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Sample records for swift heavy ion

  1. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothard, Hermann; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM). This conference was held in Darmstadt, from 18 to 21 May 2015. SHIM is a triennial series, which started about 25 years ago by a joint initiative of CIRIL - Caen and GSI - Darmstadt, with the aim of promoting fundamental and applied interdisciplinary research in the field of high-energy, heavy-ion interaction processes with matter. SHIM was successively organized in Caen (1989), Bensheim (1992), Caen (1995), Berlin (1998), Catania (2002), Aschaffenburg (2005), Lyon (2008), and Kyoto (2012). The conference attracts scientists from many different fields using high-energy heavy ions delivered by large accelerator facilities and characterized by strong and short electronic excitations.

  2. Swift-heavy ion track electronics (SITE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Chadderton, L.T.; Hoppe, K.; Fahrner, W.R.; Chandra, A.; Kiv, A.

    2007-01-01

    An overview about the state-of-art of the development of a new type of nanoelectronics based on swift-heavy ions is given. Polymeric as well as silicon-based substrates have been used, and both latent and etched ion tracks play a role. Nowadays the interest has shifted from simple scaling-down of capacitors, magnets, transformers, diodes, transistors, etc. towards new types of ion track-based structures hitherto unknown in electronics. These novel structures, denoted by the acronyms 'TEAMS' (tunable electrically anisotropic material on semiconductor) and 'TEMPOS' (tunable electronic material with pores in oxide on semiconductor), may exhibit properties of tunable resistors, capacitors, diodes, sensors and transistors. Their general current/voltage characteristics are outlined. As these structures are often influenced by ambient physical or chemical parameters they also act as sensors. A peculiarity of these structures is the occurrence of negative differential resistances (NDRs) which makes them feasible for applications in tunable flip-flops, amplifiers and oscillators

  3. Swift-heavy ion track electronics (SITE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, D. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: fink@hmi.de; Chadderton, L.T. [Institute of Advanced Studies, ANU Canberra, G.P.O. Box 4, ACT (Australia); Hoppe, K. [South Westfalia University of Applied Sciences, Hagen (Germany); Fahrner, W.R. [Chair of Electronic Devices, Inst. of Electrotechnique, Fernuniversitaet, Hagen (Germany); Chandra, A. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Kiv, A. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva, 84105 (Israel)

    2007-08-15

    An overview about the state-of-art of the development of a new type of nanoelectronics based on swift-heavy ions is given. Polymeric as well as silicon-based substrates have been used, and both latent and etched ion tracks play a role. Nowadays the interest has shifted from simple scaling-down of capacitors, magnets, transformers, diodes, transistors, etc. towards new types of ion track-based structures hitherto unknown in electronics. These novel structures, denoted by the acronyms 'TEAMS' (tunable electrically anisotropic material on semiconductor) and 'TEMPOS' (tunable electronic material with pores in oxide on semiconductor), may exhibit properties of tunable resistors, capacitors, diodes, sensors and transistors. Their general current/voltage characteristics are outlined. As these structures are often influenced by ambient physical or chemical parameters they also act as sensors. A peculiarity of these structures is the occurrence of negative differential resistances (NDRs) which makes them feasible for applications in tunable flip-flops, amplifiers and oscillators.

  4. Electron emission from solids induced by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Guoqing

    2000-01-01

    The recent progresses in experimental and theoretical studies of the collision between swift heavy ion and solids as well as electron emission induced by swift heavy ion in solids were briefly reviewed. Three models, Coulomb explosion, thermal spike and repulsive long-lived states, for interpreting the atomic displacements stimulated by the electronic energy loss were discussed. The experimental setup and methods for measuring the electron emission from solids were described. The signification deviation from a proportionality between total electron emission yields and electronic stopping power was found. Auger-electron and convoy-electron spectra are thought to be a probe for investigating the microscopic production mechanisms of the electronic irradiation-damage. Electron temperature and track potential at the center of nuclear tracks in C and polypropylene foils induced by 5 MeV/u heavy ions, which are related to the electronic excitation density in metals and insulators respectively, were extracted by measuring the high resolution electron spectra

  5. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.

  6. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna; Freire Soler, Victor M.; Brökers, Lara; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning; Schleberger, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS 2 and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS 2 does not

  7. Conducting swift heavy ion track networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fink, Dietmar; Kiv, A.; Fuks, D.; Vacík, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Chandra, A.; Saad, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 3 (2010), s. 227-244 ISSN 1042-0150 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : ion tracks * negative differential resistance * neural networks Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.660, year: 2010

  8. Modification of thin-layer systems by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolse, W.; Schattat, B.; Feyh, A.

    2003-01-01

    The electronic energy loss of swift heavy ions (MeV/amu) within a solid results in a highly excited cylindrical zone of some nm in diameter, within which all atoms may be in motion for some tens of ps (transient local melting). After cooling down, a defect-rich or even amorphous latent track is left in many cases, especially in insulating materials. The resulting property alterations (density, micro-structure, morphology, phase composition, etc.) have been investigated for many bulk materials, while only very few experiments have been carried out with thin-film systems. In the present paper, a summary will be given of our studies on the transport of matter in thin-film packages induced by irradiation with high-energy ions. These is, on the one hand, atomic mixing at the interfaces, which is especially pronounced in ceramic systems and which seems to occur by interdiffusion in the molten ion track. On the other hand, we have discovered a self-organisation phenomenon in swift-heavy-ion-irradiated NiO layers, which at low fluences first showed periodic cracking perpendicular to the projected beam direction. After application of high fluences, the NiO layer was reorganised in 100-nm-thick and 1-μm-high NiO lamellae of the same separation distance (1-3 μm) and orientation as found for the cracks. Both effects can be attributed to transient melting of the material surrounding the ion trajectory. (orig.)

  9. Development of Nanoporous Polymer Membranes by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Divya; Predeep, P.

    2011-10-01

    This study reveals the preparation of conical pores in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by track etching. The polymer membrane is etched from one side by keeping between the clamps of conductivity cell followed by irradiation with swift heavy ion of 197Au. Electrical stopping supports chemical stopping. During etching process current is measured as a function of time till a sharp increase -breakthrough-observed. After etching membranes are thoroughly washed with stopping solution and water. Resultant films are characterized using Optical microscope and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Polymer films with uniform pores can be a cheaper templating material in the fields of photonic crystals and micro- electronics.

  10. Degradation of polyimide under irradiation with swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severin, D.; Ensinger, W.; Neumann, R.; Trautmann, C.; Walter, G.; Alig, I.; Dudkin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Stacks of polyimide foils were irradiated with different swift heavy ions (Ti, Mo, Au) of 11.1 MeV/nucleon energy and fluences between 1 x 10 10 and 2 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 . Beam-induced degradation of the imide group was analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy studying the absorption band at 725 cm -1 as a function of dose. In the UV-Vis spectral range, the absorption edge is shifted to larger wavelengths indicating carbonization. Such modifications are linked to the deposition of a critical dose of 2.7 MGy (Ti) and 1 MGy (Mo, Au). In addition, irradiation-induced changes of the electrical conductivity were studied by means of dielectric spectroscopy

  11. Damage induced in semiconductors by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levalois, M.; Marie, P.

    1999-01-01

    The behaviour of semiconductors under swift heavy ion irradiation is different from that of metals or insulators: no spectacular effect induced by the inelastic energy loss has been reported in these materials. We present here a review of irradiation effects in the usual semiconductors (silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide). The damage is investigated by means of electrical measurements. The usual mechanisms of point defect creation can account for the experimental results. Besides, some results obtained on the wide gap semiconductor silicon carbide are reported. Concerning the irradiation effects induced by heavy ions in particle detectors, based on silicon substrate, we show that the deterioration of the detector performances can be explained from the knowledge of the substrate properties which are strongly perturbed after high doses of irradiation. Finally, some future ways of investigation are proposed. The silicon substrate is a good example to compare the irradiation effects with different particles such as electrons, neutrons and heavy ions. It is then necessary to use parameters which account for the local energy deposition, in order to describe the damage in the material

  12. Creation of nanoscale objects by swift heavy ion track manipulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Petrov, A.; Stolterfoht, N.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we give an overview of the possibilities to create new objects with nanoscale dimensions with ion tracks, for future applications. This can be realized in two ways: by manipulation of latent swift heavy ion (SHI) tracks, or by embedding specific structures within etched SHI tracks. In the first case one can make use of irradiation effects such as phase transitions and chemical or structural changes along the tracks. In the latter case, one can fill etched SHI tracks with metals, semiconductors, insulating and conducting polymers, fullerite, or colloides. Wires and tubules with outer diameters, between about 50 nm and 5 μm and lengths of up to about 100 μm can be obtained. The most important production techniques are galvanic and chemical depositions. Ion Transmission Spectrometry has turned out to be an especially useful tool for the characterisation of the produced objects. Present studies aim at the construction of condensers, magnets, diodes, and sensors in etched tracks. An obstacle for the practical realization of smallest-size polymeric ion track devices is the statistical distribution of the ion tracks on the target areas, which yields some pixels without any track, and other pixels even with overlapping tracks on a given sample. In a first test experiment we demonstrate that one can, in principle, overcome that problem by taking self-ordered porous foils as masks for subsequent high-fluence SHI irradiation. (author)

  13. Structural characterization of swift heavy ion irradiated polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Lakhwant; Samra, Kawaljeet Singh

    2007-01-01

    Makrofol-N polycarbonate thin films were irradiated with copper (50 MeV) and nickel (86 MeV) ions. The modified films were analyzed by UV-VIS, FTIR and XRD techniques. The experimental data was used to evaluate the formation of chromophore groups (conjugated system of bonds), degradation cross-section of the special functional groups, the alkyne formation and the amorphization cross-section. The investigation of UV-VIS spectra shows that the formation of chromophore groups is reduced at larger wavelength, however its value increases with the increase of ion fluence. Degradation cross-section for the different chemical groups present in the polycarbonate chains was evaluated from the FTIR data. It was found that there was an increase of degradation cross-section of chemical groups with the increase of electronic energy loss in polycarbonate. The alkyne and alkene groups were found to be induced due to swift heavy ion irradiation in polycarbonate. The radii of the alkyne production of about 2.74 and 2.90 nm were deduced for nickel (86 MeV) and copper (50 MeV) ions respectively. XRD analysis shows the decrease of the main XRD peak intensity. Progressive amorphization process of Makrofol-N with increasing fluence was traced by XRD measurements

  14. Defect production and subsequent effects induced by electronic energy loss of swift heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Mingdong; Liu Jie; Sun Youmei; Yin Jingmin; Yao Huijun; Duan Jinglai; Mo Dan; Zhang Ling; Chen Yanfeng; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2008-01-01

    Swift heavy ion in matter is one of forfront fields of nuclear physics in the world. A series of new phenomena were discovered in recent years. The history and sta- tus on the development of this field were reviewed. Electronic energy loss effects induced by swift heavy ion irradiation, such as defect production and evolution, ion latent track formation, phase transformation and anisotropy plastic deformation were introduced emphatically. A trend of future investigation was explored. (authors)

  15. Irradiation effects of swift heavy ions in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmani, Orkhan

    2011-12-22

    In the this thesis irradiation effects of swift heavy ions in matter are studied. The focus lies on the projectiles charge exchange and energy loss processes. A commonly used computer code which employs rate equations is the so called ETACHA code. This computer code is capable to also calculate the required input cross-sections. Within this thesis a new model to compute the charge state of swift heavy ions is explored. This model, the so called matrix method, takes the form of a simple algebraic expression, which also requires cross-sections as input. In the present implementation of the matrix method, cross-sections are taken from the ETACHA code, while excitation and deexcitation processes are neglected. Charge fractions for selected ion/target combinations, computed by the ETACHA code and the matrix method are compared. It is shown, that for sufficient large ion energies, both methods agree very well with each other. However, for lower energies pronounced differences are observed. These differences are believed to stem from the fact, that no excited states as well as the decay of theses excited states are included in the present implementation of the matrix method. Both methods are then compared with experimental measurements, where significant deviations are observed for both methods. While the predicted equilibrium charge state by both methods is in good agreement with the experiments, the matrix method predicts a much too large equilibrium thickness compared to both the ETACHA calculation as well as the experiment. Again, these deviations are believed to stem from the fact, that excitation and the decay of excited states are not included in the matrix method. A possible way to include decay processes into the matrix method is presented, while the accuracy of the applied capture cross-sections is tested by comparison with scaling rules. Swift heavy ions penetrating a dielectric are known to induced structural modifications both on the surface and in the bulk

  16. Irradiation effects of swift heavy ions in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Orkhan

    2011-01-01

    In the this thesis irradiation effects of swift heavy ions in matter are studied. The focus lies on the projectiles charge exchange and energy loss processes. A commonly used computer code which employs rate equations is the so called ETACHA code. This computer code is capable to also calculate the required input cross-sections. Within this thesis a new model to compute the charge state of swift heavy ions is explored. This model, the so called matrix method, takes the form of a simple algebraic expression, which also requires cross-sections as input. In the present implementation of the matrix method, cross-sections are taken from the ETACHA code, while excitation and deexcitation processes are neglected. Charge fractions for selected ion/target combinations, computed by the ETACHA code and the matrix method are compared. It is shown, that for sufficient large ion energies, both methods agree very well with each other. However, for lower energies pronounced differences are observed. These differences are believed to stem from the fact, that no excited states as well as the decay of theses excited states are included in the present implementation of the matrix method. Both methods are then compared with experimental measurements, where significant deviations are observed for both methods. While the predicted equilibrium charge state by both methods is in good agreement with the experiments, the matrix method predicts a much too large equilibrium thickness compared to both the ETACHA calculation as well as the experiment. Again, these deviations are believed to stem from the fact, that excitation and the decay of excited states are not included in the matrix method. A possible way to include decay processes into the matrix method is presented, while the accuracy of the applied capture cross-sections is tested by comparison with scaling rules. Swift heavy ions penetrating a dielectric are known to induced structural modifications both on the surface and in the bulk

  17. Model of wet chemical etching of swift heavy ions tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, S. A.; Malakhov, A. I.; Rymzhanov, R. A.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    A model of wet chemical etching of tracks of swift heavy ions (SHI) decelerated in solids in the electronic stopping regime is presented. This model takes into account both possible etching modes: etching controlled by diffusion of etchant molecules to the etching front, and etching controlled by the rate of a reaction of an etchant with a material. Olivine ((Mg0.88Fe0.12)2SiO4) crystals were chosen as a system for modeling. Two mechanisms of chemical activation of olivine around the SHI trajectory are considered. The first mechanism is activation stimulated by structural transformations in a nanometric track core, while the second one results from neutralization of metallic atoms by generated electrons spreading over micrometric distances. Monte-Carlo simulations (TREKIS code) form the basis for the description of excitations of the electronic subsystem and the lattice of olivine in an SHI track at times up to 100 fs after the projectile passage. Molecular dynamics supplies the initial conditions for modeling of lattice relaxation for longer times. These simulations enable us to estimate the effects of the chemical activation of olivine governed by both mechanisms. The developed model was applied to describe chemical activation and the etching kinetics of tracks of Au 2.1 GeV ions in olivine. The estimated lengthwise etching rate (38 µm · h-1) is in reasonable agreement with that detected in the experiments (24 µm · h-1).

  18. Structural response of titanate pyrochlores to swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamblin, Jacob; Tracy, Cameron L.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Zhang, Fuxiang; Li, Weixing; Trautmann, Christina; Lang, Maik

    2016-01-01

    The structure, size, and morphology of ion tracks resulting from irradiation of five different pyrochlore compositions (A 2 Ti 2 O 7 , A = Yb, Er, Y, Gd, Sm) with 2.2 GeV 197 Au ions were investigated by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Radiation-induced amorphization occurred in all five materials analyzed following an exponential rate as a function of ion fluence. XRD patterns showed a general trend of increasing susceptibility of amorphization with increasing ratio of A- to B-site cation ionic radii (r A /r B ) with the exception of Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 and Sm 2 Ti 2 O 7 . This indicates that the track size does not necessarily increase with r A /r B , in contrast with results from previous swift heavy ion studies on Gd 2 Zr 2-x Ti x O 7 pyrochlore materials. For Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 , this effect is attributed to the significantly lower electron density of this material relative to the lanthanide-bearing pyrochlores, thus lowering the electronic energy loss (dE/dx) of the high-energy ions in this composition. An energy loss normalization procedure was performed which reveals an initial increase of amorphous track size with r A /r B that saturates above a cation radius ratio larger than Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 . This is in agreement with previous low-energy ion irradiation experiments and first principles calculations of the disordering energy of titanate pyrochlores indicating that the same trends in disordering energy apply to radiation damage induced in both the nuclear and electronic energy loss regimes. HRTEM images indicate that single ion tracks in Yb 2 Ti 2 O 7 and Er 2 Ti 2 O 7 , which have small A-site cations and low r A /r B , exhibit a core-shell structure with a small amorphous core surrounded by a larger disordered shell. In contrast, single tracks in Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 and Sm 2 Ti 2 O 7 , have a larger amorphous core with minimal disordered shells.

  19. Determination of Hydrogen Density by Swift Heavy Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ge; Barriga-Carrasco, M D; Blazevic, A; Borovkov, B; Casas, D; Cistakov, K; Gavrilin, R; Iberler, M; Jacoby, J; Loisch, G; Morales, R; Mäder, R; Qin, S-X; Rienecker, T; Rosmej, O; Savin, S; Schönlein, A; Weyrich, K; Wiechula, J; Wieser, J; Xiao, G Q; Zhao, Y T

    2017-11-17

    A novel method to determine the total hydrogen density and, accordingly, a precise plasma temperature in a lowly ionized hydrogen plasma is described. The key to the method is to analyze the energy loss of swift heavy ions interacting with the respective bound and free electrons of the plasma. A slowly developing and lowly ionized hydrogen theta-pinch plasma is prepared. A Boltzmann plot of the hydrogen Balmer series and the Stark broadening of the H_{β} line preliminarily defines the plasma with a free electron density of (1.9±0.1)×10^{16}  cm^{-3} and a free electron temperature of 0.8-1.3 eV. The temperature uncertainty results in a wide hydrogen density, ranging from 2.3×10^{16} to 7.8×10^{18}  cm^{-3}. A 108 MHz pulsed beam of ^{48}Ca^{10+} with a velocity of 3.652  MeV/u is used as a probe to measure the total energy loss of the beam ions. Subtracting the calculated energy loss due to free electrons, the energy loss due to bound electrons is obtained, which linearly depends on the bound electron density. The total hydrogen density is thus determined as (1.9±0.7)×10^{17}  cm^{-3}, and the free electron temperature can be precisely derived as 1.01±0.04  eV. This method should prove useful in many studies, e.g., inertial confinement fusion or warm dense matter.

  20. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  1. Swift Heavy Ion Induced Modification of Aliphatic Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Umme Habiba

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the high energy heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers is studied. Two polymer groups, namely polyvinyl polymers (PVF, PVAc, PVA and PMMA) and fluoropolymers (PVDF, ETFE, PFA and FEP) were used in this work. Polyvinyl polymers were investigated since they will be used as insulating materials in the superconducting magnets of the new ion accelerators of the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz-Centre of Heavy I...

  2. Opto-chemical response of Makrofol-KG to swift heavy ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, the effects of swift heavy ion beam irradiation on the structural, chemical and optical properties of Makrofol solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) were investigated. Makrofol-KG films of 40 m thickness were irradiated with oxygen beam (8+) with fluences ranging between 1010 ion/cm2 and 1012 ...

  3. Surface amorphization in Al2O3 induced by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, N.; Ishikawa, N.; Sataka, M.; Jitsukawa, S.

    2013-01-01

    Microstructure in single crystalline Al 2 O 3 developed during irradiation by swift heavy ions has been investigated. The specimens were irradiated by Xe ions with energies from 70 to 160 MeV at ambient temperature. The fluences were in the range from 1.0 × 10 13 to 1.0 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 . After irradiations, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) measurements and cross sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were conducted. The XRD results indicate that in the initial stage of amorphization in single crystalline Al 2 O 3 , high-density S e causes the formation of new planes and disordering. The new distorted lattice planes formed in the early stage of irradiation around the fluence of 5.0 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 for single crystalline Al 2 O 3 irradiated with 160 MeV-Xe ions. Energy dependence on structural modification was also examined in single crystalline Al 2 O 3 irradiated by swift heavy ions. The XRD results indicate that the swift heavy ion irradiation causes the lattice expansion and the structural modification leading to amorphization progresses above the energy around 100 MeV in this XRD study. The TEM observations demonstrated that amorphization was induced in surface region in single crystalline Al 2 O 3 irradiated by swift heavy ions above the fluence expected from the results of XRD. Obvious boundary was observed in the cross sectional TEM images. The crystal structure of surface region above the boundary was identified to be amorphous and deeper region to be single crystal. The threshold fluence of amorphization was found to be around 1.0 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 in the case over 80 MeV swift heavy ion irradiation and the fluence did not depend on the crystal structures

  4. Surface amorphization in Al2O3 induced by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, N.; Ishikawa, N.; Sataka, M.; Jitsukawa, S.

    2013-11-01

    Microstructure in single crystalline Al2O3 developed during irradiation by swift heavy ions has been investigated. The specimens were irradiated by Xe ions with energies from 70 to 160 MeV at ambient temperature. The fluences were in the range from 1.0 × 1013 to 1.0 × 1015 ions/cm2. After irradiations, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) measurements and cross sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were conducted. The XRD results indicate that in the initial stage of amorphization in single crystalline Al2O3, high-density Se causes the formation of new planes and disordering. The new distorted lattice planes formed in the early stage of irradiation around the fluence of 5.0 × 1013 ions/cm2 for single crystalline Al2O3 irradiated with 160 MeV-Xe ions. Energy dependence on structural modification was also examined in single crystalline Al2O3 irradiated by swift heavy ions. The XRD results indicate that the swift heavy ion irradiation causes the lattice expansion and the structural modification leading to amorphization progresses above the energy around 100 MeV in this XRD study. The TEM observations demonstrated that amorphization was induced in surface region in single crystalline Al2O3 irradiated by swift heavy ions above the fluence expected from the results of XRD. Obvious boundary was observed in the cross sectional TEM images. The crystal structure of surface region above the boundary was identified to be amorphous and deeper region to be single crystal. The threshold fluence of amorphization was found to be around 1.0 × 1014 ions/cm2 in the case over 80 MeV swift heavy ion irradiation and the fluence did not depend on the crystal structures.

  5. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Lakhwant; Devgan, Kusum; Samra, Kawaljeet Singh

    2012-01-01

    The swift heavy irradiation induced changes taking place in ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene (E–CTFE) copolymer films were investigated in correlation with the applied doses. Samples were irradiated in vacuum at room temperature by lithium (50 MeV), carbon (85 MeV), nickel (120 MeV) and silver (120 MeV) ions with the fluence in the range of 1×10 11 –3×10 12 ions cm −2 . Structural and thermal properties of the irradiated as well as pristine E–CTFE films were studied using FTIR, UV–visible, TGA, DSC and XRD techniques. Swift heavy ion irradiation was found to induce changes in E–CTFE depending upon the applied doses. - Highlights: ► Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on E–CTFE films has been studied. ► Different structural changes in the original structure of E–CTFE are observed after irradiation with different ions. ► Swift heavy ion irradiation has made E–CTFE more prone to thermal degradation.

  6. Rapid thermal and swift heavy ion induced annealing of Co ion implanted GaN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, V.; Pandey, A. C.; Gerlach, J. W.; Rauschenbach, B.; Karl, H.; Kanjilal, D.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    Thin epitaxial GaN films grown on 6H-SiC(0001) substrates were implanted with 180 keV Co ions at three different fluences. As-implanted samples were characterized with secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to obtain the Co depth profiles and the maximum Co concentrations. As-implanted samples were annealed applying two different techniques: rapid thermal annealing and annealing by swift heavy ion irradiation. Rapid thermal annealing was done at two temperatures: 1150 deg. C for 20 s and 700 deg. C for 5 min. 200 MeV Ag ions at two fluences were used for annealing by irradiation. Crystalline structure of the pristine, as-implanted, and annealed samples was investigated using x-ray diffraction, and the results were compared. Improvement of the crystalline quality was observed for rapid thermal annealed samples at the higher annealing temperature as confirmed with rocking curve measurements. The results indicate the presence of Co clusters in these annealed samples. Swift heavy ion irradiation with the parameters chosen for this study did not lead to a significant annealing

  7. Swift heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Umme Habiba

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the high energy heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers is studied. Two polymer groups, namely polyvinyl polymers (PVF, PVAc, PVA and PMMA) and fluoropolymers (PVDF, ETFE, PFA and FEP) were used in this work. Polyvinyl polymers were investigated since they will be used as insulating materials in the superconducting magnets of the new ion accelerators of the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz-Centre of Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt. In order to study ion-beam induced degradation, all polymer foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (U, Au, Sm, Xe) and experimentation sites (beam lines X0 and M3) over a large fluence regime (1 x 10 10 - 5 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 ). Five independent techniques, namely infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, residual gas analysis (RGA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass loss analysis (ML), were used to analyze the irradiated samples. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that ion irradiation led to the decrease of characteristic band intensities showing the general degradation of the polymers, with scission of side groups and the main backbone. As a consequence of the structural modification, new bands appeared. UV-Vis transmission analysis showed an absorption edge shift from the ultraviolet region towards the visible region indicating double bond and conjugated double bond formation. On-line massspectrometric residual gas analysis showed the release of small gaseous fragment molecules. TGA analysis gave evidence of a changed thermal stability. With ML analysis, the considerable mass loss was quantified. The results of the five complementary analytical methods show how heavy ion irradiation changes the molecular structure of the polymers. Molecular degradation mechanisms are postulated. The amount of radiation damage is found to be sensitive to the used type of ionic species. While

  8. Nucleation of 2D nanoislands in surface thermal spikes from swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, Alexander E.; Sorokin, Michael V.

    2003-01-01

    Possibility of nucleation of nanoislands in the surface thermal spikes caused by swift heavy ions or intense femptosecond laser pulses is investigated. Nanoislands may occur when the characteristic nucleation time becomes shorter than that cooling down of the thermal spot. The values of system parameters favorable for the nucleation are estimated

  9. Swift heavy ions induced irradiation effects in monolayer graphene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, J.; Yao, H.J.; Zhang, S.X.; Zhai, P.F.; Duan, J.L.; Sun, Y.M.; Li, G.P.; Liu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Monolayer graphene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were irradiated by swift heavy ions ( 209 Bi and 112 Sn) with the fluence between 10 11 and 10 14 ions/cm 2 . Both pristine and irradiated samples were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. It was found that D and D′ peaks appear after irradiation, which indicated the ion irradiation introduced damage both in the graphene and graphite lattice. Due to the special single atomic layer structure of graphene, the irradiation fluence threshold Φ th of the D band of graphene is significantly lower ( 11 ions/cm 2 ) than that (2.5 × 10 12 ions/cm 2 ) of HOPG. The larger defect density in graphene than in HOPG indicates that the monolayer graphene is much easier to be damaged than bulk graphite by swift heavy ions. Moreover, different defect types in graphene and HOPG were detected by the different values of I D /I D′ . For the irradiation with the same electronic energy loss, the velocity effect was found in HOPG. However, in this experiment, the velocity effect was not observed in graphene samples irradiated by swift heavy ions

  10. Graphite irradiated by swift heavy ions under grazing incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Müller, C; Neumann, R

    2002-01-01

    Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is irradiated with various heavy projectiles (Ne, Ni, Zn, Xe and U) in the MeV to GeV energy range under different oblique angles of incidence. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, the impact zones are imaged as hillocks protruding from the surface. The diameter of surface-grazing tracks varies between 3 nm (Ne) and 6 nm (U), which is about twice as large as under normal beam incidence. Exclusively for U and Xe projectiles, grazing tracks exhibit long comet-like tails consisting of successive little bumps indicating that the damage along the ion path is discontinuous even for highest electronic stopping powers.

  11. Experimental aspects of S.H.I.C. (Swift Heavy Ion Channeling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Y.; Mory, J.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Chevallier, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Farizon-Mazuy, B.; Poizat, J.C.; Remillieux, J.; Dural, J.; Toulemonde, M.; Hage-Ali, M.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the behaviour of swift heavy ions, of initial charge Z 0 , transmitted in a crystal. More precisely we have measured, for various values of Z 0 , the mean stopping power experienced by the ions of exit charge Z, together with the charge distribution n(Z). In this short note, we describe briefly the instrumental set-up, and give two specific results which make it possible to appreciate the accuracy and sensitivity of the experiment

  12. Structural modifications of swift heavy ion irradiated PEN probed by optical and thermal measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgan, Kusum; Singh, Lakhwant; Samra, Kawaljeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The present paper reports the effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN). • Swift heavy ion irradiation introduces structural modification and degradation of PEN at different doses. • Lower irradiation doses in PEN result in modification of structural properties and higher doses lead to complete degradation. • Strong correlation between structural, optical, and thermal properties. - Abstract: The effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on the structural characteristics of Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) were studied. Samples were irradiated in vacuum at room temperature by lithium (50 MeV), carbon (85 MeV), nickel (120 MeV) and silver (120 MeV) ions with the fluence in the range of 1×10 11 –3×10 12 ions cm −2 . Ion induced changes were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR), UV–visible spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Cross-linking was observed at lower doses resulting in modification of structural properties, however higher doses lead to the degradation of the investigated polymeric samples

  13. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced electrical degradation in deca-nanometer MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yao; Yang, Zhimei; Gong, Min [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Gao, Bo; Li, Yun; Lin, Wei; Li, Jinbo; Xia, Zhuohui [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2016-09-15

    In this work, degradation of the electrical characteristics of 65 nm nMOSFETs under swift heavy ion irradiation is investigated. It was found that a heavy ion can generate a localized region of physical damage (ion latent track) in the gate oxide. This is the likely cause for the increased gate leakage current and soft breakdown (SBD) then hard breakdown (HBD) of the gate oxide. Except in the case of HBD, the devices retain their functionality but with degraded transconductance. The degraded gate oxide exhibits early breakdown behavior compatible with the model of defect generation and percolation path formation in the percolation model.

  14. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A.S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Wilhelm, R.A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Sorokin, M. [National Research Centre ’Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV {sup 129}Xe{sup (33–40)+} and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I{sup 9+} and 374 MeV–2.2 GeV {sup 197}Au{sup 25+}. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  15. Swift heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Umme Habiba

    2015-01-15

    In this thesis, the high energy heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers is studied. Two polymer groups, namely polyvinyl polymers (PVF, PVAc, PVA and PMMA) and fluoropolymers (PVDF, ETFE, PFA and FEP) were used in this work. Polyvinyl polymers were investigated since they will be used as insulating materials in the superconducting magnets of the new ion accelerators of the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz-Centre of Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt. In order to study ion-beam induced degradation, all polymer foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (U, Au, Sm, Xe) and experimentation sites (beam lines X0 and M3) over a large fluence regime (1 x 10{sup 10} - 5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}). Five independent techniques, namely infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, residual gas analysis (RGA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass loss analysis (ML), were used to analyze the irradiated samples. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that ion irradiation led to the decrease of characteristic band intensities showing the general degradation of the polymers, with scission of side groups and the main backbone. As a consequence of the structural modification, new bands appeared. UV-Vis transmission analysis showed an absorption edge shift from the ultraviolet region towards the visible region indicating double bond and conjugated double bond formation. On-line massspectrometric residual gas analysis showed the release of small gaseous fragment molecules. TGA analysis gave evidence of a changed thermal stability. With ML analysis, the considerable mass loss was quantified. The results of the five complementary analytical methods show how heavy ion irradiation changes the molecular structure of the polymers. Molecular degradation mechanisms are postulated. The amount of radiation damage is found to be sensitive to the used type of ionic

  16. Tuning the conductivity of vanadium dioxide films on silicon by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hofsäss

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the generation of a persistent conductivity increase in vanadium dioxide thin films grown on single crystal silicon by irradiation with 1 GeV 238U swift heavy ions at room temperature. VO2 undergoes a temperature driven metal-insulator-transition (MIT at 67 °C. After room temperature ion irradiation with high electronic energy loss of 50 keV/nm the conductivity of the films below the transition temperature is strongly increased proportional to the ion fluence of 5·109 U/cm2 and 1·1010 U/cm2. At high temperatures the conductivity decreases slightly. The ion irradiation slightly reduces the MIT temperature. This observed conductivity change is persistent and remains after heating the samples above the transition temperature and subsequent cooling. Low temperature measurements down to 15 K show no further MIT below room temperature. Although the conductivity increase after irradiation at such low fluences is due to single ion track effects, atomic force microscopy (AFM measurements do not show surface hillocks, which are characteristic for ion tracks in other materials. Conductive AFM gives no evidence for conducting ion tracks but rather suggests the existence of conducting regions around poorly conducting ion tracks, possible due to stress generation. Another explanation of the persistent conductivity change could be the ion-induced modification of a high resistivity interface layer formed during film growth between the vanadium dioxide film and the n-Silicon substrate. The swift heavy ions may generate conducting filaments through this layer, thus increasing the effective contact area. Swift heavy ion irradiation can thus be used to tune the conductivity of VO2 films on silicon substrates.

  17. Femto-clock for the electron kinetics in swift heavy ion tracks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medvedev, Nikita; Volkov, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 44 (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 445302. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15013; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015083 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : swift heavy ions * electron kinetics * femto-clock * femtosecond resolution * spectroscopy * radiative decay Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  18. Saturation of plastic deformation by swift heavy ion irradiation: Ion hammering vs. surface effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferhati, Redi; Dautel, Knut; Bolse, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Fritzsche, Monika [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Swift heavy ion (SHI) induced plastic deformation is a subject of current research and scientific discussion. This *Ion Hammering* phenomenon was first observed 30 years ago in amorphous materials like metallic glasses. About 10 years ago, Feyh et al. have shown that stress generation and *Ion Hammering* result in self-organization of thin NiO-films on Si-wafers into a sub-micron lamellae-like structure under grazing angle irradiation. The growth of the lamellae was found to saturate as soon as they have reached a thickness of a few hundreds of nm. Here we show our latest results on the restructuring of pre-patterned thin oxide films by SHI under various irradiation conditions. The experiments were performed by employing (in-situ) scanning electron microscopy, and were complemented by (in-situ) energy dispersive x-ray analysis and atomic force microscopy. As we will show, the saturation behavior can be understood as a competition of *Ion Hammering* and surface energy effects, while the unexpected fact, that the initially crystalline films undergo *Ion Hammering* can possibly be attributed to oxygen loss and thus amorphization during irradiation.

  19. Irradiation effects of swift heavy ions on gallium arsenide, silicon and silicon diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoraskar, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    The irradiation effects of high energy lithium, boron, oxygen and silicon ions on crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide, porous silicon and silicon diodes were investigated. The ion energy and fluence were varied over the ranges 30 to 100 MeV and 10 11 to 10 14 ions/cm 2 respectively. Semiconductor samples were characterized with the x-ray fluorescence, photoluminescence, thermally stimulated exo-electron emission and optical reflectivity techniques. The life-time of minority carriers in crystalline silicon was measured with a pulsed electron beam and the lithium depth distribution in GaAs was measured with the neutron depth profiling technique. The diodes were characterized through electrical measurements. The results of optical reflectivity, life-time of minority carriers and photoluminescence show that swift heavy ions induce defects in the surface region of crystalline silicon. In the ion-irradiated GaAs, migration of silicon, oxygen and lithium atoms from the buried region towards the surface was observed, with orders of magnitude enhancement in the diffusion coefficients. Enhancement in the photoluminescence intensity was observed in the GaAs and porous silicon samples that, were irradiated with silicon ions. The trade-off between the turn-off time and the voltage, drop in diodes irradiated with different swift heavy ions was also studied. (author)

  20. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced modification of structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Physics, Salipur College, Salipur 754 103, India. 2Department of ... Ion irradiation; nanoparticles; atomic force microscopy; BiFeO3. 1. Introduction .... and to understand their possible origin, a study on power spectral density ...

  1. Alkyne End Group Production in Polymeric Materials Induced by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Swift heavy ions in matter lose energy mainly through electronic processes.Since the energy deposition is centered in a very small region with a very high energy density,new effects such as production of alkyne end group can be induced.In this work,PET,PS,PC and PI films are irradiated with Ar,Kr,Xe and U ions and the relationship of the alkyne end group production with electronic energy loss is studied by Fourier transformed infrared infrared(FTLR)spectra measurements.

  2. Charge-state related effects in sputtering of LiF by swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, B. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Bender, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boduch, P. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Grande, P.L. [Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lebius, H.; Lelièvre, D. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Marmitt, G.G. [Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rothard, H. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Seidl, T.; Severin, D.; Voss, K.-O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Toulemonde, M., E-mail: toulemonde@ganil.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Sputtering experiments with swift heavy ions in the electronic energy loss regime were performed by using the catcher technique in combination with elastic recoil detection analysis. The angular distribution of particles sputtered from the surface of LiF single crystals is composed of a jet-like peak superimposed on a broad isotropic distribution. By using incident ions of fixed energy but different charges states, the influence of the electronic energy loss on both components is probed. We find indications that isotropic sputtering originates from near-surface layers, whereas the jet component may be affected by contributions from depth up to about 150 nm.

  3. Science and technology on the nanoscale with swift heavy ions in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Reinhard, E-mail: r.neumann@gsi.de

    2013-11-01

    Swift heavy ions have stimulated developments of science and technology on the nanoscale due to the specific manner of transferring their kinetic energy in a solid successively in small portions along their trajectories. They thus create absolutely straight, almost cylindrical, and very narrow damage trails of diameter 5–10 nm. In various materials, such as polymers, a suitable etchant can transform these tracks into narrow channels of cylindrical, conical, or other desired shapes. These channels represent a starting point particularly for two major fields: they can be chemically modified to control small species and act, e.g., as sensors and transmitters of specific biomolecules. Irradiation of a sample with only one heavy ion allows the fabrication of single-nanochannel devices enabling measurements of enormous sensitivity. Filling nanochannels with a material provides nanowires. These objects of restricted dimensions exhibit finite-size and quantum behavior and give rise to a broad range of fundamental and applied research. This contribution briefly recollects microtechnological achievements with swift heavy ions that began already in the 1970s, preparing the ground for gradual size decrease down to the nanoscopic objects now under study. Various examples of material modifications on the nanoscale are presented, including recent results obtained with nanochannels and nanowires. Emerging developments are addressed, encompassing in situ recording of processes in biological cells stimulated by well-aimed ion irradiation, the fabrication of three-dimensional nanowire architectures, and plasmonic effects in nanowires.

  4. Excitation of swift heavy ions in foil targets IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridwell, L.B.; Pender, L.F.; Sofield, C.J.; Hay, H.J.; Treacy, P.B.

    1988-05-01

    Studies have been made of the approach to energy-loss and charge-state equilibrium of initially pure charge states of ions, transmitted through thin carbon targets. Ions of Li, F and Cl at 3 MeV per AMU were used. Detailed observations were made of outgoing energy losses and charge-state distributions, for outgoing charges equal to those ingoing. A Monte Carlo analysis is made of the charge-changing processes, which allows calculation of energy losses due to projectile charge exchange. The residual electronic target-ionisation loss is analysed to predict in-target charge states of the projectile ions. Using these, a comparison is made between the in-target effective charge for target ionisation, and the averaged ionic charge which fits charge-exchange data

  5. Tracks induced by swift heavy ions in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szenes, G.; Horvath, Z.E.; Pecz, B.; Toth, L.; Paszti, F.

    2002-01-01

    InSb, GaSb, InP, InAs, and GaAs single crystals were irradiated with Pb ions in the range of 385-2170 MeV. The samples were studied by transmission and high-resolution electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering in channeling geometry. The energetic ions induced isolated tracks in all crystals but GaAs. The thermal spike analysis revealed that the variation of the damage cross section with the ion energy is considerably weaker than in insulators. The widths of the thermal spike a(0) was estimated. The analysis was extended to recent C 60 experiments on Ge and Si. A quantitative relation was found between a(0) and the gap energy E g : a(0) is reduced with increasing E g , and its lowest value is close to that found in insulators

  6. Oxide glass structure evolution under swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, C.; Peuget, S.; Charpentier, T.; Moskura, M.; Caraballo, R.; Bouty, O.; Mir, A.H.; Monnet, I.; Grygiel, C.; Jegou, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Structure of SHI irradiated glass is similar to the one of a hyper quenched glass. • D2 Raman band associated to 3 members ring is only observed in irradiated glass. • Irradiated state seems slightly different to an equilibrated liquid quenched rapidly. - Abstract: The effects of ion tracks on the structure of oxide glasses were examined by irradiating a silica glass and two borosilicate glass specimens containing 3 and 6 oxides with krypton ions (74 MeV) and xenon ions (92 MeV). Structural changes in the glass were observed by Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a multinuclear approach ( 11 B, 23 Na, 27 Al and 29 Si). The structure of irradiated silica glass resembles a structure quenched at very high temperature. Both borosilicate glass specimens exhibited depolymerization of the borosilicate network, a lower boron coordination number, and a change in the role of a fraction of the sodium atoms after irradiation, suggesting that the final borosilicate glass structures were quenched from a high temperature state. In addition, a sharp increase in the concentration of three membered silica rings and the presence of large amounts of penta- and hexacoordinate aluminum in the irradiated 6-oxide glass suggest that the irradiated glass is different from a liquid quenched at equilibrium, but it is rather obtained from a nonequilibrium liquid that is partially relaxed by very rapid quenching within the ion tracks

  7. Hydration effect on ion exchange resin irradiated by swift heavy ions and gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, I.; Labed, V.; Gerenton, A.; Ngono-Ravache, Y.; Dannoux-Papin, A.

    2018-06-01

    Gamma radiolysis of ion exchange resins (IER) is widely studied since the sixties, as a function of different parameters (resin type, dose, atmosphere, water content …). However, to our knowledge, there are very few data concerning hydrogen emission from anionic and cationic resins irradiated at high Linear Energy Transfers (LET). In the present work, we focus on the influence of hydration on hydrogen emission, in anionic and cationic resins irradiated under inert atmosphere using Swift Heavy Ions (SHI) and gamma irradiations. The radiation chemical yield of molecular hydrogen is nonlinear with water content for both resins. The molecular hydrogen production depends first on the water form in IER (free or linked) and second on the solubility of degradation products. Three steps have been observed: at lower water content where G(H2) is stable, at 50%, G(H2) increases due to reactions between water radiolytic species and the resin functional groups and at high water content, G(H2) decreases probably due to its accumulation in water and its consumption by hydroxyl radicals in the supernatant.

  8. In-situ investigations of surface modifications by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolse, W.; Sankarakumar, A.; Ferhati, R.; Garmatter, D.; Haag, M.; Dautel, K.; Asdi, M.; Srivastava, N.; Widmann, B.; Bauer, M.

    2014-01-01

    We are running a High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscope in the beam line of the UNILAC ion accelerator at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Danustadt, Germany, which has recently been extended also with an EDX-system and two micro-manipulators. This instrument allows us to in-situ investigate the structural and compositional development of individual objects and structures in the μm- and nm-range under swift heavy ion bombardment, from the very first ion impact up to high fluences of the order of several 10 15 /cm 2 . The sample under investigation is irradiated in small fluence steps and in between SEM-images (and EDX-scans) of one and the same surface area are taken. The irradiation can be carried out at any incidence angle between 0° and 90° and also under stepwise or continuous azimuthal rotation of the sample. The micro-manipulator system allows us to perform additional analysis like electrical and mechanical characterization as well as substrate-free EDX at sub-μm objects. We are now also able to irradiate almost free standing sub-μm structures (pasted on a nanoscale tip or held in micro-tweezers). In this report an overview over this unique instrument and its capabilities and advantages will be given, illustrated by the results of our recent in-situ studies on ion induced modification of thin films (dewetting and self-organisation) and on shaping of sub-μm objects with swift heavy ions (by taking advantage of ion sputtering, ion hammering and ion induced visco-elastic flow). (author)

  9. Capillaric penetration of etchant solution into swift heavy ion-irradiated silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Mueller, M.

    2000-01-01

    There is growing evidence that etchants penetrate into latent ion tracks in polymers from the very beginning, i.e., even during the so-called 'incubation time' when no visible etchant attack is observed. The model of capillaric penetration of viscous liquids into sponge-like matter agrees with experimental values both in their parametric dependence as in the absolute values. Our experiments are based on LiOH etching of both pristine and swift heavy ion-irradiated silicone rubber foils. About five times more etchant penetrates into irradiated than into pristine silicone rubber. The overall etchant penetration is highest in tracks parallel to the surface normal, and decreases with increasing ion track tilt angle towards the surface normal. The etchant penetration into the tracks proceeds relatively slowly with an effective viscosity comparable to that of heavy machine oil. When swelling starts to predominate, the maximum etchant penetration depth comes to saturation, with the total etchant uptake even decreasing

  10. Precise measurements of energy loss straggling for swift heavy ions in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Bindu; Neetu; Sharma, Kalpana; Diwan, P. K.; Kumar, Shyam

    2016-11-01

    The energy loss straggling measurements for heavy ions with Z = 3-22 (∼0.2-2.5 MeV/u) in PEN (C7H5O2) and PET (C10H8O4) polymers have been carried out utilizing the swift heavy ion beam facility from 15UD Pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The recorded spectra are analyzed in such a way that the Straggling associated with energy loss process could be measured in a systematic manner at any selected value of energy, in terms of per unit thickness of the absorber, at any desired energy intervals. The measured values have been compared with the calculated values obtained from the most commonly used Bethe-Livingston formulations applicable for collisional straggling. The results are tried to be understood in terms of the effective charge on the impinging ion within the absorber. Some interesting trends are observed.

  11. Universal scaling for biomolecule desorption induced by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szenes, G.

    2005-01-01

    A thermal activation mechanism is proposed for the desorption of biomolecules. Good agreement is found with the experiments in a broad range of the electronic stopping power. The activation energies of desorption U are 0.33, 1.57 and 5.35 eV for positive, negative and neutral leucine molecules, respectively, and 2.05 eV for positive ergosterol molecules. The desorption of valine clusters is analyzed. The magnitude of the specific heat shows that the internal degrees of freedom are not excited up to the moment of desorption. The effect of irradiation temperature and of ion velocity on the desorption yield is discussed on the basis of the author's model. The scaling function derived in the model for the desorption of biomolecules is applied also to the sputtering of SiO 2 and U = 0.42 eV is obtained

  12. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on bare and coated ZnS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, S.; Hussain, A.M.P.; Ahmed, G.A.; Singh, F.; Avasthi, D.K.; Choudhury, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares structural and optical modifications of bare and silica (SiO 2 ) coated ZnS quantum dots under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. Bare and silica coated ZnS quantum dots were prepared following an inexpensive chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the dielectric host matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the samples show the formation of almost spherical ZnS quantum dots. The UV-Vis absorption spectra reveal blue shift relative to bulk material in absorption energy while photoluminescence (PL) spectra suggests that surface state and near band edge emissions are dominating in case of bare and coated samples, respectively. Swift heavy ion irradiation of the samples was carried out with 160 MeV Ni 12+ ion beam with fluences 10 12 to 10 13 ions/cm 2 . Size enhancement of bare quantum dots after irradiation has been indicated in XRD and TEM analysis of the samples which has also been supported by optical absorption spectra. However similar investigations on irradiated coated quantum dots revealed little change in quantum dot size and emission. The present study thus shows that the coated ZnS quantum dots are stable upon SHI irradiation compared to the bare one

  13. Swift heavy ion irradiation effects in Pt/C and Ni/C multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ajay; Pandita, Suneel; Avasthi, D. K.; Lodha, G. S.; Nandedkar, R. V.

    1998-12-01

    Irradiation effects of 100 MeV Ag ion irradiation on Ni/C and Pt/C multilayers have been studied using X-ray reflectivity measurements. Modifications are observed in both the multilayers at (dE/dx)e values much below the threshold values for Ni and Pt. This effect is attributed to the discontinuous nature of the metal layers. In both the multilayers interfacial roughness increases with irradiation dose. While Ni/C multilayers exhibit large ion-beam induced intermixing, no observable intermixing is observed in the case of Pt/C multilayer. This difference in the behavior of the two systems suggests a significant role for chemically guided defect motion in the mixing process associated with swift heavy ion irradiation.

  14. Swift heavy ion irradiation of CaF2 - from grooves to hillocks in a single ion track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Elisabeth; Salou, Pierre; Bergen, Lorenz; El Kharrazi, Mourad; Lattouf, Elie; Grygiel, Clara; Wang, Yuyu; Benyagoub, Abdenacer; Levavasseur, Delphine; Rangama, Jimmy; Lebius, Henning; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Schleberger, Marika; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-10-01

    A novel form of ion-tracks, namely nanogrooves and hillocks, are observed on CaF2 after irradiation with xenon and lead ions of about 100 MeV kinetic energy. The irradiation is performed under grazing incidence (0.3°-3°) which forces the track to a region in close vicinity to the surface. Atomic force microscopy imaging of the impact sites with high spatial resolution reveals that the surface track consists in fact of three distinct parts: each swift heavy ion impacting on the CaF2 surface first opens a several 100 nm long groove bordered by a series of nanohillocks on both sides. The end of the groove is marked by a huge single hillock and the further penetration of the swift projectile into deeper layers of the target is accompanied by a single protrusion of several 100 nm in length slowly fading until the track vanishes. By comparing experimental data for various impact angles with results of a simulation, based on a three-dimensional version of the two-temperature-model (TTM), we are able to link the crater and hillock formation to sublimation and melting processes of CaF2 due to the local energy deposition by swift heavy ions.

  15. Swift heavy ion irradiation of Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Ni alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaya, E; Tolley, A; Condo, A M; Schumacher, G

    2009-05-06

    The effects produced by swift heavy ions in the martensitic (18R) and austenitic phase (β) of Cu based shape memory alloys were characterized. Single crystal samples with a surface normal close to [210](18R) and [001](β) were irradiated with 200 MeV of Kr(15+), 230 MeV of Xe(15+), 350 and 600 MeV of Au(26+) and Au(29+). Changes in the microstructure were studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that swift heavy ion irradiation induced nanometer sized defects in the 18R martensitic phase. In contrast, a hexagonal close-packed phase formed on the irradiated surface of β phase samples. HRTEM images of the nanometer sized defects observed in the 18R martensitic phase were compared with computer simulated images in order to interpret the origin of the observed contrast. The best agreement was obtained when the defects were assumed to consist of local composition modulations.

  16. Swift heavy ion induced surface and microstructural evolution in metallic glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Hysen; Thomas, Senoy; Ramanujan, Raju V.; Avasthi, D.K.; Al- Omari, I.A.; Al-Harthi, Salim; Anantharaman, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Swift heavy ion induced changes in microstructure and surface morphology of vapor deposited Fe–Ni based metallic glass thin films have been investigated by using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ion beam irradiation was carried out at room temperature with 103 MeV Au 9+ beam with fluences ranging from 3 × 10 11 to 3 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 . The atomic force microscopy images were subjected to power spectral density analysis and roughness analysis using an image analysis software. Clusters were found in the image of as-deposited samples, which indicates that the film growth is dominated by the island growth mode. As-deposited films were amorphous as evidenced from X-ray diffraction; however, high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed a short range atomic order in the samples with crystallites of size around 3 nm embedded in an amorphous matrix. X-ray diffraction pattern of the as-deposited films after irradiation does not show any appreciable changes, indicating that the passage of swift heavy ions stabilizes the short range atomic ordering, or even creates further amorphization. The crystallinity of the as-deposited Fe–Ni based films was improved by thermal annealing, and diffraction results indicated that ion beam irradiation on annealed samples results in grain fragmentation. On bombarding annealed films, the surface roughness of the films decreased initially, then, at higher fluences it increased. The observed change in surface morphology of the irradiated films is attributed to the interplay between ion induced sputtering, volume diffusion and surface diffusion.

  17. Defects induced by swift heavy ions in the 18R martensite of Cu-Zn-Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelaya, Eugenia; Tolley, Alfredo; Condo, Adriana; Lovey, Francisco; Schumacher, G

    2003-01-01

    The swift heavy ion incidence over the surface of a given material produces a strong energy deposition in a nanometric scale.Swift heavy ions, of the order of one thousand of MeV, deposit their energy as electronic excitations.This highly localized deposition can induce metastable transformations within the material. For example, in martensitic NiTi alloys irradiated with swift heavy ions, it has been observed changes on the martensitic transformation temperature and amorphous areas induced by the irradiation.In this work, the effects produced by swift heavy ions on the martensitic 18R structure of Cu-Zn-Al alloy (Cu - 12.17 Zn - 17.92 Al, in %at) were analyzed.Crystalline samples were irradiated in a direction close to the [2 1 0] of 18R with Xe + 230 MeV, Au + of 350 MeV and Kr + of 200 MeV ion beams.Defects of the order of nanometers induced by the irradiation were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM).It was also observed, that the average size of the irradiation defects induced by Au + ion is larger than those induced by Xe + and Kr + ions.In this case, no relationship between the observed defects and the energy deposition was found in the 23 keV/nn to 48 keV/nn range

  18. Structural stability of C60 films under irradiation with swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yunfan; Yao Cunfeng; Wang Zhiguang; Xie Erqing; Song Yin; Sun Youmei; Zhang Chonghong; Liu Jie; Duan Jinglai

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the structural stability of fullerene (C 60 ) under swift heavy ion irradiation, the irradiation experiments of thin C 60 films were performed with 22 MeV/amu Fe 56 ions delivered by HIRFL at Lanzhou in China. The irradiated C 60 films were analyzed by means of Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopes. The analysis results indicated that the damage cross-sections σ of the C 60 molecule deduced from the data of the Raman spectra are between 1.1 and 4.5 x 10 -14 cm 2 for the electronic energy loss from 3.5 to 8.7 keV/nm and electronic energy transfer dominates the damage process of C 60 films. The partial recovery of the damage in irradiated C 60 films at certain electronic energy loss is attributed to an annealing effect of strong electronic excitation

  19. Raman spectroscopic investigations of swift heavy ion irradiation effects in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olejniczak, A.; Skuratov, V.A.; Lukaszewicz, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the results on swift heavy ion irradiation effects in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Buckypapers, prepared of CVD grown, SWNTs were irradiated at room temperature with 167 MeV Xe ions to fluences in the range of 6×10 11 - 6.5×10 13 cm -2 and investigated using Raman spectroscopy. We observed a rich set of features in the intermediate frequency mode region. Some of them, being defect-induced, resembled fairly well the phonon density of states (DOS) of nanocrystalline glassy carbon. Analysis of the RBM modes has shown that the broader metallic tubes are characterized by higher radiation stability than thinner semiconducting ones. (authors)

  20. Setup for in situ x-ray diffraction study of swift heavy ion irradiated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulriya, P K; Singh, F; Tripathi, A; Ahuja, R; Kothari, A; Dutt, R N; Mishra, Y K; Kumar, Amit; Avasthi, D K

    2007-11-01

    An in situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) setup is designed and installed in the materials science beam line of the Pelletron accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre for in situ studies of phase change in swift heavy ion irradiated materials. A high vacuum chamber with suitable windows for incident and diffracted X-rays is integrated with the goniometer and the beamline. Indigenously made liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature sample cooling unit is installed. The snapshots of growth of particles with fluence of 90 MeV Ni ions were recorded using in situ XRD experiment, illustrating the potential of this in situ facility. A thin film of C60 was used to test the sample cooling unit. It shows that the phase of the C60 film transforms from a cubic lattice (at room temperature) to a fcc lattice at around T=255 K.

  1. Setup for in situ x-ray diffraction study of swift heavy ion irradiated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulriya, P. K.; Singh, F.; Tripathi, A.; Ahuja, R.; Kothari, A.; Dutt, R. N.; Mishra, Y. K.; Kumar, Amit; Avasthi, D. K.

    2007-11-01

    An in situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) setup is designed and installed in the materials science beam line of the Pelletron accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre for in situ studies of phase change in swift heavy ion irradiated materials. A high vacuum chamber with suitable windows for incident and diffracted X-rays is integrated with the goniometer and the beamline. Indigenously made liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature sample cooling unit is installed. The snapshots of growth of particles with fluence of 90MeV Ni ions were recorded using in situ XRD experiment, illustrating the potential of this in situ facility. A thin film of C60 was used to test the sample cooling unit. It shows that the phase of the C60 film transforms from a cubic lattice (at room temperature) to a fcc lattice at around T =255K.

  2. Swift heavy ion induced modifications in optical and electrical properties of cadmium selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ritika; Chauhan, Rishi Pal

    2017-07-01

    The modification in various properties of thin films using high energetic ion beam is an exciting area of basic and applied research in semiconductors. In the present investigations, cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films were deposited on ITO substrate using electrodeposition technique. To study the swift heavy ion (SHI) induced effects, the deposited thin films were irradiated with 120 MeV heavy Ag9+ ions using pelletron accelerator facility at IUAC, New Delhi, India. Structural phase transformation in CdSe thin film from metastable cubic phase to stable hexagonal phase was observed after irradiation leading to decrease in the band gap from 2.47 eV to 2.12 eV. The phase transformation was analyzed through X-ray diffraction patterns. During SHI irradiation, Generation of high temperature and pressure by thermal spike along the trajectory of incident ions in the thin films might be responsible for modification in the properties of thin films.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Engineering of electronic properties of single layer graphene by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Ashish; Tripathi, Ambuj; Tyagi, Chetna; Avasthi, D. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, swift heavy ion irradiation induced effects on the electrical properties of single layer graphene are reported. The modulation in minimum conductivity point in graphene with in-situ electrical measurement during ion irradiation was studied. It is found that the resistance of graphene layer decreases at lower fluences up to 3 × 1011 ions/cm2, which is accompanied by the five-fold increase in electron and hole mobilities. The ion irradiation induced increase in electron and hole mobilities at lower fluence up to 1 × 1011 ions/cm2 is verified by separate Hall measurements on another irradiated graphene sample at the selected fluence. In contrast to the adverse effects of irradiation on the electrical properties of materials, we have found improvement in electrical mobility after irradiation. The increment in mobility is explained by considering the defect annealing in graphene after irradiation at a lower fluence regime. The modification in carrier density after irradiation is also observed. Based on findings of the present work, we suggest ion beam irradiation as a useful tool for tuning of the electrical properties of graphene.

  4. Refractive index dispersion of swift heavy ion irradiated BFO thin films using Surface Plasmon Resonance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Savita; Tomar, Monika; Singh, Fouran; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigated the optical properties of BiFeO_3 (BFO) thin films after irradiation using SPR. • Otto configuration has been used to excite the surface plasmons using gold metal thin film. • BFO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique. • Examined the refractive index dispersion of pristine and irradiated BFO thin film. - Abstract: Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) is an effective technique to induce defects for possible modifications in the material properties. There is growing interest in studying the optical properties of multiferroic BiFeO_3 (BFO) thin films for optoelectronic applications. In the present work, BFO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and were irradiated using the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator with 100 MeV Au"9"+ ions at a fluence of 1 × 10"1"2 ions cm"−"2. The as-grown films became rough and porous on ion irradiation. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique has been identified as a highly sensitive and powerful technique for studying the optical properties of a dielectric material. Optical properties of BFO thin films, before and after irradiation were studied using SPR technique in Otto configuration. Refractive index is found to be decreasing from 2.27 to 2.14 on ion irradiation at a wavelength of 633 nm. Refractive index dispersion of BFO thin film (from 405 nm to 633 nm) before and after ion radiation was examined.

  5. Refractive index dispersion of swift heavy ion irradiated BFO thin films using Surface Plasmon Resonance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliwal, Ayushi [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Sharma, Savita [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Tomar, Monika [Physics Department, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110075 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Investigated the optical properties of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin films after irradiation using SPR. • Otto configuration has been used to excite the surface plasmons using gold metal thin film. • BFO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique. • Examined the refractive index dispersion of pristine and irradiated BFO thin film. - Abstract: Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) is an effective technique to induce defects for possible modifications in the material properties. There is growing interest in studying the optical properties of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin films for optoelectronic applications. In the present work, BFO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and were irradiated using the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator with 100 MeV Au{sup 9+} ions at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2}. The as-grown films became rough and porous on ion irradiation. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique has been identified as a highly sensitive and powerful technique for studying the optical properties of a dielectric material. Optical properties of BFO thin films, before and after irradiation were studied using SPR technique in Otto configuration. Refractive index is found to be decreasing from 2.27 to 2.14 on ion irradiation at a wavelength of 633 nm. Refractive index dispersion of BFO thin film (from 405 nm to 633 nm) before and after ion radiation was examined.

  6. Refractive index dispersion of swift heavy ion irradiated BFO thin films using Surface Plasmon Resonance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Savita; Tomar, Monika; Singh, Fouran; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-07-01

    Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) is an effective technique to induce defects for possible modifications in the material properties. There is growing interest in studying the optical properties of multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films for optoelectronic applications. In the present work, BFO thin films were prepared by sol-gel spin coating technique and were irradiated using the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator with 100 MeV Au9+ ions at a fluence of 1 × 1012 ions cm-2. The as-grown films became rough and porous on ion irradiation. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique has been identified as a highly sensitive and powerful technique for studying the optical properties of a dielectric material. Optical properties of BFO thin films, before and after irradiation were studied using SPR technique in Otto configuration. Refractive index is found to be decreasing from 2.27 to 2.14 on ion irradiation at a wavelength of 633 nm. Refractive index dispersion of BFO thin film (from 405 nm to 633 nm) before and after ion radiation was examined.

  7. Defects induced magnetic transition in Co doped ZnS thin films: Effects of swift heavy ion irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Shiv P., E-mail: shivpoojanbhola@gmail.com [Physics Department, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Pivin, J.C. [CSNSM, IN2P3-CNRS, Batiment 108, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Patel, M.K; Won, Jonghan [Materials Science and Technology Division, MST-8, P.O.Box 1663, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Chandra, Ramesh [Nanoscience Laboratory, IIC, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, Lokendra [Physics Department, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)

    2012-07-15

    The effect of swift heavy ions (SHI) on magnetic ordering in ZnS thin films with Co ions substituted on Zn sites is investigated. The materials have been synthesized by pulsed laser deposition on substrates held at 600 Degree-Sign C for obtaining films with wurtzite crystal structure and it showed ferromagnetic ordering up to room temperature with a paramagnetic component. 120 MeV Ag ions have been used at different fluences of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} for SHI induced modifications. The long range correlation between paramagnetic spins on Co ions was destroyed by irradiation and the material became purely paramagnetic. The effect is ascribed to the formation of cylindrical ion tracks due to the thermal spikes resulting from electron-phonon coupling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of swift heavy ions on magnetic ordering in Co doped ZnS thin films are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetization in the pristine films is composed of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films become purely paramagnetic after swift heavy ions irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic transition is ascribed to the formation of ion track (or cylindrical defects) due to the thermal spikes.

  8. Enhanced formation of Ge nanocrystals in Ge : SiO2 layers by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, I V; Volodin, V A; Marin, D M; Skuratov, V A; Smagulova, S A; Janse van Vuuren, A; Neethling, J; Jedrzejewski, J; Balberg, I

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the ability of swift heavy Xe ions with an energy of 480 MeV and a fluence of 10 12 cm -2 to enhance the formation of Ge nanocrystals within SiO 2 layers with variable Ge contents. These Ge-SiO 2 films were fabricated by the co-sputtering of Ge and quartz sources which followed various annealing procedures. In particular, we found that the irradiation of the Ge : SiO 2 films with subsequent annealing at 500 °C leads to the formation of a high concentration of nanocrystals (NCs) with a size of 2-5 nm, whereas without irradiation only amorphous inclusions were observed. This effect, as evidenced by Raman spectra, is enhanced by pre-irradiation at 550 °C and post-irradiation annealing at 600 °C, which also leads to the observation of room temperature visible photoluminescence. (paper)

  9. Precise measurements of energy loss straggling for swift heavy ions in polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Bindu [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India); Neetu [Department of Physics, S.D College, Panipat 132103 (India); Sharma, Kalpana [Department of Physics, CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560037 (India); Diwan, P.K. [Department of Applied Sciences, UIET, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India); Kumar, Shyam, E-mail: profshyam@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)

    2016-11-15

    The energy loss straggling measurements for heavy ions with Z = 3–22 (∼0.2–2.5 MeV/u) in PEN (C{sub 7}H{sub 5}O{sub 2}) and PET (C{sub 10}H{sub 8}O{sub 4}) polymers have been carried out utilizing the swift heavy ion beam facility from 15UD Pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The recorded spectra are analyzed in such a way that the Straggling associated with energy loss process could be measured in a systematic manner at any selected value of energy, in terms of per unit thickness of the absorber, at any desired energy intervals. The measured values have been compared with the calculated values obtained from the most commonly used Bethe-Livingston formulations applicable for collisional straggling. The results are tried to be understood in terms of the effective charge on the impinging ion within the absorber. Some interesting trends are observed.

  10. Defect creation by swift heavy ions: materials modifications in the electronic stopping power regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulemonde, M.

    1994-01-01

    The material modifications by swift heavy ions in the electronic stopping power regime are puzzling question: How the energy deposited on the electrons can induced material modifications? In order to answer to this question, the modifications induced in non-radiolytic materials are described and compared to the predictions. In first part the main experimental observations is presented taking into account the irradiation parameters. Then it is shown that the initial phases of the material are very important. Amorphous materials, whatever it is a metal, a semiconductor or an insulator, are till now all sensitive to the high electronic excitation induced by the slowing down of a swift heavy ion. All oxide materials, insulators or conductors, are also sensitive even the MgO, one of most famous exceptions. Crystalline metals or semiconductors are intermediate cases: some are insensitive like Cu and Si respectively while Fe and GeS are sensitive. The main feature is the different values of the electronic stopping power threshold of material modifications. The evolution of the damage creation is described showing that the damage morphology seems to be the same whatever the material is amorphous or crystalline. In second part a try of interpretation of the experimental results will be done on the behalf of the two following models: The Coulomb spike and the thermal spike models. It will be shown that there is some agreement with limited predictions made in the framework of the Coulomb spike model. But it appears that the thermal spike model can account for most of the experimental data using only one free parameter: The electron-phonon strength which is a physical characteristic of the irradiated material. (author). 4 figs., 1 tab., 64 refs

  11. Swift heavy ions induced material reorganization on surface of barium fluoride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Ratnesh K.; Kumar, Manvendra; Pandey, Avinash C.; Khan, Saif A.; Singh, Udai B.; Tripathi, Ambuj; Avasthi, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    Swift heavy ions induced thermal spike is found to result in a highly excited nanometric cylindrical zone in insulating materials. The resulting transient local melting (taking place on ps timescale) results in formation of a defect-rich or amorphous latent track. In the present work we are reporting evolution of lamellae structure on surface of BaF_2 thin films due to irradiation with 100 MeV Au"+"8 ions. These thin films of BaF_2 have been deposited on glass substrate using electron beam evaporation method and have a thickness of 200 nm. Irradiation was performed at liquid nitrogen temperature and at an angle of incidence of 15° shows the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of evolution of lamellae pattern. A cracking perpendicular to the beam direction at low fluences of 5x10"1"2 ions/cm"2 is observed, while at higher fluences of 2x10"1"3 ions/cm"2, the material started to shrink. After application of further high fluences up to 2x10"1"4 ions/cm"2, the BaF_2 layer was reorganized in form of lamellae having orientation as found for the cracks and normal to the beam direction. A self-organized phenomenon in SHI irradiated NiO layers, resulting in formation of 100-nm-thick and 1-µm-high NiO lamellae has also been observed. (author)

  12. Characterization of radiation damage induced by swift heavy ions in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Christian

    2016-05-15

    Graphite is a classical material in neutron radiation environments, being widely used in nuclear reactors and power plants as a moderator. For high energy particle accelerators, graphite provides ideal material properties because of the low Z of carbon and its corresponding low stopping power, thus when ion projectiles interact with graphite is the energy deposition rather low. This work aims to improve the understanding of how the irradiation with swift heavy ions (SHI) of kinetic energies in the range of MeV to GeV affects the structure of graphite and other carbon-based materials. Special focus of this project is given to beam induced changes of thermo-mechanical properties. For this purpose the Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and glassy carbon (GC) (both serving as model materials), isotropic high density polycrystalline graphite (PG) and other carbon based materials like carbon fiber carbon composites (CFC), chemically expanded graphite (FG) and molybdenum carbide enhanced graphite composites (MoC) were exposed to different ions ranging from {sup 131}Xe to {sup 238}U provided by the UNILAC accelerator at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. To investigate structural changes, various in-situ and off-line measurements were performed including Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. Thermo-mechanical properties were investigated using the laser-flash-analysis method, differential scanning calorimetry, micro/nano-indentation and 4-point electrical resistivity measurements. Beam induced stresses were investigated using profilometry. Obtained results provided clear evidence that ion beam-induced radiation damage leads to structural changes and degradation of thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of graphite. PG transforms towards a disordered sp2 structure, comparable to GC at high fluences. Irradiation-induced embrittlement is strongly reducing the lifetime of most high-dose exposed accelerator components. For

  13. Structural modification by swift heavy ion at metal/Si interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisodia, Veenu; Jain, R.K.; Bhattacharaya, D.; Kabiraj, D.; Jain, I.P. E-mail: ipjain46@sify.com

    2003-06-01

    Transition metal silicides produced by swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation have found applications in ultra-large-scale integrated circuits due to their small contact resistivities and higher thermal and chemical stabilities. In the present work, the mixing in Ni/Si and Ti/Si systems was studied under irradiation with Au ions. A layer of Ni (15 nm) and Ti (18 nm) was deposited by e-gun evaporation on Si (1 0 0) substrate at 10{sup -8} Torr vacuum. The samples were irradiated with 95 Mev Au ions at room temperature to a fluence of 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} and 1 pna beam current. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and X-Ray reflectivity have been employed to characterize the samples. The large electronic excitation due to SHI irradiation produces defects in the system. It is expected that SHI irradiation followed by thermal annealing in Ni/Si system will provide the required energy to the atoms to diffuse across the interface resulting in mixing.

  14. Etching kinetics of swift heavy ion irradiated silicone rubber with insoluble additives or reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Mueller, M.; Petrov, A.; Farenzena, L.; Behar, M.; Papaleo, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    It is normally understood as a basic precondition of the etching of swift heavy ion tracks in polymers that both the additives and etching products are soluble in the etchant. If this is not given, the polymer surface may be gradually blocked by the deposition of the insoluble material that acts as a diffusion barrier for the penetration of fresh etchant into the tracks, and therefore the effective track etching speed will gradually be reduced. The etching kinetics is developed for that case, and the theory is compared with first experimental findings. For that purpose we have taken commercial silicone rubber foils as test materials, that were irradiated with GeV heavy ions through a mask at a fluence that corresponds to the onset of track overlapping. After etching with NaOH, the corresponding etching speed was recorded via the reduction of the foil thickness. The etching speed is seen to decrease with exposure time, in parallel to the development of an insoluble surface layer. It is discussed how to prevent that surface blocking, to maintain a high etching speed

  15. Mechanism of the monoclinic-to-tetragonal phase transition induced in zirconia and hafnia by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyagoub, Abdenacer

    2005-01-01

    Recent results demonstrated that defect formation or amorphization are not the only structural changes induced by swift heavy ions in crystalline materials and that under certain circumstances crystalline-to-crystalline phase transitions can also occur. For instance, it was found that both zirconia and hafnia transform from the monoclinic to the tetragonal phase with a kinetics involving a double ion impact process. In order to understand the origin of this ion-beam induced phase transition, the behavior of these twin oxides was analyzed and compared. In fact, the likeness of these materials offered the unique opportunity to impose drastic constraints on the possible models proposed to explain the creation of atomic displacements in the wake of swift heavy ions. This comparison clearly suggests that the thermal spike is the most appropriate process which governs the transition from the monoclinic to the tetragonal phase in zirconia and hafnia

  16. Swift heavy ion irradiation effects on carbonyl and trans-vinylene groups in high and low density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosso, M.F. del; Chappa, V.C.; Arbeitman, C.R.; Garcia Bermudez, G.; Behar, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on the creation of new functional groups in high and low density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE). Polymers were irradiated with different ions (6.77 MeV He and 47 MeV Li) and fluences. The induced changes were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Creation and damage cross sections for some groups were compared for two different types of PE.

  17. Swift heavy ion irradiation effects on carbonyl and trans-vinylene groups in high and low density polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosso, M.F. del, E-mail: delgrosso@tandar.cnea.gov.a [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Chappa, V.C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina); Arbeitman, C.R. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Garcia Bermudez, G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM (Argentina); Behar, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-10-01

    In this work, we have studied the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on the creation of new functional groups in high and low density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE). Polymers were irradiated with different ions (6.77 MeV He and 47 MeV Li) and fluences. The induced changes were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Creation and damage cross sections for some groups were compared for two different types of PE.

  18. Study of the point defect creation and of the excitonic luminescence in alkali halides irradiated by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protin, L.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this experimental thesis is to study the excitonic mechanisms and of the defect creation, in NaCl and KBr, under dense electronic excitations induced by swift heavy ion irradiations. In the first part, we present the main features of the interaction of swift heavy ions with solid targets, and after we review the well known radiolytic processes of the defect creation during X-ray irradiation. In the second chapter, we describe our experimental set-up. In the chapter III, we present our results of the in-situ optical absorption measurements. This results show that defect creation is less sensitive to the temperature than during a classical irradiation. Besides, we observe new mechanisms concerning the defect aggregation. In the chapter IV, we present the results of excitonic luminescence induced by swift by swift heavy ions. We observe that the luminescence yields only change with the highest electronic stopping power. In the chapter V, we perform thermal spike and luminescence yields calculations and we compare the numerical results to the experiments presented in the chapter IV. (author). 121 refs., 65 figs., 30 tabs

  19. Effect of swift heavy O7+ ion radiations on conductivity of lithium based polymer blend electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joge, Prajakta; Kanchan, D. K.; Sharma, Poonam; Jayswal, Manish; Avasthi, D. K.

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, effect of swift heavy O7+ ion of 80 MeV of different fluences, on conductivity of [PVA(47.5)-PEO(47.5)-LiCF3SO3(5)]-EC(8) polymeric films has been investigated using ac impedance spectroscopy. The power law exponent n, hopping frequency ωh and activation energies for conduction Eac and relaxation Ear, have been investigated for different fluences. The DSC measurements are carried out in order to investigate the variations in the degree of crystallinity and thermal parameters (Tm) of the blend specimen prior and after irradiation. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) measurements are carried out in order to investigate the changes in the vibrational modes of molecules upon irradiation. The FT-IR measurements corroborate the formation of amorphous phase in the blend matrix after irradiation. The conductivity is found to be optimum at the fluence of 1×1012 ions/cm2. The enhancement and the improvement in the electrolytic properties of PVA-PEO blend upon O7+ ion irradiation have been observed.

  20. Transient current induced in thin film diamonds by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shin-ichiro; Makino, Takahiro; Ohshima, Takeshi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Kada, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Single crystal diamond is a suitable material for the next generation particle detectors because of the superior electrical properties and the high radiation tolerance. In order to investigate charge transport properties of diamond particle detectors, transient currents generated in diamonds by single swift heavy ions (26 MeV O 5+ and 45 MeV Si 7+ ) are investigated. We also measured two dimensional maps of transient currents by single ion hits. In the case of 50 μm-thick diamond, both the signal height and the collected charge are reduced by the subsequent ion hits and the charge collection time is extended. Our results are thought to be attributable to the polarization effect in diamond and it appears only when the transient current is dominated by hole current. In the case of 6 μm-thick diamond membrane, an “island” structure is found in the 2D map of transient currents. Signals in the islands shows different applied bias dependence from signals in other regions, indicating different crystal and/or metal contact quality. Simulation study of transient currents based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem clarifies that accumulation of space charges changes distribution of electric field in diamond and causes the polarization effect.

  1. Damage formation and annealing in InP due to swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarou, A.; Wesch, W.; Wendler, E.; Klaumuenzer, S.

    2004-01-01

    Virgin and pre-damaged InP samples were irradiated at room temperature (RT) and at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) with different fluences of 140 MeV Kr, 390 MeV Xe and 600 MeV Au ions. The pre-damaging was performed with 600 keV Ge ions at LNT to obtain different damage levels. The samples were analysed by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in random and channelling geometry. A relatively weak damage accumulation in virgin InP and a very significant defect annealing in pre-damaged InP occurs due to 140 MeV Kr irradiation. The damaging of virgin InP with 390 MeV Xe and 600 MeV Au is much more efficient in comparison with that of 140 MeV Kr. Further, annealing of the pre-damaged InP due to 390 MeV Xe irradiation is hardly visible. At LNT InP appears to be much more radiation-resistant to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation than at RT. Our results show that during SHI irradiation of InP both damage formation and damage annealing occur simultaneously. Whether the first or the second one plays a more important role depends on the SHI mass and energy

  2. Quantitative analysis of the epitaxial recrystallization effect induced by swift heavy ions in silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyagoub, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses recent results on the recrystallization effect induced by swift heavy ions (SHI) in pre-damaged silicon carbide. The recrystallization kinetics was followed by using increasing SHI fluences and by starting from different levels of initial damage within the SiC samples. The quantitative analysis of the data shows that the recrystallization rate depends drastically on the local amount of crystalline material: it is nil in fully amorphous regions and becomes more significant with increasing amount of crystalline material. For instance, in samples initially nearly half-disordered, the recrystallization rate per incident ion is found to be 3 orders of magnitude higher than what it is observed with the well-known IBIEC process using low energy ions. This high rate can therefore not be accounted for by the existing IBIEC models. Moreover, decreasing the electronic energy loss leads to a drastic reduction of the recrystallization rate. A comprehensive quantitative analysis of all the experimental results shows that the SHI induced high recrystallization rate can only be explained by a mechanism based on the melting of the amorphous zones through a thermal spike process followed by an epitaxial recrystallization initiated from the neighboring crystalline regions if the size of the latter exceeds a certain critical value. This quantitative analysis also reveals that recent molecular dynamics calculations supposed to reproduce this phenomenon are wrong since they overestimated the recrystallization rate by a factor ∼40.

  3. Swift heavy ions induced surface modifications in Ag-polypyrrole composite films synthesized by an electrochemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Ali, Yasir; Sharma, Kashma; Kumar, Vinod; Sonkawade, R.G.; Dhaliwal, A.S.; Swart, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two steps electrochemical synthesis for the fabrication of Ag-polypyrrole composite films. • Surface modifications by swift heavy ion beam. • SEM image shows the formation of craters and humps after irradiation. • Detailed structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: The general aim of this work was to study the effects of swift heavy ions on the properties of electrochemically synthesized Ag-polypyrrole composite thin films. Initially, polypyrrole (PPy) films were electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide coated glass surfaces using a chronopotentiometery technique, at optimized process conditions. The prepared PPy films have functioned as working electrodes for the decoration of submicron Ag particles on the surface of the PPy films through a cyclicvoltammetry technique. Towards probing the effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on the structural and morphological properties, the composite films were subjected to a 40 MeV Li 3+ ion beam irradiation for various fluences (1 × 10 11 , 1 × 10 12 and 1 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 ). Comparative microstructural investigations were carried out after the different ion fluences using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy techniques. Raman and SEM studies revealed that the structure of the films became disordered after irradiation. The SEM studies of irradiated composite films show significant changes in their surface morphologies. The surface was smoother at lower fluence but craters were observed at higher fluence

  4. Swift heavy ions induced surface modifications in Ag-polypyrrole composite films synthesized by an electrochemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay, E-mail: vijays_phy@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Ali, Yasir [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal, District Sangrur 148106, Punjab (India); Sharma, Kashma [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Department of Chemistry, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan 173212 (India); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Sonkawade, R.G. [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asif Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Dhaliwal, A.S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal, District Sangrur 148106, Punjab (India); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Two steps electrochemical synthesis for the fabrication of Ag-polypyrrole composite films. • Surface modifications by swift heavy ion beam. • SEM image shows the formation of craters and humps after irradiation. • Detailed structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: The general aim of this work was to study the effects of swift heavy ions on the properties of electrochemically synthesized Ag-polypyrrole composite thin films. Initially, polypyrrole (PPy) films were electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide coated glass surfaces using a chronopotentiometery technique, at optimized process conditions. The prepared PPy films have functioned as working electrodes for the decoration of submicron Ag particles on the surface of the PPy films through a cyclicvoltammetry technique. Towards probing the effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on the structural and morphological properties, the composite films were subjected to a 40 MeV Li{sup 3+} ion beam irradiation for various fluences (1 × 10{sup 11}, 1 × 10{sup 12} and 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}). Comparative microstructural investigations were carried out after the different ion fluences using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy techniques. Raman and SEM studies revealed that the structure of the films became disordered after irradiation. The SEM studies of irradiated composite films show significant changes in their surface morphologies. The surface was smoother at lower fluence but craters were observed at higher fluence.

  5. The effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on the structural properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/clay nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet, E-mail: manpreet.kaur@abesit.in [ABES Institute of Technology,Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Surinder [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Mehta, Rajeev [Department of Chemical Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala (India)

    2016-05-23

    Radiation has been used as a processing technique to modify structural, chemical, physical and morphological properties of polymers and its nanocomposite and can thus be used as a method to control the rate of degradation. The swift heavy ions (SHI) irradiation effects on the structural properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanocomposites containing 5 wt% organo-montmorillonite (OMMT) clay by irradiating with 50 MeV Li{sup 3+} and 180 MeV Ag{sup 8+} ions has been studied at different fluences. The structural responses of PLGA nanocomposite under the influence of SHI were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The presence of clay and irradiation by swift heavy ions (SHI) brings out interesting changes in structural properties of nanocomposite.

  6. Self-organised nano-structuring of thin oxide-films under swift heavy ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolse, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Surface instabilities and the resulting self-organisation processes play an important role in nano-technology since they allow for large-array nano-structuring. We have recently found that the occurrence of such instabilities in thin film systems can be triggered by energetic ion bombardment and the subsequent self-assembly of the surface can be nicely controlled by fine-tuning of the irradiation conditions. The role of the ion in such processes is of double nature: If the instability is latently present already in the virgin sample, but self-assembly cannot take place because of kinetic barriers, the ion impact may just supply the necessary atomic mobility. On the other hand, the surface may become instable due to the ion beam induced material modifications and further irradiation then results in its reorganisation. In the present paper, we will review recently observed nano-scale self-organisation processes in thin oxide-films induced by the irradiation with swift heavy ions (SHI) at some MeV/amu energies. The first example is about SHI induced dewetting, which is driven by capillary forces already present in the as-deposited samples. The achieved dewetting pattern show an amazing similarity to those observed for liquid polymer films on Si, although in the present case the samples were kept at 80 K and hence have never reached their melting point. The second example is about self-organised lamellae formation driven by planar stresses, which are induced by SHI bombardment under grazing incidence and result in a surface instability and anisotropic plastic deformation (hammering effect). Taking advantage of these effects and modifying the irradiation procedure, we were able to generate more complex structures like NiO-'nano-towers' of 2 μm height and 200 nm in diameter

  7. Swift heavy ion induced modification in morphological and physico-chemical properties of tin oxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshkumaripu@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Nanocomposite thin films of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2})/titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) were grown on silicon (1 0 0) substrates by electron beam evaporation deposition technique using sintered nanocomposite pellet of SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} in the percentage ratio of 95:5. Sintering of the nanocomposite pellet was done at 1300 °C for 24 h. The thicknesses of these films were measured to be 100 nm during deposition using piezo-sensor attached to the deposition chamber. TiO{sub 2} doped SnO{sub 2} nanocomposite films were irradiated by 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ion beam at fluence range varying from 1 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to 5 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi, India. Chemical properties of pristine and ion irradiation modified thin films were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR peak at 610 cm{sup −1} confirms the presence of O–Sn–O bridge of tin (IV) oxide signifying the composite nature of pristine and irradiated thin films. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) in tapping mode was used to study the surface morphology and grain growth due to swift heavy ion irradiation at different fluencies. Grain size calculations obtained from sectional analysis of AFM images were compared with results obtained from Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) measurements using Scherrer’s formulae. Phase transformation due to irradiation was observed from Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) results. The prominent 2θ peaks observed in GAXRD spectrum are at 30.67°, 32.08°, 43.91°, 44.91° and 52.35° in the irradiated films.

  8. Surface modifications caused by a swift heavy ion irradiation on crystalline p-type gallium antimonide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Vidya

    2015-09-01

    Surface modifications caused by a swift heavy ion irradiation on crystalline p-type gallium antimonide crystal have been reported. Single crystal, 1 0 0> orientations and ∼500 μm thick p-type GaSb samples with carrier concentration of 3.30 × 1017 cm-3 were irradiated at 100 MeV Fe7+ ions. We have used 15UD Pelletron facilities at IUAC with varying fluences of 5 × 1010-1 × 1014 ions cm-2. The effects of irradiation on these samples have been investigated using, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and ultraviolet-visible-NIR spectroscopy techniques. Ellipsometry parameters, psi (Ψ) and delta (Δ) for the unirradiated sample and samples irradiated with different fluences were recorded. The data were fit to a three phase model to determine the refractive index and extinction coefficient. The refractive index and extinction coefficient for various fluences in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared, regimes were evaluated. Atomic force microscopy has been used to study these surface modifications. In order to have more statistical information about the surface, we have plotted the height structure histogram for all the samples. For unirradiated sample, we observed the Gaussian fitting. This result indicates the more ordered height structure symmetry. Whereas for the sample irradiated with the fluence of 1 × 1013, 5 × 1013 and 1 × 1014 ions cm-2, we observed the scattered data. The width of the histogram for samples irradiated up to the fluence of 1 × 1013 ion cm-2 was found to be almost same however it decreased at higher fluence. UV reflectance spectra of the sample irradiated with increasing fluences exhibit three peaks at 292, 500 and 617 nm represent the high energy GaSb; E1, E1 + Δ and E2 band gaps in all irradiated samples.

  9. Surface modifications caused by a swift heavy ion irradiation on crystalline p-type gallium antimonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadhav, Vidya

    2015-01-01

    Surface modifications caused by a swift heavy ion irradiation on crystalline p-type gallium antimonide crystal have been reported. Single crystal, 1 0 0〉 orientations and ∼500 μm thick p-type GaSb samples with carrier concentration of 3.30 × 10 17 cm −3 were irradiated at 100 MeV Fe 7+ ions. We have used 15UD Pelletron facilities at IUAC with varying fluences of 5 × 10 10 –1 × 10 14 ions cm −2 . The effects of irradiation on these samples have been investigated using, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and ultraviolet–visible–NIR spectroscopy techniques. Ellipsometry parameters, psi (Ψ) and delta (Δ) for the unirradiated sample and samples irradiated with different fluences were recorded. The data were fit to a three phase model to determine the refractive index and extinction coefficient. The refractive index and extinction coefficient for various fluences in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared, regimes were evaluated. Atomic force microscopy has been used to study these surface modifications. In order to have more statistical information about the surface, we have plotted the height structure histogram for all the samples. For unirradiated sample, we observed the Gaussian fitting. This result indicates the more ordered height structure symmetry. Whereas for the sample irradiated with the fluence of 1 × 10 13 , 5 × 10 13 and 1 × 10 14 ions cm −2 , we observed the scattered data. The width of the histogram for samples irradiated up to the fluence of 1 × 10 13 ion cm −2 was found to be almost same however it decreased at higher fluence. UV reflectance spectra of the sample irradiated with increasing fluences exhibit three peaks at 292, 500 and 617 nm represent the high energy GaSb; E 1 , E 1 + Δ and E 2 band gaps in all irradiated samples

  10. Swift heavy ion induced de wetting of metal oxide thin films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolse, T.; Paulus, H.; Bolse, W.

    2006-01-01

    We have observed that thin oxide coatings (NiO, Fe 2 O 3 ) tend to dewet their Si substrate when being bombarded with swift heavy ions (350-600 MeV Au ions) even though the irradiation was carried out about 80 K and hence, the films never reached their melting point. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy reveal a surprising similarity of the dewetting morphologies with those observed for molten polymer films on Si, which have recently been reported by others [S. Herminghaus, K. Jakobs, K. Mecke, J. Bischof, A. Fery, M. Ibn-Elhaj, S. Schlagowsky, Science 282 (1998) 916; R. Seemann, S. Herminghaus, K. Jacobs, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 (2001) 4925]. Like in that cases also here heterogeneous and homogeneous hole nucleation could be identified. Heterogeneous nucleation is less pronounced in Fe 2 O 3 /Si than in NiO/Si. The occurrence of spinodal-like dewetting cannot be detected unambiguously. The dewetting kinetics were determined by means of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and found to slightly differ for the two compounds. The dewetting kinetics as well as the final dewetting pattern strongly depend on the initial film thicknesses. No dewetting occurs for film thicknesses above about 150 nm, while for very small thicknesses below about 40 nm the film decays into nm-sized spherical droplets. At intermediate film thicknesses percolated networks of small oxide bridges are formed

  11. Phase transformation induced by swift heavy ion irradiation of pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammak, H.; Dunlop, A.; Lesueur, D.

    1996-01-01

    It is now unambiguously established that high electronic energy deposition (HEED), obtained by swift heavy ion irradiation, plays an important role in the damage processes of pure metallic targets: (i) annealing of the defects created by elastic collisions in Fe, Nb, Ni and Pt, and (ii) creation of additional defects in Co, Fe, Ti and Zr. For Ti, we have recently evidenced by transmission electron microscopy observations that the damage creation by HEED is very important and leads to a phase transformation. Titanium evolves from the equilibrium hcp alpha-phase to the high pressure omega-phase. We studied the influence of three parameters on this phase transformation: ion fluence, electronic stopping power and irradiation temperature. The study of Ti and the results concerning other metals (Fe, Zr, etc.) and the semi-metal Bi allow us to propose criteria to predict in which metals HEED could induce damage: those which undergo a phase transformation under high pressure. As a matter of fact, beryllium is strongly damaged when submitted to HEED and seems to behave very similarly to titanium. The fact that such phase changes from a crystalline form to another form were only observed in those metals in which high pressure phases exist in the pressure-temperature diagram, strongly supports the Coulomb explosion model in which the generation of (i) a shock wave and (ii) collective atomic movements are invoked to account for the observed damage creation. (orig.)

  12. Coupled chemical reactions in dynamic nanometric confinement: VII. Biosensors based on swift heavy ion tracks with membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fink, Dietmar; Munoz, G. H.; García Arellano, H.; Alfonta, L.; Vacík, Jiří; Kiv, A.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 172, 1-2 (2017), s. 159-173 ISSN 1042-0150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : biotechnology * tracks * swift heavy ions * polymers * etching Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 0.443, year: 2016

  13. Dewetting of nickel oxide-films on silicon under swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolse, Thunu; Elsanousi, Ammar; Paulus, Hartmut; Bolse, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Dewetting, occurring when a thin film on a non-wettable substrate turns into its liquid state, has gained strong interest during the last decade, since it results in nano-scale, large-area covering pattern formation. Recently we found that swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of thin NiO films on Si substrates at 80 K results in similar dewetting pattern, although in this case the coating has never reached its melting point. Careful inspection of the SEM images clearly revealed that the same nucleation mechanisms as observed for molten polymer films on Si (heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation) were active. AFM shows that the circular holes formed in the early stages of the dewetting process exhibit a high and asymmetric rim-structure. RBS analysis was used to measure the coverage of the surface by the oxide films and revealed that the holes grow at constant velocity. This, and the shape of the rims, indicate that the material removed from the substrate surface piles up by plastic deformation, which points at a balance of the capillary driving forces and the hindered material dissipation

  14. The effect of He and swift heavy ions on nanocrystalline zirconium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse van Vuuren, A., E-mail: arnojvv@gmail.com [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Neethling, J.H. [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Skuratov, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Uglov, V.V. [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus); Petrovich, S. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade University, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that swift heavy ion irradiation may significantly modulate hydrogen and helium behaviour in some materials. This phenomenon is of considerable practical interest for ceramics in general and also for candidate materials for use as inert matrix fuel hosts. These materials will accumulate helium via (n, α) reactions and will also be subjected to irradiation by fission fragments. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was used to study nanocrystalline ZrN irradiated with 30 keV He to fluences between 10{sup 16} and 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}, 167 MeV Xe to fluences between 5 × 10{sup 13} and 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} and also 695 MeV Bi to a fluence of 1.5 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}. He/Bi and He/Xe irradiated samples were annealed at temperatures between 600 and 1000 °C and were analysed using SEM, XTEM and selected area diffraction. The results indicated that post irradiation heat treatment induces exfoliation at a depth that corresponds to the end-of-range of 30 keV He ions. SEM and XTEM analysis of He/Xe irradiated samples revealed that electronic excitation effects, due to Xe ions, suppress helium blister formation and consequently the exfoliation processes. He/Bi samples however do not show the same effects. This suggests that nanocrystalline ZrN is prone to the formation of He blisters which may ultimately lead material failure. These effects may however be mitigated by electronic excitation effects from certain SHIs.

  15. The effect of He and swift heavy ions on nanocrystalline zirconium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse van Vuuren, A.; Neethling, J.H.; Skuratov, V.A.; Uglov, V.V.; Petrovich, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that swift heavy ion irradiation may significantly modulate hydrogen and helium behaviour in some materials. This phenomenon is of considerable practical interest for ceramics in general and also for candidate materials for use as inert matrix fuel hosts. These materials will accumulate helium via (n, α) reactions and will also be subjected to irradiation by fission fragments. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was used to study nanocrystalline ZrN irradiated with 30 keV He to fluences between 10 16 and 5 × 10 16 cm −2 , 167 MeV Xe to fluences between 5 × 10 13 and 10 14 cm −2 and also 695 MeV Bi to a fluence of 1.5 × 10 13 cm −2 . He/Bi and He/Xe irradiated samples were annealed at temperatures between 600 and 1000 °C and were analysed using SEM, XTEM and selected area diffraction. The results indicated that post irradiation heat treatment induces exfoliation at a depth that corresponds to the end-of-range of 30 keV He ions. SEM and XTEM analysis of He/Xe irradiated samples revealed that electronic excitation effects, due to Xe ions, suppress helium blister formation and consequently the exfoliation processes. He/Bi samples however do not show the same effects. This suggests that nanocrystalline ZrN is prone to the formation of He blisters which may ultimately lead material failure. These effects may however be mitigated by electronic excitation effects from certain SHIs

  16. Defect induced modification of structural, topographical and magnetic properties of zinc ferrite thin films by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, Lisha [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India); Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi 110067 (India); Joy, P.A. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India); Vijaykumar, B. Varma; Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: mraiyer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Zinc ferrite films exhibited room temperature ferrimagnetic property. • On ion irradiation amorphisation of films were observed. • The surface morphology undergoes changes with ion irradiation. • The saturation magnetisation decreases on ion irradiation. - Abstract: Swift heavy ion irradiation provides unique ways to modify physical and chemical properties of materials. In ferrites, the magnetic properties can change significantly as a result of swift heavy ion irradiation. Zinc ferrite is an antiferromagnet with a Neel temperature of 10 K and exhibits anomalous magnetic properties in the nano regime. Ion irradiation can cause amorphisation of zinc ferrite thin films; thus the role of crystallinity on magnetic properties can be examined. The influence of surface topography in these thin films can also be studied. Zinc ferrite thin films, of thickness 320 nm, prepared by RF sputtering were irradiated with 100 MeV Ag ions. Structural characterization showed amorphisation and subsequent reduction in particle size. The change in magnetic properties due to irradiation was correlated with structural and topographical effects of ion irradiation. A rough estimation of ion track radius is done from the magnetic studies.

  17. The gaseous emission of polymers under swift heavy ion irradiation: effect of the electronic stopping power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picq, V.

    2000-07-01

    This thesis contributes to a better understanding of the damaging processes, which occur in polymers under swift heavy ion irradiation. The present study is exclusively devoted to the influence of the electronic stopping power, (dE/dx)e, on the molecular emission under irradiation. The irradiated polymers are polyethylene, polypropylene and poly-butene. The (dE/dx)e of the projectiles used varies from 3.5*10 -3 MeV.mg -1 .cm 2 (electron) to 39 MeV.mg -1 .cm 2 ( 58 Ni). We used two different experimental approaches in order to identify the nature of the emitted gases: mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. The first technique is non selective, therefore, we could detect the emission of H 2 and heavy molecules; it also gives information on the diffusion kinetics of the molecules formed. The use of infrared spectroscopy for this kind of analysis is new and the technique was developed at the laboratory. It enables us to identify, without any ambiguity, molecules with up to three carbon atoms. The experimental spectra are analysed by using reference spectra of pure gases, measured in our laboratory. We have quantified precisely each identified gas, and we have followed the evolution of the radiochemical yields with increasing (dE/dx)e. The results, obtained at different (dE/dx)e, inform us on the different mechanisms of gas molecules formation, for example the side group departure and, at high (dE/dx)e, the fragmentation of the main chain which is due to multiple ionisation of the macromolecule. (author)

  18. Effects of model approximations for electron, hole, and photon transport in swift heavy ion tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rymzhanov, R.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Medvedev, N.A., E-mail: nikita.medvedev@fzu.cz [Department of Radiation and Chemical Physics, Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Laser Plasma Department, Institute of Plasma Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Volkov, A.E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr., 53,119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskij pr., 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoye sh., 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-01

    The event-by-event Monte Carlo code, TREKIS, was recently developed to describe excitation of the electron subsystems of solids in the nanometric vicinity of a trajectory of a nonrelativistic swift heavy ion (SHI) decelerated in the electronic stopping regime. The complex dielectric function (CDF) formalism was applied in the used cross sections to account for collective response of a matter to excitation. Using this model we investigate effects of the basic assumptions on the modeled kinetics of the electronic subsystem which ultimately determine parameters of an excited material in an SHI track. In particular, (a) effects of different momentum dependencies of the CDF on scattering of projectiles on the electron subsystem are investigated. The ‘effective one-band’ approximation for target electrons produces good coincidence of the calculated electron mean free paths with those obtained in experiments in metals. (b) Effects of collective response of a lattice appeared to dominate in randomization of electron motion. We study how sensitive these effects are to the target temperature. We also compare results of applications of different model forms of (quasi-) elastic cross sections in simulations of the ion track kinetics, e.g. those calculated taking into account optical phonons in the CDF form vs. Mott’s atomic cross sections. (c) It is demonstrated that the kinetics of valence holes significantly affects redistribution of the excess electronic energy in the vicinity of an SHI trajectory as well as its conversion into lattice excitation in dielectrics and semiconductors. (d) It is also shown that induced transport of photons originated from radiative decay of core holes brings the excess energy faster and farther away from the track core, however, the amount of this energy is relatively small.

  19. Surface modifications caused by a swift heavy ion irradiation on crystalline p-type gallium antimonide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhav, Vidya, E-mail: vj1510@yahoo.com

    2015-09-01

    Surface modifications caused by a swift heavy ion irradiation on crystalline p-type gallium antimonide crystal have been reported. Single crystal, 1 0 0〉 orientations and ∼500 μm thick p-type GaSb samples with carrier concentration of 3.30 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} were irradiated at 100 MeV Fe{sup 7+} ions. We have used 15UD Pelletron facilities at IUAC with varying fluences of 5 × 10{sup 10}–1 × 10{sup 14} ions cm{sup −2}. The effects of irradiation on these samples have been investigated using, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and ultraviolet–visible–NIR spectroscopy techniques. Ellipsometry parameters, psi (Ψ) and delta (Δ) for the unirradiated sample and samples irradiated with different fluences were recorded. The data were fit to a three phase model to determine the refractive index and extinction coefficient. The refractive index and extinction coefficient for various fluences in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared, regimes were evaluated. Atomic force microscopy has been used to study these surface modifications. In order to have more statistical information about the surface, we have plotted the height structure histogram for all the samples. For unirradiated sample, we observed the Gaussian fitting. This result indicates the more ordered height structure symmetry. Whereas for the sample irradiated with the fluence of 1 × 10{sup 13}, 5 × 10{sup 13} and 1 × 10{sup 14} ions cm{sup −2}, we observed the scattered data. The width of the histogram for samples irradiated up to the fluence of 1 × 10{sup 13} ion cm{sup −2} was found to be almost same however it decreased at higher fluence. UV reflectance spectra of the sample irradiated with increasing fluences exhibit three peaks at 292, 500 and 617 nm represent the high energy GaSb; E{sub 1}, E{sub 1} + Δ and E{sub 2} band gaps in all irradiated samples.

  20. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on surface resistance of DyBa 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the observation of a pronounced peak in surface resistance at microwave frequencies of 4.88 GHz and 9.55 GHz and its disappearance after irradiation with swift ions in laser ablated DyBa2Cu3O7- (DBCO) thin films. The measurements were carried out in zero field as well as in the presence of magnetic fields ...

  1. Kinetics of amorphization induced by swift heavy ions in {alpha}-quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Rodriguez, O., E-mail: ovidio.pena@uam.es [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (CMAM-UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Optica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (IO-CSIC), C/Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Manzano-Santamaria, J. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (CMAM-UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Euratom/CIEMAT Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain); Rivera, A. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G. [Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (CELLS-ALBA), 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Olivares, J. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (CMAM-UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Optica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (IO-CSIC), C/Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Agullo-Lopez, F. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (CMAM-UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    The kinetics of amorphization in crystalline SiO{sub 2} ({alpha}-quartz) under irradiation with swift heavy ions (O{sup +1} at 4 MeV, O{sup +4} at 13 MeV, F{sup +2} at 5 MeV, F{sup +4} at 15 MeV, Cl{sup +3} at 10 MeV, Cl{sup +4} at 20 MeV, Br{sup +5} at 15 and 25 MeV and Br{sup +8} at 40 MeV) has been analyzed in this work with an Avrami-type law and also with a recently developed cumulative approach (track-overlap model). This latter model assumes a track morphology consisting of an amorphous core (area {sigma}) and a surrounding defective halo (area h), both being axially symmetric. The parameters of the two approaches which provide the best fit to the experimental data have been obtained as a function of the electronic stopping power S{sub e}. The extrapolation of the {sigma}(S{sub e}) dependence yields a threshold value for amorphization, S{sub th} Almost-Equal-To 2.1 keV/nm; a second threshold is also observed around 4.1 keV/nm. We believe that this double-threshold effect could be related to the appearance of discontinuous tracks in the region between 2.1 and 4.1 keV/nm. For stopping power values around or below the lower threshold, where the ratio h/{sigma} is large, the track-overlap model provides a much better fit than the Avrami function. Therefore, the data show that a right modeling of the amorphization kinetics needs to take into account the contribution of the defective track halo. Finally, a short comparative discussion with the kinetic laws obtained for elastic collision damage is given.

  2. Role of the irradiation temperature on the modifications of swift-heavy-ion irradiated polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melot, M.; Ngono-Ravache, Y.; Balanzat, E.

    2003-01-01

    The damage processes triggered by swift heavy ions, SHI, can be very different to those induced by classical low ionising particles. This is due to the very high electronic stopping power, (dE/dx) e , of SHI. This paper concerns the effects of SHI on polyethylene, PE. In PE, low (dE/dx) e irradiations induce crosslinking and in-chain double bond formation. At high (dE/dx) e , the creation yield of vinyl groups becomes significant. Above a (dE/dx) e threshold, alkyne and allene groups appear. We present results on low temperature irradiations that bring new enlightenment on the damage process by preventing the migration of radiation-induced radicals and molecules. Two SHI specific modifications are studied: vinyl groups and alkyne end groups. We have irradiated PE films with oxygen and sulphur beams at 13.6 and 11.2 MeV/amu, respectively. The modifications were followed by in situ infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). We have performed irradiations at 8 and 290 K. The samples irradiated at 8 K have been annealed up to 290 K for investigating the effect of radical migration. Lowering the irradiation temperature to 8 K increases the creation yield of vinyl groups and alkyne end groups. The enhancement factor between 290 and 8 K is around three. Consequently the formation of defects specific to SHI irradiations is sensitive to radical migration and hence requires some time. During annealing, the alkyne concentration remains stable indicating that the creation of this group cannot be induced by radical recombination. The annealing spectra of vinyl groups are more complex

  3. Radiation damage produced by swift heavy ions in rare earth phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanenko, Anton

    2017-02-13

    This work is devoted to the study of radiation damage produced by swift heavy ions in rare earth phosphates, materials that are considered as perspective for radioactive waste storage. Single crystals of rare earth phosphates were exposed to 2.1 GeV gold (Au) and 1.5 GeV xenon (Xe) ions of and analyzed mainly by Raman spectroscopy. All phosphates were found almost completely amorphous after the irradiation by 2.1 GeV Au ions at a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. Radiation-induced changes in the Raman spectra include the intensity decrease of all Raman bands accompanied by the appearance of broad humps and a reduction of the pronounced luminescence present in virgin samples. Analyzing the Raman peak intensities as a function of irradiation fluence allowed the calculation of the track radii for 2.1 GeV Au ions in several rare earth phosphates, which appear to be about 5.0 nm for all studied samples. Series of samples were studied to search for a trend of the track radius depending on the rare earth element (REE) cation. Among the monoclinic phosphates both Raman and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) suggest no significant change of the track radius with increasing REE mass. In contrast, within the tetragonal phosphates Raman spectroscopy data suggests a possible slight decreasing trend of the track radius with the increase of REE atomic number. That finding, however, requires further investigation due to the low reliability of the qualitative Raman analysis. Detailed analysis of Raman spectra in HoPO{sub 4} showed the increase of peak width at the initial stage of the irradiation and subsequent decrease to a steady value at higher fluences. This observation suggested the existence of a defect halo around the amorphous tracks in HoPO{sub 4}. Raman peaks were found to initially shift to lower wavenumbers with reversing this trend at the fluence of 5 x 10{sup 11} for NdPO{sub 4} and 1 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} for HoPO{sub 4}. At the next fluence steps

  4. Radiation damage produced by swift heavy ions in rare earth phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, Anton

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the study of radiation damage produced by swift heavy ions in rare earth phosphates, materials that are considered as perspective for radioactive waste storage. Single crystals of rare earth phosphates were exposed to 2.1 GeV gold (Au) and 1.5 GeV xenon (Xe) ions of and analyzed mainly by Raman spectroscopy. All phosphates were found almost completely amorphous after the irradiation by 2.1 GeV Au ions at a fluence of 1 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 . Radiation-induced changes in the Raman spectra include the intensity decrease of all Raman bands accompanied by the appearance of broad humps and a reduction of the pronounced luminescence present in virgin samples. Analyzing the Raman peak intensities as a function of irradiation fluence allowed the calculation of the track radii for 2.1 GeV Au ions in several rare earth phosphates, which appear to be about 5.0 nm for all studied samples. Series of samples were studied to search for a trend of the track radius depending on the rare earth element (REE) cation. Among the monoclinic phosphates both Raman and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) suggest no significant change of the track radius with increasing REE mass. In contrast, within the tetragonal phosphates Raman spectroscopy data suggests a possible slight decreasing trend of the track radius with the increase of REE atomic number. That finding, however, requires further investigation due to the low reliability of the qualitative Raman analysis. Detailed analysis of Raman spectra in HoPO 4 showed the increase of peak width at the initial stage of the irradiation and subsequent decrease to a steady value at higher fluences. This observation suggested the existence of a defect halo around the amorphous tracks in HoPO 4 . Raman peaks were found to initially shift to lower wavenumbers with reversing this trend at the fluence of 5 x 10 11 for NdPO 4 and 1 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 for HoPO 4 . At the next fluence steps peaks moved in the other direction, passed

  5. Opto-chemical response of Makrofol-KG to swift heavy ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transform infrared spectroscopy; atomic force spectroscopy. PACS Nos ... [8–10], electron beam [11], neutrons [12] and heavy ions [13]. The present .... Makrofol detector with proton and Xe ions, respectively and reported that at higher doses.

  6. Swift heavy ion induced phase transformation and thermoluminescence properties of zirconium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokesha, H.S. [Physics R & D Centre, PES Institute of Technology, BSK 3rd Stage, Bangalore 560085 (India); Nagabhushana, K.R., E-mail: bhushankr@gmail.com [Physics R & D Centre, PES Institute of Technology, BSK 3rd Stage, Bangalore 560085 (India); Department of Physics, PES University, BSK 3rd Stage, Bangalore 560085 (India); Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) powder is synthesized by combustion technique. XRD pattern of ZrO{sub 2} shows monoclinic phase with average crystallite size 35 nm. Pellets of ZrO{sub 2} are irradiated with 100 MeV swift Si{sup 7+}, Ni{sup 7+} and 120 MeV swift Ag{sup 9+} ions in the fluence range 3 × 10{sup 10}–3 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2}. XRD pattern show the main diffraction peak correspond to monoclinic and tetragonal phase of ZrO{sub 2} in 2θ range 27–33°. Structural phase transformation is observed for Ni{sup 7+} and Ag{sup 9+} ion irradiated samples at a fluence 1 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2} and 3 × 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2} respectively, since the deposited electronic energy loss exceeds an effective threshold (>12 keV nm{sup −1}). Phase transition induced by Ag{sup 9+} ion is nearly 2.9 times faster than Ni{sup 7+} ion at 1 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2}. Ag{sup 9+} ion irradiation leads two ion impact processes. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves exhibit two glows, a well resolved peak at ∼424 K and unresolved peak at 550 K for all SHI irradiated samples. TL response is decreased with increase of ion fluence. Beyond 3 × 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2}, samples don’t exhibit TL due to annihilation of defects.

  7. Diffusion kinetics of the glucose/glucose oxidase system in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Dietmar, E-mail: fink@xanum.uam.mx [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, DF (Mexico); Vacik, Jiri; Hnatowicz, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Muñoz Hernandez, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, DF (Mexico); Garcia Arrelano, H. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Lerma, Av. de las Garzas No. 10, Col. El Panteón, Lerma de Villada, Municipio de Lerma, Estado de México CP 52005 (Mexico); Alfonta, Lital [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kiv, Arik [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Application of swift heavy ion tracks in biosensing. • Obtaining yet unknown diffusion coefficients of organic matter across etched ion tracks. • Obtaining diffusion coefficients of organics in etched ion tracks of biosensors. • Comparison with Renkin’s equation to predict the effective etched track diameter in the given experiments. - Abstract: For understanding of the diffusion kinetics and their optimization in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors, recently a diffusion simulation was performed. This simulation aimed at yielding the degree of enrichment of the enzymatic reaction products in the highly confined space of the etched ion tracks. A bunch of curves was obtained for the description of such sensors that depend only on the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of the products to that of the analyte within the tracks. As hitherto none of these two diffusion coefficients is accurately known, the present work was undertaken. The results of this paper allow one to quantify the previous simulation and hence yield realistic predictions of glucose-based biosensors. At this occasion, also the influence of the etched track radius on the diffusion coefficients was measured and compared with earlier prediction.

  8. Tailoring optical properties of TiO2-Cr co-sputtered films using swift heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ratnesh; Sen, Sagar; Phase, D. M.; Avasthi, D. K.; Gupta, Ajay

    2018-05-01

    Effect of 100 MeV Au7+ ion irradiation on structure and optical properties of Cr-doped TiO2 films has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. X-ray reflectivity measurement implied that film thickness reduces as a function of ion fluence while surface roughness increases. The variation in surface roughness is well correlated with AFM results. Ion irradiation decreases the band gap energy of the film. Swift heavy ion irradiation enhances the oxygen vacancies in the film, and the extra electrons in the vacancies act as donor-like states. In valence band spectrum, there is a shift in the Ti3d peak towards lower energies and the shift is equivalent to the band gap energy obtained from UV spectrum. Evidence for band bending is also provided by the corresponding Ti XPS peak which exhibits a shift towards lower energy due to the downward band bending. X-ray absorption studies on O Kand Cr L3,2 edges clearly indicate that swift heavy ion irradiation induces formation of Cr-clusters in TiO2 matrix.

  9. Modification of phase transitions in swift heavy ion irradiated and MMA-grafted ferroelectric fluoro-polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersohn, E.; Betz, N.; Le Moel, A.

    1994-01-01

    Ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (β) and copolymers of vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (P(VDF/TrFE)) films were irradiated with swift heavy ions and post irradiation grafted with methyl methacrylate (MMA). We have studied the influence of irradiation parameters such as the ion fluence, the type of ion and the electronic stopping power, on the melting and crystallization temperatures and the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transitions, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dielectric measurements. The relation between the shift in the transition temperatures and the ion fluence is described by a single term equation. Ion track grafting with MMA affects the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transitions in P(VDF/TrFE) and leads to a strong amorphization of the polymer films. The grafting in β PVDF occurs mainly on the surface of the samples and no change in the transition temperatures is observed. (authors). 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Enhanced AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation properties of polypyrrole nanoparticles irradiated with Ni12+ swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, J.; Kumar, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the 160 MeV Ni 12+ swift heavy ions (SHIs) irradiation effects on AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation properties of polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles in the frequency range of 42 Hz–5 MHz. Four ion fluences of 5 × 10 10 , 1 × 10 11 , 5 × 10 11 and 1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2 have been used for the irradiation purpose. Transport properties in the pristine and irradiated PPy nanoparticles have been investigated with permittivity and modulus formalisms to study the polarization effects and conductivity relaxation. With increasing ion fluence, the relaxation peak in imaginary modulus (M ″ ) plots shifts toward high frequency suggesting long range motion of the charge carriers. The AC conductivity studies suggest correlated barrier hopping as the dominant transport mechanism. The hopping distance (R ω ) of the charge carriers decreases with increasing the ion fluence. Binding energy (W m ) calculations depict that polarons are the dominant charge carriers

  11. Photorefractive response and optical damage of LiNbO3 optical waveguides produced by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, J.; Carrascosa, M.; García-Cabañes, A.; Caballero-Calero, O.; Crespillo, M.; Olivares, J.

    2009-06-01

    The photorefractive behaviour of a novel type of optical waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion irradiation is investigated. First, the electro-optic coefficient r 33 of these guides that is crucial in the photorefractive effect is measured. Second, two complementary aspects of the photorefractive response are studied: (i) recording and light-induced and dark erasure of holographic gratings; (ii) optical beam degradation in single-beam configuration. The main photorefractive parameters, recording and erasing time constants, maximum refractive-index change and optical damage thresholds are determined.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of graphene quantum dots and their size reduction using swift heavy ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Praveen; Bhat, Badekai Ramchandra

    2018-04-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are nanosized fragments of graphene displaying quantum confinement effect. They have shown to be prepared from various methods which include ion beam etching of graphene. However, recently the modification of the GQDs has garnered tremendous attention owing to its suitability for various applications. Here, we have studied the effect of swift ion beam irradiation on the properties of GQDs. The ion beam treatment on the GQDs exhibited the change in observed photoluminescence of GQDs as they exhibited a blue luminescence on excitation with longwave UV (≈365 nm) due to the reduction in size and removal of the ethoxy (-C-O-C-) groups present on the quantum dots. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, particle size analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  13. Effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on the electrical characteristics of Au/n-GaAs Schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A. Tarun; Shahnawaz; Kumar, Sandeep; Katharria, Yashpal S.; Kanjilal, Dinakar

    2007-01-01

    Metal-semiconductor diode of Au/n-GaAs is studied under the irradiation of swift heavy ion (SHI) beam (80 MeV 16 O 6+ ), using in situ current-voltage characterization technique. The diode parameters like ideality factor, barrier height, and leakage current are observed to vary with irradiation fluence. Significantly, the diode performance improves at a high fluence of 2 x 10 13 ions cm -2 with a large decrease of reverse leakage current in comparison to the original as deposited sample. The Schottky barrier height (SBH) also increases with fluence. At a high irradiation fluence of 5 x 10 13 ions cm -2 the SBH (0.62 ± 0.01 eV) is much larger than that of the as deposited sample (0.55 ± 0.01 eV). The diode parameters remain stable over a large range of irradiation up to fluence of 8 x 10 13 ions cm -2 . A prominent annealing effect of the swift ion beam owing to moderate electronic excitation and high ratio of electronic energy loss to the nuclear loss is found to be responsible for the improvement in diode characteristics

  14. Recrystallization effects of swift heavy {sup 209}Bi ions irradiation on electrical degradation in 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhimei; Ma, Yao; Gong, Min [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Yun [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Huang, Mingmin [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Gao, Bo [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhao, Xin, E-mail: zhaoxin1234@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Microelectronics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, the phenomenon that the recrystallization effects of swift heavy {sup 209}Bi ions irradiation can partially recovery damage with more than 1 × 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2} is investigated by the degradation of the electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode (SBD) with swift heavy ion irradiation. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Current-Voltage (I-V) measurements clearly indicated that E{sub 0.62} defect induced by swift heavy ion irradiation, which was a recombination center, could result in the increase of reverse leakage current (I{sub R}) at fluence less than 1 × 10{sup 9} ions/cm{sup 2} and the recovery of I{sub R} at fluence more than 1 × 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2} in 4H-SiC SBD. The variation tendency of I{sub R} is consisted with the change of E{sub 0.62} defect. Furthermore, it is reasonable explanation that the damage or defect formed at low fluence in SiC may be recovered by further swift heavy ion irradiation with high fluence, which is due to the melting with the ion tracks of the amorphous zones through a thermal spike and subsequent epitaxial recrystallization initiated from the neighboring crystalline regions.

  15. Dewetting at the edge of a thin NiO-film on Si by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautel, Knut; Ferhati, Redi; Bolse, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated dewetting along a straight edge of a thin NiO-film on a Si-wafer induced by irradiation with 4.8 MeV/u Au-ions at room temperature. Both, the retreat of the edge as well as the opening and growth of circular holes in the film were monitored using our in-situ high resolution scanning electron microscope at the UNILAC accelerator at the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt. The “dewetting kinetics” (dependence of the retreated length and the hole radius on the ion fluence) are compared to previously published results on dewetting of poly-crystalline (Au) and glassy (polymer) films. In the present case the dewetting kinetics compare well with those observed for isothermal dewetting of the highly viscous polymer films, presumed that the role of time in thermally induced dewetting is taken over by the ion fluence in ion induced dewetting. Both, from the dewetting kinetics and the shape of the remaining NiO-traces in the dewetted area in front of the retreating edge, we conclude that the presently observed swift heavy ion induced dewetting occurs by interfacial slipping. It occurs in spatially and timely separated steps in the transiently molten single ion tracks, where the required reduction of the viscosity of NiO is achieved

  16. Dewetting at the edge of a thin NiO-film on Si by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautel, Knut; Ferhati, Redi; Bolse, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.bolse@ihfg.uni-stuttgart.de

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated dewetting along a straight edge of a thin NiO-film on a Si-wafer induced by irradiation with 4.8 MeV/u Au-ions at room temperature. Both, the retreat of the edge as well as the opening and growth of circular holes in the film were monitored using our in-situ high resolution scanning electron microscope at the UNILAC accelerator at the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt. The “dewetting kinetics” (dependence of the retreated length and the hole radius on the ion fluence) are compared to previously published results on dewetting of poly-crystalline (Au) and glassy (polymer) films. In the present case the dewetting kinetics compare well with those observed for isothermal dewetting of the highly viscous polymer films, presumed that the role of time in thermally induced dewetting is taken over by the ion fluence in ion induced dewetting. Both, from the dewetting kinetics and the shape of the remaining NiO-traces in the dewetted area in front of the retreating edge, we conclude that the presently observed swift heavy ion induced dewetting occurs by interfacial slipping. It occurs in spatially and timely separated steps in the transiently molten single ion tracks, where the required reduction of the viscosity of NiO is achieved.

  17. Effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on transparent conducting oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Hemant Kr.; Avasthi, D.K.; Aggarwal, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The objective is to study the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on photoanode of DSSC for better efficiency. •This work presents the effect of SHI irradiation on various Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). •Effects are studied in terms of conductivity and transmittance of TCOs. •ITO-PET gives best results in comparison to ITO and FTO for DSSC application under SHI irradiation. -- Abstract: Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are used as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their properties such as high transmittance and low resistivity. In the present work, the effects of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on various types of TCOs are presented. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SHI on TCOs. For the present study, three different types of TCOs are considered, namely, (a) FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide, SnO 2 :F) on a Nippon glass substrate, (b) ITO (indium tin oxide, In 2 O 3 :Sn) coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on a Corning glass substrate, and (c) ITO on a Corning glass substrate. These films are irradiated with 120 MeV Ag +9 ions at fluences ranging from 3.0 × 10 11 ions/cm 2 to 3.0 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 . The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties are studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy and four-probe resistivity measurements, respectively. The ITO-PET electrode is found to exhibit superior conductivity and transmittance properties in comparison with the others after irradiation and, therefore, to be the most suitable for solar cell applications

  18. Effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on transparent conducting oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Hemant Kr. [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Center, Post Box 10502, New Delhi (India); Aggarwal, Shruti, E-mail: shruti.al@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: •The objective is to study the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on photoanode of DSSC for better efficiency. •This work presents the effect of SHI irradiation on various Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). •Effects are studied in terms of conductivity and transmittance of TCOs. •ITO-PET gives best results in comparison to ITO and FTO for DSSC application under SHI irradiation. -- Abstract: Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are used as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their properties such as high transmittance and low resistivity. In the present work, the effects of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on various types of TCOs are presented. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SHI on TCOs. For the present study, three different types of TCOs are considered, namely, (a) FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide, SnO{sub 2}:F) on a Nippon glass substrate, (b) ITO (indium tin oxide, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn) coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on a Corning glass substrate, and (c) ITO on a Corning glass substrate. These films are irradiated with 120 MeV Ag{sup +9} ions at fluences ranging from 3.0 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to 3.0 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties are studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy and four-probe resistivity measurements, respectively. The ITO-PET electrode is found to exhibit superior conductivity and transmittance properties in comparison with the others after irradiation and, therefore, to be the most suitable for solar cell applications.

  19. Experimental aspects of S.H.I.C. (Swift Heavy Ion Channeling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriamonje, S.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Chevallier, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Farizon-Mazuy, B.; Poizat, J.C.; Remillieux, J.; Hage-Ali, M.; Cohen, C.; L'Hoir, A.; Moulin, J.; Schmaus, D.

    1989-01-01

    The mean stopping power experienced by the ions of exit charge Z and the charge distribution are measured. The experimental set up description is summarized. The experiments were performed at GANIL, using hydrogenoid Xenon ions, with 25 MeV/u on a silicon crystal target. The ion channeling and energy losses are measured. The results concerning the Lyman alpha lines intensity and Xe36 + transmission as a function of the crystal orientation are presented. The suitability of LISE device, for investigating crystalline effects in heavy ion charge exchange phenomena, is confirmed

  20. The sputtering of the deformed gold under irradiation with krypton swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Semina, V.K.; Hofman, A.

    2002-01-01

    The results about sputtering yield of gold irradiated by 86 Kr ions with high inelastic energy losses up to a fluence of 10 14 ion/cm 2 are presented. It was shown that the sputtering (evaporation) yield strongly depends on the initial defect concentration in gold. The sputtering yield begins to grow very strongly with the increasing of damage created by heavy ion elastic and inelastic energy losses. The temperature on the surface in the area around krypton ion trajectory is much higher than the melting and evaporation temperatures for gold as follows from calculations with the various expressions and models

  1. Diffusion kinetics of the glucose/glucose oxidase system in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Dietmar; Vacik, Jiri; Hnatowicz, V.; Muñoz Hernandez, G.; Garcia Arrelano, H.; Alfonta, Lital; Kiv, Arik

    2017-05-01

    For understanding of the diffusion kinetics and their optimization in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors, recently a diffusion simulation was performed. This simulation aimed at yielding the degree of enrichment of the enzymatic reaction products in the highly confined space of the etched ion tracks. A bunch of curves was obtained for the description of such sensors that depend only on the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of the products to that of the analyte within the tracks. As hitherto none of these two diffusion coefficients is accurately known, the present work was undertaken. The results of this paper allow one to quantify the previous simulation and hence yield realistic predictions of glucose-based biosensors. At this occasion, also the influence of the etched track radius on the diffusion coefficients was measured and compared with earlier prediction.

  2. Light-emitting Si nanostructures formed by swift heavy ions in stoichiometric SiO2 layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachurin, G. A.; Cherkova, S. G.; Marin, D. V.; Kesler, V. G.; Volodin, V. A.; Skuratov, V. A.

    2012-07-01

    Three hundred and twenty nanometer-thick SiO2 layers were thermally grown on the Si substrates. The layers were irradiated with 167 MeV Xe ions to the fluences ranging between 1012 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2, or with 700 MeV Bi ions in the fluence range of 3 × 1012-1 × 1013 cm-2. After irradiation the yellow-orange photoluminescence (PL) band appeared and grew with the ion fluences. In parallel optical absorption in the region of 950-1150 cm-1, Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy evidenced a decrease in the number of Si-O bonds and an increase in the number of Si-coordinated atoms. The results obtained are interpreted as the formation of the light-emitting Si-enriched nanostructures inside the tracks of swift heavy ions through the disproportionation of SiO2. Ionization losses of the ions are regarded as responsible for the processes observed. Difference between the dependences of the PL intensity on the fluences of Xe and Bi ions are ascribed to their different stopping energy, therewith the diameters of the tracks of Xe and Bi ions were assessed as <3 nm and ˜10 nm, respectively. The observed shift of the PL bands, induced by Xe and Bi ions, agrees with the predictions of the quantum confinement theory.

  3. Light-emitting Si nanostructures formed by swift heavy ions in stoichiometric SiO{sub 2} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachurin, G.A., E-mail: kachurin@isp.nsc.ru [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Cherkova, S.G. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Marin, D.V. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kesler, V.G. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Volodin, V.A. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Skuratov, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Three hundred and twenty nanometer-thick SiO{sub 2} layers were thermally grown on the Si substrates. The layers were irradiated with 167 MeV Xe ions to the fluences ranging between 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}, or with 700 MeV Bi ions in the fluence range of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12}-1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}. After irradiation the yellow-orange photoluminescence (PL) band appeared and grew with the ion fluences. In parallel optical absorption in the region of 950-1150 cm{sup -1}, Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy evidenced a decrease in the number of Si-O bonds and an increase in the number of Si-coordinated atoms. The results obtained are interpreted as the formation of the light-emitting Si-enriched nanostructures inside the tracks of swift heavy ions through the disproportionation of SiO{sub 2}. Ionization losses of the ions are regarded as responsible for the processes observed. Difference between the dependences of the PL intensity on the fluences of Xe and Bi ions are ascribed to their different stopping energy, therewith the diameters of the tracks of Xe and Bi ions were assessed as <3 nm and {approx}10 nm, respectively. The observed shift of the PL bands, induced by Xe and Bi ions, agrees with the predictions of the quantum confinement theory.

  4. Light-emitting Si nanostructures formed by swift heavy ions in stoichiometric SiO2 layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G.A.; Cherkova, S.G.; Marin, D.V.; Kesler, V.G.; Volodin, V.A.; Skuratov, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred and twenty nanometer-thick SiO 2 layers were thermally grown on the Si substrates. The layers were irradiated with 167 MeV Xe ions to the fluences ranging between 10 12 cm −2 and 10 14 cm −2 , or with 700 MeV Bi ions in the fluence range of 3 × 10 12 –1 × 10 13 cm −2 . After irradiation the yellow–orange photoluminescence (PL) band appeared and grew with the ion fluences. In parallel optical absorption in the region of 950–1150 cm −1 , Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy evidenced a decrease in the number of Si–O bonds and an increase in the number of Si-coordinated atoms. The results obtained are interpreted as the formation of the light-emitting Si-enriched nanostructures inside the tracks of swift heavy ions through the disproportionation of SiO 2 . Ionization losses of the ions are regarded as responsible for the processes observed. Difference between the dependences of the PL intensity on the fluences of Xe and Bi ions are ascribed to their different stopping energy, therewith the diameters of the tracks of Xe and Bi ions were assessed as <3 nm and ∼10 nm, respectively. The observed shift of the PL bands, induced by Xe and Bi ions, agrees with the predictions of the quantum confinement theory.

  5. A model of chemical etching of olivine in the vicinity of the trajectory of a swift heavy ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, S.A., E-mail: s.a.gorbunov@mail.ru [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rymzhanov, R.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Starkov, N.I. [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Volkov, A.E. [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Malakhov, A.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Searching of superheavy elements, the charge spectra of heavy nuclei in Galactic Cosmic Rays was investigated within the OLYMPIA experiment using the database of etched ion tracks in meteorite olivine. Etching results in the formation of hollow syringe-like channels with diameters of 1–10 μm along the trajectories of these swift heavy ions (SHI). According to the activated complex theory, the local chemical activity is determined by an increase of the specific Gibbs energy of the lattice stimulated by structure transformations, long-range elastic fields, and interatomic bonds breaking generated in the vicinity of the ion trajectory. To determine the dependencies of the Gibbs free energy increase in SHI tracks in olivine on the mass, energy and charge of a projectile, we apply a multiscale model of excitation and relaxation of materials in the vicinity of the SHI trajectory (SHI tracks). Effect of spreading of fast electrons from the ion trajectory causing neutralization of metallic atoms resulting in an increase of the chemical activity of olivine at long distances from the ion trajectory (up to 5 μm) is estimated and discussed.

  6. Effect of swift heavy ion-irradiation on Cr/Fe/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ratnesh; Gupta, Ajay; Avasthi, D.K.; Principi, G.; Tosello, C.

    1999-01-01

    A multilayer film having overall composition Fe 50 Cr 25 Ni 25 , was irradiated successively by 80 MeV Si ions and Ag ions of 150 and 200 MeV energy. The energy deposited in the multilayer in the form of electronic excitations results in significant modification at the interfaces. The interfacial roughness increases in the system after the irradiations as revealed by X-ray reflectivity measurement. Moessbauer measurements provide evidence of intermixing after the irradiation by 200 MeV Ag ions. Comparison of heavy ion irradiated multilayer has been done with annealed and low energy ion irradiated samples. Results suggest that the phases formed at the interfaces of iron as a result of electronic energy loss are similar to those in the cases of thermal diffusion and keV energy ion beam irradiation

  7. Swift heavy ion irradiation effects in SiC measured by positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liszkay, L.; Kajcsos, Zs.; Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Inst. for Nuclear and Particle Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Havancsak, K. [Dept. for Solid State Physics, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary); Barthe, M.F.; Desgardin, P.; Henry, L. [CNRS Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches par Irradiation, Orleans (France); Battistig, G. [Research Inst. for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Budapest (Hungary); Skuratov, V.A. [Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2001-07-01

    N-type 6H SiC single crystals irradiated with swift (246 MeV) Kr ions at room temperature (the implantation depth being 21 {mu}m) were investigated by conventional positron lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements as well as with the application of a slow positron beam. The fluence dependence of the irradiation-induced defects was studied in the 1 x 10{sup 10} - 1 x 10{sup 14} ion cm{sup -2} range. In the fluence and depth range studied, no sign of amorphization (or creation of large voids) was seen in the Kr irradiated crystals. The positron annihilation results were compared with atomic displacement calculations by TRIM. A simple model was used to describe the trapping effect and determine the relationship between the atomic displacement densities and the positron trapping. The 225 ps lifetime of the open-volume defects created suggests that the V{sub Si}-V{sub C} divacancy is the dominant trapping site in the implanted zone. (orig.)

  8. In-situ high temperature irradiation setup for temperature dependent structural studies of materials under swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulriya, P.K.; Kumari, Renu; Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, V.; Shukla, R.; Tyagi, A.K.; Avasthi, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    An in-situ high temperature (1000 K) setup is designed and installed in the materials science beam line of superconducting linear accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) for temperature dependent ion irradiation studies on the materials exposed with swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 pyrochlore is irradiated using 120 MeV Au ion at 1000 K using the high temperature irradiation facility and characterized by ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Another set of Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 samples are irradiated with the same ion beam parameter at 300 K and simultaneously characterized using in-situ XRD available in same beam line. The XRD studies along with the Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that the structural modification induced by the ion irradiation is strongly dependent on the temperature of the sample. The Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 is readily amorphized at an ion fluence 6 × 10 12 ions/cm 2 on irradiation at 300 K, whereas it is transformed to a radiation-resistant anion-deficient fluorite structure on high temperature irradiation, that amorphized at ion fluence higher than 1 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 . The temperature dependent ion irradiation studies showed that the ion fluence required to cause amorphization at 1000 K irradiation is significantly higher than that required at room temperature irradiation. In addition to testing the efficiency of the in-situ high temperature irradiation facility, the present study establishes that the radiation stability of the pyrochlore is enhanced at higher temperatures

  9. Selective binding of oligonucleotide on TiO2 surfaces modified by swift heavy ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente Pérez-Girón, J.; Hirtz, M.; McAtamney, C.; Bell, A.P.; Antonio Mas, J.; Jaafar, M.; Luis, O. de; Fuchs, H.

    2014-01-01

    We have used swift heavy-ion beam based lithography to create patterned bio-functional surfaces on rutile TiO 2 single crystals. The applied lithography method generates a permanent and well defined periodic structure of micrometre sized square holes having nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces, presenting different physical and chemical properties compared to the surrounding rutile single crystal surface. On the patterned substrates selective binding of oligonucleotides molecules is possible at the surfaces of the holes. This immobilisation process is only being controlled by UV light exposure. The patterned transparent substrates are compatible with fluorescence detection techniques, are mechanically robust, have a high tolerance to extreme chemical and temperature environments, and apparently do not degrade after ten cycles of use. These qualities make the patterned TiO 2 substrates useful for potential biosensor applications

  10. Selective binding of oligonucleotide on TiO{sub 2} surfaces modified by swift heavy ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente Pérez-Girón, J. [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Emerging Viruses Department Heinrich Pette Institute, Hamburg 20251 (Germany); Hirtz, M. [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); McAtamney, C.; Bell, A.P. [Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Antonio Mas, J. [Laboratorio de Genómica del Centro de Apoyo Tecnológico, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Campus de Alcorcón 28922, Madrid (Spain); Jaafar, M. [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Luis, O. de [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica, Fisiología y Genética Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Campus de Alcorcón, 28922 Madrid (Spain); Fuchs, H. [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Physical Institute and Center for Nanotechnology (CeNTech), Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 10, University of Münster (Germany); and others

    2014-11-15

    We have used swift heavy-ion beam based lithography to create patterned bio-functional surfaces on rutile TiO{sub 2} single crystals. The applied lithography method generates a permanent and well defined periodic structure of micrometre sized square holes having nanostructured TiO{sub 2} surfaces, presenting different physical and chemical properties compared to the surrounding rutile single crystal surface. On the patterned substrates selective binding of oligonucleotides molecules is possible at the surfaces of the holes. This immobilisation process is only being controlled by UV light exposure. The patterned transparent substrates are compatible with fluorescence detection techniques, are mechanically robust, have a high tolerance to extreme chemical and temperature environments, and apparently do not degrade after ten cycles of use. These qualities make the patterned TiO{sub 2} substrates useful for potential biosensor applications.

  11. Effect of swift heavy Kr ions on complex permittivity of silicon PIN diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yun; Su, Ping; Yang, Zhimei; Ma, Yao; Gong, Min

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The complex permittivity has been studied on Si PIN irradiated by heavy Kr ions. • DLTS was used to investigate damages formed in PIN diode during irradiation. • The recombination of carriers has important influence on the complex permittivity. - Abstract: The complex permittivity has been researched on silicon PIN diodes irradiated by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in this article. The difference of complex permittivity spectra from 1 to 10^7 Hz between irradiated and unirradiated were observed and discussed. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were measured at room temperature (300 K) to study the change of electrical properties in diode after irradiation. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to investigate damages caused by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in diode. Two extra electron traps were observed, which were located at E C -0.31 eV and E C -0.17 eV. It indicated that new defects have been formed in PIN diode during irradiation. A comparison of the results illustrated that not only the carrier density but also the recombination of electron-hole pair have important influences on the properties of complex permittivity. These results offer a further indication of the mechanism about the complex permittivity property of semiconductor device, which could help to make the applications for the semiconductor device controlled by electric signals come true in the fields of optoelectronic integrated circuits, plasma antenna and so on.

  12. Enhanced AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation properties of polypyrrole nanoparticles irradiated with Ni{sup 12+} swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, J.; Kumar, A., E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in

    2014-08-15

    In this paper, we report the 160 MeV Ni{sup 12+} swift heavy ions (SHIs) irradiation effects on AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation properties of polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles in the frequency range of 42 Hz–5 MHz. Four ion fluences of 5 × 10{sup 10}, 1 × 10{sup 11}, 5 × 10{sup 11} and 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} have been used for the irradiation purpose. Transport properties in the pristine and irradiated PPy nanoparticles have been investigated with permittivity and modulus formalisms to study the polarization effects and conductivity relaxation. With increasing ion fluence, the relaxation peak in imaginary modulus (M{sup ″}) plots shifts toward high frequency suggesting long range motion of the charge carriers. The AC conductivity studies suggest correlated barrier hopping as the dominant transport mechanism. The hopping distance (R{sub ω}) of the charge carriers decreases with increasing the ion fluence. Binding energy (W{sub m}) calculations depict that polarons are the dominant charge carriers.

  13. Effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on transparent conducting oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hemant Kr.; Avasthi, D. K.; Aggarwal, Shruti

    2015-06-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are used as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their properties such as high transmittance and low resistivity. In the present work, the effects of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on various types of TCOs are presented. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SHI on TCOs. For the present study, three different types of TCOs are considered, namely, (a) FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide, SnO2:F) on a Nippon glass substrate, (b) ITO (indium tin oxide, In2O3:Sn) coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on a Corning glass substrate, and (c) ITO on a Corning glass substrate. These films are irradiated with 120 MeV Ag+9 ions at fluences ranging from 3.0 × 1011 ions/cm2 to 3.0 × 1013 ions/cm2. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties are studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and four-probe resistivity measurements, respectively. The ITO-PET electrode is found to exhibit superior conductivity and transmittance properties in comparison with the others after irradiation and, therefore, to be the most suitable for solar cell applications.

  14. Optical transmission of silica glass during swift-heavy-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaksin, Oleg; Okubo, Nariaki; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Amekura, Hiroshi; Kono, Kenichiro; Kishimoto, Naoki

    2004-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles fabricated by heavy-ion implantation of insulators are promising for non-linear optical applications. Spectra of optical transmission of silica glass in the visible region were measured during and after implantation of 3 MeV Cu 2+ ions. Three absorption bands contribute to the spectra: transient absorption (TA) at 2.34 eV, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 2.21 eV and a tail of residual absorption (RA), which increases when the photon energy is increased from 2.2 to 2.6 eV. The TA and a change of the SPR peak strongly contribute to the total transient absorption obtained as the difference in absorption during and after irradiation. The effect of RA shows up as a decrease of absorption after switching on the ion beam. The TA provides a means for selective electronic excitation by a laser during implantation of silica glass. The precipitation of Cu atoms and the growth of Cu nanoparticles are well distinguishable stages of nanoparticle formation. The SPR peak appears at a fluence of 3.3 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 , corresponding to the onset of precipitation. At fluences higher than 3.4 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 , when the growth of nanoparticles predominates, the fluence dependence of the SPR peak is linear

  15. Effect of swift heavy Kr ions on complex permittivity of silicon PIN diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yun [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Su, Ping, E-mail: pingsu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Yang, Zhimei; Ma, Yao [Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Gong, Min, E-mail: mgong@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The complex permittivity has been studied on Si PIN irradiated by heavy Kr ions. • DLTS was used to investigate damages formed in PIN diode during irradiation. • The recombination of carriers has important influence on the complex permittivity. - Abstract: The complex permittivity has been researched on silicon PIN diodes irradiated by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in this article. The difference of complex permittivity spectra from 1 to 10^7 Hz between irradiated and unirradiated were observed and discussed. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were measured at room temperature (300 K) to study the change of electrical properties in diode after irradiation. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to investigate damages caused by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in diode. Two extra electron traps were observed, which were located at E{sub C}-0.31 eV and E{sub C}-0.17 eV. It indicated that new defects have been formed in PIN diode during irradiation. A comparison of the results illustrated that not only the carrier density but also the recombination of electron-hole pair have important influences on the properties of complex permittivity. These results offer a further indication of the mechanism about the complex permittivity property of semiconductor device, which could help to make the applications for the semiconductor device controlled by electric signals come true in the fields of optoelectronic integrated circuits, plasma antenna and so on.

  16. Shaping of Au nanoparticles embedded in various layered structures by swift heavy ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawi, E.A., E-mail: elmuez.dawi@gmail.com [Ajman University of Science and Technology, Basic Science and Education, Physics Department, P.O. Box 346 (United Arab Emirates); Debye Institute for Nanomaterials, Nanophotonics Section, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); ArnoldBik, W.M. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Irradiation Technology, 5600 GM Eindhoven (Netherlands); Ackermann, R.; Habraken, F.H.P.M. [Debye Institute for Nanomaterials, Nanophotonics Section, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel method to extend the ion-beam induced shaping of metallic nanoparticles in various layered structures. Monodisperse Au nanoparticles having mean diameter of 30 nm and their ion-shaping process is investigated for a limited number of experimental conditions. Au nanoparticles were embedded within a single plane in various layered structures of silicon nitride films (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), combinations of oxide-nitride films (SiO{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and amorphous silicon films (a-Si) and have been sequentially irradiated at 300 K at normal incidence with 50 and 25 MeV Ag ions, respectively. Under irradiation with heavy Ag ions and with sequential increase of the irradiation fluence, the evolution of the Au peak derived from the Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry show broadening in Au peak, which indicates that the Au becomes distributed over a larger depth region, indicative of the elongation of the nanoparticles. The latter is observed almost for every layer structure investigated except for Au nanoparticles embedded in pure a-Si matrix. The largest elongation rate at all fluences is found for the Au nanoparticles encapsulated in pure Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} films. For all irradiation energy applied, we again demonstrate the existence of both threshold and saturation fluences for the elongation effects mentioned.

  17. Calculation of electronic stopping power along glancing swift heavy ion tracks in perovskites using ab initio electron density data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmani, O; Duvenbeck, A; Akcoeltekin, E; Meyer, R; Schleberger, M [Department of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Lebius, H [CIMAP, blvd Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen (France)], E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de

    2008-08-06

    In recent experiments the irradiation of insulators of perovskite type with swift (E{approx}100 MeV) heavy ions under glancing incidence has been shown to provide a unique means to generate periodically arranged nanodots at the surface. The physical origin of these patterns has been suggested as stemming from a highly anisotropic electron density distribution within the bulk. In order to show the relevance of the electron density distribution of the target we present a model calculation for the system Xe{sup 23+} {yields} SrTiO{sub 3} that is known to produce the aforementioned surface modifications. On the basis of the Lindhard model of electronic stopping, we employ highly-resolved ab initio electron density data to describe the conversion of kinetic energy into excitation energy along the ion track. The primary particle dynamics are obtained via integration of the Newtonian equations of motion that are governed by a space- and time-dependent frictional force originating from Lindhard stopping. The analysis of the local electronic stopping power along the ion track reveals a pronounced periodic structure. The periodicity length varies strongly with the particular choice of the polar angle of incidence and is directly correlated to the experimentally observed formation of periodic nanodots at insulator surfaces.

  18. Effect of 100 MeV swift heavy ions [silver (Ag8+)] on morphological and electrical properties of polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Dhillon, Anju; Avasthi, D. K.

    2009-10-01

    Polypyrrole (PPY) films were prepared by the electrochemical polymerization technique. The fully undoped samples were irradiated with different fluences ranging from 1010 to 1012 ions/cm2 of 100 MeV silver (Ag8+) ions. In order to explain the effect of these radiations, a comparative study of samples before and after irradiation was performed by using various techniques such as surface electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. With an increase in fluence, the surface structure of PPY films becomes smoother, and the conductivity increases by two orders, which has been explained in light of reordering of polymer chains. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity of irradiated as well as unirradiated samples has been investigated at 77-300 K. The charge transport properties before and after irradiation are retained although conductivity increases. It has been proposed that swift heavy ion irradiation affects the interchain conductivity. The conductivity of irradiated samples is stable under atmospheric conditions for more than 9 months. The present investigations open up the scope for the applicability of irradiated conducting polymers as microstructures with defined conductivity for sensor applications.

  19. Effect of 100 MeV swift heavy ions [silver (Ag8+)] on morphological and electrical properties of polypyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Dhillon, Anju; Avasthi, D. K.

    2009-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPY) films were prepared by the electrochemical polymerization technique. The fully undoped samples were irradiated with different fluences ranging from 10 10 to 10 12 ions/cm 2 of 100 MeV silver (Ag 8+ ) ions. In order to explain the effect of these radiations, a comparative study of samples before and after irradiation was performed by using various techniques such as surface electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. With an increase in fluence, the surface structure of PPY films becomes smoother, and the conductivity increases by two orders, which has been explained in light of reordering of polymer chains. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity of irradiated as well as unirradiated samples has been investigated at 77-300 K. The charge transport properties before and after irradiation are retained although conductivity increases. It has been proposed that swift heavy ion irradiation affects the interchain conductivity. The conductivity of irradiated samples is stable under atmospheric conditions for more than 9 months. The present investigations open up the scope for the applicability of irradiated conducting polymers as microstructures with defined conductivity for sensor applications.

  20. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced phase transformation in undoped and niobium doped titanium dioxide composite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Subodh K., E-mail: subodhkgtm@gmail.com [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Chettah, Abdelhak [LGMM Laboratory, Université 20 Août 1955-Skikda, BP 26, 21000 Skikda (Algeria); Singh, R.G. [Department of Physics, Bhagini Nivedita College, Delhi University, Delhi 110043 (India); Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Study reports the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation induced phase transformation in undoped and Niobium doped anatase TiO{sub 2} composite thin films. Investigations were carried out at different densities of electronic excitations (EEs) using 120 MeV Ag and 130 MeV Ni ions irradiations. Films were initially annealed at 900 °C and results revealed that undoped films were highly stable in anatase phase, while the Nb doped films showed the composite nature with the weak presence of Niobium penta-oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) phase. The effect at low density of EEs in undoped film show partial anatase to rutile phase transformation; however doped film shows only further growth of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase beside the anatase to rutile phase transformation. At higher density of EEs induced by Ag ions, registered continuous ion track of ∼3 nm in lattice which leads to nano-crystallization followed by decomposition/amorphization of rutile TiO{sub 2} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} phases in undoped and doped films, respectively. However, Ni ions are only induced discontinuous sequence of ion tracks with creation of damage and disorder and do not show amorphization in the lattice. The in-elastic thermal spike calculations were carried out for anatase TiO{sub 2} phase to understand the effect of EEs on anatase to rutile phase transformation followed by amorphization in NTO films in terms of continuous and discontinuous track formation by SHI irradiation.

  1. Grafting of acrylic acid on etched latent tracks induced by swift heavy ions on polypropylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzei, R.; Fernandez, A.; Garcia Bermudez, G.; Torres, A.; Gutierrez, M.C.; Magni, M.; Celma, G.; Tadey, D.

    2008-01-01

    In order to continue with a systematic study that include different polymers and monomers, the residual active sites produced by heavy ion beams, that remain after the etching process, were used to start the grafting process. To produce tracks, foils of polypropylene (PP) were irradiated with 208 Pb of 25.62 MeV/n. Then, these were etched and grafted with acrylic acid (AA) monomers. Experimental curves of grafting yield as a function of grafting time with the etching time as a parameter were measured. Also, the grating yield as a function of the fluence and etching time was obtained. In addition, the permeation of solutions, with different pH, through PP grafted foils was measured

  2. Investigation of the effects of swift heavy ion on the properties of yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB) NLO crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalidasan, M.; Dhanasekaran, R.; Asokan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy ion irradiation is a successful tool to create an effective refractive index change in a nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal surface in several micron thickness. It leads to the fabrication of non-leaky optical guiding structures. As irradiation can create the property changes with low ion fluence, it will be an alternative for the ion implantation. The present work is related to the creation of micrometer level surface modification in the YCa_4O(BO_3)_3 NLO crystal by the irradiation of 120 MeV Au"9"+ swift heavy ion and studying the changes in property of the material. The irradiation was carried out in the Materials Science beam line of the pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. YCOB crystals were grown by high temperature flux technique in our laboratory. YCOB belongs to borate family of crystals which are superior to other NLO crystals due to their structural and optical features. Borate crystal can produce UV and deep UV laser through harmonic generation with good optical conversion efficiency. YCOB crystal attracted because of its high laser damage threshold, long nonlinear conversion length and large aperture scaling capability to be employed in high power laser applications. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation has been carried out to study the variation of electronic (S_e) and nuclear (S_n) energy losses with penetration depth and energy of gold ions in YCOB crystal. Refractive index change was observed in the YCOB crystal due to the irradiation of 120 MeV Au"9"+ ion. The UV-Visible studies show optical band gap shift and confirms the refractive index change created in the YCOB crystal. The morphology of the irradiated crystal was analysed with scanning electron microscopy. The inhomogeneous broadening of emission curve of the YCOB crystal takes place due to ion irradiation which is analyzed in detail. From the fluorescence decay curves of pristine and irradiated crystals the excited state

  3. Investigation of Au9+ swift heavy ion irradiation on CdS/CuInSe2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Rajesh A.; Taur, Vidya S.; Singh, Fouran; Sharma, Ramphal

    2013-01-01

    In the present manuscript we report about the preparation of CdS/CuInSe 2 heterojunction thin films by chemical ion exchange method and investigation of 120 MeV Au 9+ swift heavy ions (SHI) irradiation effect on its physicochemical as well as optoelectronic properties. These pristine (as grown) samples are irradiated with 120 MeV Au 9+ SHI of 5×10 11 and 5×10 12 ions/cm 2 fluencies and later on characterized for structural, compositional, morphological, optical and I–V characteristics. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern obtained from pristine and irradiated films shows considerable modifications in peak intensity as well as rising of some new peaks, corresponding to In 2 Se 3 , Cu 3 Se 2 and CuIn 2 Se 3 materials. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show decrease in grain size upon increase in irradiation ion fluencies, which is also supported from the observation of random and uneven distribution of nano-grains as confirmed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Presence of Cd, Cu, In, S and Se in energy dispersive X-ray spectrum analysis (EDAX) confirms the expected and observed elemental composition in thin films, the absorbance peaks are related to band to band transitions and spin orbit splitting while energy band gap is observed to increase from 1.36 for pristine to 1.53 eV for SHI irradiated thin films and I–V characteristics under illumination to 100 mW/cm 2 light source shows enhancement in conversion efficiency from 0.26 to 1.59% upon irradiation. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CdS/CuInSe 2 can be grown by chemical ion exchange method. • Physicochemical and optoelectronic properties can be modified by 120 MeV Au 9+ SHI Irradiation. • Solar energy conversion efficiency improved from 0.26 to 1.59% in CdS/CuInSe 2 upon irradiation

  4. Damage induced by swift heavy ions in a pure metallic target: iron. Experimental results and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, P.

    1993-01-01

    The damage induced when a high energy deposition occurs in the electronic system of a pure metal (Ag, Co, Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ti, W, Zr) has been investigated using two methods: low temperature swift heavy ion (O, Ar, Kr, Xe, Pb, u) irradiations and computer simulations by molecular dynamics. Irradiations reveal that up to now, it is only in iron, titanium, cobalt and zirconium targets that high levels of energy deposition in electronic excitations lead to a new mechanism of defect creation in addition to the effects of elastic collisions. This mechanism might be the Coulomb explosion: the incident ion creates in its wake a cylinder of highly ionized matter; Coulomb repulsions of short duration in metallic targets could then set a great number of neighbouring atoms into motion and lead to permanent atomic displacements. Using molecular dynamics, we confirm that atomic displacements can indeed occur when neighbouring perturbated atoms receive even a very small amount of kinetic energy (≤ 1 eV). This happens only if the repulsive movements are collective and coherent. Defect creation and annealing of preexisting defects which occur in iron at different energy deposition levels are successfully simulated. An original empirical N-body potential, allowing a realistic description of the bulk properties of the body centered cubic iron, is used. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  5. Development of dual-beam system using an electrostatic accelerator for in-situ observation of swift heavy ion irradiation effects on materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M.; Asozu, T.; Sataka, M.; Iwase, A.

    2013-11-01

    We have developed the dual beam system which accelerates two kinds of ion beams simultaneously especially for real-time ion beam analysis. We have also developed the alternating beam system which can efficiently change beam species in a short time in order to realize efficient ion beam analysis in a limited beam time. The acceleration of the dual beam is performed by the 20 UR Pelletron™ tandem accelerator in which an ECR ion source is mounted at the high voltage terminal [1,2]. The multi-charged ions of two or more elements can be simultaneously generated from the ECR ion source, so dual-beam irradiation is achieved by accelerating ions with the same charge to mass ratio (for example, 132Xe11+ and 12C+). It enables us to make a real-time beam analysis such as Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) method, while a target is irradiated with swift heavy ions. For the quick change of the accelerating ion beam, the program of automatic setting of the optical parameter of the accelerator has been developed. The switchover time for changing the ion beam is about 5 min. These developments have been applied to the study on the ion beam mixing caused by high-density electronic excitation induced by swift heavy ions.

  6. Development of dual-beam system using an electrostatic accelerator for in-situ observation of swift heavy ion irradiation effects on materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M., E-mail: matsuda.makoto@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA-Tokai), Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Asozu, T.; Sataka, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA-Tokai), Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Iwase, A. [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    We have developed the dual beam system which accelerates two kinds of ion beams simultaneously especially for real-time ion beam analysis. We have also developed the alternating beam system which can efficiently change beam species in a short time in order to realize efficient ion beam analysis in a limited beam time. The acceleration of the dual beam is performed by the 20 UR Pelletron™ tandem accelerator in which an ECR ion source is mounted at the high voltage terminal [1,2]. The multi-charged ions of two or more elements can be simultaneously generated from the ECR ion source, so dual-beam irradiation is achieved by accelerating ions with the same charge to mass ratio (for example, {sup 132}Xe{sup 11+} and {sup 12}C{sup +}). It enables us to make a real-time beam analysis such as Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) method, while a target is irradiated with swift heavy ions. For the quick change of the accelerating ion beam, the program of automatic setting of the optical parameter of the accelerator has been developed. The switchover time for changing the ion beam is about 5 min. These developments have been applied to the study on the ion beam mixing caused by high-density electronic excitation induced by swift heavy ions.

  7. Swift heavy ion irradiation effects in {alpha} poly(vinylidene fluoride); Etude des effets induits par les ions lourds energetiques dans le poly(fluorure de vinylidene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bouedec, A

    1999-11-29

    The goal of this study is to characteristic and to localised defects created in {alpha} Poly (vinylidene fluoride) after swift heavy ion irradiations. PVDF films are irradiated with several Swift Heavy Ions (SHI), in the electronic stopping power (dE/dx){sub e}, in order to study the influence of irradiation parameters (absorbed dose, ion). These irradiated films are studied by different analysis techniques such as FTIR, ESR (X and Q band) spectroscopies and DSC. The crystalline level of PVDF is about 50% and we follow it destruction and amorphization as the absorbed dose increase by DSC and FTIR studies. The variation of the various FTIR bands allow us to observe the unsaturations induced by SHI radiations. Two sets of defects are observed: those which yield is sensitive to an increase of (dE/dx){sub e} and those that are not. A spatial distribution of the various defects within the talent track is provided and defects that are difficult to create are the closest of the ion path. The different kind of radicals created after irradiations are studied by ESR spectroscopy. Alkyl, peroxy and polyenyl radicals are detected after SHI radiations like after electron or {gamma} irradiations. Their yield of creation is independent of (dE/dx){sub e} and their localised in the crystalline zone or/and at the interfacial zone between crystalline and amorphous one. An other kind of radicals is created only after SHI radiations that are specific of the SHI-polymer interaction. We observe that these radicals are localised on a carbon cluster, in the core of the latent track for low doses and highly sensitive at the (dE/dx){sub e} of the ion. (author)

  8. Electron excitation relaxation in wide-gap single crystal insulators under swift heavy-ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavlinskii, Yu.N.

    2000-01-01

    A heavy, multicharged ion moving in a solid interacts with nuclei and electrons of the matter atoms. If the projectile velocity exceeds the typical orbital velocity of the target electrons, the main process is excitation of the electronic subsystem, i.e., excitation and ionization of bound electrons. Initially, relaxation of the electron excitations results from electronic processes alone, and energy transfer from electrons to lattice happens later. Since free charge carriers are absent in insulators before irradiation, the motion of the excited electrons is possible only together with holes. Due to inner pressure of the electron-hole plasma the expansion takes place. The velocity of the expansion is determined by the heat velocity of electron-hole pairs. As the excitation region expands, the density of the electron-hole pairs decreases, the average distance between pairs increases, and excitons are produced. The expansion can be terminated in the time t≅10 -13 s, when, due to the electron-phonon interaction, self-trapped holes (and excitons) are formed. The annihilation of the trapped excitons gives rise to Frenkel defects. The set of equations comprising the continuity equation, the Euler equation and energy conservation is considered. The analytic dependence on time of the electron temperature and the radius of the excitation region is derived. The observation of projectile traces in a target is discussed in the single projectile regime

  9. Raman investigation of lattice defects and stress induced in InP and GaN films by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.P. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, J., E-mail: J.Liu@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, S.X. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Maaz, K. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou 730000 (China); Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan); Zeng, J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo, H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Zhai, P.F.; Duan, J.L.; Sun, Y.M.; Hou, M.D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-04-01

    InP crystals and GaN films were irradiated by swift heavy ions {sup 86}Kr and {sup 209}Bi with kinetic energies of 25 and 9.5 MeV per nucleon and ion fluence in the range 5 × 10{sup 10} to 3.6 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The characteristic optical bands were studied by Raman spectroscopy to reveal the disorder and defects induced in the samples during the irradiation process. The crystallinity of InP and GaN was found to be deteriorated after irradiation by the swift heavy ions and resulted in the amorphous nature of the samples along the ion tracks. The amorphous tracks observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the formation of lattice defects. In typical F{sub 2}(LO) mode, in case of InP, the spectra shifted towards the lower wavenumbers with a maximum shift of 7.6 cm{sup −1} induced by 1030 MeV Bi ion irradiation. While in case of GaN, the typical E{sub 2}(high) mode shifted towards the higher wavenumbers, with maximum shift of 5.4 cm{sup −1} induced by 760 MeV Bi ion irradiation at ion fluence of 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The observed Raman shifts reveal the presence of lattice defects and disorder induced in the samples after irradiation by the swift heavy ions. This irradiation also generated lattice stress in the samples, which has been investigated and discussed in detail in this work.

  10. Study of elementary transfer mechanisms during a collision between a swift multi-charged heavy ion and a neutral atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, P.

    1995-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of the energy transfer mechanisms which occur during a collision between a swift multicharged heavy ion and a neutral atom. The elementary energy energy transfer mechanisms (scattering, excitation, ionization, capture) and their consequences on the target velocity after the collision (recoil velocity) are recalled in the first chapter. In the case of small projectile diffusion angles, we show that the recoil velocity component, transverse to the incident projectile direction, results principally from the diffusion mechanism, while the longitudinal component is due essentially to the mass transfer and the inelastic energy transfer mechanisms. Since the target recoil velocities are very small, we have built an experimental set-up which reduces the impreciseness on their measurement due to the target thermal spread using, as targets, cooled atoms of a supersonic jet (temperature 44+ (6.7 MeV/A) + Ar => Xe 44 + Ar q+ +qe - (q ranging from 1 to 7); Xe 44+ (6.7 MeV/A) + He => Xe 44+ He 1+,2+ +1e - ,2e - . We show that it is possible to interpret the recoil velocity in terms of kinetic energy transferred to the target and to the electrons ejected from the target. (author)

  11. Effects of electronic and nuclear stopping power on disorder induced in GaN under swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisy, F., E-mail: moisy@ganil.fr [CIMAP, Normandie Universite ENSICAEN/CEA/CNRS, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Sall, M.; Grygiel, C.; Balanzat, E.; Boisserie, M.; Lacroix, B. [CIMAP, Normandie Universite ENSICAEN/CEA/CNRS, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Simon, P. [CNRS, UPR 3079 CEMHTI, CS 90055, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Monnet, I. [CIMAP, Normandie Universite ENSICAEN/CEA/CNRS, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France)

    2016-08-15

    Wurtzite GaN epilayers, grown on the c-plane of sapphire substrate, have been irradiated with swift heavy ions at different energies and fluences, and thereafter studied by Raman scattering spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectra show strong structural modifications in the GaN layer. Indeed, in addition to the broadening of the allowed modes, a large continuum and three new modes at approximately 200 cm{sup −1}, 300 cm{sup −1} and 670 cm{sup −1} appear after irradiation attributed to disorder-activated Raman scattering. In this case, spectra are driven by the phonon density of states of the material due to the loss of translation symmetry of the lattice induced by defects. It was shown qualitatively that both electronic excitations and elastic collisions play an important role in the disorder induced by irradiation. UV–visible spectra reveal an absorption band at 2.8 eV which is linked to the new mode at 300 cm{sup −1} observed in irradiated Raman spectra and comes from Ga-vacancies. These color centers are produced by elastic collisions (without any visible effect of electronic excitations).

  12. Cumulative approaches to track formation under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation: Phenomenological correlation with formation energies of Frenkel pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespillo, M.L., E-mail: mcrespil@utk.edu [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Agulló-López, F., E-mail: fal@uam.es [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Extensive survey formation energies Frenkel pairs and electronic stopping thresholds. • Correlation: track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation. • Formation energies Frenkel pairs discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms. • Amorphous track formation mechanisms: defect accumulation models versus melting. • Advantages cumulative models to deal with new hot topics: nuclear-electronic synergy. - Abstract: An extensive survey for the formation energies of Frenkel pairs, as representative candidates for radiation-induced point defects, is presented and discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms (CM) of track formation in dielectric materials under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. These mechanisms rely on the generation and accumulation of point defects during irradiation followed by collapse of the lattice once a threshold defect concentration is reached. The physical basis of those approaches has been discussed by Fecht as a defect-assisted transition to an amorphous phase. Although a first quantitative analysis of the CM model was previously performed for LiNbO{sub 3} crystals, we have, here, adopted a broader phenomenological approach. It explores the correlation between track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation for a broad range of materials. It is concluded that the threshold stopping powers can be roughly scaled with the energies required to generate a critical Frenkel pair concentration in the order of a few percent of the total atomic content. Finally, a comparison with the predictions of the thermal spike model is discussed within the analytical Szenes approximation.

  13. Microstructure and phase transformations in the ODS alloys irradiated by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotski, S.V.; Anishchik, V.M; Skuratov, V.A.; O’Connell, J.; Neethling, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Microstructure of KP4 ODS alloy irradiated with 700 MeV bismuth ions at 300 K has been studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. No latent tracks have been observed in Y 4 Al 2 O 9 particles in KP4 irradiated with Bi ions. Small oxides (~ 5 nm) in KP4 alloy remain crystalline at Bi ion fluence 1.5*10 13 cm -2 , while subsurface regions in large (~ 20 nm) particles faced to the beam entrance became amorphous. (authors)

  14. Submicroscopic pores grafted using the residual sites produced by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzei, R.; Betz, N.; Bermudez, G. Garcia; Massa, G.; Smolko, E.

    2005-01-01

    To produce nuclear track membranes (NTM) with submicroscopic pores poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) foils were irradiated with Cl, Ag and Pb ions. Then they were chemically etched for different times and grafted with acrylic acid. The grafting yields were determined by weight measurements as a function of ion fluence, etching time and also analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Both measurements suggest that the acrylic acid was grafted on the pore wall of the NTM using the active sites left by the ion beam

  15. On-line Raman spectroscopy of calcite and malachite during irradiation with swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedera, Sebastian; Burchard, Michael; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Schöppner, Nicole; Trautmann, Christina; Severin, Daniel; Romanenko, Anton; Hubert, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A new on-line Raman System, which was installed at the M3-beamline at the UNILAC, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt was used for first “in situ” spectroscopic measurements. Calcite and malachite samples were irradiated in steps between 1 × 10"9 and 1 × 10"1"2 ions/cm"2 with Au ions (calcite) and Xe ions (malachite) at an energy of 4.8 MeV/u. After irradiation, calcite revealed a new Raman band at 437 cm"−"1 and change of the full width at half maximum for the 1087 cm"−"1 Raman band. The Raman bands of malachite change significantly with increasing fluence. Up to a fluence of 7 × 10"1"0 ions/cm"2, all existing bands decrease in intensity. Between 8 × 10"1"0 and 1 × 10"1"1 ions/cm"2 a broad Cu_2O band between 110 and 220 cm"−"1 occurs, which superimposes the pre-existing Raman bands. Additionally, a new broad band between 1000 and 1750 cm"−"1 is formed, which is interpreted as a carbon coating. In contrast to the Cu_2O band, the carbon band vanished when further irradiating the sample. The installations as well as first in situ measurements at room temperature are presented.

  16. Mass spectrometric comparison of swift heavy ion-induced and anaerobic thermal degradation of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, V.; Hossain, U. H.; Walbert, T.; Seidl, T.; Ensinger, W.

    2018-03-01

    The study of polymers irradiated by highly energetic ions and the resulting radiation-induced degradation is of major importance for space and particle accelerator applications. The mechanism of ion-induced molecular fragmentation of polyethylene, polyethyleneimine and polyamide was investigated by means of mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the introduction of nitrogen and oxygen into the polymer influences the stability rendering aliphatic polymers with heteroatoms less stable. A comparison to thermal decomposition data from literature reveals that ion-induced degradation is different in its bond fracture mechanism. While thermal degradation starts at the weakest bond, which is usually the carbon-heteroatom bond, energetic ion irradiation leads in the first step to scission of all types of bonds creating smaller molecular fragments. This is due to the localized extreme energy input under non-equilibrium conditions when the ions transfer kinetic energy onto electrons. These findings are of relevance for the choice of polymers for long-term application in both space and accelerator facilities.

  17. Evaluation of cell behavior on modified polypropylene with swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R.; Ibañez, Irene L.; García Bermúdez, Gerardo; Durán, Hebe; Grosso, Mariela F. del; Salguero, Noelia; Mazzei, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Ion beam irradiation is a well known means to change the physico-chemical properties of polymers, and induced bio and citocompatibility in controlled conditions and in selected areas of surface. However, the enhancement of cell adhesion on a modified substrate does not mean that the surface is adequate for functional cells. The purpose of the present work is to study proliferation, changes in cytoskeleton and cell morphology on substrates as a function of irradiation parameters. We irradiated polypropylene with sulfur (S) ion-beam at energies of 110 MeV with fluences between 1 × 10 6 and 2 × 10 10 ions cm −2 . NIH 3T3 cells were cultured on each sample. Cell morphology was observed using phase contrast microscopy and cytoskeleton proteins with fluorescence microscopy. The analysis show different cellular responses as a functions of irradiation parameter, strongly suggests that different underlying substratum can result in distinct types of cytoskeleton reorganization.

  18. Microstructural response of InGaN to swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.M., E-mail: zhanglm@lzu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jiang, W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Fadanelli, R.C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91500 (Brazil); Ai, W.S.; Peng, J.X.; Wang, T.S. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, C.H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-12-01

    A monocrystalline In{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}N film of ∼275 nm in thickness grown on a GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate was irradiated with 290 MeV {sup 238}U{sup 32+} ions to a fluence of 1.2 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} at room temperature. The irradiated sample was characterized using helium ion microscopy (HIM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry under ion-channeling conditions (RBS/C), and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The irradiation leads to formation of ion tracks throughout the thin In{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}N film and the 3.0 μm thick GaN buffer layer. The mean diameter of the tracks in In{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}N is ∼9 nm, as determined by HIM examination. Combination of the HIM and RBS/C data suggests that the In{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}N material in the track is likely to be highly disordered or fully amorphized. The irradiation induced lattice relaxation in In{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}N and a distribution of d-spacing of the (0 0 0 2) planes in GaN with lattice expansion are observed by HRXRD.

  19. Mixing induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at Fe/Si interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Experimental results show that high electronic excitation can also induce structural modifications in metallic sys- tems similar to those in non-metallic systems. This means that all Se-dependent effects induced in different materials are probably related to some basic energy transfer mecha- nism between the incident ion and ...

  20. A new setup for the investigation of swift heavy ion induced particle emission and surface modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinerzhagen, F.; Breuer, L.; Bukowska, H.; Herder, M.; Schleberger, M.; Wucher, A. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen and Cenide, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Bender, M.; Severin, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lebius, H. [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2016-01-15

    The irradiation with fast ions with kinetic energies of >10 MeV leads to the deposition of a high amount of energy along their trajectory (up to several ten keV/nm). The energy is mainly transferred to the electronic subsystem and induces different secondary processes of excitations, which result in significant material modifications. A new setup to study these ion induced effects on surfaces will be described in this paper. The setup combines a variable irradiation chamber with different techniques of surface characterizations like scanning probe microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion, and neutral mass spectrometry, as well as low energy electron diffraction under ultra high vacuum conditions, and is mounted at a beamline of the universal linear accelerator (UNILAC) of the GSI facility in Darmstadt, Germany. Here, samples can be irradiated with high-energy ions with a total kinetic energy up to several GeVs under different angles of incidence. Our setup enables the preparation and in situ analysis of different types of sample systems ranging from metals to insulators. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry enables us to study the chemical composition of the surface, while scanning probe microscopy allows a detailed view into the local electrical and morphological conditions of the sample surface down to atomic scales. With the new setup, particle emission during irradiation as well as persistent modifications of the surface after irradiation can thus be studied. We present first data obtained with the new setup, including a novel measuring protocol for time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the GSI UNILAC accelerator.

  1. Swift heavy ion induced single event upsets in high density UV-EPROM's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahiwale, S.S. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 7 (India); Shinde, N.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Mie University (Japan); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 7 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 7 (India)], E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2008-04-15

    A few high density UV-EPROM's (32Kb x 8) were irradiated with 5.41 MeV energy {alpha}-particles with fluences from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 8} alphas/cm{sup 2} and 100 MeV nickel, iodine and silver ions for low fluences between 5 x 10{sup 7} and 10{sup 8} ions/cm{sup 2}. The energy and ion species was selected on the basis of predicted threshold values of linear energy transfer (LET) in silicon. The program which was stored in the memory found to be changed from 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 state, respectively. On the basis of changed states, the cross-sections ({sigma}) were calculated to investigate the single event effects/upsets. No upset was observed in case of {alpha}-particle since it has very low LET, but the SEU cross-section found to be more in case of Iodine i.e. 2.29 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} than that of nickel, 2.12 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} and silver, 2.26 x 10{sup -3}. This mainly attributes that LET for iodine is more as compared to silver and nickel ions, which deposits large amount of energy near the sensitive node of memory cell in the form of electron-hole pairs required to change the state. These measured SEU cross-section were also compared with theoretically predicted values along with the Weibull distribution fit to the ion induced experimental SEU data. The theoretical predicted SEU cross-section 3.27 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} found to be in good agreement with the measured SEU cross-section.

  2. Thermal defect annealing of swift heavy ion irradiated ThO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Raul I.; Tracy, Cameron L.; Neuefeind, Joerg; Ewing, Rodney C.; Trautmann, Christina; Lang, Maik

    2017-08-01

    Isochronal annealing, neutron total scattering, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the structural recovery of polycrystalline ThO2 irradiated with 2-GeV Au ions to a fluence of 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. Neutron diffraction patterns show that the Bragg signal-to-noise ratio increases and the unit cell parameter decreases as a function of isochronal annealing temperature, with the latter reaching its pre-irradiation value by 750 °C. Diffuse neutron scattering and Raman spectroscopy measurements indicate that an isochronal annealing event occurs between 275-425 °C. This feature is attributed to the annihilation of oxygen point defects and small oxygen defect clusters.

  3. Swift heavy ion induced modification in polycarbonate membrane for gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra; Vijay, Y.K.; Das, D.

    2003-01-01

    Polymeric membranes are extensively used for commercial gas separation applications. Makrofol-KG (polycarbonate) is a glassy polymer. 40 μm thick sheet of Makrofol-KG was irradiated with 40 Ar (14.9 MeV/n) of fluence 10 3 ions/cm 2 and 20 μm thick sheet with 5.3 MeV α-particles of fluence 10 7 ions/cm 2 . The permeability of these polycarbonate membranes for H 2 and CO 2 was measured and also after etching in 6 N NaOH at 60 degC for different periods. Permeability is found to be increased with etching time. At a definite time, critical etching time, the permeability rapidly increases in PC. Positron annihilation lifetimes for unirradiated and irradiated membranes were measured with fast fast coincidence system to study the correlation of free volume hole concentration with gas separation properties. (author)

  4. Fabrication of planar waveguide in KNSBN crystal by swift heavy ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Jing; Wang, Lei; Qin, Xifeng

    2013-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of the planar waveguides in the KNSBN crystal by using 17 MeV C 5+ ions at a fluence of 2 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 . After implantation, near surface regions of the crystal, there has a positive extraordinary refractive index (n e ) change and the light inside the waveguides can propagate in a non-leaky manner. The two-dimensional modal profiles of the planar waveguides, measured by using the end-coupling arrangement, are in good agreement with the reconstructed modal distributions. The propagation loss for C 5+ irradiated waveguide is ∼0.8 dB/cm at 633 nm and ∼0.72 dB/cm at 1064 nm. The waveguide gives good confinement of waveguide modes, which exhibits acceptable guiding qualities for potential applications in integrated optics

  5. Fabrication of planar waveguide in KNSBN crystal by swift heavy ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jing; Wang, Lei; Qin, Xifeng

    2013-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of the planar waveguides in the KNSBN crystal by using 17 MeV C5+ ions at a fluence of 2 × 1014 ions/cm2. After implantation, near surface regions of the crystal, there has a positive extraordinary refractive index (ne) change and the light inside the waveguides can propagate in a non-leaky manner. The two-dimensional modal profiles of the planar waveguides, measured by using the end-coupling arrangement, are in good agreement with the reconstructed modal distributions. The propagation loss for C5+ irradiated waveguide is ∼0.8 dB/cm at 633 nm and ∼0.72 dB/cm at 1064 nm. The waveguide gives good confinement of waveguide modes, which exhibits acceptable guiding qualities for potential applications in integrated optics.

  6. Swift heavy ion-beam induced amorphization and recrystallization of yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Miro, Sandrine; Beuneu, François; Toulemonde, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Pure and (Ca and Si)-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 or YIG) epitaxial layers and amorphous films on gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 , or GGG) single crystal substrates were irradiated by 50 MeV 32 Si and 50 MeV (or 60 MeV) 63 Cu ions for electronic stopping powers larger than the threshold value (∼4 MeV μm −1 ) for amorphous track formation in YIG crystals. Conductivity data of crystalline samples in a broad ion fluence range (10 11 –10 16 cm −2 ) are modeled with a set of rate equations corresponding to the amorphization and recrystallization induced in ion tracks by electronic excitations. The data for amorphous layers confirm that a recrystallization process takes place above ∼10 14 cm −2 . Cross sections for both processes deduced from this analysis are discussed in comparison to previous determinations with reference to the inelastic thermal-spike model of track formation. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was also used to follow the related structural modifications. Raman spectra show the progressive vanishing and randomization of crystal phonon modes in relation to the ion-induced damage. For crystalline samples irradiated at high fluences (⩾10 14 cm −2 ), only two prominent broad bands remain like for amorphous films, thereby reflecting the phonon density of states of the disordered solid, regardless of samples and irradiation conditions. The main band peaked at ∼660 cm −1 is assigned to vibration modes of randomized bonds in tetrahedral (FeO 4 ) units. (paper)

  7. In-situ electric resistance measurements and annealing effects of graphite exposed to swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Pellemoine, Frederique; Tomut, Marilena; Avilov, Mikhail; Bender, Markus; Boulesteix, Marine; Krause, Markus; Mittig, Wolfgang; Schein, Mike; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2013-01-01

    To study the suitability of using graphite as material for high-power targets for rare isotope production at the future Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) in the USA and at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Germany, thin foils of polycrystalline graphite were exposed to 8.6-MeV/u Au ions reaching a maximum fluence of 1 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 . Foil irradiation temperatures of up to 1800 °C were obtained by ohmic heating. In-situ monitoring of the electrical resistance of the graphite foils during and after irradiation provided information on beam-induced radiation damage. The rate of electrical resistance increase as a function of fluence was found to decrease with increasing irradiation temperature, indicating a more efficient annealing of the irradiation-produced defects. This is corroborated by the observation that graphite foils irradiated at temperatures below about 800 °C showed cracks and pronounced deformations, which did not appear on the samples irradiated at higher temperatures

  8. In-situ electric resistance measurements and annealing effects of graphite exposed to swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Sandrina [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Pellemoine, Frederique, E-mail: pellemoi@frib.msu.edu [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Tomut, Marilena [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); National Institute for Materials Physics (NIMP), Bucharest (Romania); Avilov, Mikhail [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Bender, Markus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Boulesteix, Marine [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Krause, Markus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität, Darmstadt (Germany); Mittig, Wolfgang [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab (NSCL), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Schein, Mike [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Severin, Daniel [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Trautmann, Christina [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    To study the suitability of using graphite as material for high-power targets for rare isotope production at the future Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) in the USA and at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Germany, thin foils of polycrystalline graphite were exposed to 8.6-MeV/u Au ions reaching a maximum fluence of 1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Foil irradiation temperatures of up to 1800 °C were obtained by ohmic heating. In-situ monitoring of the electrical resistance of the graphite foils during and after irradiation provided information on beam-induced radiation damage. The rate of electrical resistance increase as a function of fluence was found to decrease with increasing irradiation temperature, indicating a more efficient annealing of the irradiation-produced defects. This is corroborated by the observation that graphite foils irradiated at temperatures below about 800 °C showed cracks and pronounced deformations, which did not appear on the samples irradiated at higher temperatures.

  9. Evaluation of cell behavior on modified polypropylene with swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R., E-mail: arbeitman@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, CABA (Argentina); Ibanez, Irene L. [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, CABA (Argentina); Garcia Bermudez, Gerardo [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, CABA (Argentina); Duran, Hebe [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, CABA (Argentina); Gerencia de Desarrollo Tecnologico y Proyectos Especiales, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Grosso, Mariela F. del [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, CABA (Argentina); Salguero, Noelia [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); Mazzei, Ruben [U.A. Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, CNEA (Argentina)

    2012-02-15

    Ion beam irradiation is a well known means to change the physico-chemical properties of polymers, and induced bio and citocompatibility in controlled conditions and in selected areas of surface. However, the enhancement of cell adhesion on a modified substrate does not mean that the surface is adequate for functional cells. The purpose of the present work is to study proliferation, changes in cytoskeleton and cell morphology on substrates as a function of irradiation parameters. We irradiated polypropylene with sulfur (S) ion-beam at energies of 110 MeV with fluences between 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} and 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} ions cm{sup -2}. NIH 3T3 cells were cultured on each sample. Cell morphology was observed using phase contrast microscopy and cytoskeleton proteins with fluorescence microscopy. The analysis show different cellular responses as a functions of irradiation parameter, strongly suggests that different underlying substratum can result in distinct types of cytoskeleton reorganization.

  10. Physico-chemical transformations in swift heavy ion modified poly(ethyleneterephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Prerna; Singh, Virendra; Singh, Arjun; Scherer, U.W.; Singh, Tejvir; Singla, Madan L.; Srivastava, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) were exposed to different radiation dose brought about by 80 MeV carbon and 98 MeV silicon ion beam. The UV–vis absorption studies reveal that there is decrease in optical band gap energy to the extent of ∼29.3 and 42.1%. The X-ray diffraction analyses have shown that crystallite size decreased by ∼18.6 and 52.6%, indicating amorphization of PET. The colour of PET films change from colourless to light yellowish followed by light brown as radiation dose is increased. The colour formation has been ascribed to an increase in conjugation in the carbon chain. In the case of PET irradiated with carbon ion, the electrical conductivity increased with frequency beyond a threshold value of 1 kHz. The increase in conductivity of PET films on irradiation is due to formation of defects and carbon clusters as a result of polymer chain scission. The thermal study further confirmed the increase in amorphous nature with increase in radiation dose. The results indicate that radiation dose brings about significant physicochemical transformations in PET. - Highlights: ► Thin films of poly(ethyleneterephthalate) exposed to 80 MeV carbon and 98 MeV Silicon ion. ► UV–vis absorption studies reveal decrease of optical energy gap up to ∼29.3 and 42.1%. ► XRD shows 18.6 and 52.6% decrease in crystallite size indicating amorphization of PET film. ► Conductivity measurement with frequency shows a parabolic increase beyond 1 kHz. ► Thermal study confirmed increased amorphous nature of material with radiation dose.

  11. Study on structural recovery of graphite irradiated with swift heavy ions at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellemoine, F., E-mail: pellemoi@frib.msu.edu [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Avilov, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Bender, M. [Dept. of Materials Research, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Ewing, R.C. [Dept. of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2115 (United States); Fernandes, S. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lang, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States); Li, W.X. [Dept. of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2115 (United States); Mittig, W. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Schein, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Severin, D. [Dept. of Materials Research, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Tomut, M. [Dept. of Materials Research, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Laboratory of Magnetism and Superconductivity, National Institute for Materials Physics NIMP, Bucharest (Romania); Trautmann, C. [Dept. of Materials Research, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Dept. of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-12-15

    Thin graphite foils bombarded with an intense high-energy (8.6 MeV/u) gold beam reaching fluences up to 1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} lead to swelling and electrical resistivity changes. As shown earlier, these effects are diminished with increasing irradiation temperature. The work reported here extends the investigation of beam induced changes of these samples by structural analysis using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. A nearly complete recovery from swelling at irradiation temperatures above about 1500 °C is identified.

  12. Physico-chemical transformations in swift heavy ion modified poly(ethyleneterephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Prerna; Singh, Virendra; Singh, Arjun; Scherer, U. W.; Singh, Tejvir; Singla, Madan L.; Srivastava, Alok

    2012-03-01

    Thin films of poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) were exposed to different radiation dose brought about by 80 MeV carbon and 98 MeV silicon ion beam. The UV-vis absorption studies reveal that there is decrease in optical band gap energy to the extent of ˜29.3 and 42.1%. The X-ray diffraction analyses have shown that crystallite size decreased by ˜18.6 and 52.6%, indicating amorphization of PET. The colour of PET films change from colourless to light yellowish followed by light brown as radiation dose is increased. The colour formation has been ascribed to an increase in conjugation in the carbon chain. In the case of PET irradiated with carbon ion, the electrical conductivity increased with frequency beyond a threshold value of 1 kHz. The increase in conductivity of PET films on irradiation is due to formation of defects and carbon clusters as a result of polymer chain scission. The thermal study further confirmed the increase in amorphous nature with increase in radiation dose. The results indicate that radiation dose brings about significant physicochemical transformations in PET.

  13. Radiation tolerance of nanostructured ZrN coatings against swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse van Vuuren, A.; Skuratov, V.A.; Uglov, V.V.; Neethling, J.H.; Zlotski, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    Nano-structured zirconium nitride layers – on Si substrates – of various thicknesses (0.1, 3, 10 and 20 μm) were irradiated with 167 MeV Xe, 250 MeV Kr and 695 MeV Bi ions to fluences in the range from 3 × 10 12 to 2.6 × 10 15 cm −2 for Xe, 1 × 10 13 to 7.06 × 10 13 cm −2 for Kr and 10 12 to 10 13 cm −2 for Bi. The purpose of these irradiation experiments is to simulate the effects of fission fragment bombardment on nanocrystalline ZrN. The irradiated layers where subsequently analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nano-indentation hardness testing (NIH) techniques. XRD, TEM and NIH results indicate that ZrN has a very high tolerance to the effects of high energy irradiation

  14. Setup for in situ deep level transient spectroscopy of semiconductors during swift heavy ion irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Sugam; Katharria, Y S; Safvan, C P; Kanjilal, D

    2008-05-01

    A computerized system for in situ deep level characterization during irradiation in semiconductors has been set up and tested in the beam line for materials science studies of the 15 MV Pelletron accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. This is a new facility for in situ irradiation-induced deep level studies, available in the beam line of an accelerator laboratory. It is based on the well-known deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. High versatility for data manipulation is achieved through multifunction data acquisition card and LABVIEW. In situ DLTS studies of deep levels produced by impact of 100 MeV Si ions on Aun-Si(100) Schottky barrier diode are presented to illustrate performance of the automated DLTS facility in the beam line.

  15. Radiation tolerance of nanostructured ZrN coatings against swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse van Vuuren, A., E-mail: arnojvv@gmail.com [Centre for HRTEM, Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Skuratov, V.A. [Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Uglov, V.V. [Department of Solid State Physics, Physics Faculty Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus); Neethling, J.H. [Centre for HRTEM, Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Zlotski, S.V. [Department of Solid State Physics, Physics Faculty Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2013-11-15

    Nano-structured zirconium nitride layers – on Si substrates – of various thicknesses (0.1, 3, 10 and 20 μm) were irradiated with 167 MeV Xe, 250 MeV Kr and 695 MeV Bi ions to fluences in the range from 3 × 10{sup 12} to 2.6 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2} for Xe, 1 × 10{sup 13} to 7.06 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} for Kr and 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} for Bi. The purpose of these irradiation experiments is to simulate the effects of fission fragment bombardment on nanocrystalline ZrN. The irradiated layers where subsequently analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nano-indentation hardness testing (NIH) techniques. XRD, TEM and NIH results indicate that ZrN has a very high tolerance to the effects of high energy irradiation.

  16. Elaboration by ion implantation of cobalt nano-particles in silica layers and modifications of their properties by electron and swift heavy ion irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orleans, C.

    2003-07-01

    This work aims to investigate the capability of ion irradiations to elaborate magnetic nano-particles in silica layers, and to modify their properties. Co + ions have been implanted at 160 keV at fluences of 2.10 16 , 5.10 16 and 10 17 at/cm 2 , and at temperatures of 77, 295 and 873 K. The dependence of the particle size on the implantation fluence, and more significantly on the implantation temperature has been shown. TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) observations have shown a mean diameter varying from 1 nm for implantations at 2.10 16 Co + /cm 2 at 77 K, to 9.7 nm at 10 17 Co + /cm 2 at 873 K. For high temperature implantations, two regions of particles appear. Simulations based on a kinetic 3-dimensional lattice Monte Carlo method reproduce quantitatively the features observed for implantations. Thermal treatments induce the ripening of the particles. Electron irradiations at 873 K induce an important increase in mean particle sizes. Swift heavy ion irradiations also induce the ripening of the particles for low fluences, and an elongation of the particles in the incident beam direction for high fluences, resulting in a magnetic anisotropy. Mechanisms invoked in thermal spike model could also explain this anisotropic growth. (author)

  17. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on deep levels in Au /n-Si (100) Schottky diode studied by deep level transient spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Katharria, Y. S.; Kumar, Sugam; Kanjilal, D.

    2007-12-01

    In situ deep level transient spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the influence of 100MeV Si7+ ion irradiation on the deep levels present in Au/n-Si (100) Schottky structure in a wide fluence range from 5×109to1×1012ions cm-2. The swift heavy ion irradiation introduces a deep level at Ec-0.32eV. It is found that initially, trap level concentration of the energy level at Ec-0.40eV increases with irradiation up to a fluence value of 1×1010cm-2 while the deep level concentration decreases as irradiation fluence increases beyond the fluence value of 5×1010cm-2. These results are discussed, taking into account the role of energy transfer mechanism of high energy ions in material.

  18. High fluence swift heavy ion structure modification of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface and gate insulator in 65 nm MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yao [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Gao, Bo, E-mail: gaobo@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Gong, Min [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Willis, Maureen [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Yang, Zhimei [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Guan, Mingyue [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Li, Yun [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a study of the structure modification, induced by high fluence swift heavy ion radiation, of the SiO{sub 2}/Si structures and gate oxide interface in commercial 65 nm MOSFETs is performed. A key and novel point in this study is the specific use of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique instead of the conventional atomic force microscope (AFM) or scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques which are typically performed following the chemical etching of the sample to observe the changes in the structure. Using this method we show that after radiation, the appearance of a clearly visible thin layer between the SiO{sub 2} and Si is observed presenting as a variation in the TEM intensity at the interface of the two materials. Through measuring the EDX line scans we reveal that the Si:O ratio changed and that this change can be attributed to the migration of the Si towards interface after the Si-O bond is destroyed by the swift heavy ions. For the 65 nm MOSFET sample, the silicon substrate, the SiON insulator and the poly-silicon gate interfaces become blurred under the same irradiation conditions.

  19. Stability of Y-Ti-O nanoparticles in ODS alloys during heat treatment and high temperature swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratov, V.A. [FLNR, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, Dubna (Russian Federation); Sohatsky, A.S.; Kornieieva, K. [FLNR, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); O' Connell, J.H.; Neethling, J.H. [CHRTEM, NMMU, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Nikitina, A.A.; Ageev, V.S. [JSC VNIINM, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zdorovets, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Volkov, A.D. [Nazarbayev University, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2016-12-15

    Aim of this report is to compare the morphology of swift (167 and 220 MeV) Xe ion induced latent tracks in Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles during post-irradiation heat treatment and after irradiation at different temperatures in pre-thinned TEM foils and TEM targets prepared from hundreds microns thick irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel. No difference in track parameters was found in room temperature irradiated nanoparticles in pre-thinned and conventional samples. Microstructural data gathered from pre-thinned foils irradiated in the temperature range 350-650 C or annealed at similar temperatures demonstrate that amorphous latent tracks interact with the surrounding matrix, changing the track and nanoparticle morphology, while such effect is not observed in conventional ODS material treated at the same conditions. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Melting of Au and Al in nanometer Fe/Au and Fe/Al multilayers under swift heavy ions: A thermal spike study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chettah, A.; Wang, Z.G.; Kac, M.; Kucal, H.; Meftah, A.; Toulemonde, M.

    2006-01-01

    Knowing that Fe is sensitive to swift heavy ion irradiations whereas Au and Al are not, the behavior of nanometric metallic multilayer systems, like [Fe(3 nm)/Au(x)] y and [Fe(3 nm)/Al(x)] y with x ranging between 1 and 10 nm, were studied within the inelastic thermal spike model. In addition to the usual cylindrical geometry of energy dissipation perpendicular to the ion projectile direction, the heat transport along the ion path was implemented in the electronic and atomic sub-systems. The simulations were performed using three different values of linear energy transfer corresponding to 3 MeV/u of 208 Pb, 132 Xe and 84 Kr ions. For the Fe/Au system, evidence of appearance of a molten phase was found in the entire Au layer, provided the Au thickness is less than 7 nm and 3 nm for Pb and Xe ions, respectively. For the Fe/Al(x) system irradiated with Pb ions, the Al layers with a thickness less than 4 nm melt along the entire ion track. Surprisingly, the Fe layer does not melt if the Al thickness is larger than 2 nm, although the deposited energy surpasses the electronic stopping power threshold of track formation in Fe. For Kr ions melting does not occur in any of the multilayer systems

  1. Forging Fast Ion Conducting Nanochannels with Swift Heavy Ions: The Correlated Role of Local Electronic and Atomic Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachan, Ritesh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Material Science and Technology Division; Cooper, Valentino R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Material Science and Technology Division; Liu, Bin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Voas, Brian K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Lang, Maik [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Ou, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. of Functional Material for Informatics; Trautmann, Christina [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany). Dept. of Materials Science; Zhang, Yanwen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Material Science and Technology Division; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Chisholm, Matthew F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Material Science and Technology Division; Weber, William J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Material Science and Technology Division

    2016-12-19

    Atomically disordered oxides have attracted significant attention in recent years due to the possibility of enhanced ionic conductivity. However, the correlation between atomic disorder, corresponding electronic structure, and the resulting oxygen diffusivity is not well understood. The disordered variants of the ordered pyrochlore structure in gadolinium titanate (Gd2Ti2O7) are seen as a particularly interesting prospect due to intrinsic presence of a vacant oxygen site in the unit atomic structure, which could provide a channel for fast oxygen conduction. In this paper, we provide insights into the subangstrom scale on the disordering-induced variations in the local atomic environment and its effect on the electronic structure in high-energy ion irradiation-induced disordered nanochannels, which can be utilized as pathways for fast oxygen ion transport. With the help of an atomic plane-by-plane-resolved analyses, the work shows how the presence of various types of TiOx polyhedral that exist in the amorphous and disordered crystalline phase modify the electronic structures relative to the ordered pyrochlore phase in Gd2Ti2O7. Finally, the correlated molecular dynamics simulations on the disordered structures show a remarkable enhancement in oxygen diffusivity as compared with ordered pyrochlore lattice and make that a suitable candidate for applications requiring fast oxygen conduction.

  2. Study of the modifications induced in AlxGa1-xN semiconductors under swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisy, Florent

    2016-01-01

    Nitride semiconductors are attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. They can be subjected to heavy ions in a wide range of energy during their elaboration (improvement of their properties by ionic implantation) or during their potential use in extreme environments (outer space). This thesis focuses on the study of AlxGa1-xN alloys under heavy ion irradiation from GANIL. In GaN, the formation of Ga vacancies has been highlighted, these latter coming from elastic collisions between atoms in the material and the projectiles. On the other hand, it is possible to observe the formation of disordered ion tracks for projectiles with high electronic stopping power (Se). These tracks induce strong surface modifications, a closing of the optical bandgap, but also an extension strain along the direction parallel to the ion direction and biaxial stresses of some GPa. Concerning AlxGa1-xN alloys with x from 0.3 to 1, the points defects are more complex, and a synergy between electronic excitations and nuclear collisions is responsible of their formation. Nevertheless, the increase of the Al molar fraction (x), tends to improve the resistance to ion tracks formation in these materials. (author) [fr

  3. Modification of photosensing property of CdS–Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} bi-layer by thermal annealing and swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Shaheed U.; Siddiqui, Farha Y. [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics (India); Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004 (India); Singh, Fouran; Kulriya, Pawan K. [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Phase, D.M. [UGC DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Sharma, Ramphal, E-mail: ramphalsharma@yahoo.com [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics (India); Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004 (India)

    2016-02-01

    The CdS–Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} bi-layer thin films have been deposited on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass substrates at room temperature by Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD) and bi-layer thin films were annealed in air atmosphere for 1 h at 250 {sup °}C. The air annealed sample was irradiated using Au{sup 9+} ions at the fluence 5 × 10{sup 11} ion/cm{sup 2} with 120 MeV energy. Effects of Swift Heavy Ion (SHI) irradiation on CdS–Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} bi-layer thin films were studied. The results are explained on the basis annealing and high electronic excitation, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Selective Electron Area Diffraction (SEAD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Raman Spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy and I–V characteristics. The photosensing property after illumination of visible light over the samples is studied. These as-deposited, annealed and irradiated bi-layer thin films are used to sense visible light at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of CdS–Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} bi-layer thin film (a) As-deposited (b) Annealed (c) irradiated sample respectively (d) Model of bi-layer photosensor device (e) Graph of illumination intensity verses photosensitivity. - Highlights: • CdS–Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} bi-layer thin film prepared at room temperature. • Irradiated using Au{sup 9+} ions at the fluence of 5 × 10{sup 11} ion/cm{sup 2} with 120 MeV energy. • Study of modification induced by irradiations. • Study of Photosensitivity after annealing and irradiation.

  4. In-situ kinetics of modifications induced by swift heavy ions in Al2O3: Colour centre formation, structural modification and amorphization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grygiel, C.; Moisy, F.; Sall, M.; Lebius, H.; Balanzat, E.; Madi, T.; Been, T.; Marie, D.; Monnet, I.

    2017-01-01

    This paper details in-situ studies of modifications induced by swift heavy ion irradiation in α-Al2O3. This complex behaviour is intermediary between the behaviour of amorphizable and non-amorphizable materials, respectively. A unique combination of irradiation experiments was performed at the IRRSUD beam line of the GANIL facility, with three different characterisation techniques: in-situ UV–Vis absorption, in-situ grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction and ex-situ transmission electron microscopy. This allows a complete study of point defects, and by depth profile of structural and microstructural modifications created on the trajectory of the incident ion. The α-Al2O3 crystals have been irradiated by 92 MeV Xenon and 74 MeV Krypton ions, the irradiation conditions have been chosen rather similar with an energy range where the ratio between electronic and nuclear stopping power changes dramatically as function of depth penetration. The main contribution of electronic excitation, above the threshold for track formation, is present beneath the surface to finally get almost only elastic collisions at the end of the projected range. Amorphization kinetics by the overlapping of multiple ion tracks is observed. In the crystalline matrix, long range strains, unit-cell swelling, local microstrain, domain size decrease, disordering of oxygen sublattice as well as colour centre formation are found. This study highlights the relationship between ion energy losses into a material and its response. While amorphization requires electronic stopping values above a certain threshold, point defects are predominantly induced by elastic collisions, while some structural modifications of the crystalline matrix, such as unit-cell swelling, are due to contribution of both electronic and nuclear processes.

  5. A comparative investigation on ion impact parameters and TL response of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} nanophosphor exposed to swift heavy ions for space dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, S., E-mail: sudipta.som@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Dutta, S.; Chowdhury, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Vinod; Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Sharma, S.K., E-mail: sksharma.ism@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • This paper discusses the SHI induced effect on thermoluminescence properties. • Ni{sup 7+}, Ag{sup 9+} and Au{sup 8+} ions are chosen for irradiation purpose. • Comparison between these ions effect is carried out. • Au{sup 8+} ion is more pronounced and suitable for space dosimetry in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+}. -- Abstract: This paper reports on a comparative study on the structural and thermoluminescence (TL) modifications of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphor induced by 150 MeV Ni{sup 7+}, 120 MeV Ag{sup 9+} and 110 MeV Au{sup 8+} swift heavy ions in the fluence range 1 × 10{sup 11}–1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. SRIM calculations were performed in order to correlate the change in TL properties of various ions irradiated phosphors. It shows that the 110 MeV Au{sup 8+} ions created a high concentration of defects. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies confirm the loss of crystallinity of the phosphors after ions irradiation, which is high in the case of the Au{sup 8+} ion irradiation. Structural refinement by Rietveld method yields the various structural parameters of the ion irradiated phosphors. TL glow curves of the ion irradiated phosphors show a small shift in the position of the peaks along with an increase in intensity with the increase in ions fluence. Trapping parameters of the ions irradiated phosphors were calculated from the TL data using various glow curve analysis methods. The results can be correlated on the basis of the linear energy transfer of the irradiated ions. These obtained results can be used successfully in heavy ions dosimetry for space craft and air crew.

  6. Ultrafast laser and swift heavy ion irradiation: Response of Gd 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 to intense electronic excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Tracy, Cameron L.; Cusick, Alex B.; Abere, Michael J.; Torralva, Ben; Ewing, Rodney C.; Yalisove, Steven M.

    2015-04-27

    In order to investigate the response of materials to extreme conditions, there are several approaches to depositing extremely high concentrations of energy into very small volumes of material, including ultrafast laser and swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. In this study, crystalline-to-crystalline phase transformations in cubic Gd2O3 and monoclinic ZrO2 have been investigated using ultrafast laser irradiation. The phases produced by the extreme conditions of irradiation were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Gd2O3 exhibited a cubic-to-monoclinic phase transformation, as evidenced by the appearance of the monoclinic (40$\\bar{2}$), (003), (310), and (112$\\bar{2}$) peaks in the GIXRD pattern and of four Ag and three Bg Raman modes. ZrO2 underwent a monoclinic-to-tetragonal phase transformation, as evidenced by the emergence of the tetragonal (101) peak in the GIXRD pattern and of Eg and A1g Raman modes. The new phases formed by ultrafast laser irradiation are high temperature polymorphs of the two materials. No evidence of amorphization was seen in the GIXRD data, though Raman spectroscopy indicated point defect accumulation. These results are identical to those produced by irradiation with SHIs, which also deposit energy in materials primarily through electronic excitation. The similarity in damage process and material response between ultrafast laser and SHI irradiation suggests a fundamental relationship between these two techniques.

  7. Response of Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 and La 2 Ti 2 O 7 to swift-heavy ion irradiation and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sulgiye; Lang, Maik; Tracy, Cameron L.; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Fuxiang; Trautmann, Christina; Rodriguez, Matias D.; Kluth, Patrick; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2015-07-01

    Swift heavy ion (2 GeV 181Ta) irradiation-induced amorphization and temperature-induced recrystallization of cubic pyrochlore Gd2Ti2O7 (Fd3¯m) are compared with the response of a compositionally-similar material with a monoclinic-layered perovskite-type structure, La2Ti2O7 (P21). The averaged electronic energy loss, dE/dx, was 37 keV/nm and 35 keV/nm in Gd2Ti2O7 and La2Ti2O7, respectively. Systematic analysis of the structural modifications was completed using transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Increasing ion-induced amorphization with increasing ion fluence was evident in the X-ray diffraction patterns of both compositions by a reduction in the intensity of the diffraction maxima concurrent with the growth in intensity of a broad diffuse scattering halo. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed complete amorphization within ion tracks (diameter: ~10 nm) for the perovskite-type material; whereas a concentric, core–shell morphology was evident in the ion tracks of the pyrochlore, with an outer shell of disordered yet still crystalline material with the fluorite structure surrounding an amorphous track core (diameter: ~9 nm). The radiation response of both titanate oxides with the same stoichiometry can be understood in terms of differences in their structures and compositions. While the radiation damage susceptibility of pyrochlore A2B2O7 materials decreases as a function of the cation radius ratio rA/rB, the current study correlates this behavior with the stability field of monoclinic structures, where rLa/rTi > rGd/rTi. Isochronal annealing experiments of the irradiated materials showed complete recrystallization of La2Ti2O7 at 775 °C and of Gd2Ti2O7 at 850 °C. The annealing behavior is discussed in terms of enhanced damage recovery in La2Ti2O7, compared to the pyrochlore compounds Gd2Ti2O7. The difference in the recrystallization behavior may be related to structural

  8. Synchrotron Topographic and Diffractometer Studies of Buried Layered Structures Obtained by Implantation with Swift Heavy Ions in Silicon Single Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Zymierska, D.; Graeff, W.; Czosnyka, T.; Choinski, J.

    2006-01-01

    A distribution of crystallographic defects and deformation in silicon crystals subjected to deep implantation (20-50 μm) with ions of the energy of a few MeV/amu is studied. Three different buried layered structures (single layer, binary buried structure and triple buried structure) were obtained by implantation of silicon single crystals with 184 MeV argon ions, 29.7 MeV boron ions, and 140 MeV argon ions, each implantation at a fluency of 1x10 14 ions cm -2 . The implanted samples were examined by means of white beam X-ray section and projection topography, monochromatic beam topography and by recording local rocking curves with the beam restricted to 50 x 50 μm 2 . The experiment pointed to a very low level of implantation-induced strain (below 10 -5 ). The white beam Bragg case section experiment revealed a layer producing district black contrast located at a depth of the expected mean ion range. The presence of these buried layered structures in studied silicon crystals strongly affected the fringe pattern caused by curvature of the samples. In case of white beam projection and monochromatic beam topographs the implanted areas were revealed as darker regions with a very tiny grain like structure. One may interpret these results as the effect of considerable heating causing annihilation of point defects and formation of dislocation loops connected with point defect clusters. (author)

  9. Ultrafast laser and swift heavy ion irradiation: Response of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} to intense electronic excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittman, Dylan R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Tracy, Cameron L.; Cusick, Alex B.; Abere, Michael J.; Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Ewing, Rodney C. [Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-04-27

    In order to investigate the response of materials to extreme conditions, there are several approaches to depositing extremely high concentrations of energy into very small volumes of material, including ultrafast laser and swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. In this study, crystalline-to-crystalline phase transformations in cubic Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} have been investigated using ultrafast laser irradiation. The phases produced by the extreme conditions of irradiation were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited a cubic-to-monoclinic phase transformation, as evidenced by the appearance of the monoclinic (402{sup ¯}), (003), (310), and (112{sup ¯}) peaks in the GIXRD pattern and of four A{sub g} and three B{sub g} Raman modes. ZrO{sub 2} underwent a monoclinic-to-tetragonal phase transformation, as evidenced by the emergence of the tetragonal (101) peak in the GIXRD pattern and of E{sub g} and A{sub 1g} Raman modes. The new phases formed by ultrafast laser irradiation are high temperature polymorphs of the two materials. No evidence of amorphization was seen in the GIXRD data, though Raman spectroscopy indicated point defect accumulation. These results are identical to those produced by irradiation with SHIs, which also deposit energy in materials primarily through electronic excitation. The similarity in damage process and material response between ultrafast laser and SHI irradiation suggests a fundamental relationship between these two techniques.

  10. Investigations on the structural and optical properties of the swift heavy ion irradiated 6H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, E.; Katharria, Y.S.; Selvakumar, S.; Arulchakkaravarthi, A.; Kanjilal, D.; Sivaji, K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We have reported the structural and optical properties of SHI irradiated 6H-SiC. → The change in Raman modes evidences the disorder accumulation with respect to ion fluence. → The disorder also causes the modification in the optical properties. → The time resolved photoluminescence reflects multiple lifetimes due to the degenerate defects states. → The study also reveals the presence of partial amorphous region due to SHI irradiation. -- Abstract: Single crystal 6H-SiC wafers have been irradiated with 150 MeV Ag 12+ ions with fluences ranging from 1 x 10 11 to 1 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 at 300 K. The defect accumulation as a function of fluence was studied to determine changes in structural and optical properties. The variation in the fundamental Raman modes of the crystalline 6H-SiC due to irradiation has been correlated with the disorder accumulation. The creation of defect states due to irradiation in the bandgap affects the blue-green photoluminescence emission in the irradiated samples. The UV-Visible absorption studies support the existence of defect states in the bandgap which is observed by the shift in the absorption edge towards the lower energy side with increasing fluence. Time Correlated Single Photon Counting photoluminescence decay results suggest that the existing defect states are radiative, exhibiting three lifetimes when irradiated with a fluence 5 x 10 11 ions/cm 2 . The total number of lifetime components was reduced for a fluence 1 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 as the defect states produced increase the non-radiative defect centres. These results suggest that the accumulation of defects due to irradiation at fluences 5 x 10 11 and 1 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 are degenerate configurations which exhibit multiple lifetimes in photoluminescence studies. It is inferred that the optically active defect states influence the transition rate of charge carriers in this device material.

  11. Enhancement of photo sensor properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin film by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, S. V.; Upadhye, D. S.; Bagul, S. B. [Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (India); Shaikh, S. U.; Birajadar, R. B.; Siddiqui, F. Y.; Huse, N. P. [Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (India); Sharma, R. B., E-mail: ramphalsharma@yahoo.com, E-mail: rps.phy@gmail.com [Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (India); Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film prepared by Low cost Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. This film was irradiated by 120 MeV Ni{sup 7+} ions with the fluence of 5x10{sup 12}ions/cm{sup 2}. The X-ray diffraction study was shows polycrystalline nature with wurtzite structure. The optical properties as absorbance were determined using UV-Spectrophotometer and band gap was also calculated. The Photo Sensor nature was calculated by I-V characteristics with different sources of light 40W, 60W and 100W.

  12. Investigations on the structural and optical properties of the swift heavy ion irradiated 6H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, E. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Katharria, Y.S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moleculaires, Equipe Plasma-Surface, case 241, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Selvakumar, S. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Arulchakkaravarthi, A. [Sinmat Inc., 2153 SE Hawthorne Rd., Gainesville Fl-32641 (United States); Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sivaji, K., E-mail: sivaji.krishnan@yahoo.co [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We have reported the structural and optical properties of SHI irradiated 6H-SiC. {yields} The change in Raman modes evidences the disorder accumulation with respect to ion fluence. {yields} The disorder also causes the modification in the optical properties. {yields} The time resolved photoluminescence reflects multiple lifetimes due to the degenerate defects states. {yields} The study also reveals the presence of partial amorphous region due to SHI irradiation. -- Abstract: Single crystal 6H-SiC wafers have been irradiated with 150 MeV Ag{sup 12+} ions with fluences ranging from 1 x 10{sup 11} to 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} at 300 K. The defect accumulation as a function of fluence was studied to determine changes in structural and optical properties. The variation in the fundamental Raman modes of the crystalline 6H-SiC due to irradiation has been correlated with the disorder accumulation. The creation of defect states due to irradiation in the bandgap affects the blue-green photoluminescence emission in the irradiated samples. The UV-Visible absorption studies support the existence of defect states in the bandgap which is observed by the shift in the absorption edge towards the lower energy side with increasing fluence. Time Correlated Single Photon Counting photoluminescence decay results suggest that the existing defect states are radiative, exhibiting three lifetimes when irradiated with a fluence 5 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}. The total number of lifetime components was reduced for a fluence 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} as the defect states produced increase the non-radiative defect centres. These results suggest that the accumulation of defects due to irradiation at fluences 5 x 10{sup 11} and 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} are degenerate configurations which exhibit multiple lifetimes in photoluminescence studies. It is inferred that the optically active defect states influence the transition rate of charge carriers in this

  13. Diffusion kinetics of the glucose/glucose oxidase system in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fink, Dietmar; Vacík, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Hernandez, G. M.; Arrelano, H. G.; Alfonta, L.; Kiv, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 398, MAY (2017), s. 21-26 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : etched ion tracks * track radius * polymer * enzyme * diffusion * biosensors Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Bioremediation, diagnostic biotechnologies (DNA chips and biosensing devices) in environmental management Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  14. Swift heavy ion irradiated SnO_2 thin film sensor for efficient detection of SO_2 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Punit; Sharma, Savita; Tomar, Monika; Singh, Fouran; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Response of Ni"7"+ ion irradiated (100 MeV) SnO_2 film have been performed. • Effect of irradiation on the structural and optical properties of SnO_2 film is studied. • A decrease in operating temperature and increased response is seen after irradiation. - Abstract: Gas sensing response studies of the Ni"7"+ ion irradiated (100 MeV) and non-irradiated SnO_2 thin film sensor prepared under same conditions have been performed towards SO_2 gas (500 ppm). The effect of irradiation on the structural, surface morphological, optical and gas sensing properties of SnO_2 thin film based sensor have been studied. A significant decrease in operating temperature (from 220 °C to 60 °C) and increased sensing response (from 1.3 to 5.0) is observed for the sample after irradiation. The enhanced sensing response obtained for the irradiated SnO_2 thin film based sensor is attributed to the desired modification in the surface morphology and material properties of SnO_2 thin film by Ni"7"+ ions.

  15. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced modifications in the optical band gap and Urbach's tail in polyaniline nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Somik; Kumar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Optical band gap and Urbach tail width of HCl and CSA doped polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers and the ion beam induced modifications in the band gap and Urbach's tail of the samples have been studied employing UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. All the major bands appearing in the FTIR spectra exhibit a decrease in intensity and broadening in their band widths upon interaction with the highly energetic ion beams. This suggests that SHI irradiation induces chain-scissioning events in the PAni nanofibers. An interesting result that comes out from the FTIR analysis is a transition from the benzenoid to quinoid states in the PAni chains, which reveals that there is a decrease in the degree of conjugation in the polymer upon irradiation. Optical absorption studies indicate three direct allowed transitions at ∼2.64, 3.61 and 4.08 eV for HCl doped PAni nanofibers and at ∼2.62, 3.49 and 4.02 eV for the CSA doped PAni nanofibers. The optical band gap is found to increase with increasing ion fluence which may be attributed to the reduction in the fiber diameters upon irradiation, which is corroborated by TEM analysis. Increase in the optical band gap also points out to a decrease in the conjugation length due to the larger torsion angles between the adjacent phenyl rings of the polymer with respect to the plane of the nitrogen atoms, which is also supported by FTIR results. The Urbach tail width decreases with increasing ion fluence indicating that structural disorders are annealed out of the PAni nanofibers which is also observed from the plots of (αhν) 2 against photon energy (hν) for HCl doped PAni nanofibers. The quantum confinement effect is confirmed by fact that a band gap exhibits a linear dependence on the inverse of the square of the radius of the PAni nanofibers. Infact, the increase in the optical band gap may be a combined effect of the decrease in the Urbach band width and the quantum confinement effect.

  16. Formation of light-emitting nanostructures in layers of stoichiometric SiO{sub 2} irradiated with swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachurin, G. A., E-mail: kachurin@isp.nsc.ru; Cherkova, S. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation); Skuratov, V. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Marin, D. V.; Kesler, V. G.; Volodin, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15

    Thermally grown SiO{sub 2} layers have been irradiated with 700-MeV Bi ions with doses of (3-10) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. It is found that, even after a dose of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, a photoluminescence band in the region of 600 nm appears. Its intensity levels off at a dose of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. The nature of the emission centers is studied by the methods of infrared transmission, Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and the reaction to passivating low-temperature anneals. It is established that irradiation brings about a decrease in the number of Si-O bonds with a relevant increase in the Si-Si bonds. It is assumed that the photoluminescence is caused by nanostructures containing an excess Si and/or having a deficit of O. The reaction of reduction of SiO{sub 2} proceeds in ion tracks due to high levels of ionization and heating within these tracks. The dose dependence is used to estimate the diameter of a track at 8-9 nm.

  17. Formation of light-emitting nanostructures in layers of stoichiometric SiO2 irradiated with swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G. A.; Cherkova, S. G.; Skuratov, V. A.; Marin, D. V.; Kesler, V. G.; Volodin, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally grown SiO 2 layers have been irradiated with 700-MeV Bi ions with doses of (3–10) × 10 12 cm −2 . It is found that, even after a dose of 3 × 10 12 cm −2 , a photoluminescence band in the region of 600 nm appears. Its intensity levels off at a dose of ∼5 × 10 12 cm −2 . The nature of the emission centers is studied by the methods of infrared transmission, Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and the reaction to passivating low-temperature anneals. It is established that irradiation brings about a decrease in the number of Si-O bonds with a relevant increase in the Si-Si bonds. It is assumed that the photoluminescence is caused by nanostructures containing an excess Si and/or having a deficit of O. The reaction of reduction of SiO 2 proceeds in ion tracks due to high levels of ionization and heating within these tracks. The dose dependence is used to estimate the diameter of a track at 8–9 nm.

  18. Micro-Raman studies of swift heavy ion irradiation induced structural and conformational changes in polyaniline nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Somik [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Kumar, A., E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.i [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2010-09-15

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers doped with camphor sulfonic acid have been irradiated with 90 MeV O{sup 7+} ions at different fluences (3 x 10{sup 10}-1 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) using a 15UD Pelletron accelerator under ultra-high vacuum. XRD studies reveal a decrease in the domain length and an increase in the strain upon SHI irradiation. The increase in d-spacing corresponding to the (1 0 0) reflection of PAni nanofibers with increasing irradiation fluence has been attributed to the increase in the tilt angle of the chains with respect to the (a, b) basal plane of PAni. Decrease in the integral intensity upon SHI irradiation indicates amorphization of the material. Micro-Raman ({mu}R) studies confirm amorphization of the PAni nanofibers and also show that the PAni nanofibers get de-doped upon SHI irradiation. {mu}R spectroscopy also reveals a benzenoid to quinoid transition in the PAni chain upon SHI irradiation. TEM results show that the size of PAni nanofibers decreases with the increase in irradiation fluence, which has been attributed to the fragmentation of PAni nanofibers in the core of amorphized tracks caused by SHI irradiation.

  19. Effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on La0.5Pr0.2Sr0.3MnO3 epitaxial thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markna, J.H.; Parmar, R.N.; Rana, D.S.; Ravi Kumar; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L.M.; Kuberkar, D.G.; Malik, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    We report the observation of room temperature insulator to metal transition and magnetoresistance characteristics of Swift Heavy Ions (SHIs) irradiated La 0.5 Pr 0.2 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LPSMO) epitaxial thin films grown on single crystal (1 0 0) SrTiO 3 substrates using Pulsed Laser Deposition. The epitaxial nature and crystallanity of the films was confirmed from the structural and magnetoresistance characteristics. Irradiation with the 200 MeV Ag 15+ ions at a fluence of about 5 x 10 11 ions/cm 2 showed suppression in the resistivity by ∼68% and 31% for the films with 50 nm and 100 nm thickness respectively. The possible reasons for this suppression could be either release of strain in the films in the dead layer at the interface of film-substrate or Swift Heavy Ions induced annealing which in turn affects the Mn-O-Mn bond angle thereby favoring the Zener double exchange. Field Coefficient of Resistance (FCR) values for both films, determined from R-H data and magnetoresistance data, showed a marginal enhancement after irradiation

  20. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cd2SnO4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaravel, R.; Gokulakrishnan, V.; Ramamurthi, K.; Sulania, Indra; Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K.; Avasthi, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    Transparent conducting cadmium stannate thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis method on Corning substrate at a temperature of 525 o C. The prepared films are irradiated using 120 MeV swift Ag 9+ ions for the fluence in the range 1 x 10 12 to 1 x 10 13 ions cm -2 and the structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. The intensity of the film decreases with increasing ion fluence and amorphization takes place at higher fluence (1 x 10 13 ions cm -2 ). The transmittance of the films decreases with increasing ion fluence and also the band gap value decreases with increasing ion fluence. The resistivity of the film increased from 2.66 x 10 -3 Ω cm (pristine) to 5.57 x 10 -3 Ω cm for the film irradiated with 1 x 10 13 ions cm -2 . The mobility of the film decreased from 31 to 12 cm 2 /V s for the film irradiated with the fluence of 1 x 10 13 ions cm -2 .

  1. Heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Antinori, Federico

    2001-01-01

    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  2. Heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  3. In situ defect annealing of swift heavy ion irradiated CeO2 and ThO2 using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares, Raul I.; Tracy, Cameron L.; Zhang, Fuxiang; Park, Changyong; Popov, Dmitry; Trautmann, Christina; Ewing, Rodney C.; Lang, Maik

    2015-04-16

    Hydrothermal diamond anvil cells (HDACs) provide facile means for coupling synchrotron X-ray techniques with pressure up to 10 GPa and temperature up to 1300 K. This manuscript reports on an application of the HDAC as an ambient-pressure sample environment for performingin situdefect annealing and thermal expansion studies of swift heavy ion irradiated CeO2and ThO2using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The advantages of thein situHDAC technique over conventional annealing methods include rapid temperature ramping and quench times, high-resolution measurement capability, simultaneous annealing of multiple samples, and prolonged temperature and apparatus stability at high temperatures. Isochronal annealing between 300 and 1100 K revealed two-stage and one-stage defect recovery processes for irradiated CeO2and ThO2, respectively, indicating that the morphology of the defects produced by swift heavy ion irradiation of these two materials differs significantly. These results suggest that electronic configuration plays a major role in both the radiation-induced defect production and high-temperature defect recovery mechanisms of CeO2and ThO2.

  4. Study of the point defect creation and of the excitonic luminescence in alkali halides irradiated by swift heavy ions; Etude de la creation de defauts ponctuels et de la luminescence excitonique d`halogenures d`alcalins irradies par les ions lourds de grande vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protin, L

    1994-10-05

    The aim of this experimental thesis is to study the excitonic mechanisms and of the defect creation, in NaCl and KBr, under dense electronic excitations induced by swift heavy ion irradiations. In the first part, we present the main features of the interaction of swift heavy ions with solid targets, and after we review the well known radiolytic processes of the defect creation during X-ray irradiation. In the second chapter, we describe our experimental set-up. In the chapter III, we present our results of the in-situ optical absorption measurements. This results show that defect creation is less sensitive to the temperature than during a classical irradiation. Besides, we observe new mechanisms concerning the defect aggregation. In the chapter IV, we present the results of excitonic luminescence induced by swift by swift heavy ions. We observe that the luminescence yields only change with the highest electronic stopping power. In the chapter V, we perform thermal spike and luminescence yields calculations and we compare the numerical results to the experiments presented in the chapter IV. (author). 121 refs., 65 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. An attempt to apply the inelastic thermal spike model to surface modifications of CaF2 induced by highly charged ions: comparison to swift heavy ions effects and extension to some others material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, C; Khomrenkov, V; Wang, Y Y; Wang, Z G; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2017-03-08

    Surface damage appears on materials irradiated by highly charged ions (HCI). Since a direct link has been found between surface damage created by HCI with the one created by swift heavy ions (SHI), the inelastic thermal spike model (i-TS model) developed to explain track creation resulting from the electron excitation induced by SHI can also be applied to describe the response of materials under HCI which transfers its potential energy to electrons of the target. An experimental description of the appearance of the hillock-like nanoscale protrusions induced by SHI at the surface of CaF 2 is presented in comparison with track formation in bulk which shows that the only parameter on which we can be confident is the electronic energy loss threshold. Track size and electronic energy loss threshold resulting from SHI irradiation of CaF 2 is described by the i-TS model in a 2D geometry. Based on this description the i-TS model is extended to three dimensions to describe the potential threshold of appearance of protrusions by HCI in CaF 2 and to other crystalline materials (LiF, crystalline SiO 2 , mica, LiNbO 3 , SrTiO 3 , ZnO, TiO 2 , HOPG). The strength of the electron-phonon coupling and the depth in which the potential energy is deposited near the surface combined with the energy necessary to melt the material defines the classification of the material sensitivity. As done for SHI, the band gap of the material may play an important role in the determination of the depth in which the potential energy is deposited. Moreover larger is the initial potential energy and larger is the depth in which it is deposited.

  6. In-situ transport and microstructural evolution in GaN Schottky diodes and epilayers exposed to swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Singh, R.; Kumar, Parmod; Singh, Udai B.; Asokan, K.; Karaseov, Platon A.; Titov, Andrei I.; Kanjilal, D.

    2018-04-01

    A systematic investigation of radiation hardness of Schottky barrier diodes and GaN epitaxial layers is carried out by employing in-situ electrical resistivity and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) microstructure measurements. The change in the current transport mechanism of Au/n-GaN Schottky barrier diodes due to irradiation is reported. The role of irradiation temperature and ion type was also investigated. Creation of damage is studied in low and medium electron energy loss regimes by selecting different ions, Ag (200 MeV) and O (100 MeV) at various fluences at two irradiation temperatures (80 K and 300 K). GaN resistivity increases up to 6 orders of magnitude under heavy Ag ions. Light O ion irradiation has a much lower influence on sheet resistance. The presence of isolated defect clusters in irradiated GaN epilayers is evident in XTEM investigation which is explained on the basis of the thermal spike model.

  7. SPORT: A new sub-nanosecond time-resolved instrument to study swift heavy ion-beam induced luminescence - Application to luminescence degradation of a fast plastic scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardés, E.; Balanzat, E.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Cassimi, A.; Durantel, F.; Grygiel, C.; Madi, T.; Monnet, I.; Ramillon, J.-M.; Ropars, F.; Lebius, H.

    2013-02-01

    We developed a new sub-nanosecond time-resolved instrument to study the dynamics of UV-visible luminescence under high stopping power heavy ion irradiation. We applied our instrument, called SPORT, on a fast plastic scintillator (BC-400) irradiated with 27-MeV Ar ions having high mean electronic stopping power of 2.6 MeV/μm. As a consequence of increasing permanent radiation damages with increasing ion fluence, our investigations reveal a degradation of scintillation intensity together with, thanks to the time-resolved measurement, a decrease in the decay constant of the scintillator. This combination indicates that luminescence degradation processes by both dynamic and static quenching, the latter mechanism being predominant. Under such high density excitation, the scintillation deterioration of BC-400 is significantly enhanced compared to that observed in previous investigations, mainly performed using light ions. The observed non-linear behaviour implies that the dose at which luminescence starts deteriorating is not independent on particles' stopping power, thus illustrating that the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators can be strongly weakened under high excitation density in heavy ion environments.

  8. Modifications induced by swift heavy ions on poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Part 2. Radicals characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouxhet, L.; Mestdagh, M.; Legras, R.

    2000-01-01

    Modifications induced by different energetic heavy ions ( 40 Ar 9+ , 80 Kr 15+ , 129 Xe 24+ , 208 Pb 53+ and 208 Pb 56+ ) on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) have been investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR). Indeed, film irradiation by heavy ions leads to, among other phenomena, the formation of radicals in the ion tracks. Thanks to ESR, it is possible to detect these radicals and to identify them or at least to characterize them by following the evolution of the radical signal as a function of parameters, like temperature, or the kinetic of disappearance of the radical species at ambient temperature in vacuum or ambient atmosphere. This study confirmed the generation of radicals by the irradiation of PHB/HV samples with energetic heavy ions reported in the literature. The study on PCL was not pursued after a few preliminary studies, revealing the presence of an ESR signal in the non-irradiated sample. Electronic stopping power has a major influence on radical decrease at ambient temperature. The ion used for the irradiation did not modify very much the radical signal and the evolution of the radicalar signal intensity with temperature. Different reasoning and experiments revealed that the glass transition temperature is a key temperature above which irreversible recombinations of the most stable radicals take place. A simulation study indicated that the most stable radical produced was probably a tertiary radical formed by the stabilization of the secondary radical resulting from the abstraction of a highly mobile hydrogen adjacent to the carbonyl

  9. Simulation study of radial dose due to the irradiation of a swift heavy ion aiming to advance the treatment planning system for heavy particle cancer therapy: The effect of emission angles of secondary electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moribayashi, Kengo, E-mail: moribayashi.kengo@jaea.go.jp

    2015-12-15

    A radial dose simulation model has been proposed in order to advance the treatment planning system for heavy particle cancer therapy. Here, the radial dose is the dose due to the irradiation of a heavy ion as a function of distances from this ion path. The model proposed here may overcome weak points of paradigms that are employed to produce the conventional radial dose distributions. To provide the radial dose with higher accuracy, this paper has discussed the relationship between the emission angles of secondary electrons and the radial dose. It is found that the effect of emission angles becomes stronger on the radial dose with increasing energies of the secondary electrons.

  10. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.; Woodruff, K.H.; MacFarland, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    High energy, heavy-ion beams offer superior discrimination of tissue electron densities at very low radiation doses. This characteristic has potential for diagnostic medical imaging of neoplasms arising in the soft tissues and organs because it can detect smaller inhomogeneities than x rays. Heavy-ion imaging may also increase the accuracy of cancer radiotherapy planning involving use of accelerated charged particles. In the current physics research program of passive heavy-ion imaging, critical modulation transfer function tests are being carried out in heavy-ion projection radiography and heavy-ion computerized tomography. The research goal is to improve the heavy-ion imaging method until it reaches the limits of its theoretical resolution defined by range straggling, multiple scattering, and other factors involved in the beam quality characteristics. Clinical uses of the imaging method include the application of heavy-ion computerized tomography to heavy-ion radiotherapy planning, to the study of brain tumors and other structures of the head, and to low-dose heavy-ion projection mammography, particularly for women with dense breasts where other methods of diagnosis fail. The ions used are primarily 300 to 570 MeV/amu carbon and neon ions accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac

  11. The gaseous emission of polymers under swift heavy ion irradiation: effect of the electronic stopping power; L'emission gazeuse des polymeres aliphatiques sous irradiation: effet du pouvoir d'arret electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picq, V

    2000-07-01

    This thesis contributes to a better understanding of the damaging processes, which occur in polymers under swift heavy ion irradiation. The present study is exclusively devoted to the influence of the electronic stopping power, (dE/dx)e, on the molecular emission under irradiation. The irradiated polymers are polyethylene, polypropylene and poly-butene. The (dE/dx)e of the projectiles used varies from 3.5*10{sup -3} MeV.mg{sup -1}.cm{sup 2} (electron) to 39 MeV.mg{sup -1}.cm{sup 2} ({sup 58}Ni). We used two different experimental approaches in order to identify the nature of the emitted gases: mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. The first technique is non selective, therefore, we could detect the emission of H{sub 2} and heavy molecules; it also gives information on the diffusion kinetics of the molecules formed. The use of infrared spectroscopy for this kind of analysis is new and the technique was developed at the laboratory. It enables us to identify, without any ambiguity, molecules with up to three carbon atoms. The experimental spectra are analysed by using reference spectra of pure gases, measured in our laboratory. We have quantified precisely each identified gas, and we have followed the evolution of the radiochemical yields with increasing (dE/dx)e. The results, obtained at different (dE/dx)e, inform us on the different mechanisms of gas molecules formation, for example the side group departure and, at high (dE/dx)e, the fragmentation of the main chain which is due to multiple ionisation of the macromolecule. (author)

  12. Heavy-ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  13. Impact-parameter-dependent electronic stopping of swift ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinner, A.; Sigmund, P.

    2010-01-01

    A computational scheme has been developed to estimate the mean electronic energy loss of an incident swift ion on an atomic target as a function of the impact parameter between the moving nuclei. The theoretical basis is binary stopping theory. In order to extract impact-parameter dependencies it

  14. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    This report on the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion held May 27-29, 1986 summarizes the problems and achievements in the areas of targets, accelerators, focussing, reactor studies, and system studies. The symposium participants recognize that there are large uncertainties in Heavy Ion Fusion but many of them are also optimistic that HIF may ultimately be the best approach to fusion

  15. Heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalpakchieva, R.; Cherepanov, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The international school-seminar on heavy ion physics had been organized in Dubna in may of 1993. The scientific program of reports covers the following main topics: synthesis and properties of heavy nuclei; synthesis and investigation of properties of exotic nuclei; experiments with radioactive nuclear beams; interaction between complex nuclei at low and intermediate energies. It also includes reports on laser spectroscopy and exotic nuclear beams, on some application of heavy ion beams for the problems of solid state physics, on construction of multidetector facilities and on developing of heavy ion accelerator complexes. Short communication

  16. In situ and postradiation analysis of mechanical stress in Al2O3:Cr induced by swift heavy-ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuratov, V.A.; Bujnarowski, G.; Kovalev, Yu.S.; O'Connell, J.; Havanscak, K.

    2010-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy and TEM techniques have been applied to study the radiation damage and correlated mechanical stresses in Al 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 :Cr single crystals induced by (1-3) MeV/amu Kr, Xe and Bi ion irradiation. Mechanical stresses were evaluated in situ using a piezospectroscopic effect through the shift of the respective lines in ionoluminescence spectra. It was found that dose dependence of the stress level for Xe and Bi ions, when ionization energy loss exceeds the threshold of damage formation via electronic excitations, exhibits several alternate stages showing the build-up and relaxation of stresses. The beginning of relaxation stages is observed at fluences associated with beginning of individual ion track regions overlapping. The residual stress profiles through the ion irradiated layers were deduced from depth-resolved photostimulated spectra using laser confocal scanning microscopy set-up. It was determined that stresses are compressive in basal plane and tensile in perpendicular direction in all samples irradiated with high energy ions.

  17. In situ and postradiation analysis of mechanical stress in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr induced by swift heavy-ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratov, V.A., E-mail: skuratov@jinr.r [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Bujnarowski, G. [Institute of Physics, Opole University, 45-052 Opole (Poland); Kovalev, Yu.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); O' Connell, J. [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Havanscak, K. [Eoetvoes University, Pazmany P. setany 1/A, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-10-01

    Optical spectroscopy and TEM techniques have been applied to study the radiation damage and correlated mechanical stresses in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr single crystals induced by (1-3) MeV/amu Kr, Xe and Bi ion irradiation. Mechanical stresses were evaluated in situ using a piezospectroscopic effect through the shift of the respective lines in ionoluminescence spectra. It was found that dose dependence of the stress level for Xe and Bi ions, when ionization energy loss exceeds the threshold of damage formation via electronic excitations, exhibits several alternate stages showing the build-up and relaxation of stresses. The beginning of relaxation stages is observed at fluences associated with beginning of individual ion track regions overlapping. The residual stress profiles through the ion irradiated layers were deduced from depth-resolved photostimulated spectra using laser confocal scanning microscopy set-up. It was determined that stresses are compressive in basal plane and tensile in perpendicular direction in all samples irradiated with high energy ions.

  18. Low frequency alternating current conduction and dielectric relaxation in polypyrrole irradiated with 100 MeV swift heavy ions of silver (Ag{sup 8+})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Amarjeet, E-mail: amarkaur@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Dhillon, Anju [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), Aruna Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2013-07-15

    Polypyrrole (PPY) films were prepared by electrochemical polymerization technique. The fully undoped samples were irradiated with different radiation fluences ranging from 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2} of 100 MeV silver (Ag{sup 8+}) ions. The temperature dependence of ac conductivity [σ{sub m}(ω)], dielectric constant (ε′) and dielectric loss (ε′′) of both irradiated as well as unirradiated samples have been investigated in 77–300 K. There exists typical Debye type dispersion. Giant increase in dielectric constant has been observed for irradiated samples which is attributed to polaronic defects produced during irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Polypyrrole samples were prepared by electrochemical technique. • The fully undoped samples were irradiated with 100 MeV silver (Ag{sup 8+}) ions. • Giant increase in dielectric constant in irradiated samples is observed. • Dielectric behaviour is attributed to polaronic defects produced during irradiation.

  19. Low frequency alternating current conduction and dielectric relaxation in polypyrrole irradiated with 100 MeV swift heavy ions of silver (Ag8+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Dhillon, Anju; Avasthi, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPY) films were prepared by electrochemical polymerization technique. The fully undoped samples were irradiated with different radiation fluences ranging from 10 10 to 10 12 ions cm −2 of 100 MeV silver (Ag 8+ ) ions. The temperature dependence of ac conductivity [σ m (ω)], dielectric constant (ε′) and dielectric loss (ε′′) of both irradiated as well as unirradiated samples have been investigated in 77–300 K. There exists typical Debye type dispersion. Giant increase in dielectric constant has been observed for irradiated samples which is attributed to polaronic defects produced during irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Polypyrrole samples were prepared by electrochemical technique. • The fully undoped samples were irradiated with 100 MeV silver (Ag 8+ ) ions. • Giant increase in dielectric constant in irradiated samples is observed. • Dielectric behaviour is attributed to polaronic defects produced during irradiation

  20. Elaboration by ion implantation of cobalt nano-particles in silica layers and modifications of their properties by electron and swift heavy ion irradiations; Elaboration par implantation ionique de nanoparticules de cobalt dans la silice et modifications de leurs proprietes sous irradiation d'electrons et d'ions de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Orleans, C

    2003-07-15

    This work aims to investigate the capability of ion irradiations to elaborate magnetic nano-particles in silica layers, and to modify their properties. Co{sup +} ions have been implanted at 160 keV at fluences of 2.10{sup 16}, 5.10{sup 16} and 10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 2}, and at temperatures of 77, 295 and 873 K. The dependence of the particle size on the implantation fluence, and more significantly on the implantation temperature has been shown. TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) observations have shown a mean diameter varying from 1 nm for implantations at 2.10{sup 16} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, to 9.7 nm at 10{sup 17} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 873 K. For high temperature implantations, two regions of particles appear. Simulations based on a kinetic 3-dimensional lattice Monte Carlo method reproduce quantitatively the features observed for implantations. Thermal treatments induce the ripening of the particles. Electron irradiations at 873 K induce an important increase in mean particle sizes. Swift heavy ion irradiations also induce the ripening of the particles for low fluences, and an elongation of the particles in the incident beam direction for high fluences, resulting in a magnetic anisotropy. Mechanisms invoked in thermal spike model could also explain this anisotropic growth. (author)

  1. Elaboration by ion implantation of cobalt nano-particles in silica layers and modifications of their properties by electron and swift heavy ion irradiations; Elaboration par implantation ionique de nanoparticules de cobalt dans la silice et modifications de leurs proprietes sous irradiation d'electrons et d'ions de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Orleans, C

    2003-07-15

    This work aims to investigate the capability of ion irradiations to elaborate magnetic nano-particles in silica layers, and to modify their properties. Co{sup +} ions have been implanted at 160 keV at fluences of 2.10{sup 16}, 5.10{sup 16} and 10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 2}, and at temperatures of 77, 295 and 873 K. The dependence of the particle size on the implantation fluence, and more significantly on the implantation temperature has been shown. TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) observations have shown a mean diameter varying from 1 nm for implantations at 2.10{sup 16} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, to 9.7 nm at 10{sup 17} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 873 K. For high temperature implantations, two regions of particles appear. Simulations based on a kinetic 3-dimensional lattice Monte Carlo method reproduce quantitatively the features observed for implantations. Thermal treatments induce the ripening of the particles. Electron irradiations at 873 K induce an important increase in mean particle sizes. Swift heavy ion irradiations also induce the ripening of the particles for low fluences, and an elongation of the particles in the incident beam direction for high fluences, resulting in a magnetic anisotropy. Mechanisms invoked in thermal spike model could also explain this anisotropic growth. (author)

  2. Structural, surface potential and optical studies of AlGaN based double heterostructures irradiated by 120 MeV Si{sup 9+} swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arivazhagan, P., E-mail: arivazhaganau2008@gmail.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai, 600 025 (India); Ramesh, R.; Balaji, M. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai, 600 025 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi (India); Baskar, K. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai, 600 025 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.77}N/Al{sub 0.14}Ga{sub 0.86}N based double heterostructure was irradiated using Si{sup 9+} ion at room temperature (RT) and liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) with four dissimilar ion fluence. The effect of Si{sup 9+} ion irradiation in dislocation densities and in-plane strain of GaN layer were discussed. The in-plane strain values of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers were calculated from asymmetric reciprocal space mapping (RSM). The surface modification and the variation in phase shift on Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.77}N surfaces due to the irradiation were measured by Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM). The capacitance of the tip-sample system was determined from EFM. The band edge emissions of heterostructures were measured by the room temperature phototluminescence (PL) and the shift in the Al{sub 0.14}Ga{sub 0.86}N active layer emission peaks towards the low energy side at low fluence ion irradiation has been noted. - Highlights: • Effects of Si{sup 9+} ion irradiation on AlGaN double heterostructures were investigated. • Dislocation densities of GaN reduced at liquid nitrogen temperature irradiation. • Variation in phase shift on Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.77}N surfaces was measured by EFM. • Capacitance per unit area values of AFM tip-sample surface system were calculated. • Si{sup 9+} irradiations play an important role to tune the energy gap in Al{sub 0.14}Ga{sub 0.86}N.

  3. Guided-wave phase-matched second-harmonic generation in KTiOPO4 waveguide produced by swift heavy-ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yazhou; Jia, Yuechen; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng

    2014-11-01

    We report on the guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a KTiOPO4 nonlinear optical waveguide fabricated by a 17 MeV O5+ ion irradiation at a fluence of 1.5×1015 ions/cm2. The waveguide guides light along both TE and TM polarizations, which is suitable for phase-matching frequency doubling. Second harmonics of green light at a wavelength of 532 nm have been generated through the KTiOPO4 waveguide platform under an optical pump of fundamental wave at 1064 nm in both continuous-wave and pulsed regimes, reaching optical conversion efficiencies of 5.36%/W and 11.5%, respectively. The propagation losses have been determined to be ˜3.1 and ˜5.7 dB/cm for the TE and TM polarizations at a wavelength of 632.8 nm, respectively.

  4. Fractal and multifractal characteristics of swift heavy ion induced self-affine nanostructured BaF{sub 2} thin film surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, R. P.; Mittal, A. K. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Kumar, Manvendra, E-mail: kmanav@gmail.com; Pandey, A. C. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)

    2015-08-15

    Fractal and multifractal characteristics of self-affine surfaces of BaF{sub 2} thin films, deposited on crystalline Si 〈1 1 1〉 substrate at room temperature, were studied. Self-affine surfaces were prepared by irradiation of 120 MeV Ag{sup 9+} ions which modified the surface morphology at nanometer scale. The surface morphology of virgin thin film and those irradiated with different ion fluences are characterized by atomic force microscopy technique. The surface roughness (interface width) shows monotonic decrease with ion fluences, while the other parameters, such as lateral correlation length, roughness exponent, and fractal dimension, did not show either monotonic decrease or increase in nature. The self-affine nature of the films is further confirmed by autocorrelation function. The power spectral density of thin films surfaces exhibits inverse power law variation with spatial frequency, suggesting the existence of fractal component in surface morphology. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis based on the partition function approach is also performed on virgin and irradiated thin films. It is found that the partition function exhibits the power law behavior with the segment size. Moreover, it is also seen that the scaling exponents vary nonlinearly with the moment, thereby exhibiting the multifractal nature.

  5. Swift heavy-ion induced trap generation and mixing at Si/SiO{sub 2} interface in depletion n-MOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, N. [Ecotopia Science Institute, Division of Energy Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan) and Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)]. E-mail: nss@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2006-01-15

    Large channel depletion n-channel MOSFET (Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) is a basic Si-SiO{sub 2} structure to understand irradiation-induced modifications. The contribution of interface and oxide states denoted as {delta}N {sub IT} and {delta}N {sub OT}, respectively, was separated out by using I {sub D}-V {sub DS}, I {sub D}-V {sub GS} measurements. The threshold voltage shift {delta}V {sub T} (V {sub T-irrad} - V {sub T-virgin}) increased for all ions (50 MeV Li, B, F, P and Ni) over the fluence of 2 x 10{sup 11}-2 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The increase in {delta}N {sub IT} was associated to trap generation at Si-SiO{sub 2} interface, but a small change in {delta}N {sub OT} indicate less charge trapping in oxide. The electronic energy loss S {sub e} induced increase in {delta}N {sub IT} is not adequate to explain the large shift in threshold voltage. A rough estimate shows that the channel width, W should decrease by 40% for a large increase in {delta}N {sub IT}. Thus, the possible factor affecting reduction of W may be ion beam mixing induced broadening of Si-SiO{sub 2} interface.

  6. Swift heavy ion irradiated SnO{sub 2} thin film sensor for efficient detection of SO{sub 2} gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Punit; Sharma, Savita [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Department of Physics, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Response of Ni{sup 7+} ion irradiated (100 MeV) SnO{sub 2} film have been performed. • Effect of irradiation on the structural and optical properties of SnO{sub 2} film is studied. • A decrease in operating temperature and increased response is seen after irradiation. - Abstract: Gas sensing response studies of the Ni{sup 7+} ion irradiated (100 MeV) and non-irradiated SnO{sub 2} thin film sensor prepared under same conditions have been performed towards SO{sub 2} gas (500 ppm). The effect of irradiation on the structural, surface morphological, optical and gas sensing properties of SnO{sub 2} thin film based sensor have been studied. A significant decrease in operating temperature (from 220 °C to 60 °C) and increased sensing response (from 1.3 to 5.0) is observed for the sample after irradiation. The enhanced sensing response obtained for the irradiated SnO{sub 2} thin film based sensor is attributed to the desired modification in the surface morphology and material properties of SnO{sub 2} thin film by Ni{sup 7+} ions.

  7. The effect of composition on the formation of light-emitting Si nanostructures in SiO{sub x} layers on irradiation with swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachurin, G. A., E-mail: kachurin@isp.nsc.ru; Cherkova, S. G.; Marin, D. V.; Kesler, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Skuratov, V. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Cherkov, A. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    The SiO{sub x} layers different in composition (0 < x < 2) are irradiated with Xe ions with the energy 167 MeV and the dose 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} to stimulate the formation of light-emitting Si nanostructures. The irradiation gives rise to a photoluminescence band with the parameters dependent on x. As the Si content is increased, the photoluminescence is first enhanced, with the peak remaining arranged near the wavelength {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 600 nm, and then the peak shifts to {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 800 nm. It is concluded that the emission sources are quantum-confined nanoprecipitates formed by disproportionation of SiO{sub x} in ion tracks due to profound ionization losses. Changes in the photoluminescence spectrum with increasing x are attributed firstly to the increase in the probability of formation of nanoprecipitates and then to the increase in their dimensions; the latter effect is accompanied with a shift of the emission band to longer wavelengths. The subsequent quenching of photoluminescence is interpreted as a result of the removal of quantum confinement in nanoprecipitates and their coagulation.

  8. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained

  9. The effects of hot carrier and swift heavy ion irradiation on electrical characteristics of advanced 200 GHz SiGe HBTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayakprasanna, N. H.; Praveen, K. C.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana, E-mail: gnanaprakash@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006 (India); Cressler, J. D. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta-30332, GA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    The 200 GHz SiGe HBTs were irradiated with 80 MeV Carbon ions up to a total dose of 100 Mrad to understand the degradation in electrical characteristics. The degradation in the electrical characteristics of SiGe HBTs was also studied by mixed mode electrical stress up to 10,000 s. The electrical characteristics were measured before and after every total dose and after fixed stress time. The normalized peak h{sub FE} of the stressed and irradiated SiGe HBTs are compared to estimate the equivalent stress time for a particular total dose. These correlations are drawn for the first time and the results will establish a systematic relation between stress time and total dose.

  10. The effects of hot carrier and swift heavy ion irradiation on electrical characteristics of advanced 200 GHz SiGe HBTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinayakprasanna, N. H.; Praveen, K. C.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana; Cressler, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    The 200 GHz SiGe HBTs were irradiated with 80 MeV Carbon ions up to a total dose of 100 Mrad to understand the degradation in electrical characteristics. The degradation in the electrical characteristics of SiGe HBTs was also studied by mixed mode electrical stress up to 10,000 s. The electrical characteristics were measured before and after every total dose and after fixed stress time. The normalized peak h_F_E of the stressed and irradiated SiGe HBTs are compared to estimate the equivalent stress time for a particular total dose. These correlations are drawn for the first time and the results will establish a systematic relation between stress time and total dose.

  11. The effect of composition on the formation of light-emitting Si nanostructures in SiOx layers on irradiation with swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G. A.; Cherkova, S. G.; Marin, D. V.; Kesler, V. G.; Skuratov, V. A.; Cherkov, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The SiO x layers different in composition (0 14 cm −2 to stimulate the formation of light-emitting Si nanostructures. The irradiation gives rise to a photoluminescence band with the parameters dependent on x. As the Si content is increased, the photoluminescence is first enhanced, with the peak remaining arranged near the wavelength λ ≈ 600 nm, and then the peak shifts to λ ≈ 800 nm. It is concluded that the emission sources are quantum-confined nanoprecipitates formed by disproportionation of SiO x in ion tracks due to profound ionization losses. Changes in the photoluminescence spectrum with increasing x are attributed firstly to the increase in the probability of formation of nanoprecipitates and then to the increase in their dimensions; the latter effect is accompanied with a shift of the emission band to longer wavelengths. The subsequent quenching of photoluminescence is interpreted as a result of the removal of quantum confinement in nanoprecipitates and their coagulation.

  12. Nonlinear effects in interactions of swift ions with solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, O.H.; Dorado, J.J.; Flores, F.

    1994-01-01

    The passage of a swift charged particle through a solid gives rise to a wake of induced electron density behind the particle. It is calculated for a proton penetrating an electron gas having the density of the valence electrons in gold, assuming linear response of the medium. The induced potential associated with the wake is responsible for the energy loss of the particle, and for many effects that have captured recent interest. These include, among others, vicinage effects on swift ion clusters, emission of electrons from bombarded solids, forces on swift ions near a surface, and energy shifts in electronic states of channeled ions. Furthermore, the wake has a determining influence on the spatial distribution, and character, of energy deposition in the medium. Previous theoretical studies of these phenomena have employed a linear wake, i.e., one that is proportional to the charge of the projectile, eZ. However, in most experiments that measure these effects, the conditions are such that the wake must include higher-order terms in Z. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nonlinear wake, to understand how the linear results must be revised

  13. Role of temperature in the radiation stability of yttria stabilized zirconia under swift heavy ion irradiation: A study from the perspective of nuclear reactor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Parswajit; Ghosh, Santanu; Sattonnay, Gaël; Singh, Udai B.; Grover, Vinita; Shukla, Rakesh; Amirthapandian, S.; Meena, Ramcharan; Tyagi, A. K.; Avasthi, Devesh K.

    2017-07-01

    The search for materials that can withstand the harsh radiation environments of the nuclear industry has become an urgent challenge in the face of ever-increasing demands for nuclear energy. To this end, polycrystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) pellets were irradiated with 80 MeV Ag6+ ions to investigate their radiation tolerance against fission fragments. To better simulate a nuclear reactor environment, the irradiations were carried out at the typical nuclear reactor temperature (850 °C). For comparison, irradiations were also performed at room temperature. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal degradation in crystallinity for the room temperature irradiated samples. No bulk structural amorphization was however observed, whereas defect clusters were formed as indicated by transmission electron microscopy and supported by thermal spike simulation results. A significant reduction of the irradiation induced defects/damage, i.e., improvement in the radiation tolerance, was seen under irradiation at 850 °C. This is attributed to the fact that the rapid thermal quenching of the localized hot molten zones (arising from spike in the lattice temperature upon irradiation) is confined to 850 °C (i.e., attributed to the resistance inflicted on the rapid thermal quenching of the localized hot molten zones by the high temperature of the environment) thereby resulting in the reduction of the defects/damage produced. Our results present strong evidence for the applicability of YSZ as an inert matrix fuel in nuclear reactors, where competitive effects of radiation damage and dynamic thermal healing mechanisms may lead to a strong reduction in the damage production and thus sustain its physical integrity.

  14. Heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, C.

    1974-01-01

    This review of the present state of work on heavy-ion accelerators pays particular attention to the requirements for nuclear research. It is divided into the following sections: single-particle versus collective acceleration, heavy-ion accelerators, beam quality, and a status report on the UNILAC facility. Among the topics considered are the recycling cyclotron, linacs with superconducting resonators, and acceleration to the GeV/nucleon range. (8 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  15. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Friedman, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the research status in the following areas of research in the field of heavy ion inertial fusion: (1) RF accelerators, storage rings, and synchrotrons; (2) induction linacs; (3) recirculation induction accelerator approach; (4) a new accelerator concept, the ''Mirrortron''; (5) general issues of transport, including beam merging, production of short, fat quadrupoles with nearly linear focusing, calculations of beam behaviour in image fields; 3-D electrostatic codes on drift compression with misalignments and transport around bends; (6) injectors, ion sources and RFQs, a.o., on the development of a 27 MHz RFQ to be used for the low energy portion of a new injector for all ions up to Uranium, and the development of a 2 MV carbon ion injector to provide 16 C + beams of 0.5 A each for ILSE; (7) beam transport from accelerator to target, reporting, a.o., the feasibility to suppress third-order aberrations; while Particle-in-Cell simulations on the propagation of a non-neutral ion beam in a low density gas identified photo-ionization by thermal X-rays from the target as an important source of defocusing; (9) heavy ion target studies; (10) reviewing experience with laser drivers; (11) ion cluster stopping and muon catalyzed fusion; (12) heavy ion systems, including the option of a fusion-fission burner. 1 tab

  16. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy-particle radiography has clinical potential as a newly developed noninvasive low-dose imaging procedure that provides increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high-energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program for medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low-dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures, brain and spinal neoplasms, and the heart. The potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, is now proving to be an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, and for the early detection of small soft-tissue tumors at low radiation dose

  17. Heavy ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented. 35 refs

  18. [Relativistic heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, participation in the E802 Experiment, which is the first major heavy-ion experiment at the BNL-AGS, was the main focus of the group during the past four years. The emphases of the E802 experiment were on (a) accurate particle identification and measurements of spectra over a wide kinematical domain (5 degree LAB < 55 degree, p < 20 GeV/c); and (b) measurements of small-angle two-particle correlations, with event characterization tools: multiplicity array, forward and large-angle calorimeters. This experiment and other heavy ion collision experiments are discussed in this report

  19. Heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacak, B.V.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ion collisions at very high energies provide an opportunity to recreate in the laboratory the conditions which existed very early in the universe, just after the big bang. We prepare matter at very high energy density and search for evidence that the quarks and gluons are deconfined. I describe the kinds of observables that are experimentally accessible to characterize the system and to search for evidence of new physics. A wealth of information is now available from CERN and BNL heavy ion experiments. I discuss recent results on two particle correlations, strangeness production, and dilepton and direct photon distributions

  20. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  1. Heavy ion accelerator GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This article presents GANIL, a large national heavy ion accelerator. The broad problems of nuclear physics, atomic physics, astrophysics and physics of condensed media which can be approached and studied with this machine are discussed first, after which the final construction project is described. The project comprises a circular injector, a separated sector cyclotron up beam stripper, and a second separated cyclotron downstream [fr

  2. Heavy-ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Yang, T.C.H.; Richards, T.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter briefly describes the techniques of optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, soft x-ray microscopy and compares these latter techniques with heavy-ion microscopy. The resolution obtained with these various types of microscopy are compared and the influence of the etching procedure on total resolution is discussed. Several micrographs of mammalian cells are included

  3. Relativisitic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the objectives and observables of Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics are presented. The first experimental results from oxygen interactions at CERN, 200 GeV/c per nucleon, and BNL, 14.5 GeV/c per nucleon are shown. The data indicate more energy emission than was originally predicted. 25 refs., 19 figs

  4. Heavy-ion radiography and heavy-ion computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; McFarland, E.W.; Tobias, C.a.

    1982-02-01

    Heavy-ion projection and CT radiography is being developed into a safe, low-dose, noninvasive radiological procedure that can quantitate and image small density differences in human tissues. The applications to heavy-ion mammography and heavy-ion CT imaging of the brain in clinical patients suggest their potential value in cancer diagnosis

  5. Differential multi-electron emission induced by swift highly charged gold ions penetrating carbon foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothard, H.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kollmus, H.; Mann, R.; Hagmann, S.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2007-05-01

    First results on swift heavy ion induced electron emission from solids obtained with a reaction microscope are presented. This advanced technique, which is successfully used since quite some time to study electron ejection in ion-atom collisions, combines the measurement of the time-of-flight of electrons with imaging techniques. A combination of electric and magnetic fields guides the ejected electrons onto a position sensitive detector, which is capable to accept multiple hits. From position and time-of-flight measurement the full differential emission characteristics of up to 10 electrons per single incoming ion can be extracted. As a first example, we show energy spectra, angular distributions and the multiplicity distribution of electrons from impact of Au24+ (11 MeV/u) on a thin carbon foil (28 μg/cm2).

  6. Differential multi-electron emission induced by swift highly charged gold ions penetrating carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothard, H.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kollmus, H.; Mann, R.; Hagmann, S.; Zouros, T.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    First results on swift heavy ion induced electron emission from solids obtained with a reaction microscope are presented. This advanced technique, which is successfully used since quite some time to study electron ejection in ion-atom collisions, combines the measurement of the time-of-flight of electrons with imaging techniques. A combination of electric and magnetic fields guides the ejected electrons onto a position sensitive detector, which is capable to accept multiple hits. From position and time-of-flight measurement the full differential emission characteristics of up to 10 electrons per single incoming ion can be extracted. As a first example, we show energy spectra, angular distributions and the multiplicity distribution of electrons from impact of Au 24+ (11 MeV/u) on a thin carbon foil (28 μg/cm 2 )

  7. Heavy ion transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, D.C.

    1977-06-01

    To complement discussions on the role of γ rays in heavy ion induced reactions, the author discusses the role played by particle detection. Transfer reactions are part of this subject and are among those in which one infers the properties of the residual nucleus in a reaction by observing the emerging light nucleus. Inelastic scattering ought not be excluded from this subject, although no particles are transferred, because of the role it plays in multistep reactions and in fixing O.M. parameters describing the entrance channel of the reaction. Heavy ion transfer reaction studies have been under study for some years and yet this research is still in its infancy. The experimental techniques are difficult and the demands on theory rigorous. One of the main products of heavy ion research has been the thrust to re-examine the assumptions of reaction theory and now include many effects neglected for light ion analysis. This research has spurred the addition of multistep processes to simple direct processes and coupled channel calculations. (J.R.)

  8. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    With controlled thermonuclear fusion holding out the possibility of a prolific and clean new source of energy, the goal remains elusive after many years of continual effort. While the conventional Tokamak route with magnetic confinement continues to hit the headlines, other alternatives are now becoming competitive. One possible solution is to confine the thermonuclear fuel pellet by high power beams. Current research and perspectives for future work in such inertial confinement was the subject of the 'Prospects for Heavy Ion Fusion' European Research Conference held in Aghia Pelaghia, Crete, last year. Its main focus was on the potential of heavy ion accelerators as well as recent advances in target physics with high power lasers and light ion beams. Carlo Rubbia declared that high energy accelerators, with their high efficiency, are the most promising approach to economical fusion energy production. However the need for cost saving in the driver accelerator requires new ideas in target design tailored to the particularities of heavy ion beams, which need to be pushed to the limits of high current and phase space density at the same time

  9. [Relativistic heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present document describes our second-year application for a continuation grant on relativistic heavy-ion research at Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, over the two-year period starting from November 15, 1990. The progress during the current budget year is presented. This year, construction of RHIC officially began. As a result, the entire Nevis nuclear physics group has made a coherent effort to create new proposal for an Open Axially Symmetric Ion Spectrometer (OASIS) proposal. Future perspectives and our plans for this proposal are described

  10. Heavy ion fusion III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.; Max, C.; Perkins, F.; Rosenbluth, M.

    1987-03-01

    This report updates Heavy Ion Fusion, JSR-82-302, dated January, 1983. During the last four years, program management and direction has been changed and the overall Inertial Confinement Program has been reviewed. This report therefore concentrates on accelerator physics issues, how the program has addressed those issues during the last four years, and how it will be addressing them in the future. 8 refs., 3 figs

  11. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D M

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  12. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, O.

    1985-01-01

    In the fall of 1986 beams of heavy ions up to A ∼ 40 at total energies up to E ∼ 225 GeV/-nucleon will become available for experiments at CERN (60 and 225 GeV/nucleon) and at Brookhaven (15.5 GeV/nucleon). Are these energies interesting in relation to the ideas of creating quark deconfinement? An energy consideration of the planned experiments is presented, as well as a description of the experimental arrangement. (Auth.)

  13. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  14. Electronic sputtering by swift highly charged ions of nitrogen on amorphous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, M.; Haranger, F.; Rothard, H.; Ban d'Etat, B.; Boduch, P.; Clouvas, A.; Potiriadis, C.; Neugebauer, R.; Jalowy, T.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic sputtering with heavy ions as a function of both electronic energy loss dE/dx and projectile charge state q was studied at the French heavy ion accelerator GANIL. Amorphous carbon (untreated, and sputter-cleaned and subsequently exposed to nitrogen) was irradiated with swift highly charged ions (Z=6-73, q=6-54, energy 6-13 MeV/u) in an ultrahigh vacuum scattering chamber. The fluence dependence of ion-induced electron yields allows to deduce a desorption cross-section σ which varies approximately as σ∼(dE/dx) 1.65 or σ∼q 3.3 for sputter-cleaned amorphous carbon exposed to nitrogen. This q dependence is close to the cubic charge dependence observed for the emission of H + secondary ions which are believed to be emitted from the very surface. However, the power law σ∼(dE/dx) 1.65 , related to the electronic energy loss gives the best empirical description. The dependence on dE/dx is close to a quadratic one thus rather pointing towards a thermal evaporation-like effect

  15. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion-source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at. (Auth.)

  16. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-07-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at

  17. Advanced characterization of materials using swift ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabacniks, Manfredo H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Swift ion beams are powerful non destructive tools for material analysis especially thin films. In spite of their high energy, usually several MeV/u, little energy is deposited by the ion on the sample. Energetic ions also use to stop far away (or outside) the inspected volume, hence producing negligible damage to the sample. Ion beam methods provide quantitative trace element analysis of any atomic element (and some isotopes) in a sample and are able to yield elemental depth profiles with spatial resolution of the order of 10mm. Relying on nuclear properties of the atoms, these methods are insensitive to the chemical environment of the element, consequently not limited by matrix effects. Ion beam methods are multielemental, can handle insulating materials, are quick (an analysis usually takes less than 15 minutes), and need little (if any) sample preparation. Ion beams are also sensitive to surface roughness and sample porosity and can be used to quickly inspect these properties in a sample. The Laboratory for Ion Beam Analysis of the University of Sao Paulo, LAMFI, is a multi-user facility dedicated to provide Ion Beam Methods like PIXE, RBS, FRS and NRA techniques for the analysis of materials and thin films. Operating since 1994, LAMFI is being used mostly by many researchers from within and outside USP, most of them non specialists in ion beam methods, but in need of ion beam analysis to carry out their research. At LAMFI, during the last 9 years, more than 50% of the accelerator time was dedicated to analysis, usually PIXE or RBS. 21% was down time and about 14% of the time was used for the development of ion beam methods which includes the use of RBS for roughness characterization exploring the shading of the beam by structures on the surface and by modeling the RBS spectrum as the product of a normalized RBS spectrum and a height density distribution function of the surface. Single element thick target PIXE analysis is being developed to obtain the thin

  18. Advanced characterization of materials using swift ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabacniks, Manfredo H.

    2011-01-01

    Swift ion beams are powerful non destructive tools for material analysis especially thin films. In spite of their high energy, usually several MeV/u, little energy is deposited by the ion on the sample. Energetic ions also use to stop far away (or outside) the inspected volume, hence producing negligible damage to the sample. Ion beam methods provide quantitative trace element analysis of any atomic element (and some isotopes) in a sample and are able to yield elemental depth profiles with spatial resolution of the order of 10mm. Relying on nuclear properties of the atoms, these methods are insensitive to the chemical environment of the element, consequently not limited by matrix effects. Ion beam methods are multielemental, can handle insulating materials, are quick (an analysis usually takes less than 15 minutes), and need little (if any) sample preparation. Ion beams are also sensitive to surface roughness and sample porosity and can be used to quickly inspect these properties in a sample. The Laboratory for Ion Beam Analysis of the University of Sao Paulo, LAMFI, is a multi-user facility dedicated to provide Ion Beam Methods like PIXE, RBS, FRS and NRA techniques for the analysis of materials and thin films. Operating since 1994, LAMFI is being used mostly by many researchers from within and outside USP, most of them non specialists in ion beam methods, but in need of ion beam analysis to carry out their research. At LAMFI, during the last 9 years, more than 50% of the accelerator time was dedicated to analysis, usually PIXE or RBS. 21% was down time and about 14% of the time was used for the development of ion beam methods which includes the use of RBS for roughness characterization exploring the shading of the beam by structures on the surface and by modeling the RBS spectrum as the product of a normalized RBS spectrum and a height density distribution function of the surface. Single element thick target PIXE analysis is being developed to obtain the thin

  19. Study of secondary electron emission from thin carbon targets with swift charged particles: heavy ions, hydrogen ions; Etude experimentale de l`emission electronique secondaire de cibles minces de carbone sous l`impact de projectiles rapides: ions lourds, ions hydrogene (atomiques, moleculaires ou sous forme d`agregats)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billebaud, A

    1995-07-12

    The main subject of this work is the study of electron emission from the two surfaces of thin solid targets bombarded with swift charged particles. The slowing down of swift ions in matter is mainly due to inelastic interaction with target electrons (ionization, excitation): the energy transfer to target electrons is responsible for the secondary electron emission process. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions of this phenomena are the subject of the first chapter. We focused on secondary electron emission induced by different kind of projectiles on thin carbon foils. In chapter two we describe hydrogen cluster induced electron emission measurement between 40 and 120 keV/proton. These projectiles, composed of several atoms, allowed us to study and highlight collective effects of the electron emission process. We extended our study of electron emission to molecular (H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}) and composite (H{sup -}, H{sup 0}) projectiles at higher energies (<= 2 MeV): we have designed an experimental set-up devoted to electron emission statistics measurements which allowed us to study, among others things, the role of projectile electrons in secondary electron emission. This experiment is described in the third chapter. Finally, the fourth chapter describes new measurements of electron emission induced by energetic (13 MeV/u) and highly charged argon ion provided by the medium energy beam line (SME) of GANIL (Caen), which have been analyzed in the framework of a semi-empirical model of secondary electron emission. This set of experiments brings new results on composite projectile interaction with matter, and on the consequences of high energy deposition in solids. (author).

  20. Relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barz, H.W.; Kaempfer, B.; Schulz, H.

    1984-12-01

    An elementary introduction is given into the scenario of relativistic heavy ion collisions. It deals with relativistic kinematics and estimates of energy densities, extrapolations of the present knowledge of hadron-hadron and hadron-nuleus to nucleus-nucleus collisions, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma and the formation of the plasma and possible experimental signatures. Comments are made on a cosmic ray experiment which could be interpreted as a first indication of the quark-gluon phase of the matter. (author)

  1. A heavy load for heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  2. Relativistic heavy-ion physics

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera Corral, G

    2010-01-01

    The study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is an important part of the LHC research programme at CERN. This emerging field of research focuses on the study of matter under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and pressure. Here we present an introduction to the general aspects of relativistic heavy-ion physics. Afterwards we give an overview of the accelerator facility at CERN and then a quick look at the ALICE project as a dedicated experiment for heavy-ion collisions.

  3. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992 a proposal by the Iowa State University experimental nuclear physics group entitled ''Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics'' was funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, for a three-year period beginning November 15, 1991. This is a progress report for the first six months of that period but, in order to give a wider perspective, we report here on progress made since the beginning of calendar year 1991. In the first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends,'' we give some background on the recent trends in our research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled, ''Physics Research Programs,'' is divided into three parts. First, we discuss our participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator. Second, we outline progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation (ED). A highlight of this endeavor is experiments carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1991. Third, we discuss progress in completion of our nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks and contributed talks starting in 1991 is given

  4. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, R.

    1983-01-01

    Two accelerator scenarios for heavy ion fusion are considered as driver candidates for an ICF power plant: the RF linac with storage rings and the induction linac. The necessary beam intensity and beam quality requirements are already believed to be achievable in the long run; repetition rate and accelerator efficiency are not critical issues. Conceptual design studies have indicated that the technical problems of the ICF concept with a heavy ion driver can be solved and that the economical aspects are not prohibitive as compared to other ICF concepts. Nevertheless, many open problems still exist, and some new ones have exhibited themselves, and it has become evident that most of them cannot be investigated with existing facilities and at the present level of effort. The first section of this paper deals with current conceptual design studies and focuses on the interface between the accelerator and the reactor. The second section summarizes the present research programs and recommends that their scope should be expanded and intensified in the areas of accelerator physics and beam-target interaction and target physics. In the third section the author calls for a dedicated facility and reports on the plans and ideas for such a facility. Schematics of two proposed accelerator driver systems--the driver for HIBALL (5 MJ/pulse) and a single-pass four-beam induction linac (3 MJ/pulse)--are provided

  5. Heavy ion accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerating structure concerned in this invention is of the kind that have a resonance cavity inside which are located at least two longitudinal conducting supports electrically connected to the cavity by one of their ends in such a way that they are in quarter-wavelength resonance and in phase opposition. Slide tubes are electrically connected alternatively to one or the other of the two supports, they being electrically connected respectively to one or the other end of the side wall of the cavity. The feature of the structure is that it includes two pairs of supports symmetrically placed with respect to the centre line of the cavity, the supports of one pair fitted overhanging being placed symmetrically with respect to the centre line of the cavity, each slide tube being connected to the two supports of one pair. These support are connected to the slide wall of the cavity by an insulator located at their electrically free end. The accelerator structure composed of several structures placed end to end, the last one of which is fed by a high frequency field of adjustable amplitude and phase, enables a heavy ion linear accelerator to be built [fr

  6. Dynamics of solid inner-shell electrons in collisions with bare and dressed swift ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanari, C.C.; Miraglia, J. E.; Arista, N.R.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the dynamical interactions of swift heavy projectiles and solid inner-shell electrons. The dielectric formalism employed to deal with the free-electron gas is extended to account for the core electrons, by using the local plasma approximation. Results for stopping power, energy straggling, and inner-shell ionization in collisions of bare ions with metals are displayed, showing very good accord with the experimental data. Simultaneous excitations of projectile and target electrons are also analyzed. In the high-energy range we find a similar contribution of target core and valence electrons to the probability of projectile-electron loss. The problem of no excitation threshold within the local plasma approximation and the possibility of collective excitations of the shells are discussed

  7. Effect of heavy ion irradiation on C 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotha, S.; Ingale, A.; Avasthi, D. K.; Mittal, V. K.; Mishra, S.; Rustagi, K. C.; Gupta, A.; Kulkarni, V. N.; Khathing, D. T.

    1999-06-01

    Thin films of C 60 were subjected to swift heavy ion irradiation spanning the region from 2 to 11 keV/nm of electronic excitation. Studies of the irradiated films by Raman spectroscopy indicated polymerization and damage of the film with an ion fluence. The ion track radii are estimated for various ions using the Raman data. Photoluminescence spectroscopy of the irradiated film indicated a decrease in the C 60 phase with a dose, and an increase in the intensity at the 590 nm wavelength, which is attributed to an increase in the oxygen content.

  8. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    This is a progress report for the period May 1992 through April 1993. The first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends, gives background on the recent trends in the research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled ''Physics Research Progress'', is divided into four parts: participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator; joining E864 at the AGS accelerator and the role in that experiment; progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation highlight of this endeavor is an experiment carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1992; progress in completion of the nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks, and contributed talks is given

  9. Heavy ion beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  10. Modifications induced by swift heavy ions in poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) films. Part 1. Thermal behaviour and molecular mass modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouxhet, L.; Legras, R.

    2000-01-01

    Modifications induced by different energetic heavy ions in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) have been investigated by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and steric exclusion chromatography (SEC). A certain dose of damages, depending mainly on the charge and mass of the ion and on the intensity of irradiation, has to be overcome in order to detect any effect on PHB/HV. Actually, at a given intensity of irradiation, superior to 10 10 ions/cm 2 , the level of damage intensity increased with the increase in charge and mass of the ion. Moreover, according to the SEC results, there seems to be a critical mass and/or charge threshold above which the dominant type of damages changes. As a matter of fact, high-density irradiation with Ar 9+ and Kr 15+ resulted mainly in chain scission whereas cross-linking was dominant when irradiating the polymer with Xe 24+ and Pb 56+ . The irradiation of PCL in the conditions studied did not modify significantly the values of the melting point, the crystallisation temperature and the molecular masses of the system studied. The main effect of the irradiation detected by the DSC is the cross-linking of the polymer chains

  11. Ultrarelativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Studies with ultrarelativistic heavy ions combine aspects of cosmic ray physics, particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmogenesis. The leading theoretical concerns are the behavior of matter at very high-energy density and flux, the general behavior of space time in collisions, relativistic nuclear theory, and quantum chromodynamics. The field has developed over a period of more than thirty years, since the first observation of heavy nuclei in cosmic rays and the major developments of understanding of high-energy collisions made by Fermi and Landau in the early fifties. In the late sixties the discovery of the parton content of nucleons was rapidly followed by a great extension of high-energy collision phenomenology at the CERN ISR and subsequent confirmation of the QCD theory. In parallel the study of p-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies, especially at the CERN PS, Fermilab and the Bevalac, and in cosmic rays demonstrated that studies involving the nucleus opened up a new dimension in studies of the hadronic interaction. It is now at a high level of interest on an international scale, with major new accelerators being proposed to dedicate to this kind of study

  12. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs

  13. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs.

  14. Structure and mechanical properties of swift heavy ion irradiated tungsten-bearing delta-phase oxides Y{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12} and Yb{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, M., E-mail: mtang@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Mail-Stop G755, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wynn, T.A. [Materials Physics and Application Division, Mail-Stop K771, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Patel, M.K.; Won, J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Mail-Stop G755, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Monnet, I. [CIMAP, CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-Universite de Caen Normandie, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070, Caen Cedex 5 (France); Pivin, J.C. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris Sud, UMR 8609, Bat. 108, 91405 Orsay (France); Mara, N.A. [Materials Physics and Application Division, Mail-Stop K771, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sickafus, K.E. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Mail-Stop G755, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We report on the relationship between structure and mechanical properties of complex oxides whose structures are derivatives of fluorite, following irradiation with swift heavy ion (92 MeV Xe) which approximately simulates fission product irradiation, where the electronic energy loss dominates. The two compounds of interest in this paper are Y{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12} and Yb{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12}. These compounds possess an ordered, fluorite derivative crystal structure known as the delta ({delta}) phase, a rhombohedral structure belonging to space group R3{sup Macron}. Structural changes induced by irradiation were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD investigations indicated an irradiation-induced amorphization in these compounds. This result is consistent with our previous study on Y{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12} under displacive radiation environment in which the nuclear energy loss is dominant. High resolution TEM also revealed that individual ion tracks was amorphized. The mechanical properties of both irradiated compounds, were determined by cross-sectional nano-indentation measurements as a function of ion penetration depth. The decreases in Young's modulus, E, and hardness, H (both by about 40% at the irradiated surface) suggest amorphization beyond simple defect accumulation occurs under this irradiation condition.

  15. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered

  16. Study of elementary transfer mechanisms during a collision between a swift multi-charged heavy ion and a neutral atom; Etude des mecanismes elementaires de transfert d`energie au cours d`une collision entre un ion lourd rapide multi-charge et un atome neutre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardin, P. [Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1995-12-31

    This work is dedicated to the study of the energy transfer mechanisms which occur during a collision between a swift multicharged heavy ion and a neutral atom. The elementary energy energy transfer mechanisms (scattering, excitation, ionization, capture) and their consequences on the target velocity after the collision (recoil velocity) are recalled in the first chapter. In the case of small projectile diffusion angles, we show that the recoil velocity component, transverse to the incident projectile direction, results principally from the diffusion mechanism, while the longitudinal component is due essentially to the mass transfer and the inelastic energy transfer mechanisms. Since the target recoil velocities are very small, we have built an experimental set-up which reduces the impreciseness on their measurement due to the target thermal spread using, as targets, cooled atoms of a supersonic jet (temperature < 1 K). The association of time of flight and localisation techniques allows us, for each ionised target atom, to determine the three recoil velocity components with a very good accuracy (a few tens of meters per second). In chapter three, we describe the data analysis method. And then we present in the last chapter the results we have obtained for the collision systems Xe{sup 44+}(6.7 MeV/A) + Ar => Xe{sup 44} + Ar{sup q+}+qe{sup -} (q ranging from 1 to 7); Xe{sup 44+} (6.7 MeV/A) + He => Xe{sup 44+} He{sup 1+,2+}+1e{sup -},2e{sup -}. We show that it is possible to interpret the recoil velocity in terms of kinetic energy transferred to the target and to the electrons ejected from the target. (author) 44 refs.

  17. Charged state distributions of swift heavy ions behind various solid targets (36 ≤ Zp ≤ 92, 18 MeV/u ≤ E ≤ 44 MeV/u)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.; Melki, S.; Lisfi, D.; Grandin, J.P.; Jardin, P.; Suraud, M.G.; Cassimi, A.

    1998-01-01

    Noting the lack of and the increasing need for information concerning heavy ion stripping in the intermediate velocity regime, the authors have studied a large number of ion-target systems experimentally. They present experimental charge state distributions obtained at the GANIL accelerator for several projectiles (36 ≤ Z p ≤ 92) with energies ranging from 18 MeV/u to 44 MeV/u, emerging from various target foils (4 ≤ Z t ≤ 79) of natural isotopic composition. The target thicknesses (from 1 microg/cm 2 up to several mg/cm 2 ) are chosen to cover the pre- and post-charge-state equilibrium regimes. Charge state fractions, mean charge state, charge distribution width, and emerging ion energy are tabulated for each of the 107 projectile-target element-target thickness combinations. They also present an improvement of the semi-empirical formulae proposed by Baron et al. to predict the mean charge states and the distribution widths at equilibrium. These formulae are compared with the available experimental data

  18. Heavy ion medical accelerator, HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Satoru

    1993-01-01

    The heavy ion beam is undoutedly suitable for the cancer treatment. The supriority of the heavy ions over the conventional radiations including protons and neutrons comes mainly from physical characteristics of a heavy particle with multiple charges. A straggling angle due to a multiple Coulomb scattering process in a human body is small for heavy ions, and the small scattering angle results in a good dose localization in a transverse direction. An ionization ratio of the heavy ion beam makes a very sharp peak at the ends of their range. The height of the peak is higher for the heavier ions and shows excellent biomedical effects around Ne ions. In order to apply heavy ion beams to cancer treatment, Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) has been constructed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The accelerator complex consists of two ion sources, two successive linac tanks, a pair of synchrotron rings, a beam transport system and an irradiation system. An operation frequency is 100 MHz for two linacs, and the ion energy is 6.0 MeV/u at the output end of the linac. The other four experimental rooms are prepared for basic experiments. The synchrotron accelerates ions up to 800 MeV/u for a charge to mass ratio of 1/2. The long beam transport line provides two vertical beams in addition with two horizontal beams for the treatment. The three treatment rooms are prepared one of which is equipped with both horizontal and vertical beam lines. The whole facility will be open for all scientists who have interests in the heavy ion science as well as the biophysics. The conceptual design study of HIMAC started in 1984, and the construction of the accelerator complex was begun in March 1988. The beam acceleration tests of the injector system was successfully completed in March of this year, and tests of the whole system will be finished throughout this fyscal year. (author)

  19. Heavy ion fusion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, D.P.; Kwan, J.; Westenskow, G.

    2003-01-01

    In Heavy-Fusion and in other applications, there is a need for high brightness sources with both high current and low emittance. The traditional design with a single monolithic source, while very successful, has significant constraints on it when going to higher currents. With the Child-Langmuir current-density limit, geometric aberration limits, and voltage breakdown limits, the area of the source becomes a high power of the current, A ∼ I 8/3 . We are examining a multi-beamlet source, avoiding the constraints by having many beamlets each with low current and small area. The beamlets are created and initially accelerated separately and then merged to form a single beam. This design offers a number of potential advantages over a monolithic source, such as a smaller transverse footprint, more control over the shaping and aiming of the beam, and more flexibility in the choice of ion sources. A potential drawback, however, is the emittance that results from the merging of the beamlets. We have designed injectors using simulation that have acceptably low emittance and are beginning to examine them experimentally

  20. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  1. Relativistic heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Experimental work is reported on the following topics: transverse energy production in 10.7-GeV/c/u Au on Au collisions; first results on delta ray production and charged particle multiplicities with the Au beam at 10.7 GeV/c/A; preliminary studies on the feasibility of flow measurement with the E814 participant calorimeter; preliminary results from the E877 telescope; and low-p t baryon distribution in Si+Al, Pb collisions at the AGS. Then the status of the Hadronic Calorimeter project of AGS Experiment E864 (ECOS--Exotic Composite Object Spectrometer) is reviewed. Next, the same is done for work of the STAR RHIC collaboration (Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) project evolution and development in FY92, SVT software results from 1992, SVT instrumentation, FY93 SVT pion test beam). The instrumentation section deals with the design and installation of a target rapidity telescope for BNL experiment 814/877 and a repair scheme for the E814/E877 participant calorimeter. Finally, the theory part addresses bosonic kinetics: thermalization of mesons and the pion p perpendicular spectrum in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions and non-equilibrium properties of hadronic mixtures

  2. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists

  3. Heavy Ion Physics at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, G.

    2002-01-01

    The study of heavy ion interactions constitutes an important part of the experimental program outlined for the Large Hadron Collider under construction at CERN and expected to be operational by 2006. ALICE 1 is the single detector having the capabilities to explore at the same time most of the characteristics of high energy heavy ion interactions. Specific studies of jet quenching and quarkonia production, essentially related to µ detection are also planned by CMS 2 .

  4. BNL heavy ion fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    A principal attraction of heavy ion fusion is that existing accelerator technology and theory are sufficiently advanced to allow one to commence the design of a machine capable of igniting thermonuclear explosions. There are, however, a number of features which are not found in existing accelerators built for other purposes. The main thrust of the BNL Heavy Ion Fusion program has been to explore these features. Longitudinal beam bunching, very low velocity acceleration, and space charge neutralization are briefly discussed

  5. Recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.; Mann, R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the production of very high charge state ions in single ion-atom collisions. Topics considered include some aspects of highly ionized atoms, experimental approaches, the production of highly charged target ions (monoatomic targets, recoil energy distribution, molecular fragmentation, outer-shell rearrangement, lifetime measurements, a comparison of projectile-, target-, and plasma-ion stripping), and secondary collision experiments (selective electron capture, potential applications). The heavy-ion beams for the described experiments were provided by accelerators such as tandem Van de Graaff facility and the UNILAC

  6. Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening study of defects created by swift ion irradiation in sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liszkay, L.; Gordo, P.M.; Lima, A. de; Havancsak, K.; Skuratov, V.A.; Kajcsos, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Swift ions create a defect profile penetrating deep into a solid compared to the sampling range of typical slow positron beams, which may consequently study a homogeneous zone of defected materials. To investigate the defect population created by energetic ions, we studied α-Al 2 O 3 single crystals irradiated with swift Kr ions by using conventional and pulsed positron beams. Samples irradiated with krypton at 245 MeV energy in a wide fluence range show nearly saturated positron trapping above 5 x 10 10 ions cm -2 fluence, indicating the creation of monovacancies in high concentration. At 1 x 10 14 ions cm -2 irradiation a 500 ps long lifetime component appears, showing the creation of larger voids. This threshold corresponds well to the onset of the overlap of the damage zones after Bi ion irradiation along the ion trajectories observed with microscopic methods. (orig.)

  7. Ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.

    1995-09-01

    The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K + ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 inch curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of ±0.2% over 1 micros. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 π mm-mr is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described

  8. Heavy ion fusion- Using heavy ions to make electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of using nuclear fusion as a source of commercial electrical power has been pursued worldwide since the 1950s. Two approaches, using magnetic and inertial confinement of the reactants, are under study. This paper describes the difference between the two approaches, and discusses in more detail the heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion concept. A multibeam induction linear accelerator would be used to bring ∼100 heavy ion beams to a few GeV. The beams would then heat and compress a target of solid D-T. This approach is unique among fusion concepts in its ability to protect the reaction chamber wall from neutrons and debris

  9. RHIC heavy ion operations performance

    CERN Document Server

    Satogata, T; Ferrone, R; Pilat, F

    2006-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) completed its fifth year of operation in 2005, colliding copper ion beams with ps=200 GeV/u and 62.4 GeV/u[1]. Previous heavy ion runs have collided gold ions at ps=130 GeV/u, 200 GeV/u, and 62.4 GeV/u[2], and deuterons and gold ions at ps=200 GeV/u[3]. This paper discusses operational performance statistics of this facility, including Cu- Cu delivered luminosity, availability, calendar time spent in physics stores, and time between physics stores. We summarize the major factors affecting operations efficiency, and characterize machine activities between physics stores.

  10. Heavy ion collisions and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2016-12-15

    There are interesting parallels between the physics of heavy ion collisions and cosmology. Both systems are out-of-equilibrium and relativistic fluid dynamics plays an important role for their theoretical description. From a comparison one can draw interesting conclusions for both sides. For heavy ion physics it could be rewarding to attempt a theoretical description of fluid perturbations similar to cosmological perturbation theory. In the context of late time cosmology, it could be interesting to study dissipative properties such as shear and bulk viscosity and corresponding relaxation times in more detail. Knowledge and experience from heavy ion physics could help to constrain the microscopic properties of dark matter from observational knowledge of the cosmological fluid properties.

  11. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katrík, P., E-mail: p.katrik@gsi.de [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany); Mustafin, E. [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, D-64289 (Germany); Pavlovič, M. [FEI STU Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, SK-81219 (Slovakia); Strašík, I. [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u {sup 238}U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  12. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985

  13. Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-05-01

    A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Central collisions of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. During this period, our program focuses on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus central collisions. We participated in the preparation of letters of intent for two RHIC experiments -- the OASIS proposal and the Di-Muon proposal -- and worked on two RHIC R ampersand D efforts -- a silicon strip detector project and a muon-identifier project. A small fraction of time was also devoted to physics programs outside the realm of heavy ion reactions by several individuals

  15. Radiation from heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kast, J.R.; Lee, Y.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study of x rays produced in heavy ion collisions has led to a search for molecular orbital x rays, concentrating on 35 Cl ions on Al, NaCl, and C targets. Preliminary analysis of the angular dependence of continuum x rays has tentatively identified quasi-molecular K x rays. Other work completed and in progress is discussed. (3 figures) (U.S.)

  16. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned

  17. Summary of heavy ion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, S.

    1994-09-01

    Can we study hot QCD using nuclear collisions? Can we learn about metallic hydrogen from the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter? The answer to both questions may surprise you exclamation point I summarize progress in relativistic heavy ion theory reported at DPF '94 in the parallel sessions

  18. Heavy-ion radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Masashi

    1975-01-01

    New aspect of heavy ion radiation chemistry is reviewed. Experiment has been carried out with carbon ions and nitrogen ions accelerated by a 160 cm cyclotron of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. The results of experiments are discussed, taking into consideration the effects of core radius depending on heavy ion energy and of the branch tracks of secondary electrons outside the core on chemical reaction and the yield of products. The effect of core size on chemical reaction was not able to be observed, because the incident energy of heavy ions was only several tens of MeV. Regarding high radical density, attention must be given to the production of oxygen in the core. It is possible to produce O 2 in the core in case of high linear energy transfer (LET), while no production of O 2 in case of low LET radiation. This may be one of study problems in future. LET effects on the yield of decomposed products were examined on acetone, methyl-ethyl-ketone and diethyl ketone, using heavy ions (C and N) as well as gamma radiation and helium ions. These three ketones showed that the LET change of two gaseous products, H 2 and CO, was THF type. There are peaks at 50-70 eV/A in the yield of both products. The peaks suggest the occurrence of ''saturation'' in decomposition. Attention was drawn to acetone containing a small amount (2 wt.%) of H 2 O. H 2 O and CO produced from this system differ from those in the pure system. The hydrogen connection formed by such a small amount of H 2 O may mediate the energy transfer. Sodium acetate tri-hydrate produces CH 3 radical selectively by gamma-ray irradiation at 77 K. In this case, the production of CH 2 COO - increases with the increase of LET of radiation. This phenomenon may be an important study problem. (Iwakiri, K.)

  19. Heavy ion accelerators at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angert, N.

    1984-01-01

    The status of the Unilac heavy ion linear accelerator at GSI, Darmstadt is given. A schematic overall plan view of the Unilac is shown and its systems are described. List of isotopes and intensities accelerated at the Unilac is presented. The experimental possibilities at GSI should be considerably extended by a heavy ion synchrotron (SIS 18) in combination with an experimental storage ring (ESR). A prototype of the rf-accelerating system of the synchrotron has been built and tested. Prototypes for the quadrupole and dipole magnets for the ring are being constructed. The SIS 18 is desigmed for a maximum magnetic rigidity of 18Tm so that neon can be accelerated to 2 GeV/W and uranium to 1 GeV/u. The design allows also the acceleration of protons up to 4.5 GeV. The ESR permits to storage fully stripped uranium ions up to an energy of approximately R50 MeV/u

  20. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on structural and magnetic properties of GdFe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x≤0.2) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Pawanpreet [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P. 177005 (India); Sharma, K.K., E-mail: kknitham@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P. 177005 (India); Pandit, Rabia [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P. 177005 (India); Choudhary, R.J. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research at Indore, M.P. 452 001 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P 177005 (India)

    2016-01-15

    The present work reports the effect of Ni doping and 200 MeV Ag{sup 15+} ion irradiation on the structural and magnetic properties of GdFe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x≤0.2) thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrate by pulse laser deposition (PLD). From the XRD patterns ‘c-axis’ oriented growth in the pristine films is noticed, whereas after irradiation amorphization in the films is noticed. The atomic force microscopic (AFM) images reveal the increase in surface roughness with doping and irradiation as well. The irreversibility in the zero field cooled and field cooled magnetic curves indicates to the possibility of magnetic disorder in all the pristine as well as irradiated samples. Magnetization has been found to decrease with increasing Ni{sup 3+} ion substitution at room temperature whereas an enhancement in magnetization is noticed after ion irradiation for all the films. The disparity in the magnetic properties of pristine GdFe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (0.0≤x≤0.2) orthoferrites thin films can be correlated to the difference in hybridization in transition metal ion and O{sup 2−} ion orbitals. However, presence of strains caused by the columnar defects is responsible for the change in structural, morphological and magnetic properties in the irradiated samples. - Highlights: • ‘c-axis’ oriented GdFe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x≤0.2) thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. • Thin films have been irradiated by 200 MeV Ag{sup 15+} ions. • Presence of columnar defects have been estimated using SRIM. • Magnetic disorder in all the film samples have been seen at lower temperatures. • Structural and magnetic characteristics altered with doping and ion irradiation.

  1. Nuclear physics with heavy ions. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, R.; Schmidt, R.

    1981-01-01

    Some results obtained in nuclear physics with heavy ions in the energy range up to 10 MeV/nucleon are summarized. A short review of the tendencies in the development of heavy ion accelerators is followed by a classification of the mechanisms observed in heavy ion interactions. The characteristics of the various types of reactions are presented. Applications of heavy ion beams in other branches of sciences are discussed. (author)

  2. BROOKHAVEN: Looking towards heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    July 11-22 were busy days at Brookhaven with a two-week Summer Institute on Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics. After an intensive first week designed to introduce young physicists to high energy heavy ion research, the second week was a workshop on detector technology for Brookhaven's proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), attended by some 150 physicists

  3. Therapy tumor with the heavy ions beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Bingrong; Wei Zengquan; Li Wenjian

    2002-01-01

    As physical characteristic of heavy ions Bragg peak, therapy tumor with heavy ions is becoming advanced technology. So, many countries have developed the technology and used to treat tumor, the societal and economic effects are beneficial to people. The authors show the development, present situation and information of research in world of advanced radiotherapy with heavy ions

  4. Spectroscopy of heavy few-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.

    1986-07-01

    In this paper we ask first, why is it interesting to investigate heavy-few electron ions. Then the various accelerator-based methods to produce heavy few-electron ions are discussed. In the main part an overview on available heavy few-electron ion data and current experiments is given. The summary will end up with future aspects in this field. (orig.)

  5. Polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, K.; Ishihara, M.; Takahashi, N.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter presents a few key experiments which provide direct evidence of the polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions. The theory of polarization observables and measurements is given with the necessary formulae. The polarization phenomena is described and studies of product nuclear polarization in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. Studies of heavy-ion reactions induced by polarized beams are examined

  6. Heavy ion driver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1988-09-01

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  7. Heavy ions: Report from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-12

    Oct 12, 2012 ... Experiments using ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions study nuclear matter under ... sN N = 10 GeV for Pb+Pb collisions, corresponding to an initial .... quenching through systematic comparisons of data to models, and .... the RdAu and RCP = (0−20%)/(60−80%) factors for the J/ψ production in d+Au col-.

  8. Heavy ion activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, B.D.; Roche, N.G.; Sanni, A.O.; Schweikert, E.A.; Ojo, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A report on radioactivation with ion beams of 3 6 Li and 14 N is presented with some analytical applications: the determination of C via 12 C( 6 Li,αn) 13 N; the determination of Li and Be, using 14 N activation. Next, examples, with limitations in selectivity. The detection limits using a 1 μA h of activation irradiation are 5 ppm for C and 1 ppm for Li or Be. With 9 Be suitable for analytical applications are: sup(10,11)B( 9 Be,xn) 18 F and 14 N( 9 Be,αn) 18 F. Assuming a 1 μA h irradiation the detection limits for N and B are 1.5 ng and 0.5 ng, respectively, using a 7.8 MeV 9 Be beam. For activation with 12 C, experimental results with 12 MeV 12 C beam demonstrate that the beam is best suited for 7 Li analysis by the reaction 7 Li( 12 C,n) 18 F. The detection limit for a 1 μA h irradiation is 1 ng and the only other low Z elements activated are B and C. Finally, 12 C radioactivation was further combined with autoradiography for positional analysis. The spatial resolution of the technique was estimated to be 40 μm for an exposure corresponding to 6x10 5 disintegrations. As low as 10 -12 g of Li was readily detected by autoradiography. (author)

  9. Calorimetric cryodetectors for heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egelhof, P; Henning, W; Kienlin, A v; Meier, J; Truebenbacher, V [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.) Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik; Azgui, F [CDTN, Algiers (Algeria); Shepard, K [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1990-01-01

    Status and first test results are reported for a project to develop calorimetric cryodetectors for heavy ions. The special conditions for the detection of energetic heavy ions are discussed. Presently the investigations are focussed on semiconductor bolometers and aluminium-strip superconducting phase-transition thermometers that are cooled with liquid {sup 4}He and operate in the temperature range 1.3-4.2 K. For a germanium bolometer the temperature dependence of the resistance, voltage-current curves, the time response to heating by voltage pulses and the response to ionizing {alpha}-radiation are reported. First tests on phase transition thermometers using thin aluminum strips yield a transition width of {Delta}T=8.6 mK at T{sub c}=1.467 K. (orig.).

  10. Physics of Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a general presentation of the physics of Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ions, as seen from the experimentalist close-quote s point of view. The aim of this research is the study of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure, extending in this way our understanding of the strong interactions in general, and of colour confinement in particular. This young field of Physics has been growing rapidly in the past years, and any attempt to cover it in few pages will be rather sketchy and many important aspects will have to be left out. I will mainly try to cover the general motivations to undertake this study, and just mention the experimental challenges to be faced, the results from the experiments at CERN and BNL, and finally the fascinating program ahead of us, with a glimpse at the CERN LHC used as a heavy-ion collider. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Mutation induction by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, J.; Stoll, U.; Schneider, E.

    1994-10-01

    Mutation induction by heavy ions is compared in yeast and mammalian cells. Since mutants can only be recovered in survivors the influence of inactivation cross sections has to be taken into account. It is shown that both the size of the sensitive cellular site as well as track structure play an important role. Another parameter which influences the probability of mutation induction is repair: Contrary to naive assumptions primary radiation damage does not directly lead to mutations but requires modification to reconstitute the genetic machinery so that mutants can survive. The molecular structure of mutations was analyzed after exposure to deuterons by amplification with the aid of polymerase chain reaction. The results-although preliminary-demonstrate that even with densely ionizing particles a large fraction does not carry big deletions which suggests that point mutations may also be induced by heavy ions.

  12. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2017-01-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  13. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures

  14. Experiments with stored heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fick, D.; Habs, D.; Jaeschke, E.

    1985-02-01

    The success of newly-developed methods of phase space cooling in proton and antiproton storage rings was sufficient for an examination of whether these methods could also be applied in storage rings for heavy ions. An expansion of these methods to heavy ion beams seems attractive for all sorts of reasons. Recently, this area was extensively discussed in a series of working meetings with the result that heavy ion storage rings are to be built for use in atomic and nuclear physics, with integrated radiation cooling and stochastic cooling, but primarily electron cooling. The current state of research and planning for the storage experiment is described. It is not intended to be a structural specification worked out in detail. The general design of the ring, however, has been established, and experimental details have deliberately been kept flexible, to thereby allow very different sorts of experiments to be conducted. The ring described with a maximum magnetic rigidity of Bp = 1.5 Tm, is designed in quadripartite symmetry. The total circumference is approximately 35 m, and there are four straight sections each 3.5 m long for the electron cooling sections, the experimental equipment, as well as HF system and injection. One of the most desirable properties of the reservoir is the multi-charge mode, which will significantly improve the operation which heavy ion beams, which reverse charge in electron cooling sections, target and residual vacuum. Initial considerations are presented with regard to stochastic and electron cooling. A review of possible classes of experiments is given and the schedule and financing of the project is outlined. 46 refs

  15. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures (OSP).

  16. Progress Toward Heavy Ion IFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Sabbi, G.L.; Callahan-Miller, D.A.; Peterson, P.F.; Goodin, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Successful development of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a -3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLEE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from x-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLEE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HE. A target injector experiment capable of > 5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed

  17. Beam modulation for heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, T.; Minohara, S.; Sudou, M.

    1993-01-01

    The first clinical trial of heavy ion radiation therapy is scheduled in 1994 by using the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). In order to start the clinical trial, first, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of high energy heavy ions in human bodies, for example, dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distribution. Also the knowledge on the biological effectiveness of heavy ions is required. Based on these biophysical properties of heavy ions, monoenergetic heavy ion beam should be modulated so as to make the spread Bragg peak suitable to heavy ion radiation therapy. In order to establish a methodology to obtain the most effective spread Bragg peak for heavy ion radiation therapy, a heavy ion irradiation port at the RIKEN ring cyclotron facility was constructed. By using a 135 MeV/u carbon beam, the biophysical properties of the heavy ions were investigated, and a range modulator was designed to have uniform biological response in the spread Bragg peak. The physical and biological rationality of the spread Bragg peak were investigated. The dose, LET and biological effect of a monoenergetic heavy ion beam, the design of the range modulator, and the distributions of LET and biological dose for the spread Bragg peak are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Phase transformations in Ln2O3 materials irradiated with swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Lang, Maik; Zhang, Fuxiang; Trautmann, Christina; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2015-11-01

    Phase transformations induced in the cubic C-type lanthanide sesquioxides, Ln 2 O 3 (Ln = Sm, Gd, Ho, Tm, and Lu), by dense electronic excitation are investigated. The structural modifications resulting from exposure to beams of 185 MeV Xe and 2246 MeV Au ions are characterized using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The formation of a B-type polymorph, an X-type nonequilibrium phase, and an amorphous phase are observed. The specific phase formed and the transformation rate show dependence on the material composition, as well as the ion beam mass and energy. Atomistic mechanisms for these transformations are determined, indicating that formation of the B-type phase results from the production of anti-Frenkel defects and the aggregation of anion vacancies into planar clusters, whereas formation of the X-type and amorphous phases requires extensive displacement of both anions and cations. The observed variations in phase behavior with changing lanthanide ionic radius and deposited electronic energy density are related to the energetics of these transformation mechanisms.

  19. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on structural and opto-electrical properties of bi-layer CdS-Bi2S3 thin films prepared by solution growth technique at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shaheed U.; Siddiqui, Farha Y.; Desale, Deepali J.; Ghule, Anil V.; Singh, Fouran; Kulriya, Pawan K.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2015-01-01

    CdS-Bi2S3 bi-layer thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition method on Indium Tin Oxide glass substrate at room temperature. The as-deposited thin films were annealed at 250 °C in an air atmosphere for 1 h. An air annealed thin film was irradiated using Au9+ ions with the energy of 120 MeV at fluence 5×1012 ions/cm2 using tandem pelletron accelerator. The irradiation induced modifications were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy and I-V characteristics. XRD study reveals that the as-deposited thin films were nanocrystalline in nature. The decrease in crystallite size, increase in energy band gap and resistivity were observed after irradiation. Results are explained on the basis of energy deposited by the electronic loss after irradiation. The comparative results of as-deposited, air annealed and irradiated CdS-Bi2S3 bi-layer thin films are presented.

  20. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Certain special treatments of superficial melanoma, however, require that beam energies as low as 70 MeV/nucleon also be available. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. For most heavy ion treatments, this corresponds to 10 7 -10 9 ions/second at the patient. Because this research is best conducted in a dedicated, hospital-based facility, and because of the clinical need for ultra-high reliability, the construction of new and dedicated facilities has been proposed. Heavy ion accelerators can provide a variety of ions and energies, permitting treatment plans that exploit the properties of the ion best suited to each individual treatment, and that employ radioactive beams (such as 11 C and 19 Ne) to precisely confirm the dose localization. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety. 3 refs., 8 figs

  1. Heavy ion physics at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesztergombi, G.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the present status and future plans for heavy ion experiments at CERN-SPS and CERN-LHC accelerators is given. The planned three phases give possibilities to study the properties of the quark-gluon-plasma (QGP). At the present stage the feasibility of high energy ion-ion experiments with their very abundant secondary hadron production, shows that there is a chance to obtain high densities, and to look for the onset of new, collective phenomena. In a second phase, there should be a chance to obtain more conclusive evidence for the onset of quark deconfinement. In the third stage, the average energy densities rise above the deconfinement threshold, so that a study of the properties of QGP should become possible. (G.P.)

  2. The Erosion of Frozen Argon by Swift Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Graversen, O.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore unequivo......The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore...... unequivocally associated with electronic processes generated by the bombarding particle. In the present energy region, it is found that Y scales approximately as the electronic stopping power squared, depends on the charge state of the incoming helium ions, and perhaps more important, is independent...

  3. Detector issues for relativistic heavy ion experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.

    1986-04-01

    Several aspects of experiments using relativistic heavy ion beams are discussed. The problems that the current generation of light ion experiments would face in using gold beams are noted. A brief review of colliding beam experiments for heavy ion beams is contrasted with requirements for SSC detectors. 11 refs., 13 figs

  4. Ionisation and dissociation of water induced by swift multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, S.

    2006-02-01

    Ionization and dissociation of water molecules and water clusters induced by 11.7 MeV/A Ni 25+ ions were carried out by imaging techniques. Branching ratios, ionisation cross sections and Kinetic Energy Released distributions have been measured together with fragmentation dynamics studies. Multiple ionization represents approximately 30% of the ionizing events. Double ionization produces in significant way atomic oxygen, considered as a possible precursor of the large production of HO 2 radical in liquid water radiolysis by ions of high Linear Energy Transfer. We evidence a strong selectivity of bond breakage in the case of ion-induced HOD fragmentation. Once the molecule doubly ionized, the breakage of the O-H bond is found 6.5 times more probable than that of the O-D bond. A semi-classical calculation simulating the fragmentation dynamics on the potential energy surface of the ground-state of di-cation H 2 O 2+ makes possible to as well reproduce the preferential nature of the breakage of the O-H bond as the position and the shift of the kinetic energy distributions. First results concerning interaction with water clusters are also reported. Measurements in coincidence are carried out giving access to correlation, with the distributions in energy and angle of the emitted fragments. Mass spectrum points fast intra-cluster proton transfer, leading to the emission of protonated clusters. (author)

  5. Quartz modification by Zn ion implantation and swift Xe ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privezentsev, Vladimir [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, Vaclav [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Didyk, Alexander; Skuratov, Vladimir [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Steinman, Edward; Tereshchenko, Alexey; Kolesnikov, Nikolay [Institute of Solid-State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Trifonov, Alexey; Sakharov, Oleg [National Research University ' ' MIET' ' , Zelenograd, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ksenich, Sergey [National University of Science and Technology ' ' MISiS' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    The quartz slides were implanted by {sup 64}Zn{sup +} ions with dose of 5 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} and energy of 100 keV. After implantation, the amorphous metallic Zn nanoparticles with an average radius of 3.5 nm were created. The sample surface becomes nonuniform, its roughness is increased and its values rise up to 6 nm compared to virgin state, and the roughness maximum is at a value of about 0.8 nm. The surface is made up of valleys and hillocks which have a round shape with an average diameter about 200 nm. At the center of these hillocks are pores with a depth up to 6 nm and a diameter of about 20 nm. After implantation in UV-vis diapason, the optical transmission decreases while PL peak (apparently due to oxygen deficient centers) at wavelength of 400 nm increases. Then the samples were subjected to swift Xe ion irradiation with the fluences of 1 x 10{sup 12}-7.5 x 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2} and energy of 167 MeV. After Xe irradiation, the sample surface roughness shat down to values of 0.5 nm and the roughness maximum is at a value of about 0.1 nm. Optical transmission in UV-vis diapason increases. The PL peak at wavelength of 400 nm is decreased while a PL peak at wavelength of 660 nm is raised. This peak is presumably due to non-bridging oxygen hole centers or/and NPs with structure Si(core)/SiO{sub 2}(shell). HRTEM image of Zn-implanted quartz subsurface layer. One can see the Zn amorphous nanoparticles, which confirms the electron diffraction pattern (insert). (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Superconducting heavy-ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of plans developed by four different groups for the construction of small superconducting linacs to boost the energy of heavy ions from existing tandem electrostatic accelerators. The projects considered are the linac under construction at Argonne and the design efforts at Karlsruhe, at Stanford, and by a Cal Tech-Stony Brook collaboration. The intended uses of the accelerator systems are stated. Beam dynamics of linacs formed of short independently-phased resonators are reviewed, and the implications for performance are discussed. The main parameters of the four linacs are compared, and a brief analysis of accelerating structures is given

  7. Low energy ion implantation and high energy heavy ion irradiation in C60 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, K.L.; Yamaguchi, M.; Dharmarasu, N.; Kojima, N.; Kanjilal, D.

    2001-01-01

    C 60 films have been bombarded with low energy boron ions and high energy swift heavy ions (SHI) of silver and oxygen at different doses. Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were carried out on the virgin and irradiated films and the results are in good agreement with each other. The films subject to low energy boron ion implantation showed destruction of the bukky balls whereas the films subject to high energy ion irradiation did not show appreciable effects on their structure. These results indicate that C 60 films are more prone to defects by elastic collision and subsequent implantation at lower energy. Irradiation at higher energy was less effective in creating appreciable defects through electronic excitation by inelastic collisions at similar energy density

  8. Summary of the relativistic heavy ion sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions span four orders of magnitude in energy in the laboratory and a few more in theory. In the two years since the last Intersections conference, experiments in the field of very high energy heavy ion research have begun at CERN and Brookhaven. The prime motivation for these experiments is the possibility of forming quark matter. This paper is a review of the topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions

  9. International cooperation in heavy-ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The rapidly growing research applications of heavy ions in basic biology and medicine have stimulated interest in this field in many countries. LBL, with its unique facilities and its scientific programs, is the focal point of interest. Plans are underway in several countries, including France, Japan, West Germany, and Canada, to build heavy-ion facilities, and to collaborate with our staff at LBL in heavy-ion research in physics, biology, and medicine

  10. Comparison of secondary ion emission yields for poly-tyrosine between cluster and heavy ion impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, K.; Saitoh, Y.; Chiba, A.; Yamada, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Narumi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Emission yields of secondary ions necessary for the identification of poly-tyrosine were compared for incident ion impacts of energetic cluster ions (0.8 MeV C 8 + , 2.4 MeV C 8 + , and 4.0 MeV C 8 + ) and swift heavy monoatomic molybdenum ions (4.0 MeV Mo + and 14 MeV Mo 4+ ) with similar mass to that of the cluster by time-of-flight secondary ion mass analysis combined with secondary ion electric current measurements. The comparison revealed that (1) secondary ion emission yields per C 8 + impact increase with increasing incident energy within the energy range examined, (2) the 4.0 MeV C 8 + impact provides higher emission yields than the impact of the monoatomic Mo ion with the same incident energy (4.0 MeV Mo + ), and (3) the 2.4 MeV C 8 + impact exhibits comparable emission yields to that for the Mo ion impact with higher incident energy (14 MeV Mo 4+ ). Energetic cluster ion impacts effectively produce the characteristic secondary ions for poly-tyrosine, which is advantageous for highly sensitive amino acid detection in proteins using time-of-flight secondary ion mass analysis.

  11. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  12. Heavy Ion Physics at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Veres, Gabor

    2017-01-01

    In the present proceedings recent heavy ion results from the Compact Muon Solenoid collaboration at the LHC are presented. These contain comparisons between small and large collision systems, as well as studies of energy evolution, thus include data collected in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV (2015 and 2016), proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at 5 TeV (2015), and proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV and 8 TeV (2016) center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair. They provide new insights into the properties of the extremely high density and high temperature matter created in heavy ion collisions, while pointing out similarities and differences in comparison to smaller collision systems. These include gluon distribution functions in the lead nucleus; the azimuthal anisotropy of final state particle distributions in all the three different collision systems; charge separation signals from proton-lead collisions and consequences for the Chiral Magnetic Effect; new studies of parton energy loss and its dependence on...

  13. Photoluminescence and Raman studies in swift heavy ion irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Polycrystalline aluminum oxide is synthesized by combustion technique and XRD studies of the sample revealed the α-phase. ... of applications such as RF windows in fusion reactors, toroidal insulating breaks, diagnostic .... the crystal structure such as sample of different origin and substitution by different cations ...

  14. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced modification of structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AFM analysis indicated that the pristine film consists of agglomerated grains with diffuse grain boundary. Irradiation led to reduced agglomeration of the grains with the formation of sharper grain boundaries. The rms roughness (rms) estimated from AFM analysis increased from 6.2 in pristine film to 12.7 nm when the film ...

  15. Characterization of biodegradable polymers irradiated with swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salguero, N.G.; Grosso, M.F. del; Durán, H.; Peruzzo, P.J.; Amalvy, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    In view of their application as biomaterials, there is an increasing interest in developing new methods to induce controlled cell adhesion onto polymeric materials. The critical step in all these methods involves the modification of polymer surfaces, to induce cell adhesion, without changing theirs degradation and biocompatibility properties. In this work two biodegradable polymers, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) were irradiated using carbon and sulfur beams with different energies and fluences. Pristine and irradiated samples were degradated by immersion in a phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 and then characterized. The analysis after irradiation and degradation showed a decrease in the contact angle values and changes in their crystallinity properties.

  16. Swift heavy ion induced electron emission from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothard, Hermann; Gervais, Benoit; Lanzanò, Gaetano; De Filippo, Enrico; Caron, Michel; Beuve, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We briefly summarize the results of numerous experiments performed at GANIL aimed at measuring electron yields and doubly differential yields (energy or velocity spectra at different ejection angles, angular distributions). These studies, supported by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations, contributed decisively to our understanding of the very first step in energy deposition in matter, i.e. ionization and subsequent electron transport through condensed matter. The emitted electron spectrum contains a rich variety of features including binary encounter electrons (BEE), convoy electrons (CE), Auger electrons (AE) and the low-energy peak of “secondary” electrons (SE). (paper)

  17. Characterization of biodegradable polymers irradiated with swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salguero, N.G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Grosso, M.F. del, E-mail: delgrosso@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 C1033AAJ CABA (Argentina); Duran, H. [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 C1033AAJ CABA (Argentina); Gerencia de Desarrollo Tecnologico y Proyectos Especiales, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Mart Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Acute-Accent n, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, H. Yrigoyen 3100, CP 1650, San Martin, UNSAM (Argentina); Peruzzo, P.J. [CICPBA - Grupo de Materiales y Nanomateriales Polimericos, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT La Plata CONICET - Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Amalvy, J.I. [CICPBA - Grupo de Materiales y Nanomateriales Polimericos, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT La Plata CONICET - Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 116 y 48 (B1900TAG), La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad Regional La Plata, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, 60 y 124 (1900), La Plata (Argentina); and others

    2012-02-15

    In view of their application as biomaterials, there is an increasing interest in developing new methods to induce controlled cell adhesion onto polymeric materials. The critical step in all these methods involves the modification of polymer surfaces, to induce cell adhesion, without changing theirs degradation and biocompatibility properties. In this work two biodegradable polymers, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) were irradiated using carbon and sulfur beams with different energies and fluences. Pristine and irradiated samples were degradated by immersion in a phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 and then characterized. The analysis after irradiation and degradation showed a decrease in the contact angle values and changes in their crystallinity properties.

  18. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on surface resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Larkin–Ovchinnikov scenario [5] where the effective pinning force on the FLL is given by BJc(H)=(np〈 f 2〉/Vc)1/2 where np is the density of pinning centers, f the ele- mentary pinning force parameter and Vc the Larkin volume over which the FLL maintains its spatial order. We have shown in an earlier communication [6] ...

  19. The near-infrared waveguide properties of an LGS crystal formed by swift Kr{sup 8+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yu-Fan; Liu, Peng; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Lian [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials and Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation (MOE), Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Sun, Jian-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Guang [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Xue-Lin, E-mail: xuelinwang@sdu.edu.cn [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials and Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation (MOE), Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we report on the optical properties in the near-infrared region of a LGS crystal planar waveguide formed by swift heavy ion irradiation. The planar optical waveguide in a LGS crystal was fabricated by 330 MeV Kr{sup 8+}-ion implantation at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. The initial beam had an energy of 2.1 GeV and was slowed down by passing it through a 259 μm thick Al foil. The guided mode was measured using a prism coupler at a wavelength of 1539 nm. The near-field intensity distribution of the mode was recorded by a CCD camera using the end-face coupling method. The FD-BPM was used to simulate the guided mode profile. The lattice damage induced by SHI irradiation in the LGS crystal was studied using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are consistent with the stopping power distributions of the Kr{sup 8+} ions simulated by SRIM and with the micro-photograph of the waveguide taken by a microscope using polarized light.

  20. The near-infrared waveguide properties of an LGS crystal formed by swift Kr8+ ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Fan; Liu, Peng; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Lian; Sun, Jian-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Guang; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we report on the optical properties in the near-infrared region of a LGS crystal planar waveguide formed by swift heavy ion irradiation. The planar optical waveguide in a LGS crystal was fabricated by 330 MeV Kr8+-ion implantation at a fluence of 1 × 1012 cm-2. The initial beam had an energy of 2.1 GeV and was slowed down by passing it through a 259 μm thick Al foil. The guided mode was measured using a prism coupler at a wavelength of 1539 nm. The near-field intensity distribution of the mode was recorded by a CCD camera using the end-face coupling method. The FD-BPM was used to simulate the guided mode profile. The lattice damage induced by SHI irradiation in the LGS crystal was studied using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are consistent with the stopping power distributions of the Kr8+ ions simulated by SRIM and with the micro-photograph of the waveguide taken by a microscope using polarized light.

  1. The near-infrared waveguide properties of an LGS crystal formed by swift Kr8+ ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yu-Fan; Liu, Peng; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Lian; Sun, Jian-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Guang; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report on the optical properties in the near-infrared region of a LGS crystal planar waveguide formed by swift heavy ion irradiation. The planar optical waveguide in a LGS crystal was fabricated by 330 MeV Kr 8+ -ion implantation at a fluence of 1 × 10 12 cm −2 . The initial beam had an energy of 2.1 GeV and was slowed down by passing it through a 259 μm thick Al foil. The guided mode was measured using a prism coupler at a wavelength of 1539 nm. The near-field intensity distribution of the mode was recorded by a CCD camera using the end-face coupling method. The FD-BPM was used to simulate the guided mode profile. The lattice damage induced by SHI irradiation in the LGS crystal was studied using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are consistent with the stopping power distributions of the Kr 8+ ions simulated by SRIM and with the micro-photograph of the waveguide taken by a microscope using polarized light

  2. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory heavy ion fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Lee, E.P.; Monsler, M.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Target design at LLL for heavy ion fusion power production is discussed, including target development and beam-target interaction. The energy conversion chamber design, which utilizes a liquid lithium blanket, is described. Ion beam transport theory is discussed

  3. Elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepffer, C.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Richter, A.

    1977-02-01

    In the field of elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering, the following issues are dealt with: semiclassical descriptive approximations, optical potentials, barriers, critical radii and angular momenta, excitation functions and the application to superheavy ions and high energies. (WL) [de

  4. From heavy ions to exotic atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Trassinelli, Martino

    2005-01-01

    We review a number of experiments and theoretical calculations on heavy ions and exotic atoms, which aim at providing informations on fundamental interactions. Among those are propositions of experiments for parity violation measurements in heavy ions and high-precision mesurements of He-like transition energies in highly charged ions. We also describe recent experiments on pionic atoms, that make use of highly-charged ion transitions to obtain accurate measurements of strong interaction shif...

  5. Giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1982-11-01

    The several roles of multipole giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. In particular, the modifications in the effective ion-ion potencial due to the virtual excitation of giant resonances at low energies, are considered and estimated for several systems. Real excitation of giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies are then discussed and their importance in the approach phase of deeply inelastic processes in emphasized. Several demonstrative examples are given. (Author) [pt

  6. Heavy ion beam factory for material science based on the KEK digital accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Ken, E-mail: takayama@post.kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Adachi, Toshikazu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Arai, Teruo; Arakawa, Dai [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Asao, Hiroyuki [NEC Network-Sensor, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8501 (Japan); Barata, Yuji; Harada, Shinya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tokyo City University, Todoroki, Tokyo 158-8586 (Japan); Horioka, Kazuhiko [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Iwata, Taiki; Kadokura, Eiichi; Kwakubo, Tadamichi; Kubo, Tomio [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Leo, Kwee Wah [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Liu, Xingguaung [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mochiki, Koichi [Tokyo City University, Todoroki, Tokyo 158-8586 (Japan); Munemoto, Naoya [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Nakanishi, Hiroshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Okada, Yoshihito [NEC Network-Sensor, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8501 (Japan); Okamura, Katsuya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); and others

    2013-11-01

    The KEK digital accelerator (DA) is an alternative to high-voltage electrostatic accelerators and conventional cyclotrons and synchrotrons, which are commonly used as swift heavy ion beam drivers. Compared with conventional accelerators, KEK-DA is capable of delivering a wider variety of ion species with various energies, as a result of its intrinsic properties. It is expected to serve as a heavy ion beam factory for research in materials science. Plans for its utilization include unique application programs, such as laboratory-based space science using virtual cosmic rays, heavy-ion mutagenesis in microorganisms, deep ion implantation, and modification of materials, which may be categorized into systematic studies of the spatial and temporal evolution of the locally and highly excited states of materials.

  7. Study on interaction of swift cluster ion beam with matter and irradiation effect (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yuichi; Shibata, Hiromi

    2010-07-01

    This review covers results of the 'Study of interaction on swift cluster ion beam with matter and irradiation effect' supported by the Interorganization Atomic Energy Research Program from 2006FY to 2008FY. It is composed of a research abstract for each sub-group with viewgraphs which were presented at the group meeting held on March 2009 or 'Meeting of High LET radiation -From fundamental study among physics, chemistry and biology to medical applications-' sponsored by Japan Society of Radiation Chemistry, cosponsored by this research group. (author)

  8. Nuclear research with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Asymmetric fission of 149 Tb* from the finite-range, rotating-liquid-drop model: mean total kinetic energies for binary fragmentation; charged-particle evaporation from hot composite nuclei: evidence over a broad Z range for distortions from cold nuclear profiles; the role of reversed kinematics and double kinematic solutions in nuclear reactions studies; production of intermediate-mass-fragments in the reaction 98 Mo + 51 V at an excitation energy E* = 224-MeV; emission of light charged particles in the reaction 344-MeV 28 Si + 121 Sb; continued developments of the statistical evaporation code LILITA N90; and planning for heavy-ion-collision studies at very high energies: the STAR collaboration at RHIC

  9. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iancu, Edmond [IPhT, Saclay (France)

    2014-07-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry.

  10. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry

  11. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig

  12. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  13. Relativistic heavy ion research at Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The project of a superconducting synchrotron for heavy ions with 1 TeV/amu is described. In this connection the physics is discussed which can be studied by this accelerator. Furthermore, the HISS-heavy ion spectrometer system and the Plastic Ball detector are described. (HSI).

  14. Highlights of the heavy ion fusion symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-01-01

    The current status and prospects for inertial confinement fusion based on the use of intense beams of heavy ions will be described in the light of results presented at the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion, (Washington, DC, May 27-29, 1986)

  15. Highlights of the heavy ion fusion symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The current status and prospects for inertial confinement fusion based on the use of intense beams of heavy ions will be described in the light of results presented at the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion, (Washington, DC, May 27-29, 1986)

  16. Heavy ion reactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, Bo.

    1977-01-01

    A review on heavy ion experiments at energies >0.1GeV/nucleon is presented. Reaction cross-sections, isotope production cross-sections and pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Some recent models for heavy ion reactions like the abrasion-ablation model, the fireball model and the different shock-wave models are also presented

  17. 7th high energy heavy ion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, R.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Stock, R.

    1985-03-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named conference. They deal with relativistic heavy ion reactions, the expansion and freeze-out of nuclear matter, anomalon experiments, and multifragmentation and particle correlations in heavy ion reactions. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  18. Searching for Jets in Heavy Ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salur, Sevil

    2008-01-01

    Jet quenching measurements using leading particles and their correlations suffer from known biases, which can be removed via direct reconstruction of jets in central heavy ion collisions. In this talk, we discuss several modern jet reconstruction algorithms and background subtraction techniques that are appropriate to heavy ion collisions

  19. Dynamical limitations to heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamical limitations to heavy ion fusion reaction are considered. The experimental signatures and the importance of a quasi-fission process are examined. The anaular distributions of fission fragments for the 32 S+ 208 Pb and 16 O+ 238 U systems are presented. It is shown that the observations of quasi-fission for even rather ''light'' heavy ions poeess severe limitations on the fusion process. This result may consequently be responsible for the lack of success of the search for super heavy elements in heavy ion fusion reactions

  20. Optical waveguides in Nd:GdVO4 crystals fabricated by swift N3+ ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ningning; Yao, Yicun; Chen, Feng

    2012-12-01

    Optical planar waveguides have been manufactured in Nd:GdVO4 crystal by swift N3+ ions irradiation at fluence of 1.5 × 1014 ions/cm2. A typical "barrier"-style refractive index profile was formed and the light can be well confined in the waveguide region. The modal distribution of the guided modes obtained from numerical calculation has a good agreement with the experimental modal distribution. The measured photoluminescence spectra revealed that the fluorescence properties of the Nd3+ ions have been modified to some extent in the waveguide's volume. The propagation loss of the planar waveguide can decrease to lower than 1 dB/cm after adequate annealing.

  1. Simulation of the molecular recombination yield for swift H2+ ions through thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the recombination yield for swift H 2 + molecular ions at the exit of thin amorphous carbon foils, as a function of the dwell time and incident energy. Our results are based on a detailed simulation of the motion through the target of the H 2 + molecular ion (before dissociation takes place) and its constituent fragments (after dissociation), including the following effects: Coulomb repulsion, nuclear scattering, electron capture and loss, as well as self-retarding and wake forces, which provide the relative distance and velocity of the dissociated fragments at the foil exit. The recombination of an H 2 + ion at the exit of the foil depends on the interproton separation and internal energy of the dissociated fragments, and on their probability to capture an electron. Comparison of our results with the available experimental data shows a good agreement

  2. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C s + sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac

  3. Heavy flavours in ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnet, Ph.

    2008-01-01

    The ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions are the today's only means to tackle in laboratory conditions the phase diagram in quantum chromodynamics and the strong interaction. The most recent theoretical studies predict a phase transition between the cold nuclear matter (a hadronic gas) and a plasma of quarks and gluons. Heavy flavour can characterize the nuclear matter produced in a heavy ion collision as well as its spatial-temporal evolution. Their study can be made through their decay into muons. The first part of this work presents the issue of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions and the role of heavy flavours. In the second part the author reviews the results of experiments performed at RHIC and particularly presents the analysis of the mass spectrum of dimuons in the Phenix experiment. The third part describes the muon trigger system of the Alice experiment at CERN and the expected performances for the study of di-muons

  4. Heavy ion program at BNL: AGS, RHIC [Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    With the recent commissioning of fixed target, heavy ion physics at the AGS, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has embarked on a long range program in support of relativistic heavy ion research. Acceleration of low mass heavy ions (up to sulfur) to an energy of about 14.5 GeV/nucleon is possible with the direct connection of the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff and AGS accelerators. When completed, the new booster accelerator will provide heavy ions over the full mass range for injection and subsequent acceleration in the AGS. BNL is now engaged in an active R and D program directed toward the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The results of the first operation of the low mass heavy ion program will be reviewed, and future expectations discussed. The expected performance for the heavy ion operation of the booster will be described and finally, the current status and outlook for the RHIC facility will be presented

  5. Cellular radiobiology of heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Ngo, F.Q.H.; Roots, R.J.; Yang, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas of this research program: relative biological effectiveness and oxygen enhancement ratio of silicon ion beams; heavy ion effects on the cell cycle; the potentiation effect (2 doses of high LET heavy-ion radiations separated by 2 to 3 hours); potentially lethal damage in actively growing cells and plateau growth cells; radiation induced macromolecular lesions and cellular radiation chemistry; lethal effects of dual radiation; and the development of a biophysical repair/misrepair model

  6. Sputtering from swift-ion trails in LiF: A hybrid PIC/MD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherednikov, Yaroslav; Sun, Si Neng; Urbassek, Herbert M., E-mail: urbassek@rhrk.uni-kl.de

    2013-11-15

    We model the sputtering of a LiF crystal induced by swift-ion impact. The impinging ion creates a trail of doubly ionized F{sup +} ions, while simultaneously the corresponding electrons are set free. Ions move according to molecular dynamics, while excited electrons are treated by a particle-in-cell scheme. We treat the recombination time of electrons as a free parameter in our model. We find that the energy distribution of sputtered ions consists of 2 groups: a low-energy group centered at <1 eV, and a high-energy group at 7–8 eV. Fast ions (mainly Li{sup +}) are emitted early; these charge the surface negatively. Later, larger cluster ions and also neutral LiF molecules are emitted. Emission occurs at low angles to the surface normal. A jet along the normal direction can be observed, which is due to the electric field building up at the track surface. With increasing recombination time, processes are colder; sputtering decreases and the non-thermal jet structure becomes stronger.

  7. Allotropic effects on the energy loss of swift H+ and He+ ion beams through thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Denton, Cristian D.; Heredia-Avalos, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a theoretical treatment and a simulation code to study the energy loss of swift H + and He + ion beams interacting with thin foils of different carbon allotropes. The former is based on the dielectric formalism, and the latter combines Monte Carlo with the numerical solution of the motion equation for each projectile to describe its trajectory and interactions through the target. The capabilities of both methods are assessed by the reasonably good agreement between their predictions and the experimental results, for a wide range of projectile energies and target characteristics. Firstly, we apply the theoretical procedure to calculate the stopping cross sections for H + and He + beams in foils of different allotropic forms of carbon (such as diamond, graphite, amorphous carbon, glassy carbon and C 60 -fullerite), as a function of the projectile energy. We take into account the electronic structure of the projectile, as well as the different charge states it can acquire, the energy loss associated to the electronic capture and loss processes, the polarization of the projectile, and a realistic description of the target. On the other hand, the simulation code is used to evaluate the energy distributions of swift H + and He + ion beams when traversing several foils of the above mentioned allotropic forms of carbon, in order to analyze the influence of the chemical and physical state of the target in the projectile energy loss. These allotropic effects are found to become more important around the maximum of the stopping cross-section

  8. Optical waveguides in LiTaO3 crystals fabricated by swift C5+ ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guiyuan; He, Ruiyun; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We report on the optical waveguides, in both planar and ridge configurations, fabricated in LiTaO 3 crystal by using carbon (C 5+ ) ions irradiation at energy of 15 MeV. The planar waveguide was produced by direct irradiation of swift C 5+ ions, whilst the ridge waveguides were manufactured by using femtosecond laser ablation of the planar layer. The reconstructed refractive index profile of the planar waveguide has showed a barrier-shaped distribution, and the near-field waveguide mode intensity distribution was in good agreement with the calculated modal profile. After thermal annealing at 260 °C in air, the propagation losses of both the planar and ridge waveguides were reduced to 10 dB/cm

  9. Velocity dependence of enhanced dynamic hyperfine field for Pd ions swiftly recoiling in magnetized Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Ryan, G.C.; Bolotin, H.H.; Sie, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    The velocity-dependence of the magnitude of the enchanced dynamic hyperfine magnetic field (EDF) manifest at nuclei of 108 Pd ions swiftly recoiling through thin magnetized Fe has been investigated at ion velocities higher than have heretofore been examined for the heavier nuclides (i.e., at initial recoil velocities (v/Zv 0 )=0.090 and 0.160, v 0 =c/137). These results for 108 Pd, when taken in conjunction with those of prior similar measurements for 106 Pd at lower velocities, and fitted to a velocity dependence for the EDF, give for the Pd isotopes over the extended velocity range 1.74 0 )<=7.02, p=0.41+-0.15; a result incompatible with previous attributions of a linear velocity dependence for the field

  10. Accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, W.L. Jr.; Sawyer, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Accelerator technology development is presented for heavy ion drivers used in inertial confinement fusion. The program includes construction of low-velocity ''test bed'' accelerator facilities, development of analytical and experimental techniques to characterize ion beam behavior, and the study of ion beam energy deposition

  11. Heavy-ion mammography and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Holley, W.R.; Woodruff, K.H.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy-ion radiography is a new diagnostic imaging technique developed in our laboratory that produces superior density resolution at low radiation doses. Heavy-ion mammography has now emerged as a low-dose, safe, reliable, noninvasive diagnostic radiological procedure that can quantitate and image very small differences in soft tissue densities in the breast tissues of patients with clinical breast disease. The improved density resolution of heavy-ion mammography over conventional X-ray mammography and breast xerography provides the potential of detecting small breast cancers of less than 1 cm diameter. The radiation dose to the breast from carbon-ion mammorgraphy is about 50 mrad or less, and can potentially be only a fraction of this level. The results of the present clinical trial in progress of heavy-ion mammography in 37 patients, thus far studied, are extremely encouraging, and warrant continued study for application to the early diagnosis of breast cancer in women

  12. Energy straggling of heavy ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowern, N.E.B.

    1979-08-01

    The energy-loss straggling of heavy ions has been studied, principally in the Born Approximation region v > zv 0 . Measurements were made with 5.486 MeV α particles, 5 - 48 MeV 16 0 ions, and 3 - 36 MeV 12 C ions, incident on thin uniform Al foils. The thickness uniformity of the foils was studied with a proton microbeam and a surface profiler, and their homogeneity, purity and isotropy were investigated by electron microscope, proton backscattering, and X-ray diffraction studies. Using the Bethe theory of energy loss the charge-exchange model of energy straggling for heavy ions is confirmed. (author)

  13. Development of heavy ion linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomko, V.A.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the known heavy ion accelerators is given. It is stated that cyclic and linear accelerators are the most perspective ones in the energy range up to 10 MeV/nucleon according to universality in respect with the possibility of ion acceleration of the wide mass range. However, according to the accelerated beam intensity of the heavier ions the linear accelerators have considerable advantages over any other types of accelerators. The review of the known heavy ion linac structures permits to make the conclusion that a new modification of an accelerating structure of opposite pins excited on a H-wave is the most perspective one [ru

  14. Heavy ion facility for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, C.; Alonso, J.; Clark, D.; Grunder, H.; Hoyer, E.; Lou, K.; Staples, J.; Voelker, F.

    1977-03-01

    The accelerator requirements of particle radiation therapy are reviewed and a preliminary design of a heavy ion synchrotron for hospital installation is presented. Beam delivery systems and multi-treatment room arrangements are outlined

  15. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections

  16. Phenomenological approaches of dissipative heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.

    1983-09-01

    These lectures describe the properties of dissipative heavy ion collisions observed in low bombarding energy heavy ion reactions. These dissipative collisions are of two different types: fusion and deep inelastic reactions. Their main experimental properties are described on selected examples. It is shown how it is possible to give a simple interpretation to the data. A large number of phenomenological models have been developped to understand dissipative heavy ion collisions. The most important are those describing the collision by classical mechanics and friction forces, the diffusion models, and transport theories which merge both preceding approaches. A special emphasis has been done on two phenomena observed in dissipative heavy ion collisions: charge equilibratium for which we can show the existence of quantum fluctuations, and fast fission which appears as an intermediate mechanism between deep inelastic reactions and compound nucleus formation [fr

  17. Scattering and transfer reactions with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    From the elastic scattering analysis the input parameters are found for the inelastic scattering analysis and the transfer reactions of the heavy ion reactions. The main theme reported is the likeness and conection among these processes. (L.C.) [pt

  18. Proceedings of the heavy ion fusion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain reviews of current laboratory programs dealing with inertial fusion driven by beams of heavy ions, as well as several individually abstracted invited talks, workshop reports and contributed papers.

  19. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics: research with multiple- beam experiment MBE-4; induction linac systems experiments; and long- range research and development of heavy-ion fusion accelerators

  20. Radiobiological comparison of pions and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The physical and radiobiological differences between some aspects of pions and heavy ions are discussed, followed by a discussion of acute and late effects of high LET radiations compared to low LET radiations

  1. Working group report: Heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was ... by two plenary talks on experimental overview of heavy ion collisions and ... charge. At low temperature and density the quarks and gluons are confined within.

  2. Jet-Underlying Event Separation Method for Heavy Ion Collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Hanks, J. A.; Sickles, A. M.; Cole, B. A.; Franz, A.; McCumber, M. P.; Morrison, D. P.; Nagle, J. L.; Pinkenburg, C. H.; Sahlmueller, B.; Steinberg, P.; von Steinkirch, M.; Stone, M.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstructed jets in heavy ion collisions are a crucial tool for understanding the quark-gluon plasma. The separation of jets from the underlying event is necessary particularly in central heavy ion reactions in order to quantify medium modifications of the parton shower and the response of the surrounding medium itself. There have been many methods proposed and implemented for studying the underlying event substructure in proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. In this paper, we detail a me...

  3. Heavy-ion-linac post-accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The main features of the tandem-linac system for heavy-ion acceleration are reviewed and illustrated in terms of the technology and performance of the superconducting heavy-ion energy booster at Argonne. This technology is compared briefly with the corresponding technologies of the superconducting linac at Stony Brook and the room-temperature linac at Heidelberg. The performance possibilities for the near-term future are illustrated in terms of the proposed extension of the Argonne booster to form ATLAS

  4. Heavy ion collisions with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevski, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is designed to study high-p T physics in proton-proton collisions at the LHC design luminosity. The detector capabilities for heavy-ion physics are now being evaluated. This paper reports on a preliminary assessment of the baseline ATLAS detector potential for heavy-ion physics. The ATLAS sensitivity to some of the expected signatures from the quark-gluon plasma (e.g. jet quenching, Υ suppression) is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs

  6. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto

  7. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1983-12-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto

  8. Validating PHITS for heavy ion fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronningen, Reginald M.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the Monte Carlo code system PHITS is validated for heavy-ion transport capabilities by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data from heavy-ion reactions of benchmark quality. These data are from measurements of isotope yields produced in the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u "4"8Ca beam on a beryllium target and on a tantalum target. The results of this study show that PHITS performs reliably. (authors)

  9. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed

  10. Localization effects in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donangelo, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Radial and angular localization in heavy ion reactions on deformed nuclei is discussed. A theoretical method appropriate to study these localization effects is briefly described and then applied to the determination of deformed heavy ion potentials from inclastic scattering data. It is argued that one-and two-nucleon transfer reactions on deformed nuclei can provide a probe of nuclear structure in high angular momentum states and be at least qualitatively analyzed in the light of these localization concepts. (Author) [pt

  11. Now day methods for heavy ion monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, S.M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Chubaryan, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    Up-to-date methods for identification of products yield as a result of heavy ion interaction with nuclei are described. Monitoring of total ionization has been realized by gas-filled ionization chambers semiconductor detectors, scintillators. A method for specific ionization loss monitoring and time-of-flight technique for heavy-ion mass identification are considered. Advantages of the method for identification of nuclear reaction prodUcts by means of a magnetic analyzer are displayed

  12. Review of heavy ion reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.

    1986-04-01

    We review some of the many aspects of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms observed at bombarding energies smaller than approximately 50 MeV/u that is to say in what is called the low bombarding energy domain and the intermediate bombarding energy domain. We emphasize the results concerning the use of very heavy projectiles which has led to the observation of new mechanisms

  13. Physics with heavy ions at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarik, K.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the motivation to study heavy ion collisions at LHC, and the experimental conditions under which detectors will have to operate. A short description of the detectors under construction is given. Physics performance is illustrated in two examples, which will become accessible at LHC energies, jet quenching and heavy-flavor production. (author)

  14. Plasma focus as an heavy ion source in the problem of heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V.A.; Dubrovskij, A.V.; Kalachev, N.V.; Krokhin, O.N.; Silin, P.V.; Nikulin, V.Ya.; Cheblukov, Yu.N.

    1984-01-01

    Results of experiments on the ion flux formation in a plasma focus (PF) to develop a multicharged ion source for thermonuclear facility driver are presented. In plasma focus accelerating section copper ions were injected. Advantages of the suggested method of ion beam formation are demonstrated. Beam emittance equalling < 0.1 cmxmrad is obtained. Plasma focus ion energy exceeds 1 MeV. Plasma focus in combination with a neodymium laser is thought to be a perspective ion source for heavy ion fusion

  15. Cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikal, B.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Kutner, V.B.; Oganesyan, R.Ts.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on heavy ion beams in a wide range of masses (up to uranium) and energies disclose essential potential opportunities for solution of both fundamental scientific and significant economical problems. A cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration is considered. Development of low and medium energy heavy ion accelerators is revealed. The design of a complex comprising two isochronous cyclotrons which is planned to be constrdcted 1n the JINR is described. The cyclotron complex includes the U-400 and the U-400 M cyclotrons and it is intended for acceleration of both 35-20 MeV/nucleon superheavy ions such as Xe-U and 120 MeV/nucleon light ions. Certain systems of the accelerators are described. Prospects of the U-400 and the U-400 M development are displayed

  16. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-07-18

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  17. Respectives of heavy ion physics in JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flerov, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    Perspectives of heavy ion physics in JINR are discussed. The main attention is paid to directions that are connected with the application of intensive beams of U-400 cyclotron. Experiments into studying stability limits of heavy atomic nuclei are considered. The possibility of using beams of heavy ions in applied fields, particularly for the production of very thin nuclear filters is noted. Prospects of synthesis of superheavy elements (SHE) and SHE search in nature are also considered. The data on the events of spontaneous fission found in meteorite and hydrotherms and the data on lengths of tracks in olivines from meteorite prove the possibility of obtaining evidences of SHE existence in nature

  18. Resolving key heavy-ion fusion target issues with relativistic heavy-ion research accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators designed for relativistic nuclear research experiments can also be adapted for target research in heavy-ion driver inertial fusion. Needle-shaped plasmas can be created that are adequate for studying basic properties of matter at high energy density. Although the ion range is very long, the specific deposited power nevertheless increases with kinetic energy, as the focus spot can be made smaller and more ions can be accumulated in larger rings

  19. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on heavy-ion fusion accelerator research: MBE-4: the induction-linac approach; transverse beam dynamics and current amplification; scaling up the results; through ILSE to a driver; ion-source and injector development; and accelerator component research and development

  20. Heavy ion induced mutation in arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy ions, He, C, Ar and Ne were irradiated to the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana for inducing the new mutants. In the irradiated generation (M{sub 1}), germination and survival rate were observed to estimate the relative biological effectiveness in relation to the LET including the inactivation cross section. Mutation frequencies were compared by using three kinds of genetic loci after irradiation with C ions and electrons. Several interesting new mutants were selected in the selfed progenies of heavy ion irradiated seeds. (author)

  1. Improvement of herbage by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongmei; Hao Jifang; Wei Zengquan; Xie Zhongkui; Li Fengqin; Wang Yajun

    2004-01-01

    Herbage seeds of legume and grass were irradiated in penetration by 80 MeV/u 20 Ne 10+ ions. The results of field tests and observations of the root-tip cells showed that growth of the seedling was obviously weakened with increasing doses. Frequencies of chromosomal aberration and micronucleus increased significantly with increasing doses. According to the field growth tests, radiation sensitivity of grass herbage to the heavy ion beams was much higher than leguminous herbage, and suitable dose of the heavy ion irradiation for the grass and leguminous herbage is 20-30 Gy and 150 Gy, respectively

  2. Heavy ion medical accelerator in chiba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Yamada, S.

    1992-12-01

    The HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) construction project has been promoted by NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences) as one of the projects of 'Comprehensive 10 year Strategy for Cancer Control' HIMAC is the first heavy-ion accelerator dedicated to medicine in the world, and its design parameters are based on the radiological requirements. It consists of two types of ion sources, an RFQ and an Alvarez linacs, dual synchrotron rings, high energy beam transport lines, and irradiation facilities for treatment and experiments. This report mainly describes the outline of the structure and performance of each HIMAC subsystem. (J.P.N.)

  3. Heavy-ion driver design and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.; Monsler, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, L.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper

  4. Nuclear fission induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.O.

    1988-09-01

    Because the accelerators of the 50's and 60's mostly provided beams of light ions, well suited for studying individual quantum states of low angular momentum or reactions involving the transfer of one or two nucleons, the study of fission, being an example of large-scale collective motion, has until recently been outside of the mainstream of nuclear research. This situation has changed in recent years, due to the new generation of accelerators capable of producing beams of heavy ions with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of all stable nuclei. These have made possible the study of new examples of large-scale collective motions, involving major rearrangements of nuclear matter, such as deep-inelastic collisions and heavy-ion fusion. Perhaps the most exciting development in the past few years is the discovery that dissipative effects (nuclear viscosity) play an important role in fission induced by heavy ions, contrary to earlier assumptions that the viscosity involved in fission was very weak and played only a minor role. This review will be mainly concerned with developments in heavy-ion induced fission during the last few years and have an emphasis on the very recent results on dissipative effects. Since heavy-ion bombardment usually results in compound systems with high excitation energies and angular momenta, shell effects might be expected to be small, and the subject of low energy fission, where they are important, will not be addressed. 285 refs., 58 figs

  5. Contribution to the study of sputtering and damage of uranium dioxide by fast heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlutig, S.

    2001-03-01

    Swift heavy ion-solid interaction leads in volume to track creation and on the surface to the ejection of particles into the vacuum. To learn more about initial mechanisms of track formation, we are focused on the sputtering of uranium dioxide by fast heavy ions. This present study is exclusively devoted to the influence of the electronic stopping power on the emission of neutral particles and especially on their angular distribution. These measurements are completed by those of the ions emitted from UO 2 targets bombarded with swift heavy ions. The whole experimental results give access to: i) the nature of the sputtered particles; ii) the charge state of the emitted particles; iii) the direction of ejection of the sputtered particles ; iv) the sputtering yields deduced from the angular distributions. These results are compared to the prediction of the sputtering models proposed in the literature and it seems that the supersonic gas flow model is well suited to describe our results. Finally, the sputtering yields are compared with a set of earlier experimental data on uranium dioxide damage obtained by T. Wiss and we observe that only a small fraction of UO 2 monolayers are sputtered. (author)

  6. High energy heavy ions: techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Pioneering work at the Bevalac has given significant insight into the field of relativistic heavy ions, both in the development of techniques for acceleration and delivery of these beams as well as in many novel areas of applications. This paper will outline our experiences at the Bevalac; ion sources, low velocity acceleration, matching to the synchrotron booster, and beam delivery. Applications discussed will include the observation of new effects in central nuclear collisions, production of beams of exotic short-lived (down to 1 μsec) isotopes through peripheral nuclear collisions, atomic physics with hydrogen-like uranium ions, effects of heavy ''cosmic rays'' on satellite equipment, and an ongoing cancer radiotherapy program with heavy ions. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Production of highly ionized recoil ions in heavy ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Be, S.H.; Shibata, H.; Kase, M.; Kambara, T.; Kumagai, H.; Kohno, I.

    1985-01-01

    The production mechanisms of highly ionized recoil ions in energetic, highly charged heavy ion impact are compared with those in photon and electron impact. In addition to the innershell ionization processes which are important in photon and electron impact, the electron transfer processes are found to play a key role in heavy ion impact. In molecular targets are also observed highly ionized monoatomic ions which are believed to be produced through production of highly ionized molecular ions followed by prompt dissociation. The observed N 6+ ions produced in 1.05MeV/amu Ar 12+ ions on N 2 molecules are produced through, for example, N 2 12+ *→N 6+ +N 6+ process. (author)

  8. CERN Heavy-Ion Facility design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.; Angert, N.; Bourgarel, M.P.; Brouzet, E.; Cappi, R.; Dekkers, D.; Evans, J.; Gelato, G.; Haseroth, H.; Hill, C.E.; Hutter, G.; Knott, J.; Kugler, H.; Lombardi, A.; Lustig, H.; Malwitz, E.; Nitsch, F.; Parisi, G.; Pisent, A.; Raich, U.; Ratzinger, U.; Riccati, L.; Schempp, A.; Schindl, K.; Schoenauer, H.; Tetu, P.; Umstaetter, H.H.; Rooij, M. van; Weiss, M.

    1993-01-01

    The design of the CERN Heavy-Ion Facility is described. This facility will be based on a new ion linear accelerator (Linac 3), together with improvements to the other accelerators of the CERN complex to allow them to cope with heavy ions, i.e. to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). For this reference design, the pure isotope of lead, 208 Pb, is considered. The bulk of the report describes Linac 3, a purpose-built heavy-ion linac mainly designed and constructed in collaboration with several CERN member state laboratories, but also with contributions from non-member states. Modifications and improvements to existing CERN accelerators essentially concern the RF acceleration, beam control and beam monitoring (all machines), beam kickers and septa at the input and output of the PSB, and major vacuum improvements, aiming to reduce the pressure by factors of at least seven and three in the PSB and PS respectively. After injection from the Electron Cyclotron Resonance source at 2.5 keV/u the partially stripped heavy-ion beam is accelerated successively by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole and an Interdigital-H linac to 4.2 MeV/u. After stripping to 208 Pb 53+ , the beam is again accelerated, firstly in the PSB (to 98.5 MeV/u), then in the PS (to 4.25 GeV/u). The final stage of acceleration in the SPS takes the fully stripped 208 Pb 82+ ions to 177 GeV/u, delivering a beam of 4.10 8 ions per SPS supercycle (15.2 s) to the experiments. The first physics run with lead ions is scheduled for the end of 1994. Finally, some requirements for carrying out heavy-ion physics at the Large Hadron Collider are mentioned. (orig.)

  9. Heavy quark photoproduction in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim; Vogt, Ramona

    2002-01-01

    Heavy quarks are copiously produced in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions. In the strong electromagnetic fields, cc-bar and bb-bar are produced by photonuclear and two-photon interactions. Hadroproduction can also occur in grazing interactions. We calculate the total cross sections and the quark transverse momentum and rapidity distributions, as well as the QQ-bar invariant mass spectra from the three production channels. We consider AA and pA collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider. We discuss techniques for separating the three processes and describe how the AA to pA production ratios might be measured accurately enough to study nuclear shadowing

  10. Targets for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes some of the basic principles of fusion target implosions, using some simple targets designed for irradiation by ion beams. Present estimates are that ion beams with 1-5 MJ, and 100-500 TW will be required to ignite high gain targets. (orig.) [de

  11. Data acquisition for the HILI [Heavy Ion Light Ion] detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, K.M.; Shapira, D.; McConnell, J.W.; Kim, H.; Novotny, R.

    1987-01-01

    A large acceptance, multi-segmented detector system capable of the simultaneous detection of heavy and light ions has been constructed. The heavy ions are detected with a segmented gas ionization chamber and a multiwire proportional counter while the light ions are detected with a 192 element plastic phoswich hodoscope. Processing the large number of signals is accomplished through a combination of CAMAC and FASTBUS modules and preprocessors, and a Host minicomputer. Details of the data acquisition system and the reasons for adopting a dual standards system are discussed. In addition, a technique for processing signals from an individual hodoscope detector is presented. 4 refs., 3 figs

  12. Study on broad beam heavy ion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yumiko; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Hitomi; Nanbu, S.; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2003-01-01

    To achieve the heavy ion radiotherapy more precisely, it is important to know the distribution of the electron density in a human body, which is highly related to the range of charged particles. From a heavy ion CT image, we can directly obtain the 2-D distribution of the electron density in a sample. For this purpose, we have developed a broad beam heavy ion CT system. The electron density was obtained using some kinds of solutions targets. Also the dependence of the spatial resolution on the target size and the kinds of beams was estimated in this work using cylinders targets of 40, 60 and 80 mm in diameter, each of them has a hole of 10 mm in diameter at the center of it. (author)

  13. Heavy ion induction linacs for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Ho, D.D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1976 Denis Keefe proposed the heavy ion induction linac as a driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plants. Subsequent research has established that heavy ion fusion (HIF) is potentially an attractive energy source and has identified the issues that must be resolved to make HIF a reality. The principal accelerator issues are achieving adequately low transverse and longitudinal emittance and acceptable cost. Results from the single and multiple beam experiments at LBL on transverse emittance are encouraging. A predicted high current longitudinal instability that can affect longitudinal emittance is currently being studied. This paper presents an overview of economics and ICF target requirements and their relationship to accelerator design. It also presents a summary of the status of heavy ion induction linac research. It concludes with a discussion of research plans, including plans for the proposed Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE)

  14. Synchrotrons for heavy ions: Bevalac experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Gough, R.A.; Alonso, J.R.

    1980-10-01

    The Bevalac should be viewed not as a model of accelerator hardware - a modern heavy ion complex will look quite different, but as a model for an operating versatile multifaceted, multiuser heavy ion facility. Of value to the planning of a new accelerator such as MARIA is the knowledge of operating modes peculiar to heavy ions and specific hardware requirements to carry out its mission with the mandated flexibility and reliability. This paper starts with a discussion of parameters and machine characteristics most suitable for medical and nuclear science applications. It then covers experience in interleaving these two research programs, and finally, concentrates on accelerator configuratin questions; injectors, repetition rate, vacuum systems and cost criteria which will be relevant to the design of MARIA

  15. Specific gene mutations induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeling, M.; Karoly, C.W.; Cheng, D.S.K.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes our heavy-ion research rationale, progress, and plans for the near future. The major project involves selecting a group of maize Adh1 mutants induced by heavy ions and correlating their altered behavior with altered DNA nucleotide sequences and sequence arrangements. This research requires merging the techniques of classical genetics and recombinant DNA technology. Our secondary projects involve (1) the use of the Adh gene in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as a second system with which to quantify the sort of specific gene mutants induced by heavy ions as compared to x rays, and (2) the development of a maize Adh1 pollen in situ monitor for environmental mutagens

  16. HIGH DENSITY QCD WITH HEAVY-IONS

    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  17. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental progress to date has strengthened our belief in the soundness and attractiveness of the heavy ion method for fusion. What surprises that have shown up in the laboratory (e.g., in SBTE) have all been of the pleasant kind so far. The systems assessment has supported the view that the heavy ion approach can lead to economically attractive electric power and that a wide variety of options exists in all parameters. The systems work has also been of great help in pointing the way for the research and development activities

  18. Penetration of relativistic heavy ions through matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidenberger, C.; Geissel, H.

    1997-07-01

    New heavy-ion accelerators covering the relativistic and ultra-relativistic energy regime allow to study atomic collisions with bare and few-electron projectiles. High-resolution magnetic spectrometers are used for precise stopping-power and energy-loss straggling measurements. Refined theories beyond the Born approximation have been developed and are confirmed by experiments. This paper summarizes the large progress in the understanding of relativistic heavy-ion penetration through matter, which has been achieved in the last few years. (orig.)

  19. Next generation of relativistic heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.; Leemann, C.; Selph, F.

    1978-06-01

    Results are presented of exploratory and preliminary studies of a next generation of heavy ion accelerators. The conclusion is reached that useful luminosities are feasible in a colliding beam facility for relativistic heavy ions. Such an accelerator complex may be laid out in such a way as to provide extractebeams for fixed target operation, therefore allowing experimentation in an energy region overlapping with that presently available. These dual goals seem achievable without undue complications, or penalties with respect to cost and/or performance

  20. Heavy ion and hadron reactions in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1979-04-01

    Recent results from heavy ion and hadron reactions in emulsion are reviewed. General properties of hadron-reaction multiplicities and their correlation to the production of recoiling protons are given. Properties of pseudo-rapidity distributions of shower-particles especially the particle production in the central region of pseudo-rapidity will be discussed. Non-peripheral heavy ion reactions are compared to recent participant-spectator model calculations. Very energetic cosmic ray events will be examined in the light of recent results from hadron-nucleus reactions. (author)

  1. European heavy ion ICF driver development

    CERN Document Server

    Plass, Günther

    1996-01-01

    Approaches in Europe to heavy ion induced Inertial Confinement Fusion are oriented toward the linac-plus- storage ring technique. Despite the very limited support of this work, technical pro gress was achieved in some important areas. For the immediate future, a substantial intensity upgrade of the GSI accelerator facilities at Darmstadt is being implemented, leading to specific energy depositions of the order of 100 kJ/g and plasma temperatures of 10 to 20 eV. For the longer term, a conceptual design study of a heavy ion based Ignition Facility is being initiated.

  2. Review of BNL heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miake, Yasuo.

    1990-01-01

    With an intent to search for a new state of matter, a relativistic heavy ion program was started in 1986 at BNL. Several interesting features have been reported from BNL-AGS heavy ion experiments, among which are: the enhanced K + /π + ratio and the larger left-angle m t right-angle for K + and proton. Comparisons between ∼pp, pA and SiA collisions are discussed for m t and dn/dy distributions. 33 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  3. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Hvidkjær

    2010-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact....... As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions...

  4. Hadron chemistry in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montvay, I.; Zimanyi, J.

    1978-06-01

    In the models for energetic heavy ion reactions it is assumed that during the reaction a hot and dense nuclear matter, a fireball is formed from all or a part of nucleons of the target and projectile nuclei. The process is similar to the chemical processes leading to dynamical equilibrium. The relaxation times necessary to establish ''chemical'' equilibrium among different hadrons in hot, dense hadronic matter is deducted in a statistical model. Consequences for heavy ion collisions are discussed. The possibility of Bose-Einstein pion condensation around the break-up time of the nuclear fireball is pointed out. (D.P.)

  5. Jets in heavy ion collisions with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Salur, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Jet physics in heavy ion collisions is a rich field which has been rapidly evolving since the first observations of medium interactions at RHIC through back-to-back hadron correlations and at LHC via reconstructed jets. In order to completely characterize the final state via jet-medium interactions and distinguish between competing energy loss mechanisms complementary and robust jet observables are investigated. Latest developments of jet finding techniques and their applications to heavy ion environments are discussed with an emphasis given on experimental results from CMS experiment.

  6. New developments in heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    Beginning in 1984, the US Department of Energy plans a program aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as pellet drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This paper will describe the events in the field of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) that have occurred in the three years since the Lausanne Conference in this series. The emphasis will be on the events leading towards the energy oriented program. In addition to providing an overview of progress in HIF, such a discussion may prove useful for promoters of any ''emerging'' energy technology. (orig.) [de

  7. Spatial and energy distributions of the fragments resulting from the dissociation of swift molecular ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia-Avalos, Santiago; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    We have simulated the spatial evolution and energy loss of the fragments that result when swift molecular ions dissociate inside solid targets. In our calculations we have considered that these fragments undergo the following interactions: Coulomb repulsion (among like charged particles), stopping and wake forces (due to electronic excitations induced in the target), and nuclear scattering (with the target nuclei). We study the case of silicon targets irradiated with boron molecular or atomic ions; our results show that the main differences in the energy and spatial distributions of molecular fragments or atomic ions appear at shallow regions, and these tend to disappear at deeper depths

  8. High current vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, N.; Schein, J.; Gensler, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Brown, I.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy Ion fusion (HIF) is one of the approaches for the controlled thermonuclear power production. A source of heavy ions with charge states 1+ to 2+, in ∼0.5 A current beams with ∼20 micros pulse widths and ∼10 Hz repetition rates are required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the HIF program to date, but suffer from sloe turn-on, heating problems for large areas, are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states, in short and long pulse bursts, with low emittance and high beam currents. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications is investigated. An existing ion source at LBNL was modified to produce ∼0.5 A, ∼60 keV Gd (A∼158) ion beams. The experimental effort concentrated on beam noise reduction, pulse-to-pulse reproducibility and achieving low beam emittance at 0.5 A ion current level. Details of the source development will be reported

  9. Heavy ion acceleration at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is alternating gradient synchrotron, 807 meters in circumference, which was originally designed for only protons. Using the 15 MV Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff as an injector, the AGS started to accelerate heavy ions of mass lighter than sulfur. Because of the relatively poor vacuum (∼10 -8 Torr), the AGS is not able to accelerate heavier ions which could not be fully stripped of electrons at the Tandem energy. When the AGS Booster, which is under construction, is completed the operation will be extended to all species of heavy ions including gold and uranium. Because ultra-high vacuum (∼10 -11 Torr) is planned, the Booster can accelerate partially stripped elements. The operational experience, the parameters, and scheme of heavy ion acceleration will be presented in detail from injection to extraction, as well as future injection into the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A future plan to improve intensity of the accelerator will also be presented. 5 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Computing for Heavy Ion Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, G.; Schiff, D.; Hristov, P.; Menaud, J.M.; Hrivnacova, I.; Poizat, P.; Chabratova, G.; Albin-Amiot, H.; Carminati, F.; Peters, A.; Schutz, Y.; Safarik, K.; Ollitrault, J.Y.; Hrivnacova, I.; Morsch, A.; Gheata, A.; Morsch, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Lauret, J.; Nief, J.Y.; Pereira, H.; Kaczmarek, O.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Guernane, R.; Stocco, D.; Gruwe, M.; Betev, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Vilakazi, Z.; Rapp, B.; Masoni, A.; Stoicea, G.; Brun, R.

    2005-01-01

    This workshop was devoted to the computational technologies needed for the heavy quarkonia and open flavor production study at LHC (large hadron collider) experiments. These requirements are huge: peta-bytes of data will be generated each year. Analysing this will require the equivalent of a few thousands of today's fastest PC processors. The new developments in terms of dedicated software has been addressed. This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the workshop

  11. Computing for Heavy Ion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G.; Schiff, D.; Hristov, P.; Menaud, J.M.; Hrivnacova, I.; Poizat, P.; Chabratova, G.; Albin-Amiot, H.; Carminati, F.; Peters, A.; Schutz, Y.; Safarik, K.; Ollitrault, J.Y.; Hrivnacova, I.; Morsch, A.; Gheata, A.; Morsch, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Lauret, J.; Nief, J.Y.; Pereira, H.; Kaczmarek, O.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Guernane, R.; Stocco, D.; Gruwe, M.; Betev, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Vilakazi, Z.; Rapp, B.; Masoni, A.; Stoicea, G.; Brun, R

    2005-07-01

    This workshop was devoted to the computational technologies needed for the heavy quarkonia and open flavor production study at LHC (large hadron collider) experiments. These requirements are huge: peta-bytes of data will be generated each year. Analysing this will require the equivalent of a few thousands of today's fastest PC processors. The new developments in terms of dedicated software has been addressed. This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the workshop.

  12. Computing for Heavy Ion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G; Schiff, D; Hristov, P; Menaud, J M; Hrivnacova, I; Poizat, P; Chabratova, G; Albin-Amiot, H; Carminati, F; Peters, A; Schutz, Y; Safarik, K; Ollitrault, J Y; Hrivnacova, I; Morsch, A; Gheata, A; Morsch, A; Vande Vyvre, P; Lauret, J; Nief, J Y; Pereira, H; Kaczmarek, O; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Guernane, R; Stocco, D; Gruwe, M; Betev, L; Baldisseri, A; Vilakazi, Z; Rapp, B; Masoni, A; Stoicea, G; Brun, R

    2005-07-01

    This workshop was devoted to the computational technologies needed for the heavy quarkonia and open flavor production study at LHC (large hadron collider) experiments. These requirements are huge: peta-bytes of data will be generated each year. Analysing this will require the equivalent of a few thousands of today's fastest PC processors. The new developments in terms of dedicated software has been addressed. This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the workshop.

  13. Heavy Flavor Production in Heavy Ion Collisions at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Studies of Heavy flavor production are of great interest in heavy ion collisions. In the produced medium, the binding potential between a quark and antiquark in quarkonium is screened by surrounding light quarks and antiquarks. Thus, the various quarkonium states are expected to be melt at different temperatures depending on their binding energies, which allows us to characterize the QCD phase transition. In addition, open heavy flavor production are relevant for flavor-dependence of the in-medium parton energy loss. In QCD, gluons are expected to lose more energy compared to quarks when passing through the QGP due to the larger color charge. Compared to light quarks, heavy quarks are expected to lose less radiative energy because gluon radiation is suppressed at angles smaller than the ratio of the quark mass to its energy. This dead cone effect (and its disappearance at high transverse momentum) can be studied using open heavy flavor mesons and heavy flavor tagged jets. With CMS detector, quarkonia, open he...

  14. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Riepe, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10 -7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column

  15. Heavy ion fusion experiments at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Cable, M.D.; Callahan, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    We review the status of the experimental campaign being carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, involving scaled investigations of the acceleration and transport of space-charge dominated heavy ion beams. The ultimate goal of these experiments is to help lay the groundwork for a larger scale ion driven inertial fusion reactor, the purpose of which is to produce inexpensive and clean electric power

  16. High resolution spectrometry for relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, G; Schimmerling, W; Greiner, D; Bieser, F; Lindstrom, P [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1975-12-01

    Several techniques are discussed for velocity and energy spectrometry of relativistic heavy ions with good resolution. A foil telescope with chevron channel plate detectors is described. A test of this telescope was performed using 2.1 GeV/A C/sup 6 +/ ions, and a time-of-flight resolution of 160 ps was measured. Qualitative information on the effect of foil thickness was also obtained.

  17. Faster Heavy Ion Transport for HZETRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaba, Tony C.

    2013-01-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN was developed to enable fast and accurate space radiation transport through materials. As more complex transport solutions are implemented for neutrons, light ions (Z heavy ion (Z > 2) transport algorithm in HZETRN is reviewed, and a simple modification is shown to provide an approximate 5x decrease in execution time for galactic cosmic ray transport. Convergence tests and other comparisons are carried out to verify that numerical accuracy is maintained in the new algorithm.

  18. Observations of Heavy Ions in the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    There are two sources for the hot ions in the magnetosphere: the solar wind and the ionosphere. The solar wind is predominantly protons, with about 4% He++ and less than 1% other high charge state heavy ions. The ionospheric outflow is also predominantly H+, but can contain a significant fraction of heavy ions including O+, N+, He+, O++, and molecular ions (NO+, N2+, O2+). The ionospheric outflow composition varies significantly both with geomagnetic activity and with solar EUV. The variability in the contribution of the two sources, the variability in the ionospheric source itself, and the transport paths of the different species are all important in determining the ion composition at a given location in the magnetosphere. In addition to the source variations, loss processes within the magnetosphere can be mass dependent, changing the composition. In particular, charge exchange is strongly species dependent, and can lead to heavy ion dominance at some energies in the inner magnetosphere. In this talk we will review the current state of our understanding of the composition of the magnetosphere and the processes that determine it.

  19. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1991-08-01

    The USA Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report

  20. Prospects for high energy heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, C.

    1979-03-01

    The acceleration of heavy ions to relativistic energies (T greater than or equal to 1 GeV/amu) at the beam intensities required for fundamental research falls clearly in the domain of synchrotons. Up to date, such beams have been obtained from machines originally designed as proton acccelerators by means of modified RF-programs, improved vacuum and, most importantly, altered or entirely new injector systems. Similarly, for the future, substantial changes in synchrotron design itself are not foreseen, but rather the judicious application and development of presently known principles and technologies and a choice of parameters optimized with respect to the peculiarities of heavy ions. The low charge to mass ratio, q/A, of very heavy ions demands that superconducting magnets be considered in the interest of the highest energies for a given machine size. Injector brightness will continue to be of highest importance, and although space charge effects such as tune shifts will be increased by a factor q 2 /A compared with protons, advances in linac current and brightness, rather than substantially higher energies are required to best utilize a given synchrotron acceptance. However, high yeilds of fully stripped, very heavy ions demand energies of a few hundred MeV/amu, thus indicating the need for a booster synchrotron, although for entirely different reasons than in proton facilities. Finally, should we consider colliding beams, the high charge of heavy ions will impose severe current limitations and put high demands on system design with regard to such quantities as e.g., wall impedances or the ion induced gas desorption rate, and advanced concepts such as low β insertions with suppressed dispersion and very small crossing angles will be essential to the achievement of useful luminosities

  1. Heavy ion irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Eduardo Seperuelo; Domaracka, Alicja; Boduch, Philippe; Rothard, Hermann; Balanzat, Emmanuel; Dartois, Emmanuel; Pilling, Sergio; Farenzena, Lucio; Frota da Silveira, Enio

    2009-01-01

    Icy grain mantles consist of small molecules containing hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen atoms (e.g. H 2 O, GO, CO 2 , NH 3 ). Such ices, present in different astrophysical environments (giant planets satellites, comets, dense clouds, and protoplanetary disks), are subjected to irradiation of different energetic particles: UV radiation, ion bombardment (solar and stellar wind as well as galactic cosmic rays), and secondary electrons due to cosmic ray ionization of H 2 . The interaction of these particles with astrophysical ice analogs has been the object of research over the last decades. However, there is a lack of information on the effects induced by the heavy ion component of cosmic rays in the electronic energy loss regime. The aim of the present work is to simulate of the astrophysical environment where ice mantles are exposed to the heavy ion cosmic ray irradiation. Sample ice films at 13 K were irradiated by nickel ions with energies in the 1-10 MeV/u range and analyzed by means of FTIR spectrometry. Nickel ions were used because their energy deposition is similar to that deposited by iron ions, which are particularly abundant cosmic rays amongst the heaviest ones. In this work the effects caused by nickel ions on condensed gases are studied (destruction and production of molecules as well as associated cross sections, sputtering yields) and compared with respective values for light ions and UV photons. (authors)

  2. rf linac approach to heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessary properties of funneling particle beams from multiple accelerators into combined beams having higher current are outlined, and methods are proposed which maximize the efficiency of this process. A heavy ion fusion driver system example is presented which shows the large advantages in system efficiency to be gained by proper funneling

  3. New generation of heavy ion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    A report is given on the status of major heavy ion accelerator projects that are funded and under construction and a few still in the proposal state. New facilities that are expected to become operational between now and the mid-1980's are reviewed. The major directions being pursued by this next generation of machines and new features being introduced are discussed

  4. Prospects for Heavy Ion Physics with LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, Giulia

    2016-12-15

    We will discuss the potential of the LHCb experiment in the field of Heavy Ion physics. We will analyse three different scenarios which can be explored by the experiment, namely collisions of protons with lead, lead with lead and proton or lead beams with a gas injected in the interaction region. We will also show results in some of these configurations.

  5. Detectors for relativistic heavy-ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cleland, W.; Young, G.R.

    1989-04-01

    We present in some detail an overview of the detectors currently used in relativistic heavy-ion research at the BNL AGS and the CERN SPS. Following that, a detailed list of RandD projects is given, including specific areas of work which need to be addressed in preparation for further experiments at the AGS and SPS for the upcoming experiments at RHIC

  6. Heavy ion measurements at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chapon, Emilien

    2018-01-01

    We present an overview of recent results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on heavy ion physics. Using data from proton-proton, proton-lead and lead-lead collisions at the LHC, these results help to shed light on the properties of nuclear matter.

  7. Exotic phenomena in collisions of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soff, G.; Schramm, S.; Reus, T. de; Mehler, G.; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.; Mueller, U.

    1985-08-01

    To exemplify current theoretical investigations we discuss three different topics. After a presentation of the underlying theoretical framework for ionization processes we will sketch the possibility to employ delta-electron emission as a clock to measure nuclear reaction times in intermediate energy collisions of very heavy ions. Besides the phenomenon of vacuum decay into a new twofold negatively charged stable vacuum ground state, electron excitation in heavy ion collisions may be employed for the determination of delay and deceleration times on the nuclear time scale, i.e. offering an atomic clock, operating in the range 10 -21 -10 -24 s. In deep-inelastic heavy ion collisions this provides a test for classical nuclear reaction models. In collisions at intermediate energies an independent measurement of the deceleration time is of interest for comparison, e.g., with the results of the pion bremsstrahlung model. After that we investigate the influence of one or more pockets in the ion scattering potential on the energy distribution of emitted positrons within a quantum mechanical framework. Finally we very briefly consider some phenomenological corrections to the Dirac equation and its consequences on electron binding energies in heavy and superheavy atoms. (orig./HSI)

  8. Jet Tomography in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We review recent calculations of the probability that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended matter, and we discuss their application to the suppression of leading hadron spectra in heavy ion collisions at collider energies.

  9. Recirculating induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Deadrick, F.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1993-01-01

    We have recently completed a two-year study of recirculating induction heavy-ion accelerators (recirculators) as low-cost drivers for inertial-fusion-energy power plants. We present here a summary of that study and other recent work on recirculators

  10. Heavy ion elastic scattering of code : OPTHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Divatia, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code, OPTHI has been designed to calculate nuclear optical model elastic cross sections for the scattering of heavy ions. The program has been designed to be utilitarian rather than capable of giving an exact description of elastic scattering. Input format is described and the program listing is given. (M.G.B.)

  11. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION PHYSICS: A THEORETICAL OVERVIEW.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.

    2004-03-28

    This is a mini-review of recent theoretical work in the field of relativistic heavy ion physics. The following topics are discussed initial conditions and the Color Glass Condensate; approach to thermalization and the hydrodynamic evolution; hard probes and the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Some of the unsolved problems and potentially promising directions for future research are listed as well.

  12. Beginnings and advances in heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, P.

    1979-01-01

    The very important field of heavy ion research is briefly reviewed from the beginnings up to the present time. The article was intended to be a scientific lecture for the general public read on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Prof. Schmelzer. (KBE)

  13. The technology of heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of inertial confinement fusion using heavy ion beams as a driver is surveyed, with reference to parameters which might ultimately be suitable for a commercial power station. Particular attention is drawn to the parameters associated with the final focusing of the beam on the target. (author)

  14. Experiments on very high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper I describe experimental techniques which could be used to investigate central collision of very high energy heavy ions. For my purposes, the energy range is defined by the number of pions produced, Nsub(π) >> 100, and consequently Nsub(π) >> Nsub(nucleon). In this regime we may expect that new phenomena will appear. (orig.)

  15. Summary of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-07-01

    This paper briefly discusses the topics covered in the relativistic heavy ion in sessions. The prime motivation for these investigations is the possibility of forming quark matter, therefore the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. Topics on suppression of J//psi/ production, th equation of state of nuclear matter, transverse energy distributions and two pion interferometry techniques are discussed. 38 refs

  16. Research in heavy-ion nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, S.J.; Prosser, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fusion-fission in light nuclear systems; High-resolution Q-value measurement for the 24 Mg+ 24 Mg reaction; Heavy-ion reactions and limits to fusion; and Hybrid MWPC-Bragg curve detector development

  17. Heavy ion fragmentation in high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    A review is made on the theoretical aspects of heavy ion collisions at high energies. A comparison with several experimental data obtained in a large variety of experiments is present. An emphasis is given on the basis of Glauber's theory of scattering. (L.C.) [pt

  18. Sigma meson in heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristian, Ivan; Fuchs, Christian

    2004-01-01

    We want to present a short theoretical prediction of the behaviour of the sigma meson in heavy ion collisions. It is considered that the sigma meson is a pion-pion correlation, resulting from the decay of the N*(1440) resonance. There will be presented some QMD simulations. (authors)

  19. Heavy ion reactions at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    Some general features of the heavy ion reactions at low energies are presented. Some kinds of processes are studied, such as: elastic scattering, peripherical reactions, deep inelastic collisions and fusion. Both, theoretical and experimental perspectives on this field are discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Review of heavy ion collider proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we review proposals for heavy-ion colliders generated during the last few years for several national laboratories. The proposals span over a large range of energy and luminosity to accommodate the experimental needs of both the nuclear and the high-energy physicists. We report also briefly efforts in the same field happening in Europe

  1. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions Theoretical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    This is a short review of some theoretical aspects of the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. I review the main properties of the QCD phase diagram and recent developments in the physics of high gluon densities in the hadronic wavefunctions at high energy. Then I comment salient results obtained at RHIC

  2. Study of heavy ion collisions with TAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhner, H.

    The photon spectrometer TAPS is a versatile instrument to measure nuclear bremsstrahlung and neutral mesons via their gamma decay. The formation and evolution of compressed nuclear matter is studied in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies by analyzing the yield and spectral distribution of

  3. The heavy ion therapy project at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Becher, W.; Blasche, K.; Boehne, D.; Fischer, B.; Geissel, H.; Haberer, T.; Klabunde, J.; Kraft-Weyrather, W.; Langenbeck, G.; Muenzenberg, G.; Ritter, S.; Roesch, W.; Schardt, D.; Stelzer, H.; Schwab, T.; Gademann, G.

    1991-03-01

    The use of heavy charged particles in radiotherapy has two major advantages: Firstly, particle beams exhibit a superior dose distribution because of reduced lateral scattering, the finite range of the particles and the increased dose deposition towards the end of the particle track. Secondly, heavy ions exhibit an increased biological efficiency in the region of the increased energy deposition. This diminishes the differences in the radio response between well oxygenated and hypoxic cells as well as differences between fast and slowly proliferating cells. In addition, with high values for relative biological efficiencies, the repair capacity of cells in the tumor are selectively reduced. Both effects, the high energy deposition and the increased RBE values at the end of the particle tracks, are due to the different interaction mechanism of heavy ions with the target material and open a new field of precision and efficiency in radiotherapy. (orig.)

  4. Jason: heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, C.G. Jr.; Dashen, R.F.; Garwin, R.L.; Muller, R.A.; Richter, B.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1978-02-01

    A few of the problems in heavy-ion-driven inertial-fusion systems are reviewed. Nothing was found within the scope of this study that would in principle bar such systems from delivering the energy and peak power required to ignite the fuel pellet. Indeed, ion-fusion seems to show great promise, but the conceptual design of ion-fusion systems is still in a primitive state. A great deal of work, mostly theoretical, remains to be done before proceeding with massive hardware development. Conclusions are given about the state of the work

  5. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of a collider capable of accelerating and colliding heavy ions and to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 2 x 10 26 cm -2 sec -1 at an energy per nucleon of 100 GeV in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Compositional, structural and optical changes of polyimide irradiated by heavy ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšová, Romana; Macková, Anna; Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Slepička, P.; Matoušek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 7 (2016), s. 566-569 ISSN 0142-2421. [16th European Conference on Applications of Surface and Interface Analysis (ECASIA). Granada, 28.09.2015-01.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR GA15-01602S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : polyimide * polymer degradation * swift heavy-ion irradiation * surface morphology Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.132, year: 2016

  7. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Watson, R. L.; Horvat, V.; Zaharakis, K. E.; Peng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  8. Heavy-ion dominance near Cluster perigees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J.-C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Time periods in which heavy ions dominate over H+ in the energy range of 1-40 keV were observed by the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS)/COmposition DIstribution Function (CODIF) instrument onboard Cluster Spacecraft 4 at L values less than 4. The characteristic feature is a narrow flux peak at around 10 keV that extends into low L values, with He+ and/or O+ dominating. In the present work we perform a statistical study of these events and examine their temporal occurrence and spatial distribution. The observed features, both the narrow energy range and the heavy-ion dominance, can be interpreted using a model of ion drift from the plasma sheet, subject to charge exchange losses. The narrow energy range corresponds to the only energy range that has direct drift access from the plasma sheet during quiet times. The drift time to these locations from the plasma sheet is > 30 h, so that charge exchange has a significant impact on the population. We show that a simple drift/loss model can explain the dependence on L shell and MLT of these heavy-ion-dominant time periods.

  9. Jets in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nattrass, Christine

    2017-01-01

    High energy collisions of heavy nuclei permit the study of nuclear matter at temperatures and energy densities so high that the fundamental theory for strong interactions, QCD, predicts a phase transition to a plasma of quarks and gluons. This matter, called a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), has been studied experimentally for the last decade and has been observed to be a strongly interacting liquid with a low viscosity. High energy partons created early in the collision interact with the QGP and provide unique probes of its properties. Hard partons fragment into collimated sprays of particles called jets and have been studied through measurements of single particles, correlations between particles, and measurements of fully reconstructed jets. These measurements demonstrate partonic energy loss in the QGP and constrain the QGP’s properties. Measurements of the jet structure give insight into the mechanism of this energy loss. The information we have learned from studies of jets and challenges for the field will be reviewed. (paper)

  10. Target design for heavy ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Metzler, N.

    1981-07-01

    Target design for Heavy Ion Beam Fusion and related physics are discussed. First, a modified version of the Kidder-Bodner model for pellet gain is presented and is used to define the working point (Esub(beam) = 4.8 MJ, Gain 83) for a reactor size target. Secondly, stopping of heavy ions in hot dense plasma is investigated and numerical results for stopping powers and ranges of 10 GeV Bi-ions in Pb, Li, and PbLi-alloy are given. Finally, results of an explicit implosion calculation, using the 1-D code MINIHY, are discussed in detail. The hydrodynamic efficiency is found to be about 5%. Special attention is given to the shock sequence leading to the ignition configuration. Also the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the absorber-pusher interface is estimated. (orig.)

  11. Heavy ion inertial fusion - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1983-09-01

    Energetic heavy ions represent an alternative to laser light and light ions as ''drivers'' for supplying energy for inertial confinement fusion. To induce ignition of targets containing thermonuclear fuel, an energy of several megajoules has to be focused on to a target with radius a few millimetres in a time of some tens of nanoseconds. Serious study of the use of heavy ion drivers for producing useful power in this way has been underway for seven years, though funding has been at a low level. In this paper the requirements for targets, accelerator, and reactor vessel for containing the thermonuclear explosion are surveyed, and some of the problems to be solved before the construction of a power station can realistically be contemplated are discussed. (author)

  12. Coupled channels effects in heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of inelastic excitation on the elastic scattering of heavy ions are considered within a coupled channels framework. Both Coulomb and nuclear excitation results are applied to 18 O + 184 W and other heavy ion reactions

  13. Cooled heavy ion beams at the ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, M.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Eickhoff, H.; Franzke, B.; Klepper, O.; Nolden, F.; Reich, H.; Schlitt, B.; Spaedtke, P.; Winkler, T.

    1996-01-01

    The storage ring ESR has been used in various operational modes for experiments with electron cooled heavy ion beams. Besides the standard storage mode including injection and beam accumulation the deceleration of highly charged ions has been demonstrated. Beams of highly charged ions have been injected and accumulated and finally decelerated to a minimum energy of 50 MeV/u. An ultraslow extraction method using charge changing processes is now also available for cooled beams of highly charged ions. For in ring experiments the internal gas jet and the cold electron beam of the cooling system are applied as targets. High precision mass spectrometry by Schottky noise detection has been demonstrated. Operation at transition energy has been achieved with cooled beams opening the field for experiments which require an isochronous revolution of the ions. (orig.)

  14. Transport of heavy ions through matter within ion optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, T.

    1991-04-01

    In this thesis for the first time higher-order ion-optical calculations were connected with the whole phase-space changes of the heavy ions in passing through matter. With the developed programs and the newly proposed analytical methods atomic and nuclear interactions of the heavy ions within ion optical systems can be described realistically. The results of this thesis were applied to the conception of the fragment separator (FRS) and to the planning and preparation of experiments at the new GSI accelerator facility. Especially for the description of the ion-optical combination of FRS and the storage ring ESR the developed programs and methods proved to be necessary. A part of the applied theories on the atomic stopping could be confirmed in the framework of this thesis in an experiment with the high-resolving spectrometer SPEC at GANIL. The method of the isotopically pure separation of projectile fragments by means of magnetic analysis and the electronic energy loss could be also experimentally successfully tested at several energies (60-400 MeV/u). Furthermore in this thesis also application-related problems regarding a tumor therapy with heavy ions were solved. A concept for a medical separator (BMS) was developed, which separates light diagnosis beams isotopically purely and beyond improves the energy sharpness by means of an especially shaped (monoenergetic) stopper so that an in-situ range determination is possible with an accuracy of about one millimeter. (orig./HSI) [de

  15. Radiobiological experiments with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.

    1988-11-01

    In experiments, performed at the Unilac, Bevalac, and Ganil a large body of radiobiological data, cross sections for cell inactivation and mutation, induction of both, chromosome aberrations, and strand breaks of DNA have been measured for different atomic numbers, from helium (Z=2) to uranium (Z=92), and at an LET range from 10 to 16000 keV/μm. These data exhibit a common feature: At LET values below 100 keV/μm all data points of one specific effect form one single curve as a function of LET, independent from the atomic number of the ion. In this LET range, the biological effects are independ from the particle energy or track structure and depend only on the energy transfer. Therefore, LET is a good parameter in this regime. For LET values greater than 100 keV/μm, the curves for the different ions separate from the common curve in order of increasing atomic numbers. In this regime LET is no longer a good parameter and the physical parameters of the formation of particle tracks are important. The similarity of the σ-LET curves for different endpoints shows that the 'hook-structure' is produced by physical and chemical effects which occur before the biologically relevant lesions are formed. For this part of the reaction chain only a very limited amount of data are available. (orig./MG)

  16. Dynamical limitations to heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    In spite of the many attempts to synthesize superheavy elements in recent years, these efforts have not yet been successful. Recent improved theoretical models of heavy-ion fusion reactions suggest that the formation of super-heavy elements is hindered by the dynamics of the process. Several recent experiments lend support to these theories. The necessity of an excess radial velocity (extra push) over the Coulomb barrier in order to induce fusion is observed experimentally as predicted by the theory. So is a new reaction mechanism, called quasi-fission which tend to exhaust the part of the reaction cross section, which would otherwise lead to fusion. The present study shows that the angular distribution of fragments from quasi-fission processes are very sensitive to the occurrence of this reaction mechanism. A slight modification of one parameter in the theory demanded by the observation of quasi-fission for lighter projectiles via the angular distributions, has the consequence of posing even more-stringent limitations on heavy-ion-fusion reactions. This reduces even further the possibility for synthesizing and identifying superheavy elements in heavy-ion-fusion reactions

  17. Intense heavy ion beam-induced effects in carbon-based stripper foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Katharina

    2016-08-15

    Amorphous carbon or carbon-based stripper foils are commonly applied in accelerator technology for electron stripping of ions. At the planned facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) at the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, thin carbon stripper foils provide an option for directly delivering ions of intermediate charge states to the heavy ion synchrotron, SIS 18, in order to mitigate space charge limitations during high-intensity operation. In case of desired high end-energies in the synchrotron, a second stripping process by a thicker carbon foil provides ions of higher charge states for injection into the SIS18. High beam intensities and a pulsed beam structure as foreseen at FAIR pose new challenges to the stripper foils which experience enhanced degradation by radiation damage, thermal effects, and stress waves. In order to ensure reliable accelerator operation, radiation-hard stripper foils are required. This thesis aims to a better understanding of processes leading to degradation of carbon-based thin foils. Special focus is placed on ion-beam induced structure and physical property changes and on the influence of different beam parameters. Irradiation experiments were performed at the M3-beamline of the universal linear accelerator (UNILAC) at GSI, using swift heavy ion beams with different pulse lengths and repetition rates. Tested carbon foils were standard amorphous carbon stripper foils produced by the GSI target laboratory, as well as commercial amorphous and diamond-like carbon foils and buckypaper foils. Microstructural changes were investigated with various methods such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry and chromatic aberration measurements. For the investigation of structural changes X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), in-situ Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and small angle X

  18. Intense heavy ion beam-induced effects in carbon-based stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupka, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    Amorphous carbon or carbon-based stripper foils are commonly applied in accelerator technology for electron stripping of ions. At the planned facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) at the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, thin carbon stripper foils provide an option for directly delivering ions of intermediate charge states to the heavy ion synchrotron, SIS 18, in order to mitigate space charge limitations during high-intensity operation. In case of desired high end-energies in the synchrotron, a second stripping process by a thicker carbon foil provides ions of higher charge states for injection into the SIS18. High beam intensities and a pulsed beam structure as foreseen at FAIR pose new challenges to the stripper foils which experience enhanced degradation by radiation damage, thermal effects, and stress waves. In order to ensure reliable accelerator operation, radiation-hard stripper foils are required. This thesis aims to a better understanding of processes leading to degradation of carbon-based thin foils. Special focus is placed on ion-beam induced structure and physical property changes and on the influence of different beam parameters. Irradiation experiments were performed at the M3-beamline of the universal linear accelerator (UNILAC) at GSI, using swift heavy ion beams with different pulse lengths and repetition rates. Tested carbon foils were standard amorphous carbon stripper foils produced by the GSI target laboratory, as well as commercial amorphous and diamond-like carbon foils and buckypaper foils. Microstructural changes were investigated with various methods such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry and chromatic aberration measurements. For the investigation of structural changes X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), in-situ Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and small angle X

  19. Intense pulsed heavy ion beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm 2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm 2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al (1-3)+ ) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89%. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were successively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm 2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration. (author)

  20. Heavy ion fusion physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    A simple systems model has been used to determine the sensitivity of the cost of electricity and the total cost of a power plant to the various uncertainties expressed in the following six issues. (1) can, at reasonable cost, an accelerator be built that puts more than 1 MJ of energy into a small 6-D phase space volume. (2) Can the beam be focused over a distance of several meters onto a small target in a reaction chamber. (3) Do present calculations adequately describe ion energy deposition. (4) Do current numerical simulations adequately describe the hydrodynamic and thermonuclear behavior of targets. (5) Can targets be cheaply mass produced. (6) Can an economical, tritium-breeding reactor be built

  1. Radiation therapy using high-energy heavy-ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Tatsuaki

    1995-01-01

    The clinical trial of the heavy-ion radiotherapy was started at June 1994 after pre-clinical experiments using 290 MeV/u carbon beam. In this paper, an irradiation system for the heavy-ion radiotherapy installed at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) and the physical characteristics of the therapeutic beam were discussed. (author)

  2. Science and art in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    One of the more intriguing phenomena discovered in heavy-ion physics is the seeming appearance of high energy structure in the excitation spectra of inelastically scattered heavy ions. For reasons illustrated, these may well be a phenomena unique to heavy ions and their explanation perhaps unique to TDHF

  3. Surface Modifications of Polymers Induced by Heavy Ions Grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzei, R O; Lombardo, J; Camporotondi, D; Tadey, D; Bermudez, G G [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Ezeiza (Argentina)

    2012-09-15

    Polymer surfaces are modified by the application of swift heavy ions etching and grafting procedures. The residual active sites produced by heavy ion beams, remaining after the etching process, were used to start the grafting process. In order to produce tracks on foils of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) they were irradiated with {sup 208}Pb of 25.62 MeV/n or with 115 MeV Cl ions. Moreover, foils of polypropylene (PP) were irradiated with {sup 208}Pb of 25.62 MeV/n. Then, they were etched and grafted with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomers or with acrylic acid (AAc) monomers, respectively. The replica method allowed the observation of the shape of the grafted tracks using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition NIPAAm grafted foils were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sulfonation procedure (methodology previously described for perfluorated polymers) was applied on grafted PVDF. A new method is described to produce a thin layer of poly-acrylic-acid (membranes) that grows on the surface of PVDF foils implanted by an Ar{sup +} beam with energies between 30-150 keV. Different combinations of monomers in water solutions were used such as: acrylic acid (AAc); acrylic acid-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-GMA); acrylic acid-styrene (AAc-S); acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide (AAc-NIPAAm) and acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide - glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-NIPAAm-GMA). The experimental results show that for particular values of: ion fluence and energy, AAc concentration, sulphuric acid and PVDF polymorphous (alpha or beta) a huge percentage of grafting was obtained. At certain point of the grafting process the development of the PolyAAc-Xmonomer produce a detachment from the irradiated substrate and continue its grafting outside it. This method produces a membrane that is an increased replica of the original implanted surface. Finally, PVDF films implanted by an Ar{sup +} beam with energies about 100 keV and a fluence of 10

  4. Inertial fusion with heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, R.; Hofmann, I.; Arnold, R.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principle of inertial confinement is the irradiation of a small pellet filled with DT-fuel by laser or particle beams in order to compress the fuel and ignite it. As 'drivers' for this process large laser installations and light-ion devices have been built since then and the results obtained during the past few years have increased our confidence, that the ignition conditions might be reached. Further conditions, however, have to be fulfilled for operating a power plant. In particular, the driver needs to have enough efficiency to be economical, and for a continuous energy production a high repetition rate and availability is required. It is less than ten years since it was realized that heavy ion beams might be a promising candidate for achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Due to the evolution of high-energy and heavy-ion physics during the past 25 years, accelerators have attained a high technical and technological standard and an excellent operational reliability. Nevertheless, the heavy ion driver for a fusion power plant requires beam specifications exceeding those of existing accelerators considerably. (Auth.)

  5. Heavy flavour production at CMS in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We review recent results relating to beauty production in heavy-ion collisions, in both the closed and open heavy flavor sectors, from the CMS experiment at the LHC. The sequential suppression of the ° states in PbPb collisions is thought to be evidence of the dissociation of quarkonia bound states in deconfined matter. Data from pPb collisions demonstrate that while cold nuclear effects appear to be subdominant in minimum bias collisions, there exists a non-trivial dependence on collision multiplicity that remains to be understood. The suppression of high p T particles in heavy-ion collisions, relative to the expectation from pp collisions, is typically interpreted in terms of energy loss of hard scattered parton in the dense nuclear medium. The flavor dependence of the energy loss may be accessed via measurements of b hadrons and b-tagged jets. Measurement of B mesons, via non-prompt J = y , at relatively low p T indicate a smaller suppression factor than D meson or inclusive charged hadrons. Data on b jet...

  6. Formation of heavy quarks in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.M.; Greiner, W.; Soff, G.

    1992-02-01

    We investigate the production of heavy quarks in continuum and bound states in nuclear collisions. Creation for free banti b and tanti t quark pairs and for bottomonium and toponium in the ground state are computed at RHIC, LHC and SSC energies. Central and peripheral heavy-ion collisions are discussed. For top quark creation we assumed a mass range of 90 GeV ≤ m t ≤ 250 GeV. The creation rate for top quarks on peripheral collisions is estimated to be by a factor 40 to 130 smaller compared with corresponding central collisions. For m t = 130 GeV we calculated a creation rate of about 4760 top quark pairs per day at the LHC (3.5 TeV/u) for Pb-Pb collisions. (orig.)

  7. Electron spectroscopy with fast heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1983-01-01

    Since about 1970 the spectroscopy of Auger-electrons and characteristic x-rays following energetic ion-atom collisions has received a great deal of attention. An increasing number of accelerators, capable of providing a large number of projectile ion species over a wide range of projectile energies, became available for studying ion-atom collision phenomena. Many charged particles from protons up to heavy ions like uranium can be accelerated to energies ranging over six orders of magnitude. This allows us to study systematically a great variety of effects accompanied by dynamic excitation processes of the atomic shells in either the projectile- or target-atoms. The studies yield fundamental information regarding the excitation mechanism (e.g., Coulomb and quasi-molecular excitation) and allow sensitive tests of atomic structure theories. This information in turn is valuable to other fields in physics like plasma-, astro-, or solid-state (surface) physics. It is a characteristic feature of fast heavy-ion accelerators that they can produce highly stripped ion species which have in turn the capability to highly ionize neutral target atoms or molecules in a single collision. The ionization process, mainly due to the strong electrical fields that are involved, allows us to study few-electron atoms with high atomic numbers Z. High resolution spectroscopy performed with these atoms allows a particularly good test of relativistic and QED effects. The probability of producing these few electron systems is determined by the charge state and the velocity of the projectile ions. In this contribution the possibilities of using electron spectroscopy as a tool to investigate fast ion-atom collisions is discussed and demonstrated with a few examples. 30 references

  8. Beam analysis spectrometer for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Subramanian, T.S.; McDonald, W.J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Sadoff, A.; Gabor, G.

    1983-01-01

    A versatile spectrometer useful for measuring the mass, charge, energy, fluence and angular distribution of primaries and fragments associated with relativistic heavy ion beams is described. The apparatus is designed to provide accurate physical data for biology experiments and medical therapy planning as a function of depth in tissue. The spectrometer can also be used to measure W, the average energy to produce an ion pair, range-energy, dE/dx, and removal cross section data of interest in nuclear physics. (orig.)

  9. 3-megajoule heavy-ion fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.; Keefe, D.

    1981-06-01

    The initiation of inertial confinement fusion reactions with a heavy ion particle beam has been under intensive study since 1976, and the progress of this study is principally documented in the proceedings of annual workshops held by US National Laboratories. At this time a 3MJ, 150 TW, ion beam is a good choice to initiate microexplosions with energy gain of 100. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has made systems studies based on a Linear Induction Accelerator to meet the beam requirements. The accelerator system, expected performance and cost, and technical problems to be addressed in the near future are discussed

  10. Multiparticle production in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelte, D.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture is concerned with the question how many particles and what kind of them are produced in heavy-ion collisions at energies about 10 MeV/n. We tend to assume that heavy-ion reactions at this energy are binary reactions. The experimental set consisting of two large ionization chambers serving to detection, in coincidence, the reaction fragments is described. With this set-up a number of reactions induced on 27 Al, 28 Si and 40 Ca by the 32 S beam of 135 and 190 MeV energy has been studied. Two-fragments inclusive and exclusive reactions were investigated. The assumption of a sequential statistical decay gives the best agreement with the data for all analyzed cases. (H.M.)

  11. HBT measurements in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajc, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The correlations in relative momentum between identical bosons are determined, in part, by the geometrical properties of the boson source. This fact was first exploited in hadron physics by Goldhaber, Goldhaber, Lee and Pais (GGLP) in 1960. In the intervening three decades, this approach has been applied to lepton-lepton, lepton-hadron, hadron-hadron, and heavy-ion collisions. A word about nomenclature: The correlations in relative momentum between identical mesons arise from Bose statistics. Even previous to GGLP, this fact was applied by Hanbury-Brown and Twiss to measure stellar radii via two-photon interferometry. Thus an alternative name for the GGLP effect is the HBT effect. An informal introduction to Hanbury-Brown-Twiss measurements in heavy ion collisions is presented. The systematic effects in interpreting such data are emphasized, rather than the implications of any single experiment

  12. Working group report: heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Jan-E; Chattopadhyay, S.; Assamagan, K.; Gavai, R.; Gupta, Sourendra; Mukherjee, S.; Ray, R.; Layek, B.; Srivastava, A.; Roy, Pradip K.

    2004-01-01

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India during January 5-16, 2004. One of the four working groups, group III was dedicated to QCD and heavy ion physics (HIC). The present manuscript gives a summary of the activities of group III during the workshop. The activities of group III were focused to understand the collective behaviours of the system formed after the collisions of two nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies from the interactions of the elementary degrees of freedom, i.e. quarks and gluons, governed by non-Abelian gauge theory, i.e. QCD. This was initiated by two plenary talks on experimental overview of heavy ion collisions and lattice QCD and several working group talks and discussions. (author)

  13. Chamber propagation physics for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Chamber transport is an important area of study for heavy ion fusion. Final focus and chamber-transport are high leverage areas providing opportunities to significantly decrease the cost of electricity from a heavy ion fusion power plant. Chamber transport in two basic regimes is under consideration. In the low chamber density regime (approx-lt 0.003 torr), ballistic or nearly-ballistic transport is used. Partial beam neutralization has been studied to offset the effects of beam stripping. In the high chamber density regime (approx-gt.1 torr), two transport modes (pinched transport and channel transport) are under investigation. Both involve focusing the beam outside the chamber then transporting it at small radius (∼ 2 mm). Both high chamber density modes relax the constraints on the beam quality needed from the accelerator which will reduce the driver cost and the cost of electricity

  14. Dynamical processes in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this report I review the physical assumptions of the Boltzmann Master Equation (BME). Comparisons of the model with experimental neutron spectra gated on evaporation residues for a range of incident projectile energies and masses are presented; next, I compare n spectra gated on projectile-like fragments, followed by comparisons with ungated, inclusive proton spectra. I will then consider secondary effects from the nucleon-nucleon processes involved in the heavy ion relaxation processes, specifically the high energy γ-rays which have been observed at energies up to 140 MeV in collisions of heavy ions of 20/endash/84 MeV/μ. Another secondary effect, subthreshold pion production, was covered in the XVII School and will not be repeated. 39 refs., 16 figs

  15. Review of high energy heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miake, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    It has been proposed that in high energy heavy ion collisions a physical conditions similar to the early stage of the Universe can be established in the laboratory. New phase of matter expected to be created is called the quark gluon plasma (QGP). Based on the motivation to create the QGP in the laboratory, heavy ion beams have been accelerated at AGS of Brookhaven National Laboratory and also at CERN-SPS. Several interesting features of the data have been reported, among which are: the suppression of J/ψ production in Pb+Pb collisions, the enhancement of low mass lepton pairs, and the collective behavior of hadron production. These features are reviewed under the key words of Deconfinement, Chiral Restoration and Collectivity in the lecture. (author)

  16. Chamber propagation physics for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Chamber transport is a key area of study for heavy ion fusion. Final focus and chamber transport are high leverage areas providing opportunities to decrease significantly the cost of electricity from a heavy ion fusion power plant. Chamber transport in two basic regimes is under consideration. In the low chamber density regime (below about 0.003 Torr), ballistic or nearly ballistic transport is used. Partial beam neutralization has been studied to offset the effects of beam stripping. In the high chamber density regime (above about 0.1 Torr), two transport modes (pinched transport and channel transport) are under investigation. Both involve focusing the beam outside the chamber and then transporting it at small radius (about 2 mm). Both high chamber density modes relax the constraints on the beam quality needed from the accelerator which will reduce the driver cost and the cost of electricity. (orig.)

  17. Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, Maxime; Paquet, Jean-Francois; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles; Schenke, Bjoern

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical studies of the production of real thermal photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using music, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation, using both its ideal and viscous versions. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v 2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, η/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.

  18. Some aspects of heavy ion macrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.

    1984-07-01

    In these notes we review, in a schematic way, some aspect of the physics with heavy ions. In the first lecture we review how is possible to describe the dissipative phenomena observed above the Coulomb barrier, up to 10-15 MeV/u, using transport theories. The second lecture is devoted to the question of fusion and the appearance of a new mechanism: fast fission. It is shown that one can now have a global understanding of these phenomena within single picture. The third lecture presents, in a simplified way, some results obtained recently with heavy ions in the range of 30-50 MeV/u at GANIL and SARA

  19. Heavy ion studies with CMS HF calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgov, I.; Genchev, V.; Kolosov, V.A.; Lokhtin, I.P.; Petrushanko, S.V.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Teplov, S.Yu.; Shmatov, S.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    2001-01-01

    The capability of the very forward (HF) calorimeter of the CMS detector at LHC to be applied to specific studies with heavy ion beams is discussed. The simulated responses of the HF calorimeter to nucleus-nucleus collisions are used for the analysis of different problems: reconstruction of the total energy flow in the forward rapidity region, accuracy of determination of the impact parameter of collision, study of fluctuations of the hadronic-to-electromagnetic energy ratio, fast inelastic event selection

  20. The upgraded Munich linear heavy ion postaccelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratzinger, U.; Nolte, E.; Geier, R.; Gartner, N.; Morinaga, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Munich heavy ion postaccelerator was extended, consisting of two cavities with an interdigital H-type structure now. The frequency is doubled in the second section. A special kind of beam dynamics for O 0 -synchronous particle structures was developed, which results in good particle transmission though only one compact quadrupole-doublet is installed over the length of both linacs. Beamtime experience confirms the transport calculations