 3D game development, this book is for you. Additionally, if you want to learn the basics of graphics programming and shaders, this book will be a good starting point.

  14. Overview of the ACEX project iodine work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merilo, M.

    1996-12-01

    The ACEX project is an internationally sponsored research program that focuses on several aspects of severe accidents. The areas addressed are iodine behavior in containments, pool scrubbing, molten corium concrete interactions, and ex-vessel core debris coolability. These areas all represent extensions to the previous and current ACE and MACE programs respectively. The ACE-Phase B (iodine) project, and other recent research efforts, have clarified the roles of the important phenomena that influence iodine volatility in reactor containments during severe accidents. The ACE Iodine Chemistry Subcommittee concluded that even though enough data has been generated to support reasonably good quantification of the important phenomena, a few important areas remain where quantification is still uncertain. This is due to a lack of agreement on how to utilize the existing database, as well as the possible absence of critical test and/or property data. Technical resolution of the overall iodine behavior issue is therefore not feasible until these uncertainties are fully assessed and practical solutions have been identified, implemented, and verified. The overall objectives of the ACEX iodine research program are to ensure that the iodine database can be used to predict the airborne concentration of iodine, the conditions for iodine reservoir stability, and to provide a mechanistic understanding for these phenomena. The first phase of this work involves a comprehensive review and interpretation of the existing database in order to formulate practical strategies for dealing with significant uncertainties and/or deficiencies. Several projects are underway involving the effects of organic reactions and structural surface interactions. In addition effort is being expended on standardizing the aqueous iodine kinetics database, specifying useful mass transfer models, and defining methodology for pH prediction. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Iodine nutritional status in Asturian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra Fernández, María; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Díaz Cadórniga, Francisco; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos; Delgado Álvarez, Elías

    2017-11-01

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, and iodine nutritional status should therefore be regularly measured. To ascertain iodine nutritional status in Asturias and its relation to use of iodized salt and to other sociodemographic and nutritional parameters. A descriptive, observational study was conducted in a random sample of schoolchildren aged 5 to 14 years, in whom urinary iodine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Families completed a survey on use of iodized salt, consumption of dairy products and fish, and sociodemographic data. The study sample consisted of 705 schoolchildren (51.1% females) with a mean age of 9.9 years (SD 2.6). In a total of 620 valid measurements, mean urinary iodine level was 204.1 μg/L (SD 120.6), while the median value was 180.7 μg/L (P25-P75: 124-252.3 μg/L, interquartile range 128.3 μg/L). Urinary iodine levels were <100 μg/L in 16.6% of children, and very low (<20 μg/L) in 0.2%. Iodized salt was used in 69.3% of all households, and in all school canteens. Consumption of dairy products was significantly associated to urinary iodine levels (P<.0005). Iodine nutrition of Asturian schoolchildren is adequate, although the target of use of iodized salt in 90% of households is still far away. Adequate iodine nutrition may be due to other sources, such as dairy products. Public health campaigns are required to promote iodized salt consumption. Regular assessment of iodine nutritional status is also needed. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond FMEA: the structured what-if technique (SWIFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Alan J; Ward, James R; Clarkson, P John

    2012-01-01

    Although it is probably the best-known prospective hazard analysis (PHA) tool, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is far from the only option available. This article introduces one of the alternatives: The structured what-if technique (SWIFT). SWIFT is a flexible, high-level risk identification technique that can be used on a stand-alone basis, or as part of a staged approach to make more efficient use of bottom-up methods like FMEA. In this article we describe the method, assess the evidence related to its use in healthcare with the use of a systematic literature review, and suggest ways in which it could be better adapted for use in the healthcare industry. Based on the limited evidence available, it appears that healthcare workers find it easy to learn, easy to use, and credible. Especially when used as part of a staged approach, SWIFT appears capable of playing a useful role as component of the PHA armamentarium. © 2012 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  17. Energy deposition around swift proton tracks in polymethylmethacrylate: How much and how far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapor, Maurizio; Abril, Isabel; de Vera, Pablo; Garcia-Molina, Rafael

    2017-08-01

    The use of proton beams in several modern technologies to probe or modify the properties of materials, such as proton beam lithography or ion beam cancer therapy, requires us to accurately know the extent to which the energy lost by the swift projectiles in the medium is redistributed radially around their tracks, since this determines several endpoints, such as the resolution of imaging or manufacturing techniques, or even the biological outcomes of radiotherapy. In this paper, the radial distribution of the energy deposited around swift-proton tracks in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) by the transport of secondary electrons is obtained by means of a detailed Monte Carlo simulation. The initial energy and angular distributions of the secondary electrons generated by proton impact, as well as the electronic cross sections for the ejection of these electrons, are reliably calculated in the framework of the dielectric formalism, where a realistic electronic excitation spectrum of PMMA is accounted for. The cascade of all secondary electrons generated in PMMA is simulated taking into account the main interactions that occur between these electrons and the condensed phase target. After analyzing the influence that several angular distributions of the electrons generated by the proton beam have on the resulting radial profiles of deposited energy, we conclude that the widely used Rudd and Kim formula should be replaced by the simpler isotropic angular distribution, which leads to radial energy distributions comparable to the ones obtained from more realistic angular distributions. By studying the dependence of the radial dose on the proton energy we recommend lower proton energies than previously published for reducing proximity effects around a proton track. The obtained results are of relevance for assessing the resolution limits of proton beam based imaging and manufacturing techniques.

  18. Iodine nutrition in pregnant women from Oviedo area. Is iodine supplementation necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Delgado Alvarez, Elías; Rabal Artal, Antonio; Suárez Gutiérrez, Lorena; Rodríguez Caballero, María Galiana; Ares Blanco, Jessica; Díaz Naya, Lucía; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos

    2014-10-01

    In Asturias, where iodine deficiency was eradicated in school children by the year 2000, iodine deficiency persisted in pregnant women, who were recommended to use of iodine supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the iodine nutrition of pregnant women in our area and whether or not iodine supplements are needed. Throughout May and June 2013 we studied the iodine nutrition and thyroid function during the first trimester of pregnancy in 173 women in the health area of Oviedo. The median urinary iodine was 197 μg/L. Iodinated supplements were used by 47% of women, which had a yoduria median higher than those not taking iodinated supplements (247 vs. 138 μg/L; p<.001), and also a higher TSH (2.30 vs 1.94 mU/L) although not significantly different. Yoduria was also higher in women who took more than 2 servings of dairy products (median: 230 μg/L) than those who took less (median: 191 μg/L). Within the group of women who were not taking iodine supplements, those regularly using iodized salt in the kitchen (47%) had a median urinary iodine concentration of 190μg/L indicating iodine sufficiency. Iodinated supplements seem unnecessary nowadays in pregnant women of Oviedo who regularly take iodized salt and our recommendation in these cases should be to continue the use of iodized salt in the recommended amounts during pregnancy and consume at least two daily servings of milk or dairy products. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of iodine behavior in a containment's sump water and in a FCVS's pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sojin; Lee, Jaeyoung [Handong Global Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sanggil [ACT Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This source term could severely affect the environment with a severe radioactive potentially, which has a high radioactivity and a high volatility in a high temperature. Difficultly caught and considered to give sustained damage on thyroid, the iodine source term is protected from releasing to the environment. Especially in the over-high temperature and pressure out of the limit of containment design during a sever accident, the research and experiments to improve the retention efficiency of iodine species in a containment and a FCVS(Filtered Containment Venting System) which vents containment atmosphere in order to stabilize the temperature and the pressure have been conducted. Iodine is produced in and released from fuel rod and converted to other species in a sump water bottom of the containment, which pass thorough a pool in a FCVS during venting. In this paper, studies of phase and species conversion of iodine have been reviewed in order to fine the efficient retention conditions in a containment and a FCVS. In a sump water, high pH decreases the iodine's volatility and the nuclide's emission into the atmosphere. In a high temperature, the iodine volatility significantly decreases, but still it is required to assess the dependence of hydrolysis equilibrium reaction constant on the temperature. Molecular iodine that converted from an iodine ion species is reduced more easily when it is in the I- solution, so the reaction has the higher rate constant. Organic materials affect iodine volatility by the radiolysis into carboxylic acid and carbon dioxide that decrease the sump water's pH. It is considerable to use buffer solutions into the sump water to remain the pH high, but there is an uncertainty about the pH of the sump water which decide the utility of alkaline buffer.

  20. Highly Efficient Iodine Capture by Layered Double Hydroxides Intercalated with Polysulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Shulan; Islam, Saiful M.; Shim, Yurina; Gu, Qingyang; Wang, Pengli; Li, Hao; Sun, Genban; Yang, Xiaojing; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate strong iodine (I-2) vapor adsorption using Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) nanocomposites intercalated with polysulfide (S-x(2-)) groups (S-x-LDH, x = 2, 4, 6). The as-prepared LDH/polysulfide hybrid materials display highly efficient iodine capture resulting from the reducing property of the intercalated polysulfides. During adsorption, the I-2 molecules are reduced to I-3(-) anions by the intercalated [S-x](2-) groups that simultaneously are oxidized to form S8. In addition to the chemical adsorption, additional molecular I-2 is physically captured by the LDH composites. As a result of these parallel processes, and despite their very low BET surface areas, the iodine capture capacities of S-2-LDH, S-4-LDH, and S-6-LDH are similar to 1.32, 1.52, and 1.43 g/g, respectively, with a maximum adsorption of 152% (wt %). Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and temperature-variable powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show the resulting I-3(-) ions that intercalated into the LDH gallery have high thermal stability (>= 350 degrees C). The excellent iodine adsorption performance combined with the facile preparation points to the S-x-LDH systems as potential superior materials for adsorption of radioactive iodine, a waste product of the nuclear power industry.

  1. Iodine Doping of CdTe and CdMgTe for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, O. S.; Swartz, C. H.; Jayathilaka, P. A. R. D.; Petersen, J. E.; Sohal, S.; LeBlanc, E. G.; Edirisooriya, M.; Zaunbrecher, K. N.; Wang, A.; Barnes, T. M.; Myers, T. H.

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-doped CdTe and Cd1- x Mg x Te layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectrometry characterization was used to measure dopant concentration, while Hall measurement was used for determining carrier concentration. Photoluminescence intensity and time-resolved photoluminescence techniques were used for optical characterization. Maximum n-typ e carrier concentrations of 7.4 × 1018 cm-3 for CdTe and 3 × 1017 cm-3 for Cd0.65Mg0.35Te were achieved. Studies suggest that electrically active doping with iodine is limited with dopant concentration much above these values. Dopant activation of about 80% was observed in most of the CdTe samples. The estimated activation energy is about 6 meV for CdTe and the value for Cd0.65Mg0.35Te is about 58 meV. Iodine-doped samples exhibit long lifetimes with no evidence of photoluminescence degradation with doping as high as 2 × 1018 cm-3, while indium shows substantial non-radiative recombination at carrier concentrations above 5 × 1016 cm-3. Iodine was shown to be thermally stable in CdTe at temperatures up to 600°C. Results suggest iodine may be a preferred n-type dopant compared to indium in achieving heavily doped n-type CdTe.

  2. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) in Burie and Womberma Districts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect millions of people in developing countries mainly due to dietary iodine deficiency and aggravating factors that affect the bioavailability of iodine in the body. Iodine deficiency disorder is one of the public health problems of Ethiopia. Recent findings show that both endemic and ...

  3. Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on child neurodevelopment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Jaiswal, Nidhi; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Galetti, Valeria; Stinca, Sara; Mackenzie, Ian; Thomas, Susan; Thomas, Tinku; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy might be associated with reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) score in offspring. We assessed the effect of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment of their offspring in areas where schoolchildren were iodine

  4. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Angela R. W.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matt K.; Walker, Lawrence; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Liz; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-01

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiaġvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3-1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I- measurements showed enrichments of up to ˜1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  5. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Angela R W; Custard, Kyle D; May, Nathaniel W; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matt K; Walker, Lawrence; Moore, Ronald J; Huey, L G; Alexander, Liz; Shepson, Paul B; Pratt, Kerri A

    2017-09-19

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I(-)) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiaġvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3-1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I(-) measurements showed enrichments of up to ∼1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I(-)/Na(+), consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  6. Swift confirms BL Lacertae in an historic high state in the Optical/UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupe, Dirk; Wehrle, Ann; Jorstad, Svetlana

    2013-11-01

    We report on an unprecedented high flux in the Optical/UV in BL Lacertae (22h 02m 43a, +42d 16m 40s) seen by Swift on 2013 November 22, confirming findings by Larionov et al. (ATEL #5597) in the R band. We are currently monitoring BL Lac with Swift twice a week. Swift UVOT observed BL Lacertae in all 6 filters. Over the last half year BL Lac has become increasingly brighter in all 6 UVOT filters.

  7. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardelay, J. [IPSN/DPEA/SEAC (France)

    1996-12-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author).

  8. Iodine excretion has decreased in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 - the importance of iodine content in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Fortification with the essential trace element iodine is widespread worldwide. In the present study, results on iodine excretion and intake of iodine-rich foods from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2004-5, 4 to 5 years after the implementation of mandatory iodine fortification, were compar...

  9. IODINATION OF VEGETABLE OIL AS A METHOD FOR CORRECTING IODINE DEFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Sturza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the study made for obtaining iodized oil that would satisfy the requirements in iodine for human body. The sunflower oil is a product with the most important value, thus the production of oil fortified with iodine would be a cheap and accessible option. These studies indicate that lipids present an important vehicle for the fortification with iodine. Eradication of the iodine deficiency may be realized not only by injection of the iodinated oil, but also by its use as an ingredient for the formulation of different food compositions. This method, complementary with the iodinated salt, would allow the increase of the efficiency of the prophylactic undertaken measures, because is based on the use of vegetal material – sunflower oil; it is cost-efficient and does not require substantial investments.

  10. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisken Trøan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective: The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design: Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1 or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2. To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results: The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions: Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  11. Influence of dietary iodine on the iodine content of pork and the distribution of the trace element in the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Katrin; Schöne, Friedrich; Berk, Andreas; Leiterer, Matthias; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2008-02-01

    Millions of people worldwide still suffer from iodine deficiency disorders. Besides salt iodination, iodine is added to animal feed to concentrate it in food of animal origin (milk, eggs, meat). Otherwise possible adverse effects of high supplementation should be avoided. The objective of the study was to evaluate the iodine content of pork at various feed iodine concentrations to estimate its contribution to human iodine supply. Furthermore the handling of low and high iodine dosages by the organism should be investigated using the pig as a model for the human. Seventy pigs (live weight period 27-115 kg), divided into five groups, were fed diets supplemented with 0 (group 1), 0.5 (group 2), 1 (group 3), 2 (group 4) and 5 (group 5) mg iodine per kg diet. Iodine was determined in the thyroid and in the fractions innards/blood, bones and muscle/fat of four pigs of each group by ICP-MS. Rising iodine supplementation of feed significantly increased (P < 0.05) the iodine content of the muscle/fat fraction [3.9 (group 1), 6.0 (group 2), 8.5 (group 3), 10.8 (group 4) and 17.1 (group 5) microg I/kg]. Carry over (of supplemented iodine) into muscle/fat varied between 0.10 and 0.24%. The highest tested iodine dosage (5 mg I/kg diet) caused a 3.6-fold iodine concentration of the total body (calculated from the contents of the fractions), and a significantly increased thyroid weight compared to the group without supplementary iodine. Iodine supplementation increased iodine content in thyroid and bones significantly (P < 0.05) but not in innards/blood. On an average of the groups, the thyroid contained 80% of the body's iodine, innards/blood 14%, muscle/fat 5% and bones 1%. The iodine content of pork, and consequently its contribution to human iodine supply ( approximately 1%), is very low, even at high supplementation of feed. The total body iodine content (empty body) is determined by the iodine intake. Irrespective of the iodine dosage, the thyroid contains about 4/5 of the

  12. Analysis of Iodine Content in Seaweed and Estimation of Iodine Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Rasyid, Nur Qadri

    2017-01-01

    Seaweed has become food the most popular in many Asian countries because apart from has a distinctive taste, seaweeds having the mineral content needed by the body. Seaweed iodine containing minerals being obtained from sea water, who was one of micro nonmetallic minerals which is very much needed by the body. Lack of iodine can cause cretinism, hyacinth, and the production of hormone low ( hypothyroidism due to enlargement the thyroid gland. Excess intake iodine also can cause an impairment ...

  13. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  14. Low Iodine Diet for Preparation for Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Hoon Chung

    2013-01-01

    Preparation for radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy includes an increased serum thyroid stimulating hormone level and a low iodine diet (LID). Because of extremely high iodine intake, some physicians have advocated a more stringent LID for greater than 2 weeks in Korean patients with thyroid cancer prior to RAI therapy; however, it is very difficult to maintain a stringent LID for a longer period of time. According to recent reports in Korea, a nonstringent, simple LID for only 1 week might be e...

  15. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Low Iodine Diet for Preparation for Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Chung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for radioactive iodine (RAI therapy includes an increased serum thyroid stimulating hormone level and a low iodine diet (LID. Because of extremely high iodine intake, some physicians have advocated a more stringent LID for greater than 2 weeks in Korean patients with thyroid cancer prior to RAI therapy; however, it is very difficult to maintain a stringent LID for a longer period of time. According to recent reports in Korea, a nonstringent, simple LID for only 1 week might be enough prior to RAI therapy, if the patients can be educated intensively by specially trained staff. The measurement of simple urinary iodine concentration (UIC; µg/L may underestimate daily iodine excretion in patients with a urinary volume of more than 1 L/day and can also be affected by dilution status. Simple UIC had a weaker correlation than the iodine/creatinine (I/Cr ratio. Therefore, the urinary I/Cr ratio can replace 24-hour urine iodine excretion instead of simple UIC, although it may overestimate iodine intake in patients with malnutrition or poor muscle mass. The measurement of serum iodine level might be useful as an adjunct parameter for assessing LID preparation, but its sensitivity and specificity were relatively low compared to the urinary I/Cr ratio.

  17. Iodine content in bread, milk and the retention of inherent iodine in commonly used Indian recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvah, T; Toteja, G S; Upadhyay, A

    2013-01-15

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is still a major public health problem and iodized salt remains the most effective means to control IDD in India. Few reports indicate that vegans have inadequate iodine intake while at the same time concerns are being raised on the implementation of universal salt iodization in the country. Therefore, we investigated the iodine content in bread, milk and commonly used Indian recipes prepared without iodized salt and the retention of inherent iodine therein. Results showed considerable iodine content in bread (25 μg/100g) and milk (303 μg/L) as a positive fallout of universal salt iodization. Iodine content in 38 vegetarian recipes prepared without iodized salt was very low (2.9 ± 2.4 μg/100g). Retention of inherent iodine (65.6 ± 15.4%) and iodine from iodized salt (76.7 ± 10.3%) in the same recipes was comparable. Thus, universal salt iodization programme remains the single most important source of dietary iodine for the Indian population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  19. Iodine status in preschool children and evaluation of major dietary iodine sources: a German experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Simone A; Thamm, Michael; Nöthlings, Ute; Remer, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Even mild iodine deficiency may negatively affect cognitive performance, especially at a young age. Our aim was to investigate iodine status in very young children and to assess the importance of iodized salt in processed foods of which the use has decreased during the last years in Germany. Twenty-four hours urinary iodine excretion (UIE) as a marker of iodine intake was measured in 378 24 h urine samples collected 2003-2010 by 221 3 to children's diet (iodized salt, milk, fish, meat and eggs). Time trends of UIE (2003-2010) and contributions of the different food groups were analyzed by using linear mixed-effects regression models. Median UIE of 71 μg/d in boys and 65 μg/d in girls (P = 0.03), corresponding to an iodine intake of 82 and 75 μg/d, respectively (assumption: 15% non-renal iodine losses), was below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 90 μg/d. Milk, salt and egg intake were significant predictors of UIE; milk and salt together accounted for >80% of iodine supply. Between 2003 and 2010, UIE decreased significantly by approximately 1 μg/d per year. The contribution of salt intake to UIE decreased from 2003-2006 to 2007-2010. In countries where salt is a major iodine source, already modest decreases in the iodized proportion of salt used in processed foods may relevantly impair iodine status even in preschool children.

  20. Swift J164449.3+573451 and Swift J2058.4+0516: Black hole mass estimates for tidal disruption event sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev; Virgilli, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    A tidal disruption event (TDE) is an astronomical phenomenon in which a previously dormant black hole (BH) destroys a star passing too close to its central part. We analyzed the flaring episode detected from the TDE sources, Swift J164449.3+573451 and Swift J2058.4+0516 (hereafter Swift J1644+57 and Swift J2058+05, respectively) using RXTE, Swift and Suzaku data. The spectra are well fitted by the so called Bulk Motion Comptonization model for which the best-fit photon index Γ varies from 1.1 to 1.8. We have firmly established the saturation of the photon index versus mass accretion rate at Γsat about 1.7-1.8. The saturation of Γ is usually identified as a signature of a BH now established in Swift J1644+57 and Swift J2058+05. In Swift J1644+57 we found the relatively low Γsat values which indicate a high electron (plasma) temperature, kTe 30-40 keV. This is also consistent with high cutoff energies, Ecut 60-80 keV found using best fits of the RXTE spectra. Swift J2058+05 shows a lower electron temperature, kTe 4-10 keV than that for Swift J1644+57. For the BH mass estimate we used the scaling technique taking the Galactic BHs, GRO J1655-40,GX 339-4, Cyg X-1 and 4U 1543-47as reference sources and found that the BH mass in Swift J1644+57 is MBH ≥ 7 × 106M⊙ assuming the distance to this source of 1.5 Gpc. For Swift J2058+05 we obtain MBH ≥ 2 × 107M⊙ assuming the distance to this source of 3.7 Gpc. We have also found that the seed (disk) photon temperatures are quite low, of order of 100-400 eV, in both of the sources, which are consistent with the estimated BH masses.

  1. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high power (high thrust) electric propulsion system featuring an iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET). The system to be...

  2. Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone Physiology, Iodine Metabolism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. Maintaining Euthyroidism: Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone Physiology,. Iodine Metabolism and Hypothyroidism. De Wet Wolmarans*. Division of Pharmacology, Center of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of ...

  3. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug combination, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  4. Iodine dynamics in the terrestrial environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bowley, Hannah E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil properties on soil iodine dynamics and uptake to plants. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from across eastern Northern Ireland (NI) to form the basis of most experimental work; samples from the Rothamsted Park Grass archive were used to investigate the role of changing soil chemistry through time and due to selected fertiliser applications; and iodine dynamics in humic acid (HA) were studied to improve understanding of the r...

  5. Swift/XRT localization of IGR J19149+1036

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Pavan, L.; Walter, R.; Stella, L.

    2011-05-01

    The field around the recently discovered IGR J19149+1036 (Pavan et al., 2011, A&A, 526, 122) was observed by Swift/XRT twice, on 2010 Dec. 5 and 2011 Feb. 17. The total exposure time was 2.1 ks. In both observations, a single point-like source was detected within the IBIS/ISGRI error circle. By summing up all the available XRT data we estimated the best position at: RA = 19h14m56.73s Dec = +10:36:38.11 (J2000), with an associated uncertainty of 3.7 arcsec.

  6. Systematic Spectral Lag Analysis of Swift Known-z GRBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Kawakubo

    2015-01-01

    arrive earlier than soft photons. The lag-luminosity relation is the empirical relationship between the isotropic peak luminosity and the spectral lag. We calculated the spectral lags for 40 known redshift GRBs observed by Swift addition to the previous 31 GRB samples. We confirmed that most of our samples follow the lag-luminosity relation. However, we noticed that there are some GRBs which show a significant scatter from the relation. We also confirm that the relationship between the break time and the luminosity of the X-ray afterglow (so-called Dainotti relation extends up to the lag-luminosity relation.

  7. Gamma Ray Bursts in the Swift-Fermi Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Razzaque, Soebur

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the most violent occurrences in the universe. They are powerful explosions, visible to high redshift, and thought to be the signature of black hole birth. They are highly luminous events and provide excellent probes of the distant universe. GRB research has greatly advanced over the past 10 years with the results from Swift, Fermi and an active follow-up community. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  8. Calibration of the Swift-UVOT ultraviolet and visible grisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kuin, N. P. M.; Landsman, W.; Breeveld, A. A.; Page, M. J.; Lamoureux, H.; James, C.; Mehdipour, M.; Still, M.; Yershov, V.; Brown, P.J.; Carter, M; Mason, K. O.; Kennedy, T.; Marshall, F.; Roming, P. W. A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the calibration of the Swift Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT ) grisms, of which there are two, providing low-resolution field spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and optical bands, respectively. The UV grism covers the range λ1700–5000 Å with a spectral resolution (λ/Δλ) of 75 at λ2600 Å for source magnitudes of u=10–16 mag, while the visible grism covers the range λ2850–6600 Å with a spectral resolution of 100 at λ4000 Å for source magnitudes of b=12–17 mag. This calibration e...

  9. The Swift-UVOT ultraviolet and visible grism calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Kuin, N. P. M.; Landsman, W.; Breeveld, A. A.; Page, M. J.; James, C.; Lamoureux, H.; Mehdipour, M.; Still, M.; Yershov, V.; Brown, P.J.; Carter, M; Mason, K. O.; Kennedy, T.; Marshall, F.; Roming, P. W. A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the calibration of the Swift UVOT grisms, of which there are two, providing low-resolution field spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and optical bands respectively. The UV grism covers the range 1700-5000 Angstrom with a spectral resolution of 75 at 2600 Angstrom for source magnitudes of u=10-16 mag, while the visible grism covers the range 2850-6600 Angstrom with a spectral resolution of 100 at 4000 Angstrom for source magnitudes of b=12-17 mag. This calibration extends over all detec...

  10. Structural characterization of iodinated bovine growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, R; Turyn, D; Fernandez, H N; Dellacha, J M

    1982-02-01

    Bovine growth hormone (bGH) was submitted to iodination using limited amounts of oxidizing reagent, yielding a derivative with no more than 1-g-atom of iodine per mole of hormone. Analysis of the hydrolysis products indicated that monoiodotyrosine was almost the only product of substitution. Isolation and identification of the tryptic fragments showed that half of the 125I-labeled bGH molecules were iodinated in Tyr 174, followed by Tyr 158 (16%) and Tyr 42 (14%). Frontal gel chromatography indicated that the preparation did not contain significant amounts of unreacted bGH. Circular dichroism evidenced structural similarity between the native and the iodinated bGH. The iodinated hormone, like the native protein, undergoes self-association. The dissociation constant of the iodo-labeled bGH self-association equilibrium showed a two-fold increase when compared to that corresponding to the unlabeled hormone. At pH 8.5, where the equilibrium constant was estimated, one tenth of the molecules bear a charged iodotyrosyl residue (average pKapp = 9.3), which could account for part, if not all, of the observed difference regarding self-association. By this criterion, the presence of the iodine atom does not disturb the area engaged in dimer formation.

  11. Ultrahigh iodine adsorption in porous organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Pei, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    We present two porous organic frameworks (POFs), PAF-1 and JUC-Z2, with ultrahigh iodine capture capacity. The iodine vapor uptake of PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 were 1.86 g g-1 and 1.44 g g-1 respectively at 298 K per 40 Pa, which is extremely high for such low pressure sorption conditions. In addition, PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 could adsorb iodine over water with the selectivity of 5.1 and 6.5 respectively. The isosteric enthalpy at zero surface coverage, calculated by a virial equation with the iodine vapor sorption isotherms at 298 K and 313 K of JUC-Z2, reached -51.1 kJ mol-1, which was much higher than the coverage of PAF-1 (-14.9 kJ mol-1). Raman measurement confirmed the polyiodide to be I5 - in POFs. Furthermore, solvents with different polarities, such as n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol, were chosen to conduct iodine binding measurements on PAF-1 and JUC-Z2. The formation constant Kf for POFs in n-hexane, chloroform and methanol drastically decreased with the increase in polarity, thus illustrating the important role of solvents in iodine binding. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  12. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  13. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES, and geographical remoteness (N = 7735. The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496 and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772. The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488. Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001 for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001 compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001. Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required.

  14. Dietary evaluation of a low-iodine diet in Korean thyroid cancer patients preparing for radioactive iodine therapy in an iodine-rich region

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Dal Lae; Park, Young Joo; Paik, Hee-Young; Kim, Min-Ji; Park, Seonyeong; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Choi, Hun Sung; Song, Yoon Ju

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Despite the importance of a low-iodine diet (LID) for thyroid cancer patients preparing for radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, few studies have evaluated dietary intake during LID. This study evaluated the amount of dietary iodine intake and its major food sources during a typical diet and during LID periods for thyroid cancer patients preparing for RAI therapy, and examined how the type of nutrition education of LID affects iodine intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 92 d...

  15. Joint Swift XRT and NuSTAR Observations of TXS 0506+056

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, D. B.; DeLaunay, J. J.; Keivani, A.; Evans, P. A.; Turley, C. F.; Kennea, J. A.; Cowen, D. F.; Osborne, J. P.; Santander, M.; Marshall, F. E.

    2017-10-01

    We have carried out joint Swift and NuSTAR observations of the BL Lac-type blazar TXS 0506+056, identified in our previous Swift XRT observations (GCN #21930) as one of nine bright X-ray sources within the localization region of the likely-cosmic IceCube EHE neutrino IceCube-170922A (GCN #21916).

  16. Swift-XRT globular cluster monitor: April 2016 Terzan 5 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, M.; Chenevez, J.

    2016-04-01

    As part of our Swift-XRT monitoring program of Galactic globular clusters, publicly available here, Swift observed Terzan 5 on 2016 April 17 for 3.2 ksec. Two additional 1.5-ksec-long observations were taken on April 21 and 23 (ATel #8982).

  17. Swift detection of the second period derivative in the timing evolution of SGR0501+4516

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israel, G.L.; Woods, P.; Dall'Osso, S.; Esposito, P.; Rea, N.; Kouveliotou, C.; Gogus, E.; Mangano, V.; Romano, P.; Palmer, D.; Gehrels, N.; Stella, L.; Zane, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Swift satellite has been monitoring SGR0501+4516 (ATel #1676, #1677, #1678, #1682, #1683, #1688, #1691, #1692 and #1824) since the first burst detected by the BAT on board Swift on 22nd August 2008. After about two months since the BAT event, we detect an additional component with respect to the

  18. Full vehicle ABS braking using the SWIFT rigid ring tyre model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, J.P.; Gootjes, L.; Schröder, C.; Köhne, K.-U.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, at the Delft University of Technology and TNO-Automotive and in conjunction with an industrial consortium, a pragmatic tyre model has been developed going by the name SWIFT, which is geared to the analysis of tyre oscillations and its effects on vehicle behaviour. The SWIFT tyre

  19. From Adam Swift to Adam Smith: How the "Invisible Hand" Overcomes Middle Class Hypocrisy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James

    2007-01-01

    This paper challenges Richard Pring's suggestion that parents using private education may be undermining the desire for social justice and equality, using recent arguments of Adam Swift as a springboard. Swift's position on the banning of private schools, which uses a Rawlsian "veil of ignorance" argument, is explored, and it is suggested that, if…

  20. Full vehicle ABS braking using the SWIFT rigid ring tyre model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Pauwelussen, J.P.; Gootjes, L.; Schröder, C.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, at the Delft University of Technology and TNO Automotive and in conjuction with an industrial consortium, a pragmatic tyre model has been developed going by the name SWIFT, which is geared to the analysis of tyre oscillations and its effects on vehicle behaviour. The SWIFt tyre

  1. A Novel Aromatic Iodination Method, with Sodium Periodate Used as the Only Iodinating Reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Skulski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzene, halobenzenes and some deactivated arenes readily reacted inanhydrous NaIO4/AcOH/Ac2O/concd. H2SO4 mixtures to afford, after quenching withexcess aqueous Na2SO3 solution (a reducing agent, purified iodinated products in 27-88% yields. This novel method of aromatic iodination is simple, fairly effective andenvironmentally safe.

  2. The impact of iodised salt or iodine supplements on iodine status during pregnancy lactation and infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Monitoring of iodine status during pregnancy, lactation and infancy is difficult as there are no established reference criteria for urinary iodine concentration (UI) for these groups; so it is uncertain whether iodized salt programs meet the needs of these life stages. Design and

  3. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; dePasquale, M.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; Koch, S.; McEnery, J.; Piran, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi -LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust dataset of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT detected GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift -BAT is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi -GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  4. Intravascular enhancement with identical iodine delivery rate using different iodine contrast media in a circulation phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihl, Casper; Wildberger, Joachim E; Jurencak, Tomas; Yanniello, Michael J; Nijssen, Estelle C; Kalafut, John F; Nalbantov, Georgi; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Behrendt, Florian F; Das, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Both iodine delivery rate (IDR) and iodine concentration are decisive factors for vascular enhancement in computed tomographic angiography. It is unclear, however, whether the use of high-iodine concentration contrast media is beneficial to lower iodine concentrations when IDR is kept identical. This study evaluates the effect of using different iodine concentrations on intravascular attenuation in a circulation phantom while maintaining a constant IDR. A circulation phantom with a low-pressure venous compartment and a high-pressure arterial compartment simulating physiological circulation parameters was used (heart rate, 60 beats per minute; stroke volume, 60 mL; blood pressure, 120/80 mm Hg). Maintaining a constant IDR (2.0 g/s) and a constant total iodine load (20 g), prewarmed (37°C) contrast media with differing iodine concentrations (240-400 mg/mL) were injected into the phantom using a double-headed power injector. Serial computed tomographic scans at the level of the ascending aorta (AA), the descending aorta (DA), and the left main coronary artery (LM) were obtained. Total amount of contrast volume (milliliters), iodine delivery (grams of iodine), peak flow rate (milliliter per second), and intravascular pressure (pounds per square inch) were monitored using a dedicated data acquisition program. Attenuation values in the AA, the DA, and the LM were constantly measured (Hounsfield unit [HU]). In addition, time-enhancement curves, aortic peak enhancement, and time to peak were determined. All contrast injection protocols resulted in similar attenuation values: the AA (516 [11] to 531 [37] HU), the DA (514 [17] to 531 [32] HU), and the LM (490 [10] to 507 [17] HU). No significant differences were found between the AA, the DA, and the LM for either peak enhancement (all P > 0.05) or mean time to peak (AA, 19.4 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds; DA, 21.1 [1.0] to 21.4 [1.15] seconds; LM, 19.8 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds). This phantom study demonstrates that

  5. Effects of Increased Iodine Intake on Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China.

  6. The placenta as a compensatory iodine storage organ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The production of iodine-containing thyroid hormones necessary for brain development in the fetus depends not only on maternal dietary intake but also on placental iodine transport. The optimum level of iodine nutrition during pregnancy and the proportion of the pregnant population reaching this level have previously been evaluated. Little information exists on the ability of the placenta to either accumulate or store iodine. This study aims to investigate iodine uptake and tissue iodine content within placental tissue obtained from women delivering at term.

  7. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  8. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine...... sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant...

  9. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  10. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  11. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Angela R.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matthew K.; Walker, Lawrence R.; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Lizabeth; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-05

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiagvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3–1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I-measurements showed enrichments of up to ~1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  12. First-Principles Identification of Iodine Exchange Mechanism in Iodide Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Ranjit; Park, Noejung

    2012-10-18

    We investigated the microscopic mechanism of ion transport in iodide ionic liquid, using first-principles calculations. We show that the desorption barrier of polyiodides (I3(-) or I5(-)) from the cation is in a similar energy range as or higher than the barrier for the bond dissociation and ensued desorption of neutral iodine (I2). This suggests that, instead of the physical diffusion of such a negatively charged multiatomic species, the exchange of neutral iodine (I2) between the polyiodides can be an easier channel for the movement of polyiodide. For the transport of the monoiodide anion (I(-)), we suggest the contribution of the Grotthuss-type ion exchange through the intermediately formed even-member anion (I2n(-)), in addition to drift and diffusion. As a result, we suggest that, instead of the commonly cited diffusion of the triiodide/iodide (I3(-)/I(-)) redox couple, the exchange of neutral iodine (I2) and the Grotthuss-type transport (I(-)) constitute the dominant ion transport mechanism.

  13. [Iodine and thyroid: what a clinic should know].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Lopes, Maria; Jácome de Castro, João; Marcelino, Mafalda; Oliveira, Maria João; Carrilho, Francisco; Limbert, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization considers iodine deficiency as a major worldwide cause of mental and development diseases, estimating that about 13% of the world population is affected by diseases caused by iodine deficiency. Iodine is a trace element necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which, since it cannot be formed by the organism, must be taken regularly with food. Fish and shellfish are generally a good source, because the ocean contains a considerable amount of iodine. On the contrary, plants which grow in iodine-deficient soils are poor in this element, as well as meat and other animal products fed in plants low in iodine. Salt is the best way for iodine supplementation. Cooking the food with iodized salt is a desirable practice because it guarantees the presence of this element. There are also other methods to provide iodine to the general population, such as adding iodine to drinking water or taking supplements of iodine. In pregnancy is recommended iodine supplementation, except in patients with known thyroid disorders. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3). Inadequate iodine intake leads to inadequate thyroid hormone production. The most important consequences of iodine deficiency, in the general population are goiter and hypothyroidism, and in the severe cases, mental retardation, cretinism and increased neo-natal and infant mortality. The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) formed in 1985, with the only aim of achieving optimal iodine nutrition in the world, in cooperation with UNICEF and WHO. In Portugal, recent studies show significant deficiencies in pregnancy and The Portuguese Society of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, in partnership with General Directorate of Health, proposed an iodine supplementation during pregnancy with 150-200µg/day.

  14. Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  15. Iodine Supplementation: Usage “with a Grain of Salt”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Prete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine supplementation through salt iodization is a worldwide, effective strategy for preventing iodine deficiency-related problems. Its safety and efficacy profile has been extensively investigated, and benefits far outweigh the potential iodine-induced risks. Moreover, iodine supplementation during pregnancy in order to avoid brain damage in the newborn is considered a mainstay of preventive medicine. Exposure to high amounts of iodine is actually well tolerated in most cases and can be unrecognized. Nevertheless, at-risk individuals may develop thyroid dysfunction even when they are exposed to increases in iodine intake universally considered as safe. Iodine-induced thyroid disorders include thyroid autoimmunity, thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced goiter, and hypothyroidism. Moreover, a relationship between iodine intake and histotype distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer has been observed, with a progressive shift from follicular to papillary thyroid cancer. To date, evaluating iodine status in a clinical setting has limitations, and assessing the actual risk for each individual can be challenging, since it is influenced by personal history, genetics, and environmental factors. In conclusion, iodine supplementation programs need to be continued and strengthened, but iodine should be used “with a grain of salt,” because a growing number of susceptible individuals will be exposed to the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid disorders.

  16. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: The effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Holwerda, H.T.; Khodabaks, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration

  17. A comparative study on the effects of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on thyroid oxidative stress in iodine-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianshu; Shi, Rui; Qi, Tengche; Yin, Huisi; Mei, Lan; Han, Xiaoqing; Cui, Peng

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on treating iodine deficiency-induced goiter from the perspective of oxidative stress and to measure selenium values in Chinese herbs. One hundred twenty 4-week-old Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups after inducing iodine-deficiency goiter: normal control group (NC), model control group (MC), iodine excess group (IE), and herbs with iodine excess group (HIE). The activities of oxidative enzymes and levels of oxidative products were measured using biochemical tests. The expression of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the thyroid was detected by immunohistochemistry and the expression of peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5) by the Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs were measured by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The herbs with iodine excess were tested to contain rich selenium. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and PRDX5 increased markedly, and the values of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-HNE decreased significantly in the HIE group. In conclusion, compared with excess iodine, herbs with excess iodine damaged thyroid follicular cells less, which may be related to the increase of antioxidant capacity and rich selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs.

  18. [Iodine deficiency: current situation and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benoist, Bruno; Delange, François

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is a major public health problem worldwide. WHO estimates that 740 million people are currently affected by goitre. The consequences of iodine deficiency on health are the results of hypothyroidism and the main one is impaired development of foetal brain. IDD is the first cause of preventable brain damage in children. The recommended strategy to correct IDD rests upon salt iodisation. Over the last 20 years, the international community mobilised to eliminate IDD under the leadership of WHO, Unicef and ICCIDD. It resulted in remarkable progress in IDD control, especially in Africa and in South East Asia where the endemic is the most severe. It is estimated that 68% of the populations of affected countries have currently access to iodised salt. However, out of the 130 affected countries, about 30 have no programme. Besides, salt quality control and monitoring of population iodine status are still weak in many countries, thus exposing the population to an excessive iodine intake and subsequently to the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism. In addition, IDD is re-emerging in some countries, especially in Eastern Europe after it had disappeared. In order to reach the goal of IDD elimination, it is important to insist on the sustainability of salt iodisation programmes, which implies an increased commitment of both health authorities and representatives of the salt industry.

  19. Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schönhardt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

  20. Iodine in the feed of cows and in the milk with a view to the consumer's iodine supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Friedrich; Spörl, Kathrin; Leiterer, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Milk may be an iodine source for humans, but its magnitude depends on the iodine content of cow feed. The present investigation focused on the iodine level of feed and milk in German feeding practice in comparison with the results of previous milk monitoring and dose-response experiments with dairy cows. In 73 samples of straight feedstuffs (41 concentrates, 32 silages prepared from grass or green maize) and a total of 83 vitamin mineral premixes and compound feeds, respectively, the iodine content was determined and along with the expected daily iodine intake of cows. In six Thuringian cow herds, the total cow diets (51 total mixed rations, TMR) as well as the bulk milk (n=77) were analysed for iodine. Cereal and legume grains and extracted meals from oilseeds had very low native iodine contents atcows received via premixes a mean of 1.2mg iodine/kg diet DM and this was in the magnitude of 0.8mg iodine/kg DM determined in TMR on farm. However, the resulting mean milk concentration of 105μg iodine/kg, median 100μg/kg, is only a half of that in dose-response experiments with 200μg iodine/kg milk at 1mg iodine/kg cow feed DM. The decrease of iodine transfer into the mammary gland and milk is caused by rapeseed meal (RSM) with the glucosinolates and their degradation compounds, e.g. isothiocyanates. By compensating for the iodine antagonist effects of diets containing RSM, more iodine should be added. Twice the current mean feed iodine supplement would optimize the contribution of animal-source food to the human iodine supply in Germany. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Comprehensive handbook of iodine: nutritional, biochemical, pathological and therapeutic aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preedy, Victor R; Burrow, Gerard N; Watson, Ronald R

    2009-01-01

    ... for Monitoring Effects of Iodine/Thyroid Status in Populations Inge Bülow Pedersen and Peter Laurberg 3 15 29 39 47 55 65 Section 2: General Aspects of Iodine Sources and Intakes in the Diet, Mai...

  2. Iodine Contents in Baby Food Consumed in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshida, M; Nozaki, S; Inui, K

    2013-01-01

    ...), while 8 samples showed markedly high iodine values (> 1000 ng/g wet weight). Significantly higher iodine values were observed in 15 samples composed of dishes cooked using kombu (a kind of kelp) than other samples...

  3. Evaluation of iodine content of some selected fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    C. Iodine content. The iodine content was analyzed by Elmslie Caldwell's method as modified by Diosdy and Fitzgerald (1983). The principle was based on the catalytic reduction of thiosulphate to tetraoxosulfate by the.

  4. Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Beckford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR. This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD age 9.3 (1.8 years (n = 359 boys. The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48 and 111 (57 μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR UIC was 124 (83,172 μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey.

  5. Veganism as a cause of iodine deficient hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliosof, Olga; Silverman, Lawrence A

    2018-01-26

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism worldwide. Although uncommon in the Western world, the incidence of iodine deficiency may be rising due to the increased use of restrictive diets. We present a 23-month-old boy diagnosed with iodine deficiency hypothyroidism, induced by a vegan diet. This case highlights the risk for iodine deficiency in children on a vegan diet after discontinuation of breast/formula feeding that could lead to acquired hypothyroidism.

  6. Effect of iodinated contrast media on thyroid: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Mehlika Kuşkonmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parallel to the increased use of computed tomography, iodinated contrast agents are increasingly becoming a source of excess iodide. Iodinated contrast agents may induce thyroid dysfunction in exposed patients, especially in the presence of an underlying thyroid disease. Thus, an ordinary dose of the contrast used for the imaging, can induce hyper or hypothyroidism in a patient with subtle thyroid disease. This review will briefly discuss the physiology of iodine and the clinical evaluation of iodine induced thyroid dysfunction.

  7. The ozone-iodine-chlorate clock reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela T P Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions.

  8. Statistics of heavy-ion stopping

    CERN Document Server

    Glazov, L G; Schinner, A

    2002-01-01

    Energy-loss straggling of swift heavy ions penetrating through matter has been analysed on the basis of binary stopping theory as well as the modified Bohr model allowing for projectile screening. A program has been written which evaluates the generalized Bothe-Landau formula governing the energy-loss spectrum for penetration through a thin layer, allowing for charge exchange involving an arbitrary number of charge states. This program was generated on the basis of calculational schemes developed originally for swift light ions. Projectile screening and multiple-shell structure of target atoms are allowed for. Explicit energy-loss spectra are given for oxygen in carbon for charge states 6-8 and foil thickness 2, 10 and 50 mu g/cm sup 2. It is also demonstrated that frozen-charge straggling depends only weakly on charge state.

  9. Diets of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in continuous and fragmented prairie in Northwestern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamler, J.F.; Ballard, W.B.; Wallace, M.C.; Gipson, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Distribution of the swift fox (Vulpes velox) has declined dramatically since the 1800s, and suggested causes of this decline are habitat fragmentation and transformation due to agricultural expansion. However, impacts of fragmentation and human-altered habitats on swift foxes still are not well understood. To better understand what effects these factors have on diets of swift foxes, scats were collected in northwestern Texas at two study sites, one of continuous native prairie and one representing fragmented native prairie interspersed with agricultural and fields in the Conservation Reserve Program. Leporids, a potential food source, were surveyed seasonally on both sites. Diets of swift foxes differed between sites; insects were consumed more on continuous prairie, whereas mammals, birds, and crops were consumed more on fragmented prairie. Size of populations of leporids were 2-3 times higher on fragmented prairie, and swift foxes responded by consuming more leporids on fragmented (11.1% frequency occurrence) than continuous (3.8%) prairie. Dietary diversity was greater on fragmented prairie during both years of the study. Differences in diets between sites suggested that the swift fox is an adaptable and opportunistic feeder, able to exploit a variety of food resources, probably in relation to availability of food. We suggest that compared to continuous native prairie, fragmented prairie can offer swift foxes a more diverse prey base, at least within the mosaic of native prairie, agricultural, and fields that are in the Conservation Reserve Program.

  10. Swift/BAT detects an outburst from UX Ari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T.

    2014-02-01

    The RS Canum Venaticorum type variable star UX Ari is currently in outburst as detected in the Swift/BAT hard X-ray transient monitor in the 15-50 keV band. The current outburst began on 2014 February 14 (MJD 56702) when it had a count rate of 0.004 +/- 0.002 ct/s/cm^2 (~20 mCrab). It continued to brighten, reaching a rate of 0.013 +/- 0.003 ct/s/cm^2 (~60 mCrab) on 2014 February 17. It has since faded somewhat, with a rate of 0.005 +/- 0.002 ct/s/cm^2 (~20 mCrab) on 2014 February 19.

  11. A complete sample of long bright Swift gamma ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Salvaterra, Ruben; Campana, Sergio; Covino, Stefano; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Fugazza, Dino; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Melandri, Andrea; Nava, Lara; Sbarufatti, Boris; Vergani, Susanna

    2013-06-13

    Complete samples are the basis of any population study. To this end, we selected a complete subsample of Swift long bright gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The sample, made up of 58 bursts, was selected by considering bursts with favourable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up observations and with the 15-150 keV 1 s peak flux above a flux threshold of 2.6 photons cm(-2) s(-1). This sample has a redshift completeness level higher than 90 per cent. Using this complete sample, we investigate the properties of long GRBs and their evolution with cosmic time, focusing in particular on the GRB luminosity function, the prompt emission spectral-energy correlations and the nature of dark bursts.

  12. Merging and Clustering of the Swift BAT AGN Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    We discuss the merger rate, close galaxy environment, and clustering on scales up to an Mpc of the Swift BAT hard X-ray sample of nearby (zincidence of galaxies with signs of disruption compared to a matched control sample (18% versus 1%) and of close pairs within 30 kpc (24% versus 1%). We also find a larger fraction with companions compared to normal galaxies and optical emission line selected AGNs at scales up to 250 kpc. We hypothesize that these merging AGNs may not be identified using optical emission line diagnostics because of optical extinction and dilution by star formation. In support of this hypothesis, in merging systems we find a higher hard X-ray to [O III] flux ratio, as well as emission line diagnostics characteristic of composite or star-forming galaxies, and a larger IRAS 60 μm to stellar mass ratio.

  13. Fast and reliable salt iodine measurement: evaluation of the WYD Iodine Checker in comparison with iodometric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearth-Wesley, Tracy; Makhmudov, Amir; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Caldwell, Kathleen

    2004-06-01

    Iodine deficiency persists as the leading cause of preventable brain damage and reduced intellectual capacity in the world. The most effective method for the elimination of iodine deficiency is the consumption of adequately iodized salt. Ensuring that a population receives adequately iodized salt demands careful monitoring of the salt iodine content. We evaluated the WYD Iodine Checker, a hand-held instrument that quantitatively measures the salt iodine content on the basis of a colorimetric method, and compared its performance with iodometric titration. Performance testing results indicated that the WYD Iodine Checker is a highly precise, accurate, and sensitive tool for measuring salt iodine content. It is a user-friendly instrument that is based on a simple methodology and a straightforward salt sample preparation and testing procedure. We recommend further testing to examine the field performance of the WYD Iodine Checker when measuring iodate salt samples.

  14. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S

    1999-01-01

    for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-May......The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content...... of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from

  15. Effect of mixing on iodine dissociation, population inversion and lasing in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmashenko, Boris D.; Elior, A.; Lebiush, Eyal; Rosenwaks, Salman

    1993-05-01

    A simple, one-dimensional leak flow tube model was used to calculate the effect of mixing on the performance of chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COIL). Both the maximum gain and the characteristic length of the iodine dissociation are shown to be nonmonotonic functions of the iodine flow rate, nI2. The maximum nI2 for which lasing is possible is less than 1 - 2% of the oxygen flow rate. This is in agreement with experimental data and is not explained by models assuming premixed flows. The present model was applied to calculations of the performance of supersonic COILs.

  16. QUALIMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF IODINE SUPPLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Bazrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the new iodine-containing supplements (ID derived from organic media collagenous animal protein (pork rind, carpatina and collagen and protein concentrates brands SCANGEN and PROMIL C95. It is shown that the use of these proteins as carriers of iodine is due to the high content of the amino acids glycine and alanine, which correlates with the degree of binding of iodine objects. New additives in addition to the special focus improve rheological properties of foods, including texture, appearance and functional properties. To assess the quality'ID and selection of preferred option the proposed qualitative assessment and a systematic approach to consider all'ID as a system to allocate its elements, to justify the principles of its construction and the requirements imposed on it, to build a General decision tree. For the construction of complex criterion for assessing the quality'ID proposed procedure formalization based on selection and evaluation of individual indicators, the definition of the laws of their change, depending on the dose, duration and temperature of exposure, and functional efficiency. For comparative evaluation of single and calculation of group indicators all of them were reduced to a single dimension by introducing the dimensionless coefficients of adequately describing the analyzed indicators. The article presents the calculated values of single and group of indicators characterizing technological properties 'ID: the degree of binding of iodine, the binding rate of iodine, heat losses of iodine and basic functional and technological properties of meat stuffing systems (water-binding, moisture-holding, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability, obtained by the introduction of stuffing in the system studied'ID. At the final stage is the selection of the best 'ID, on the basis of an assessment of group performance.

  17. Iodine deficiency in primary school children and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    know about the importance of iodized salt. Conclusion: The observed degree of iodine deficiency in children and the limited knowledge about iodine in an urban area such as Hawassa stress the urgent need for implementing interventions to combat iodine deficiency. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2012;26(1):30-35] ...

  18. Schoolchildren in the Principality of Liechtenstein are mildly iodine deficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilty, F.M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the iodine status of schoolchildren in the Principality of Liechtenstein. Design: A representative, cross-sectional principality-wide screening of iodine level in household salt and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in primary-school children. Data were compared with the

  19. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  20. Book review: Use of Stable Iodine in Nuclear Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Following a radiological or nuclear event, radioactive iodine may be get into the body through respiratory or gastrointestinal systems. In the contaminated cases with radioactive iodine, the radioactive iodine absorbed by the thyroid can injure the gland. Because of the carcinogenic effects of its radiation, there is a significant public health risk in the event of exposure to radioactive iodine. On other hand, due to stable (non-radioactive iodine acts to block radioactive iodine from being taken into the thyroid gland, it can help protect this gland from injury and following side effects. In this query, potassium iodide (also called KI is a salt of stable iodine in a medicine form which is recommended to use sine many years ago. With effective planning and the use of stable iodine prophylaxis, accompanied with other protective implementations, this risk is mostly avoidable. This book contains information such as iodine and physiology kinetic , exposure risk to radioactive iodine, how to use stable iodine in this events , complications attributed to stable(non-radioactive iodine and also at last chapter the final recommendation published by WHO is included.

  1. Iodine supplementation in pregnancy and its effest on child cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; Gowachirapant, S.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Winichagoon, P.; Srinivasan, K.; Zimmerman, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal hypothyroidism and hypothyroxenemia due to iodine deficiency have been shown to affect development of the newborn negatively. Maternal iodine supplementation may therefore improve cognitive performance of the offspring, even in areas of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (ID). Several

  2. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...

  3. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  4. Determinants of iodine deficiency in school children in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indicators of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) assessed were urinary iodine excretion (UIE) rate, iodine concentration in water, the commonly consumed individual foods of plant origin and milk, and bacterial contamination of drinking water. Results: The gross prevalence (mean of male and female values) among school ...

  5. Development of Databases with Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and development, thus an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important in pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leadi...

  6. The role of iodine in human growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-08-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones, and therefore iodine, are essential for mammalian life. Iodine deficiency is a major public health problem; globally, it is estimated that two billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. In the fetal brain, inadequate thyroid hormone impairs myelination, cell migration, differentiation and maturation. Moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy increases rates of spontaneous abortion, reduces birth weight, and increases infant mortality. Offspring of deficient mothers are at high risk for cognitive disability, with cretinism being the most severe manifestation. It remains unclear if development of the offspring is affected by mild maternal iodine deficiency. Moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency during childhood reduces somatic growth. Correction of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in primary school aged children improves cognitive and motor function. Iodine prophylaxis of deficient populations with periodic monitoring is an extremely cost effective approach to reduce the substantial adverse effects of iodine deficiency throughout the life cycle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of iodine deficiency among school children and access ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The iodine concentration in the salt was determined using the quantitative titrimetric method. The data for the UIC and salt iodine plus data from questionnaires were analysed using Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 15 (SPSS 15). The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 248.5μg/l and ...

  8. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95% by 2005, goiter rates are still high. This study investigated the association between iodine excess and goiter. Methods: In a case control study, urinary iodine levels, complete blood count, T3, T4 and TSH levels were ...

  9. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation | Washington ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. ... Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. L Washington, T Makumbi, OJ Fualal, M Galukande. Abstract. Background: Goiters have been associated with iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95%

  10. Iodine. Do we need an enrichment program in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersson, G.; Haraldsdottir, J.

    1996-01-01

    A working group was established to evaluate the need for iodine enrichment in Denmark. Judged from studies of urinary iodine excretion and one dietary survey the intake of iodine in Denmark is low compared with recommended intakes. The occurrence of non-toxic goitre is relatively high; between 9...

  11. FERMI LAT STACKING ANALYSIS OF SWIFT LOCALIZED GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Axelsson, M. [Department of Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhat, P. N. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Anderson, B., E-mail: jchiang@slac.stanford.edu; and others

    2016-05-10

    We perform a comprehensive stacking analysis of data collected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) of γ -ray bursts (GRBs) localized by the Swift spacecraft, which were not detected by the LAT but which fell within the instrument’s field of view at the time of trigger. We examine a total of 79 GRBs by comparing the observed counts over a range of time intervals to that expected from designated background orbits, as well as by using a joint likelihood technique to model the expected distribution of stacked counts. We find strong evidence for subthreshold emission at MeV to GeV energies using both techniques. This observed excess is detected during intervals that include and exceed the durations typically characterizing the prompt emission observed at keV energies and lasts at least 2700 s after the co-aligned burst trigger. By utilizing a novel cumulative likelihood analysis, we find that although a burst’s prompt γ -ray and afterglow X-ray flux both correlate with the strength of the subthreshold emission, the X-ray afterglow flux measured by Swift ’ s X-ray Telescope at 11 hr post trigger correlates far more significantly. Overall, the extended nature of the subthreshold emission and its connection to the burst’s afterglow brightness lend further support to the external forward shock origin of the late-time emission detected by the LAT. These results suggest that the extended high-energy emission observed by the LAT may be a relatively common feature but remains undetected in a majority of bursts owing to instrumental threshold effects.

  12. Swift J1112.2-8238: a candidate relativistic tidal disruption flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. C.; Levan, A. J.; Stanway, E. R.; Tanvir, N. R.; Cenko, S. B.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.; Cucchiaria, A.

    2015-10-01

    We present observations of Swift J1112.2-8238, and identify it as a candidate relativistic tidal disruption flare. The outburst was first detected by Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in 2011 June as an unknown, long-lived (order of days) gamma-ray transient source. We show that its position is consistent with the nucleus of a faint galaxy for which we establish a likely redshift of z = 0.89 based on a single emission line that we interpret as the blended [O II] λ3727 doublet. At this redshift, the peak X-ray/gamma-ray luminosity exceeded 1047 erg s-1, while a spatially coincident optical transient source had i' ˜ 22 (Mg ˜ -21.4 at z = 0.89) during early observations, ˜20 d after the Swift trigger. These properties place Swift J1112.2-8238 in a very similar region of parameter space to the two previously identified members of this class, Swift J1644+57 and Swift J2058+0516. As with those events the high-energy emission shows evidence for variability over the first few days, while late-time observations, almost 3 yr post-outburst, demonstrate that it has now switched off. Swift J1112.2-8238 brings the total number of such events observed by Swift to three, interestingly all detected by Swift over a ˜3 month period (<3 per cent of its total lifetime as of 2015 March). While this suggests the possibility that further examples may be uncovered by detailed searches of the BAT archives, the lack of any prime candidates in the years since 2011 means these events are undoubtedly rare.

  13. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...

  14. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Fermi GBM detects pulsations from Swift J0243.6+6124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.

    2017-10-01

    On October 1, 2017, blind searches of Fermi GBM data detected strong pulsations from an unknown source with a pulse period of 4.927 seconds. Upon the Swift discovery of the new 9.86 second accreting NS, Swift J0243.6+6124 (ATeL #10809), the GBM pulsar project performed a dedicated search for pulsations around the pulse period of 9.86 seconds from the direction of Swift J0243.6+6124 starting September 01 through October 2, 2017.

  16. Hydroxylamine as a potential reagent for dissolution off gas scrubbing in spent fuel reprocessing: kinetics of the iodine reduction. An example of similarity between the studies on the chemistry of iodine in reactor safety and in spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Devisme, F. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, CE/VRH, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Vargas, S.; Chopin-Dumas, J. [Laboratoire d`Electrochimie Inorganique, ENSSPICAM, Marseille (France)

    1996-12-01

    Iodine, which can be released inside the containment building when an accident occurs, can be traced, in normal operating conditions, at the back end of the fuel cycle. Hydroxylamine has been selected as a reagent of potential interest to trap iodine in the dissolution off gas treatment. The kinetics of the reaction between hydroxylamine and iodine has been studied in a narrow range of pH (1-2), with hydroxylamine in excess (ratios of hydroxylamine to iodine initial concentrations varying from 2 to 40), at constant temperature (30{sup o}C) and ionic strength (0.1 mol/L). Spectrophotometry and voltametry have been coupled for analytical investigation. The problem of the rapid mixing of the reactants has been solved using a continuous reactor. Triiodide has been shown non reactive towards hydroxylamine. An initial rate law has been proposed, pointing out the first order of the reaction with respect to hydroxylamine and iodine, and the inhibitory effect of iodide and hydrogen ions. Nitrous acid has been identified as a transitory product. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen monoxide have been detected by gas chromatography, the ratio of the amounts of products formed depending on acidity. The complexity of the overall reaction has been ascribed to the competition of four reactions as previously proposed in the literature. (author) 8 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  17. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eKiferle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg-1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 µg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-minute boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine

  18. Simultaneous quantification of iodine and high valent metals via ICP-MS under acidic conditions in complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Kristina; Hein, Christina; Sander, Jonas Michael; Kautenburger, Ralf

    2017-05-15

    The determination of iodine as a main fission product (especially the isotopes I-129 and I-131) of stored HLW in a disposal beside its distribution as a natural ingredient of many different products like milk, food and seawater is a matter of particular interest. The simultaneous ICP-MS determination of iodine as iodide together with other elements (especially higher valent metal ions) relevant for HLW is analytically very problematic. A reliable ICP-MS quantification of iodide must be performed at neutral or alkaline conditions in contrast to the analysis of metal ions which are determined in acidic pH ranges. Herein, we present a method to solve this problem by changing the iodine speciation resulting in an ICP-MS determination of iodide as iodate. The oxidation from iodide to iodate with sodium hypochlorite at room temperature is a fast and convenient method with flexible reaction time, from one hour up to three days, thus eliminating the disadvantages of quantifying iodine species via ICP-MS. In the analysed concentration range of iodine (0.1-100µgL(-1)) we obtain likely quantitative recovery rates for iodine between 91% and 102% as well as relatively low RSD values (0.3-4.0%). As an additional result, it is possible to measure different other element species in parallel together with the generated iodate, even high valent metals (europium and uranium beside caesium) at recovery rates in the same order of magnitude (93-104%). In addition, the oxidation process operates above pH 7 thus offering a wide pH range for sample preparation. Even analytes in complex matrices, like 5M saline (NaCl) solution or artificial cement pore water (ACW) can be quantified with this robust sample preparation method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrophilic iodination: a gateway to high iodine compounds and energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Deepak; He, Chunlin; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-09-21

    A large number of iodine atoms can be introduced into a single molecule in a one-pot reaction using trifluoroperacetic acid-mediated electrophilic iodination methodology. The scope of this reaction was investigated extensively using several pyrazole substrates which resulted in nine polyiodo pyrazole compounds with iodine content as high as 80%. This synthetic methodology was also utilized successfully for iodination of benzimidazoles. Tetraiodobenzimidazole was nitrated with 100% nitric acid to give a high yield of 4,5,6,7-tetranitro-1H-benzimidazol-2(3H)-one (14). All of these materials were fully characterized and compounds 5, 9, 10 and 14 were confirmed further with single crystal X-ray analysis. High density, positive oxygen balance, and very good impact sensitivity values characterize 14. For the first time, two 1,2,5-oxadiazole-N-oxide rings were introduced into a benzimidazole ring (11) which remarkably improves the stability of oxadiazole-N-oxide compounds.

  20. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark: regional variations and dependency on maternal iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  1. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42% and 180 females (58%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p Conclusions The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  2. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser with atomic iodine generated via fluorine atoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Špalek, Otomar; Kodymová, Jarmila; Picková, Irena; Jakubec, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 1 (2008), 14-22 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0359 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic fluorine * chemical oxygen–iodine laser * COIL Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.961, year: 2008

  3. Generation of atomic iodine via fluorine for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Špalek, Otomar; Čenský, Miroslav; Picková, Irena; Kodymová, Jarmila; Jakubec, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 334, - (2007), s. 167-174 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0359 Grant - others:USAF European Office for Research and Development(XE) FA 8655-05-M-4027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic fluorine * chemical oxygen-iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.805, year: 2007

  4. Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5 μg/L as I for a 40 mL water sample (or 2.5 μg/L as I for an 80 mL water sample, or 1.25 μg/L as I for a 160 mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Iodine Content in Urine, Faeces and Selected Organs of Rats Fed Lettuce Biofortified with Iodine Through Foliar Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Roksana; Kopeć, Aneta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Foliar application of micronutrients is successfully used in order to increase the concentration of essential elements in vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the iodine absorption in the rat organism fed foliar biofortified lettuce. The presented study was consisted of the vegetative and animal experiment. In the vegetative experiment with lettuce, two combinations of foliar application were used: (1) control-without iodine application and (2) iodine application in the potassium iodide (KI) form. In the animal experiment, Wistar rats were divided to four groups, which received one of four diets: (1) C-control diet containing iodine in the KI form, (2) D-diet deficient in iodine, (3) D + BL-diet containing biofortified lettuce, and (4) D + CL-diet containing control lettuce (as the only source of iodine in diet, respectively). The diets contained 0.260, 0.060, 0.254 and 0.075 mg I/kg, respectively. In order to determine the iodine absorption in the rat organisms, the content of this trace element was measured in urine, faeces and in selected organs with the use of the ICP-OES technique. Foliar application of the KI increased the content of iodine in lettuce. The rats from the D + BL group excreted significantly less iodine in their urine and faeces and also accumulated more iodine in the organs than the rats from the C group. Iodine with biofortified lettuce was much bioavailable for rodents than iodine from control diet. Biofortified lettuce can be a source of iodine in a diet of human and can improve iodine nutrition.

  6. prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... and packed in plastic bottle. Twenty salt samples from each category (I,. II, III & IV) were analyzed for iodine content using standard iodometric titration method suggested by WHO/UNICIEF/ICCIDD (33). This method involves the titration of a solution of salt against standard Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3.

  7. Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone Physiology, Iodine Metabolism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for iodine are 100–150 µg in adults, 90–120 µg in children and. 200 µg in pregnant women.1 However, ..... chronic fatigue due to insomnia, anxiety, muscle tremor, palpitations. Skin and A ppendages. Increased ... Normal lung volume with reduced maximal breathing capacity; sleep apnea common. 1. D yspnea is common ...

  8. Stability of radiopaque iodine-containing biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldenhoff, YBJ; Kruft, MAB; Pijpers, AP; van der Veen, FH; Bulstra, SK; Kuijer, Roelof; Koole, LH

    Stability tests have been performed on two typical iodine-containing radiopaque poly(methacrylate) copolymers. Material A is a terpolymer of methylmethacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2-[4-iodobenzoyl]-oxo-ethylmethacrylate (4-IEMA) material B is a copolymer of MMA and 4-IEMA.

  9. prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... was to determine the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders. METHODS: A .... ammonium persulfate method which was suggested and approved by. WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (21). This involves the spectrophotometric analysis (measuring the absorbance) of a reaction medium, which utilizes.

  10. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  11. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  12. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  13. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  14. Studying Equilibrium in the Chemical Reaction between Ferric and Iodide Ions in Solution Using a Simple and Inexpensive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaychuk, Pavel Anatolyevich; Kuvaeva, Alyona Olegovna

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment on the study of the chemical equilibrium based on the reaction between ferric and iodide ions in solution with the formation of ferrous ions, free iodine, and triiodide ions is developed. The total concentration of iodide and triiodide ions in the reaction mixture during the reaction is determined by the argentometric…

  15. SWIFT-HPX - High Data Rate Ka-band Commications for Small Satellites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging TUI's SWIFT software defined radio (SDR) architecture, we propose to develop a 100 Mbps downlink and intersatellite crosslink capability with ranging and...

  16. The Swift satellite lives up to its name, revealing cosmic explosions as they happen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhaana L.C Starling

    2008-01-01

    ... populations, one of which may originate in the deaths of massive stars. The launch of the Swift satellite in 2004 brought a flurry of new discoveries, advancing our understanding of these sources and the galaxies that host...

  17. Soil, wheat, cabbage and drinking water iodine in relation to human iodine status and iodine deficiency disorders in Xinjiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fordyce, F.M.; Ge, Xiaoli; Stewart, A.G.; Jiang, Ji Yong; Cave, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans and animals. A lack in the diet can lead to iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) the most common manifestation being goitre, an enlargement of the thyroid gland in the neck. Infants born to severely Ideficient mothers may suffer cretinism and I-deficiency is the world's most common cause of preventable mental retardation. In many countries this problem has been tackled successfully using medical interventions such as the iodination o...

  18. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukkou, Eftychia G; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Markou, Kostas B

    2017-04-01

    The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 250 μg for pregnancy and lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin. The non-organic intrathyroidal iodine is usually low, but significantly greater compared to plasma. Large doses of iodine reduce both the uptake and the organification (Wolff-Chaikoff effect) and cause partial inhibition of Tg proteolysis. The thyroid gland has several protective mechanisms resulting on the maintenance of normal thyroid function despite wide fluctuations of the daily iodine intake. Ingestion of several commonly used drugs and food conservatives results in acute or chronic excessive iodine intake. Failure to escape from the iodine induced organification inhibition can cause hypothyroidism, which is temporary and subsides after iodine exposure ceases. Iodine excess may also establish a status of excessive thyroid hormone synthesis and release, thus inducing autonomic thyroid function in iodopenic areas or can contribute to the development of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in iodine abundant areas. The anti-arrhythmic Amiodarone, is a benzofuranic product with a very high iodine content, is associated with either hypo- or hyperthyroidism development. In the presence of defective auto-protective mechanisms, excessive iodine ingestion can divert the normal thyroid function.

  19. Swift follow-up of the newly discovered burster millisecond pulsar IGR J17511-3057

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Falanga, M.; Chenevez, J.; Brandt, S.; Beckmann, V.; Bird, A.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Jonker, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.; Oosterbroek, T.; Paizis, A.; Risquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Shaw, S.; Wijnands, R.

    2009-01-01

    Following the discovery of the new hard X-ray transient IGR J17511-3057 by INTEGRAL (Atel #2196) and its classification as a millisecond pulsar by RXTE (Atel #2197), a Swift ToO was performed. Swift/XRT observed IGR J17511-3057 on 2009-09-13 at 19:53:31 for a total exposure time of 4 ks. The first

  20. Swift follow-up of the newly discovered burster millisecond pulsar IGR J17511-3057

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.

    2009-01-01

    Following the discovery of the new hard X-ray transient IGR J17511-3057 by INTEGRAL (Atel #2196) and its classification as a millisecond pulsar by RXTE (Atel #2197), a Swift ToO was performed. Swift/XRT observed IGR J17511-3057 on 2009-09-13 at 19:53:31 for a total exposure time of 4 ks. The first...

  1. PRIMERJAVA PROGRAMSKIH JEZIKOV SWIFT IN OBJECTIVE-C NA PRIMERU APLIKACIJE HOKEJ DOGODKI

    OpenAIRE

    Svržnjak, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Cilj diplomske naloge je spoznati nova programska jezika Swift in Objective-C, ter ju primerjati pri razvijanju mobilne aplikacije za iOS. Izdelava bo v razvojnem okolju XCode, v katerem je omogočena uporaba obeh programskih jezikov. V uvodnem delu diplomskega dela je na kratko prikazana zgodovina operacijskega sistema iOS, platforma za distribucijo mobilnih aplikacij App Store, razvojno okolje Xcode ter programska jezika Swift in Objective-C. Sledi predstavitev izdelane aplikacije, funkciona...

  2. The Simpsons: Public Choice in the Tradition of Swift and Orwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, John

    2006-01-01

    The author disagrees with Homer Simpson who claims that "...cartoons don't have any deep meaning. They're just stupid drawings that give you a cheap laugh." He argues that The Simpsons have a deep meaning in the same way as the works of Jonathan Swift and George Orwell. The message in The Simpsons, Swift, and Orwell is that those in charge do not…

  3. SWIFT: Semi-empirical and numerically efficient stratospheric ozone chemistry for global climate models

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyling, Daniel; Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The SWIFT model is a fast yet accurate chemistry scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone. It is mainly intended for use in Global Climate Models (GCMs), Chemistry Climate Models (CCMs) and Earth System Models (ESMs). For computing time reasons these models often do not employ full stratospheric chem- istry modules, but use prescribed ozone instead. This can lead to insufficient representation between stratosphere and troposphere. The SWIFT stratospheric ozone chem...

  4. Iodine uptake and distribution in horticultural and fruit tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caffagni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential microelement for humans and iodine deficiency disorder (IDD is one of the most widespread nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world. Iodine biofortification of plants provides an attractive opportunity to increase iodine intake in humans and to prevent and control IDD. This study was conducted to investigate the iodine uptake and accumulation in edible portion of two fruit trees: plum and nectarine, and two horticultural crops: tomato and potato. Two type of iodine treatments (soil and foliar spray application, and, for fresh market tomato, two production systems (open field and greenhouse hydroponic culture were tested. The distribution of iodine in potato stem and leaves, and in plum tree fruits, leaves, and branches was investigated. Iodine content of potato tubers after postharvest storage and processing (cooking, and iodine content of nectarine fruits after postharvest storage and processing (peeling were also determined. Differences in iodine accumulation were observed among the four crops, between applications, and between production systems. In open field, the maximum iodine content ranged from 9.5 and 14.3 μg 100 g−1 for plum and nectarine fruit, to 89.4 and 144.0 μg 100 g−1 for potato tuber and tomato fruit, respectively. These results showed that nectarine and plum tree accumulated significantly lower amounts of iodine in their edible tissues, in comparison with potato and tomato. The experiments also indicated hydroponic culture as the most efficient system for iodine uptake in tomato, since its fresh fruits accumulated up to 2423 μg 100 g−1 of iodine. Iodine was stored mainly in the leaves, in all species investigated. Only a small portion of iodine was moved to plum tree branches and fruits, and to potato stems and tubers. No differences in iodine content after fruit peeling was observed. A significant increase in iodine content of potato was observed after baking, whereas a significant decrease was

  5. Global iodine nutrition: Where do we stand in 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Andersson, Maria; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2013-05-01

    Dietary iodine intake is required for the production of thyroid hormone. Consequences of iodine deficiency include goiter, intellectual impairments, growth retardation, neonatal hypothyroidism, and increased pregnancy loss and infant mortality. In 1990, the United Nations World Summit for Children established the goal of eliminating iodine deficiency worldwide. Considerable progress has since been achieved, largely through programs of universal salt iodization. Approximately 70% of all households worldwide currently have access to adequately iodized salt. In 2013, as defined by a national or subnational median urinary iodine concentration of 100-299 μg/L in school-aged children, 111 countries have sufficient iodine intake. Thirty countries remain iodine-deficient; 9 are moderately deficient, 21 are mildly deficient, and none are currently considered severely iodine-deficient. Ten countries have excessive iodine intake. In North America, both the United States and Canada are generally iodine-sufficient, although recent data suggest pregnant U.S. women are mildly iodine-deficient. Emerging issues include discrepancies between urinary iodine status in pregnant women compared to school-aged children in some populations, the problem of re-emerging iodine deficiency in parts of the developed world, the importance of food industry use of iodized salt, regions of iodine excess, and the potential effects of initiatives to lower population sodium consumption on iodine intake. Although substantial progress has been made over the last several decades, iodine deficiency remains a significant health problem worldwide and affects both industrialized and developing nations. The ongoing monitoring of population iodine status remains crucially important, and particular attention may need to be paid to monitoring the status of vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women and infants. There is also need for ongoing monitoring of iodized salt and other dietary iodine sources in

  6. Silver ion beam irradiation effects on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/clay nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Surinder [Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Physics, Amritsar (India); Mehta, Rajeev [Thapar University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Patiala (India)

    2014-12-15

    Swift heavy ions induced modification of thin films of blends of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) (50:50) with organically modified nanoclay (Cloisite {sup registered} 30B) has been studied, using optical, structural and surface morphological analysis. Presence of nanoclay is found to enhance the properties of this degradable copolymer by reducing the rate of degradation even at high irradiation fluence. Optical and structural analysis of the polymer nanocomposites suggests that both the cross-linking and chain scission phenomenon are caused by swift heavy ion irradiation. XRD measurements show intercalation of PLGA in the clay galleries. Surface morphology of a nanocomposite indicates significant changes after irradiation at various fluences. (orig.)

  7. Values of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing the iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Wu, Lian; Yu, Song-lin; Fang, Hui-ling; Kamg, Wei-ming; Cheng, Xin-qi; Lu, Jie; Yu, Jian-chun; Qiu, Ling

    2015-04-01

    To assess the clinical application value of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease. Blood,morning urine and 24-hour urine samples were collected in 31 healthy volunteers and in 30 surgically treated patients with thyroid disease before and after surgery. Iodine concentration was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The iodine metabolism biomarkers including serum iodine (SI), morning urine iodine(UI), morning urine iodine/urine creatinine ratio (UI/UCr), 24-hour urine iodine (24 h UI), and 24-hour urine iodine excretion (24 h UIE) were evaluated in these two groups. In addition, the validation coincidence rate of iodine metabolism biomarkers in healthy volunteers to different reference ranges including World Health Organization, Mayo Clinic, and Quest Diagnostics were calculated. The UI/UCr ratio of pre-operative thyroid disease patients was significantly lower than that of healthy volunteers (P0.05) between these two groups. The SI, UI ,and 24 h UI in postoperative thyroid disease patients were significantly higher than those of the pre-operative patients (all Piodine metabolism biomarkers. The UI/UCr ratio may be used for iodine nutrition evaluation in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

  8. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae – linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2, (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003, provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000 and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular

  9. Habitat selection by female swift foxes (Vulpes velox) during the pup-rearing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Indrani; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Datta, Shubham; Schroeder, Greg M.; Klaver, Robert W.; Honness, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    The swift fox (Vulpes velox) was historically distributed in western South Dakota including the region surrounding Badlands National Park (BNP). The species declined during the mid-1800s, largely due to habitat loss and poisoning targeted at wolves (Canis lupis) and coyotes (C. latrans). Only a small population of swift foxes near Ardmore, South Dakota persisted. In 2003, an introduction program was initiated at BNP with swift foxes translocated from Colorado and Wyoming. We report on habitat use by female swift foxes during the pup-rearing season (May–July) in 2009. Analyses of location data from 13 radiomarked female foxes indicated disproportional use (P Ŷ = 1.01), sparse vegetation (Ŷ = 1.43) and prairie dog towns (Ŷ = 1.18) in proportion to their availability, whereas they were less likely to use woodland (Ŷ = 0.00), shrubland (Ŷ = 0.14), pasture/agricultural-land (Ŷ = 0.25) and development (Ŷ = 0.16) relative to availability. Swift foxes typically are located in habitats that provide greater visibility, such as shortgrass prairie and areas with sparse vegetation; which allow detection of approaching coyotes (e.g., primary predator of swift foxes).

  10. Quantification of total iodine in intact granular starches of different botanical origin exposed to iodine vapor at various water activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Bruce; Ye, Mei; Holbein, Bruce E; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2011-11-08

    Iodine has been used as an effective tool for studying both the structure and composition of dispersed starch and starch granules. In addition to being employed to assess relative amylose contents for starch samples, it has been used to look at the molecular mobility of the glucose polymers within intact starch granules based on exposure to iodine vapor equilibrated at different water activities. Starches of different botanical origin including corn, high amylose corn, waxy corn, potato, waxy potato, tapioca, wheat, rice, waxy rice, chick pea and mung bean were equilibrated to 0.33, 0.75, 0.97 water activities, exposed to iodine vapor and then absorbance spectra and LAB color were determined. In addition, a new iodine quantification method sensitive to <0.1% iodine (w/w) was employed to measure bound iodine within intact granular starch. Amylose content, particle size distribution of granules, and the density of the starch were also determined to explore whether high levels of long linear glucose chains and the surface area-to-volume ratio were important factors relating to the granular iodine binding. Results showed, in all cases, starches complexed more iodine as water content increased and waxy starches bound less iodine than their normal starch counterparts. However, much more bound iodine could be measured chemically with waxy starches than was expected based on colorimetric determination. Surface area appeared to be a factor as smaller rice and waxy rice starch granules complexed more iodine, while the larger potato and waxy potato granules complexed less than would be expected based on measured amylose contents. Corn, high amylose corn, and wheat, known to have starch granules with extensive surface pores, bound higher levels of iodine suggesting pores and channels may be an important factor giving iodine vapor greater access to bind within the granules. Exposing iodine vapor to moisture-equilibrated native starches is an effective tool to explore starch

  11. Colour centre production in yttria-stabilized zirconia by swift charged particle irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, François; Gourier, Didier; Trautmann, Christina; Calas, Georges; Toulemonde, Marcel

    2004-06-01

    We have studied the colour centre production by swift electron and heavy ion irradiations of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), i.e. ZrO2:Y with 9.5 mol% Y2O3. For this purpose, we performed irradiations of \\langle 100\\rangle - or \\langle 110\\rangle -oriented YSZ single crystals with 2.5 MeV electrons, 145 MeV 13C, 180 MeV 32S, 200 MeV 58Ni, 230 MeV 79Br, 120 MeV 127I, 200 MeV 127I, 200 MeV 197Au, and 2.6 GeV 238U ions. X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV-visible optical absorption measurements were used to monitor the point defect formation. The EPR line saturations were measured between 6 and 150 K, in order to obtain the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1). Electron and ion beams produce the same two colour centres: (i) the first one is identified as an F+-type centre (singly ionized oxygen vacancy) with an axial \\langle 100\\rangle symmetry, a small g-factor anisotropy (g_{\\bot }=1.972 and g_{\\parallel }=1.996 ) and long T1 values, (ii) the second one is similar to the well known T-centre (Zr3+ in a trigonal oxygen environment) with an axial \\langle 111\\rangle symmetry and a large g-factor anisotropy (g_{\\bot }=1.855 and g_{\\parallel }=1.986 ), which is also produced by photon irradiations. A broad optical absorption band centred at a wavelength near 500 nm is observed with an absorption coefficient proportional to the volume density of the F+-type centre deduced from the room temperature EPR spectra. Since no change of this band occurs between 10 and 300 K, it indicates that the electron-phonon coupling of this colour centre must be strong, in agreement with an F+-type centre. Owing to the axial \\langle 100\\rangle symmetry and lack of hyperfine structure of the EPR lines of this defect, it is suggested that the first coordination shell must contain one native oxygen vacancy. The plots of the volume density of this centre versus fluence are on the whole rescaled as functions of the number of displacements per atom induced by elastic

  12. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jui Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  13. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  15. The Swiss lodized Salt Program Provides Adequate Iodine for School Children and Pregnant Women, but Weaning Infants Not Receiving Iodine-Containing Complementary Foods as well as Their Mothers Are Iodine Deficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Aeberli, I.; Wüst, N.; Piacenza, A.M.; Bucher, T.; Henschen, I.; Haldimann, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: If children and pregnant women in the population are iodine sufficient, it is generally assumed infants are also sufficient. But weaning infants may be at risk of iodine deficiency because iodized salt contributes little dietary iodine during this period. To fill this gap, iodine

  16. Formation of iodinated trihalomethanes during UV/chloramination with iodate as the iodine source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Lin, Yi-Li; Wang, An-Qi; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Xu, Bin; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    Iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) are a group of emerging disinfection by-products with high toxicity, and iodide (I(-)) as well as iodinated organic compounds are expected to be their iodine sources. Nevertheless, in this study, iodate (IO3(-)) was proven to be a new iodine source of I-THM formation during UV/chloramination. In the iodate-containing waters (without any other iodine sources), I-THM formation increased with the increase of UV dose, IO3(-) and NH2Cl concentrations. With the increase of Br(-)/IO3(-) molar ratio, I-THM formation (especially for the brominated species) increased. Besides, NOM species could affect I-THM formation from IO3(-) during UV/chloramination. Fulvic acid could promote IO3(-) phototransformation to I(-) but humic acid impeded the production of I(-) during UV irradiation. Under realistic drinking water treatment conditions (DOC = 5.0 mg-C/L, IO3(-) = 12.7 μg-I/L, UV dose = 50 mJ/cm(2), NH2Cl = 5 mg-Cl2/L), CHCl2I was detected as 0.17 μg/L using solid-phase microextraction method, and the production rate of I-THMs from IO3(-) was about 7% of that from I(-). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Renewed activity of the Galactic center transients Swift J174535.5-290135.6 and GRS 1741.9-2853 as observed with Swift/XRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, R.; Klein-Wolt, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Shaw, S.; Chenevez, J.; Brandt, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Domingo, A.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.; Mowlavi, N.; Paizis, A.; Risquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.

    2007-01-01

    Following the detection of a new Galactic center transient in our new series of INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations (ATEL #1005), we obtained a short pointing with the XRT aboard Swift to improve significantly on the source position of this transient. This observation was performed on

  18. Pokročilé programové konstrukce a programovací techniky jazyka Swift

    OpenAIRE

    Čislinský, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The thesis focuses on advanced programming constructs and techniques of the Swift programming language. At the beginning programming paradigms that are supported by the Swift design (object-oriented and functional) are introduced. Concepts of each paradigm are described and Swift is then evaluated by the level of support for these paradigms. Following programming constructs are described in-depth: working with variables, optional types, enumerated types, functions and closures. Creating of cu...

  19. Strong association of relatively low and extremely excessive iodine intakes with thyroid cancer in an iodine-replete area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Na Kyung; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between iodine intake and development of thyroid diseases shows a U-shaped curve with an increase of risk in both deficient and excessive iodine intakes. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between iodine intake and thyroid cancer in patients with thyroid nodules in an iodine-replete area. Retrospective analysis of 1170 patients with thyroid nodules was performed. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Predictive factors for thyroid cancer were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. The median UIC in all patients with thyroid nodules was 360 μg/L (range from 4 to 9631 μg/L). More than half of the patients (650/1170, 56 %) belonged to the category of excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥ 300 μg/L) according to WHO iodine recommendations. Patients with thyroid cancer were more likely to be distributed in UIC cancer. The multivariate-adjusted OR (95 % CI) in the relatively low (UIC cancer were 1.519 (1.099-2.098) and 1.874 (1.094-3.208), respectively, compared to the other iodine intake group (300-2499 μg/L). Male gender and UIC were independent predictors of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroid nodules. This study suggests that relatively low and extremely excessive iodine intakes are associated with thyroid cancer in an iodine-replete area.

  20. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats' hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations.

  1. Improvement in iodine status of pregnant Australian women 3 years after introduction of a mandatory iodine fortification programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Yeatman, Heather; Brock, Erin; Lucas, Catherine; Gemming, Luke; Goodfellow, Alison; Ma, Gary

    2013-07-01

    In order to address population-level mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory iodine fortification programme of salt used in bread was introduced in late 2009. A before-after study was conducted to assess changes in median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) measurements, according to supplement use, in convenience samples of pregnant women attending a public antenatal clinic in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia in 2008 (n=139), 2011 (n=147) and 2012 (n=114). Knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition were investigated in 2012, using self-administered questionnaires. The mild iodine deficiency confirmed pre-fortification (MUIC (IQR)=87.5 (62-123.5; n=110)) has steadily improved to 145.5 μg/L (91-252) in 2011 (n=106) and 166 (97-237) in 2012 (n=95) (sufficiency ≥ 150 μg/L). However, only women taking supplements containing iodine had MUIC indicative of sufficiency in both years surveyed post fortification (2011: 178 μg/L vs. 109 μg/L, Pfoods remained major contributors to total iodine intake (58%). Overall knowledge regarding health implications of iodine deficiency was poor. Iodine status of women has improved since the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification; however supplementation is indicated during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  3. The impact of iodine supplementation and bread fortification on urinary iodine concentrations in a mildly iodine deficient population of pregnant women in South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy can have significant effects on fetal development and future cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to characterise the iodine status of South Australian women during pregnancy and relate it to the use of iodine-containing multivitamins. The impact of fortification of bread with iodized salt was also assessed. Women (n = 196) were recruited prospectively at the beginning of pregnancy and urine collected at 12, 18, 30, 36 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum. The use of a multivitamin supplement was recorded at each visit. Spot urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) were assessed. Median UICs were within the mildly deficient range in women not taking supplements (iodine-containing multivitamins UICs were within WHO recommendations (150–249 μg/L) for sufficiency and showed an increasing trend through gestation. The fortification of bread with iodized salt increased the median UIC from 68 μg/L to 84 μg/L (p = .011) which was still in the deficient range. Pregnant women in this region of Australia were unlikely to reach recommended iodine levels without an iodine supplement, even after the mandatory iodine supplementation of bread was instituted in October 2009. PMID:23497409

  4. Exploiting the richest patch has a fitness pay-off for the migratory swift parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Dejan; Terauds, Aleks; Westgate, Martin J; Webb, Matthew H; Roshier, David A; Heinsohn, Robert

    2015-09-01

    1. Unlike philopatric migrants, the ecology of nomadic migrants is less well understood. This life-history strategy reflects responses to spatiotemporal variation in resource availability and the need to find resource rich patches to initiate breeding. The fitness consequences of movements between regions of patchily distributed resources can provide insight into ecology of all migrants and their responses to global change. 2. We link broad-scale data on spatiotemporal fluctuation in food availability to data on settlement patterns and fitness outcomes for a nomadic migrant, the endangered swift parrot Lathamus discolor. We test several predictions to determine whether facultative movements are adaptive for individual swift parrots in an environment where resources are patchily distributed over time and space. 3. Variation in the availability of swift parrot food resources across our study period was dramatic. As a consequence, swift parrots moved to breed wherever food was most abundant and did not resettle nesting regions in successive years when food availability declined. By moving, swift parrots exploited a variable food resource and reproduced successfully. 4. Exploiting the richest patches allowed swift parrots to maintain stable fitness outcomes between discrete breeding events at different locations. Unlike sedentary species that often produce few or lower quality offspring when food is scarce, nomadic migration buffered swift parrots against extreme environmental variation. 5. We provide the first detailed evidence that facultative movements and nomadic migration are adaptive for individuals in unpredictable environments. Our data support the widely held assumption that nomadic migration allows animals to escape resource limitation. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  5. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  6. European commission research activities on iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loggia, E. della [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    The research on iodine, as on other important fission products which would be released during a severe accident, carried out directly or organized by the European Commission stems from the Euratom Treaty, namely from Chapter III of the treaty which deals with the protection of the health of the population against radiations and from Chapter I which deals with research. In this paper we do not consider the Commission radiological protection programme: we limit ourselves to the presentation of the research carried out on Iodine as part of the most recent source term studies within the framework Programmes as are called the research programme of the European Commission, usually valid for a 4 year periods. The research activities are carried out by the European Commission either directly through the Joint Research Centres (JRC) or indirectly through collaboration with research organizations of Member States. Concerning the iodine research carried out as Direct Action in the Joint Research Centres, are mentioned here the most relevant activities carried out in this field at the JRC of Ispra and Karlsruhe (TUI). As Indirect Action, we present here the results of some studies allocated by the European Commission to experts of research organizations of Member Countries, followed by a short description of the main results achieved by the Reinforced Concerted Action, within the III Framework Programme (1992-1995). At the end of the paper are described the research on iodine being carried out or proposed within the IV Framework Programme (1995-1998). Mention is also done of the Commission participation, relevant in terms of financial and human efforts, to the PHEBUS FP Project. (author) refs.

  7. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...... of all comparison, the most serious association between disease and the level of iodine intake in a population. In less severe iodine deficiency, the normal thyroid gland is able to adapt and keep thyroid hormone production within the normal range. However, the prolonged thyroid hyperactivity associated...... with such adaptation leads to thyroid growth, and during follicular cell proliferation there is a tendency to mutations leading to multifocal autonomous growth and function. In populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency, such multifocal autonomous thyroid function is a common cause of hyperthyroidism...

  8. Iodine deficiency disorders among primary school children in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelal, Basanta; Chaudhari, Rajendra K; Nepal, Ashwini K; Sah, Gauri S; Lamsal, Madhab; Brodie, David A; Baral, Nirmal

    2011-01-01

    To assess the iodine status among primary school children of Dhankuta and Dharan in eastern Nepal. A population based cross sectional study was conducted on schools of Dhankuta and Dharan from January-March 2008. 385 samples of both urine and salt were collected from school children aged 6-11 yrs. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was measured in casual urine samples by the ammonium-persulphate digestion microplate (APDM) method and salt iodine content by using a semi quantitative rapid test kit. The median UIEs of school children of Dhankuta and Dharan were 157.1 μg/L and 180.3 μg/L respectively. The percentage of iodine deficient (UIE Nepal is continuously progressing towards the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disease as illustrated by a normal median UIE and the majority of households consuming adequately iodized packet salt. It is necessary to maintain the program continuously to ensure adequate iodine nutrition of the population.

  9. Three new species of Dennyus Neumann, 1906 (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Menoponidae parasitic on swifts (Aves, Apodiformes, Apodidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel P. Valim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions and illustrations are given for three new species of the chewing louse genus Dennyus on Brazilian Swifts. They and their type hosts are: D. pichorimi ex Streptoprocne biscutata seridoensis (Biscutate Swift from the State of Rio Grande do Norte, D. pascoliae ex Streptoprocne zonaris zonaris (White-collared Swift from the state of Minas Gerais , D. malagonensis ex Cypseloides senex (Great Dusky Swift also from Minas Gerais. Thes e lice are the first published records of Dennyus species from Brazil. A key for the identificatio n of the Dennyus subgenera, and a table listing species of Dennyus recorded in other countrie s from hosts occurring in Brazil are given.

  10. Hydroxylamine a potential reagent for dissolution off gas scrubbing in nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: kinetics of the iodine reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Devisme, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Chopin, J.; Vargas, S.

    1996-12-31

    Iodine, which can be released inside the containment buildings when accident occurs, can be traced, in normal operating conditions, at the back end of the fuel cycle. Hydroxylamine has been selected as a regent of potential interest to trap iodine in the dissolution off gas treatment. The kinetics of the reaction between hydroxylamine and iodine has been studied in a narrow range of pH(1-2), with hydroxylamine in excess (ratios of hydroxylamine to iodine initial concentrations varying from 2 to 40), at constant temperature (30 deg. C) and ionic strength (0.1 mol/l). Spectrophotometry and voltametry have been coupled for analytical solved using a investigation. The problem of the rapid mixing of the reactants has been solved using a continuous reactor. Tri-iodine has been shown non reactive towards hydroxylamine. An initial rate law have been proposed, pointing out the first order of the reaction with respect to hydroxylamine and iodine, and the inhibitory effect and hydrogen ions. Nitrous acid has been identified as a transitory product. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen monoxide have been detected by gas chromatography, the ratio of the amounts of products formed depending on acidity. The complexity of the overall reaction has been ascribed to the competition of hour reactions (I{sub 2} + I <=> I{sub 3}{sup -}NH{sub 3}OH{sup +} + 2 I{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O ->HNO{sub 2} + 4 I{sup -} + 5 H{sup +}; NH{sub 3}OH{sup +} + HNO{sub 2} -> N{sub 2}O + 2 H{sub 2}O + H-+ 2HNO{sub 2} + 2 I{sup -} + 2H-+ -> 2 NO + I{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O). (authors). 12 refs.

  11. Nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Enrique; Ariza, Adriana; Blanca-López, Natalia; Torres, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    To provide a detailed analysis of the latest findings on the mechanisms underlying the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media and comment on the recent advances in diagnosis, focusing on the roles of the skin test, drug provocation test (DPT), and lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Several studies have reported new findings supporting an important role for T-lymphocytes in the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media. The LTT has been used as an in-vitro tool for diagnosis, but with variable results. However, the inclusion of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells as professional antigen-presenting cells has improved the sensitivity of this test. Regarding in-vivo diagnosis, although skin testing has been routine, it has now been shown that its sensitivity and negative predictive value are low. Recent studies have demonstrated that the DPT is a well tolerated and useful procedure that is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Nonimmediate reactions to contrast media are usually T-cell mediated. Diagnosis is based on skin testing, although its sensitivity and negative predictive value are not optimal. Consequently, drug provocation testing is often needed to confirm the diagnosis and also to seek alternative contrast media that can be tolerated.

  12. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  13. [Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimany-Masclans, Jordi; Garrido-Aguilar, Eva; Pernas-Canadell, Juan Carlos; Díaz-Rodríguez, Susana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the incidence of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media and to characterise them in a group of outpatients, inpatients and emergency patients in a private hospital in Barcelona. A retrospective cohort study was carried out over a 60 months period, from February 2002 to February 2007, analysing the patients who underwent to iodinated contrast radiological examinations. Adverse reactions were evaluated from the manual record format developed following the requirements of the Quality Assurance Program in Radiology. Study variables were, administration route, contrast media dose, adverse reaction type, and signs and symptoms. Statistical analysis was descriptive. A total of 68 (0.3 %) of adverse reaction were registered of which 64 were mild (94.1%), 4 moderate (5.9%) and none severe. On the basis of the administration route (intravenous or oral) adverse reaction were 67 (94%) and 1 (6%) respectively. With a 40-80ml contrast media dose by injection, mild adverse reactions were 87.5%, moderate 12.5% and severe 0%. With a 90-150ml contrast media dose by injection, mild adverse reaction were 94.9% and moderate 5.1%. The number of adverse reaction using iodinated contrast media is low and are they are generally mild; however the nurse must be ready to recognise and treat them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Opto-chemical response of Makrofol-KG to swift heavy ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural, chemical and optical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and UV–visible spectroscopy methods. It is observed that the direct and indirect band gaps of Makrofol-KG decrease after the irradiation. The XRD study shows that the crystalline size in the films decreases at higher ...

  15. Subsecond annealing of advanced materials annealing by lasers, flash lamps and swift heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Skorupa, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This book examines thermal processing of elemental semiconductors and materials including nanostructures with novel optoelectronic, magnetic, and superconducting properties. Covers compound semiconductors, dielectric composites and organic materials.

  16. Swift heavy ion irradiation effect on Cu-doped CdS nanocrystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Shweta Agrawal1 Subodh Srivastava1 Sumit Kumar1 S S Sharma1 2 B Tripathi1 M Singh1 Y K Vijay1. Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India; Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engineering College, Ajmer 305 002, India ...

  17. Opto-chemical response of Makrofol-KG to swift heavy ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    800–3200 cm. −1 . The XRD measurement were carried out by Bruker AXS, with Cu-Kα radiation (1.54 Å) for a wide range of Bragg's angle 2θ (5. ◦ < 2θ < 40. ◦. ) using a. Bruker AXS X-ray Diffractometer. UV–visible spectra were obtained using a U-3300. Spectrophotometer. 3. Results and discussion. 3.1 X-ray diffraction.

  18. Effects of Potassium Iodate Application on the Biomass and Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at increasing the level of iodine in commonly consumed vegetables by iodination of irrigation water with potassium iodate. The results obtained showed that, the increase in iodine concentration in fluted pumpkin ranged from 89.02 ± 0.31 to 140.36 ± 1.08 ìg/100 g in week 4 and 102.86 ± 0.60 to 115.89 ...

  19. [Iodine deficiency in pregnancy--a continuing public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    Iodine prophylaxis in Poland started in 1997 and is based on mandatory iodzation of household salt with 20-40 mg KI/ 1 kg, supplementation of bottle fed infants with iodized formulas with 10,0 microg KI/100 ml, and a voluntary supplementation of pregnant and breast feeding women with additional 100-150 microg of iodine/ day. Last evaluation of efficacy of the iodine prophylaxis performed in 2003 by WHO and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders allocated Poland within the group of the European countries with sufficient iodine supplementation on the population level. However according to data of the Institute of Mather and Chield in Poland, around 50 % of pregnant women only is additionally supplemented with iodine. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy even as a moderate iodine deficiency, creates a risk of mental retardation, perinatal complication like low and very low births weigt of neonates with increased perinatal mortality rate and late consequences in adult life: metabolic syndrom and type 2 diabetes. Another limitation of the actual model of iodine prophylaxis in Poland, it is too high consumption of natrum chloride (over 5,0 g of household salt/day/ capita). It is around 50% over WHO recommendation. Intensive preventive program against hypertension, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and some neoplasmatic diseases includes limitation of natrum chloride consumption- as one of the risk factors. Therefore new scope of the National Programme for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency will include: a special prorgramme for the iodization of animal food according to european standard, increased rate of pregnant women additionally supplemented with iodine, strengthening public awarness on necessary increase of milk consumption especially in pregnancy and in children and continouse monitoring system of biologic effects and technologic quality of the model of iodine prophylaxis.

  20. Iodine in food- and dietary supplement–composition databases123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrsson, Pamela R; Patterson, Kristine Y; Spungen, Judith H; Wirtz, Mark S; Andrews, Karen W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the USDA Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their efforts. The objective of the current article is to describe the harmonization plan and the results of initial iodine analyses accomplished under that plan. For many years, the FDA’s Total Diet Study (TDS) has measured iodine concentrations in selected foods collected in 4 regions of the country each year. For more than a decade, the NDL has collected and analyzed foods as part of the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program; iodine analysis is now being added to the program. The NDL recently qualified a commercial laboratory to conduct iodine analysis of foods by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Co-analysis of a set of samples by the commercial laboratory using the ICP-MS method and by the FDA laboratory using its standard colorimetric method yielded comparable results. The FDA recently reviewed historical TDS data for trends in the iodine content of selected foods, and the NDL analyzed samples of a limited subset of those foods for iodine. The FDA and the NDL are working to combine their data on iodine in foods and to produce an online database that can be used for estimating iodine intake from foods in the US population. In addition, the NDL continues to analyze dietary supplements for iodine and, in collaboration with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, to publish the data online in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database. The goal is to provide, through these 2 harmonized databases and the continuing TDS focus on iodine, improved tools for estimating iodine intake in population studies. PMID:27534627

  1. Combined DFT and XPS investigation of iodine anions adsorption on the sulfur terminated (001) chalcopyrite surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kui, E-mail: likui9606@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhao, Yaolin, E-mail: zhaoyaolin@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Peng, E-mail: zp32@qq.com [Sino Shaanxi Nuclear Industry Group, Xi’an 710100 (China); He, Chaohui, E-mail: hechaohui@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Deng, Jia, E-mail: djkokocase@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Ding, Shujiang, E-mail: dingsj@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shi, Weiqun, E-mail: shiwq@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology and Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Metal surface sites of (001)-S surface of chalcopyrite show significant chemical affinity to iodide and iodate. • The energetically favorable active site is copper for iodide adsorption and iron for iodate adsorption, respectively. • Iodate undergoes a dissociative adsorption on the copper site of chalcopyrite surface. - Abstract: The adsorption of iodine anions (iodide and iodate) on the sulfur terminated (001) chalcopyrite surface has been systematically investigated combining first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Based on the total energy calculations and geometric optimization, the thermodynamically preferred site was copper atom for iodide adsorption and iron atom for iodate adsorption, respectively. In the case of Cu site mode, the iodate underwent a dissociative adsorption, where one I−O bond of iodate ion was broken and the dissociative oxygen atom adsorbed on the adjacent sulphur site. Projected density of states (PDOS) analysis further clarified the interaction mechanism between active sites of chalcopyrite surface and adsorbates. In addition, full-range XPS spectra qualitatively revealed the presence of iodine on chalcopyrite surface. High resolution XPS spectra of the I 3d peaks after adsorption verified the chemical environment of iodine. The binding energies of 618.8 eV and 623.5 eV for I 3d{sub 5/2} peaks unveiled that the adsorption of iodide and iodate ions on copper-iron sulfide minerals was the result of formation of low solubility metal iodides precipitate. Also two I 3d peaks with low intensity around 618 eV and 630 eV might be related to the inorganic reduction of iodate to iodide by reducing S{sup 2−} ion of chalcopyrite.

  2. Long-term monitoring of Ark 120 with Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzi, M.; Papadakis, I. E.; Grupe, D.; Brinkmann, W. P.; Räth, C.

    2017-02-01

    We report the results of a six-month Swift monitoring campaign of Ark 120, a prototypical `bare' Seyfert 1 galaxy. The lack of intrinsic absorption combined with the nearly contemporaneous coverage of the ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray bands makes it possible to investigate the link between the accretion disc and the putative Comptonization corona. Our observations confirm the presence of substantial temporal variability, with the X-ray characterized by large-amplitude flux changes on time-scales of few days, while the variations in the UV bands are smoother and occur on time-scales of several weeks. The source also shows spectral variability with the X-ray spectrum steepening when the source is brighter. We do not detect any correlation between the UV flux and the X-ray spectral slope. A cross-correlation analysis suggests positive delays between X-rays and the UV emission, favouring a scenario of disc reprocessing. Although the strength of the correlation is moderate with a delay which is not well constrained (7.5 ± 7 d), it is nevertheless indicative of a very large disc reprocessing region, with a separation between the X-ray and the UV-emitting regions, which could be as large as 1000 rG. The Ark 120 correlation results are in agreement with those obtained in similar multiwavelength monitoring studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN). When combined together, the observations so far can be well described by a linear relation between the X-ray/UV delays and the mass of the central black hole. Within the context of the simplest scenario, where these delays correspond to light-travel times, the implied distance between the X-ray source and the optical/UV disc reprocessing region in these AGN should be of the order of many hundreds of gravitational radii.

  3. Role of iodine in pathogenesis of thyroid disease - is induction of apoptosis consequence of iodine cytotoxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is one of the best-characterized environmental factors associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD. Epidemiological studies have shown that ATD incidence has increased following the introduction of salt iodination in the 1920s; in addition, ATD patients can improve upon iodine restriction. In animal models such as BioBreeding/Worcester and Buffalo rats, obese chicken strain, and non-obese diabetic H-2h4 mice, excess iodine is associated with autoimmunity. Analyses of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT have shown enlarged number of apoptotic follicular cells, and the destruction is an effect of death receptormediated apoptosis. Excess of iodine induces rapid apoptosis of goitrogen Wistar pretreated rats, possibly connected with inhibition of polyamine synthesis, inhibitors of DNA fragmentation. Percentage of apoptotic cells was statistically higher in patients with HT than in those with euthyroid goiter, with significant increase of caspase 32. Genes for Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are under the transcriptional control of p53. In TAD-2 cell cultures, apoptosis is p53-independed, suggesting that DNA damage is not primarily evoked by potassium iodide (KI. High concentrations of NaI increase the proportion of apoptotic cells in FTRL5 thyroid cell line. Iodide cytotoxicity is inhibited by a TPO inhibitor and is relieved with an anti-oxidant agent. Chronic iodine excess induces apoptosis and necrosis of thyroid follicular and endothelial cells, leading to thyroglobulin accumulation in connective tissue. Iodide excess requires peroxidase enzymatic activity to induce apoptosis. Ionic iodide is not directly toxic, whereas its molecular form I2 mediates the apoptotic effect of KI. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI-175059

  4. Chemical characterization of sulphur-iodine thermochemical cycle flowstreams by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, Raffaele; Falconieri, Mauro; Lanchi, Michela; Spadoni, Annarita [ENEA CR, Casaccia (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The Sulphur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production from water is one of the widest investigated cycles in the world. Considered the complexity of the S-I process scheme, the focus on chemical characterization of the flowstreams in the loop plant is crucial in order to fully understand chemical equilibriums involved at varying hydriodic acid: (HI:I{sub 2}) ratio in the mixtures and to determine HI and I{sub 2} contents as well. Raman spectroscopy has been widely used to investigate iodine solutions, however few works deals with I{sub 2} in HI aqueous mixtures. The aim of the present study is to use Raman spectroscopy for a rapid qualitative and quantitative characterization of the HI-H{sub 2}O-I{sub 2} mixtures involved in the S-I process. At this purpose, Raman spectra of solutions with known HI and I{sub 2} concentration have been recorded at varying I{sub 2} and HI compositions. It has been found that the chemistry of these solutions is highly dependant on HI:I{sub 2} molar ratio. For ratio up to 1:1, the dominant iodine compounds are I{sub 3}{sup -} and its corresponding ion pair HI{sub 3}. At higher values, close to those of the hydriodic phase HIx of the Bunsen reaction, there is experimental evidence of the formation of higher polyiodine and polyiodides compounds. (orig.)

  5. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  6. Iodine and Selenium Intakes of Postmenopausal Women in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Louise; Gunn, Caroline A; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane; Jin, Ying; Thomson, Jasmine S; Mauze, Mathilde; Kruger, Marlena C

    2017-03-09

    Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50-70 years (n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. Iodine and selenium concentrations were determined in 24-h urine samples; daily intakes were extrapolated from amounts in urine (90% and 55% of daily intake, respectively). Three day diet diaries (3DDD) also estimated selenium and iodine (excluding iodised salt) intake. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 57 (41, 78) µg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency. Estimated median iodine intake based on urine was 138 (100, 172) µg/day, below Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) (150 µg/day) with 25% below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (100 µg/day). Estimated median selenium intake was 50 (36, 71) µg/day based on urine and 45 (36, 68) µg/day using 3DDD, below RDI (60 µg/day) with 49%-55% below EAR (50 µg/day). Median bread intakes were low at 1.8 (1.1, 2.7) serves/day; 25% consumed ≤1 serve/day. Although population iodine intakes improved following mandatory fortification, some had low intakes. Selenium intakes remain low. Further research should investigate thyroid function of low consumers of iodine fortified bread and/or selenium in New Zealand.

  7. Iodine status among pregnant women in rural Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Ismail, Hasimah; Yusof, Rafidah; Muhi, Jamail; Lim, Kuang Hock; Foo, Leng Huat

    2017-01-01

    In 2000, legislation on mandatory universal salt iodisation was enacted in Sabah, Malaysia, to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders among its population. To evaluate the iodine levels among pregnant women from selected rural divisions in Sabah 13 years after the enactment of the universal salt iodisation programme. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 May to 30 June, 2013, in three rural divisions of Sabah (the Interior, the West Coast, and Kudat). Data regarding domestic iodised salt use and iodine-containing supplement consumption were obtained from respondents through face-to-face interviews; goitre enlargement was examined through palpation and graded according to the World Health Organization classification. Spot urine samples were also obtained to assess urinary iodine levels by using an in-house modified micromethod. In total, 534 pregnant women participated. The prevalence of goitre was 1.0% (n=5), noted only in the West Coast and Kudat divisions. Although all pregnant women consumed iodised salt, overall median urinary iodine concentration was only 106 μg/L, indicating insufficient iodine intake, with nearly two-thirds of the women (60%) having a median urinary iodine concentrations of <150 μg/L. Pregnant women from the rural divisions in Sabah still exhibit iodine deficiency disorder despite the mandatory universal salt iodisation programme. Iodine supplementation programmes targeting pregnant women are warranted.

  8. Iodine Contents in Baby Food Consumed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate iodine intake in Japanese infants, iodine contents were determined in both commercial and homemade baby food samples consumed in Japan. Fifty-three samples of commercial bottled or retort baby food and 25 samples of homemade baby food for one day were collected and their iodine contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after an extraction with 0.5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Among the commercial baby food samples, 35 samples showed low iodine values ( 1000 ng/g wet weight. Significantly higher iodine values were observed in 15 samples composed of dishes cooked using kombu (a kind of kelp than other samples. Among the homemade baby food samples, 12 samples brought very low iodine intake (< 1- 24 μg/d, while 5 samples brought very high iodine intake (283-978 μg/d. These results indicate that intermittent high iodine baby food including dishes cooked using kombu contributes to sufficient iodine intake in Japanese infants.

  9. Maternal urinary iodine concentration in pregnancy and children's cognition: results from a population-based birth cohort in an iodine-sufficient area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassabian, A.; Steenweg- de Graaff, J.; Peeters, R.P.; Ross, H.A.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; White, T.; Tiemeier, H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reports from populations with an insufficient iodine intake suggest that children of mothers with mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy are at risk for cognitive impairments. However, it is unknown whether, even in iodine-sufficient areas, low levels of iodine intake occur that

  10. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South-East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C.; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Pregnant women are vulnerable to iodine deficiency because their requirement for iodine is higher than that of non-pregnant adults. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse and there are no such data in the South East. One hundred pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. Participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations) and 24-hour excretion of iodine was estimated from the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire. The median urinary iodine concentration (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by WHO criteria. The median values of the iodine-to-creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24-hr iodine excretion (151·2 μg/day) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. Urinary iodine concentration was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n=42) than in those not taking such a supplement (Ppregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required. PMID:24398008

  11. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  12. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders and effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis among the population of reproductive age living in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Soboleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is the assessment of iodine status and effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis among the population of reproductive age. In this regard, we examined 200 individuals from 18 up to 44 years old living in Saint Petersburg for more than 3 years permanently. Most of the examined individuals had mild iodine deficiency, less than half of people of reproductive age (46 % used iodized salt at home. Goiter was found by palpation in 8 % of participants. More than half of the surveyed individuals are women of reproductive age who are at risk for the development of iodine deficiency disorders. Our data reflect an unfavorable situation in fight against iodine deficiency disorders in Saint Petersburg. Probably, the voluntary model of using iodized salt as the prevention of iodine deficiency in the Russian Federation is not effective enough.

  13. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed Ali; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Khalafalla, Husam Eldin Elsawi; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Zaid, Abdel Naser Shaaban; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2012-11-20

    The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6-13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42%) and 180 females (58%). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100-300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p < 0.001). Only about 3% of the children had a median UIC less than 50 μg/L. The prevalence of total goiter rate (TGR) among the sample of schoolchildren in Jazan was 11%, with significant variations between rural and urban populations and by gender. The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI) and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine

  14. Highlights of X-Stack ExM Deliverable Swift/T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, Justin M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Swift/T is a key success from the ExM: System support for extreme-scale, many-task applications1 X-Stack project, which proposed to use concurrent dataflow as an innovative programming model to exploit extreme parallelism in exascale computers. The Swift/T component of the project reimplemented the Swift language from scratch to allow applications that compose scientific modules together to be build and run on available petascale computers (Blue Gene, Cray). Swift/T does this via a new compiler and runtime that generates and executes the application as an MPI program. We assume that mission-critical emerging exascale applications will be composed as scalable applications using existing software components, connected by data dependencies. Developers wrap native code fragments using a higherlevel language, then build composite applications to form a computational experiment. This exemplifies hierarchical concurrency: lower-level messaging libraries are used for fine-grained parallelism; highlevel control is used for inter-task coordination. These patterns are best expressed with dataflow, but static DAGs (i.e., other workflow languages) limit the applications that can be built; they do not provide the expressiveness of Swift, such as conditional execution, iteration, and recursive functions.

  15. The leading-edge vortex of swift-wing shaped delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Rowan; Arredondo-Galeana, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2017-11-01

    Recent investigations on the aerodynamics of natural fliers have illuminated the significance of the Leading-Edge Vortex (LEV) for lift generation in a variety of flight conditions. In this investigation, a model non-slender delta shaped wing with a sharp leading-edge is tested at low Reynolds Number, along with a delta wing of the same design, but with a modified trailing edge inspired by the wing of a common swift Apus apus. The effect of the tapering swift wing on LEV development and stability is compared with the flow structure over the un-modified delta wing model through particle image velocimetry. For the first time, a leading-edge vortex system consisting of a dual or triple LEV is recorded on a swift-wing shaped delta wing, where such a system is found across all tested conditions. It is shown that the spanwise location of LEV breakdown is governed by the local chord rather than Reynolds Number or angle of attack. These findings suggest that the trailing-edge geometry of the swift wing alone does not prevent the common swift from generating an LEV system comparable with that of a delta shaped wing. This work received funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council [EP/M506515/1] and the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT).

  16. Age-specific survival of reintroduced swift fox in Badlands National Park and surrounding lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Indrani; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Schroeder, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a reintroduction program was initiated at Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, USA, with swift foxes (Vulpes velox) translocated from Colorado and Wyoming, USA, as part of a restoration effort to recover declining swift fox populations throughout its historical range. Estimates of age-specific survival are necessary to evaluate the potential for population growth of reintroduced populations. We used 7 years (2003–2009) of capture–recapture data of 243 pups, 29 yearlings, and 69 adult swift foxes at BNP and the surrounding area to construct Cormack–Jolly–Seber model estimates of apparent survival within a capture–mark–recapture framework using Program MARK. The best model for estimating recapture probabilities included no differences among age classes, greater recapture probabilities during early years of the monitoring effort than later years, and variation among spring, winter, and summer. Our top ranked survival model indicated pup survival differed from that of yearlings and adults and varied by month and year. The apparent annual survival probability of pups (0.47, SE = 0.10) in our study area was greater than the apparent annual survival probability of yearlings and adults (0.27, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate low survival probabilities for a reintroduced population of swift foxes in the BNP and surrounding areas. Management of reintroduced populations and future reintroductions of swift foxes should consider the effects of relative low annual survival on population demography.

  17. Swift J045106.8-694803: A Highly Magnetised Neutron Star in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klus, H.; Bartlett, E. S.; Bird, A. J.; Coe, M.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Udalski, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the analysis of a highly magnetised neutron star in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The high mass X-ray binary pulsar Swift J045106.8-694803 has been observed with Swift X-ray telescope (XRT) in 2008, The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 2011 and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission - Newton (XMM-Newton) in 2012. The change in spin period over these four years indicates a spin-up rate of 5.010.06 s/yr, amongst the highest observed for an accreting pulsar. This spin-up rate can be accounted for using Ghosh and Lambs (1979) accretion theory assuming it has a magnetic field of (1.2 +/= 0.20/0.7) x 10(exp 14) Gauss. This is over the quantum critical field value. There are very few accreting pulsars with such high surface magnetic fields and this is the first of which to be discovered in the LMC. The large spin-up rate is consistent with Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) observations which show that Swift J045106.8-694803 has had a consistently high X-ray luminosity for at least five years. Optical spectra have been used to classify the optical counterpart of Swift J045106.8-694803 as a B0-1 III-V star and a possible orbital period of 21.631 +/- 0.005 days has been found from MACHO optical photometry.

  18. Dietary evaluation of a low-iodine diet in Korean thyroid cancer patients preparing for radioactive iodine therapy in an iodine-rich region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Dal Lae; Park, Young Joo; Paik, Hee-Young; Kim, Min-Ji; Park, Seonyeong; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Choi, Hun Sung; Song, Yoon Ju

    2016-04-01

    Despite the importance of a low-iodine diet (LID) for thyroid cancer patients preparing for radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, few studies have evaluated dietary intake during LID. This study evaluated the amount of dietary iodine intake and its major food sources during a typical diet and during LID periods for thyroid cancer patients preparing for RAI therapy, and examined how the type of nutrition education of LID affects iodine intake. A total of 92 differentiated thyroid cancer patients with total thyroidectomy were enrolled from Seoul National University Hospital. All subjects completed three days of dietary records during usual and low-iodine diets before (131)I administration. The median iodine intake was 290 µg/day on the usual diet and 63.2 µg/day on the LID. The major food groups during the usual diet were seaweed, salted vegetables, fish, milk, and dairy products and the consumption of these foods decreased significantly during LID. The mean energy intake on the LID was 1,325 kcal, which was 446 kcal lower than on the usual diet (1,771 kcal). By avoiding iodine, the intake of most other nutrients, including sodium, was significantly reduced during LID (P thyroid cancer patients was significantly reduced during LID and was within the recommended amount. However, the intake of most other nutrients and calories was also reduced. Future studies are needed to develop a practical dietary protocol for a LID in Korean patients.

  19. Excessive iodine intake and thyroid dysfunction among lactating Saharawi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Inger; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Strand, Tor A; Barikmo, Ingrid; Henjum, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Excessive iodine intake may lead to thyroid dysfunction, which may be particularly harmful during pregnancy and lactation. The main objective was to describe iodine status and the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among lactating women in areas with high iodine (HI) and very high iodine (VHI) concentrations in drinking water. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 111 lactating women in the Saharawi refugee camps, Algeria. Breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC), urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the iodine concentration in the most commonly consumed foods/drinks were measured. A 24-h dietary recall was used to estimate iodine intake. Thyroid hormones and antibodies were measured in serum. Median UIC, BMIC and iodine intake across both areas was 350 μg/L, 479 μg/L and 407 μg/day, respectively. In multiple regression analyses, we discovered that being from VHI area was associated with higher UIC and BMIC. BMIC was also positively associated with iodine intake. Thyroid dysfunction and/or positive thyroid antibodies were found in 33.3% of the women, of which 18.9% had hypothyroidism and 8.1% had hyperthyroidism and 6.3% had positive antibodies with normal thyroid function. Elevated thyroid antibodies were in total found in 17.1%. We found no difference in distribution of thyroid dysfunction or positive antibodies between HI and VHI areas. BMI, BMIC and elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) predicted abnormal thyroid function tests. The high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction may be caused by excessive iodine intake over several years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Interdisciplinary aspects of iodine prophylaxis in German Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, K; Anke, M; Gürtler, H; Hesse, V; Knappe, G; Körber, R; von Kozierowski, F; Meng, W; Thomas, G; Ulrich, F E

    1989-06-01

    Endemic goiter still occurs in several European countries. Alimentary iodine deficiency could be proved as the main cause of endemic prevalence. Extensive epidemiologic surveys showed the great medical and economical impact of this matter for the GDR. Over 200 million Marks might be spent for diagnosis and treatment of thyroid patients per year. Also in the field of veterinary medicine and animal production iodine deficiency plays an important role. Under the conditions of iodine deficiency the fodder containing nitrate and glucosinolates (e.g. bruised rape extraction) results in additional goitrogenic effects (so-called indirect or relative iodine deficiency). Due to iodine deficiency disorders considerable losses of yields in cattle, pigs and sheep occurred. The content of iodine in animal products used for human nutrition was subsequently low. Considering the ecological implication of these problems an Interdisciplinary Iodine Commission within the Society for Endocrinology and Diseases of Metabolism of the GDR was established. Together with the governement authorities it worked out corresponding recommendations for the prophylaxis and control of its efficiency. In 1986 the iodination of most of the packed salt (32 mg KIO3/kg = = 19 mg I/kg) and the administration of iodinated mineral mixtures for the animal production were started for pigs in the whole territory of GDR and for cattle in the southern counties of the GDR only. These activities have been accompanied by information of TV as well as in the newspapers and medical journals. Thus, an improved supply of iodine to the population through iodinated table salt and animal products can be taken into account. The efficiency of these prophylactic measures is controlled interdisciplinarily.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Seven years with the Swift Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.

    2015-09-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are HMXBs with OB supergiant companions. I review the results of the Swift SFXT project, which since 2007 has been exploiting Swift's capabilities in a systematic study of SFXTs and supergiant X-ray binaries (SGXBs) by combining follow-ups of outbursts, when detailed broad-band spectroscopy is possible, with long-term monitoring campaigns, when the out-of-outburst fainter states can be observed. This strategy has led us to measure their duty cycles as a function of luminosity, to extract their differential luminosity distributions in the soft X-ray domain, and to compare, with unprecedented detail, the X-ray variability in these different classes of sources. I also discuss the ;seventh year crisis;, the challenges that the recent Swift observations are making to the prevailing models attempting to explain the SFXT behavior.

  2. High-performance rechargeable lithium-iodine batteries using triiodide/iodide redox couples in an aqueous cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Lina; Byon, Hye Ryung

    2013-01-01

    Development of promising battery systems is being intensified to fulfil the needs of long-driving-ranged electric vehicles. The successful candidates for new generation batteries should have higher energy densities than those of currently used batteries and reasonable rechargeability. Here we report that aqueous lithium-iodine batteries based on the triiodide/iodide redox reaction show a high battery performance. By using iodine transformed to triiodide in an aqueous iodide, an aqueous cathode involving the triiodide/iodide redox reaction in a stable potential window avoiding water electrolysis is demonstrated for lithium-iodine batteries. The high solubility of triiodide/iodide redox couples results in an energy density of ~ 0.33 kWh kg(-1), approximately twice that of lithium-ion batteries. The reversible redox reaction without the formation of resistive solid products promotes rechargeability, demonstrating 100 cycles with negligible capacity fading. A low cost, non-flammable and heavy-metal-free aqueous cathode can contribute to the feasibility of scale-up of lithium-iodine batteries for practical energy storage.

  3. Evaluation of the Iodine Concentration in Serum and Urine of Hypothyroid Males Using an Inexpensive and Rapid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas Kandhro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the iodine/iodide status in biological samples (serum and urine of 172 male hypothyroid patients (HPs and their supplemental effects on thyroid hormones. For comparison purpose, non-goitrous subjects (n= 220 of same age group and socioeconomic status were also studied. A simple and rapid iodide-ion selective electrode (ISE was used to measure the concentration of iodine in microwave assisted acid digested serum and urine samples. Quality control for the methodology was established with certified samples and with those obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials (CRMs and real samples. A linear calibration curve was obtained for a reasonable concentration range of the potassium iodide solutions. The mean concentration of iodine in the serum and urine samples of the HPs was significantly reduced as compared to control male subjects (p< 0.01. The low levels of free triiodothyronine and thyroxin were found in HPs than age matched healthy control (p< 0.005 and 0.002 respectively while high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone were observed in HPs (p< 0.008. The proposed method was relatively efficient as well as cost effective by using inexpensive equipment. It was observed that iodine in biological samples of HPs can play an important role in determining the severity of the hypothyroidism.

  4. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  5. THE SWIFT AGN AND CLUSTER SURVEY. II. CLUSTER CONFIRMATION WITH SDSS DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: Rhiannon.D.Griffin-1@ou.edu, E-mail: xdai@ou.edu, E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: jbregman@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We study 203 (of 442) Swift AGN and Cluster Survey extended X-ray sources located in the SDSS DR8 footprint to search for galaxy over-densities in three-dimensional space using SDSS galaxy photometric redshifts and positions near the Swift cluster candidates. We find 104 Swift clusters with a >3σ galaxy over-density. The remaining targets are potentially located at higher redshifts and require deeper optical follow-up observations for confirmation as galaxy clusters. We present a series of cluster properties including the redshift, brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) magnitude, BCG-to-X-ray center offset, optical richness, and X-ray luminosity. We also detect red sequences in ∼85% of the 104 confirmed clusters. The X-ray luminosity and optical richness for the SDSS confirmed Swift clusters are correlated and follow previously established relations. The distribution of the separations between the X-ray centroids and the most likely BCG is also consistent with expectation. We compare the observed redshift distribution of the sample with a theoretical model, and find that our sample is complete for z ≲ 0.3 and is still 80% complete up to z ≃ 0.4, consistent with the SDSS survey depth. These analysis results suggest that our Swift cluster selection algorithm has yielded a statistically well-defined cluster sample for further study of cluster evolution and cosmology. We also match our SDSS confirmed Swift clusters to existing cluster catalogs, and find 42, 23, and 1 matches in optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich catalogs, respectively, and so the majority of these clusters are new detections.

  6. Historical range, current distribution, and conservation status of the Swift Fox, Vulpes velox, in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Woodward, Robert O.; Igl, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    The Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) was once common in the shortgrass and mixed-grass prairies of the Great Plains of North America. The species' abundance declined and its distribution retracted following European settlement of the plains. By the late 1800s, the species had been largely extirpated from the northern portion of its historical range, and its populations were acutely depleted elsewhere. Swift Fox populations have naturally recovered somewhat since the 1950s, but overall abundance and distribution remain below historical levels. In a 1995 assessment of the species' status under the US Endangered Species Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service concluded that a designation of threatened or endangered was warranted, but the species was "precluded from listing by higher listing priorities." A major revelation of the 1995 assessment was the recognition that information useful for determining population status was limited. Fundamental information was missing, including an accurate estimate of the species' distribution before European settlement and an estimate of the species' current distribution and trends. The objectives of this paper are to fill those gaps in knowledge. Historical records were compiled and, in combination with knowledge of the habitat requirements of the species, the historical range of the Swift Fox is estimated to be approximately 1.5 million km2. Using data collected between 2001 and 2006, the species' current distribution is estimated to be about 44% of its historical range in the United States and 3% in Canada. Under current land use, approximately 39% of the species' historical range contains grassland habitats with very good potential for Swift Fox occupation and another 10% supports grasslands with characteristics that are less preferred (e.g., a sparse shrub component or taller stature) but still suitable. Additionally, land use on at least 25% of the historical range supports dryland farming, which can be suitable for Swift Fox

  7. The December 2015 optical outburst of OJ 287: X-ray and UV time-domain monitor by Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprini, S.; Perri, M.; Verrecchia, F.; Valtonen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Swift satellite is monitoring from 2015 Nov. 28 the BL Lac object OJ 287 (z=0.306). Our Swift X-ray and UV time-domain monitor program has been proposed and granted in response to a predicted, and then observed, phase of increased optical activity from OJ 287 (see, ATel#8372 and ATel#8378).

  8. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  9. Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transients: Swift Results and Theoretical Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, Ruben; Romano, Patrizia; Vercellone, Stefano; Ceccobello, C.; Titarchuk, L.

    We present an overview of our Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT) project, by highlighting the unique observational contribution Swift is giving to this exciting new field. Since 2007 Swift has been detecting outbursts from these fast transients with the BAT and following them intensively for days with the XRT so that we now have a firm estimate of the time SFXTs spend in each intensity phase. We summarize some preliminary results on our XSPEC model that numerically solves the bulk-motion radiative transfer equation with a strong magnetic field, in the Fokker-Planck approximation.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Short GRBs with Fermi GBM and Swift BAT (Burns+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E.; Connaughton, V.; Zhang, B.-B.; Lien, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A.; Pelassa, V.; Troja, E.

    2018-01-01

    Compact binary system mergers are expected to generate gravitational radiation detectable by ground-based interferometers. A subset of these, the merger of a neutron star with another neutron star or a black hole, are also the most popular model for the production of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) trigger on short GRBs (SGRBs) at rates that reflect their relative sky exposures, with the BAT detecting 10 per year compared to about 45 for GBM. We examine the SGRB populations detected by Swift BAT and Fermi GBM. (4 data files).

  11. Acoustic Noise Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine in Boulder, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roadman, J.; Huskey, A.

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of an acoustic noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 11: Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques, IEC 61400-11 Ed.2.1, 2006-11. However, because the SWIFT is a small turbine, as defined by IEC, NREL used 10-second averages instead of 60-second averages and utilized binning by wind speed instead of regression analysis.

  12. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapucu, L.Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan [Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

  13. Preparation and antibacterial activity of quaternized chitosan with iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yang; Xie, Linlin; Sai, Mingze; Xu, Ningning; Ding, Derun, E-mail: dingderun@sues.edu.cn

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan (CTS) is a natural polymer with active groups such as –NH{sub 2} which can be functionalized to introduce new positively charged N-atoms and protonated amino group for better use. In this study, to improve the stability of iodine, a novel complex (CTS–CTA–I{sub 2}) was prepared by mixing N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (CTS–CTA) with iodine in ethanol solution. The CTS–CTA–I{sub 2} was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), Ultraviolet and visible (UV–vis) spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG). Besides, the interaction of iodine with CTS–CTA was also studied. The mole ratio of CTS–CTA with iodine was measured by iodometric titration method and the max mole ratio of CTS–CTA with iodine was 1:1.33. The antimicrobial activity of CTS, CTS–CTA and CTS–CTS–I{sub 2} complexes was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and the antibacterial property of CTS–CTA–I{sub 2} was superior to CTS–CTA. - Highlights: • We prepared a novel iodine complex based on chitosan. • The CTS–CTA–I{sub 2} complex improved the stability of iodine. • The max mole ratio of CTS–CTA with iodine was 1:1.33. • The CTS–CTA–I{sub 2} complex showed significant antibacterial activity.

  14. Iodine, a Mild Reagent for the Aromatization of Terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Victoriano; Prieto, Consuelo; Silva, Lucia; Rodilla, Jesús M L; Quílez del Moral, José F; Barrero, Alejandro F

    2016-04-22

    Efficient procedures based on the use of iodine for the aromatization of a series of terpenoids possessing diene and homoallylic or allylic alcohol functionalities are described. Different examples are reported as a proof-of-concept study. Furthermore, iodine also proved to mediate the dehydrogenation of testosterone.

  15. Examination of Urinary Iodine Status from a Sample of Malian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a disorder associated with a low IQ, deaf mutism, and neurological problems. Many studies have revealed that iodine deficiency is common throughout West Africa. While several of these studies have investigated the prevalence of iodine deficiency among women in West Africa, few have ...

  16. Iodine nutrition in the adult population of Galicia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego-Iraeta, A; Pérez-Fdez, R; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Tomé, M; Fdez-Mariño, A; Mato, J A; Botana, M; Solache, I

    2007-02-01

    To identify the current state of iodine nutrition in the adult population of Galicia (Spain), which is considered iodine sufficient based on results from studies carried out on schoolchildren. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and its relationship with different socio-demographic variables were assessed. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the population aged above 18 years in the Autonomous Community of Galicia (Spain) during 2004. The UICs were determined in an isolated urine sample using Dunn's colorimetric method. Iodine status was based on World Health Organization/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (WHO/ICCIDD) UIC. A total of 2877 urine samples were taken. Median UIC for the total Galician population was 75.6 microg/L. About 30% of the population showed a UIC below 50 microg/L. Educational level, place of residence (coast vs. inland), and consumption of iodized salt were independent variables associated with the iodine nutrition of the adult population of Galicia. There is "mild" iodine deficiency (WHO) in the adult population of Galicia, which affects all the groups analyzed and which is particularly significant in the group of women of a fertile age. The data obtained on the state of iodine nutrition in school-age populations cannot be extended to the adult population.

  17. Iodine deficiency, thyroid function and hearing deficit: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; MacKenzie, I.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency affects an estimated 241 million school-aged children in the world. Little is known about iodine deficiency in relation to auditory function, except for the fact that deaf-mutism is one of the features of cretinism. In the present review, we documented the scientific knowledge on

  18. Transient congenital hypothyroidism after topical iodine in pregnancy and lactation.

    OpenAIRE

    Danziger, Y; Pertzelan, A; M. Mimouni

    1987-01-01

    A 6 week old girl with transient congenital hypothyroidism is described. The hypothyroidism was associated with multiple applications of povidone iodine during pregnancy and lactation. This case illustrates the potential hazard of using topical solutions containing iodine during pregnancy and lactation.

  19. The iodine reactivity; La reactivite de l'iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies dealing with: the {sup 129}I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  20. Concentrations of iodine and some environmental goitrogens in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the distribution of iodine and goitrogens in two selected rivers: Adada and Akoru in Enugu Sate, Nigeria. Iodine concentrations were found to be 0.109±0.001 and 0.108±0.001 ppm, respectively in both water bodies. The evaluated environmental goitrogens were as follows in Adada ...