WorldWideScience

Sample records for sweptback tail surfaces

  1. The Aerodynamic Behavior of a Harmonically Oscillating Finite Sweptback Wing in Supersonic Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Chieh-Chien

    1951-01-01

    By an extension of Evvard's "diaphragm" concept outside the wing tip, the present paper presents two approximate methods for calculating the aerodynamic behavior of harmonically oscillating, sweptback...

  2. Twin Tail/Delta Wing Configuration Buffet Due to Unsteady Vortex Breakdown Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Sheta, Essam F.; Massey, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    The buffet response of the twin-tail configuration of the F/A-18 aircraft; a multidisciplinary problem, is investigated using three sets of equations on a multi-block grid structure. The first set is the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations. The second set is the coupled aeroelastic equations for bending and torsional twin-tail responses. The third set is the grid-displacement equations which are used to update the grid coordinates due to the tail deflections. The computational model consists of a 76 deg-swept back, sharp edged delta wing of aspect ratio of one and a swept-back F/A-18 twin-tails. The configuration is pitched at 32 deg angle of attack and the freestream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.2 and 0.75 x 10(exp 6) respectively. The problem is solved for the initial flow conditions with the twin tail kept rigid. Next, the aeroelastic equations of the tails are turned on along with the grid-displacement equations to solve for the uncoupled bending and torsional tails response due to the unsteady loads produced by the vortex breakdown flow of the vortex cores of the delta wing. Two lateral locations of the twin tail are investigated. These locations are called the midspan and inboard locations.

  3. Dynamic Longitudinal and Directional Stability Derivatives for a 45 deg. Sweptback-Wing Airplane Model at Transonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielat, Ralph P.; Wiley, Harleth G.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation was made at transonic speeds to determine some of the dynamic stability derivatives of a 45 deg. sweptback-wing airplane model. The model was sting mounted and was rigidly forced to perform a single-degree-of-freedom angular oscillation in pitch or yaw of +/- 2 deg. The investigation was made for angles of attack alpha, from -4 deg. to 14 deg. throughout most of the transonic speed range for values of reduced-frequency parameter from 0.015 to 0.040 based on wing mean aerodynamic chord and from 0.04 to 0.14 based on wing span. The results show that reduced frequency had only a small effect on the damping-in-pitch derivative and the oscillatory longitudinal stability derivative for all Mach numbers M and angles of attack with the exception of the values of damping coefficient near M = 1.03 and alpha = 8 deg. to 14 deg. In this region, the damping coefficient changed rapidly with reduced frequency and negative values of damping coefficient were measured at low values of reduced frequency. This abrupt variation of pitch damping with reduced frequency was a characteristic of the complete model or wing-body-vertical-tail combination. The damping-in-pitch derivative varied considerably with alpha and M for the horizontal-tail-on and horizontal-tail-off configurations, and the damping was relatively high at angles of attack corresponding to the onset of pitch-up for both configurations. The damping-in-yaw derivative was generally independent of reduced frequency and M at alpha = -4 deg. to 4 deg. At alpha = 8 deg. to 14 deg., the damping derivative increased with an increase in reduced frequency and alpha for the configurations having the wing, whereas the damping derivative was either independent of or decreased with increase in reduced frequency for the configuration without the wing. The oscillatory directional stability derivative for all configurations generally decreased with an increase in the reduced-frequency parameter, and, in some instances

  4. High-Speed Measurements on a Swept-Back Wing (Sweepback Angle phi = 35 Deg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethert, B.

    1947-01-01

    In the following, high-speed measurements on a swept-back wing are reported. The curves of lift, moment, and drag have been determined up to Mach numbers of M = 0.87, and they are compared to a rectangular wing. Through measurements of the total-head loss behind the wing and through schlieren pictures, an insight into the formation of the compression shock at high Mach numbers has been obtained.

  5. Effect of surface treatment of tailings on effluent quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Successful reclamation treatment, in preparation for long range abandonment of mining wastes, involves both surface treatment and water quality control containment of waste solids and liquid contaminants. This paper describes use of lysimeters containing 125 tonnes of tailings to determine the impact of gravel, sawdust, and vegetation as surface treatments on the quality and quantity of effluent produced from sulphide-containing uranium mill tailings. Over a five-year period these treatments were observed and compared with bare tailings where no surface addition was made. The treatments did not alter the effluent quality to a level acceptable to regulatory requirements. Surface treatments did not appear to affect the leaching of Ra-226, NH 4 and NO 3 . The concentration of Fe, SO 4 , Cu, Pb, and Al increased with the rise of acidity as the pH changed from pH 9.5 to pH 2 in four and one-half years. However the rate and extent of changes of some of these parameters vary with the treatment. The experimental results for the observed trends are presented with limited explanation. Original design problems and unexpected delays in tailing reactions have made firm conclusions impossible at this stage. These data, however, provide a base for further investigation and development of explanations and firm conclusions, as to the role of surface treatment in long-term waste abandonment

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials

  7. Systematic approach to designing surface covers for uranium-mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; McShane, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The wide range of environmental conditions present at uranium mill tailings sites precludes the use of a single type of surface cover. Surface covers must be designed on a site-specific basis. To facilitate site specific designs the UMTRA program is developing guidelines for designing surface covers. This paper presents a systematic approach to designing surface covers for tailings that can be applied under any site condition. The approach consists of three phases: (1) An assessment during which the degree of surface protection is determined. (2) A preliminary design that facilitates interaction with those designing other containment system elements. (3) A final design where the cost and effectiveness of the surface cover are determined. The types of information required to apply this approach are discussed

  8. Effect of surface treatment of tailings on effluent quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.; Okuhara, D.

    1980-01-01

    Lysimeters containing 125 tons of mine tailings were used to determine the impact of gravel, sawdust, and vegetation as surface treatments on the quality and quantity of effluent produced from sulfide-containing uranium mill tailings. Over a 5-yr period, treatments did not alter the effluent quality to a level acceptable to regulatory requirements. The concentration of iron, copper, lead, aluminum, and sulfate increased with the rise of acidity during this period. However, the rate and extent of changes did vary with the treatment. The role of surface treatment in long-term waste abandonment must be investigated further

  9. Oil sands tailings treatment via surface modification of solids with polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soane, D.; Ware, W.; Mahoney, R.; Kincaid, K. [Soane Energy, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands fine tailings require large containment area and long-term storage. A recent directive has been established to reduce fluid tailings storage by 30 percent by 2012. This PowerPoint presentation described a method of treating oil sands tailings by modifying the surfaces of solids with polymers. The ATA process divided whole tailings into fines and coarse streams. The coarse stream was used to prepare anchor particles with a monolayer of tether polymers. An activator was added to the fine tailings in order to aggregate. The process cause a Velcro-like attraction between the activated fines and the tether-coated anchor particles. The solid ATA matrix trapped the fines and allowed water to drain more easily. Photographs of the process were provided. An analysis of the process demonstrated that 70 percent of the water in the tailings was recovered in less than 5 minutes. The water was clear, with less than 0.2 percent of suspended solids. The process is applicable to live tailings and mature fine tailings (MFT). tabs., figs.

  10. Consolidation of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.; Wardwell, R.E.; Abt, S.R.; Staub, W.P.

    1983-09-01

    The integrity of cover systems placed on tailings impoundments will be affected by the potential for differential settlement of the tailings surface. Settlement of the sand fraction will occur relatively rapidly. The slimes will take longer time for consolidation and will produce greater settlement. This report reviews the phenomenon of consolidation for saturated and unsaturated tailings. The effect of load application by cover placement and the extent to which dewatering of tailings will cause consolidation are considered. In addition, the feasibility of inducing consolidation by alternative means and the potential applicability of these methods to tailings impoundments reclamation are discussed. Differential settlement of the tailings will cause tensile strain to be developed in covers. This strain could be large enough to cause cracking within a relatively brittle compacted clay. Dewatering of tailings by drainage can cause settlement even greater than that by placement of a cover material. Dewatering of the tailings would also increase the stability of the tailings surface, thereby enhancing reclamation operations. Consequently, in view of the enhanced surface stability and the fact that a portion of the differential settlement can be accomplished prior to cover placement, dewatering of tailings impoundments during operations may have benefical effects

  11. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Surface Project Management Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties (VP) containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials. The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project is to minimize or eliminate radiation health hazards to the public and the environment at the 24 sites and related VPs. This document describes the management organization, system, and methods used to manage the design, construction, and other activities required to clean up the designated sites and associated VPs, in accordance with the UMTRCA

  12. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Surface Project Management Plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties (VP) containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials. The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project is to minimize or eliminate radiation health hazards to the public and the environment at the 24 sites and related VPs. This document describes the management organization, system, and methods used to manage the design, construction, and other activities required to clean up the designated sites and associated VPs, in accordance with the UMTRCA.

  13. Uranium Mill Tailings Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements)

  14. Tailings management at Nabarlek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, P.

    1989-01-01

    As the entire uranium deposit at Nabarlek was mined in 1979, the mine pit was available as a tailing's repository from the time of commencement of ore processing. In the early years Nabarlek's tailings were deposited subaqueously. In 1985 the tailings deposition method was changed to a sub-aerial, or semi-dry, method. Over the subsequent three years there was evidence that the tailings settled further and squeezed water from lower layers. The water was pumped away and treated for removal of radium before being evaporated in one of the mine's evaporation ponds. When milling was completed in 1988 it was decided to try and increase the rate of water removal and so obtain even greater consolidation of the trailings in a shorter time. This was achieved by loading the tailings with a layer of screened leached sands and waste rock placed on a layer of geotextile filter fabric that had been laid over the whole of the tailings surface in the pit. Once this was completed a modified piling rig was used to insert vertical drains, or wicks, up to 30 metres into the tailings. The drains were placed on a square grid at a spacing of 3.25 metres. Water that was forced out of the tailings by the downward pressure of the sand and rock could flow freely to the surface up these drains. Once at the surface the water was gathered into a sump and pumped away for treatment as before. The drains are working very well at present although it will be some considerable time before the water stops flowing. Already settlement of the tailings is apparent and the settled density of the material is increasing. As far as is known this is the first time that such a system has been employed on mine tailings in a pit in this way

  15. Enriching acid rock drainage related microbial communities from surface-deposited oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Courtney; Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the microbial communities native to surface-deposited pyritic oil sands tailings, an environment where acid rock drainage (ARD) could occur. The goal of this study was to enrich sulfur-oxidizing organisms from these tailings and determine whether different populations exist at pH levels 7, 4.5, and 2.5. Using growth-based methods provides model organisms for use in the future to predict potential activities and limitations of these organisms and to develop possible control methods. Thiosulfate-fed enrichment cultures were monitored for approximately 1 year. The results showed that the enrichments at pH 4.5 and 7 were established quicker than at pH 2.5. Different microbial community structures were found among the 3 pH environments. The sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms identified were most closely related to Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Achromobacter spp., and Curtobacterium spp. While microorganisms related to Chitinophagaceae and Acidocella spp. were identified as the only possible iron-oxidizing and -reducing microbes. These results contribute to the general knowledge of the relatively understudied microbial communities that exist in pyritic oil sands tailings and indicate these communities may have a potential role in ARD generation, which may have implications for future tailings management.

  16. Mine tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, P.A.; Adams, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    The hydrologic evaluation of mine tailings disposal sites after they are abandoned is considered in relation to their potential environmental impact on a long term basis. There is a direct relation between the amounts and types of water leaving a disposal site and the severity of the potential damage to the environment. The evaluation of the relative distribution of the precipitation reaching the ground into evaporation, runoff and infiltration is obtained for a selected site and type of tailings material whose characteristics and physical properties were determined in the soils laboratory. A conceptual model of the hydrologic processes involved and the corresponding mathematical model were developed to simulate the physical system. A computer program was written to solve the set of equations forming the mathematical model, considering the physical properties of the tailings and the rainfall data selected. The results indicate that the relative distribution of the precipitation depends on the surface and upper layer of the tailings and that the position of the groundwater table is governed by the flow through the bottom of the profile considered. The slope of the surface of the mass of tailings was found to be one of the principal factors affecting the relative distribution of precipitation and, therefore, the potential pollution of the environment

  17. Frost evolution in tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A review was carried out on the physical and thermal mechanisms of permafrost evaluation in soils and uranium tailings. The primary mechanism controlling permafrost evolution is conductive heat transfer with the latent heat of fusion of water being liberated as phase change occurs. Depending on the soil properties and freezing rate, pore water can be expelled from the frost front or pore water can migrate towards the frost front. Solute redistribution may occur as the frost front penetrates into the soil. The rate of frost penetration is a function of the thermal properties of the tailings and the climatic conditions. Computer modelling programmes capable of modelling permafrost evolution were reviewed. The GEOTHERM programme was selected as being the most appropriate for this study. The GEOTHERM programme uses the finite element method of thermal analysis. The ground surface temperature is determined by solving the energy balance equations a the ground surface. The GEOTHERM programme was used to simulate the permafrost evolution in the Key Lake Mine tailings located in north central Saskatchewan. The analyses indicated that the existing frozen zones in the tailing pond will eventually thaw if an average snow depth covers the tailings. Hundreds of years are required to thaw the tailings. If minimal snow cover is present the extent of the frozen zone in the tailings will increase

  18. Multichannel thickener of flotation tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratenko, A F; Shuliko, A N; Zinchenko, A F

    1983-04-01

    A multichannel thickener of flotation tailings developed by Ukrniiugleobogashchenie is described. Tailings with solid content ranging from 40 to 60 g/l are mixed with flocculation reagents (quantity ratio from 60 to 70 g/l) in a turbulent mixer: waste water with tailings fed to the mixer is divided into three streams, flocculation reagents are batched in stages with each water stream. After turbulent mixing, water, tailings and reagent are fed to the settling chamber. Settling chamber (dimensions 2.4 x 1.5 x 1.0 m) is divided into a number of channels by settling surfaces of 0.35 m/sup 2/ each, inclined at an angle of 55 degrees. Distance between the surfaces is 50 mm. The thickener has a total settling surface of 18.7 m/sup 2/. Water with tailings flows upwards, cleaned water is removed by a separating system and settled tailings move downward and accumulate in the compacting chamber (dimensions 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.9 m). From the compacting chamber thickened slurry with solid content from 90 to 150 g/l is removed by a hydraulic system. During performance testing in some plants preparing coal difficult to wash, thickening efficiency amounted to 100%. The results of performance testing are shown in two tables. Factors which influence thickener productivity are evaluated. (In Russian)

  19. Tailings management for the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of tailings management at Saskatchewan uranium mines is traced from the fifties to the nineties. Some of the problems with past systems are discussed. The new tailings systems now being proposed for the new operations currently undergoing environmental assessment in Saskatchewan are examined in detail. These new systems represent a change in tailings management philosophy, from keeping tailings high and dry on the surface, to placement of tailings in a low-energy regime within the water table. There they are removed from the active surface environment, avoiding future erosion problems, with a reduced likelihood of suffering intrusion from future human or animal activities. (author). 16 refs., 5 figs

  20. Effects of various tailings covers on radon gas emanation from pyritic uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Radon emanation studies were carried out at an inactive pyritic uranium tailings site in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the effects of various existing dry and wet covers on radon flux rates. Measurements were taken using activated charcoal cartridges for various surface covers consisting of bare, vegetated, acidophilic moss with high degree of water saturation, compacted crushed rock and gravel, and winter snow. The results showed that at a given site, there was no significant difference in radon emanation rates between various tailings covers and bare tailings. In particular, no increase In radon emanation rates from vegetated areas compared to bare tailings was observed. Radon emanation rates varied spatially depending on tailings grain size, porosity, moisture content and on pressure and water table variations. The emanation rates were higher for tailings with low water contents compared to those for wet and moss covered tailings

  1. The problem of abandoned uranium tailings in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, S.; Abouguendia, Z.

    1981-11-01

    Two Saskatchewan tailings sites, Lorado and Gunnar, covering approximately 89 ha., were abandoned in the early 1960s leaving untreated tailings in lakes and depressions. This report reviews the literature on environmental conditions in abandoned uranium tailings and available managmenet and mitigation options, and identifies research requirements essential for proper treatment of these two sites. The recommended management plan includes isolation of the exposed tailings area from surface waters, stabilization of the exposed tailings surfaces, diversion of runoff around tailings, treatment of overflow water before release, and implementation of an environmental monitoring program. Revegetation appears to be a promising stabilization measure, but research is needed into propagation methods of appropriate native species. Studies of the existing geological and hydrological conditions at both sites, detailed characterization of the wastes, field testing of different surface treatment methods, and nutrient cycling investigations are also needed

  2. Uranium tailings sampling manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Reades, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Chambers, D.B.; Case, G.G.; Ibbotson, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the requisite sampling procedures for the application of uniform high-quality standards to detailed geotechnical, hydrogeological, geochemical and air quality measurements at Canadian uranium tailings disposal sites. The selection and implementation of applicable sampling procedures for such measurements at uranium tailings disposal sites are complicated by two primary factors. Firstly, the physical and chemical nature of uranium mine tailings and effluent is considerably different from natural soil materials and natural waters. Consequently, many conventional methods for the collection and analysis of natural soils and waters are not directly applicable to tailings. Secondly, there is a wide range in the physical and chemical nature of uranium tailings. The composition of the ore, the milling process, the nature of tailings depositon, and effluent treatment vary considerably and are highly site-specific. Therefore, the definition and implementation of sampling programs for uranium tailings disposal sites require considerable evaluation, and often innovation, to ensure that appropriate sampling and analysis methods are used which provide the flexibility to take into account site-specific considerations. The following chapters describe the objective and scope of a sampling program, preliminary data collection, and the procedures for sampling of tailings solids, surface water and seepage, tailings pore-water, and wind-blown dust and radon

  3. Predicting the long term stabilisation of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojacek, J.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term stabilization and remediation of uranium mill tailings ponds is an important task for DIAMO. After uranium mining was stopped, DIAMO has to remediate more then 400 ha of tailings ponds at three locations. It is currently planned to cover the surface with low permeability materials with a slope of approx. 3% to protect the interior of the disposal facility from infiltrating rainwater. This entails to cover the free surface of these ponds with several hundred thousand tons of inert material. As a result of this load, the porewater from the tailings is expelled and the body of the impounded materials consolidates. Consolidation of tailings proceeds irregularly, depending on the internal structure of the tailings layers and on the progress of loading. The surface needs to be recontoured for a long time into the future. The topic of the DIAMO project is to predict and optimise the final surface contour of the tailings pond body, and to determine the time schedule and locations for recontouring work. The K1 tailings pond in Dolni Rozinka (Southern Moravia) is a typical example for such task. The average thickness of the tailings layer is around 25 m and the average porewater contents varies from 25 up to 40%. In the years 1998-99 a PHARE pilot project was undertaken that aimed to predict the quantity and quality of drainage and infiltration waters as a function of time. A new investigation programme (field, laboratory and modelling) has been implemented. The range of material properties and distribution of types of tailings was established. Orientation calculations of the tailings consolidation were made for fine slime zone. The results have shown that significant subsidence of the surface is to be expected after loading with inert material for the construction of an interim cover. (author)

  4. Chapter 2. The history of uranium tailings formation in the North of Tajikistan, their current condition. 2.4. Degmai uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2012-01-01

    Present article is devoted to Degmai uranium tailings. The history of Degmai uranium tailings is presented. The current condition of uranium tailings is described. During the last 6-7 years, together with IAEA experts, monitoring is permanently carried out and the tailings influence on the environment is defined. Radiation and dosimetric investigation results from Degmai tailing' surface (June 2006) are considered.

  5. Weathering behavior of mine tailings and waste rock: A surface investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domvile, S.J.; Li, M.G.; Sollner, D.D.; Nesbitt, W.

    1994-01-01

    A study focusing on the ion movement in the near surface of sulfide minerals was conducted to better understand the weathering mechanisms of mine waste materials. Tailings and waste rock samples from Canadian mines were subjected to controlled weathering studies using various chemical leachants. Leachates were analyzed for various parameters, and petrographic analyses were conducted on the solid residues. Laboratory oxidation studies of pure pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite were carried out using the surface techniques X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The data derived from the weathering study and the surface techniques were correlated to determine mechanisms of oxidation. Several results were observed during the project: ferric iron constitutes one third of the iron present in pyrrhotite, sulfide oxidation is initiated when rock is blasted, sulfide sulfur is oxidized to di- and poly-sulfides prior to forming sulfates, and significantly more sulfate is produced upon exposure to aqueous environments than to air alone

  6. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-29

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  7. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  8. Estimates of population distributions and tailings areas around licensed uranium mill sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M.; Hall, J.B.; Moore, W.E.

    1986-08-01

    Population distributions and tailings areas were estimated from aerial photography for each of 21 licensed uranium millsites. Approximately 11,600 persons live within 5 kilometers of the tailings impoundments at the millsites. About 82% of these persons live near five of the millsites. No persons were found living within 5 kilometers of six of the millsites. Tailings area measurements include the surface area of tailings in impoundments, heap-leached ore, and carryover tailings in evaporation ponds. Approximately 4,000 acres of tailings surfaces were measured for the 21 millsites. About 55% of the tailings surfaces were dry, 11% wet, and the remainder ponded. The average tailings surface area for the millsites is about 200 acres and ranges from 7 to 813 acres

  9. Long-term ecological behaviour of abandoned uranium mill tailings. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, M.

    1983-03-01

    Inactive uranium mill tailings were surveyed in the Province of Ontario to describe their surface characteristics, identify naturally invading biota, and determine essential chemical and physical parameters associated with the tailings. Inactive tailings sites can have wet areas, tailings completely covered with water, and dry areas. In the wet areas of most sites, wetland vegetation stands were found which were dominated by species of cattails (Typhaceae), along with some species of rushes (Juncaceae) and sedges (Cyperceae). Dry areas of the tailings exhibited a variety of surface features which are often a reflection of different amelioration efforts. Most of the indigenous species of vascular plants identified on dry areas of the tailings occurred only sporadically. Invading plants found on most sites were the tree species, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Elemental concentration and some physical characteristics of the tailings collected from a depth of 0-20 cm were determined. Uptake of heavy metals and radionuclides were evaluated in trees found in the dry areas and in cattails (Typha latifolia) in the wetland areas. Water bodies on tailings and surface water leaving the tailings, before and after treatment, were characterized in this survey. Aquatic bryophytes have invaded some water bodies on the tailings, and acid tolerant algae were evident in most of the water associated with the tailings. Ecological processes occurring on inactive uranium mill tailings which were identified in this survey are essential in evaluating the long-term fate of these waste sites

  10. Next-Generation Sequencing Assessment of Eukaryotic Diversity in Oil Sands Tailings Ponds Sediments and Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Maria; Richardson, Elisabeth; Tan, BoonFei; Walker, Giselle; Dunfield, Peter F; Bass, David; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia; Dacks, Joel B

    2016-11-01

    Tailings ponds in the Athabasca oil sands (Canada) contain fluid wastes, generated by the extraction of bitumen from oil sands ores. Although the autochthonous prokaryotic communities have been relatively well characterized, almost nothing is known about microbial eukaryotes living in the anoxic soft sediments of tailings ponds or in the thin oxic layer of water that covers them. We carried out the first next-generation sequencing study of microbial eukaryotic diversity in oil sands tailings ponds. In metagenomes prepared from tailings sediment and surface water, we detected very low numbers of sequences encoding eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA representing seven major taxonomic groups of protists. We also produced and analysed three amplicon-based 18S rRNA libraries prepared from sediment samples. These revealed a more diverse set of taxa, 169 different OTUs encompassing up to eleven higher order groups of eukaryotes, according to detailed classification using homology searching and phylogenetic methods. The 10 most abundant OTUs accounted for > 90% of the total of reads, vs. large numbers of rare OTUs (< 1% abundance). Despite the anoxic and hydrocarbon-enriched nature of the environment, the tailings ponds harbour complex communities of microbial eukaryotes indicating that these organisms should be taken into account when studying the microbiology of the oil sands. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  11. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutt, N M [Morwijk Enterprises Ltd., (Canada); Morin, K A [Normar Enterprises, (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs.

  12. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, N.M.; Morin, K.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs

  13. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed...... that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...

  14. Sub-aerial tailings deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.B.; Haile, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The sub-aerial technique involves the systematic deposition of tailings in thin layers and allowing each layer to settle, drain and partially air dry prior to covering with a further layer. Underdrainage produces densities in excess of those achieved by sub-aqueous deposition and any air-drying serves to preconsolidate each layer with a resulting further increase in density. The low permeability of the tailings surface resulting from this deposition technique results in high runoff coefficients and, by decanting the runoff component of direct precipitation, a net evaporation condition can be achieved even in high rainfall areas. An underdrainage system prevents the build-up of excess pore-pressures within the tailings mass and at decommissioning the tailings are fully consolidated and drained thereby eliminating the possibility of any long term seepage. This paper presents a general description of these design concepts, and details of two projects where the concepts have been applied

  15. Results of evaluation of tailing dumps dust intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masloboev V. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of most acceptable and well-known methods of dust intensity evaluation has been defined and tested (dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme based on the analysis of exiting approaches (deserts, tailing dumps, etc.. The description of the chosen methods has been given. The determination of dynamic velocity u* and velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface u10 which are necessary to evaluate the dust intensity has been demonstrated. The method is based on two-dimensional numerical model of atmosphere aerodynamics in the area of "tailing dumps of ANOF-2 ‒ the town of Apatity". The study provides calculations of horizontal velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface at the wind speed varying from 5 to 23 m/sec. The work also suggests the results of graphical data processing related to tailing grain size distribution from the surface of the firmly established surface of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2. Comparative analysis has been given and the peculiarities of interval (based on grains sizes dust intensity of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2 have been shown using the dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme within the wind speed range. The received values of dust intensity at the lower range limit are close to the "maximum specific dust off" value which is used by project specialists for documentation development

  16. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: tveach@asu.edu, E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu, E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

  17. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio ∼4: 1 occurring ∼200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and Hα narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 μm [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous Hα sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter Hα source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation

  18. Moisture content analysis of covered uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, D.W.; Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1981-12-01

    The use of vegetation and rock covers to stabilize uranium mill tailings cover systems is being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A modeling study of moisture movement through the tailings and cover layers was initiated to determine the effect of the stabilizing techniques. The cover system was simulated under climatic conditions occurring at Grand Junction, Colorado. The cover consisted of a layer of wet clay/gravel mix followed by a capillary barrier of washed rock and a surface layer of fill soil. Vegetation and rock were used to stabilize the surface layer. The simulation yielded moisture content and moisture storage values for the tailings and cover system along with information about moisture losses due to evaporation, transpiration, and drainage. The study demonstrates that different surface stabilization treatments lead to different degrees of moisture retention in the covered tailings pile. The evapotranspiration from vegetation can result in a relatively stable moisture content. Rock covers, however, may cause drainage to occur because they reduce evaporation and lead to a subsequent increase in moisture content. It is important to consider these effects when designing a surface stabilization treatment. Drainage may contribute to a groundwater pollution problem. A surface treatment that allows the cover system to dry out can increase the risk of atmospheric contamination through elevated radon emission rates

  19. The B7-1 cytoplasmic tail enhances intracellular transport and mammalian cell surface display of chimeric proteins in the absence of a linear ER export motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available Membrane-tethered proteins (mammalian surface display are increasingly being used for novel therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Maximizing surface expression of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells is important for these applications. We show that the cytoplasmic domain from the B7-1 antigen, a commonly used element for mammalian surface display, can enhance the intracellular transport and surface display of chimeric proteins in a Sar1 and Rab1 dependent fashion. However, mutational, alanine scanning and deletion analysis demonstrate the absence of linear ER export motifs in the B7 cytoplasmic domain. Rather, efficient intracellular transport correlated with the presence of predicted secondary structure in the cytoplasmic tail. Examination of the cytoplasmic domains of 984 human and 782 mouse type I transmembrane proteins revealed that many previously identified ER export motifs are rarely found in the cytoplasmic tail of type I transmembrane proteins. Our results suggest that efficient intracellular transport of B7 chimeric proteins is associated with the structure rather than to the presence of a linear ER export motif in the cytoplasmic tail, and indicate that short (less than ~ 10-20 amino acids and unstructured cytoplasmic tails should be avoided to express high levels of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells.

  20. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S; Rydtoft, Louise M; Mortensen, Martin B; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  1. Flexible histone tails in a new mesoscopic oligonucleosome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Gaurav; Zhang, Qing; Schlick, Tamar

    2006-07-01

    We describe a new mesoscopic model of oligonucleosomes that incorporates flexible histone tails. The nucleosome cores are modeled using the discrete surface-charge optimization model, which treats the nucleosome as an electrostatic surface represented by hundreds of point charges; the linker DNAs are treated using a discrete elastic chain model; and the histone tails are modeled using a bead/chain hydrodynamic approach as chains of connected beads where each bead represents five protein residues. Appropriate charges and force fields are assigned to each histone chain so as to reproduce the electrostatic potential, structure, and dynamics of the corresponding atomistic histone tails at different salt conditions. The dynamics of resulting oligonucleosomes at different sizes and varying salt concentrations are simulated by Brownian dynamics with complete hydrodynamic interactions. The analyses demonstrate that the new mesoscopic model reproduces experimental results better than its predecessors, which modeled histone tails as rigid entities. In particular, our model with flexible histone tails: correctly accounts for salt-dependent conformational changes in the histone tails; yields the experimentally obtained values of histone-tail mediated core/core attraction energies; and considers the partial shielding of electrostatic repulsion between DNA linkers as a result of the spatial distribution of histone tails. These effects are crucial for regulating chromatin structure but are absent or improperly treated in models with rigid histone tails. The development of this model of oligonucleosomes thus opens new avenues for studying the role of histone tails and their variants in mediating gene expression through modulation of chromatin structure.

  2. Solar wind interaction with type-1 comet tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershkovich, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    A comet tail is considered as a plasma cylinder separated by a tangential discontinuity surface from the solar wind. Under typical conditions a comet tail boundary is shown to undergo the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. With infinite amplitude the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field increases, and waves become stable. The proposed model supplies the detailed quantitative description of helical waves observed in type-1 comet tails. This theory enables the evaluation of the comet tail magnetic field by means of the observations of helical waves. The magnetic field in the comet tail turns out to be of the order of the interplanetary field. This conclusion seems to be in accordance with Alfven's idea that the magnetic field in type-1 comet tails is a captured interplanetary field. (Auth.)

  3. Manual for the sampling of uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Reades, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Chambers, D.B.; Case, G.G.; Ibbotson, B.G.

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the requisite sampling procedures to provide a basis for the application of uniform high-quality standards to detailed geotechnical, hydrogeological, geochemical and air quality measurements at Canadian uranium tailings disposal sites. The report describes the objective and scope of a sampling program, the preliminary data collection, and the procedures for sampling of tailings solids, surface water and seepage, tailings porewater, and wind-blown dust and radon

  4. UAV Remote Sensing Surveillance of a Mine Tailings Impoundment in Sub-Arctic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anssi Rauhala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining typically involves extensive areas where environmental monitoring is spatially sporadic. New remote sensing techniques and platforms such as Structure from Motion (SfM and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs may offer one solution for more comprehensive and spatially continuous measurements. We conducted UAV campaigns in three consecutive summers (2015–2017 at a sub-Arctic mining site where production was temporarily suspended. The aim was to monitor a 0.5 km2 tailings impoundment and measure potential subsidence of tailings. SfM photogrammetry was used to produce yearly topographical models of the tailings surface, which allowed the amount of surface displacement between years to be tracked. Ground checkpoints surveyed in stable areas of the impoundment were utilized in assessing the vertical accuracy of the models. Observed surface displacements were linked to a combination of erosion, tailings settlement, and possible compaction of the peat layer underlying the tailings. The accuracy obtained indicated that UAV-assisted monitoring of tailings impoundments is sufficiently accurate for supporting impoundment management operations and for tracking surface displacements in the decimeter range.

  5. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian W Sanggaard

    Full Text Available Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  6. Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamic Characteristics of Several Airplane Configurations Designed to Fly in the Mars Atmosphere at Subsonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Richard J.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    A 1/4-scale wind tunnel model of an airplane configuration developed for short duration flight at subsonic speeds in the Martian atmosphere has been tested in the Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The tunnel was pumped down to extremely low pressures to represent Martian Mach/Reynolds number conditions. Aerodynamic data were obtained and upper and lower surface wind pressures were measured at one spanwise station on some configurations. Three unswept wings of the same planform but different airfoil sections were tested. Horizontal tail incidence was varied as was the deflection of plain and split trailing-edge flaps. One unswept wing configuration was tested with the lower part of the fuselage removed and the vertical/horizontal tail assembly inverted and mounted from beneath the fuselage. A sweptback wing was also tested. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.90. Wing chord Reynolds number was varied from 40,000 to 100,000 and angles of attack and sideslip were varied from -10deg to 20deg and -10deg to 10deg, respectively.

  7. Oil sands tailings preliminary ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Chemical data collected from various oil sands soil-tailings mixtures were used to determine the ecological risk that such tailings would pose to terrestrial wildlife at the surface of a reclaimed site. A methodology that could be used to evaluate the risks posed by various reclamation options (for dry land only) was proposed. Risks associated with other reclamation options, such as wet landscapes or deeper in-pit disposal, were not evaluated. Ten constituents (eight organic and two inorganic) were found to pose a threat to terrestrial biota. The relative contribution of different exposure pathways (water and food ingestion, incidental soil ingestion, inhalation) were studied by probabilistic models. Some physical and chemical reclamation alternatives which involve incorporating oil sands tailings in the landscape to produce a surface that could sustain a productive ecosystem, were described. 53 refs., 15 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Uranium tailings research at the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haw, V.A.; Ritcey, G.M.; Skeaff, J.M.; Dave, N.; Silver, M.

    1982-09-01

    There are over 100 million metric tons of uranium tailings on the surface of Canada, an amount that is expected to increase threefold by the end of the century. Because of their potential hazard to the environment and man, the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) began a major program ten years ago to examine the problem of uranium tailings management. Vegetation of uranium tailings has been successful using seed mixtures planted on the tailings surface pretreated by lime and fertilizer. Lysimeter tests on uranium tailings have demonstrated that surface treatment and the presence or absence of bacteria have a marked effect on the flow and chemistry of seepage water. Hydrogeochemical studies of the tailings have shown that acid conditions prevail in the upper zone of the tailings (i.e., above the water table) and that both radioactive and other toxic chemicals are concentrated near the bottom of the tailings. Work has been done in cooperation with others on the precipitation and removal of 226 Ra from tailings water effluent by BaCl 2 . Investigation into pre-concentrating the ore prior to acid leaching has demonstrated that virtually all the radionuclides and sulphides can be concentrated into a fraction amounting to from 30 to 40 percent of the original feed, leaving a relatively clean tailing. We are still far from our objective of demonstrating, with reasonable assurance, effective methods for the long-term management of uranium tailings. An accelerated program is outlined

  9. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in type-1 comet tails and associated phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershkovich, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    Selected problems of the solar wind - comet tail coupling that are currently accessible to quantitative analysis are reviewed. The model of a comet tail as a plasma cylinder separated by a tangential discontinuity surface from the solar wind is discussed in detail. This model is compatible with the well-known Alfven mechanism of formation of the comet tail. The stability problem of the comet tail boundary (considered as a discontinuity surface) is solved. Under typical conditions a comet tail boundary can undergo the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. With finite amplitude the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field increases, and waves become stabilized. This model supplies a detailed quantitative description of helical waves observed in type-1 comet tails. A more general model of the tail boundary as a transition layer with a continuous change of the plasma parameters within it is also considered. This theory, in principle, enables us to solve one of the fundamental problems of cometary physics: the magnetic field of the comet tail can be derived from the observations of helical waves. This field turns out to be of the order of the interplanetary field. Various other considerations, discussed in this review also support this conclusion. (orig.)

  10. Leachability of radioactive constituents from uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.N.; Cohen, D.B.; Durham, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    A project was carried out using lysimeters to determine the leaching of radioactive constituents and BaRaSO 4 from abandoned uranium mine tailings. Lime addition to the surface of acidic abandoned tailings did not reduce the level of radioactive constituents in the leachate. Considerable increases in levels of the radionuclides 230 Th, 232 Th and 22 /8Th, as well as gross alpha and beta activity in the leachate, occurred five months after recycling of BaRaSO 4 sediments to the surface layers of abandoned tailings. After nine months of leaching, the levels of 226 Ra in the leachate were 30% greater than the tailings plus sediment treatment than from tailings only (control). Another experiment compared the quality of effluent flowing over chemically-fixed (solidified) BaRaSO 4 sediments with that of non-fixed (control) in simulated sedimentation ponds. During seven months the release of 226 Ra to water from chemically-fixed BaRaSO 4 sediments remained 3 for phosphorus removal) was applied to supply 3 percent organic matter in the top 15 cm of the revegetated lysimeters. Undiluted effluent and leachate from chemically-fixed BaRaSO 4 sediments and fresh tailings were 100 percent lethal to Daphnia pulex and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in static 96-hour bioassay tests. Diluted (50 percent) effluent samples were non-toxic. (auth)

  11. Mine tailings composition in a historic site: implications for ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, R

    2013-02-01

    Ecological restoration, using tolerant plant species and nutrient additions, is a low-cost option to decrease environmental risks associated with mine tailings. An attempt was previously made to establish such a vegetation cover on an abandoned tailings facility in Southern Ireland. Historically, the tailings site has been prone to dusting and is a potential source of contamination to the surrounding environment. The site was examined to determine the success of the previous restoration plan used to revegetate the site and to determine its suitability for further restoration. Three distinct floristic areas were identified (grassland, poor grassland and bare area) based on herbage compositions and elemental analysis. Surface and subsurface samples were taken to characterise tailings from within these areas of the tailings site. The pH of bare surface tailings (pH, 2.7) was significantly more acidic (p tailings being hostile to plant growth. Total metal concentrations in tailings were high (c. 10,000 mg kg(-1) for Pb and up to 20,000 mg kg(-1) for Zn). DTPA-extractable Zn and Pb were 16 and 11 % of the total amount, respectively. Metal content in grasses growing on some areas of the tailings were elevated and demonstrated the inability of the tailings to support sustainable plant growth. Due to the inherently hostile characteristics of these areas, future restoration work will employ capping with a barrier layer.

  12. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Soil placed over any sealant/barrier system can provide a protective mantle if the soil is not lost by erosion. Vegetation is an attractive choice for controlling erosion because it can provide an economic self-renewing cover that serves to reduce erosion by both wind and water. Vegetation alone, however, may not adequately stabilize the surface in extremely arid areas. In those areas, a properly designed surface treatment of rock cover, perhaps in conjunction with vegetation, may be necessary to stabilize the tailings surfaces. The objective of this program is to establish guidelines for surface stabilization that are compatible with sealant/barrier systems and that are suited to soils and climates at inactive uranium mill tailings sites. These guidelines will provide the means to estimate potential vegetation cover, potential erosion, effects of surface treatments on sealant/barrier systems, and costs of vegetation and rock covers. Methods for establishing vegetation on sealed tailings will also be provided

  13. Tailings management best practice: a case study of the McClean Lake JEB Tailings Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, M.A.J.; Rowson, J.

    2005-01-01

    COGEMA Resources Inc. (which is part of the Areva Group) is a Canadian company with its head office in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It owns and operates mining and milling facilities in Northern Saskatchewan, which produce uranium concentrate. McClean Lake Operation commenced production in 1999 and its tailings management facility represents the state of the art for tailings management in the uranium industry in Canada. Tailings disposal has the potential to cause effects in the surrounding receiving environment primarily through migration of soluble constituents from the facility to surface water receptors. In-pit disposal or mill tailings has become the standard in the uranium mining industry in Northern Saskatchewan. This method or tailings management demonstrates advances in terms of worker radiation protection and containment of soluble constituents both during operations and into the long term. Sub-aqueous deposition of tailings protects personnel from exposure to radiation and airborne emissions and prevents freezing of tailings, which can hinder consolidation. The continuous inflow of groundwater to the facility is achieved during operations, through control of water levels within the facility. This ensures hydrodynamic containment, which prevents migration of soluble radionuclides and heavy metals into the surrounding aquifer during operations. The environmental performance of the decommissioned facility depends upon the rate of release of contaminants to the receiving environment. The rate of constituent loading to the receiving environment will ultimately be governed by the concentrations of soluble constituents within the tailings mass, the mechanisms for release from the tailings to the surrounding groundwater system, and transport of constituents within the groundwater pathway to the receiving environment. The tailings preparation process was designed to convert arsenic into a stable form to reduce soluble concentrations within the tailings mass. The

  14. Patterns of surface burrow plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David E.; Biggins, Dean E.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m × 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≥1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis).

  15. Assessment of water quality around Jaduguda uranium tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, A.K.; Gurunadha Rao, V.V.S.; Ramesh, G.; Surinaidu, L.; Thama Rao, G.; Dhakate, R.; Sarangi, A.K.; Nair, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impacts of uranium mining and milling activities are of great concern in many countries for the last three decades. These impacts range from the creation of massive stockpiles of radioactive and toxic waste rock and sand-like tailings to serious contamination of surface and groundwater with radioactive and toxic pollutants, and releases of conventional, toxic and radioactive air pollutants. Uranium mining is also associated with high concentrations of highly toxic heavy metals, which are a major source of surface and groundwater contamination. Depending upon the hydraulic properties of the fractures involved, contaminated ground water may be transported many miles from its point of origin before feeding into an aquifer. Tailings pond may contaminate the groundwater regime by continuous seepage and leaching of radionuclides and other toxic metals due to interaction of rain water through the tailings ponds. The uranium milling and tailings pond operations were started at Jaduguda since 1968. A comprehensive geological and geophysical investigation has been carried out in the Jaduguda watershed covering the tailings ponds to understand the geohydrological characteristics of the region. High resolution electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys have been carried out to delineate the aquifer geometry. Water quality analyses were carried out in three seasons covering from premonsoon to postmonsoon period during 2008-2009. Uranium concentrations have been observed in the dug wells, surface water and monitoring wells

  16. A new model of tail diffusion of phosphorus and boron in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morehead, F.F.; Lever, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that high surface concentration phosphorus diffusion leads to deeply penetrating tails in its concentration profile. At 700 0 C the tail diffusivity exceeds that of low concentration phosphorus by a factor of a thousand. Less spectacular, but very significant tailing also affects boron, making the conventional models contained in commonly available process simulation programs quite inaccurate for boron diffusions with high surface concentrations. The authors show that the observed tailing can be accounted for by a model whose central assumption is the local equality of dopant and oppositely directed defect fluxes. As predicted by the model, the effect is greatest for normal processing at low temperatures for high surface concentrations. It is minimal for the high temperatures of rapid thermal annealing and unrelated to transient effects

  17. Placement of radium/barium sludges in tailings areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, K.L.; Multamaki, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Currently radium is removed from uranium mining and milling effluents by the addition of barium chloride to precipitate the radium as radium/barium sulphate. The precipitate is allowed to settle in sedimentation basins prior to discharge of the effluent. The sedimentation basins are not suitable for final disposal of the sludge, and placement of the sludges in the tailings area has been proposed. The geochemical environment of fresh tailings areas was characterized as an acidic, oxidized surface zone underlain by an alkaline, reduced zone comprising the rest of the tailings. The quantity of sludge produced was estimated to be small relative to the quantity of tailings, and therefor a relatively small amount of radium would be added to the tailings disposal area by the addition of sludge. To confirm whether sludge addition affected radionuclide solubilization, laboratory leaching tests were conducted on slurries of acid leach tailings, and sludge-tailings mixtures. Radium in the (Ra,Ba)SO 4 sludge was at least as stable as radium in the tailings, and the sludge was able to absorb radium released from the tailings. The addition of sludge did not affect uranium and thorium solubilization. From these results it appears that the placement of sludge in tailings areas would not adversely affect the stability of radionuclides in the tailings or sludge. (auth)

  18. Uranium tailings research at the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haw, V.A.; Ritcey, G.M.; Skeaff, J.M.; Dave, N.; Silver, M.

    1983-01-01

    There are over 100 million tonnes of uranium tailings on the surface of Canada, an amount that is expected to increase threefold by the end of the century. Because of their potential hazard to the environment and man, the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) began a major programme ten years ago, to examine the problem of uranium tailings management. Work to date has shown that: (1) Vegetation of uranium tailings has been successful using seed mixtures planted on the tailings surface pre-treated by lime and fertilizer; (2) Lysimeter tests on uranium tailings have demonstrated that surface treatment and the presence or absence of bacteria have a marked effect on the flow and chemistry of seepage water; (3) Hydrogeochemical studies of the tailings have shown that acid conditions prevail in the upper zone of the tailings (i.e. above the water table) and that both radioactive and other toxic chemicals are concentrated near the bottom of the tailings; (4) Work has been done in co-operation with others on the precipitation and removal of 226 Ra from tailings water effluent by BaCl 2 . The purpose of this work is to improve control of the total radium content of water discharged to drainage systems by mechanical means. (5) Investigation into pre-concentrating the ore prior to acid leaching has demonstrated that virtually all the radionuclides and sulphides can be concentrated into a fraction amounting to from 30 to 40 per cent of the original feed, leaving a relatively clean tailing. The authors are still far from their objective of demonstrating, with reasonable assurance, effective methods for the long-term management of uranium tailings. An accelerated programme is outlined. (author)

  19. Tail posture predicts tail damage among weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Riel, van J.W.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Kemp, B.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a widespread behavioural vice with significant animal welfare and economic consequences. All too often, tail biting is not diagnosed nor dealt with until tail damage is present. To effectively reduce the negative effects of tail biting, it must be diagnosed in an early stage.

  20. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Ellis, B.S.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    The findings of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Gunnison, Colorado, conducted in May 1976, are presented. Results of surface soil sample analyses and direct gamma radiation measurements indicate limited spread of tailings off the site. The only significant above background measurements off the site were obtained in an area previously covered by the tailings pile. There was little evidence of contamination of the surface or of unconfined groundwater in the vicinity of the tailings pile; however, the hydrologic conditions at the site indicate a potential for such contamination. The concentration of 226 Ra in all water samples except one from the tailings pile was well below the concentration guide for drinking water. The subsurface distribution of 226 Ra in 14 bore holes located on and around the tailings pile was calculated from gamma ray monitoring data obtained jointly with Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc

  1. Reclamation plans at uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Nelson, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term stability of waste impoundments is of concern because of the long time periods over which various types of waste may remain active. Over the past decade much technology has been developed specifically for reclamation of uranium mill tailings impoundments. Aspects of this technology will be discussed here and is presented as also being directly applicable to reclamation of industrial waste impoundments in general. The paper discusses Title I and Title II sites which represent two different generations in uranium tailings impoundment construction. The comparison between the two represent differences in philosophies as well as in impoundment type. Reclamation of uranium mill tailings impoundments in the U.S. is controlled by Federal legislation, which has set forth the regulatory framework for reclamation plan approval. Title I requirements govern government owned inactive sites and Title II requirements govern active tailings impoundments or those operated by private industries. While the Title I and Title II designation may result in a slightly different regulatory process, reclamation of uranium tailings sites has the same. Differences between Title I and Title II reclamation plans to achieve surface stability relate primarily to the embankment and surface covers. The differences in the cover designs result from site-specific conditions, rather than from differences in engineering approaches or the regulatory process. This paper discusses the site-specific conditions that affect the selection of cover designs, and provides a comparative example to illustrate the effect of this condition

  2. Shrinkage and swelling properties of flocculated mature fine tailings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.; Van Tol, A.F.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Vardon, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric fines drying technique, mature fine tailings (MFT) are treated with polymers and deposited in thin layers on a sloped surface for sub-aerial drying. During the whole drying period, the tailings deposits can experience rewetting during periods of rainy weather or as result of the

  3. Pollution characteristics of surface runoff under different restoration types in manganese tailing wasteland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Cheng, Qingyu; Xue, Shengguo; Rajendran, Manikandan; Wu, Chuan; Liao, Jiaxin

    2018-04-01

    A great deal of manganese and associated heavy metals (such as Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, etc.) was produced in manganese mining, smelting, and other processes and weathering and leaching of waste slag, which entered rainwater runoff by different means under the action of rainfall runoff. It caused heavy metal pollution in water environment to surrounding areas, and then environmental and human health risks were becoming increasingly serious. In the Xiangtan manganese mine, we studied the characteristics of nutritional pollutants and heavy metals by using the method of bounded runoff plots on the manganese tailing wasteland after carrying out some site treatments using three different approaches, such as (1) exposed tailings, the control treatment (ET), (2) external-soil amelioration and colonization of Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. turf (EC), and (3) external-soil amelioration and seedling seeding propagation of Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. (ES). The research showed that the maximum runoff occurred in 20,140,712 rainfall events, and the basic law of runoff was EC area > ET area > ES area in the same rainfall event. The concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of three ecological restoration areas adopted the following rule: ET area > EC area > ES area. Nitrogen (N) existed mainly in the form of water soluble while phosphorus (P) was particulate. The highest concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were 11.57 ± 2.99 mg/L in the EC area and 1.42 ± 0.56 mg/L in the ET area, respectively. Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Cu in surface runoff from three restoration types all exceeded the class V level of the environmental quality standard for surface water except Cu in EC and ES areas. Pollution levels of heavy metals in surface runoff from three restoration areas are shown as follows: ET area > EC area > ES area. There was a significant positive correlation between TSS and runoff, COD, and TP. And this

  4. FINAL TAILINGS OF METAL-WORKING PRODUCTION. Part 3. PHYSICO-MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Djakonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The indices of adhesion and friability of metal-containing tailings, their water absorbency and wettability and also abrasive characteristics of tailings with the purpose of prevention of contacting surfaces wear are studied.

  5. Radionuclide levels in vegetation growing on uranium tailings, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pave, N.K.; Cloutier, N.R.; Lim, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    In Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, most of the inactive uranium tailings have been reclaimed by revegetation where a thick vegetation cover has been established. The surface amendments have also prompted volunteer growth of various species of local trees and shrubs on tailings. Radionuclide levels were measured in various tissues of grasses, legumes and trees growing on uranium tailings at different sites. Lower Th than Ra and Pb levels in tailings substrate were believed to be the cause for the relatively lower Th levels measured in vegetation when compared to Ra and Pb concentrations. No correlation was observed between the level of a given radionuclide in tailings and in the vegetation growing on that tailings

  6. Liner used in tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinchak, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    A composite liner has been developed for use in hazardous waste impoundments and in tailings ponds where uranium is involved. The liner offers a high degree of reliability against seepage, is durable, and provides a firm working surface. The advantages of the liner are discussed

  7. Element flows associated with marine shore mine tailings deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Bernhard

    2006-02-01

    From 1938 until 1975, flotation tailings from the Potrerillos--El Salvador mining district (porphyry copper deposits) were discharged into the El Salado valley and transported in suspension to the sea at Chaliaral Bay, Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Over 220 Mt of tailings, averaging 0.8 +/- 0.25 wt % of pyrite, were deposited into the bay, resulting in over a 1 kilometer seaward displacement of the shoreline and an estimated 10-15 m thick tailings accumulation covering a approximately 4 km2 surface area. The Chaniaral case was classified by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 1983 as one of the most serious cases of marine contamination in the Pacific area. Since 1975, the tailings have been exposed to oxidation, resulting in a 70-188 cm thick low-pH (2.6-4) oxidation zone at the top with liberation of divalent metal cations, such as Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ (up to 2265 mg/L, 18.1 mg/L, and 20.3 mg/ L, respectively). Evaporation-induced transport capillarity led to metal enrichment atthe tailings surface (e.g. up to 2.4% Cu) in the form of secondary chlorides and/or sulfates (dominated by eriochalcite [CuCl.H2O] and halite). These, mainly water-soluble, secondary minerals were exposed to eolian transport in the direction of the Village of Chañaral by the predominant W-SW winds. Two element-flow directions (toward the tailings surface, via capillarity, and toward the sea) and two element groups with different geochemical behaviors (cations such as Cu, Zn, Ni, and oxyanions such as As and Mo) could be distinguished. It can be postulated, that the sea is mainly affected by the following: As, Mo, Cu, and Zn contamination, which were liberated from the oxidation zone from the tailings and mobilized through the tidal cycle, and by Cu and Zn from the subsurface waters flowing in the El Salado valley (up to 19 mg/L and 12 mg/L Zn, respectively), transported as chloro complexes at neutral pH.

  8. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Burden, J.E.; Ellis, B.S.; Loy, E.T.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The results of the radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Lakeview, Oregon, show that the average gamma-ray exposure rate 1 m above the tailings pile and the evaporation pond area (now dry) is close to the average background level for the area (11 μR/hr). The 226 Ra concentration in most of the surface soil and sediment samples is also at or below the average background value for surface soil samples in the area (0.8 pCi/g). Calculated 226 Ra concentrations, based on gamma radiation measurements in shallow (1-m-deep) holes, are in agreement with the results of surface soil and sediment analyses and with gamma-ray exposure rate measurements. The tailings at this site have been stabilized by the addition of 46 to 60 cm (18 to 24 in.) of soil that supports vigorous growth of vegetation. This treatment, coupled with a low-level inventory of 226 Ra in the tailings (50 Ci), has resulted in limited spread of tailings by wind and water

  9. Design of a Symmetrical Quad-rotor Biplane Tail-Sitter Aircraft without Control Surfaces and Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a symmetrical quad-rotor biplane tail-sitter VTOL UAV (Vertical Take-off and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle which is composed of four rotors and two symmetrically mounted fixed wings. This aircraft achieves high accuracy in the attitude control and smooth flight mode transition with four rotors rather than the conventional VTOL UAVs using control surfaces. The proposal of angled rotor mounting is adopted to address the issue of insufficient yaw control authority. The layout of symmetrically mounted fixed wings makes the aircraft have capability of rapid bidirectional flight mode transition to improve maneuverability. To validate the performance of the aircraft, simulation and flight experiments are both implemented. These results show that the aircraft has a rapid yaw response under condition of the stable attitude control. In comparative experiment, it is shown that the aircraft is more flexible than other similar configuration of aircrafts. This symmetrical quad-rotor biplane tail-sitter VTOL UAV will have a wide range of potential applications in the military and civilian areas due to its superior performance..

  10. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The inactive uranium-mill tailings pile at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, contains approximately 1520 Ci of 226 Ra in 2.4 million metric tons of tailings covering an area of 43 hectares. All of the former mill buildings were intact and, at the time of this survey, several were in use. The tailings have not been stabilized, but the crusty surface is reported to be resistant to wind erosion. The average gamma-ray exposure rate 1 m above the tailings is 720 μR/h while the average rate in the former mill area is 150 μR/h. The adjacent area, between the mill site, ponds, and tailings pile, has an average exposure rate of 230 μR/h. Gamma radiation measurements outside these areas, as well as the results of analyses of surface or near-surface sediment and soil samples, show fairly wide dispersion of contamination around the site. The subsurface distribution of 226 Ra in 18 holes drilled at the site, calculated from gamma-ray monitoring data, is presented graphically and compared with measured concentrations in two holes

  11. Predicting Tail Buffet Loads of a Fighter Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    2006-01-01

    Buffet loads on aft aerodynamic surfaces pose a recurring problem on most twin-tailed fighter airplanes: During maneuvers at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from various surfaces on the forward parts of such an airplane (engine inlets, wings, or other fuselage appendages) often burst, immersing the tails in their wakes. Although these vortices increase lift, the frequency contents of the burst vortices become so low as to cause the aft surfaces to vibrate destructively. Now, there exists a new analysis capability for predicting buffet loads during the earliest design phase of a fighter-aircraft program. In effect, buffet pressures are applied to mathematical models in the framework of a finite-element code, complete with aeroelastic properties and working knowledge of the spatiality of the buffet pressures for all flight conditions. The results of analysis performed by use of this capability illustrate those vibratory modes of a tail fin that are most likely to be affected by buffet loads. Hence, the results help in identifying the flight conditions during which to expect problems. Using this capability, an aircraft designer can make adjustments to the airframe and possibly the aerodynamics, leading to a more robust design.

  12. Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

    2012-01-04

    In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots.

  13. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Parviainen, Annika; Slater, Lee; Leveinen, Jussi

    2015-02-01

    Mine tailings impoundments are a source of leachates known as acid mine drainage (AMD) which can pose a contamination risk for surrounding surface and groundwater. Methodologies which can help management of this environmental issue are needed. We carried out a laboratory study of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of tailings from the Haveri Au-Cu mine, SW Finland. The primary objectives were, (1) to determine possible correlations between SIP parameters and textural properties associated with oxidative-weathering mechanisms, mineralogical composition and metallic content, and (2) to evaluate the effects of the pore water chemistry on SIP parameters associated with redox-inactive and redox-active electrolytes varying in molar concentration, conductivity and pH. The Haveri tailings exhibit well defined relaxation spectra between 100 and 10,000Hz. The relaxation magnitudes are governed by the in-situ oxidative-weathering conditions on sulphide mineral surfaces contained in the tailings, and decrease with the oxidation degree. The oxidation-driven textural variation in the tailings results in changes to the frequency peak of the phase angle, the imaginary conductivity and chargeability, when plotted versus the pore water conductivity. In contrast, the real and the formation electrical conductivity components show a single linear dependence on the pore water conductivity. The increase of the pore water conductivity (dominated by the increase of ions concentration in solution) along with a transition to acidic conditions shifts the polarization peak towards higher frequencies. These findings show the unique sensitivity of the SIP method to potentially discriminate AMD discharges from reactive oxidation zones in tailings, suggesting a significant advantage for monitoring threatened aquifers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  15. Telling tails: selective pressures acting on investment in lizard tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Patricia A; Valentine, Leonie E; Bateman, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Caudal autotomy is a common defense mechanism in lizards, where the animal may lose part or all of its tail to escape entrapment. Lizards show an immense variety in the degree of investment in a tail (i.e., length) across species, with tails of some species up to three or four times body length (snout-vent length [SVL]). Additionally, body size and form also vary dramatically, including variation in leg development and robustness and length of the body and tail. Autotomy is therefore likely to have fundamentally different effects on the overall body form and function in different species, which may be reflected directly in the incidence of lost/regenerating tails within populations or, over a longer period, in terms of relative tail length for different species. We recorded data (literature, museum specimens, field data) for relative tail length (n=350 species) and the incidence of lost/regenerating tails (n=246 species). We compared these (taking phylogeny into account) with intrinsic factors that have been proposed to influence selective pressures acting on caudal autotomy, including body form (robustness, body length, leg development, and tail specialization) and ecology (foraging behavior, physical and temporal niches), in an attempt to identify patterns that might reflect adaptive responses to these different factors. More gracile species have relatively longer tails (all 350 spp., P lost/regenerating tails for nocturnal lizards (all 246 spp., P pressure.

  16. Some properties of Suncor oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, C.; Wells, P.S. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed a pond assessment program conducted by Suncor to determine the properties of mature fine tailings (MFT) and composite tailings (CT) at reclaimed and unreclaimed sites. Mudline and sonar depth sounding techniques were used to determine solids contents. A wire line sampler provided point depth samples used for laboratory analyses. Continuous drill samples were obtained in order to characterize bottom fines and clay content. A flow penetration tests was used to determine the undrained shear strength of the soft tailings. A 3-D block model was then used to estimate soft material properties and to generate material distribution volumes and tonnages for different property ranges. The study showed that the block modelling techniques provide a more accurate tailings pond assessment than traditional approaches. While slow, ongoing static consolidation was observed, surface capping and artificial dewatering are required to provide trafficable ground for the final reclamation of the sites. tabs., figs.

  17. Failure Analysis on Tail Rotor Teeter Pivot Bolt on a Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, WANG; Zi-long, DONG

    2018-03-01

    Tail rotor teeter pivot bolt of a helicopter fractured when in one flight. Failure analysis on the bolt was finished in laboratory. Macroscopic observation of the tailor rotor teeter pivot bolt, macro and microscopic inspection on the fracture surface of the bolt was carried out. Chemical components and metallurgical structure was also carried out. Experiment results showed that fracture mode of the tail rotor teeter pivot bolt is fatigue fracture. Fatigue area is over 80% of the total fracture surface, obvious fatigue band characteristics can be found at the fracture face. According to the results were analyzed from the macroscopic and microcosmic aspects, fracture reasons of the tail rotor teeter pivot bolt were analyzed in detail

  18. Protection coverage parameters indentification for uranium tailing dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Akhmedov, M.Z.

    2012-01-01

    This article is devoted to protection coverage parameters indentification for uranium tailing dumps. Authors noticed that many tailing dumps In Tajikistan do not correspond to modern requirements of territories remediation published by IAEA and current norms of the Republic of Tajikistan. The most dangerous is radionuclide migration i.e., distribution of radioactive substances beyond the uranium tailing dumps territories. One of the basic distribution ways is atmospheric migration. At the same time potentially dangerous factors are: dust rising from open surfaces is the source for contamination distribution to neighboring territories; direct external exposure of public located in close distance to the sites; radioactive gas radon exhalation originating a threat if radionuclides penetration to the human body through breathing passages. Different methods of tailing's negative impact minimization, including coverage with neutral soil layer, coverage with fine-ground worked-out bentonite clay were proposed.

  19. Flapping foil power generator performance enhanced with a spring-connected tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengliang; Tian, Fang-Bao; Young, John; Lai, Joseph C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The flexibility effects on the performance of a flapping foil power generator are numerically studied by using the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method at a Reynolds number of 1100. The flapping foil system consists of a rigid NACA0015 foil undergoing harmonic pitch and plunge motions and a passively actuated flat plate pinned to the trailing edge of the rigid foil. The flexibility is modeled by a torsional spring model at the conjuncture of the rigid foil and the tail. Here, a parametric study on mass density and natural frequency is conducted under the optimum kinematic condition of the rigid system identified from the literature and numerical simulations made for reduced frequency f* = 0.04-0.24 and pitch amplitude θ0 = 40°-90°. Four typical cases are discussed in detail by considering time histories of hydrodynamic loads and tail deformations under the optimal and non-optimal kinematic conditions. Results show that under the rigid-system optimal kinematic condition, a tail with appropriate mass density (μ = 0.60) and resonant frequency ( fr*=1.18 ) can improve the maximum efficiency by 7.24% accompanied by an increase of 6.63% in power compared to those of a rigid foil with a rigid tail. This is because the deflection of the tail reduces the low pressure region on the pressure surface (i.e., the lower surface during the upstroke or the upper surface during the downstroke) caused by the leading edge vortex after the stroke reversal, resulting in a higher efficiency. At high flapping frequencies, a spring-connected tail ( fr*=0.13 ) eliminates the large spike in the moment observed in high stiffness cases, reducing the power required for the pitch motion, resulting in 117% improvement in efficiency over that with a rigid tail at a reduced frequency of 0.24.

  20. Pumping evaluations with paste tailings thickened close to the surface disposal area

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Thord; Sellgren, Anders

    2007-01-01

    An elevated location of a paste thickener on a ridge close to the disposal area is considered at a Swedish iron ore mine. About 0.7 Mtonnes of thickened tailings are planned to be layered as paste in the vicinity of the thickener over several years with pipeline lengths of up to 900 m after about 20 years. In order to clarify the pipeline pumping characteristics of the tailings product for volumetric solids concentration from 40 to 50%, experiments in loop systems with pipeline inner diameter...

  1. Oil sands tailings technology : understanding the impact to reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamer, M. [Suncor Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed tailings management techniques at oil sands mines and their effects on reclamation schedules and outcomes. The layer of mature fine tailings (MFT) that forms in tailings ponds does not settle within a reasonable time frame, requiring more and larger tailings ponds for storing MFT. Consolidated tailings (CT) technology was developed to accelerate the consolidation of MFT, although the process nonetheless takes decades. CT is produced from mixing tailings sand, gypsum, and MFT to create a mixture that will consolidate more quickly and release water. However, CT production is tied to the extraction process, making it applicable only when the plant is operational, and a precise recipe and accurate injection are required for CT to work. In tailings reduction operations (TRO), a new approach to tailings management, MFT is mixed with a polymer flocculant, deposited in thin layers, and allowed to dry. TRO has a significant advantage over CT in that the latter takes up to 30 years to consolidate to a trafficable surface compared to weeks for TRO. TRO allows MFT to be consumed more quickly than it is produced, reducing need to build more tailings ponds, operates independent of plant operations, accelerates the reclamation time frame, and offers enhanced flexibility in final tailings placement sites. TRO also creates a dry landscape, to which well established reclamation techniques can be applied. Dried MFT is a new material type, and research is exploring optimum reclamation techniques. 2 figs.

  2. Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway II: solid phase biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq eSiddique

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation of clay particles in aqueous tailings suspensions is a major obstacle to effective management of oil sands tailings ponds in northern Alberta, Canada. We have observed that microorganisms indigenous to the tailings ponds accelerate consolidation of mature fine tailings (MFT during active metabolism by using two biogeochemical pathways. In Pathway I, microbes alter porewater chemistry to indirectly increase consolidation of MFT. Here, we describe Pathway II comprising significant, direct and complementary biogeochemical reactions with MFT mineral surfaces. An anaerobic microbial community comprising Bacteria (predominantly Clostridiales, Synergistaceae and Desulfobulbaceae and Archaea (Methanolinea/Methanoregula and Methanosaeta transformed FeIII minerals in MFT to amorphous FeII minerals during methanogenic metabolism of an added organic substrate. Synchrotron analyses suggested that ferrihydrite (5Fe2O3. 9H2O and goethite (α-FeOOH were the dominant FeIII minerals in MFT. The formation of amorphous iron sulfide (FeS and possibly green rust entrapped and masked electronegative clay surfaces in amended MFT. Both Pathways I and II reduced the surface charge potential (repulsive forces of the clay particles in MFT, which aided aggregation of clays and formation of networks of pores, as visualized using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. These reactions facilitated the egress of porewater from MFT and increased consolidation of tailings solids. These results have large-scale implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds, a burgeoning environmental issue for the public and government regulators.

  3. Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway II: solid phase biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Tariq; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Li, Carmen; Young, Rozlyn; Arocena, Joselito M; Foght, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Consolidation of clay particles in aqueous tailings suspensions is a major obstacle to effective management of oil sands tailings ponds in northern Alberta, Canada. We have observed that microorganisms indigenous to the tailings ponds accelerate consolidation of mature fine tailings (MFT) during active metabolism by using two biogeochemical pathways. In Pathway I, microbes alter porewater chemistry to indirectly increase consolidation of MFT. Here, we describe Pathway II comprising significant, direct and complementary biogeochemical reactions with MFT mineral surfaces. An anaerobic microbial community comprising Bacteria (predominantly Clostridiales, Synergistaceae, and Desulfobulbaceae) and Archaea (Methanolinea/Methanoregula and Methanosaeta) transformed Fe(III) minerals in MFT to amorphous Fe(II) minerals during methanogenic metabolism of an added organic substrate. Synchrotron analyses suggested that ferrihydrite (5Fe2O3. 9H2O) and goethite (α-FeOOH) were the dominant Fe(III) minerals in MFT. The formation of amorphous iron sulfide (FeS) and possibly green rust entrapped and masked electronegative clay surfaces in amended MFT. Both Pathways I and II reduced the surface charge potential (repulsive forces) of the clay particles in MFT, which aided aggregation of clays and formation of networks of pores, as visualized using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These reactions facilitated the egress of porewater from MFT and increased consolidation of tailings solids. These results have large-scale implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds, a burgeoning environmental issue for the public and government regulators.

  4. Fugitive emissions control on dry copper tailing with crushed rock armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    Four inactive copper tailing impoundments totalling 1,900 acres near Ajo in southwestern Arizona were covered on horizontal surfaces with a 2 in. nominal thickness of crushed rock to control particulate emissions. The tailings are typically dominated by sand-sized particles but may also include significant PM 10 fractions towards the centers of the impoundments. The technology was selected by Phelps Dodge Corporation, after investigation of several alternatives, as a permanent and practical cover that essentially eliminates fugitive emissions. It simulates the natural desert pavement that characterizes this arid area of the Sonoran Desert. Rocky overburden was crushed to minus 3 in. diameter and broadcast on dry surfaces of tailing impoundments with all-terrain, balloon-tired spreaders. Stony residues in the rock armor tend to cement together following rainfall, forming a crust that enhances surface stability and erosion control. Slopes with windblown tailing deposition were covered to a nominal 6 in. thickness by conventional dozer pushing and blading of minus 10 in. rock over the sides. Athel trees, planted extensively since 1970 on two of the four inactive impoundments, provided partial control of fugitives, but were subjected to harsh environmental conditions, including abrasion from saltating particles. The rock armor functions as a mulch which is expected to improve water relations for existing vegetation and areas seeded with native species. New surface microenvironments, and the virtual elimination of surface creep and saltation, are expected to support native plant growth under favorable climatic conditions

  5. Tail posture predicts tail biting outbreaks at pen level in weaner pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Helle Pelant; Hansen, Christian Fink; D'Eath, Rick

    2018-01-01

    posture and behaviour could be detected at pen level between upcoming tail biting pens (T-pens) and control pens (C-pens). The study included 2301 undocked weaner pigs in 74 pens (mean 31.1 pigs/pen; SD 1.5). Tails were scored three times weekly (wound freshness, wound severity and tail length) between 07......Detecting a tail biting outbreak early is essential to reduce the risk of pigs getting severe tail damage. A few previous studies suggest that tail posture and behavioural differences can predict an upcoming outbreak. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate if differences in tail......:00 h-14:00 h from weaning until a tail biting outbreak. An outbreak (day 0) occurred when at least four pigs had a tail damage, regardless of wound freshness. On average 7.6 (SD 4.3) pigs had a damaged tail (scratches + wound) in T-pens on day 0. Tail posture and behaviour (activity, eating...

  6. Effect of nozzle and vertical-tail variables on the performance of a 3-surface F-15 model at transonic Mach numbers. [Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergraft, O. C., Jr.; Bare, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of twin two dimensional nozzles and twin baseline axisymmetric nozzles installed on a fully metric 0.047 scale model of the F-15 three surface configuration (canards, wing, horizontal tails). The effects on performance of two dimensional nozzle in flight thrust reversing, locations and orientation of the vertical tails, and deflections of the horizontal tails were also determined. Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20 over an angle of attack range from -2 deg to 15 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet off to about 6.5.

  7. Environmental consequences of the placement of radium-barium sludge in tailings areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, P.M.; Brown, J.R.; Multimaki, G.; Murphy, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation was made of the implications of placing radium-barium sludge in tailings areas. The study was restricted to a consideration of possible increases in the quantities of radionuclides escaping to the environment through either groundwater or surface water, considering the types of tailings treated and the effluent treatment systems currently operating in Canada. It was concluded that the placement of radium/barium sludge in tailings areas should not adversely affect the long-term stability of the radionuclides in the tailings or sludge, based on geochemical inorganic reactions

  8. Measurement of radon flux and tailings parameters for quantifying the source term due to radon exhalation from U tailings pile at Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.; Sapra, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Khuswaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The exposures from radon ( 222 Rn) and its decay products have been received considerable attention in the world community because of their adverse health effect. There are various natural and man-made sources of radon present in our environment. Among the man-made sources, the U tailings (waste product from U mining and milling facility) may be considered an important one because it contains significant amount of 226 Ra activity after the U extraction from the ore bodies. These tailings (slurry form) are being impounded into a repository site nearby the facility called 'Tailings Pile' (TP). Significant amount of radon emission takes place from this area by the process of emanation and exhalation. Hence, a study was taken up to quantify the source term arising due to radon emission from uranium tailings pile at Jaduguda in Jharkhand state. In-situ experiments were conducted at 40 locations of the uranium tailings pile in three seasons namely summer, rainy and winter to measure the radon fluxes. The measurements were carried out by deploying a cylindrical chamber, attached to a continuous radon monitor, on the surface of the tailings pile. The dimension of the chamber was selected by using a recently developed two dimensional theory of soil chamber, so that radon concentration growth will be in exponential fashion and the data generated within 2-3 hours of deployment period will be sufficient for accurately deriving the actual radon flux. After the data collection, the fluxes were derived by fitting an exponential growth function to the plot of radon concentration with time. The fluxes were also predicted by diffusion theory using the measured tailings parameters such as 226 Ra content, radon emanation factor, porosity, temperature and moisture. An excellent matching between the predicted and measured fluxes was observed. The validity of diffusion theory in the matrix of U tailings pile provides an alternate method for back-calculating the tailings

  9. Laboratory research on tailings stabilization methods and their effectiveness in radiation containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, P.J.; Jensen, C.M.; Rogers, V.C.; Overmyer, R.F.

    1978-04-01

    This report describes a study of various methods, techniques, and materials for stabilizing uranium mill tailings to reduce radon exhalation. Radon emanation from tailings particles, radon exhalation from tailings, and methods that could be used to reduce radon exhalation from tailings piles are discussed. Surface radon flux and soil gas concentrations were measured in experiment chambers or columns consisting of uranium tailings and various types and thicknesses of cover materials. The applicability of diffusion theory was examined and effective diffusion coefficients were determined for clay, soil, and sand. The variation of radon flux with atmospheric effects and moisture also was investigated. The effectiveness of several types of chemical stabilizers for both volumetric and surface application in reducing radon exhalation is reported. Some volumetric stabilizers reduced radon flux by 90 percent or more. Radon flux was determined through the use of charcoal gas mask canisters, and flux accumulation chambers sampled by Lucas cells. Both of these techniques are described. Soil gas concentration was sampled with Lucas cells and counted with a sodium iodide scintillation spectrometer system. Emanating power of uranium tailings was measured for several particle sizes and found to be relatively constant at about 20 percent. Two types of grasses were found that would grow in tailings if sufficient water and fertilizer were provided. The effect of vegetation on radon exhalation was not determined

  10. Tail gut cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.

  11. Growth of soil algae and cyanobacteria on gold mine tailings material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Seiderer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of revegetation of gold mine tailings storage facilities is to reduce aeolian pollution, nutrient leaching and erosion caused by exposure to wind and water. The establishment of biological soil crusts may prove to be a more cost-effective way to reach the same goal and the aim of this study was therefore to determine if it is possible to establish algae and cyanobacteria on gold mine tailings. Different treatments of Chlamydomonas, Microcoleus and Nostoc were inoculated on gold mine tailings in controlled conditions and algal growth was measured on all of the treatments after 6 weeks. Nostoc treatments had the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations and produced a surface crust, while Chlamydomonas treatments penetrated the tailings material and provided the strongest crust. The results were promising but more research is necessary to determine the best organism, or combination of organisms, to colonise mine tailings and to eventually produce biological crusts. Significance: Determination of the best organisms to colonise mine tailings and to produce biological crusts for the revegetation of gold mine tailings storage facilities.

  12. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  13. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments

  14. Present knowledge of the effect of cracks on radon emanation from tailings, with implications for mine rehabilitation at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, J.R.; Patterson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The weather parameters of air pressure, temperature, rainfall and wind speed affect the rate of radon-222 emanation from the surface of mine tailings. A second set of conditions which form cracks or fissures in tailings and their covers, will also affect the radon flux density and they must be considered in the design of any cover for a rehabilitation program. The Olympic Dam mine expansion program, beginning in 1995, involves a substantial increase in the size of the copper/uranium tailings. As part of monitoring and progressive rehabilitation of the tailings, the rate of emanation of radon-222 from tailings' surfaces was measured, with and without the gross defects of cracking. Theoretical predictions and measurements made in the U.S., are compared with rates of emanation from a cracked surface, modelled as homogeneous with additional surface area due to cracks

  15. More tail lesions among undocked than tail docked pigs in a conventional herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, H. P.; Busch, M. E.; D'Eath, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of piglets reared in the European Union (EU) and worldwide is tail docked to reduce the risk of being tail bitten, even though EU animal welfare legislation bans routine tail docking. Many conventional herds experience low levels of tail biting among tail docked pigs, however...

  16. Evaluation of respirable particle matter in gold mine tailings on the Witwatersrand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojelede, M.E.; Annegarn, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Within the Witwatersrand gold mining area of South Africa, wind-blown dust is a significant contributor to atmospheric air pollution brought to the fore with the reworking of old mine tailings. Approximately 40,000 hectares are covered with tailings in the Witwatersrand. Wind-erosion during late austral winter and early spring causes surfaces of these tailings to be exposed, particularly during higher wind speeds and in the absence of rainfall. Local residents complain as the surrounding areas experience unpleasant dust episodes. As a result of urban PM 10 and PM 2.5 respirable particulate matter, increased respiratory ailments, morbidity and mortality, and concerns about the health impacts of wind-blown mine tailings in South Africa have been reported. Since 1981, significant monitoring of dustfall has taken place on the Witwatersrand, however, characterization of the respirable fraction of gold mine tailings material and dustfall is lacking. This paper presented the results of a study that established the content of respirable particulate matter in exposed mine tailings and wind-blown dust, and their likely contributions to ambient air. The initial results of the particulate size distribution of material samples from tailings and dust deposits collected in ambient dustfall-monitors were provided. Particle size distributions from different deposit types include slimes and sand deposits, surface and core material, and wind-winnowed secondary deposits. Fractions of PM 10 in source and deposited material were also discussed. It was concluded that there was a significant fraction of PM 10 material in the mine tailings, and that further work to quantify the population exposure risk is needed. 11 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  17. About necessity of remediation and re-cultivation of Taboshar districts' tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomov, J.A.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Barotov, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Taboshar uranium deposit is one of the oldest sites of uranium industry and reprocessing in former USSR. During geological survey in 1926 close to Istiklol city (former Taboshar), relatively high radioactivity was revealed on present territory and in 1927 the physical exploration of uranium-containing zones was completed. Active extraction of ore was carried out here from 1945 till 1965 y. Nowadays it is a huge territory with total area of more than 400 hectares covered by surface wastes tailings of hydrometallurgical reprocessing of uranium ores. Disposal complex consists from non-preserved open pit ('Factory of barren ores'), destroyed industrial buildings and four tailings (Tailing I-II, Tailing III, Tailing IV and tailing of industrial workshop 3), containing approximately 55 million tons of wastes, from which approximately 12 million tons are uranium ore's wastes. Total area of four tailing and 'Factory of barren ores' is 63 hectares. Besides, balanced-off ores and overburden rocks i.e. ores and rocks unprofitable for reprocessing should be included here as well. Factor analysis of radiation danger carried out by IAEA expert mission in Istiklol city revealed that radon content in air and aerosol contamination is not a factor of considerable radiation risk for city residents, besides cases of their visit to tailings and living of people directly within zones of their location since territory is well aired out. However, due to bad coverage of tailing, drainage waters draining from zones of their location are highly contaminated by radionuclides and contain high concentrations of manganese, sodium, lead and iron. Drainage waters of former flooded uranium mines and open pits are also considerably contaminated. Such contaminated waters are used all over by local population for cattle watering, watering of garden territories and even for drinking. Thus, the use of drainage and mine waters with high contamination level for drinking and household needs in Istiklol

  18. A comparative pressure analysis of air flow between horizontal and V-Tail of UAV MALE of NACA0012H with speed variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Rahmat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available NACA0012H is an airfoil type that could be used for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Medium Altitude Long Endurance. This experiment was used to analyze stress in the surface of Tail of UAV MALE that was caused by air flow. The experiment was conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamics Software. Two designs of tail, horizontal and V-tail, were considered to simulate pressure occurred on the surface of leading edge, chamber and trailing edge. The simulation was developed varying the speed of the UAV MALE. The results showed that pressure occurred on the surface of horizontal tail higher than pressure on the V-tail.

  19. Long term aspects of uranium tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, K.

    1980-05-01

    This paper sets out the background issues which lead to the development of interim close-out criteria for uranium mill tailings. It places the current state-of-the-art for tailings management into both a national and international perspective and shows why such interim criteria are needed now. There are seven specific criteria proposed dealing with the need to have: passive barriers, limits on surface water recharge, durable systems, long term performance guarantees, limits to access, controls on water and airborne releases and finally to have a knowledge of exposure pathways. This paper is intended to serve as a focus for subsequent discussions with all concerned parties. (auth)

  20. Analysis of radon protection cover on uranium tailings pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhe

    1993-01-01

    The average radon emanation rate of the whole surface over one year was used for evaluating the radon release of uranium tailings pile. The effective of radon protection cover depends on the shape and property of the tailings pile, the properties of covering and the control of air vadose in the pile. It was indicated that the covering with low diffusion coefficient, small porosity and bad permeability was suitable to cover the pile. The analytical formula of the covering layer thickness was given

  1. Evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings, COMINAK Mine, Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Déjeant, Adrien; Galoisy, Laurence; Roy, Régis; Calas, Georges; Boekhout, Flora; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings from the COMINAK mine (Niger), in production since 1978. A multi-scale approach was used, which combined high resolution remote sensing imagery, ICP-MS bulk rock analyses, powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Focused Ion Beam — Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. Mineralogical analyses showed that some ore minerals, including residual uraninite and coffinite, undergo alteration and dissolution during tailings storage. The migration of uranium and other contaminants depends on (i) the chemical stability of secondary phases and sorbed species (dissolution and desorption processes), and (ii) the mechanical transport of fine particles bearing these elements. Uranium is stabilized after formation of secondary uranyl sulfates and phosphates, and adsorbed complexes on mineral surfaces (e.g. clay minerals). In particular, the stock of insoluble uranyl phosphates increases with time, thus contributing to the long-term stabilization of uranium. At the surface, a sulfate-cemented duricrust is formed after evaporation of pore water. This duricrust limits water infiltration and dust aerial dispersion, though it is enriched in uranium and many other elements, because of pore water rising from underlying levels by capillary action. Satellite images provided a detailed description of the tailings pile over time and allow monitoring of the chronology of successive tailings deposits. Satellite images suggest that uranium anomalies that occur at deep levels in the pile are most likely former surface duricrusts that have been buried under more recent tailings. - Highlights: • The evolution of U distribution and speciation in mill tailings is investigated. • High resolution satellite images provide useful information on tailings evolution. • U and many other elements are enriched in a sulfate-rich duricrust. • Formation of

  2. Evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings, COMINAK Mine, Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Déjeant, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.dejeant@normalesup.org [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Université Paris Diderot — Paris VII, 5 rue Thomas Mann, 75013 Paris (France); Galoisy, Laurence [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie — Paris VI, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Roy, Régis [AREVA Mines — Geoscience Department, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris, La Défense (France); Calas, Georges; Boekhout, Flora [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie — Paris VI, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael [AREVA Mines — R& D Department, BAL 0414C-2, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris, La Défense (France)

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings from the COMINAK mine (Niger), in production since 1978. A multi-scale approach was used, which combined high resolution remote sensing imagery, ICP-MS bulk rock analyses, powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Focused Ion Beam — Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. Mineralogical analyses showed that some ore minerals, including residual uraninite and coffinite, undergo alteration and dissolution during tailings storage. The migration of uranium and other contaminants depends on (i) the chemical stability of secondary phases and sorbed species (dissolution and desorption processes), and (ii) the mechanical transport of fine particles bearing these elements. Uranium is stabilized after formation of secondary uranyl sulfates and phosphates, and adsorbed complexes on mineral surfaces (e.g. clay minerals). In particular, the stock of insoluble uranyl phosphates increases with time, thus contributing to the long-term stabilization of uranium. At the surface, a sulfate-cemented duricrust is formed after evaporation of pore water. This duricrust limits water infiltration and dust aerial dispersion, though it is enriched in uranium and many other elements, because of pore water rising from underlying levels by capillary action. Satellite images provided a detailed description of the tailings pile over time and allow monitoring of the chronology of successive tailings deposits. Satellite images suggest that uranium anomalies that occur at deep levels in the pile are most likely former surface duricrusts that have been buried under more recent tailings. - Highlights: • The evolution of U distribution and speciation in mill tailings is investigated. • High resolution satellite images provide useful information on tailings evolution. • U and many other elements are enriched in a sulfate-rich duricrust. • Formation of

  3. Presentations of the CONRAD tailings seminar : exploring the past, present and future of tailings technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This symposium explored oil sand tailings activities in Canada and their associated technologies. It was attended by active and prospective tailings researchers and developers of tailings technology who addressed timely issues regarding mature fine tailings, consolidated tailings, thickened tailings, and emerging tailings technologies. The collaborative research projects that are underway at the Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility were also discussed along with other topics such as tailings ponds management, water treatment, water quality and water supply security. All 16 presentations featured at this conference were indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  4. Galaxies with long tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, F.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of galaxies with long tails are described. The first occurs in pairs, each individual one having a long tail and the second occurs on its own with two tails. NGC 7252 shows several characteristics which one would expect of a merger: a pair of tidal tails despite the splendid isolation, a single nucleus, tail motions in opposite directions relative to the nucleus, and chaotic motions of a strangely looped main body. (C.F.)

  5. Evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings, COMINAK Mine, Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déjeant, Adrien; Galoisy, Laurence; Roy, Régis; Calas, Georges; Boekhout, Flora; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings from the COMINAK mine (Niger), in production since 1978. A multi-scale approach was used, which combined high resolution remote sensing imagery, ICP-MS bulk rock analyses, powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Focused Ion Beam--Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. Mineralogical analyses showed that some ore minerals, including residual uraninite and coffinite, undergo alteration and dissolution during tailings storage. The migration of uranium and other contaminants depends on (i) the chemical stability of secondary phases and sorbed species (dissolution and desorption processes), and (ii) the mechanical transport of fine particles bearing these elements. Uranium is stabilized after formation of secondary uranyl sulfates and phosphates, and adsorbed complexes on mineral surfaces (e.g. clay minerals). In particular, the stock of insoluble uranyl phosphates increases with time, thus contributing to the long-term stabilization of uranium. At the surface, a sulfate-cemented duricrust is formed after evaporation of pore water. This duricrust limits water infiltration and dust aerial dispersion, though it is enriched in uranium and many other elements, because of pore water rising from underlying levels by capillary action. Satellite images provided a detailed description of the tailings pile over time and allow monitoring of the chronology of successive tailings deposits. Satellite images suggest that uranium anomalies that occur at deep levels in the pile are most likely former surface duricrusts that have been buried under more recent tailings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Attitudes of Dutch Pig Farmers Towards Tail Biting and Tail Docking

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Lauwere, de, C.C.; Wind, S.M.M.; Zonderland, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch policy objective of a fully sustainable livestock sector without mutilations by 2023 is not compatible with the routine practice of tail docking to minimize the risk of tail biting. To examine farmer attitudes towards docking, a telephone survey was conducted among 487 conventional and 33 organic Dutch pig farmers. “Biting” (of tails, ears, or limbs) was identified by the farmers as a main welfare problem in pig farming. About half of the farmers reported to have no tail biting prob...

  7. Modelling of contaminant release from a uranium mine tailings site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahnt, Rene; Metschies, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Uranium mining and milling continuing from the early 1960's until 1990 close to the town of Seelingstaedt in Eastern Germany resulted in 4 tailings impoundments with a total tailings volume of about 105 Mio. m 3 . Leakage from these tailings impoundments enters the underlying aquifers and is discharged into surface water streams. High concentration of salts, uranium and several heavy metals are released from the tailings. At present the tailings impoundments are reshaped and covered. For the identification of suitable remediation options predictions of the contaminant release for different remediation scenarios have to be made. A compartment model representing the tailings impoundments and the surrounding aquifers for the calculation of contaminant release and transport was set up using the software GOLDSIM. This compartment model describes the time dependent hydraulic conditions within the tailings and the surrounding aquifers taking into account hydraulic and geotechnical processes influencing the hydraulic properties of the tailings material. A simple geochemical approach taking into account sorption processes as well as retardation by applying a k d -approach was implemented to describe the contaminant release and transport within the hydraulic system. For uranium as the relevant contaminant the simple approach takes into account additional geochemical conditions influencing the mobility. Alternatively the model approach allows to include the results of detailed geochemical modelling of the individual tailings zones which is than used as source term for the modelling of the contaminant transport in the aquifer and to the receiving streams. (authors)

  8. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Loy, E.T.; Lorenzo, D.; Ellis, B.S.

    1980-10-01

    Results of a radiological survey conducted at the Falls City, Texas, site in July 1976 are presented. There are seven partial to fully stabilized tailings piles, and an overburden pile from an open-pit mine. Above ground gamma-ray exposure rate measurements show moderate levels of contamination throughout the area with a maximum exposure rate of 500 μR/hr above tailings pile 2. The average exposure rate over the different areas varied from 14 μR/hr over the southwest end of tailings pile 7 to 207 μR/hr over the northeast end of the same pile. Analyses of surface soil and dry-wash sediment samples, as well as calculations of subsurface 226 Ra distribution, serve to define the spread of tailings around the area. Water erosion of the tailings is evident, but, because of abundant growth of vegetation on the tailings piles, wind erosion probably is not a major problem

  9. The radon concentration profile and the flux from a pilot-scale layered tailings pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettwoog, P.; Fourcade, N.; Campbell, F.E.; Caplan, H.

    1982-01-01

    A pilot tailings model was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the sub-aerial technique of tailing deposition for the proposed uranium mine and mill at Key Lake, Saskatchewan. A series of radon measurements were made on the model and results obtained for the radon concentration profile in the tailings, and for the flux from the surface. The results were compared with the model calculations of Zettwoog. (U.K.)

  10. Imaging the Sources and Full Extent of the Sodium Tail of the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Wilson, Jody; Mendillo, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Observations of sodium emission from Mercury can be used to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of sources and sinks in the planet s surface-boundary-exosphere. We report on new data sets that provide the highest spatial resolution of source regions at polar latitudes, as well as the extraordinary length of a tail of escaping Na atoms. The tail s extent of approx.1.5 degrees (nearly 1400 Mercury radii) is driven by radiation pressure effects upon Na atoms sputtered from the surface in the previous approx.5 hours. Wide-angle filtered-imaging instruments are thus capable of studying the time history of sputtering processes of sodium and other species at Mercury from ground-based observatories in concert with upcoming satellite missions to the planet. Plasma tails produced by photo-ionization of Na and other gases in Mercury s neutral tails may be observable by in-situ instruments.

  11. Comparative sacral morphology and the reconstructed tail lengths of five extinct primates: Proconsul heseloni, Epipliopithecus vindobonensis, Archaeolemur edwardsi, Megaladapis grandidieri, and Palaeopropithecus kelyus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the morphology of the sacrum-the sole bony link between the tail or coccyx and the rest of the body-and tail length (including presence/absence) and function using a comparative sample of extant mammals spanning six orders (Primates, Carnivora, Rodentia, Diprotodontia, Pilosa, Scandentia; N = 472). Phylogenetically-informed regression methods were used to assess how tail length varied with respect to 11 external and internal (i.e., trabecular) bony sacral variables with known or suspected biomechanical significance across all mammals, only primates, and only non-primates. Sacral variables were also evaluated for primates assigned to tail categories ('tailless,' 'nonprehensile short-tailed,' 'nonprehensile long-tailed,' and 'prehensile-tailed'). Compared to primates with reduced tail lengths, primates with longer tails generally exhibited sacra having larger caudal neural openings than cranial neural openings, and last sacral vertebrae with more mediolaterally-expanded caudal articular surfaces than cranial articular surfaces, more laterally-expanded transverse processes, more dorsally-projecting spinous processes, and larger caudal articular surface areas. Observations were corroborated by the comparative sample, which showed that shorter-tailed (e.g., Lynx rufus [bobcat]) and longer-tailed (e.g., Acinonyx jubatus [cheetah]) non-primate mammals morphologically converge with shorter-tailed (e.g., Macaca nemestrina) and longer-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. 'Prehensile-tailed' primates exhibited last sacral vertebrae with more laterally-expanded transverse processes and greater caudal articular surface areas than 'nonprehensile long-tailed' primates. Internal sacral variables performed poorly compared to external sacral variables in analyses of extant primates, and were thus deemed less useful for making inferences concerning tail length and function in extinct primates. The tails lengths of

  12. Microbial metabolism alters pore water chemistry and increases consolidation of oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, Nicholas; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Tailings produced during bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores (tar sands) comprise an aqueous suspension of clay particles that remain dispersed for decades in tailings ponds. Slow consolidation of the clays hinders water recovery for reuse and retards volume reduction, thereby increasing the environmental footprint of tailings ponds. We investigated mechanisms of tailings consolidation and revealed that indigenous anaerobic microorganisms altered porewater chemistry by producing CO and CH during metabolism of acetate added as a labile carbon amendment. Entrapped biogenic CO decreased tailings pH, thereby increasing calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) cations and bicarbonate (HCO) concentrations in the porewater through dissolution of carbonate minerals. Soluble ions increased the porewater ionic strength, which, with higher exchangeable Ca and Mg, decreased the diffuse double layer of clays and increased consolidation of tailings compared with unamended tailings in which little microbial activity was observed. These results are relevant to effective tailings pond management strategies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  14. TAIL ASYMPTOTICS OF LIGHT-TAILED WEIBULL-LIKE SUMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Soren; Hashorva, Enkelejd; Laub, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider sums of n i.i.d. random variables with tails close to exp{-x(beta)} for some beta > 1. Asymptotics developed by Rootzen (1987) and Balkema, Kluppelberg, and Resnick (1993) are discussed from the point of view of tails rather than of densities, using a somewhat different angle...

  15. Effects of weather and tailings properties on tailings drying times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantzer, C.; Fasking, T.; Costello, M.; Greenwood, J. [Barr Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation presented the results of a study conducted to determine the effects of weather and tailings properties on tailings drying times. Weather conditions have a significant impact the potential evaporation (PE) and actual evaporation (AE) of oil sands tailings. A 2-stage drying of slurry at a constant PE was conducted to determine the shrinkage limit of untreated mature fine tailings (MFT). An evaporation and seepage model was used to determine maximum first-stage drying rates. Measurements were also taken in a wind tunnel. Potential evaporation rates were calculated and evaporative water losses from the MFT were determined. Estimated drying times were presented. Results of the approach were compared with field measurements conducted in a previous study. Results of the study showed that evaporative water loss rates for May through August were limited by the properties of the tailings. Water loss rates were limited by weather for other months in the year-long study. tabs., figs.

  16. ISAL experiment documentation of vertical tail and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Investigation of Space Transportation System (STS) Atmospheric Luminosities (ISAL) experiment documentation includes vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods with surface glow against the blackness of space. This glowing scene was provided by a long duration exposure with a 35mm camera aimed toward the tail of the Earth-orbiting Challenger, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 099. OV-099 was maneuvered to a 120-nautical-mile altitude and flown with open payload bay (PLB) in the velocity vector for the conducting of a test titled, 'Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM)'. Atomic oxygen within the low orbital environment is known to be extremely reactive when in contact with solid surfaces. In the darkened area between the camera and the glowing OMS pods and vertical stabilizer are two trays of test materials.

  17. Cameco engineered tailings program: linking research with industrial processes for improved tailings performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.; Hendry, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The waste product from uranium mining and milling that generates the greatest public and regulatory concern is tailings. The tailings contain all of the mined material except uranium plus a host of processing reagents. These minerals and compounds have the potential to harm the local environment if not deposited in a fashion that is both geochemically and geotechnically stable. Environmental leadership impels Cameco Corporation to ensure that the methods used to dispose of tailings are at the forefront of best available technologies whereby tailings production results in a product with geotechnical and geochemical characteristics that minimize the environmental impact associated with long-term storage of this product. Cameco has developed an Engineered Tailings (ET) program to ensure optimization of long-term tailings performance and minimal impacts of elements of concern (EOCs) to the receiving environment, regardless of the ore being milled. Within this program chemical and physical performance of tailings from geochemical and geotechnical investigations and baseline environmental data, integrated with regulatory requirements and corporate commitments, will be used to evaluate and set criteria for mill- and tailings management facilities-based chemical and physical tailings characteristics, identify key knowledge gaps, prioritize areas of concern and implement appropriate responses. This paper provides an overview of the Engineered Tailings program, the research being conducted as part of the ET program, and how it links with present and future Cameco operations. (author)

  18. Annual status report on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This fourteenth annual status report for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office summarizes activities of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Surface (UMTRA-Surface) and Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Groundwater (UMTRA-Groundwater) Projects undertaken during fiscal year (FY) 1992 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies. Project goals for FY 1993 are also presented. An annual report of this type was a statutory requirement through January 1, 1986, pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604. The DOE will continue to submit annual reports to DOE-Headquarters, the states, tribes, and local representatives through Project completion in order to inform the public of the yearly Project status. The purpose of the remedial action is to stabilize and control the tailings and other residual radioactive material (RRM) located on the inactive uranium processing sites in a safe and environmentally sound manner, and to minimize or eliminate potential health hazards. Commercial and residential properties near designated processing sites that are contaminated with material from the sites, herein referred to as ''vicinity properties (VP),'' are also eligible for remedial action. Included in the UMTRA Project are 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated VPs located in 10 states, and the VPs associated with the Edgemont, South Dakota, uranium mill currently owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) (Figure A.1, Appendix A)

  19. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation

  20. Assessment of (222)Rn emanation from ore body and backfill tailings in low-grade underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devi Prasad; Sahu, Patitapaban; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of (222)Rn emanation from the ore and backfill tailings in an underground uranium mine located at Jaduguda, India. The effects of surface area, porosity, (226)Ra and moisture contents on (222)Rn emanation rate were examined. The study revealed that the bulk porosity of backfill tailings is more than two orders of magnitude than that of the ore. The geometric mean radon emanation rates from the ore body and backfill tailings were found to be 10.01 × 10(-3) and 1.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Significant positive linear correlations between (222)Rn emanation rate and the (226)Ra content of ore and tailings were observed. For normalised (226)Ra content, the (222)Rn emanation rate from tailings was found to be 283 times higher than the ore due to higher bulk porosity and surface area. The relative radon emanation from the tailings with moisture fraction of 0.14 was found to be 2.4 times higher than the oven-dried tailings. The study suggested that the mill tailings used as a backfill material significantly contributes to radon emanation as compared to the ore body itself and the (226)Ra content and bulk porosity are the dominant factors for radon emanation into the mine atmosphere.

  1. Analysis of infiltration through mill tailings using a bromide tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.J.; Stephens, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Infiltration of precipitation into tailings impoundments as a means of recharge to underlying materials is often considered insignificant, particularly in arid and semi-arid environments. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the behavior of infiltrated precipitation into tailing soils, by the use of a bromide tracer. A bromide tracer was applied to the surface of columns driven into the tailings to monitor downward advancement of tracer-laden water. Controlled laboratory experiments on the behavior of the bromide tracer under varying precipitation events and initial soil moisture contents were also conducted. Results indicate that a definite downward migration of infiltrated precipitation occurs, particularly with large magnitude precipitation events, and that, eventually, some fraction of the infiltrated precipitation may continue downward below the zone affected by evaporation. The use of an artificially applied bromide tracer to monitor depth of infiltration of precipitation is a simple, safe technique that can provide valuable information for long-term tailings management strategies at low cost

  2. Biological effects of long term fine limestone tailings discharge in a fjord ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lucy; Melsom, Fredrik; Glette, Tormod

    2015-07-15

    Benthic infaunal data collected from 1993 to 2010 were analysed to examine the effect of long term discharge of fine limestone tailings on macrofaunal species assemblages in a fjord. Relative distance from the outfall and proportion of fine tailings in the sediment were correlated with benthic community structure. Diversity decreased with increasing proportion of fine tailings. Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) was used to explore the temporal and spatial effects of the tailings gradient on macrofaunal functional attributes. BTA revealed that all stations along a pressure gradient of fine limestone tailings were dominated by free-living species. As the proportion of fine tailings in the sediment increased, there was an increase in fauna that were smaller, highly mobile, living on or nearer the surface sediment, with shorter lifespans. There was a decrease in permanent tube dwellers, those fauna with low or no mobility, that live deeper in the sediment and have longer lifespans (>5 yrs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Uranium mill tailings conditioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; Wangen, L.E.; Williams, J.M.; O'Brien, P.D.; Thode, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physicochemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is sintering tailings at high temperatures (1100-1200 deg. C) to radically alter the structure of tailings. This thermal stabilization at 1200 deg. C reduced radon emanation power for tailings sands by factors of 20 to 200 and for tailings fines by factors of 300 to 1100. Substantial reductions in the leachability of most contaminants have been found for thermally conditioned tailings. Obvious mineral transformations occur, including an increase in amorphous material, the conversion of gypsum to anhydrite and its subsequent decomposition, the disappearance of clay minerals, and some decrease in quartz content. A conceptual thermal stabilization process has been developed wherein obsolete coal-fired rotary cement kilns perform the sintering. An economic analysis of this conceptual process has shown that thermal stabilization can be competitive at certain tailings sites with other remedial actions requiring the excavation, transportation, and burial of tailings in a repository. An analysis of the long-term radiological hazard posed by untreated tailings and by tailings conditioned by radionuclide removal has illustrated the necessity of extracting both 226 Ra and 230 Th to achieve long-term hazard reductions. Sulphuric acid extraction of residual mineral values and important radionuclides from tailings has been investigated. Concentrated H 2 SO 4 can extract up to 80% of the 226 Ra, 70% of the Ba, and 90% of the 230 Th from tailings in a single stage extraction. An economic analysis of a sulphuric acid leach process was made to determine whether the value of minerals recovered from tailings would offset the leaching cost. For one relatively mineral-rich tailings pile, the U and V values would more than pay for the

  4. Numerical simulation studies of the groundwater discharge to streams from abandoned uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, A.S.; Gillham, R.W.

    1984-06-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the results of simulation studies of groundwater discharge to streams from abandoned uranium mill tailings and the effects of this discharge on the flux of contaminants to surface water systems. In particular, a discussion of the sensitivity of subsurface discharge to specific geometirc, climatic and hydrogeologic factors is presented. Simulations were carried out using a two-dimensional numerical finite-element unsaturated-saturated flow model. A total of twenty-six simulations were made. The first twenty-four of these considered a tailings medium with homogeneous and isotropic hydraulic properties and with textural properties similar to those of sandy geological materials. In addition, two simulations were carried out for tailings materials with hydraulic properties that are similar to those of silt-loam. The results indicated that the actual quantity of subsurface discharge depends on many factors including rainfall rate and duration, surface slope, and texture. However, for the medium-fine sand material, subsurface discharge was always a significant component of the total discharge. Within the context of uranium tailings management this implies that large quantities of contaminants from subsurface sources of medium-textured tailings can be expected to be discharged to streams during stormflow events. Therefore there is reason to suspect that untreated runoff from such tailings will contain significant concentrations of contaminants for long periods of time

  5. Carbon dioxide sequestration in oil sands tailings streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikula, R.; Afara, M.; Namsechi, B.; Demko, B.; Wong, P. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as an oil sands tailings process aid and investigated its role in maximizing recycle water availability by rapid consolidation of the transition zone. The potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration was also investigated. CO{sub 2} composite tailings (CT) pilot plants were discussed and the results of cylinder tests and water chemistry analyses were presented. Issues related to physical entrapment, ionic trapping, and mineral trapping were discussed. The study showed that carbonic acid lowers pH, dissolving calcite and dolomite. Aluminum hydroxide groups on the clay surface reacted to produce water and Al{sup 3+} and Na+. Increased bicarbonate and calcium resulted in precipitated calcite. The reduction of a transition zone from 6 to 3 meters increased the available recycle water by 15 mm{sup 3} in a 5 km{sup 2} recycle water pond. Optimum CO{sub 2} additions to whole tailings are now being investigated. tabs., figs.

  6. Uranium tailings bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holoway, C.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Eldridge, V.M.

    1975-12-01

    A bibliography containing 1,212 references is presented with its focus on the general problem of reducing human exposure to the radionuclides contained in the tailings from the milling of uranium ore. The references are divided into seven broad categories: uranium tailings pile (problems and perspectives), standards and philosophy, etiology of radiation effects, internal dosimetry and metabolism, environmental transport, background sources of tailings radionuclides, and large-area decontamination

  7. Report of the National Technical Planning Group on Uranium Tailings Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, P.A.

    1981-09-01

    The National Technical Planning Group on Uranium Tailings Research was formed in 1980 to review present activities and plan a research program on the management of wastes after a mine and mill have shut down. At present there are more than 100 million tonnes of uranium tailings on the surface in Canada. Most of these are under management; however, some 8 million tonnes have been abandoned completely. The group concluded that: 1) there has been no systematic attempt to collect and organize the results of measurements already made on tailings; 2) there is an inadequate understanding of the processes that take place in tailings and in the pathways to the biosphere; 3) there is insufficient evidence on the extent of the long-term problem in the closeout of a uranium tailings basin; 4) there is a need to establish standardized measurement methodologies to improve the quality of data taken at different sites across Canada; 5) generic research and development on tailings disposal technology should be within the scope of a national program, whereas site-specific work is the purview of the mines and regulatory agencies; and 6) the uranium producers' contribution to the national tailings program should be their research on site-specific disposal alternatives. The first of these conclusions leads to the proposal to establish a national uranium tailings research program. The second suggests the need for a modelling program, the third and fourth for a national measurement program, and the remaining conclusions refer to disposal technologies research. The conclusions form the basis for a set of recommendations on uranium tailings research

  8. Performance Comparison between Neutralization Tailings and Flotation Tailings Used for Backfill Mix and Mechanism Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison test of different tailings used for underground backfill was conducted, using neutralized tailings from BIOX and flotation tailings of Jinfeng Mine. Laboratory comparison test results show that, with neutralized tailings, when the cement dosage is at 19%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 105%–163%, 80%–102%, and 33%–43%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. When the cement dosage is at 12%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 58%–77%, 50%–60%, and 28%–51%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. Slurry fluidity of neutralized tailings is lower than that of flotation tailings, while, in these two tailings, the difference of slump and diffusivity values is less than 6%, which is not a significant difference in slurry fluidity. The reason for neutralized tailings showing higher UCS is as follows: during backfill curing, neutralization tailings produce abundant crystals of CaSO4·2H2O in interlaced structure which helps in combining aggregates closely; CaSO4·2H2O hydrates with C3A C4AF contained in the cement and forms clavate cement bacillus which works as a micro reinforcing steel bar. The test proved that neutralized tailings are more optimal for backfilling.

  9. Sinterization of manganese ore tailings under argon atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valduga, M.M.F.; Lima, F.; Lima, R.M.F. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Manganese is an element widely used in Metallurgy, however the Brazilian reserves has low grade. The aim of this work was to obtain and characterize the sinters from manganese ore tailings. The fines (less than 400⧣) were calcinated (800°C - 3600s) and homogenized with activated charcoal (7 and 10%) and CaO (5 and 10%). The sintering were carried out at 1135, 1140 and 1145°C during 7200 and 14400s under argon atmosphere. The sintered products were characterized by EDS analysis, BET surface area, apparent density, X-rays diffraction and SEM/EDS. The surface area was 0.03m2/g. The alkali element present (potassium) justified the low melting point of waste (1140°C). Due to the chemical complexity of the tailings, several phases were characterized in the products: pores, silicates with high content of manganese in the matrix, other silicates with different proportions of Al, Mn, Mg and Ca, pure Fe, SiO2, etc. (author)

  10. Design and construction of an impoundment for precious metal mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldt, S.F.; Miller, R.G.; Johnson, K.

    1985-01-01

    An engineering study and design of impoundments for the disposal of mill tailings is presented. The site is located in central Nevada, and the mill will incorporate conventional flotation followed by a carbon-in-pulp cyanide process for extraction of gold from ore. Mill process waste will be generated as flotation tailings and cyanide residue. Permeable site soils and environmental considerations required the prevention of infiltration of cyanide residue leachate into the subgrade. Geochemical modeling of flotation tailings indicated the potential for high concentration of iron and nickel to be present in the flotation tailings leachate. On-site soils were optimized for use in construction of the separate flotation tailings and cyanide residue impoundments. Embankments were constructed on compacted on-site sandy gravels. The cyanide residue impoundment was designed using a four-layer liner, utilizing all on-site soils and chemical soil additives. The liner consists of a leachate collection system over a low-permeability layer, which in turn is underlain by a leak detection drainage blanket and a low permeability subliner. The geochemical modeling performed in the analysis indicated that placement of a thin layer of oxidized surface soils, high in soluble sulfates, on the bottom of the flotation tailings impoundment would be sufficient to react with tailings leachate and cause precipitation of ferric oxide and the associated removal of nickel, permitting flotation tailings leachate to dilute acceptably with natural groundwater

  11. Sub-stratum injection of fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteren van, W.; Cornelisse, J.; Costello, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed an experiment conducted to evaluate the sub-stratum injection of oil sands fine tailings. The hydraulic fracturing method was developed as a sub-surface dredging process for mining sand without removing the overburden. Pressure was used to transport the sand-water mixture, and the high pressures used in the process resulted in water losses through the clay-sand interface. The experiment was conducted with soft clay, compacted sand, and an injection feed. Results of the study showed that the injection method may be successful. However, further research is required to characterize the fracture energy of oil sands and the rheology of fine tailings. Horizontal hydraulic fracturing equations were presented. Tensile failures in clay and oil sands were discussed. Fractures were identified by deformation and discharge rates. Crack propagation methods were also studied. tabs., figs.

  12. Postsacral vertebral morphology in relation to tail length among primates and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2015-02-01

    Tail reduction/loss independently evolved in a number of mammalian lineages, including hominoid primates. One prerequisite to appropriately contextualizing its occurrence and understanding its significance is the ability to track evolutionary changes in tail length throughout the fossil record. However, to date, the bony correlates of tail length variation among living taxa have not been comprehensively examined. This study quantifies postsacral vertebral morphology among living primates and other mammals known to differ in relative tail length (RTL). Linear and angular measurements with known biomechanical significance were collected on the first, mid-, and transition proximal postsacral vertebrae, and their relationship with RTL was assessed using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression methods. Compared to shorter-tailed primates, longer-tailed primates possess a greater number of postsacral vertebral features associated with increased proximal tail flexibility (e.g., craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies), increased intervertebral body joint range of motion (e.g., more circularly shaped cranial articular surfaces), and increased leverage of tail musculature (e.g., longer spinous processes). These observations are corroborated by the comparative mammalian sample, which shows that distantly related short-tailed (e.g., Phascolarctos, Lynx) and long-tailed (e.g., Dendrolagus, Acinonyx) nonprimate mammals morphologically converge with short-tailed (e.g., Macaca tonkeana) and long-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. Multivariate models demonstrate that the variables examined account for 70% (all mammals) to 94% (only primates) of the variance in RTL. Results of this study may be used to infer the tail lengths of extinct primates and other mammals, thereby improving our understanding about the evolution of tail reduction/loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Performance Enhancement of a Vertical Tail Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathay, Nicholas

    The performance enhancement of a vertical tail using an array of finite span synthetic jet actuators was investigated in wind tunnel experiments on 1/25th, 1/19th, and 1/9 th scale models. The models were sweptback, tapered, and instrumented with multiple synthetic jets placed upstream of the rudder hinge--line with the objective of controlling the separation that commenced over the rudder when it was deflected to high angles. By controlling the separation, the side force generated by the tail was augmented, which may allow for the size of the tail to be decreased. This would reduce the weight, drag, and corresponding fuel costs of an airplane. The synthetic jets augmented the side force coefficient by a maximum of 0.17 (34%). Furthermore, the performance of the vertical tail was dependent on jet strength. It was expected that the increase in side force would continue to grow as the momentum generation capabilities of the jets improved. A primary goal of the research was to determine the effect of multiple synthetic jet parameters on side force enhancement. Experiments were conducted with various jet orifice configurations, which indicated the following: the spacing between adjacent orifice edges and the orifices' aspect ratio were relatively unimportant; in terms of quantifying jet strength, the area--based (3--D) momentum coefficient of the jets was a more dominant parameter than the blowing ratio or the chord--based (2--D) momentum coefficient. Moreover, the most favorable spanwise location of control was, in general, found to be near the mid--span at lower rudder deflections and toward the inboard section of the model at larger deflections. The optimal chordwise location was hypothesized to be on the stabilizer as close as possible to the hinge--line. An investigation into the spanwise spacing of active jets demonstrated that, for some conditions, when the individual strength of the jets was held constant, larger jet spacing was more effective. Also, similar

  14. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    The uranium-mill tailings at Green River, Utah, are relatively low in 226 Ra content and concentration (20 Ci and 140 pCi/g, respectively) because the mill was used to upgrade the uranium ore by separating the sand and slime fractions; most of the radium was transported along with the slimes to another mill site. Spread of tailings was observed in all directions, but near-background gamma exposure rates were reached at distances of 40 to 90 m from the edge of the pile. Water erosion of the tailings is evident and, since a significant fraction of the tailings pile lies in Brown's Wash, the potential exists for repetition of the loss of a large quantity of tailings such as occurred during a flood in 1959. In general, the level of surface contamination was low at this site, but some areas in the mill site, which were being used for nonuranium work, have gamma-ray exposure rates up to 143 μR/hr

  15. About necessity of remediation and re-cultivation of Taboshar districts' tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomov, J.A.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Barotov, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Taboshar uranium deposit is one of the oldest sites of uranium industry and reprocessing in former USSR. During geological survey in 1926 close to Istiklol city (former Taboshar), relatively high radioactivity was revealed on present territory and in 1927 the physical exploration of uranium-containing zones was completed. Active extraction of ore was carried out here from 1945 till 1965 y. Nowadays it is a huge territory with total area of more than 400 hectares covered by surface wastes tailings of hydrometallurgical reprocessing of uranium ores. Disposal complex consists from non-preserved open pit ('Factory of barren ores'), destroyed industrial buildings and four tailings (Tailing I-II, Tailing III, Tailing IV and tailing of industrial workshop 3), containing approximately 55 million tons of wastes, from which approximately 12 million tons are uranium ore's wastes. Total area of four tailing and 'Factory of barren ores' is 63 hectares. Besides, balanced-off ores and overburden rocks i.e. ores and rocks unprofitable for reprocessing should be included here as well. Factor analysis of radiation danger carried out by IAEA expert mission in Istiklol city revealed that radon content in air and aerosol contamination is not a factor of considerable radiation risk for city residents, besides cases of their visit to tailings and living of people directly within zones of their location since territory is well aired out. However, due to bad coverage of tailing, drainage waters draining from zones of their location are highly contaminated by radionuclides and contain high concentrations of manganese, sodium, lead and iron. Drainage waters of former flooded uranium mines and open pits are also considerably contaminated. Such contaminated waters are used all over by local population for cattle watering, watering of garden territories and even for drinking. Thus, the use of drainage and mine waters with high contamination level for drinking and

  16. Bioassay for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeche, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings are composed of fine sand that contains, among other things, some uranium (U/sup 238/ primarily), and all of the uranium daughters starting with /sup 230/Th that are left behind after the usable uranium is removed in the milling process. Millions of pounds of tailings are and continue to be generated at uranium mills around the United States. Discrete uranium mill tailings piles exist near the mills. In addition, the tailings materials were used in communities situated near mill sites for such purposes as building materials, foundations for buildings, pipe runs, sand boxes, gardens, etc. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) is a U.S. Department of Energy Program designed with the intention of removing or stabilizing the mill tailings piles and the tailings used to communities so that individuals are not exposed above the EPA limits established for such tailings materials. This paper discusses the bioassay programs that are established for workers who remove tailings from the communities in which they are placed

  17. An investigation into selected ecological aspects of the aquatic and terrestrial environment of an abandoned uranium mill tailings pond, Bancroft, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, M.

    1980-06-01

    This report consists of four independent studies of disused uranium mill tailings areas. The studies cover surface water movements, limnology, invasion of the tailings by vegetation, and soil nematodes in the mill tailings. (O.T.)

  18. Cameco engineered tailings program: linking applied research with industrial processes for improved tailings performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' Mine tailings at Cameco's operations are by-products of milling uranium ore having variable concentrations of uranium, metals, oxyanions and trace elements or elements of concern (EOC). Cameco has undertaken an Engineered Tailings (ET) program to optimize tailings performance and minimize environmental EOC impacts, regardless of the milled ore source. Applied geochemical and geotechnical tailings research is key within the ET program. In-situ drilling and experimental programs are used to understand long-term tailings behaviour and help validate source term predictions. Within this, the ET program proactively aids in the development of mill-based processes for production of tailings having improved long-term stability. (author)

  19. Geochemical behavior of uranium mill tailings leachate in the subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Leachate generated from surface disposal of acidic uranium mill tailings at Maybell, CO has impacted groundwater quality within the underlying mineralized Browns Park Formation. The extent of groundwater contamination, however, is located directly beneath the tailings impoundment. The milling process consisted of sulfuric acid extraction of uranium from the feed ore by a complex chemical leaching and precipitation process. Tailings leachate at the site contains elevated concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Mo, Ni, NO 3 , Se, U, and other solutes. From column leach tests, the concentrations of contaminants within tailings pore fluid are SO 4 >NH 4 >NO 3 >U>Se>Ni>As>Cd at pH 4.0. The carbonate buffering capacity of the tailings subsoil has decreased because of calcite dissolution in the presence of acidic leachate. Groundwater quality data, mineralogical and microbiological studies, and geochemical modeling suggest that As, NO 3 , Se, U and other solutes are being removed from solution through precipitation, adsorption, and denitrification processes under reducing conditions. Presence of hydrogen sulfide, liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons, dissolved organic, and abundant pyrite within the Browns Park Formations have maintained reducing conditions subjacent to the tailings impoundment. Groundwater is in close equilibrium with coffinite and uraninite, the primary U(IV) minerals extracted from the Browns Parks Formation. Denitrifying bacteria identified in this study catalyze redox reactions involving NO 3 . Subsequently, contaminant distributions of NO 3 decrease 1000 times beneath the tailings impoundment. Applying geochemical and biochemical processes occurring at Maybell provides an excellent model for in situ aquifer restoration programs considered at other uranium tailings and heavy-metal-mixed waste contaminated sites. (author) 4 figs., 4 tabs., 27 refs

  20. Heavy tails of OLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; de Vries, Casper

    2013-01-01

    Suppose the tails of the noise distribution in a regression exhibit power law behavior. Then the distribution of the OLS regression estimator inherits this tail behavior. This is relevant for regressions involving financial data. We derive explicit finite sample expressions for the tail probabili...

  1. Radiation data input for the design of dry or semi-dry U tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnicka, J.

    1986-01-01

    Before discussion of design criteria for the handling of dry or semi-dry tailings, it is necessary to obtain an insight into the radiation levels associated with the tailings particles and to study the basic physical properties of dry tailings. This article presents the experimental results of assessing Ra and specific alpha-activity distribution with respect to particle size of the Ranger (RUM) and Nabarlek (QML) uranium mines dry tailings samples. The variation of Rn emanation coefficient versus particle size of dry tailings has also been measured. The nuclear-track detection technique, gamma spectrometry and alpha counting were used for the above measurements. Surface Rn flux from the hypothetical Nabarlek semi-infinite dry tailings pile is 32 Bq m -2 s -1 and the Rn flux for Ranger is 10 Bq m -2 s -1 . The theoretical exposure rates for 1 m above these hypothetical tailings piles are 0.95 microC kg -1 h -1 and 0.28 microC kg -1 h -1 , respectively. The derived air alpha-contamination limits (DAAC) for the tailings dust were calculated to be 1.2 Bq m -3 for workers and 0.034 Bq m -3 for a member of the public. The limit for workers corresponds to the air tailings dust concentration of 0.79 mg m -3 for QML tailings and 2.2 mg m -3 for RUM tailings. The DAAC limit for the public corresponds to the air tailings dust concentration of 0.022 mg m -3 for QML tailings and 0.064 mg m -3 for RUM tailings

  2. Windblown Dust Deposition Forecasting and Spread of Contamination around Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovern, Michael; Guzmán, Héctor; Rine, Kyle P; Felix, Omar; King, Matthew; Ela, Wendell P; Betterton, Eric A; Sáez, Avelino Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Wind erosion, transport and deposition of windblown dust from anthropogenic sources, such as mine tailings impoundments, can have significant effects on the surrounding environment. The lack of vegetation and the vertical protrusion of the mine tailings above the neighboring terrain make the tailings susceptible to wind erosion. Modeling the erosion, transport and deposition of particulate matter from mine tailings is a challenge for many reasons, including heterogeneity of the soil surface, vegetative canopy coverage, dynamic meteorological conditions and topographic influences. In this work, a previously developed Deposition Forecasting Model (DFM) that is specifically designed to model the transport of particulate matter from mine tailings impoundments is verified using dust collection and topsoil measurements. The DFM is initialized using data from an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The forecast deposition patterns are compared to dust collected by inverted-disc samplers and determined through gravimetric, chemical composition and lead isotopic analysis. The DFM is capable of predicting dust deposition patterns from the tailings impoundment to the surrounding area. The methodology and approach employed in this work can be generalized to other contaminated sites from which dust transport to the local environment can be assessed as a potential route for human exposure.

  3. Tailings neutralization and other alternatives for immobilizing toxic materials in tailings. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, B.E.; Sherwood, D.R.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    This document, ''Tailing Neutralization and Other Alternatives for Immobilizing Toxic Materials in Tailings,'' is the final report in a series of six. It summarizes research completed since the beginning of the project. Three subtasks are included: Subtask A - Neutralization Methods Selection; Subtask B - Laboratory Analysis; and Subtask C - Field Testing. Subtask A reviews treatment processes from other industries to evaluate whether current waste technology from other fields is applicable to the uranium industry. This task also identifies several reagents that were tested for their effectiveness in treating acidic tailings and tailings solution in order to immobilize the contaminants associated with the acid waste. Subtask B describes the laboratory batch and column treatment studies performed on solid waste tailings and tailings solutions over the course of the project. The evaluation of several reagents identified in Subtask A was based on three criteria: (1) treated effluent water quality; (2) neutralized sludge handling and hydraulic properties; and (3) reagent costs and acid neutralizing efficiency. Subtask C presents a field demonstration plan that will evaluate the effectiveness, costs, and benefits of neutralizing acidic uranium mill tailings solution to reduce the potential leaching of toxic trace metals, radionuclides, and macro ions from a tailings impoundment. Details of the related research can be found in the documents listed in the ''Previous Documents in Series.'' 43 refs., 9 figs., 46 tabs

  4. Bacterial populations within copper mine tailings: long-term effects of amendment with Class A biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates the effect of surface application of dried Class A biosolids on microbial populations within copper mine tailings. Methods and Results: Mine tailing sites were established at ASARCO Mission Mine close to Sahuarita, Arizona. Site 1 (Dec. 1998) was amended with 248 tons ha-1 of C...

  5. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E

    2017-09-07

    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail undulations and naturally by removing the tail via autotomy. Restricting tail undulations resulted in kinematic adjustments similar to those that occur following tail autotomy, characterized by more flexed hind limb joints. These data suggest that effects of autotomy on locomotion may be linked to the loss of tail movements rather than the loss of mass or a shift in center of mass. We also provide empirical support for the link between lateral tail undulations and step length through the rotation of the pelvic girdle and retraction of the femur. Restriction and autotomy of the tail limits pelvic rotation, which reduces femur retraction and decreases step length. Our findings demonstrate a functional role for tail undulations in geckos, which likely applies to other terrestrial vertebrates.

  6. Geared-elevator flutter study. [wind tunnel tests of transonic flutter effects on control surfaces of supersonic transport tail assemblies, conducted in a NASA-Langley transonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Gregory, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study was made of the transonic flutter characteristics of a supersonic transport tail assembly model having an all-movable, horizontal tail with a geared elevator. Two model configurations, namely, one with a gear-elevator (2.8 to 1.0 gear ratio) and one with locked-elevator (1.0 to 1.0 gear ratio), were flutter tested in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel with an empennage cantilever-mounted on a sting. The geared-elevator configuration fluttered experimentally at about 20% higher dynamic pressures than the locked-elevator configuration. The experimental flutter dynamic pressure boundaries for both configurations were nearly flat over a Mach number range from 0.9 to 1.1. Flutter calculations (mathematical models) were made for the geared-elevator configuration using three subsonic lifting-surface methods. In one method, the elevator was treated as a discrete surface, and in the other two methods, the stabilizer and elevator were treated as a single warped-surface with the primary difference between these two methods being in the mathematical implementation used. A comparison of the experimental and analytical results shows that the discrete-elevator method predicted best the experimental flutter dynamic pressure level. However, the single warped-surface methods predicts more closely the experimental flutter frequencies and Mach number trends.

  7. The role of cassiterite controlling arsenic mobility in an abandoned stanniferous tailings impoundment at Llallagua, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Francisco Martín; Canet, Carles; Alfonso, Pura; Zambrana, Rubén N; Soto, Nayelli

    2014-05-15

    The surface water contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTE) leached from mine tailings is a major environmental concern. However, the formation of insoluble solid phases can control the mobility of PTE, with subsequent decrease of the risk that tailings suppose to the environment. We characterized the tailings from a tin inactive mine in Llallagua, Bolivia in order to assess the risk for surface water quality. These tailings contain high concentrations of PTE, with up to 94,344 mg/kg Fe, 9,135 mg/kg Sn, 4,606 mg/kg As, 1,362 mg/kg Cu, 1,220 mg/kg Zn, 955 mg/kg Pb and 151 mg/kg Cd. Oxidation of sulfide minerals in these tailings generates acid leachates (pH=2.5-3.5), rich in SO4(2-) and dissolved PTE, thereby releasing contaminants to the surface waters. Nevertheless, the concentrations of dissolved Sn, As and Pb in acid leachates are low (Sntailing deposits; it should be the main solid phase controlling Sn and As mobility in the impoundment. Additionally, jarosite and plumbojarosite, identified among the secondary minerals, could also play an important role controlling the mobility of As and Pb. Taking into account (a) the low solubility constants of cassiterite (Ksp=10(-64.2)), jarosite (Ksp=10(-11)) and plumbojarosite (Ksp=10(-28.66)), and (b) the stability of these minerals under acidic conditions, we can conclude that they control the long-term fate of Sn, As and Pb in the studied tailings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...... underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible...

  9. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail un...

  10. Intrusion of soil covered uranium mill tailings by whitetail prairie dogs and Richardson's ground squirrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of the reclamation of uranium mill tailings is the long-term isolation of the matrial from the biosphere. Fossorial and semi-fossorial species represent a potentially disruptive influence as a result of their burrowing habits. The potential for intrusion was investigated with respect to two sciurids, the whitetail prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) and Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii). Populations of prairie dogs were established on a control area, lacking a tailings layer, and two experimental areas, underlain by a waste layer, in southeastern Wyoming. Weekly measurements of prairie dog mound surface activities were conducted to demonstrate penetration, or lack thereof, of the tailings layer. Additionally, the impact of burrowing upon radon flux was determined. Limited penetration of the waste layer was noted after which frequency of inhabitance of the intruding burrow system declined. No significant changes in radon flux were detected. In another experiment, it was found that Richardson's ground squirrels burrowed to less extreme depths when confronted by mill tailings. Additional work at an inactive tailings pile in western Colorado revealed repeated intrusion through a shallow cover, and subsequent transport of radioactive material to the ground surface by prairie dogs. Radon flux from burrow entrances was significantly greater than that from undisturbed ground. Data suggested that textural and pH properties of tailings material may act to discourage repeated intrusion at some sites. 58 references

  11. Protection of uranium tailings impoundments against overland erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This study investigates the problems involved in designing protection methods to prevent erosion of a uranium tailings impoundment cover from rainfall and runoff (overland flow) processes. The study addresses the side slopes and top surface as separate elements. The side slopes are more subject to gully erosion and require absolute protection such as that provided by rock riprap. The flatter top surface needs much less protection (vegetation/rock combinations) but some estimate of erosion rates are needed to compare alternatives. A literature review indicated that, currently, procedures are not available for the design of rock riprap to prevent gully erosion. Therefore, rock protection on the side slope will have to be based upon engineering judgment determined by the particular site conditions. The Manning-kinetic equations (velocity and depth of runoff) were investigated as a possible aid to the design of gully erosion protection. Guidelines are suggested for the use of rock riprap to prevent gully erosion. Three mathematical models were used to compute erosion rates for the top surface of a hypothetical tailings impoundment. The results recommend that one or possibly both of the regression models could be used to evaluate preliminary protection designs for the top surface. A physical process simulation model should be used for the final design. 30 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs

  12. Long-term protection of uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    US Environmental Protection Agency standards for the cleanup and disposal of inactive tailings sites require that control measures for disposal of tailings be designed to be effective for up to 1000 years if reasonably achievable, and, in any case, for 200 years at least. To control the escape of contaminants over such long periods, containment systems must be capable of adjusting to changing environmental conditions. Elements of a containment system include surface covers, biotic barriers, radon barriers, and, in some cases, liners. Each element of the system affects the others, and the whole system responds to the surrounding environment. Interaction is facilitated primarily by soil moisture. Consequently, the control of soil moisture is critical to the effectiveness of containment systems. Protective covers are necessary to prevent disruption of the containment system by physical or biological factors, to provide for the effective functioning of the radon barrier, and to prevent infiltration of excess water that could cause leaching. In order to design protective covers, a working knowledge of the factors and processes impacting tailings piles is required. This report characterizes the major factors and processes, and presents generic solutions based on current research. 65 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Long-term protection of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    US Environmental Protection Agency standards for the cleanup and disposal of inactive tailings sites require that control measures for disposal of tailings be designed to be effective for up to 1000 years if reasonably achievable, and, in any case, for 200 years at least. To control the escape of contaminants over such long periods, containment systems must be capable of adjusting to changing environmental conditions. Elements of a containment system include surface covers, biotic barriers, radon barriers, and, in some cases, liners. Each element of the system affects the others, and the whole system responds to the surrounding environment. Interaction is facilitated primarily by soil moisture. Consequently, the control of soil moisture is critical to the effectiveness of containment systems. Protective covers are necessary to prevent disruption of the containment system by physical or biological factors, to provide for the effective functioning of the radon barrier, and to prevent infiltration of excess water that could cause leaching. In order to design protective covers, a working knowledge of the factors and processes impacting tailings piles is required. This report characterizes the major factors and processes, and presents generic solutions based on current research. 65 references, 9 figures, 6 tables

  14. Evaluation of Metal Partitioning and Mobility in a Sulfidic Mine Tailing Pile under Oxic and Anoxic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining-influenced water emanating from mine tailings and potentially contaminating surface water and groundwater is one of the most important environmental issues linked to the mining industry. In this study, two subsets of Callahan Mine tailings (mainly comprised of silicates, ...

  15. Master plan for remediation of the Sillamaee tailings pond and technical design project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, T.

    2000-01-01

    Remediation of the Sillamaee radioactive tailings pond is a priority in the Estonian National Environmental Plan. The Sillamaee plant has processed metal ores by hydrometallurgical methods since 1946. Processing continued until 1990, but in the 1970s, production of rare earths and rare metals was introduced and continues today at a smaller scale. The tailings pond contains residues from these operations. The environmental problems associated with the tailings pond are the stability of the dam and the release of contaminants. In order to deal with these two issues effectively, a master plan was drawn up. The master plan covers the period from 1997 to 2008 and was compiled with the cooperation of the Silmet Group and the Sillamaee International Expert Reference Group (SIERG). The master plan sets up a systematic approach for the overall tailings pond remediation, including drying its interior, reshaping and covering the surface, minimizing water flow through the tailings, and ensuring long-term dam stability

  16. Performance Comparison between Neutralization Tailings and Flotation Tailings Used for Backfill Mix and Mechanism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Bin; Sun, Wei; Yu, Shaofeng; Liu, Chao; Yao, Song; Wu, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    A comparison test of different tailings used for underground backfill was conducted, using neutralized tailings from BIOX and flotation tailings of Jinfeng Mine. Laboratory comparison test results show that, with neutralized tailings, when the cement dosage is at 19%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 105%–163%, 80%–102%, and 33%–43%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. When the cement dosage is at 12%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 ...

  17. Characterization of oils sands thickened tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.D.; Jeeravipoolvarn, S.; Donahue, R.; Ozum, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed the characterization of oils sands thickened tailings. The problem statement was defined as the fact that many laboratory procedures to characterize fine tailings do not take into account the extraction process, and instead use standardized laboratory tests. The purpose of this presentation was to demonstrate how different extraction processes affect the fine tailings geotechnical properties and water chemistry. Properties that were characterized included particle size analysis from hydrometer-sieve tests; per cent clay from methylene blue tests; per cent clay from mineralogy tests; Atterberg limits; water chemistry; and morphology by scanning electron microscopy. The presentation discussed the origin of fines (silt and clay) in tailings; where fine particles come from; tailings materials; mineralogy of tailings; the hydrometer-sieve test on fine tailings and thickened tailings; and the methylene blue test. It was concluded that the great majority of clay minerals in the tailings come from the clay-shale discontinuous seams and layers. For thickened tailings, the dispersed and non-dispersed hydrometer tests show considerable difference in the amount of clay size material. tabs., figs.

  18. Mobility of Ra-226 and Heavy Metals (U, Th and Pb) from Pyritic Uranium Mine Tailings under Sub-aqueous Disposal Conditions - 59283

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, Nand K.

    2012-01-01

    All uranium mines in the Elliot Lake uranium mining district of north-central Ontario, Canada, have been closed due to low ore grade and prevailing market conditions. A majority of the waste management facilities have been rehabilitated and decommissioned with in-situ shallow water covers to minimize sulphide oxidation, and hence acid generation and release of metal enriched effluents. Laboratory lysimeter studies were undertaken to evaluate the leaching characteristics and mobility of Ra-226 and other heavy metals (U, Th and Pb) from pyritic uranium mine tailings under sub-aqueous disposal conditions for assessing the long-term radiological stability of such waste repositories. The experiments were conducted using three types of un-oxidized tailings: fine, coarse and gypsum depleted mill total tailings. Shallow water covers of depth ∼ 0.3 m were established using natural lake water. The leaching characteristics of radium and other major and trace metals were determined by monitoring both surface and pore water qualities as a function of time. The results showed that Ra-226 was leached from surface of the submerged tailings and released to both surface water and shallow zone pore water during initial low sulphate ion concentration of the surface water cover in all three cases. The release of Ra-226 was further enhanced with the onset of weak acidic conditions in the surface water covers of both coarse and gypsum depleted mill total tailings. With additional acid generation and increasing sulphate and iron concentrations, the dissolved Ra-226 concentrations in the water covers of these tailings gradually decreased back to low levels. Pb was also leached and mobilized with the development of moderate acidic conditions at the surface of the submerged coarse and gypsum deplete tailings. No leaching of U and Th was observed. (authors)

  19. Methodologies for evaluating long-term stabilization designs of uranium mill tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.; Abt, S.R.; Volpe, R.L.; Van Zye, D.; Hinkle, N.E.; Staub, W.P.

    1986-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings impoundments require long-term (200 to 1000 years) stabilization. This report reviews currently available methodologies for evaluating factors that can have a significant influence on tailings stabilization and develops methodologies in technical areas where none presently exist. Mill operators can use these methodologies to assist with (1) the selection of sites for mill tailings impoundments, (2) the design of stable impoundments, and (3) the development of reclamation plans for existing impoundments. These methodologies would also be useful for regulatory agency evaluations of proposals in permit or license applications. Methodologies were reviewed or developed in the following technical areas: (1) prediction of the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) and an accompanying Probable Maximum Flood (PMF); (2) prediction of the stability of local and regional fluvial systems; (3) design of impoundment surfaces resistant to gully erosion; (4) evaluation of the potential for surface sheet erosion; (5) design of riprap for protecting embankments from channel flood flow and overland flow; (6) selection of riprap with appropriate durability for its intended use; and (7) evaluation of oversizing required for marginal quality riprap

  20. Electro-remediation of copper mine tailings. Comparing copper removal efficiencies for two tailings of different age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Lamas, Victor; Gutierrez, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates the copper removal efficiency when applying electric fields to two mine tailings originating from the same mine but of different age. Eight experiments were carried out - four on tailings deposited more than 20 years ago (old tailings) and four on tailings deposit...

  1. Uranium mill tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Facilities for the disposal of uranium mill tailings will invariably be subjected to geomorphological and climatological influences in the long-term. Proceedings of a workshop discuss how the principles of geomorphology can be applied to the siting, design, construction, decommissioning and rehabilitation of disposal facilities in order to provide for long-term containment and stability of tailings. The characteristics of tailings and their behaviour after disposal influence the potential impacts which might occur in the long-term. Proceedings of another workshop examine the technologies for uranium ore processing and tailings conditioning with a view to identifying improvements that could be made in such characteristics

  2. Design, permitting, and construction issues associated with closure of the Panna Maria uranium tailings impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, C.L.; Raabe, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, Panna Maria Uranium Operations (PMUO) initiated licensing and engineering activities for closure of the Panna Maria mill and 150-acre tailings impoundment located in southeast Texas. Closure of the tailings impoundment is permitted by license amendment through the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and based on closure criteria outlined in Texas regulations. The closure plan for the Panna Maria tailings impoundment was submitted for Texas regulatory agency review in April 1993, with details of the closure plan modified in 1994, 1995, and 1996. The closure plan included a multi-layered cover over the regraded tailings surface which was designed for long-term isolation of tailings, reduction of radon emanation to regulated levels, and reduction of infiltration to TNRCC-accepted levels. The cover and embankment slope surfaces and surrounding areas were designed to provide acceptable erosional stability as compared to runoff velocities from the Probable Maximum Precipitation event. Cover materials were selected from on-site materials and evaluated for suitability based on permeability, radon attenuation, and soil dispersivity characteristics. Off-site materials were used when necessary. The cover over the tailings has a maximum slope of 0.5 percent, and the regraded embankment slopes outside the perimeter of the impoundment have a maximum slope of 20 percent. All reclaimed slopes are covered with topsoil and revegetated. A riprap-lined channel is to be used to convey runoff from within the perimeter of the reclaimed impoundment to the north of the impoundment

  3. THE NARROW X-RAY TAIL AND DOUBLE Hα TAILS OF ESO 137-002 IN A3627

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.; Lin, X. B.; Kong, X.; Sun, M.; Ji, L.; Sarazin, C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Roediger, E.; Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the analysis of a deep Chandra observation of a ∼2 L * late-type galaxy, ESO 137-002, in the closest rich cluster A3627. The Chandra data reveal a long (∼>40 kpc) and narrow tail with a nearly constant width (∼3 kpc) to the southeast of the galaxy, and a leading edge ∼1.5 kpc from the galaxy center on the upstream side of the tail. The tail is most likely caused by the nearly edge-on stripping of ESO 137-002's interstellar medium (ISM) by ram pressure, compared to the nearly face-on stripping of ESO 137-001 discussed in our previous work. Spectral analysis of individual regions along the tail shows that the gas throughout it has a rather constant temperature, ∼1 keV, very close to the temperature of the tails of ESO 137-001, if the same atomic database is used. The derived gas abundance is low (∼0.2 solar with the single-kT model), an indication of the multiphase nature of the gas in the tail. The mass of the X-ray tail is only a small fraction (<5%) of the initial ISM mass of the galaxy, suggesting that the stripping is most likely at an early stage. However, with any of the single-kT, double-kT, and multi-kT models we tried, the tail is always 'over-pressured' relative to the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which could be due to the uncertainties in the abundance, thermal versus non-thermal X-ray emission, or magnetic support in the ICM. The Hα data from the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research show a ∼21 kpc tail spatially coincident with the X-ray tail, as well as a secondary tail (∼12 kpc long) to the east of the main tail diverging at an angle of ∼23° and starting at a distance of ∼7.5 kpc from the nucleus. At the position of the secondary Hα tail, the X-ray emission is also enhanced at the ∼2σ level. We compare the tails of ESO 137-001 and ESO 137-002, and also compare the tails to simulations. Both the similarities and differences of the tails pose challenges to the simulations. Several implications are

  4. Settlement of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.K.; Guros, F.B.; Keshian, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two test embankments were constructed on top of an old tailings deposit near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico to determine settlement characteristics of hydraulically- deposited uranium mill tailings. Before construction of the embankments, properties of in-situ tailings and foundation soils were determined using data from boreholes, piezocone soundings, and laboratory tests. These properties were used to estimate post-construction settlement of a planned disposal embankment to be constructed on the tailings. However, excessive uncertainty existed in the following: field settlement rates of saturated and unsaturated tailings, degree of preconsolidation of the upper 15 feet of tailings, and the ability of an underlying silty sand foundation layer to facilitate drainage. Thus, assurance could not be provided that differential settlements of the radon barrier and erosion protection layers would be within allowable limits should the planned disposal embankment be constructed in a single-stage

  5. Evolution of Acid Mine Drainage Formation in Sulphidic Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulphidic mine tailings are among the largest mining wastes on Earth and are prone to produce acid mine drainage (AMD. The formation of AMD is a sequence of complex biogeochemical and mineral dissolution processes. It can be classified in three main steps occurring from the operational phase of a tailings impoundment until the final appearance of AMD after operations ceased: (1 During the operational phase of a tailings impoundment the pH-Eh regime is normally alkaline to neutral and reducing (water-saturated. Associated environmental problems include the presence of high sulphate concentrations due to dissolution of gypsum-anhydrite, and/or effluents enriched in elements such as Mo and As, which desorbed from primary ferric hydroxides during the alkaline flotation process. (2 Once mining-related operations of the tailings impoundment has ceased, sulphide oxidation starts, resulting in the formation of an acidic oxidation zone and a ferrous iron-rich plume below the oxidation front, that re-oxidises once it surfaces, producing the first visible sign of AMD, i.e., the precipitation of ferrihydrite and concomitant acidification. (3 Consumption of the (reactive neutralization potential of the gangue minerals and subsequent outflow of acidic, heavy metal-rich leachates from the tailings is the final step in the evolution of an AMD system. The formation of multi-colour efflorescent salts can be a visible sign of this stage.

  6. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    High surface soil concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and high above-ground measurements of gamma-ray intensity in the vicinity of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat show both wind and water erosion of the tailings. The former mill area, occupied by a trade school at the time of this survey, shows a comparatively high level of contamination, probably from unprocessed ore on the surface of the ore storage area near the location of the former mill buildings. However, the estimated health effect of exposure to gamma rays during a 2000-hr work year in the area represents an increase of 0.1% in the risk of death from cancer. Exposure of less than 600 persons within 1.6 km of the tailings to radon daughters results in an estimated 0.2%/year increase in risk of lung cancer.

  7. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    High surface soil concentrations of 226 Ra and high above-ground measurements of gamma-ray intensity in the vicinity of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat show both wind and water erosion of the tailings. The former mill area, occupied by a trade school at the time of this survey, shows a comparatively high level of contamination, probably from unprocessed ore on the surface of the ore storage area near the location of the former mill buildings. However, the estimated health effect of exposure to gamma rays during a 2000-hr work year in the area represents an increase of 0.1% in the risk of death from cancer. Exposure of less than 600 persons within 1.6 km of the tailings to radon daughters results in an estimated 0.2%/year increase in risk of lung cancer

  8. Evaluation of neutralization treatment processes and their use for uranium tailings solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.R.; Opitz, B.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The potential for groundwater contamination from the typically acidic mill wastes that are disposed of in tailings impoundments is of primary concern at uranium mill sites in the US. Solution-treatment processes provide a system for limiting the environmental impact from acidic seepage. Treatment of uranium tailings solutions from evaporation ponds, underdrains, and surface seeps could aid in decommissioning active sites or be used as an emergency measure to avert possible uncontrolled discharges. At present, neutralization processes appear to be best suited for treating uranium mill tailings solution because they can, at a reasonable cost, limit the solution concentration of many contaminants and thus reduce the potential for groundwater contamination. However, the effectiveness of the neutralization process depends on the reagent used as well as the chemistry of the waste stream. This article provides a description of neutralization processes, an assessment of their performance on acidic uranium tailings leachates, and recommendations for their use at US uranium mill sites

  9. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Jones, T.D.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Ellis, B.S.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Tuba City, Arizona, conducted in March 1976, are presented. Spread of tailings was detected in all directions by means of direct gamma measurements at 1 m above the ground and by determinations of the 226 Ra concentration in surface soil and sediment samples. In the direction toward which prevailing winds blow, the northeast, evidence of transportation of tailings was found at least 3.2 km from the tailings pile. Toward the north, south, and west, the spread was 300 to 400 m. Evidence of movement of tailings by water to offsite locations was also found. The concentration of 226 Ra in all water samples was well below the concentration guide for drinking water. The calculated subsoil distribution of 226 Ra in 14 holes, based on gamma monitoring data obtained by Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., is presented graphically and compared with available analytical data

  10. Attitudes of Dutch Pig Farmers Towards Tail Biting and Tail Docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Lauwere, de C.C.; Wind, S.M.M.; Zonderland, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch policy objective of a fully sustainable livestock sector without mutilations by 2023 is not compatible with the routine practice of tail docking to minimize the risk of tail biting. To examine farmer attitudes towards docking, a telephone survey was conducted among 487 conventional and 33

  11. Tail-weighted dependence measures with limit being the tail dependence coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, David

    2017-12-02

    For bivariate continuous data, measures of monotonic dependence are based on the rank transformations of the two variables. For bivariate extreme value copulas, there is a family of estimators (Formula presented.), for (Formula presented.), of the extremal coefficient, based on a transform of the absolute difference of the α power of the ranks. In the case of general bivariate copulas, we obtain the probability limit (Formula presented.) of (Formula presented.) as the sample size goes to infinity and show that (i) (Formula presented.) for (Formula presented.) is a measure of central dependence with properties similar to Kendall\\'s tau and Spearman\\'s rank correlation, (ii) (Formula presented.) is a tail-weighted dependence measure for large α, and (iii) the limit as (Formula presented.) is the upper tail dependence coefficient. We obtain asymptotic properties for the rank-based measure (Formula presented.) and estimate tail dependence coefficients through extrapolation on (Formula presented.). A data example illustrates the use of the new dependence measures for tail inference.

  12. Tail-weighted dependence measures with limit being the tail dependence coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, David; Joe, Harry; Krupskii, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    For bivariate continuous data, measures of monotonic dependence are based on the rank transformations of the two variables. For bivariate extreme value copulas, there is a family of estimators (Formula presented.), for (Formula presented.), of the extremal coefficient, based on a transform of the absolute difference of the α power of the ranks. In the case of general bivariate copulas, we obtain the probability limit (Formula presented.) of (Formula presented.) as the sample size goes to infinity and show that (i) (Formula presented.) for (Formula presented.) is a measure of central dependence with properties similar to Kendall's tau and Spearman's rank correlation, (ii) (Formula presented.) is a tail-weighted dependence measure for large α, and (iii) the limit as (Formula presented.) is the upper tail dependence coefficient. We obtain asymptotic properties for the rank-based measure (Formula presented.) and estimate tail dependence coefficients through extrapolation on (Formula presented.). A data example illustrates the use of the new dependence measures for tail inference.

  13. Copper tailings in stucco mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pavez

    Full Text Available Abstract This investigation addressed the evaluation of the use of copper tailings in the construction industry in order to reduce the impact on the environment. The evaluation was performed by a technical comparison between stucco mortars prepared with crushed conventional sand and with copper tailings sand. The best results were achieved with the stucco mortars containing tailings. The tailings presented a fine particles size distribution curve different from that suggested by the standard. The values of compressive strength, retentivity, and adherence in the stucco mortars prepared with copper tailings were much higher than those obtained with crushed sand. According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that the preparation of stucco mortars using copper tailings replacing conventional sand is a technically feasible alternative for the construction industry, presenting the benefit of mitigating the impact of disposal to the environment.

  14. Research on Long Tail Recommendation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuezhi; Zhang, Chuang; Wu, Ming; Zeng, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Most recommendation systems in the major electronic commerce platforms are influenced by the long tail effect more or less. There are sufficient researches of how to assess recommendation effect while no criteria to evaluate long tail recommendation rate. In this study, we first discussed the existing problems of recommending long tail products through specific experiments. Then we proposed a long tail evaluation criteria and compared the performance in long tail recommendation between different models.

  15. Alternative management techniques for the uranium mill tailings site at Salt Lake City, UT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Gantner, G.K.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of 226 Ra and other uranium-chain radionuclides present in tailings piles at uranium-milling sites are on the order of 10 3 times higher than those usually found in soil-surface minerals. The public radiation exposure attributable to these sites is primarily due to inhalation of 222 Rn progeny. This paper presents the radiological assessment of the uranium-milling site at Salt Lake City, Utah. Adverse health effects are estimated from present and projected public radiation exposures. Three alternative remedial action measures can be used to reduce radiation exposures: (1) decontamination of offsite areas contaminated by tailings materials; (2) covering the tailings with contamination-free material; and (3) removal of the tailings to a more remote location. These three measures are examined in terms of costs incurred and serious health effects avoided

  16. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.` different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  17. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.' different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments

  18. Uranium-mill-tailings remedial-action project (UMTRAP) cover and liner technology development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.; Freeman, H.D.; Cline, J.F.; Beedlow, P.A.; Buelt, J.L.; Relyea, J.R.; Tamura, T.

    1982-01-01

    Cover and liner systems for uranium mill tailings in the United States must satisfy stringent requirements regarding long-term stability, radon control, and radionuclide and hazardous chemical migration. The cover placed over a tailings pile serves three basic purposes: (1) to reduce the release of radon, (2) to prevent the intrusion of plant roots and burrowing animals into the tailings, and (3) to limit surface erosion. The liner placed under a tailings pile prevents the migration of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals to groundwater. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing and evaluating cover and liner systems that meet these objectives and conform to federal standards. The cover and liner technology discussed in this paper involves: (1) single and multilayer earthen cover systems, (2) asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems, (3) biobarrier systems, (4) revegetation and rock covers, and (5) asphalt, clay, and synthetic liner systems. These systems have been tested at the Grand Junction, Colorado, tailings pile, where they have been shown to effectively reduce radon releases and radionuclide and chemical migration

  19. Gecko CD59 Is Implicated in Proximodistal Identity during Tail Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Zhou, Weijuan; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yingjie; Gu, Qing; Gu, Yun; Dong, Yingying; Liu, Mei; Gu, Xingxing; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong

    2011-01-01

    Several adult reptiles, such as Gekko japonicus, have the ability to precisely re-create a missing tail after amputation. To ascertain the associated acquisition of positional information from blastemal cells and the underlying molecular mechanism of tail regeneration, a candidate molecule CD59 was isolated from gecko. CD59 transcripts displayed a graded expression in the adult gecko spinal cord with the highest level in the anterior segment, with a stable expression along the normal tail. After tail amputation, CD59 transcripts in the spinal cord proximal to the injury sites increased markedly at 1 day and 2 weeks; whereas in the regenerating blastema, strong CD59 positive signals were detected in the blastemal cells anterior to the blastema, with a gradual decrease along the proximodistal (PD) axis. When treated with RA following amputation, CD59 transcripts in the blastema were up-regulated. PD confrontation assays revealed that the proximal blastema engulfed the distal one after in vitro culture, and rabbit-anti human CD59 antibody was able to block this PD engulfment. Overexpression of the CD59 during tail regeneration causes distal blastemal cells to translocate to a more proximal location. Our results suggest that position identity is not restricted to amphibian limb regeneration, but has already been established in tail blastema of reptiles. The CD59, a cell surface molecule, acted as a determinant of proximal–distal cell identity. PMID:21464923

  20. Pre- and post-remediation characterization of acid-generating fluvial tailings material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Hoal, Karin O.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Pietersen, K.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Arkansas River south of Leadville, Colorado, USA, contains deposits of fluvial tailings from historical mining operations in the Leadville area. These deposits are potential non-point sources of acid and metal contamination to surface- and groundwater systems. We are investigating a site that recently underwent in situ remediation treatment with lime, fertilizer, and compost. Pre- and post-remediation fluvial tailings material was collected from a variety of depths to examine changes in mineralogy, acid generation, and extractable nutrients. Results indicate sufficient nutrient availability in the post-remediation near-surface material, but pyrite and acid generation persist below the depth of lime and fertilizer addition. Mineralogical characterization performed using semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction and quantitative SEM-based micro-mineralogy (Mineral Liberation Analysis, MLA) reveal formation of gypsum, jarosite, and complex coatings surrounding mineral grains in post-remediation samples.

  1. Tail Asymptotics for the Sum of two Heavy-tailed Dependent Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecher, H.; Asmussen, Søren

    Let X1,X2 denote positive exchangable heavy-tailed random variables with continuous marginal distribution function F. The asymptotic behavior of the tail of X1 + X2 is studied in a general copula framework and some bounds and extremal properties are provided. For more specific assumptions on F...

  2. Conceptual design of a remote system for characterizing oilsands tailings deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipsett, M.G.; Rivard, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described the design of a remote system for characterizing oil sands tailings deposits. The wheeled mobile robot technology was developed in order to improve the trafficability of composite tailings (CT) and other engineering tailings deposits, as well as to identify differences in feedstocks and process performance, and to determine shear strength losses from dynamic loading. The technology was comprised of a spectroscopy component, and a mobile robot equipped with surface measurement sensors. The control system included navigation and traction control devices. A communication component was also included. Tools used in the system included a penetrometer, a viscosimeter, and an automatic sample collection device. Tests have been conducted to determine the system's driving ability. Further tests are being conducted to evaluate the performance of the robot sensors and controllers. tabs., figs.

  3. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Ellis, B.S.; Chou, K.D.

    1980-03-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Durango, Colorado, conducted in April 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented together with descriptions of the instruments and techniques used to obtain the data. Direct above-ground gamma measurements and analysis of surface soil and sediment samples indicate movement of tailings from the piles toward Lightner Creek on the north and the Animas River on the east side of the piles. The concentration of 226 Ra in the former raffinate pond area is only slightly above the background level. Two structures in Durango were found to contain high concentrations of airborne radon daughters, where tailings are known to have been utilized in construction. Near-background concentrations of radon daughters were found in a well-ventilated building close to the tailings

  4. Preparation of plate-shape nano-magnesium hydroxide from asbestos tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Gaoxiang; Zheng Shuilin

    2009-01-01

    To prepare magnesium hydroxide is one of the effective methods to the comprehensive utilization of asbestos tailings. Nano-scale magnesium hydroxide was prepared and mechanisms of in-situ surface modification were characterized in the paper. Process conditions of preparation of magnesium hydroxide from purified hydrochloric acid leachate of asbestos tailings were optimized and in-situ surface modification of the product was carried out. Results showed that optimum process conditions for preparing nano-scale magnesium hydroxide were as follows: initial concentration of Mg 2+ in the leachate was 22.75g/L, precipitant was NaOH solution (mass concentration 20%), reaction temperature was 50 deg. C, and reaction time was 5min. The diameter and thickness of the plate nano-scale magnesium hydroxide powder prepared under optimal conditions were about 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively. However, particle agglomeration was obvious, the particle size increased to micron-grade. Dispersity of the magnesium hydroxide powder could be elevated by in-situ modification by silane FR-693, titanate YB-502 and polyethylene glycol and optimum dosages were 1.5%, 1.5% and 0.75% of the mass of magnesium hydroxide, respectively. All of the modifiers adsorbed chemically on surfaces of magnesium hydroxide particles, among which Si-O-Mg bonds formed among silane FR-693 and the particle surfaces and Ti-O-Mg among titanate YB-502 and the surfaces.

  5. Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

  6. A comparative pressure analysis of air flow between horizontal and V-Tail of UAV MALE of NACA0012H with speed variation

    OpenAIRE

    Riza Rahmat; Kurniawan Dicky; Wicaksono Arif Budi

    2018-01-01

    NACA0012H is an airfoil type that could be used for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Medium Altitude Long Endurance. This experiment was used to analyze stress in the surface of Tail of UAV MALE that was caused by air flow. The experiment was conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamics Software. Two designs of tail, horizontal and V-tail, were considered to simulate pressure occurred on the surface of leading edge, chamber and trailing edge. The simulation was developed varying the speed of the UAV M...

  7. Evaluation of chemical stabilizers and windscreens for wind erosion control of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-08-01

    Potential wind erosion of uranium mill tailings is a concern for the surface disposal of tailings at uranium mills. Wind-blown tailings may subsequently be redeposited on areas outside the impoundment. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating techniques for fugitive dust control at uranium mill tailings piles. Laboratory tests, including wind tunnel studies, were conducted to evaluate the relative effectiveness of 43 chemical stabilizers. Seventeen of the more promising stabilizers were applied to test plots on a uranium tailings pile at the American Nuclear Corporation-Gas Hills Project mill site in central Wyoming. The durabilities of these materials under actual site conditions were evaluated over time. In addition, field testing of commercially available windscreens was conducted. Test panels were constructed of eight different materials at the Wyoming test site to compare their durability. A second test site was established near PNL to evaluate the effectiveness of windscreens at reducing wind velocity, and thereby reduce the potential for wind erosion of mill tailings. Results of the laboratory land field tests of the chemical stabilizers and windscreens are presented, along with costs versus effectiveness of these techniques for control of wind erosion at mill tailings piles. 12 references, 4 figures, 6 tables

  8. Historic mills and mill tailings as potential sources of contamination in and near the Humboldt River basin, northern Nevada. Chapter D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    Reconnaissance field studies of 40 mining districts in and near the Humboldt River basin have identified 83 mills and associated tailings impoundments and several other kinds of mineral-processing facilities (smelters, mercury retorts, heap-leach pads) related to historic mining. The majority of the mills and tailings sites are not recorded in the literature. All tailings impoundments show evidence of substantial amounts of erosion. At least 11 tailings dams were breached by flood waters, carrying fluvial tailings 1 to 15 km down canyons and across alluvial fans. Most of the tailings sites are dry most of the year, but some are near streams. Tailings that are wet for part of the year do not appear to be reacting significantly with those waters because physical factors such as clay layers and hard-pan cement appear to limit permeability and release of metals to surface waters. The major impact of mill tailings on surface- water quality may be brief flushes of runoff during storm events that carry acid and metals released from soluble mineral crusts. Small ephemeral ponds and puddles that tend to collect in trenches and low areas on tailings impoundments tend to be acidic and extremely enriched in metals, in part through cycles of evaporation. Ponded water that is rich in salts and metals could be acutely toxic to unsuspecting animals. Rare extreme storms have the potential to cause catastrophic failure of tailings impoundments, carry away metals in stormwaters, and transport tailings as debris flows for 1 to 15 km. In most situations these stormwaters and transported tailings could impact wildlife but probably would impact few or no people or domes-tic water wells. Because all identified historic tailings sites are several kilometers or more from the Humboldt River and major tributaries, tailings probably have no measurable impact on water quality in the main stem of the Humboldt River.

  9. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE WESTERN TAIL OF NGC 2782

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 East Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Knezek, Patricia M. [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wehner, Elizabeth, E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: rolf.jansen@asu.edu, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu, E-mail: ewehner@haverford.edu [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios {approx}< 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed has a local (few-kiloparsec scale) {Sigma}{sub SFR} from H{alpha} that is less than that expected from the total gas density, which is consistent with other observations of tidal debris. The star formation efficiency of this H II region inferred from the total gas density is low, but normal when inferred from the molecular gas density. These results suggest the presence of a very small, locally dense region in the western tail of NGC 2782 or of a low-metallicity and/or low-pressure star-forming region.

  10. Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering of tailings at high temperatures (1200 0 C) has shown promise as a conditioning approach that greatly reduces the 222 Rn emanation of uranium mill tailings. The structure of thermally stabilized tailings has been appreciably altered producing a material that will have minimal management requirements and will be applicable to on-site processing and disposal. The mineralogy of untreated tailings is presented to define the structure of the original materials. Quartz predominates in most tailings samples; however, appreciable quantities of gypsum, clay, illite, or albites are found in some tailings. Samples from the Durango and Shiprock sites have plagioclase-type aluminosilicates and non-aluminum silicates as major components. The iron-rich vanadium tailings from the Salt Lake City site contain appreciable quantities of α-hematite and chloroapatite. The reduction in radon emanation power and changes in mineralogy as a function of sintering temperature are presented

  11. Which is the most preventive measure against tail damage in finisher pigs: tail docking, straw provision or lowered stocking density?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim of ...

  12. Water sensors with cellular system eliminate tail water drainage in alfalfa irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Saha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the largest consumer of water among all crops in California. It is generally flood-irrigated, so any system that decreases runoff can improve irrigation efficiency and conserve water. To more accurately manage the water flow at the tail (bottom end of the field in surface-irrigated alfalfa crops, we developed a system that consists of wetting-front sensors, a cellular communication system and a water advance model. This system detects the wetting front, determines its advance rate and generates a cell-phone alert to the irrigator when the water supply needs to be cut off, so that tail water drainage is minimized. To test its feasibility, we conducted field tests during the 2008 and 2009 alfalfa growing seasons. The field experiments successfully validated the methodology, producing zero tail water drainage.

  13. Subsurface variations in arsenic mineralogy and geochemistry following long-term weathering of gold mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSisto, Stephanie L.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Parsons, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Variations in arsenic (As) mineralogy and geochemical controls on its mobility were evaluated in subsurface tailings at the historical Montague and Goldenville mine sites in Nova Scotia, Canada. Tailings at these sites contain some of the highest As concentrations in Nova Scotia and are located in close proximity to local communities. Pore water in the subsurface tailings is characterized by circumneutral to alkaline pH (6.2 to 8.7) and mildly reducing to oxidizing redox conditions (+130 mV to +347 mV). Bulk chemistry, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron micro-X-ray diffraction analyses showed As mineral hosts differ with depth. The deepest tailings (max. 2 m) are in direct contact with partially decomposed vegetation, which supports reducing conditions and the precipitation of authigenic As and Fe sulfides. Under reducing conditions, dissolved As concentrations are also controlled by desorption of As from dissolution of Fe and Mn oxides and the sorption or co-precipitation of As with carbonates. These geochemical controls differ from those influencing dissolved As concentrations under oxidizing conditions. In the near surface, As mobility is controlled by oxidative dissolution of primary arsenopyrite, precipitation of secondary Fe arsenates, Fe oxyhydroxides and Mn oxides, secondary Ca-Fe arsenates, and sorption onto Fe oxyhydroxides and gangue minerals. Some of these mineral species are stable under different conditions yet occur in close association, indicating the importance of microenvironments. The results of this study show that the weathering characteristics of these tailings vary with depth, leading to the formation of new As hosts that are distinct from those observed in the near surface. Identification of these As hosts provides an understanding of current controls on As mobility and has implications for future reprocessing and/or remediation efforts. - Highlights: • Subsurface mineralogy does not reflect surface tailings end

  14. Surficial weathering of iron sulfide mine tailings under semi-arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah M; Root, Robert A; Perdrial, Nicolas; Maier, Raina; Chorover, Jon

    2014-09-15

    Mine wastes introduce anthropogenic weathering profiles to the critical zone that often remain unvegetated for decades after mining cessation. As such, they are vulnerable to wind and water dispersion of particulate matter to adjacent ecosystems and residential communities. In sulfide-rich ore tailings, propagation to depth of the oxidative weathering front controls the depth-variation in speciation of major and trace elements. Despite the prevalence of surficial mine waste deposits in arid regions of the globe, few prior studies have been conducted to resolve the near-surface profile of sulfide ore tailings weathered under semi-arid climate. We investigated relations between gossan oxidative reaction-front propagation and the molecular speciation of iron and sulfur in tailings subjected to weathering under semi-arid climate at an EPA Superfund Site in semi-arid central Arizona (USA). Here we report a multi-method data set combining wet chemical and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) methods to resolve the tight coupling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) geochemical changes in the top 2 m of tailings. Despite nearly invariant Fe and S concentration with depth (130-140 and 100-120 g kg -1 , respectively), a sharp redox gradient and distinct morphological change was observed within the top 0.5 m, associated with a progressive oxidative alteration of ferrous sulfides to (oxyhydr)oxides and (hydroxy)sulfates. Transformation is nearly complete in surficial samples. Trends in molecular-scale alteration were co-located with a decrease in pH from 7.3 to 2.3, and shifts in Fe and S lability as measured via chemical extraction. Initial weathering products, ferrihydrite and gypsum, transform to schwertmannite, then jarosite-group minerals with an accompanying decrease in pH. Interestingly, thermodynamically stable phases such as goethite and hematite were not detected in any samples, but ferrihydrite was observed even in

  15. Surficial weathering of iron sulfide mine tailings under semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah M.; Root, Robert A.; Perdrial, Nicolas; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2014-09-01

    Mine wastes introduce anthropogenic weathering profiles to the critical zone that often remain unvegetated for decades after mining cessation. As such, they are vulnerable to wind and water dispersion of particulate matter to adjacent ecosystems and residential communities. In sulfide-rich ore tailings, propagation to depth of the oxidative weathering front controls the depth-variation in speciation of major and trace elements. Despite the prevalence of surficial mine waste deposits in arid regions of the globe, few prior studies have been conducted to resolve the near-surface profile of sulfide ore tailings weathered under semi-arid climate. We investigated relations between gossan oxidative reaction-front propagation and the molecular speciation of iron and sulfur in tailings subjected to weathering in a semi-arid climate at an EPA Superfund Site in central Arizona (USA). Here we report a multi-method data set combining wet chemical and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) methods to resolve the tight coupling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) geochemical changes in the top 2 m of tailings. Despite nearly invariant Fe and S concentration with depth (130-140 and 100-120 g kg-1, respectively), a sharp redox gradient and distinct morphological change was observed within the top 0.5 m, associated with a progressive oxidative alteration of ferrous sulfides to (oxyhydr)oxides and (hydroxy)sulfates. Transformation is nearly complete in surficial samples. Trends in molecular-scale alteration were co-located with a decrease in pH from 7.3 to 2.3, and shifts in Fe and S lability as measured via chemical extraction. Initial weathering products, ferrihydrite and gypsum, transform to schwertmannite, then jarosite-group minerals with an accompanying decrease in pH. Interestingly, thermodynamically stable phases such as goethite and hematite were not detected in any samples, but ferrihydrite was observed even in samples with

  16. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project fiscal year 1997 annual report to stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The fiscal year (FY) 1997 annual report is the 19th report on the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. In 1978, Congress directed the DOE to assess and clean up contamination at 24 designated former uranium processing sites. The DOE is also responsible for cleaning up properties in the vicinity of the sites where wind and water erosion deposited tailings or people removed them from the site for use in construction or landscaping. Cleanup has been undertaken in cooperation with state governments and Indian tribes within whose boundaries the sites are located. It is being conducted in two phases: the surface project and the groundwater project. This report addresses specifics about the UMTRA surface project

  17. Fiscal year 1996 annual report to stakeholders, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 annual report on the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. In 1978, Congress directed the DOE to assess and clean up contamination at 24 designated former uranium processing sites. The DOE is also responsible for cleaning up properties in the vicinity of the sites where wind and water erosion deposited tailings or people removed them from the site for use in construction of landscaping. Cleanup is being undertaken in cooperation with state governments and Indian tribes within whose boundaries the sites are located. It is being conducted in two phases: the surface project and the ground water project. This report addresses specifics about the surface phase of the UMTRA Project

  18. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  19. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  20. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  1. The U.S. regulatory framework for long-term management of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, C.; Bierley, D.; Bradshaw, M.

    1995-01-01

    The US established the regulatory structure for the management, disposal, and long-term care of uranium mill tailings in 1978 with the passage of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Pub. L. 95-604). This legislation has governed the cleanup and disposal of uranium tailings at both inactive and active sites. The passage of the UMTRCA established a federal regulatory program for the cleanup and disposal of uranium mill tailings in the US. This program involves the DOE, the NRC, the EPA, various states and tribal governments, private licensees, and the general public. The DOE has completed surface remediation at 14 sites, with the remaining sites either under construction or in planning. The DOE's UMTRA Project has been very successful in dealing with public and agency demands, particularly regarding disposal site selection and transportation issues. The active sites are also being cleaned up, but at a slower pace than the inactive sites, with the first site tentatively scheduled for completion in 1996

  2. Estimation of Jump Tails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Victor

    We propose a new and flexible non-parametric framework for estimating the jump tails of Itô semimartingale processes. The approach is based on a relatively simple-to-implement set of estimating equations associated with the compensator for the jump measure, or its "intensity", that only utilizes...... the weak assumption of regular variation in the jump tails, along with in-fill asymptotic arguments for uniquely identifying the "large" jumps from the data. The estimation allows for very general dynamic dependencies in the jump tails, and does not restrict the continuous part of the process...... and the temporal variation in the stochastic volatility. On implementing the new estimation procedure with actual high-frequency data for the S&P 500 aggregate market portfolio, we find strong evidence for richer and more complex dynamic dependencies in the jump tails than hitherto entertained in the literature....

  3. Average configuration of the geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Over 3000 hours of Imp 6 magnetic field data obtained between 20 and 33 R/sub E/ in the geomagnetic tail have been used in a statistical study of the tail configuration. A distribution of 2.5-min averages of B/sub z/ as a function of position across the tail reveals that more flux crosses the equatorial plane near the dawn and dusk flanks (B-bar/sub z/=3.γ) than near midnight (B-bar/sub z/=1.8γ). The tail field projected in the solar magnetospheric equatorial plane deviates from the x axis due to flaring and solar wind aberration by an angle α=-0.9 Y/sub SM/-2.7, where Y/sub SM/ is in earth radii and α is in degrees. After removing these effects, the B/sub y/ component of the tail field is found to depend on interplanetary sector structure. During an 'away' sector the B/sub y/ component of the tail field is on average 0.5γ greater than that during a 'toward' sector, a result that is true in both tail lobes and is independent of location across the tail. This effect means the average field reversal between northern and southern lobes of the tail is more often 178 0 rather than the 180 0 that is generally supposed

  4. Groundwater modeling for the long-term safety assessment of uranium tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium tailings ponds contain naturally occurring long lived radionuclides such as 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th and 226 Ra as sources which are the parents of a very long radionuclide decay chain. Uranium tailings ponds by the virtue of the longevity of its contents may pose as a long-term radiological hazard if not designed and monitored properly. The principal radiation risks from uranium tailings are gamma radiation: windblown radioactive dust dispersion; and radon gas and its progenies. Uranium tailings ponds are also a major source of surface and groundwater contamination due to leaching of radioactive and other toxic elements. In many countries, the tailings ponds are designed to control the radiological hazards for up to 1000 years, to the extent achievable, and in any case for at least 200 years. Stringent regulations stipulations exist worldwide for the safe design, operation and closure of uranium tailings ponds. The long- term radiological impact assessment of uranium tailings ponds, hence, is an extremely important exercise in uranium mining industry. The simulations conducted for uranium over a period of 1000 years indicate that contaminant fronts from the source with a paste permeability of 1x10 -4 m/day would migrate a probable distance of less than 50 m. The maximum computed distance for this case is less than 300 m. Indian studies show that the total annual effective dose to members of the public at 1.0 km from the centre of the tailings pond is trivial up to a period of 4000 y. The estimated dose is 0.01 mSv/y after 10,000 years and it is 10 times lower than 0.1 mSv/y, which is considered as a safe dose limit for drinking water pathway. (author)

  5. Segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinato, R.S.; Mahmoudkhani, A.; Fenderson, T.; Watson, P. [Kemira, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Untreated oil sands tailings have a high solids content, have poor dewaterability, and contain no aggregates. This PowerPoint presentation investigated segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings. Tailings were treated with gypsum and various polymers. Cylinder settling, dynamic rheometry, particle size analysis, and microscopy techniques were used to characterize the composite tailings. The particles sizes of the samples were evaluated in relation to shear rate, bed depth, and treatment. The study showed that the gypsum-treated tailings had small aggregates, size stratification, a high solids content, and poor dewaterability. The polymer N-treated tailings had the lowest solids content, good dewaterability, and weak aggregates. The polymer A-treated tailings had a low solids content, very good dewaterability, and strong aggregates. The addition of a coagulant to the polymer-A treated tailings provided weaker aggregates and a higher solids content. tabs., figs.

  6. Ecotoxicity of Mine Tailings: Unrehabilitated Versus Rehabilitated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboeta, M S; Oladipo, O G; Botha, S M

    2018-05-01

    Earthworms are bioindicators of soil pollution. The ecotoxicity of tailings from selected gold mines in South Africa was investigated utilizing Eisenia andrei bioassays and biomarkers. Samples were obtained from unrehabilitated, rehabilitated and naturally vegetated sites. Biomass, neutral red retention time (NRRT), survival and reproduction were assessed using standardized protocols. Earthworm biomass, NRRT and reproductive success in rehabilitated tailings (comparable to naturally vegetated site) were significantly higher (p tailings. In addition, significantly lower (p tailings compared to the unrehabilitated. Further, significantly lower (p tailings than the rehabilitated and naturally vegetated sites. Overall, reduced ecotoxicity effects were confirmed in rehabilitated compared to unrehabilitated tailings. This suggests that rehabilitation as a post-mining restorative strategy has strong positive influence on mine tailings.

  7. Energy resources of the west tailings pond, Airline-Sponsler Mine, Greene County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, D.L.; Miller, L.V.; Irwin, P.N.

    1980-12-01

    The west tailings pond at the Airline-Sponsler Mine is a manmade prograding fan-delta system in which wastes from preparing coal are deposited in expected sequences. The tailings pond, originally a surface-mine final-cut and haulage road, is about 10,000 feet long, 200 to 300 feet wide, and 25 to 60 feet deep. The Indiana Geological Survey drilled eight auger holes at the pond. The first hole was 50 feet from the entry point, the second hole was 200 feet from the first, and the remaining six holes were 700 feet apart. At each hole samples were taken on 5-foot intervals, and a composite sample of each hole was also prepared. Coarse coal, dense rock fragments, and sulfide minerals settle first and are followed by medium to fine coal and clay and very fine coal. At the entry point ash is high (65.4 percent), sulfur is high (12 percent), calorific value is low (3220 Btu), and particle size is large. At the distal end ash is low near the surface but increases near the base (15.5 to 59.3 percent), sulfur is high near the surface but decreases near the base (2.6 to 1.0 percent), calorific value is high near the surface but decreases near the base (12,000 to 5250 Btu), and particle size is large near the surface but decreases near the base. Washability determinations indicate that some tailings located distally to the entry point might be reclaimed as a fuel with little further preparation and those located proximally could be upgraded by further preparation.

  8. The significance of natural ground-water recharge in site selection for mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Milling operations throughout the world have created vast amounts of waste by-products, or tailings, which are often disposed on the land surface. The wastes may be disposed behind dams, on untreated ground, or on compacted clay or synthetic liners of impoundments and trenches. Often one of the principle concerns of environmental regulatory agencies is whether seepage from the waste pile could move through the vadose zone to the water table and possibly contaminate an aquifer. The seepage may be generated by the drainage of liquids initially deposited along with the tailings or by infiltrating meteoric water which leaches soluted from the tailings. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the commonly held assumptions regarding storage of seepage wastes in the unsaturated zone. The significance of recent studies of water movement in dry climates which pertain to tailings site selection are presented

  9. Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway I: changes in porewater chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Tariq; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Arkell, Nicholas; Young, Rozlyn; Li, Carmen; Guigard, Selma; Underwood, Eleisha; Foght, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Dispersed clay particles in mine tailings and soft sediments remain suspended for decades, hindering consolidation and challenging effective management of these aqueous slurries. Current geotechnical engineering models of self-weight consolidation of tailings do not consider microbial contribution to sediment behavior, however, here we show that microorganisms indigenous to oil sands tailings change the porewater chemistry and accelerate consolidation of oil sands tailings. A companion paper describes the role of microbes in alteration of clay chemistry in tailings. Microbial metabolism in mature fine tailings (MFT) amended with an organic substrate (hydrolyzed canola meal) produced methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Dissolution of biogenic CO2 lowered the pH of amended MFT to pH 6.4 vs. unamended MFT (pH 7.7). About 12% more porewater was recovered from amended than unamended MFT during 2 months of active microbial metabolism, concomitant with consolidation of tailings. The lower pH in amended MFT dissolved carbonate minerals, thereby releasing divalent cations including calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) and increasing bicarbonate (HCO(-) 3) in porewater. The higher concentrations increased the ionic strength of the porewater, in turn reducing the thickness of the diffuse double layer (DDL) of clay particles by reducing the surface charge potential (repulsive forces) of the clay particles. The combination of these processes accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. In addition, ebullition of biogenic gases created transient physical channels for release of porewater. In contrast, saturating the MFT with non-biogenic CO2 had little effect on consolidation. These results have significant implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds and broad importance in anaerobic environments such as contaminated harbors and estuaries containing soft sediments rich in clays and organics.

  10. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of Musina mine copper and New Union gold mine tailings: Implications for fabrication of beneficial geopolymeric construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitari, M. W.; Akinyemi, S. A.; Thobakgale, R.; Ngoejana, P. C.; Ramugondo, L.; Matidza, M.; Mhlongo, S. E.; Dacosta, F. A.; Nemapate, N.

    2018-01-01

    The mining industries in South Africa generates huge amounts of mine waste that includes tailings; waste rocks and spoils. The tailings materials are dumped in surface impoundments that turn to be sources of hazards to the environment and the surrounding communities. The main environmental hazards posed by these tailings facilities are associated with their chemical constituents. Exposure to chemical constituents can occur through windblown dust, erosion to surface water bodies, inhalation by human beings and animals and through bioaccumulation and bio magnification by plants. Numerous un-rehabilitated tailings dumps exist in Limpopo province of South Africa. The communities found around these mines are constantly exposed to the environmental hazards posed by these tailing facilities. Development of a cost-effective technology that can beneficially utilize these tailings can reduce the environmental hazards and benefit the communities. This paper presents the initial evaluation of the copper and gold mine tailings in Limpopo, South Africa with a view to assessing the suitability of conversion into beneficial geopolymeric materials. Copper tailings leachates had alkaline pH (7.34-8.49) while the gold tailings had acidic pH. XRD confirmed presence of aluminosilicate minerals. Geochemical fractionation indicates that majority of the major and trace species are present in residual fraction. A significant amount of Ca, Cu and K was available in the mobile fraction and is expected to be released on tailings contacting aqueous solutions. Results from XRF indicates the tailings are rich in SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO which are the main ingredients in geopolymerization process. The SiO2/Al2O3 ratios indicates the tailings would require blending with Al2O3 rich feedstock for them to develop maximum strength. Moreover, the tailings have particle size in the range of fine sand which indicates potential application as aggregates in conventional brick manufacture.

  11. Mobility and Attenuation Dynamics of Potentially Toxic Chemical Species at an Abandoned Copper Mine Tailings Dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mugera Gitari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Large volumes of disposed mine tailings abound in several regions of South Africa, as a consequence of unregulated, unsustainable long years of mining activities. Tailings dumps occupy a large volume of valuable land, and present a potential risk for aquatic systems, through leaching of potentially toxic chemical species. This paper reports on the evaluation of the geochemical processes controlling the mobility of potentially toxic chemical species within the tailings profile, and their potential risk with regard to surface and groundwater systems. Combination of X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS techniques, show that the tailing profiles are uniform, weakly altered, and vary slightly with depth in both physical and geochemical properties, as well as mineralogical composition. Mineralogical analysis showed the following order of abundance: quartz > epidote > chlorite > muscovite > calcite > hematite within the tailings profiles. The neutralization of the dominant alumino-silicate minerals and the absence of sulfidic minerals, have produced medium alkaline pH conditions (7.97–8.37 at all depths and low concentrations of dissolved Cu (20.21–47.9 µg/L, Zn (0.88–1.80 µg/L, Pb (0.27–0.34 µg/L, and SO42− (15.71–55.94 mg/L in the tailings profile leachates. The relative percentage leach for the potentially toxic chemical species was low in the aqueous phase (Ni 0.081%, Cu 0.006%, and Zn 0.05%. This indicates that the transport load of potentially toxic chemical species from tailings to the aqueous phase is very low. The precipitation of secondary hematite has an important known ability to trap and attenuate the mobility of potentially toxic chemical species (Cu, Zn, and Pb by adsorption on the surface area. Geochemical modelling MINTEQA2 showed that the tailings leachates were below saturation regarding oxyhydroxide minerals, but oversaturated with Cu

  12. ESTIMATION OF FILTRATION CAPACITY OF POSTFLOTATION TAILINGS EMBEDDED IN DAMS OF TAILINGS DEPOSITION SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Tschuschke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Construction of very big mine tailings deposition sites, such as postflotation tailings ponds, is a complicated engineering task, in which several technical and environmental problems need to be solved. Designing, construction and operation of such an object applying the monitoring method consists in the verification of design assumptions based on continuous observations. One of the primary tasks of monitoring while the deposition site is being filled with tailings is to control quality of the formed dam embankments, as the structural element of the object responsible for its stability. In order to use material selected from deposited tailings in the construction of dams it is necessary to define grain size and compaction criteria, which directly affect load bearing capacity and deformation of the structure. For this reason main control tests include the analyses of grain size distribution and physical properties of the material embedded in the dams. These data may also be used to estimate filtration capacity of the embankment. A lack of drainage, causing accumulation of water within the embankment, may potentially deteriorate stability conditions. This paper presents the use of empirical formulas, i.e. formulas typically applied to natural soils, to assess permeability coefficient of tailings. A simple empirical formula was also proposed for the estimation of permeability coefficient of tailings based on grain size and compaction parameters determined in routine quality tests of constructed dam embankments.

  13. General review of the state of uranium milling tailings in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubiev, V.

    2002-01-01

    The mining and milling of uranium ore are produced in Ukraine since 1948. During this time eleven tailings were formed at the large territory in the region of cities Zhovty Vody and Dnepropetrovsk. One tailing is now in operation. Other ten tailings are under conservation and are producing environmental impact of different extent. Any of tailings was not subjected to recovery. By means of the enterprises, which have on their territory tailings, the monitoring is carried out for radionuclides coming in underground waters. The samples of underground water are taken from wells that are located at the tailing perimeter. The list of tailings, quantity of stored material, and radionuclides activity are submitted in the table. The supervision shows, that all tailings to some extent are the issue of radionuclides diffusion. The brief characteristic of the largest tailings is submitted. The supervision shows that all tailings to some extent are the issue of radionuclides diffusion. The brief characteristic of the largest tailings is submitted. Most of tailings are located in natural folds of a region relief, however one of them (KBG) is arranged in career with depth 60-65 m. Iron ore was mined in this career and career is located on distance 2.5 km from an inhabited zone. Career was not equipped by anti filtration barriers before it was started to fill it with sludge. In total 12.4·10 6 m 3 of tails is placed in it with general activity about 1 PBq. When tailing's filling was finished at 1991 its surface was covered by 1,7 m layer of loamy soil. The tailing creation resulted in change of hydro-geological conditions of a platform and in appearance of man-caused water-bearing horizon. The halo of pollution of underground waters is moving from the bounds of the site towards the inhabited zone of Zhovty Vody city. Now polluted by radionuclides water is detected at the distance of 1.5 km from tailing. According to forecast estimations in 15 years the pollution will move forward

  14. Markov Tail Chains

    OpenAIRE

    janssen, Anja; Segers, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The extremes of a univariate Markov chain with regularly varying stationary marginal distribution and asymptotically linear behavior are known to exhibit a multiplicative random walk structure called the tail chain. In this paper we extend this fact to Markov chains with multivariate regularly varying marginal distributions in Rd. We analyze both the forward and the backward tail process and show that they mutually determine each other through a kind of adjoint relation. In ...

  15. Diagnostic analysis of electrodialysis in mine tailing materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Removal of heavy metals from mine tailings and soil contaminated by copper mining activities was studied under batch electrodialytic conditions. Two types of mine tailings were treated: (i) freshly produced tailings coming directly from the flotation process, and (ii) tailings deposited...... in a tailings pond, for approximately 20 years. The main contaminant was copper-found in concentration around 800-1800 ppm. The fractionation of copper and other characteristics of the tailings differ for the two tailings, indicating natural oxidation reactions in the old deposited ones. Electrodialytical...

  16. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  17. Tail docking in pigs: a review on its short- and long-term consequences and effectiveness in preventing tail biting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Nannoni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of European legislation attempting to limit this practice, tail docking is nowadays the only preventive measure against tail biting which is widely adopted by farmers. Docking consists in amputating, usually without anaesthesia or analgesia, the distal part of the tail, in order to reduce its attractiveness and to sensitize it, increasing avoidance behaviour in the bitten pig. Tail docking results in both acute and chronic effects on pig welfare, and its effectiveness in preventing tail biting is limited, since it reduces the symptoms of a behavioural disorder, but does not address the underlying causes. The aim of the present paper is to review the available literature on the effects of tail docking on swine welfare. Although from a practical standpoint the welfare risks arising from tail docking may appear to be negligible compared to those arising during and after tail biting outbreaks, it should be considered that, apart from acute physiological and behavioural responses, tail docking may also elicit long-term effects on weight gain, tail stump sensitivity and animal freedom to express their normal behaviour. Such chronic effects have been poorly investigated so far. Besides, studies evaluating the effectiveness of anaesthetics or analgesic treatments are often conflicting. Within this framework, further research is recommended in order to reduce the acute and chronic pain and discomfort experienced by the animals, until preventive measures (e.g., environmental enrichment, stocking densities are broadly adopted to prevent tail biting.

  18. Meeting the challenge - solutions for managing oil sands tailings: report of the fine tailings fundamentals consortium 1989-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The development and demonstration of effective alternatives for the management of fine tailings in the oil sands industry were discussed in a report describing the work of the Fine Tailings Fundamentals Consortium during the period from 1989 to 1995. The final report of the Consortium is a four-volume publication entitled 'Advances in Oil Sands Tailings Research' which is the state-of-the-art reference to key issues in the reclamation of fine tailings. Government regulations now make it the responsibility of industry to integrate the fine tailings into reclaimed landscapes, so that the final landscape is equal in productive capability to the pre-disturbed state. Impressive progress has been made in understanding the formation of fine tailings and in characterizing their properties, much of it through the work of this Consortium. Fundamental research on the clay particles within fine tailings provides a better understanding of how to manage them. Although there is no 'magic bullet', research has demonstrated that an integrated approach incorporating fine tailings with a variety of elements, uplands, lakes and wetlands, offer the best hope for an environmentally sound solution. figs

  19. The Tail of BPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  20. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Segev

    Full Text Available Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample.

  1. Numerical modeling of drying and consolidation of fine sediments and tailings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meulen, J.; Van Tol, A.F.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The extraction and processing of many mineral ores result in the generation of large volumes of fine-grained residue or tailings. These fine sediments are deposited as a slurry with very high water contents and lose water after deposition due to self-weight consolidation. When the surface is exposed

  2. Characterization and dewatering of flotation technological tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorova I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of flotation tailings is today a subject of interest in mineral processing because of the potential of wasted materials as an actual mineral resource and because of environmental reasons. Decantation ponds are found at almost every mine in the world. They are large earth fill dams containing the residue of the milling process to extract metals from mined ores. Traditional wet tailings disposal has been problematic due to the risk of ground water contamination and the difficulty in rehabilitating storage sites. Tailings dams are at risk of failure due to leakage, instability, liquefaction, and poor design. In the last few years the use of paste technology in the disposal of mine tailings is increasingly studied as an option to conventional tailings dams. The Lucky Invest Concentrator is located in the Eastern Rhodopes Mountain of Bulgaria. Since 1959 lead-zinc ores are dressed. Finally, during the flotation cycle lead and zinc concentrates are produced. The final technological processing waste precipitates in tailing pond. Research and development program has started to established opportunities to obtain dry deposit of the ore processing residue and analyses the feature of new tailing disposal method. The tailings particle size distributions and chemical compositions were determined. The data from laboratory and pilot scale tests clearly illustrate that there are the possibilities to obtaine lead-zinc dewatered tailings. The experimental results show that new cyclone modifications have a potential in dewatering technology of flotation tailings. It appears that dewatering cyclones can be an approach on new tailings pond elimination technology.

  3. Active vertical tail buffeting suppression based on macro fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chengzhe; Li, Bin; Liang, Li; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic buffet is unsteady airflow exerting forces onto a surface, which can lead to premature fatigue damage of aircraft vertical tail structures, especially for aircrafts with twin vertical tails at high angles of attack. In this work, Macro Fiber Composite (MFC), which can provide strain actuation, was used as the actuator for the buffet-induced vibration control, and the positioning of the MFC patches was led by the strain energy distribution on the vertical tail. Positive Position Feedback (PPF) control algorithm has been widely used for its robustness and simplicity in practice, and consequently it was developed to suppress the buffet responses of first bending and torsional mode of vertical tail. However, its performance is usually attenuated by the phase contributions from non-collocated sensor/actuator configuration and plants. The phase lag between the input and output signals of the control system was identified experimentally, and the phase compensation was considered in the PPF control algorithm. The simulation results of the amplitude frequency of the closed-loop system showed that the buffet response was alleviated notably around the concerned bandwidth. Then the wind tunnel experiment was conducted to verify the effectiveness of MFC actuators and compensated PPF, and the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the acceleration response was reduced 43.4%, 28.4% and 39.5%, respectively, under three different buffeting conditions.

  4. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  5. Liquefaction of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Numerical methods for assessing the liquefaction potential of soils are reviewed with a view to their application to uranium tailings. The method can be divided into two categories: total stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are not considered in the soil model, and effective stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are included in the soil model. Effective stress analysis is more realistic, but few computer programs exist for such analysis in two or three dimensions. A simple linearized, two-dimensional, finite element effective stress analysis which incorporates volumetric compaction due to shear motion is described and implemented. The new program is applied to the assessment of liquefaction potential of tailings in the Quirke Mine tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario. The results are compared with those of a total stress analysis. Both analyses indicate liquefaction would occur if a magnitude 6.0 earthquake were to occur near the area. However, the extent of liquefaction predicted by the effective stress analysis is much less than that predicted by the total stress analysis. The results of both methods are sensitive to assumed material properties and to the method used to determine the cyclic shear strength of the tailings. Further analysis, incorporating more in situ and/or laboratory data, is recommended before conclusions can be made concerning the dynamic stability of these tailings

  6. Flapping tail membrane in bats produces potentially important thrust during horizontal takeoffs and very slow flight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick A Adams

    Full Text Available Historically, studies concerning bat flight have focused primarily on the wings. By analyzing high-speed video taken on 48 individuals of five species of vespertilionid bats, we show that the capacity to flap the tail-membrane (uropatagium in order to generate thrust and lift during takeoffs and minimal-speed flight (<1 m (s-1 was largely underestimated. Indeed, bats flapped the tail-membrane by extensive dorso-ventral fanning motions covering as much as 135 degrees of arc consistent with thrust generation by air displacement. The degree of dorsal extension of the tail-membrane, and thus the potential amount of thrust generated during platform launches, was significantly correlated with body mass (P = 0.02. Adduction of the hind limbs during upstrokes collapsed the tail-membrane thereby reducing its surface area and minimizing negative lift forces. Abduction of the hind limbs during the downstroke fully expanded the tail-membrane as it was swept ventrally. The flapping kinematics of the tail-membrane is thus consistent with expectations for an airfoil. Timing offsets between the wings and tail-membrane during downstrokes was as much as 50%, suggesting that the tail-membrane was providing thrust and perhaps lift when the wings were retracting through the upstoke phase of the wing-beat cycle. The extent to which the tail-membrane was used during takeoffs differed significantly among four vespertilionid species (P = 0.01 and aligned with predictions derived from bat ecomorphology. The extensive fanning motion of the tail membrane by vespertilionid bats has not been reported for other flying vertebrates.

  7. Predicting radon flux from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, is developing technology for the design of radon barriers for uranium mill tailings piles. To properly design a radon cover for a particular tailings pile, the radon flux emanating from the bare tailings must be known. The tailings characteristics required to calculate the radon flux include radium-226 content, emanating power, bulk density, and radon diffusivity. This paper presents theoretical and practical aspects of estimating the radon flux from an uranium tailings pile. Results of field measurements to verify the calculation methodology are also discussed. 24 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  8. Numerical modelling for stability of tailings dams

    OpenAIRE

    Auchar, Muhammad; Mattsson, Hans; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A tailings dam is a large embankment structure that is constructed to store the waste from the mining industry. Stability problems may occur in a tailings dam due to factors such as quick rate of raising, internal erosion and liquefaction. The failure of a tailings dam may cause loss of human life and environmental degradation. Tailings Dams must not only be stable during the time the tailings storage facility is in operation, but also long time after the mine is closed. In Sweden, the licens...

  9. Numerical analysis of band tails in nanowires and their effects on the performance of tunneling field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takahisa; Uchida, Ken

    2018-06-01

    Band tails in heavily doped semiconductors are one of the important parameters that determine transfer characteristics of tunneling field-effect transistors. In this study, doping concentration and doing profile dependences of band tails in heavily doped Si nanowires were analyzed by a nonequilibrium Green function method. From the calculated band tails, transfer characteristics of nanowire tunnel field-effect transistors were numerically analyzed by Wentzel–Kramer–Brillouin approximation with exponential barriers. The calculated transfer characteristics demonstrate that the band tails induced by dopants degrade the subthreshold slopes of Si nanowires from 5 to 56 mV/dec in the worst case. On the other hand, surface doping leads to a high drain current while maintaining a small subthreshold slope.

  10. Methanotrophic bacteria in oilsands tailings ponds of northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi-Mehrabad, Alireza; He, Zhiguo; Tamas, Ivica; Sharp, Christine E; Brady, Allyson L; Rochman, Fauziah F; Bodrossy, Levente; Abell, Guy CJ; Penner, Tara; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Dunfield, Peter F

    2013-01-01

    We investigated methanotrophic bacteria in slightly alkaline surface water (pH 7.4–8.7) of oilsands tailings ponds in Fort McMurray, Canada. These large lakes (up to 10 km2) contain water, silt, clay and residual hydrocarbons that are not recovered in oilsands mining. They are primarily anoxic and produce methane but have an aerobic surface layer. Aerobic methane oxidation was measured in the surface water at rates up to 152 nmol CH4 ml−1 water d−1. Microbial diversity was investigated via pyrotag sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes, as well as by analysis of methanotroph-specific pmoA genes using both pyrosequencing and microarray analysis. The predominantly detected methanotroph in surface waters at all sampling times was an uncultured species related to the gammaproteobacterial genus Methylocaldum, although a few other methanotrophs were also detected, including Methylomonas spp. Active species were identified via 13CH4 stable isotope probing (SIP) of DNA, combined with pyrotag sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing of heavy 13C-DNA. The SIP-PCR results demonstrated that the Methylocaldum and Methylomonas spp. actively consumed methane in fresh tailings pond water. Metagenomic analysis of DNA from the heavy SIP fraction verified the PCR-based results and identified additional pmoA genes not detected via PCR. The metagenome indicated that the overall methylotrophic community possessed known pathways for formaldehyde oxidation, carbon fixation and detoxification of nitrogenous compounds but appeared to possess only particulate methane monooxygenase not soluble methane monooxygenase. PMID:23254511

  11. Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, M.; Somot, S.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated three main types of uranium mill tailings: (1) acid mill tailings (Mounana, Gabon), (2) neutralized acid mill tailings (Ecarpiere and Jouac, France) and (3) alkaline mill tailings (Lodeve, France). We have focused especially on radium behaviour which is of major environmental concern in these tailings, but other metals were also studied. It is shown that in type 1 , trapping of 226 Ra by anglesite and barite is dominant whereas in types 2 and 3, 226 Ra is mainly or significantly scavenged by Fe- Mn oxyhydroxides. This study points out the importance of keeping conditions in which these oxyhydroxides will be stable for the long-term. Uranium would be also released during acidification of the tailings. This shows the importance to know more about the behavior of Ra during the crystallization of oxyhydroxides and during tailings diagenesis. Therefore, it is very important to study the sorption of Ra by clay minerals or late authigeneous minerals such as barite. (author)

  13. A guide to the management of tailings facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedard, C.; Ferguson, K.; Gladwin, D.; Lang, D.; Maltby, J.; McCann, M.; Poirier, P.; Schwenger, R.; Vezina, S.; West, S.; Duval, J.; Gardiner, E.; Jansons, K.; Lewis, B.; Matthews, J.; Mchaina, D.; Puro, M.; Siwik, R.; Welch, D.

    1998-01-01

    The 'Guide to the Management of Tailings Facilities' has been developed by the Mining Association of Canada in an effort to provide guidance to its member companies on sound practices for the safe and environmentally responsible management of tailings facilities. The guide is a reference tool to help companies ensure that they are managing their tailings facilities responsibly, integrating environmental and safety considerations in a consistent manner, with continuous improvement in the operation of tailings facilities. The key to managing tailings responsibly is consistent application of engineering capabilities through the full life cycle. The guide provides a basis for the development of customized tailings management systems to address specific needs at individual operations, and deals with environmental impacts, mill tailing characteristics, tailings facility studies and plans, dam and related structure design, and control and monitoring. Aspects relating to tailings facility siting, design, construction, operation, decommissioning and closure are also fully treated. 1 tab., 3 figs

  14. Sinterization of manganese ore tailings under natural air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M.M.F.; Souza, L.G.P.R.M.F. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The manganese ore has wide application in metallurgy. However, from each of three hundred concentrations found, only one can be seen as a deposit. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize a sinter from manganese ore tailing. The tailing was milled, classified (<400 ⧣) and calcinated (800°C - 3600s). The mixture had 12% moisture, 7 and 9% of activated charcoal. After homogenization, the sintering were carried out at 1140, 1145 and 1150°C during 1800, 7200 and 14400s at natural air. The sintered products were characterized by EDS analysis, BET surface area, apparent density, X-rays diffraction and SEM/EDS. The mass loss was approximately 14% and 16% in the calcination and sintering, respectively, due to the elimination of volatile products and water. The main phases characterized: SiO2, silicate with high content of manganese in the matrix and other silicates with different proportions of Ti, Na, Mn, Mg and Ca. (author)

  15. Normal-Force and Hinge-Moment Characteristics at Transonic Speeds of Flap-Type Ailerons at Three Spanwise Locations on a 4-Percent-Thick Sweptback-Wing-Body Model and Pressure-Distribution Measurements on an Inboard Aileron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runckel, Jack F.; Hieser, Gerald

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the loading characteristics of flap-type ailerons located at inboard, midspan, and outboard positions on a 45 deg. sweptback-wing-body combination. Aileron normal-force and hinge-moment data have been obtained at Mach numbers from 0.80 t o 1.03, at angles of attack up to about 27 deg., and at aileron deflections between approximately -15 deg. and 15 deg. Results of the investigation indicate that the loading over the ailerons was established by the wing-flow characteristics, and the loading shapes were irregular in the transonic speed range. The spanwise location of the aileron had little effect on the values of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against aileron deflection, but the inboard aileron had the greatest value of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against angle of attack and the outboard aileron had the least. Hinge-moment and aileron normal-force data taken with strain-gage instrumentation are compared with data obtained with pressure measurements.

  16. Taming the tailings : dead ducks notwithstanding, extensive research is underway to deal with oilsands tailings in a more efficient manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2008-09-15

    Research is now being conducted to reduce the environmental impacts of oil sands tailing ponds. Alberta's oil sands region contains an estimated 60 km{sup 2} of tailings ponds, which serve as holding basins for recycled water as well as collection sites for materials used in reclamation activities. The ponds contain residual bitumen, production chemicals, and minerals. While some of the water in the ponds can be re-used, mature fine tailings must be contained behind dikes. Every barrel of bitumen produced by the industry results in the creation of 1.5 barrels of mature fine tailings. Natural Resources Canada's CANMET Energy Technology Centre is currently conducting a research program with the University of Alberta to reduce the amounts of tailings produced by the industry. Options for dry stackable tailings are being explored, as well as methods of using the tailings to enhance various oil sands processes. It is hoped that the dry, stackable tailings can be used to help reclaim and rebuild Boreal regions impacted by the oil sands industry. The program is gaining interest due to concerns that leakages from the tailings ponds may pollute aquifers and rivers in a region noted for its water shortages. Research teams are also investigating the use of flocculants to create heavy non-segregated tailings. Researchers are also examining methods of recovering hydrocarbons, titanium, and zircon from the tailings. 3 figs.

  17. Assessing Risks of Mine Tailing Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The consequences of tailings dam failures can be catastrophic for communities and ecosystems in the vicinity of the dams. The failure of the Fundão tailings dam at the Samarco mine in 2015 killed 19 people with severe consequences for the environment. The financial and legal consequences of a tailings dam failure can also be significant for the mining companies. For the Fundão tailings dam, the company had to pay 6 billion dollars in fines and twenty-one executives were charged with qualified murder. There are tenths of thousands of active, inactive, and abandoned tailings dams in the world and there is a need to better understand the hazards posed by these structures to downstream populations and ecosystems. A challenge to assess the risks of tailings dams in a large scale is that many of them are not registered in publicly available databases and there is little information about their current physical state. Additionally, hazard classifications of tailings dams - common in many countries- tend to be subjective, include vague parameter definitions, and are not always updated over time. Here we present a simple methodology to assess and rank the exposure to tailings dams using ArcGIS that removes subjective interpretations. The method uses basic information such as current dam height, storage volume, topography, population, land use, and hydrological data. A hazard rating risk was developed to compare the potential extent of the damage across dams. This assessment provides a general overview of what in the vicinity of the tailings dams could be affected in case of a failure and a way to rank tailings dams that is directly linked to the exposure at any given time. One hundred tailings dams in Minas Gerais, Brazil were used for the test case. This ranking approach could inform the risk management strategy of the tailings dams within a company, and when disclosed, it could enable shareholders and the communities to make decisions on the risks they are taking.

  18. Dusty tails of evaporating exoplanets. I. Constraints on the dust composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, R.; Min, M.; Dominik, C.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Recently, two exoplanet candidates have been discovered, KIC 12557548b and KOI-2700b, whose transit profiles show evidence of a comet-like tail of dust trailing the planet, thought to be fed by the evaporation of the planet’s surface. Aims. We aim to put constraints on the composition of

  19. Analysis of Heavy-Tailed Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Xiaolei

    This thesis is about analysis of heavy-tailed time series. We discuss tail properties of real-world equity return series and investigate the possibility that a single tail index is shared by all return series of actively traded equities in a market. Conditions for this hypothesis to be true...... are identified. We study the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of sample covariance and sample auto-covariance matrices of multivariate heavy-tailed time series, and particularly for time series with very high dimensions. Asymptotic approximations of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of such matrices are found...... and expressed in terms of the parameters of the dependence structure, among others. Furthermore, we study an importance sampling method for estimating rare-event probabilities of multivariate heavy-tailed time series generated by matrix recursion. We show that the proposed algorithm is efficient in the sense...

  20. Monte Carlo-based tail exponent estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barunik, Jozef; Vacha, Lukas

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach to estimation of the tail exponent in financial stock markets. We begin the study with the finite sample behavior of the Hill estimator under α-stable distributions. Using large Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the Hill estimator overestimates the true tail exponent and can hardly be used on samples with small length. Utilizing our results, we introduce a Monte Carlo-based method of estimation for the tail exponent. Our proposed method is not sensitive to the choice of tail size and works well also on small data samples. The new estimator also gives unbiased results with symmetrical confidence intervals. Finally, we demonstrate the power of our estimator on the international world stock market indices. On the two separate periods of 2002-2005 and 2006-2009, we estimate the tail exponent.

  1. Uranium mill tailings remedial action technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uranium milling process involves the hydrometallurgical extraction of uranium from ores and the resultant generation of large quantities of waste referred to as tailings. Uranium mill tailings have been identified as requiring remediation because they contain residual radioactive material that is not removed in the milling process. Potential radiation exposure can result from direct contact with the tailings, from radon gas emitted by the tailings, and from radioactive contamination of groundwater. As a result, the technology developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Uranium Recovery Program have focused on radon control, groundwater contamination and the long-term protection of the containment system. This paper briefly summarizes the UMTRAP and NRC remedial action technology development. 33 references, 9 figures, 5 tables

  2. Centrifuge - dewatering of oil sand fluid tailings: phase 2 field-scale test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Jack T.C. [BGC Engineering Inc (Canada); O' Kane, Mike [O' Kane Consultants Inc (Canada); Donahue, Robert [Applied Geochemical Solutions Engineering (Canada); Lahaie, Rick [Syncrude Canada Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In order to reduce the accumulation of oil sand fluid fine tailings (FFT) and to create trafficable surfaces for reclamation, Syncrude Canada Ltd. has been studying several tailings technologies. Centrifuge-dewatering is one such technology. This paper discusses the phase 2 field-scale tests for centrifuge-dewatering of oil sand FFT. In centrifuge-dewatering, FFT is diluted and treated with flocculant, then processed through a centrifuge plant and the high-density underflow is transported to a tailings deposit. This technology has evolved since 2005 from laboratory bench scale tests. More than 10,000 cubic meters of centrifuge cake was treated, produced and transported to ten different deposits over a 12-week period from August to October 2010. The amount of solids in FFT was increased from 30% to 50% by centrifuging. Sampled deposits were tested and instrumented for in situ strength. It can be concluded that the deposits can be strengthened and densified by natural dewatering processes like freeze-thaw action and evaporative drying.

  3. Risk assessment of tailings facility dam failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mirakovski, Dejan; Stefanova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the consequences of tailings facility dam failure and therefore the needs for its risk assessment. Tailings are fine-grained wastes of the mining industry, output as slurries, due to mixing with water during mineral processing. Tailings dams vary a lot as it is affected by: tailings characteristics and mill output, site characteristics as: topography, hydrology, geology, groundwater, seismicity and available material and disposal methods. The talings which accumulat...

  4. Application of the novel mill tailings agglomeration technology for prevention of acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaratunga, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Acid generation and subsequent liberation of heavy metals results from the surface disposal of sulfide mineral bearing mill tailings. Most Canadian base metals such as Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb, as well as uranium and precious metal milling operations are producers of reactive mill tailings containing the major sulfide gangue minerals such as pyrite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrites. A novel disposal technology by cold-bond tailings agglomeration process (CBTA) is currently being developed at Laurentian University. This process has been adapted to prevent acid mine drainage from reactive mill tailings. A preliminary study was undertaken to evaluate the application of the concept of agglomeration of reactive mill tailings using various alkaline binders and incorporating suitable chemical additives. The binders and additives are selected for their effectiveness in the prevention or retardation of the initial chemical and biochemical oxidation reactions of sulfide mineral leading to acid generation. Following a cold-bond, cold curing tailings agglomeration process, various types and dosages of chemical binders and their additives were employed. The additives under investigation were lime, sodium lauryl sulfate, potassium phosphate dibasic, sodium chloride and sodium benzoate. Some of these chemicals are well known acid neutralizers and others are inexpensive anionic surfactants, detergents and fertilizers acting as bactericides. Most of these additives have been reported in the literature as effective chemical agents used in the prevention and control of acid mine drainage from sulfide minerals. The paper also presents a leachate study to investigate the acid generation potential from each batch of reactive tailings agglomerates containing various binders and non-toxic additives

  5. Aging simulation of the tailings from Stava fluorite extraction by exposure to gamma rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Bella

    Full Text Available Abstract Tailings storage facilities are disposal systems for storing the waste products of the mining industry consisting of a slurry mixture made of soil, rock and water that remain after the mineral values have been removed from the patent ore. Tailings dams are supposed to last forever, so after their deposition, tailings can experience aging processes with physical and chemical changes depending on the interactions between local conditions and source mineralogy. The consequences of these aging processes are increased interlocking of particles and oxidation processes, sometimes making previously safely held contaminants available and mobile. Among the long-term aging processes, the natural ionizing radiation (from radioactive isotopes of the soils, cosmic rays, and also ultraviolet rays from the sun can be considered, as proposed in the current research. Furthermore, in many countries, tailings are beginning to be re-used as backfill, landscaping material or feedstock for cement and concrete. So if any, the long-term physical and chemical modifications could affect the hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of tailings with relevant economic consequences. For these reasons, wet and dry silty samples of tailings spilled out after the failure of the Stava tailings dam (Trentino Alto Adige, Italy were exposed to gamma rays, as an accelerated aging technique to simulate the natural ionizing radiation, and then characterized. The modifications on physical and chemical properties were observed and, despite certain chemical stability, some physical changes were observed, particularly in terms of size particle distribution, inner porosity of the particles and specific surface.

  6. Aging simulation of the tailings from Stava fluorite extraction by exposure to gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bella, Gianluca; Barbero, Monica; Barpi, Fabrizio, E-mail: gianluca.bella@polito.it, E-mail: monica.barbero@polito.it, E-mail: fabrizio.barpi@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino - DISEG (Italy); Lameiras, Fernando Soares, E-mail: fsl@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Espósito, Terezinha de Jesus, E-mail: esposito@etg.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Transporte e Engenharia Geotécnica

    2017-10-15

    Tailings storage facilities are disposal systems for storing the waste products of the mining industry consisting of a slurry mixture made of soil, rock and water that remain after the mineral values have been removed from the patent ore. Tailings dams are supposed to last forever, so after their deposition, tailings can experience aging processes with physical and chemical changes depending on the interactions between local conditions and source mineralogy. The consequences of these aging processes are increased interlocking of particles and oxidation processes, sometimes making previously safely held contaminants available and mobile. Among the long-term aging processes, the natural ionizing radiation (from radioactive isotopes of the soils, cosmic rays, and also ultraviolet rays from the sun) can be considered, as proposed in the current research. Furthermore, in many countries, tailings are beginning to be re-used as backfill, landscaping material or feedstock for cement and concrete. So if any, the long-term physical and chemical modifications could affect the hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of tailings with relevant economic consequences. For these reasons, wet and dry silty samples of tailings spilled out after the failure of the Stava tailings dam (Trentino Alto Adige, Italy) were exposed to gamma rays, as an accelerated aging technique to simulate the natural ionizing radiation, and then characterized. The modifications on physical and chemical properties were observed and, despite certain chemical stability, some physical changes were observed, particularly in terms of size particle distribution, inner porosity of the particles and specific surface. (author)

  7. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  8. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables

  9. Proceedings of the 15. annual British Columbia MEND ML/ARD workshop : the management of tailings and tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    This Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) workshop was held to promote the exchange of information and ideas on environmental protection and reclamation associated with mining. The workshop covered a broad spectrum of reclamation issues and the key environmental challenges facing the mining industry, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) control, and metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD). The theme for the 2008 workshop was the management of tailings and tailings impoundments. Topics of discussion included hydrogeology and geochemistry; tailings disposal; mitigation; closure plans; and postclosure performance. The emphasis was on full-scale case studies, practical constraints and sustaining successful disposal strategies and remediation. The session on tailings management reviewed overarching policies and practices; methods of subaerial tailings disposal and case studies of tailings management; and detailed investigations of geochemical properties and processes. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  10. The evolution of tail weaponization in amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M; Zanno, Lindsay E

    2018-01-31

    Weaponry, for the purpose of intraspecific combat or predator defence, is one of the most widespread animal adaptations, yet the selective pressures and constraints governing its phenotypic diversity and skeletal regionalization are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of tail weaponry in amniotes, a rare form of weaponry that nonetheless evolved independently among a broad spectrum of life including mammals, turtles and dinosaurs. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we test for links between morphology, ecology and behaviour in extant amniotes known to use the tail as a weapon, and in extinct taxa bearing osseous tail armaments. We find robust ecological and morphological correlates of both tail lashing behaviour and bony tail weaponry, including large body size, body armour and herbivory, suggesting these life-history parameters factor into the evolution of antipredator behaviours and tail armaments. We suggest that the evolution of tail weaponry is rare because large, armoured herbivores are uncommon in extant terrestrial faunas, as they have been throughout evolutionary history. © 2018 The Author(s).

  11. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  12. Rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Under Australian environmental controls relating to the management of uranium tailings, it is no longer acceptable practice to search for a rehabilitation strategy at the end of production when the generation of tailings has ceased. The uranium projects currently in production and those being proposed are tightly regulated by the authorities. The waste management plans must consider site specific factors and must include selection of appropriate disposal sites and design for long term containment. The final encapsulation in engineered facilities must take into account the probable routes to the environment of the tailings. Rehabilitation shoud be undertaken by the mining and milling operators to standards approved by appropriate authorities. Appropriate administrative arrangements are required, by way of technical committees and financial bonds to ensure that agreed standards of rehabilitation may be achieved. Past and present experience with the rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments in Australia is discussed

  13. Histone H2A mobility is regulated by its tails and acetylation of core histone tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Tsunehito; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Isobe, Keisuke; Morimoto, Akihiro; Shimada, Tomoko; Kataoka, Shogo; Watanabe, Wataru; Uchiyama, Susumu; Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Fukui, Kiichi

    2007-01-01

    Histone tail domains play important roles in cellular processes, such as replication, transcription, and chromosome condensation. Histone H2A has one central and two tail domains, and their functions have mainly been studied from a biochemical perspective. In addition, analyses based on visualization have been employed for functional analysis of some chromatin proteins. In this study, we analyzed histone H2A mobility in vivo by two-photon FRAP, and elucidated that the histone H2A N- and C-terminal tails regulate its mobility. We found that histone H2A mobility was increased following treatment of host cells with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Our results support a model in which core histone tails directly regulate transcription by interacting with nucleosome DNA via electrostatic interactions

  14. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Magnetic Tail Loading and Unloading During its Third Flyby of Mercury: Substorms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury on September 29, 2009, a variable interplanetary magnetic field produced a series of several minute enhancements of the tail magnetic field hy factors of approx. 2 to 3.5. The magnetic field flaring during these intervals indicates that they result from loading of the tail with magnetic flux transferred from the dayside magnetosphere. The unloading intervals were associated with plasmoids and traveling compression regions, signatures of tail reconnection. The peak tail magnetic flux during the smallest loading events equaled 30% of the magnetic flux emanating from Mercury, and may have reached 100% for the largest event. In this case the dayside magnetic shielding is reduced and solar wind flux impacting the surface may be greatly enhanced. Despite the intensity of these events and their similarity to terrestrial substorm magnetic flux dynamics, no energetic charged particles with energies greater than 36 keV were observed.

  15. Cylinder Symmetric Measures with the Tail Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: A Pareto distribution has the property that any tail of the distribution has the same shape as the original distribution. The exponential distribution and the uniform distribution have the tail property too. The tail property characterizes the univariate generalized Pareto distributions.

  16. Biogeochemistry of metalliferous mine tailings during phytostabilizatio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorover, J.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Wang, Y.; Maier, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the semi-arid southwest US, legacy mine tailings and the associated metal(loid) contaminants, are prone to wind dispersion and water erosion. Without remediation, tailings can remain barren for decades to centuries, providing a point source of toxic contamination. Successful mitigation of toxins (As, Pb) from fugitive dust is often limited to confinement and stabilization. Capping mine tailings with soil or gravel is an accepted, although expensive, strategy to reduce erosion. Revegetation via assisted direct planting (also known as phytostabilization) has the potential to be a cost-effective and self-sustaining alternative "green-technology" to expensive capping. The impact of phytostabilization, and requisite added organic carbon and irrigation on mechanisms of contaminant mobility is being investigated with concurrent highly-instrumented greenhouse mesocosms and in situ field studies using advanced microbiological tools and synchrotron x-ray based molecular probes. Composted treatments initially neutralized the near surface acid tailings (~2 to ~6.5). However, after 9 mo the mesocosms showed a gradual and eventual decrease back to pH 2. The exception was the root zone of Atriplex lentiformis, which buffered the acidic conditions for 12 months. Rhizosphere microbiota experienced a 5-log increase in the compost-amended compared to control greenhouse mesocosms. Weathering of the primary sulfidic mineral assemblage, indicated by the iron and sulfur speciation, was shown to control the mobility, speciation and bioavailability of both As and Pb via sequestration in (meta)stable neoformed jarosite phases as plumbojarosite and As(V) substituted for sulfate in hydronium jarosite, with important implications for human and environmental health risk management. We conclude that the disequilibrium imposed by phytostabilization results in an increase of heterotrophic biomass that is concurrent with a time series of geochemical transformations, which controls the species

  17. Radon emanation characteristics of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.; Mauch, M.L.; Rogers, V.C.

    1982-01-01

    Radon emanation from uranium mill tailings was examined with respect to the mechanisms of emanation and the physical properties of the tailings which affect emanation. Radon emanation coefficients were measured at ambient moisture on 135 samples from the 1981 field test site at the Grand Junction tailings pile. These coefficients showed a similar trend with moisture to those observed previously with uranium ores, and averaged 0.10 + or - 0.02 at dryness and 0.38 + or - 0.04 for all samples having greater than five weight-percent moisture. Small differences were noted between the maximum values of the coefficients for the sand and slime fractions of the tailings. Separate measurements on tailings from the Vitro tailings pile exhibited much lower emanation coefficients for moist samples, and similar coefficients for dry samples. Alternative emanation measurement techniques were examined and procedures are recommended for use in future work

  18. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  19. Reclamation and closure of an oil sands tailings facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobkowicz, J. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Morgenstern, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of ensuring the successful reclamation of oil sands tailings facilities. Tailings should be reclaimed as mining proceeds in order to avoid an excessive accumulation of fluid fine tailings (FFT). The volume of mature fine tailings (MFT) in ponds should be limited in order to ensure effective tailings management. The reclaimed landforms should have good geotechnical stability and be comprised of self-sustaining native vegetation. Strength is needed to allow for timely capping and initial reclamation, and stiffness is required to minimize future settlement and to allow for the construction of a closure landscape. Reclamation strategies were presented for fines-dominated tailings; sand-depleted tailings; and sand-dominated tailings. Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) criteria for tailings reclamation were discussed, and various monitoring and performance assessment strategies were presented. tabs., figs.

  20. Canadian experience with uranium tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, K.B.

    1982-06-01

    During the first years of uranium production in Canada uranium tailings were discharged directly into valleys or lakes near the mill. Treatment with barium chloride to precipitate radium began in 1965 at the Nordic Mine at Elliot Lake, Ontario. In the mid-60s and early 70s water quality studies indicated that discharges from uranium tailings areas were causing degradation to the upper part of the Serpent River water system. Studies into acid generation, revegetation, and leaching of radium were initiated by the mining companies and resulted in the construction of treatment plants at a number of sites. Abandoned tailings sites were revegetated. At hearings into the expansion of the Elliot Lake operations the issue of tailings management was a major item for discussion. As a result federal and provincial agencies developed guidelines for the siting and development of urnaium tailings areas prior to issuing operating licences. Western Canadian uranium producers do not have the acid generation problem of the Elliot Lake operations. The Rabbit Lake mill uses settling ponds followed by filtration. High-grade tailings from Cluff Lake are sealed in concrete and buried. Uranium producers feel that the interim criteria developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board, if adopted, would have a harmful effect on the viability of the Canadian uranium industry

  1. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited

  2. Long-term dispersion and availability of metals from submarine mine tailing disposal in a fjord in Arctic Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Sternal, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Mining of Cu took place in Kvalsund in the Arctic part of Norway in the 1970s, and mine tailings were discharged to the inner part of the fjord, Repparfjorden. Metal speciation analysis was used to assess the historical dispersion of metals as well as their potential bioavailability from the area...... of the mine tailing disposal. It was revealed that the dispersion of Ba, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn from the mine tailings has been limited. Dispersion of Cu to the outer fjord has, however, occurred; the amounts released and dispersed from the mine tailing disposal area quantified to be 2.5-10 t, less than 5% of Cu...... in the original mine tailings. An estimated 80-390 t of Cu still remains in the disposal area from the surface to a depth of 16 cm. Metal partitioning showed that 56-95% of the Cu is bound in the potential bioavailable fractions (exchangeable, reducible and oxidisable) of the sediments, totalling approximately 70...

  3. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited.

  4. On the average configuration of the geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, D.H.

    1978-03-01

    Over 3000 hours of IMP-6 magnetic field data obtained between 20 and 33 R sub E in the geomagnetic tail have been used in a statistical study of the tail configuration. A distribution of 2.5 minute averages of B sub Z as a function of position across the tail reveals that more flux crosses the equatorial plane near the dawn and dusk flanks than near midnight. The tail field projected in the solar magnetospheric equatorial plane deviates from the X axis due to flaring and solar wind aberration by an angle alpha = -0.9 y sub SM - 1.7, where y/sub SM/ is in earth radii and alpha is in degrees. After removing these effects the Y component of the tail field is found to depend on interplanetary sector structure. During an away sector the B/sub Y/ component of the tail field is on average 0.5 gamma greater than that during a toward sector, a result that is true in both tail lobes and is independent of location across the tail

  5. Understanding AL-PAM assisted oil sands tailings treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, L.; Maham, Y.; Masliyah, J.; Xu, Z. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Technologies currently used to treat oil sands tailings include the composite tailings (CT) process and the thickened tailings (TT) or paste technology process. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a flocculation and filtration method used to produce stackable tailings deposits. Magnafloc 1011 and AL-PAM additions were used as part of the filtration technique to produce very dry filter cakes. The effect of AL-PAM molecular weight and aluminum content on tailings treatments was investigated as well as the effect of tailings characteristics on the performance of flocculant-assisted tailings filtration processes. The AL-PAM molecular structure was studied. An experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of various polymer additions on fresh tailings from an oil sands plant. The study showed that the optimum dosage for settling and filtration was lower for higher molecular weight AL-PAM. A higher aluminum content was beneficial for settling. Increases in the aluminum content did not improve filtration rates, but reduced optimal dosages. Step-by-step details of the supernatant filtration process were provided, as well as photographs of the laboratory study. tabs., figs.

  6. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Lantz, P.M.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    Uranium-mill tailings at an inactive site near Shiprock, New Mexico, contain an estimated 950 curies (Ci) of /sup 226/Ra together with its radioactive daughters. A radiological survey was conducted at this site in February 1976. Decontamination work and tailings stabilization performed at the site since that time have greatly changed conditions there and little effort was applied to quantification of potential health effects in comparison to the earlier consideration of the site at Salt Lake City. The present report delineates the radiological conditions that existed at the time of the survey including information on the surface and below-surface distribution of /sup 226/Ra. The data presented support the conclusion that diffusion of radon and inhalation of radon daughters is the principal mode of exposure of offsite population groups.

  7. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Lantz, P.M.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    Uranium-mill tailings at an inactive site near Shiprock, New Mexico, contain an estimated 950 curies (Ci) of 226 Ra together with its radioactive daughters. A radiological survey was conducted at this site in February 1976. Decontamination work and tailings stabilization performed at the site since that time have greatly changed conditions there and little effort was applied to quantification of potential health effects in comparison to the earlier consideration of the site at Salt Lake City. The present report delineates the radiological conditions that existed at the time of the survey including information on the surface and below-surface distribution of 226 Ra. The data presented support the conclusion that diffusion of radon and inhalation of radon daughters is the principal mode of exposure of offsite population groups

  8. Use of special oedometer tests for the remediation of large uranium mill tailings impoundments at Wismut, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnekow, U.; Paul, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the use of recently developed special oedometer tests for designing the remediation of large uranium tailings ponds at WISMUT, Germany. Uranium ore mining and milling in eastern Germany by the former Soviet-German WISMUT company lasted from 1946 to 1990. Wastes from the hydrometallurgical uranium extraction processes were discharged into large tailings impoundments covering a total area of 5.5 km 2 and containing about 150 x 10 6 m 3 of uranium mill tailings. Tailings pond remediation is ongoing by in-place decommissioning with dewatering by technical means. Geotechnical properties and the most suitable so-called non-linear finite strain consolidation behaviour of fine uranium mill tailings are described. Decommissioning techniques comprise, among others, interim covering of under consolidated fine tailings, contouring of tailings surfaces and final covering. Contouring, in particular, has a huge potential for optimization in terms of cost reduction. For contouring total settlement portions, the spatial distribution of differential settlement portions and the time-dependent settlement rates, especially of the cohesive fine uranium mill tailings are of critical importance. A new special oedometer KD 314 S has been developed to generate all the input data needed to derive the fundamental geotechnical relationships of void ratio vs. effective stress and of permeability coefficient vs. void ratio for consolidation calculations. Since December 1999 the new special oedometer KD 314 S has been working successfully on fine uranium mill tailings from both acid and from soda alkaline milling. Results coincide with non-linear finite strain consolidation theory. The geotechnical functions derived were used as input parameters for consolidation modelling. An example of the consolidation modelling on Helmsdorf tailings pond is presented. (author)

  9. The Monticello, Utah, uranium mill tailings site: A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Kearl, P.M.; Sewell, J.M.; Fleischhauer, H.L.; Abramiuk, I.N.

    1984-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study was conducted to characterize the potential for contamination from the inactive millsite in Monticello, Utah. Emphasis was given to site geology, hydrology, and geochemistry for two reasons: (1) a perennial stream flows through the tailings area, and (2) a culinary aquifer is overlain by an alluvial aquifer contaminated by the tailings area. Study results indicate that surface-water contamination attributable to the piles exists for approximately 6 km downstream from the site. Contamination also exists in the alluvial aquifer underlying the millsite. Hydrologic studies indicate an active alluvial system, with recharge to the gravels by infiltration through the trailings. Fortunately, water-level and water-quality data, together with the results of a 51-hour pump test, indicate that the Dakota Formation is an effective aquitard, restricting the downward movement of contaminated water to the underlying culinary aquifer

  10. Proceedings of the 2. international oil sands tailings conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The tailings produced by oil sands extraction processes pose significant threats to the surrounding environment in addition to releasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. Recent directives have been established to reduce the amount of tailings produced at oil sands operations, and to ensure that tailings ponds are reclaimed in the most effective manner. This conference provided a forum for researchers and industry experts to discuss issues related to the management and reclamation of oil sands tailings. New technologies for dewatering tailings ponds were presented, and methods of analyzing the chemical properties of tailings were reviewed. The conference was divided into the following 7 sessions: (1) tailings properties, (2) tailings dewatering, (3) new concepts, (4) water and chemistry, (5) soft tailings stabilization and reclamation, (6) water treatment, and (7) new concepts 2. The conference featured 44 presentations, all of which have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  11. An assessment of the long term suitability of present and proposed methods for the management of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    Proposals for safe, long-term containment of conventional tailings include 1) storage under water, 2) storage in active, abandoned or specially created underground mines and, 3) storage in open pits, with subsequent flooding or covering with overburden. The underwater proposal can meet most of the requirements of long term containment; however, extensive study of existing tailings deposits in deep water locations will be needed. Underground mines cannot provide sufficient storage capacity, since the tailings bulk during mill operation can occupy twice the volume of the original ore. It is possible to reduce the hazard by reducing the radium and thorium content of the tailings. Proposals for such an undertaking include ore beneficiation with rejection of the relatively innocuous fraction, radium-thorium removal in the mill, and significant changes in both ore processing and treatment of tailings. It is concluded that surface-stored tailings are vulnerable over the long term to dispersion by leaching and water erosion, and that access to a tailings site cannot be prevented, while only a major climatic or seismic event could disturb tailings stored in suitable underwater or underground mine sites. The criteria for determining suitability for each method, however, will need to be identified, tested, and accepted through the normal process of modeling, pilot plant evaluation, monitoring and evaluation. (author)

  12. Mercury contamination in soil, tailing and plants on agricultural fields near closed gold mine in Buru Island, Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginawanti Hindersah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural productivity in Buru Island, Maluku is threatened by tailings which are generated from formerly gold mine in Botak Mountain in Wamsait Village. Gold that extracted by using mercury was carried out in mining area as well agricultural field.  High content of mercury in tailings and agricultural field pose a serious problem of food production and quality; and further endangers human health. The purpose of this research was to determine the contaminant level of mercury in tailing, soil and its accumulation in edible part of some food crops. Soil, tailing and plant samples for Hg testing were taken by purposive method based on mining activities in Waelata, Waeapo and Namlea sub district. Six soil samples had been analyzed for their chemical properties. Total mercury levels in tailings and plants were measured by Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. This study showed that agricultural field where tailings were deposited contained Hg above the threshold but agricultural area which is far from hot spot did not. Most edible parts of food crops accumulated mercury more than Indonesian threshold for mercury content in food. This evidence explained that tailings deposited on the surface of agricultural field had an impact on soil quality and crop quality. Tailing accumulated on soil will decreased soil quality since naturally soil fertility in agricultural field in Buru is low.

  13. Dynamic Characteristics and Model for Centralization Reaction of Acidic Tailings From Heap Leaching of Uranium Ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Dexin; Liu Yulong; Li Guangyue; Wang Youtuan

    2010-01-01

    Centralization tests were carried out on acidic tailings from heap leaching of uranium ore by using CaO, NaOH and NH 4 OH. The variations of pH with time were measured for the three centralization systems and the dynamic models for the systems were set up by regressing the measured data. The centralization process consists of the fast reaction phase representing the reaction between the centralization agent and the acid on the surface of the tailing's particles and the slow diffusion-reaction phase representing the diffusion-reaction between the centralization agent and the acid within the tailing's particles. The non-linear coupling and feedback function model for the diffusion-reaction of the centralization agent can reflect the process and mode of the centralization reaction. There is a non-linear oscillation in the variation of pH within the centralization systems. The dynamic model for the tailing's centralization reaction can fit the pH variation within the centralization systems. (authors)

  14. Fluvial dispersion of radioactive mill tailings in the seasonally-wet tropics, northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, T.J.; Cull, R.F.; Murray, A.S.; Duggan, K.

    1988-01-01

    Erosion of tailings at the Northern Herculaes mine at Moline, abandoned in 1972 has resulted in large present-day input (up to 90g L -1 ) of radioactive sediments into local watercourses after the failure of containment bunds. This has been used as an analogue for predicting the possible fluvial dispersion of mine sediments at existing and future uranium mines in this region, e.g. it is helping to formulate rehabilitation policies at Ranger. The downstream dispersal patterns of radioactive tailings is controlled by the nature of sedimentary environments, the properties of tailing sediments which affect transport and the dilution of flow and sediment from incoming tributaries. A generally consistent relationship exist between the type of sedimentary floodplain environment and the surface gamma dose rates. While dose rates are shown to decrease with distance downstream from the source, there is a tendency for fine particles to be more radioactive. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  15. INTERPRETATION OF (596) SCHEILA'S TRIPLE DUST TAILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hanayama, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Hasegawa, Sunao; Sarugaku, Yuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Fujiwara, Hideaki; Terada, Hiroshi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hsieh, Henry H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Vaubaillon, Jeremie J. [Observatoire de Paris, I.M.C.C.E., Denfert Rochereau, Bat. A., FR-75014 Paris (France); Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asaguchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hamanowa, Hiromi [Hamanowa Astronomical Observatory, Motomiya, Fukushima 969-1204 (Japan); Kim, Junhan [Yangcheon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Jeonghyun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, Akiko M., E-mail: ishiguro@snu.ac.kr [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Strange-looking dust cloud around asteroid (596) Scheila was discovered on 2010 December 11.44-11.47. Unlike normal cometary tails, it consisted of three tails and faded within two months. We constructed a model to reproduce the morphology of the dust cloud based on the laboratory measurement of high-velocity impacts and the dust dynamics. As a result, we succeeded in reproducing the peculiar dust cloud by an impact-driven ejecta plume consisting of an impact cone and downrange plume. Assuming an impact angle of 45 Degree-Sign , our model suggests that a decameter-sized asteroid collided with (596) Scheila from the direction of ({alpha}{sub im}, {delta}{sub im}) = (60 Degree-Sign , -40 Degree-Sign ) in J2000 coordinates on 2010 December 3. The maximum ejection velocity of the dust particles exceeded 100 m s{sup -1}. Our results suggest that the surface of (596) Scheila consists of materials with low tensile strength.

  16. Use of Cemented Super-Fine Unclassified Tailings Backfill for Control of Subsidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Known for its advantages in preventing geological and environmental hazards, cemented paste backfill (CPB has become a topic of interest for scientists and mining engineers in recent decades. This paper presents the results of a study on the use of cemented super-fine tailings backfill (CSUTB in an underground mine for control of surface subsidence. An analytical solution is developed based on the available model to calculate the required strength of backfill when in contact with non-cemented tailings (NCT. The effect of solid contents on the rheological properties of CSUTB is investigated. A reasonable mix proportion (RMP of CSUTB is determined for Zhongguan Iron Mine (ZGIM based on laboratory experiments. The validity of RMP in surface subsidence control is verified by a 3D numerical model. The obtained results show that CSUTB requires higher strength when in contact with NCT than when in contact with orebody. Rheological characteristics, e.g., slump, fluidity, and bleeding rate of fresh CSUTB, decrease with higher solids content, of which values with a certain solids content can be determined by quadratic polynomial regression equations. RMP with a cement to tailings (c/t ratio of 1:10 and a solids content of 70% is recommended for ZGIM, as it shows favorable mechanical and rheological abilities. The deformation parameters (curvature, inclination, and horizontal deformation rate obtained from numerical modeling are acceptable and lower than critical values, meaning CSUTB can feasibly be used with RMP in subsidence control.

  17. Health risks from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the risk to public health and the environment from uranium mill tailings. The steps taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce this risk from tailing are summarized

  18. Big picture thinking in oil sands tailings disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of disposing oil sands tailings. Oil sands operators are currently challenged by a variety of legislative and environmental factors concerning the creation and disposal of oil sands tailings. The media has focused on the negative ecological impact of oil sands production, and technical issues are reducing the effect of some mitigation processes. Operators must learn to manage the interface between tailings production and removal, the environment, and public opinion. The successful management of oil sand tailings will include procedures designed to improve reclamation processes, understand environmental laws and regulations, and ensure that the cumulative impacts of tailings are mitigated. Geotechnical investigations, engineering designs and various auditing procedures can be used to develop tailings management plans. Environmental screening and impact assessments can be used to develop sustainable solutions. Public participation and environmental mediation is needed to integrate the public, environmental and technical tailings management strategies. Operators must ensure public accountability for all stakeholders. tabs., figs.

  19. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Patel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  20. Research on uranium tailings disposal technology at CANMET, Ottawa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeaff, J.M.; Ritcey, G.M.; Jongejan, A.; Silver, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, results from three continuing investigations at CANMET on uranium tailings management are presented. These investigations are: cleaning of tailings by flotation, conversion of municipal wastes into compost for use as topsoil on uranium tailings, methods for the chemical fixation of uranium tailings and a laboratory determination of the rate of release of environmental contaminants from uranium tailings

  1. Consistency based correlations for tailings consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, S.; Paul, A.C. [Regina Univ., Regina, SK (Canada). Environmental Systems Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The extraction of oil, uranium, metals and mineral resources from the earth generates significant amounts of tailings slurry. The tailings are contained in a disposal area with perimeter dykes constructed from the coarser fraction of the slurry. There are many unique challenges pertaining to the management of the containment facilities for several decades beyond mine closure that are a result of the slow settling rates of the fines and the high standing toxic waters. Many tailings dam failures in different parts of the world have been reported to result in significant contaminant releases causing public concern over the conventional practice of tailings disposal. Therefore, in order to reduce and minimize the environmental footprint, the fluid tailings need to undergo efficient consolidation. This paper presented an investigation into the consolidation behaviour of tailings in conjunction with soil consistency that captured physicochemical interactions. The paper discussed the large strain consolidation behaviour (volume compressibility and hydraulic conductivity) of six fine-grained soil slurries based on published data. The paper provided background information on the study and presented the research methodology. The geotechnical index properties of the selected materials were also presented. The large strain consolidation, volume compressibility correlations, and hydraulic conductivity correlations were provided. It was concluded that the normalized void ratio best described volume compressibility whereas liquidity index best explained the hydraulic conductivity. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Geophysical applications for oil sand mine tailings management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.; Bauman, P. [WorleyParsons, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Geophysical techniques are applied throughout a mine's life cycle to facilitate siting, constructing and monitoring of tailings dumps and ponds. This presentation described 3 case studies from the Athabasca region in northeast Alberta that demonstrated some of the concerns associated with oil sand mine tailings, and the information that geophysical surveys can provide. The objectives of these studies were to determine the lateral and depth extents of elevated conductivities of soil and groundwater that have high salt concentration from the tailings sand pore fluid. Due to high chloride concentrations within the tailings material, salt within the root zone may affect vegetation. A terrain conductivity survey was designed to map the lateral extents of salinity impact, while an electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) survey was used to delineate the tailings sand leachate at depth. The proper management of oil sand tailings facilities is vital to the life cycle of a mine. It was concluded that geophysical techniques can be instrumental in managing several engineering and environmental challenges, from Pleistocene channel mapping, to tailings pond settling characteristics, to reclaiming tailings sands. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  3. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  4. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive

  5. Isolation of uranium mill tailings and their component radionuclides from the biosphere; some earth science perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling is an expanding activity in the. Western United States. Although the milling process yields a uranium concentrate, the large volume of tailings remaining contains about 85 percent of the radioactivity originally associated with the ore. By virtue of the physical and chemical processing of the ore and the redistribution of the contained radionuclides at the Earth's surface, these tailings constitute a technologically enhanced source of natural radiation exposure. Sources of potential human radiation exposure from uranium mill tailings include the emanation of radon gas, the transport of particles by wind and water, and the transport of soluble radionuclides, seeping from disposal areas, by ground water. Due to the 77,000 year half-life of thorium-230, the parent of radium-226, the environmental effects associated with radionuclides contained in these railings must be conceived of within the framework of geologic processes operating over geologic time. The magnitude of erosion of cover materials and tailings and the extent of geochemical mobilization of the contained radionuclides to the atmosphere and hydrosphere should be considered in the evaluation of the potential, long-term consequences of all proposed uranium mill tailings management plans.

  6. Four tails problems for dynamical collapse theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Kelvin J.

    2015-02-01

    The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem dilemma) shows that solving the third by replacing the Gaussian with a non-Gaussian collapse function introduces new conflict with relativity theory.

  7. A Note on Upper Tail Behavior of Liouville Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family of Liouville copulas is defined as the survival copulas of multivariate Liouville distributions, and it covers the Archimedean copulas constructed by Williamson’s d-transform. Liouville copulas provide a very wide range of dependence ranging from positive to negative dependence in the upper tails, and they can be useful in modeling tail risks. In this article, we study the upper tail behavior of Liouville copulas through their upper tail orders. Tail orders of a more general scale mixture model that covers Liouville distributions is first derived, and then tail order functions and tail order density functions of Liouville copulas are derived. Concrete examples are given after the main results.

  8. Monticello Mill Tailings Site, Operable Unit lll, Annual Groundwater Report, May 2015 Through April 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report provides the annual analysis of water quality restoration progress, cumulative through April 2016, for Operable Unit (OU) III, surface water and groundwater, of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Monticello Mill Tailings Site (MMTS). The MMTS is a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act National Priorities List site located in and near the city of Monticello, San Juan County, Utah. MMTS comprises the 110-acre site of a former uranium- and vanadium-ore-processing mill (mill site) and 1700 acres of surrounding private and municipal property. Milling operations generated 2.5 million cubic yards of waste (tailings) from 1942 to 1960. The tailings were impounded at four locations on the mill site. Inorganic constituents in the tailings drained from the impoundments to contaminate local surface water (Montezuma Creek) and groundwater in the underlying alluvial aquifer. Mill tailings dispersed by wind and water also contaminated properties surrounding and downstream of the mill site. Remedial actions to remove and isolate radiologically contaminated soil, sediment, and debris from the former mill site, Operable Unit I (OU I), and surrounding properties (OU II) were completed in 1999 with the encapsulation of the wastes in an engineered repository located on DOE property 1 mile south of the former mill site. This effectively removed the primary source of groundwater contamination; however, contamination of groundwater and surface water remains within OU III at levels that exceed water quality protection standards. Uranium is the primary contaminant of concern (COC). LM implemented monitored natural attenuation with institutional controls as the OU III remedy in 2004. Because groundwater restoration proceeded more slowly than expected and did not meet performance criteria established in the OU III Record of Decision (June 2004), LM implemented a contingency action in 2009 by an Explanation of

  9. Surface complexation modeling of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediments from a former mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.P.; Fox, P.M.; Davis, J.A.; Campbell, K.M.; Hayes, K.F.; Long, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A study of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediment samples from a former uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted under oxic conditions as a function of pH, U(VI), Ca, and dissolved carbonate concentration. Batch adsorption experiments were performed using tailings site at Naturita, Colorado, indicated that possible calcite nonequilibrium of dissolved calcium concentration should be evaluated. The modeling results also illustrate the importance of the range of data used in deriving the best fit model parameters. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Mill Tailings/Radiation Hazards. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (335 abstracts)

  11. Cesium residue leachate migration in the tailings management area of a mine site : predicted vs. actual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solylo, P.; Ramsey, D. [Wardrop Engineering, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Mining and Minerals Section

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a study at a cesium products facility (CPF) that manufactures a non-toxic cesium-formate drilling fluid. The facility operates adjacent to a pollucite/tantalum/spodumene mine. The CPF was developed as a closed system, with the residue tailings slurry from the CPF process discharged to doublelined containment cells. Groundwater monitoring has shown that leachate has affected near-surface porewater quality within the tailings management area (TMA). Elevated concentrations of calcium, sulphate, strontium, cesium, and rubidium were used to identify the leachate. Porewater at the base of the tailings and in the overburden beneath the tailings has not been affected. A geochemical investigation was initiated to determine how the leachate behaves in the groundwater/tailings porewater system. Over the past 7 years of residue placement in the TMA, the footprint of the residue placement area has changed, making the comparison of predicted versus actual rate of leachate migration very subjective and difficult to quantify. Based solely on the analytical data, the source of the leachate is unknown, either from the original residue pile or the 2007 residue placement area. For purposes of long term residue management, an investigation of the geochemical behaviour of residue leachate in the groundwater/tailings system of the TMA is currently underway. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  12. Heavy Tail Behavior of Rainfall Extremes across Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, A.; Kreibich, H.; Vorogushyn, S.; Merz, B.

    2017-12-01

    Distributions are termed heavy-tailed if extreme values are more likely than would be predicted by probability distributions that have exponential asymptotic behavior. Heavy-tail behavior often leads to surprise, because historical observations can be a poor guide for the future. Heavy-tail behavior seems to be widespread for hydro-meteorological extremes, such as extreme rainfall and flood events. To date there have been only vague hints to explain under which conditions these extremes show heavy-tail behavior. We use an observational data set consisting of 11 climate variables at 1440 stations across Germany. This homogenized, gap-free data set covers 110 years (1901-2010) at daily resolution. We estimate the upper tail behavior, including its uncertainty interval, of daily precipitation extremes for the 1,440 stations at the annual and seasonal time scales. Different tail indicators are tested, including the shape parameter of the Generalized Extreme Value distribution, the upper tail ratio and the obesity index. In a further step, we explore to which extent the tail behavior can be explained by geographical and climate factors. A large number of characteristics is derived, such as station elevation, degree of continentality, aridity, measures for quantifying the variability of humidity and wind velocity, or event-triggering large-scale atmospheric situation. The link between the upper tail behavior and these characteristics is investigated via data mining methods capable of detecting non-linear relationships in large data sets. This exceptionally rich observational data set, in terms of number of stations, length of time series and number of explaining variables, allows insights into the upper tail behavior which is rarely possible given the typical observational data sets available.

  13. Erosion protection of uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Skaggs, R.L.; Foley, M.G.; Beedlow, P.A.

    1986-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this report to assist in the design and review of erosion protection works for decommissioned uranium tailings impoundments. The major causes of erosion over the long-term decommissioning period are from rainfall-runoff (overland flow) and stream channel flooding. The method of protection recommended for the impoundment side slopes and site drainage channels is rock riprap. Combinations of vegetation and rock mulch are recommended for the top surface. The design methods were developed from currently available procedures supplemented by field, laboratory, and mathematical model studies performed by PNL. Guidelines for the placement of riprap, inspection, and maintenance are presented. Other subjects discussed are rock selection and testing, slope stability, and overland erosion modeling

  14. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-08-15

    During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Utilization of mine tailings as partial cement replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigvardsen, Nina Marie; Nielsen, M.R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Depositing mine tailings entail major economic costs and negative environmental impacts. Thus finding an alternative to depositing is of interest. This study focused on the use of mine tailings as partial cement replacement, thereby preventing depositing the mine tailings. At the same time......, such use would reduce the CO2 emission related to the production of cement. Mine tailings from two different mines Zinkgruvan (Sweden) and Nalunaq (Greenland) were both tested as 5 and 10 % cement replacement. All mortar specimens with mine tailings had lower compressive strength compared to a reference...... compared to a specimen containing a 10 % replacement of cement with coal fly ash, commonly used in Denmark. The compressive strength of specimens containing mine tailings exceeded the compressive strength of the specimen containing coal fly ash, indicating further the amorphous content of volcanic decent...

  16. Blast densification trials for oilsands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Port, A. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Martens, S. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Eaton, T. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Shell Canada Muskeg River Mine External Tailings Facility (ETF) is an upstream constructed tailings facility located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Raises have incrementally stepped out over the beach since construction of the starter dam and deposition within standing water has left some parts of the beach in a loose state. In order to assess the effectiveness of blast densification, a blast densification trial program that was conducted in 2006 at the ETF. The primary purpose of the test program was to determine the effectiveness of blast densification in tailings containing layers and zones of bitumen. The paper described the site characterization and explosive compaction trial program, with particular reference to test layout; drilling methodology; and blasting and timing sequence. The paper also described the instrumentation, including the seismographs; high pressure electric piezometers; low pressure electric piezometers; vibrating wire piezometers; inclinometers; settlement gauges; and surveys. Trial observations and post-trial observations were also presented. It was concluded that controlled blasting techniques could be used to safely induce liquefaction in localized areas within the tailings deposit, with a resulting increase in the tailings density. 5 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  17. Estimating contaminant discharge rates from stabilized uranium tailings embankments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    Estimates of contaminant discharge rates from stabilized uranium tailings embankments are essential in evaluating long-term impacts of tailings disposal on groundwater resources. Contaminant discharge rates are a function of water flux through tailings covers, the mass and distribution of tailings, and the concentrations of contaminants in percolating pore fluids. Simple calculations, laboratory and field testing, and analytical and numerical modeling may be used to estimate water flux through variably-saturated tailings under steady-state conditions, which develop after consolidation and dewatering have essentially ceased. Contaminant concentrations in water discharging from the tailings depend on tailings composition, leachability and solubility of contaminants, geochemical conditions within the embankment, tailings-water interactions, and flux of water through the embankment. These concentrations may be estimated based on maximum reported concentrations, pore water concentrations, extrapolations of column leaching data, or geochemical equilibria and reaction pathway modeling. Attempts to estimate contaminant discharge rates should begin with simple, conservative calculations and progress to more-complicated approaches, as necessary

  18. Tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    A guideline intended for conventional dams such as hydroelectric, water supply, flood control, or irrigation is used sometimes for evaluating the safety of a tailings dam. Differences between tailings dams and conventional dams are often substantial and, as such, should not be overlooked when applying the techniques or safety requirements of conventional dam engineering to tailings dams. Having a dam safety evaluation program developed specifically for tailings dams is essential, if only to reduce the chance of potential errors or omissions that might occur when relying on conventional dam engineering practice. This is not to deny the merits of using the Canadian Dam Safety Association Guidelines (CDSA) and similar conventional dam guidelines for evaluating the safety of tailings dams. Rather it is intended as a warning, and as a rationale underlying basic requirement of tailings dam emgineering: specific experience in tailings dams is essential when applying conventional dam engineering practice. A discussion is included that focuses on the more remarkable tailings dam safety practics. It is not addressed to a technical publications intended for such dams, or significantly different so that the use of conventional dam engineering practice would not be appropriate. The CDSA Guidelines were recently revised to include tailings dams. But incorporating tailings dams into the 1999 revision of the CDSA Guidelines is a first step only - further revision is necessary with respect to tailings dams. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  19. PLB, vertical tail, OMS pods above Earth with moon in distant background

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Payload bay (PLB) equipment, payloads, and experiments include remote manipulator system (RMS) stowed on port side sill longeron, Development Flight Instrument (DFI) pallet with High Capacity Heat Pipe Experiment, Special Philatelic Covers in two large storage (mail) boxes, Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM) experiment trays, and Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket in foreground and Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA) behind DFI pallet. Vertical tail with orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods at base points to Earth's cloud-covered surface with gibbous moon in distance.

  20. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado. Summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Rifle, Colorado. The Phase II - Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 3.1 million tons of tailings at the two Rifle sites, constitutes the most significant environmental impact. Windblown tailings, external gamma radiation and localized contamination of surface waters are other environmental effects. The 15 alternative remedial action options presented range from millsite decomtamination and off-site remedial action (Options I and IV), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II, V, VI, and VII), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present sites (Options III and VIII through XV). Cost estimates for the first 14 options range from $224,000 to $20,300,000. Option XV, estimated at $32,200,000, includes the cost for moving both Rifle tailings piles and the Grand Junction tailings pile to DeBeque for long-term storage and site decontamination after removal of the piles. Reprocessing of the tailings for uranium appears to be economically attractive at present

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings new and old Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Rifle, Colorado. The Phase II--Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 3.1 million tons of tailings at the two Rifle sites, constitutes the most significant environmental impact. Windblown tailings, external gamma radiation and localized contamination of surface waters are other environmental effects. The 15 alternative remedial action options presented range from millsite decontamination and off-site remedial action (Options I and IV), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II, V, VI and VII), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present sites (Options III and VIII through XV). Cost estimates for the first 14 options range from $224,000 to $20,300,000. Option XV, estimated at $32,200,000, includes the cost for moving both Rifle tailings piles and the Grand Junction tailings pile to DeBeque for long-term storage and site decontamination after removal of the piles. Reprocessing of the tailings for uranium appears to be economically attractive at present

  2. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings new and old Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Rifle, Colorado. The Phase II--Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 3.1 million tons of tailings at the two Rifle sites, constitutes the most significant environmental impact. Windblown tailings, external gamma radiation and localized contamination of surface waters are other environmental effects. The 15 alternative remedial action options presented range from millsite decontamination and off-site remedial action (Options I and IV), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II, V, VI and VII), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present sites (Options III and VIII through XV). Cost estimates for the first 14 options range from $224,000 to $20,300,000. Option XV, estimated at $32,200,000, includes the cost for moving both Rifle tailings piles and the Grand Junction tailings pile to DeBeque for long-term storage and site decontamination after removal of the piles. Reprocessing of the tailings for uranium appears to be economically attractive at present.

  3. Collisional relaxation of electron tail distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Masao.

    1985-05-01

    Relaxation due to the Coulomb collisions of the electron velocity distribution function with a high energy tail is investigated in detail. In the course of the relaxation, a 'saddle' point can be created in velocity space owing to upsilon -3 dependence of the deflection rate and a positive slope or a 'dip' appears in the tail direction. The time evolution of the electron tail is studied analytically. A comparison is made with numerical results by using a Fokker-Planck code. Also discussed is the kinetic instability concerned with the positive slope during the relaxation. (author)

  4. Why are most EU pigs tail docked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'eath, R.B.; Niemi, J.K.; Vosough Ahmadi, B.

    2016-01-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive...... by examining economic results of four management and housing scenarios, and by discussing their consequences for animal welfare in the light of legal and ethical considerations. The four scenarios compared are: ‘Standard Docked’, a conventional housing scenario with tail docking meeting the recommendations...... for Danish production (0.7 m2/pig); ‘Standard Undocked’, which is the same as ‘Standard Docked’ but with no tail docking, ‘Efficient Undocked’ and ‘Enhanced Undocked’, which have increased solid floor area (0.9 and 1.0 m2/pig, respectively) provision of loose manipulable materials (100 and 200 g/straw per...

  5. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Falls City Site, Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Falls City, Texas. Services included taking soil samples, the performance of radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 2.5 million tons of tailings at the Falls City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact. Windblown tailings, external gamma radiation and localized contamination of surface waters are other environmental effects. The two alternative remedial action options presented include on-site and off-site cleanup, fencing, and hydrological monitoring, and in addition, stabilization of pile 2 with 2 ft of cover material. The costs are $1.84 million for Option I and $2.45 million for Option II

  6. Basic description of tailings from Aitik focusing on mechanical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanbhro, Riaz; Knutsson, Roger; Rodriguez, Juan; Edeskär, Tommy; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Tailings are artificial granular materials that behave different as compared to natural soil of equal grain sizes. Tailings particle sizes, shapes, gradation and mechanical behavior may influence the performance of tailings dams. Hence it is essential to understand the tailings materials in depth. This article describes present studies being carried out on Aitik tailings. Basic tailings characteristics including specific gravity, phase relationships, particle sizes, particle shapes and direct...

  7. A new procedure for deep sea mining tailings disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, W.; Schott, D.L.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Deep sea mining tailings disposal is a new environmental challenge related to water pollution, mineral crust waste handling, and ocean biology. The objective of this paper is to propose a new tailings disposal procedure for the deep sea mining industry. Through comparisons of the tailings disposal methods which exist in on-land mining and the coastal mining fields, a new tailings disposal procedure, i.e., the submarine–backfill–dam–reuse (SBDR) tailings disposal procedure, is proposed. It com...

  8. Metal mobilization under alkaline conditions in ash-covered tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinmei; Alakangas, Lena; Wanhainen, Christina

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine element mobilization and accumulation in mill tailings under alkaline conditions. The tailings were covered with 50 cm of fly ash, and above a sludge layer. The tailings were geochemically and mineralogically investigated. Sulfides, such as pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena along with gangue minerals such as dolomite, calcite, micas, chlorite, epidote, Mn-pyroxene and rhodonite were identified in the unoxidized tailings. The dissolution of the fly ash layer resulted in a high pH (close to 12) in the underlying tailings. This, together with the presence of organic matter, increased the weathering of the tailings and mobilization of elements in the uppermost 47 cm of the tailings. All primary minerals were depleted, except quartz and feldspar which were covered by blurry secondary carbonates. Sulfide-associated elements such as Cd, Fe, Pb, S and Zn and silicate-associated elements such as Fe, Mg and Mn were released from the depletion zone and accumulated deeper down in the tailings where the pH decreased to circum-neutral. Sequential extraction suggests that Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, S and Zn were retained deeper down in the tailings and were mainly associated with the sulfide phase. Calcium, Cr, K and Ni released from the ash layer were accumulated in the uppermost depletion zone of the tailings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The radiological impacts of uranium mill tailings - a review with special emphasis on the tailings at Ranstad in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.; Agnedal, P.O.

    1978-07-01

    The environmental impact of uranium mill tailings can be expressed in collective dose commitment and corresponding detriment per MWsub(e).Y energy produced by the uranium which corresponds to the amount of waste of interest. The methods of dose commitment calculations are discussed and it is suggested for the purpose of estimation of the detriment to limit the commitment to 10,000 years. The external radiation from the tailings is easily reduced by covering but in case of a future settlement on the tailings the collective dose commitment will be some hundreds to thousands of manrad/MWsub(e).Y depending on the quality of the uranium ore. The dispersion of dust from uncovered tailings is mainly a local problem and the collective dose commitment for critical tissues in the lung will be less than a manrad/MWsub(e).Y. In the long run the cover may be lost and the resultant collective dose commitment for the critical tissues in the lung will be a few tens of manrad/MWsub(e).Y depending on the quality of the tailings. The effects of global dispersion of the material in the tailings are also discussed

  10. Ilmenite Mineral's Recovery from Beach Sand Tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine F.; Mukendi-Ngalula, David; Waanders, Frans B.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite is the major source of rutile for industrial use and is of interest to paint and fertiliser industries. Enormous unutilised tailing dams lie on the eastern coast of the South Africa. Although covered by a simulation of the original indigenous vegetation, these tailings are still ilmenite bearing and of economic value. Tailings emanating from beach sand mineral slimes dams of the Kwazulu-Natal area (South Africa) have been processed. Screening, flotation, spiral concentration and magnetic separation methods were used either separately or successively. The present work sheds light on alternative routes for the extraction of the ilmenite, from these tailings. It moreover points out the usefulness of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in the mineral processing product monitoring. Tailings from the beach sands were used in the present study after the economic industrial minerals zirconia, ilmenite and rutile had been extracted in previous mining operations. About 61% natural ilmenite recovery was observed in the flotation concentrate of a Humphrey Spiral concentrate while a 62% recovery of hematite was found in the flotation tailings. The combination of screening, spiral concentration and magnetic separation, and flotation yielded a product with the highest ilmenite and hematite concentration being 71% and 19%, respectively. A natural ilmenite mineral, containing 87% ilmenite and 13% hematite, could be produced and extracted from the tailings of the flotation process, collected subsequently to the spiral concentration and the initial screening.

  11. Electrochemistry, surface plasmon resonance, and quartz crystal microbalance: an associative study on cytochrome c adsorption on pyridine tail-group monolayers on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Tércio de F; de Sousa, Ticyano P; de Abreu, Dieric S; Felício, Nathalie H; Bernhardt, Paul V; Lopes, Luiz G de F; Sousa, Eduardo H S; Diógenes, Izaura C N

    2013-07-25

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemistry techniques were used to study the electron-transfer (ET) reaction of cytochrome c (Cyt c) on gold surfaces modified with thionicotinamide, thioisonicotinamide, 4-mercaptopyridine, 5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol, 5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol, 4,4'-bipyridine, and 4,4'-dithiopyridine. The electrochemical results showed that the ET process is complex, being chiefly diffusional with steps depending on the orientation of the pyridine or phenyl tail group of the modifiers. The correlation between the electrochemical results and those acquired by SPR and QCM indicated the presence of an adlayer of Cyt c adsorbed on the thiolate SAMs. This adlayer, although being not electroactive, is essential to assess the ET reaction of Cyt c in solution. The results presented in this work are consistent with the statement (Feng, Z. Q.; Imabayashi, S.; Kakiuchi, T.; Niki, K. J. Electroanal. Chem. 1995, 394, 149-154) that the ET reaction of Cyt c can be explained in terms of the through-bond tunneling mechanism.

  12. Chaperone role for proteins p618 and p892 in the extracellular tail development of Acidianus two-tailed virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Urte; Erdmann, Susanne; Ungewickell, Ernst J.

    2011-01-01

    The crenarchaeal Acidianus two-tailed virus (ATV) undergoes a remarkable morphological development, extracellularly and independently of host cells, by growing long tails at each end of a spindle-shaped virus particle. Initial work suggested that an intermediate filament-like protein, p800...... the interactions observed between the different protein and DNA components and to explain their possible structural and functional roles in extracellular tail development....

  13. The long-term environmental impacts of the Mount Polley mine tailings spill, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Macklin, Mark; Brewer, Paul; Bird, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2015-04-01

    On the 4th August 2014 a tailings impoundment failure at the Mount Polley gold and copper mine in British Columbia, Canada, released approximately 25 million m3 of solid and liquid waste into Hazeltine Creek, Quesnel Lake and Polley Lake. The sheer volume of the tailings released caused Haseltine Creek channel to expand from 2m to over 25m in width and Polley Lake water level to rise by 1.7m. The spill also removed trees in a 900 km2 corridor either side of Hazeltine Creek. Local residents and government officials have expressed serious concerns regarding the potential long-term effects on regional biodiversity, water security and to the livelihoods of First Nation communities. Among impoundment failures, the Mount Polley disaster is unique in that the solid tailings contain an unusual mixture of metal contaminants (arsenic, copper, gold, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium). As particulate matter is the principal carrier of metal contaminants, the spilled tailings may reside in the regional soils and sediments for 1000s of years serving as a secondary source of pollution. The environmental risk posed by the spilled tailings is compounded by the location of the spill in a mountainous forested catchment, affected by severe winters with prominent spring snow melts that have the potential to remobilise very large quantities of spilled tailings. No data currently exist on the short- to long-term behaviour of these tailings in soils and sediments and the effects of the clean-up operations on their behaviour in this type of river environment. In this study, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to determine the environmental and geomorphological impacts of the tailings spill. We have two specific objectives. (1) The physicochemical speciation and geochemical stability of spilled tailings will be characterised in surface and hyporheic sediments using bulk chemistry, mineralogical (XRD and SEM) and speciation methods (sequential extractions, electron microprobe analysis, XAS

  14. Fat-tailed distributions data, diagnostics and dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Roger M; Misiewicz, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    This title is written for the numerate nonspecialist, and hopes to serve three purposes. First it gathers mathematical material from diverse but related fields of order statistics, records, extreme value theory, majorization, regular variation and subexponentiality. All of these are relevant for understanding fat tails, but they are not, to our knowledge, brought together in a single source for the target readership. Proofs that give insight are included, but for most fussy calculations the reader is referred to the excellent sources referenced in the text. Multivariate extremes are not treated. This allows us to present material spread over hundreds of pages in specialist texts in twenty pages. Chapter 5 develops new material on heavy tail diagnostics and gives more mathematical detail. Since variances and covariances may not exist for heavy tailed joint distributions, Chapter 6 reviews dependence concepts for certain classes of heavy tailed joint distributions, with a view to regressing heavy tailed variabl...

  15. Overview by Pioneer observations of the distant geomagnetic tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villante, U [L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Istituto de Astrofisica

    1977-03-01

    Pioneer 7 and Pioneer 8 spacecraft provided the only direct observations of the geomagnetic tail at geocentric distances as large as 1000 Rsub(e) and 500 Rsub(e) respectively. The presence of a low density plasma flow in the region of expected tail and the intermittent and short duration character of the tail encounters suggested in the past a distant tail structure remarkably different from its near-earth and cislunar shape. However the recent discovery of the plasma mantle allows interpretation of the Pioneer observations in terms of a distant tail that possibly is still preserving most of its near-earth characteristics. In particular, the region of tail encounters and the magnitude and direction of the observed magnetic field might be consistent with a cylindrical tail with a modestly increased cross-section. Neutral sheet observations also appear to be consistent with the most recent bidimensional tail models. Finally, as in the cislunar region, the double peaked proton energy spectra can be interpreted in terms of a partial intermingling of plasma sheet and plasma mantle populations.

  16. Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators-Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    Buffet is an aeroelastic phenomenon associated with high performance aircraft especially those with twin vertical tails. In particular, for the F/A-18 aircraft at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their wake. The resulting buffet loads on the vertical tails are a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Recently, a 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at Mach 0.10. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. The results herein illustrate that buffet alleviation of vertical tails can be accomplished using simple active control of the rudder or piezoelectric actuators. In fact, as demonstrated herein, a fixed gain single input single output control law that commands piezoelectric actuators may be active throughout the high angle-of-attack maneuver without requiring any changes during the maneuver. Future tests are mentioned for accentuating the international interest in this area of research.

  17. UTAP, U Tailings Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Ron

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: UTAP carries out probabilistic analyses of the behaviour and environmental effects of uranium mill tailings, following close-out of milling operations. The models have been designed to allow predictions to be made for distances up to 50 kilometers in all directions from the tailings area. The models include features which include the ability to incorporate different receptors and site characteristics and to deal with input parameters which vary with time. 2 - Method of solution: UTAP is composed of a number of modules. These may be classified as either component or control modules. Component modules (or models) are the programs directly concerned with the simulation of a uranium tailings physical system; that is the computer implementation of the mathematical models representing the uranium tailings pile and surrounding environment. Control modules provide the infrastructure for probabilistic analysis using the component modules. These functions include probabilistic sampling of input parameters such as constant, normal, log-normal, uniform, log-uniform, triangular, Weibull, Beta, arbitrary and correlated. The sampling method used is straight Monte Carlo. The radionuclides modelled are: natural uranium, total thorium, radium-226, radon-222 and lead-210. The pH of the reference uranium tailings site and a chained river-lake system are also modelled. For the afore- mentioned radionuclides the following pathways of dose to the receptors modelled: water consumption, fish consumption, radon inhalation, dust inhalation, vegetable consumption, animal produce consumption and ground-shine. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum number of steps through time allowed is 300

  18. A proactive approach to sustainable management of mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The reactive strategies to manage mine tailings i.e. containment of slurries of tailings in tailings storage facilities (TSF's) and remediation of tailings solids or tailings seepage water after the decommissioning of those facilities, can be technically inefficient to eliminate environmental risks (e.g. prevent dispersion of contaminants and catastrophic dam wall failures), pose a long term economic burden for companies, governments and society after mine closure, and often fail to meet community expectations. Most preventive environmental management practices promote proactive integrated approaches to waste management whereby the source of environmental issues are identified to help make a more informed decisions. They often use life cycle assessment to find the "hot spots" of environmental burdens. This kind of approach is often based on generic data and has rarely been used for tailings. Besides, life cycle assessments are less useful for designing operations or simulating changes in the process and consequent environmental outcomes. It is evident that an integrated approach for tailings research linked to better processing options is needed. A literature review revealed that there are only few examples of integrated approaches. The aim of this project is to develop new tailings management models by streamlining orebody characterization, process optimization and rehabilitation. The approach is based on continuous fingerprinting of geochemical processes from orebody to tailings storage facility, and benchmark the success of such proactive initiatives by evidence of no impacts and no future projected impacts on receiving environments. We present an approach for developing such a framework and preliminary results from a case study where combined grinding and flotation models developed using geometallurgical data from the orebody were constructed to predict the properties of tailings produced under various processing scenarios. The modelling scenarios based on the

  19. Uranium mill tailings backfill management. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, B.M.; Heggen, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Backfilling, the disposal of spent uranium mill tailings in empty mine stopes, has been practiced in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico for nearly 20 years. The principal objective of backfilling is the prevention of roof collapse and hydraulic connection with overlying aquifers, increasing mine dewatering requirements. Backfilling is accomplished by gravity feed of a slurry of sand-fraction tailings and treated mine water into the slope. The effects of backfilling on surface discharge of mine wastewater are negligible due to the small fraction of the total flow represented by slurry decant. Furthermore, quality of the decant is not significantly below that of other mine waters. Groundwater effects of backfilling may be classified as short-term (while the mine is operational) and long-term (after dewatering operations have been terminated). Short-term effects are insignificant because of rapid and continuous flow to the mine sump. Long-term effects on aquifer water quality are predicted to be minimal due to (1) the small amount of slurry liquor present after drainage, (2) the precipitation of SO 4 and CO 3 phases, and (3) the reestablishment of reducing conditions and subsequent precipitation of major contaminants including U, As, Mo, Se, and V. 28 references, 19 figures, 9 tables

  20. Effects of tail docking and docking length on neuroanatomical changes in healed tail tips of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, M S; Thodberg, K; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2015-01-01

    % (n=19); or leaving 25% (n=11) of the tail length on the pigs. The piglets were docked between day 2 and 4 after birth using a gas-heated apparatus, and were kept under conventional conditions until slaughter at 22 weeks of age, where tails were removed and examined macroscopically and histologically...

  1. Reclamation of copper mine tailings using sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Stjernman Forsberg, Lovisa

    2008-01-01

    Tailings are the fine-grained fraction of waste produced during mining operations. This work was carried out on tailings from the Aitik copper mine in northern Sweden. Establishment of vegetation on the Aitik mine tailings deposit is planned to take place at closure of the mine, using sewage sludge as fertiliser. However, the tailings contain traces of metal sulphides, e.g. pyrite, FeS2, and chalcopyrite, CuFeS2. When the sulphides are oxidised, they start to weather and release metals and st...

  2. Processes for extracting radium from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirdosh, I.; Baird, M.H.; Muthuswami, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the extraction of radium from uranium mill tailings solids including the steps of contacting the tailings with a liquid leaching agent, leaching the tailings therewith and subsequently separating the leachate liquid and the leached solids. The improvement described here is wherein the leaching agent comprises: (a) a complexing agent in an amount of from 2 to 10 times the stoichiometric amount needed to complex the metal ions to be removed thereby from the tailings; and (b) a reducing agent reducing the hydrolysable ions of the metal ions to be removed to their lower oxidation states, the reduction agent being present in an amount from 2 to 10 times the stoichiometric amount needed for reducing the hydrolysable metals present in the tailings

  3. APPLICATION OF POSTFLOTATION TAILINGS IN HYDROENGINEERING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Stefaniak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic development stimulated by the increased demand for production of consumer goods and the growing human population result in increasing amounts of various wastes, including tailings. The mining industry in Poland, comprising also mining of non-ferrous metal ores, is a strategic branch of the national economy and at the same time a leading waste producer. Tailings management is a significant problem both in Poland and worldwide. Frequently considerable amounts of wastes are accumulated in mine spoil tips, in areas not always suitable for their deposition, thus leading to the degradation of the surrounding environment. At the huge volume of produced wastes their rational and economically viable management is becoming crucial. On the other hand, depletion of natural aggregate deposits is an important incentive to search for substitutes, which would be suitable for the development of road infrastructure or which could be used in earth structure engineering to construct hydroengineering objects. Since no profitable recovery technologies are available at present, tailings generated by copper mining are deposited in tailings storage facilities. The largest and at the same time the only currently operating facility in Poland is the Żelazny Most Mining Tailings Storage Facility, belonging to KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. The paper presents criteria for material quality and density imposed on the material embedded in the static core of the tailings pond dam. For this purpose studies were conducted to confirm applicability of sorted tailings as a material for the construction of earth structures.

  4. Quantum reflection times and space shifts for Casimir-van der Waals potential tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisch, Alexander; Friedrich, Harald

    2004-01-01

    When cold atoms approach a surface, they can be quantum reflected by quantal regions in the tail of the atom-surface potential. We study the phase of the reflection amplitude for Casimir-van der Waals potential tails, depending on the critical parameter ρ=ρ(C 3 ,C 4 ), which describes the relative importance of the -C 3 /r 3 and -C 4 /r 4 parts of the potential. The phase is related to observable kinematic quantities, the space and time shifts, the reflected atom experiences. We study three different models for the shape of the potential between the asymptotic limits and observe that the phases are more sensitive to the potential shape than the quantum reflection probabilities. At threshold, there are always time delays in comparison to the free movement. This is in contrast to the classical movement, which shows time gains. Further above threshold, the quantum reflected atom experiences a time gain relative to free motion, but this time gain is generally smaller than that of the classical particle

  5. Fat-tailed risk about climate change and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Chang; Tol, Richard S.J.; Hofkes, Marjan W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of emissions control in welfare maximization under fat-tailed risk about climate change. We provide a classification of fat tails and discuss the effect of fat-tailed risk on climate policy. One of the main findings is that emissions control may prevent the “strong” tail-effect from arising, at least under some conditions such as bounded temperature increases, low risk aversion, low damage costs, and bounded utility function. More specifically, the fat-tailed risk with respect to a climate parameter does not necessarily lead to an unbounded carbon tax. In this case, the basic principle of cost-benefit analysis maintains its applicability. - Highlights: • A fat tail is classified and the tail effect on climate policy is discussed. • The optimal carbon tax is not necessarily unbounded. • The basic principle of cost-benefit analysis maintains its applicability. • This is a numerical confirmation of the recent theoretical research.

  6. Impact of flocculation on flotation tailing's hydro-cycloning properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Dinko N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research results of hydro-cycloning of flocculated and non-flocculated flotation tailing from the lead and zinc open pit mine 'Suplja stijena', Sula - Montenegro have been shown in this paper. Reason for this research was finding conditions in order to separate fraction that is suitable for embankment erection. Flotation tailings has been tested in the very state that it goes out from the flotation process and tailings which is flocculated by anionic flocculant. The object was to determine the impact of flocculation on properties of hydro-cycloning products and disposal process. In hydro-cycloning process greater underflow mass is being separated with non-flocculated tailing. Values of geomechanical parameters are significantly different, especially hydro-cyclone's underflow. All geomechanical parameters of hydro-cyclone's underflow are suitable for erecting embankment which shall be made from non-flocculated tailing. Underflow drainage of non-flocculated tailing is faster while overflow drainage is slower and problematic with both tailings.

  7. Leachability of radioactive constituents from uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constable, T.W.

    1987-04-01

    A series of long-term studies were conducted both to examine the leachability of major constituents (acidity, TDS) and radioisotopes from uranium mining/milling tailings and settling pond sludges, and to assess the effect of two treatment methods (solidification and vegetation) on leachate characteristics. Four bench-scale experiments were conducted to examine the leachability of: 1) old tailings and those containing a large portion of (Ba,Ra)SO 4 sludges; 2) untreated and solidified (Ba,Ra)SO 4 sludges located at the bottom of settling ponds; 3) new tailings that had been vegetated or solidified; and 4) new tailings subject to varying flow rates. A fifth study was conducted to examine the microbiology of Experiments 2 and 3. In addition, the lysimeter solids remaining in the old tailings at the end of Experiment 1 were characterized through chemical and radionuclide analyses and Scanning Electron Microscope-X-ray Emission and Mossbauer Spectroscopy techniques. This report provides an extensive database of temporal variations in leachate characteristics under both normal and accelerated water application rates. It also presents hypotheses of possible leaching mechanisms in the wastes that could explain the observed data, and conceptual model of tailings leaching processes which integrates the results of all the tailings experiments

  8. How We Tend To Overestimate Powerlaw Tail Exponents

    OpenAIRE

    Nassim N. Taleb

    2012-01-01

    In the presence of a layer of metaprobabilities (from uncertainty concerning the parameters), the asymptotic tail exponent corresponds to the lowest possible tail exponent regardless of its probability. The problem explains "Black Swan" effects, i.e., why measurements tend to chronically underestimate tail contributions, rather than merely deliver imprecise but unbiased estimates.

  9. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4...

  10. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  11. Characterization and monitoring of transverse beam tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.; Decker, F.J.; Hsu, I.; Young, C.

    1991-05-01

    Low emittance electron beams accelerated to high energy in a linac experience transverse effects (wakefield, filamentation, optics) which produce non-Gaussian projected transverse beam distributions. Characterizations of the beam shapes are difficult because the shapes are asymmetric and change with betatron phase. In this note several methods to describe beam distributions are discussed including an accelerator physics model of these tails. The uses of these characterizations in monitoring the beam emittances in the SLC are described in this paper. First, two dimensional distributions from profile monitor screens are reviewed showing correlated tails. Second, a fitting technique for non-Gaussian one dimensional distributions is used to extract the core from the tail areas. Finally, a model for tail propagation in the linac is given. 3 refs., 6 figs

  12. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, puranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, puranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (puranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The post-depositional accumulation of metal-rich cyanide phases in submerged tailings deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambor, J.L.; Martin, A.J.; Gerits, J.

    2009-01-01

    The characterization and accumulation pathway of metal-rich cyanide phases in mine-contaminated Balmer Lake (Ontario, Canada) were assessed through detailed examination of sediment mineralogy and porewater composition. The near-surface deposits in the lake consist of fine-grained calcareous tailings intermixed with natural organic-rich lake sediments. The tailings contain blue to greenish Fe-dominant cyanide that has formed in situ within the tailings. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of a mixed ferri/ferrocyanide [Fe 4 III (Fe II (CN) 6 ) 3 ], commonly referred to as 'Prussian Blue' but it is likely other metal-cyanide complexes are present as evidenced by the distinct colour variations. The cyanide phases occur in up to 1 wt.% as discrete particles and as bedded layers, where the cyanide phases act to cement other siliceous tailings components into a heterogeneous blend. Energy Dispersion X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analyses indicate that the authigenic cyanide precipitates contain variable amounts of Ni, Cu and Zn. Quantitatively, the cyanide compounds represent the dominant repository for Cu in Balmer Lake sediments. For Ni and Zn, cyanide associations are secondary in importance to Fe oxyhydroxides. High-resolution porewater profiles and solubility considerations suggest that the formation of the cyanide complexes is a feature of historical (pre-1990) conditions when aqueous cyanide concentrations were higher in the lake.

  14. The post-depositional accumulation of metal-rich cyanide phases in submerged tailings deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambor, J.L. [Leslie Research and Consulting, 316 Rosehill Wynd, Tsawwassen, BC, V4M 3L9 (Canada); Martin, A.J., E-mail: ajm@lorax.ca [Lorax Environmental Services, 2289 Burrard St., Vancouver, BC, V6J 3H9 (Canada); Gerits, J. [Lorax Environmental Services, 2289 Burrard St., Vancouver, BC, V6J 3H9 (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    The characterization and accumulation pathway of metal-rich cyanide phases in mine-contaminated Balmer Lake (Ontario, Canada) were assessed through detailed examination of sediment mineralogy and porewater composition. The near-surface deposits in the lake consist of fine-grained calcareous tailings intermixed with natural organic-rich lake sediments. The tailings contain blue to greenish Fe-dominant cyanide that has formed in situ within the tailings. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of a mixed ferri/ferrocyanide [Fe{sub 4}{sup III}(Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}){sub 3}], commonly referred to as 'Prussian Blue' but it is likely other metal-cyanide complexes are present as evidenced by the distinct colour variations. The cyanide phases occur in up to 1 wt.% as discrete particles and as bedded layers, where the cyanide phases act to cement other siliceous tailings components into a heterogeneous blend. Energy Dispersion X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analyses indicate that the authigenic cyanide precipitates contain variable amounts of Ni, Cu and Zn. Quantitatively, the cyanide compounds represent the dominant repository for Cu in Balmer Lake sediments. For Ni and Zn, cyanide associations are secondary in importance to Fe oxyhydroxides. High-resolution porewater profiles and solubility considerations suggest that the formation of the cyanide complexes is a feature of historical (pre-1990) conditions when aqueous cyanide concentrations were higher in the lake.

  15. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacG. Robertson, A. [Robertson GeoConsultants Ltd., Vancouver (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  16. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, A.MacG.

    2001-01-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  17. Geochemical Characterization of Copper Tailings after Legume Revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Perry T. Domingo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the geochemistry of mine tailings is important in understanding the challenges in establishing vegetation cover on tailings dumps and mined out areas. In this study, the mineralogy and trace element composition of copper tailings were examined. Two legume species, Calopogonium mucunoides and Centrosema molle, were utilized to investigate the possible effects of these plants in the geochemical development of mine tailings into soil-like material. The initial mineralogical and chemical analysis of the tailings samples indicated poor conditions for plant growth—minimal levels of major nutrients and organic matter as well as elevated copper concentrations. Despite these conditions, the two legume species exhibited good growth rates. Both legumes have likewise signif icantly reduced heavy metal concentrations in the tailings, indicating the possibility of metal hyperaccumulation in the plant tissue. The mineral composition has been retained even after revegetation; nevertheless, breakdown of primary minerals and subsequent formation of clay minerals were detected. These results provide insights on the transformation of toxic materials into habitable substrates for sustained plant growth.

  18. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Tamura, T.; Williams, J.D.

    1984-03-01

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10 -3 cm/s to values approaching 10 -7 cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10 -8 cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table

  19. Sirenomelia apus with vestigial tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Tushar B; Nanavati, Ruchi N; Udani, Rekha H

    2005-04-01

    Sirenomelia is an exceptionally rare congenital malformation characterized by complete or near complete fusion of lower limbs. A newborn with clinical features of sirenomelia including fused lower limbs in medial position, absent fibula, anal atresia, complete absence of urogenital system (bilateral renal agenesis, absent ureters, urinary bladder, absent internal and external genitalia), a single umbilical artery and a vestigial tail is reported. Association of vestigial tail with sirenomelia is not described in the literature.

  20. The structure of the Myo4p globular tail and its function in ASH1 mRNA localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuck, Alexander; Fetka, Ingrid; Brewer, Daniel N; Hüls, Daniela; Munson, Mary; Jansen, Ralf-Peter; Niessing, Dierk

    2010-05-03

    Type V myosin (MyoV)-dependent transport of cargo is an essential process in eukaryotes. Studies on yeast and vertebrate MyoV showed that their globular tails mediate binding to the cargo complexes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MyoV motor Myo4p interacts with She3p to localize asymmetric synthesis of HO 1 (ASH1) mRNA into the bud of dividing cells. A recent study showed that localization of GFP-MS2-tethered ASH1 particles does not require the Myo4p globular tail, challenging the supposed role of this domain. We assessed ASH1 mRNA and Myo4p distribution more directly and found that their localization is impaired in cells expressing globular tail-lacking Myo4p. In vitro studies further show that the globular tail together with a more N-terminal linker region is required for efficient She3p binding. We also determined the x-ray structure of the Myo4p globular tail and identify a conserved surface patch important for She3p binding. The structure shows pronounced similarities to membrane-tethering complexes and indicates that Myo4p may not undergo auto-inhibition of its motor domain.

  1. Research on the characterization and conditioning of uranium mill tailings. III. Summary of uranium mill tailings conditioning research and implications regarding remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; Thode, E.F.; Williams, J.M.

    1983-06-01

    This report summarizes the findings of research on uranium mill tailings conditioning technology development performed for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP). Hazards and risks posed by tailings piles are discussed in relation to the goal of conditioning the tailings to reduce these hazards. The results of our efforts regarding characterization of tailings, removal of radionuclides, mineral recovery, thermal stabilization, and engineering/economic analysis of conditioning are presented. The implications of these results for remedial action plans are discussed and conclusions regarding the applicability of these technologies are also presented

  2. BIOMECHANICS. Why the seahorse tail is square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Adriaens, Dominique; Hatton, Ross L; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2015-07-03

    Whereas the predominant shapes of most animal tails are cylindrical, seahorse tails are square prisms. Seahorses use their tails as flexible grasping appendages, in spite of a rigid bony armor that fully encases their bodies. We explore the mechanics of two three-dimensional-printed models that mimic either the natural (square prism) or hypothetical (cylindrical) architecture of a seahorse tail to uncover whether or not the square geometry provides any functional advantages. Our results show that the square prism is more resilient when crushed and provides a mechanism for preserving articulatory organization upon extensive bending and twisting, as compared with its cylindrical counterpart. Thus, the square architecture is better than the circular one in the context of two integrated functions: grasping ability and crushing resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Micropore Structure of Cement-Stabilized Gold Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Kyu Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings have often to be stabilized by mixing them with cementing agents. In this study, the pore structure of gold tailings stabilized with Portland cement was evaluated by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry. The investigation was conducted on samples prepared with different fractions of tailings and cement as well as on samples activated with elevated temperature curing and chemical (CaCl2 addition. It was observed that all mixed samples exhibit a mono-modal pore size distribution, indicating that the cement-stabilized tailings are characterized by a single-porosity structure. The results also showed that the higher fraction of tailings and cement leads to a dense and finer pore structure. The total porosity of mixture samples decreases with increasing curing temperature and CaCl2 concentration due to the acceleration of hydration reaction.

  4. The distortion of the magnetotail equilibrium structure by a net cross-tail magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations have shown that in addition to a y component associated with the flaring of the tail, a net y component of the magnetic field can persist in the geomagnetic tail, roughly proportional to the interplanetary B y . The author uses the tail equilibrium theory outlined by Birn (1987) to construct self-consistent three-dimensional models of the tail that include this effect. He finds that the net B yN field varies only weakly along field lines and across the tail. The presence of the net B yN in the neutral sheet implies that a part of the cross-tail current becomes field-aligned, flowing from the southern to the northern hemisphere for B yN > 0 and from north to south for B yN yN for small values. For a typical value of 2% of the lobe field strength the author finds a total current of 4.4 x 10 5 A flowing toward one hemisphere at x = -20 R E . This current, however is not expected to reach the Earth, because it decreases strongly along each field line away from the neutral sheet, due to a conversion into perpendicular current. The deformations of magnetic flux surfaces, implied by the models, are not consistent with an entirely closed magnetotail boundary. They suggest that in addition to traditional lobe field lines, interconnected with the solar wind field at large distances or high latitudes, there may be a class of field lines extending from the Earth into the magnetosheath region through the low latitude flanks of the tail. These field lines, which might even be associated with positive B z at a neutral sheet crossing, effectively reduce the region of closed flux. For typical values of B yN of 2% of the lobe field this effect is small, but for values above about 10%, not extremely unusual, it can be appreciable

  5. Search and mapping of the old buried tailings with radioactive wastes at the urban territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanov, O. I.; Soroka, Y. N.; Podrezov, A. A.; Soroka, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents results of investigation on search and mapping of the old buried tailings with radioactive wastes on the territory of Kamianske City. For solving the problem used complex of methods. These methods are as follows: soil-gas 222 Rn measurement and measurement of 222 Rn flux density from the ground surface, gamma-radiation survey, prospecting drilling, gamma-ray logging and laboratory analysis of radionuclides. The leading method in this complex was the method of soil-gas 222 Rn measurement. Using this method location of the tailings has been precisely defined. The tailings boundaries have been contoured in the plan. Other methods permitted to define such parameters as thickness of the wastes, their volume (∼330 000 m 3 ), radionuclide and chemical composition. It was found that radioactive residues occur at a depth from 2 to 11 m and contain in its composition 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the range from 8370 to 37270 Bq kg -1 .(authors)

  6. The impacts of the Samarco mine tailing spill on the Rio Doce estuary, Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luiz Eduardo de Oliveira; Correa, Lucas Barreto; Sá, Fabian; Neto, Renato Rodrigues; Bernardino, Angelo Fraga

    2017-07-15

    Over 50 million cubic meters of mining tailings were released in the Rio Doce basin after the collapse of the Fundão dam (Samarco) in November 2015. Predicting significant impacts on the Rio Doce estuary, we sampled sediments to investigate short-term impacts on the benthic assemblages and trace metal accumulation on estuarine sediments. With the arrival of the tailing plumes in the estuary, we detected a predominance of clay particles and increased trace metal concentrations of up to 5 times in some areas. The rapid sedimentation after the impact also impacted estuarine macrofaunal assemblages through loss surface-dwelling taxa. As expected, the impacts on benthic assemblages observed up to 3days after the arrival of tailings were not clearly associated with trace metal concentrations, but long-term effects need to be studied. We recommend that the high spatial variability within the estuary be considered in future impact assessment studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dewatering Behaviour of Fine Oil Sands Tailings : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Oil sands tailings are a warm aqueous suspension of sand, silt, clay, residual bitumen and naphtha. The tailings are hydraulically transported and stored in tailing ponds where they segregate, with the sand settling from suspension forming beaches and the remaining tailings flowing to the middle of

  8. A Glimpse of the genomic diversity of haloarchaeal tailed viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eSencilo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting prokaryotic hosts residing hypersaline environments. Archaeal tailed viruses represent only a small portion of all characterized tailed viruses of prokaryotes. But even this small dataset revealed that archaeal tailed viruses have many similarities to their counterparts infecting bacteria, the bacteriophages. Shared functional homologues and similar genome organizations suggested that all microbial tailed viruses have common virion architectural and assembly principles. Recent structural studies have provided evidence justifying this thereby grouping archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses into a single lineage. Currently there are 17 haloarchaeal tailed viruses with entirely sequenced genomes. Nine viruses have at least one close relative among the 17 viruses and, according to the similarities, can be divided into three groups. Two other viruses share some homologues and therefore are distantly related, whereas the rest of the viruses are rather divergent (or singletons. Comparative genomics analysis of these viruses offers a glimpse into the genetic diversity and structure of haloarchaeal tailed virus communities.

  9. Structural Conservation of the Myoviridae Phage Tail Sheath Protein Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Fokine, Andrei; Forouhar, Farhad; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Tong, Liang; Rossmann, Michael G. (SOIBC); (Purdue); (Columbia)

    2012-02-21

    Bacteriophage phiKZ is a giant phage that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen. The phiKZ virion consists of a 1450 {angstrom} diameter icosahedral head and a 2000 {angstrom}-long contractile tail. The structure of the whole virus was previously reported, showing that its tail organization in the extended state is similar to the well-studied Myovirus bacteriophage T4 tail. The crystal structure of a tail sheath protein fragment of phiKZ was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. Furthermore, crystal structures of two prophage tail sheath proteins were determined to 1.9 and 3.3 {angstrom} resolution. Despite low sequence identity between these proteins, all of these structures have a similar fold. The crystal structure of the phiKZ tail sheath protein has been fitted into cryo-electron-microscopy reconstructions of the extended tail sheath and of a polysheath. The structural rearrangement of the phiKZ tail sheath contraction was found to be similar to that of phage T4.

  10. Polymer aids for settling and filtration of oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Section; Xu, Z.; Masliyah, J.H. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Oil sand tailings are segregated into coarse and fine tailings. High volumes of toxic fluids and tailings are created in the process. Tailings ponds are an environmental risk with high operating and maintenance costs. Current commercial technologies uses chemical additions to create recycled water and composite tailings (CT). Researchers are now investigating centrifuged and dry mature fine tailings (MFT). Filtration processes with flocculants are used to separate the tailings into warm recycle water and dried cakes that can be used in reclamation processes. Studies are being conducted to find a polymer than can effectively flocculate and filter whole oil sands tailings. The filtration procedure uses pressure to produce released water. Polymers include magnafloc and Al-PAM polymer concentrations are used in slurry masses. Tests have been conducted to determine the settling rates of the polymers. The tests showed that Al-PAM filtered the tailings effectively. Paraffinic froth treatment tests have also been conducted to determine settling rates. A cake produced with froth treatment tailings of Al-PAM 400 ppm had a water content 42.5 wt per cent. The tests showed that while Magnafloc 1011 is a good settling aid, but a poor filtration addition. Al-PAM aided in both the flocculation and filtration processes. Higher Al-PAM dosages are needed for froth treatment tailings processes. It was concluded that dry cakes are produced with the addition of Al-PAM. tabs., figs.

  11. Leaching behavior of U, Mn, Sr, and Pb from different particle-size fractions of uranium mill tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Peng, Tongjiang; Sun, Hongjuan

    2017-06-01

    Pollution by the release of heavy metals from tailings constitutes a potential threat to the environment. To characterize the processes governing the release of Mn, Sr, Pb, and U from the uranium mill tailings, a dynamic leaching test was applied for different size of uranium mill tailings samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were performed to determine the content of Mn, Sr, Pb, and U in the leachates. The release of mobile Mn, Sr, Pb, and U fraction was slow, being faster in the initial stage and then attained a near steady-state condition. The experimental results demonstrate that the release of Mn, Sr, Pb, and U from uranium mill tailings with different size fractions is controlled by a variety of mechanisms. Surface wash-off is the release mechanism for Mn. The main release mechanism of Sr and Pb is the dissolution in the initial leaching stage. For U, a mixed process of wash-off and diffusion is the controlling mechanism.

  12. Asymmetric Extreme Tails and Prospective Utility of Momentum Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stork, P.A.; Gregory-Allen, R.; Lu, H.

    2012-01-01

    We use extreme value theory to analyse the tails of a momentum strategy's return distribution. The asymmetry between the fat left tail and thin right tail strongly reduces a momentum strategy's prospective utility levels. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Ray Point Site, Ray Point, Texas. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Results are reported from an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ray Point, Texas. The Phase II--Title I services generally include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of soil sampling and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. About 490,000 tons of ore were processed at this mill with all of the uranium sold on the commercial market. None was sold to the AEC; therefore, this report focuses on a physical description of the site and the identification of radiation pathways. No remedial action options were formulated for the site, inasmuch as none of the uranium was sold to the AEC and Exxon Corporation has agreed to perform all actions required by the State of Texas. Radon gas release from the tailings at the Ray Point site constitutes the most significant environmental impact. Windblown tailings, external gamma radiation and localized contamination of surface waters are other environmental effects. Exxon is also studying the feasibility of reprocessing the tailings

  14. Limits theorems for tail processes with applications tointermediate quantile estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.

    1992-01-01

    A description of the weak and strong limiting behaviour of weighted uniform tail empirical and tail quantile processes is given. The results for the tail quantile process are applied to obtain weak and strong functional limit theorems for a weighted non-uniform tail-quantile-type process based on a

  15. Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T

    2013-04-01

    The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, R; Dietz, O

    1954-01-01

    Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

  17. Column bioleaching of arsenic and Heavy metals from gold mine tailings by aspergillus fumigatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seh-Bardan, Bahi Jalili; Othman, Radziah; Ab Wahid, Samsuri; Husin, Aminudin; Sadegh-Zadeh, Fardin

    2012-01-01

    A column bioleaching experiment was carried out to compare the effectiveness of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus to bioleach arsenic (As) and heavy metals from the tailings using two different methods. In the first method, which is named as distribution method (DM), the fungus was distributed in the column by means of vertical and horizontal layers of coarse sand. In the other method, named as surface applied method (SAM), the fungus was cultivated on the surface of the tailings, which was covered with a few centimeters of coarse sand. Results showed that in the DM, oxalic acid production was stimulated and maximum removal of As, Fe, Mn, and Zn was 53, 51, 81, and 62%, respectively. However, Pb removal was low (8%), which might be due to the precipitation of Pb as its oxalates. On the other hand, the maximum removal of As, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn were 22, 28, 37, 64, and 34%, respectively, for the SAM. Results of the sequential extraction study showed that the DM was effective in removing the water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate, and Fe/Mn oxide fractions of As, Fe, Mn, and Zn. Our study suggested that A. fumigatus has a potential to be used in remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites. Distributing the fungus throughout the entire tailings columns improved the bioleaching of heavy metals by the fungus. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Column bioleaching of arsenic and Heavy metals from gold mine tailings by aspergillus fumigatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seh-Bardan, Bahi Jalili; Othman, Radziah; Ab Wahid, Samsuri; Husin, Aminudin; Sadegh-Zadeh, Fardin [Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Land Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-06-15

    A column bioleaching experiment was carried out to compare the effectiveness of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus to bioleach arsenic (As) and heavy metals from the tailings using two different methods. In the first method, which is named as distribution method (DM), the fungus was distributed in the column by means of vertical and horizontal layers of coarse sand. In the other method, named as surface applied method (SAM), the fungus was cultivated on the surface of the tailings, which was covered with a few centimeters of coarse sand. Results showed that in the DM, oxalic acid production was stimulated and maximum removal of As, Fe, Mn, and Zn was 53, 51, 81, and 62%, respectively. However, Pb removal was low (8%), which might be due to the precipitation of Pb as its oxalates. On the other hand, the maximum removal of As, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn were 22, 28, 37, 64, and 34%, respectively, for the SAM. Results of the sequential extraction study showed that the DM was effective in removing the water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate, and Fe/Mn oxide fractions of As, Fe, Mn, and Zn. Our study suggested that A. fumigatus has a potential to be used in remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites. Distributing the fungus throughout the entire tailings columns improved the bioleaching of heavy metals by the fungus. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Uranium tailings in the public eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, B.

    1976-01-01

    The ORNL field team visits to Grand Junction, Colorado, and to other sources of uranium mill tailings, are described. The radioactive hazards of these tailings, which are principally due to Th, Ra, Rn, and radon daughters, are discussed briefly. Government actions which were taken as a result of public concern are listed. The ORNL Health Physics Division mobile laboratory van and its use in assessing the tailings piles at Salt Lake City and elsewhere are described. The highest γ-ray background found was 155 mRem/y, with levels being as high as 1750 mRem/y near points of public access to piles. Some possible solutions to the problem are discussed

  20. Geotechnical and water resource aspects of uranium mill tailings pile reclamation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Tackston, J.W.; Portillo, R.

    1986-01-01

    Design and construction work is currently in progress at more than twenty sites associated with the UMTRA Project - this involves final reclamation of the uranium mill tailings piles so that they are stable for at least 200 years and for up to 1000 years. Remedial action construction plans for the tailings piles involve detailed consideration of the present and possible future ground water and surface-water impacts of the pile. Since the stabilized pile is ultimately a major geotechnical structure, detailed consideration of the long-term resistance to erosion and containment of radioactive material is also required. A case history illustrates how the critical design criteria governing the remedial action activities at the various piles are applied to the pile at the Lakeview site to provide for long-term protection of the water resource and public health and safety

  1. Pilot projects for the remediation of Sillamaee uranium tailings in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, T.; Siinmaa, A.

    2001-01-01

    First Estonian uranium, produced in a pilot plant at Narva, was presented to Soviet military administration in 1945 and just a year later - 1946 - installation of an uranium production plant was started at Sillamaee, Estonia. Estonian local ore - alum shale - containing only 0,026% of uranium was used for uranium production for nearly five years, after the plant was launched in 1948. The uranium mine, having been activated from 1947 to 1952, was left in status of 'active conservation' for 17 years, until finally closed in 1969. Potential threats of this hidden legacy have never been revealed. After close-down of local uranium mine, more than 4 million tons of ore, imported mostly from Central and East European countries: Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany were processed at Sillamaee. These activities have left a large tailings impoundment with the total volume of ca. 8 million cubic meters in the immediate vicinity of the Baltic Sea. Today the plant is privatized, converted to civil purposes and provides together its power generating facilities ca. 1200 jobs in the socially sensitive area of North-East Estonia, while environmental hazards of the history, however, remain: - Continuous seepage of tailing waters into the sea contributes and would contribute over long term to the pollution of the Baltic Sea; - stability of the tailings dam seaside under present conditions can not be guaranteed thus risking a sudden release of partly liquid tailings due to potential dam failure; - uncovered surface of the tailings presents a health hazard due to dusting and radon release and hinders the revitalization of the area. The conceptual design of the Estonia's largest environmental remediation project, done by Wismut, is now complete and first implementation steps are underway. The project for mine area restoration is in initiation phase; it shall reveal the current and potential environmental hazards of the facility and create the concept for necessary rehabilitation

  2. Evaluation of Sulfonate-Based Collectors with Different Hydrophobic Tails for Flotation of Fluorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renji Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to demonstrate the effects of hydrophobic tails on the affinity and relevant flotation response of sulfonate-based collectors for fluorite. For this purpose, a series of alkyl sulfonates with different hydrophobic tails, namely sodium decanesulfonate (C10, sodium dodecylsulfate (C12, sodium hexadecanesulfonate (C16, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (C12B were applied. The flotation tests showed that C12 and C12B had a better collecting performance than C10 and C16 at pH < 10, and the flotation recovery of fluorite was higher when adopting C12B as a collector compared with C12 with a strong base. The adsorption behaviors of collectors on the fluorite surface were studied through zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. It was found that the affinity of alkyl sulfonates for fluorite was enhanced with the increase of the alkyl chain length from C10 to C16. The existence of phenyl in the hydrophobic tail of sulfonates could improve its activity for fluorite by reducing its surface tension. The abnormal phenomenon C16 with a high affinity for fluorite had a low collecting performance for fluorite mainly due to its overlong alkyl chain, resulting in low solubility in pulp, which restrained its interaction with fluorite. We concluded that C12B was the most applicable collector for fluorite among these reagents due to its high activity, high solubility, and low cost, which was further substantiated by calculating their molecular frontier orbital energy.

  3. Bioleaching of arsenic from highly contaminated mine tailings using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunseong; Han, Yosep; Park, Jeonghyun; Hong, Jeongsik; Silva, Rene A; Kim, Seungkon; Kim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of arsenic (As) bioleaching from mine tailings containing high amount of As (ca. 34,000 mg/kg) was investigated using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans to get an insight on the optimal conditions that would be applied to practical heap and/or tank bioleaching tests. Initial pH (1.8-2.2), temperature (25-40 °C), and solid concentration (0.5-4.0%) were employed as experimental parameters. Complementary characterization experiments (e.g., XRD, SEM-EDS, electrophoretic mobility, cell density, and sulfate production) were also carried out to better understand the mechanism of As bioleaching. The results showed that final As leaching efficiency was similar regardless of initial pH. However, greater initial As leaching rate was observed at initial pH 1.8 than other conditions, which could be attributed to greater initial cell attachment to mine tailings. Unlike the trend observed when varying the initial pH, the final As leaching efficiency varied with the changes in temperature and solid concentration. Specifically, As leaching efficiency tended to decrease with increasing temperature due to the decrease in the bacterial growth rate at higher temperature. Meanwhile, As leaching efficiency tended to increase with decreasing solid concentration. The results for jarosite contents in mine tailings residue after bioleaching revealed that much greater amount of the jarosite was formed during the bioleaching reaction at higher solid concentration, suggesting that the coverage of the surface of the mine tailings by jarosite and/or the co-precipitation of the leached As with jarosite could be a dominant factor reducing As leaching efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization and assessment of potential environmental risk of tailings stored in seven impoundments in the Aries river basin, Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine the potential environmental risk of tailings resulted after precious and base metal ores processing, stored in seven impoundments located in the Aries river basin, Romania. The tailings were characterized by mineralogical and elemental composition, contamination indices, acid rock drainage generation potential and water leachability of hazardous/priority hazardous metals and ions. Multivariate statistical methods were used for data interpretation. Results Tailings were found to be highly contaminated with several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cu, Cd, Pb), and pose potential contamination risk for soil, sediments, surface and groundwater. Two out of the seven studied impoundments does not satisfy the criteria required for inert wastes, shows acid rock drainage potential and thus can contaminate the surface and groundwater. Three impoundments were found to be highly contaminated with As, Pb and Cd, two with As and other two with Cu. The tailings impoundments were grouped based on the enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and contamination degree of 7 hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) considered typical for the studied tailings. Principal component analysis showed that 47% of the elemental variability was attributable to alkaline silicate rocks, 31% to acidic S-containing minerals, 12% to carbonate minerals and 5% to biogenic elements. Leachability of metals and ions was ascribed in proportion of 61% to silicates, 11% to acidic minerals and 6% to the organic matter. A variability of 18% was attributed to leachability of biogenic elements (Na, K, Cl-, NO3-) with no potential environmental risk. Pattern recognition by agglomerative hierarchical clustering emphasized the grouping of impoundments in agreement with their contamination degree and acid rock drainage generation potential. Conclusions Tailings stored in the studied impoundments were found to

  5. Characterization and assessment of potential environmental risk of tailings stored in seven impoundments in the Aries river basin, Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levei Erika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the potential environmental risk of tailings resulted after precious and base metal ores processing, stored in seven impoundments located in the Aries river basin, Romania. The tailings were characterized by mineralogical and elemental composition, contamination indices, acid rock drainage generation potential and water leachability of hazardous/priority hazardous metals and ions. Multivariate statistical methods were used for data interpretation. Results Tailings were found to be highly contaminated with several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cu, Cd, Pb, and pose potential contamination risk for soil, sediments, surface and groundwater. Two out of the seven studied impoundments does not satisfy the criteria required for inert wastes, shows acid rock drainage potential and thus can contaminate the surface and groundwater. Three impoundments were found to be highly contaminated with As, Pb and Cd, two with As and other two with Cu. The tailings impoundments were grouped based on the enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and contamination degree of 7 hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn considered typical for the studied tailings. Principal component analysis showed that 47% of the elemental variability was attributable to alkaline silicate rocks, 31% to acidic S-containing minerals, 12% to carbonate minerals and 5% to biogenic elements. Leachability of metals and ions was ascribed in proportion of 61% to silicates, 11% to acidic minerals and 6% to the organic matter. A variability of 18% was attributed to leachability of biogenic elements (Na, K, Cl-, NO3- with no potential environmental risk. Pattern recognition by agglomerative hierarchical clustering emphasized the grouping of impoundments in agreement with their contamination degree and acid rock drainage generation potential. Conclusions Tailings stored in the studied

  6. Top Incomes, Heavy Tails, and Rank-Size Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schluter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In economics, rank-size regressions provide popular estimators of tail exponents of heavy-tailed distributions. We discuss the properties of this approach when the tail of the distribution is regularly varying rather than strictly Pareto. The estimator then over-estimates the true value in the leading parametric income models (so the upper income tail is less heavy than estimated, which leads to test size distortions and undermines inference. For practical work, we propose a sensitivity analysis based on regression diagnostics in order to assess the likely impact of the distortion. The methods are illustrated using data on top incomes in the UK.

  7. Mine tailings dams: Characteristics, failure, environmental impacts, and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossoff, D.; Dubbin, W.E.; Alfredsson, M.; Edwards, S.J.; Macklin, M.G.; Hudson-Edwards, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    On a global scale demand for the products of the extractive industries is ever increasing. Extraction of the targeted resource results in the concurrent production of a significant volume of waste material, including tailings, which are mixtures of crushed rock and processing fluids from mills, washeries or concentrators that remain after the extraction of economic metals, minerals, mineral fuels or coal. The volume of tailings is normally far in excess of the liberated resource, and the tailings often contain potentially hazardous contaminants. A priority for a reasonable and responsible mining organization must be to proactively isolate the tailings so as to forestall them from entering groundwaters, rivers, lakes and the wind. There is ample evidence that, should such tailings enter these environments they may contaminate food chains and drinking water. Furthermore, the tailings undergo physical and chemical change after they have been deposited. The chemical changes are most often a function of exposure to atmospheric oxidation and tends to make previously, perhaps safely held contaminants mobile and available. If the tailings are stored under water, contact with the atmosphere is substantially reduced, thereby forestalling oxygen-mediated chemical change. It is therefore accepted practice for tailings to be stored in isolated impoundments under water and behind dams. However, these dams frequently fail, releasing enormous quantities of tailings into river catchments. These accidents pose a serious threat to animal and human health and are of concern for extractive industries and the wider community. It is therefore of importance to understand the nature of the material held within these dams, what best safety practice is for these structures and, should the worst happen, what adverse effects such accidents might have on the wider environment and how these might be mitigated. This paper reviews these factors, covering the characteristics, types and magnitudes

  8. Activity, tail loss, growth and survivorship of male Psammodromus algirus

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Milla, Alfredo; Veiga, José Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Males with autotomized tail were sighted more often and moved longer distances than males with complete tail. There were no significant differences in survival between the two groups. The increase of snout-vent lenght at emergence the following year was significantly lower for males with autotomized tail than for males with complete tail.

  9. Elemental characterization of Tummalapalle uranium mill tailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, A.C.; Sahoo, S.K.; Thakur, V.K.; Dubey, J.S.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Sharma, D.B.

    2018-01-01

    Elements are present in environmental matrices at varying concentrations. Their levels may increase due to anthropogenic activities like transportation, industrial activities, agriculture, urbanization and human activities. Trace elements can be classified as potentially toxic (eg. cadmium, arsenic, mercury, lead, nickel), probably essential (eg. cobalt, vanadium) and essential (eg. iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese). Due to the expansion of the Indian Nuclear Power Programme, new uranium mining sites are coming up. Mining and milling produce large quantities of low active mill tailings contained in engineered Tailings Ponds. The tailings are amenable for interaction with the geochemical forces and can act as potential sources of contamination. Thus it is necessary to ascertain the concentrations of elements that are present therein. In this paper we aim to characterize the uranium tailings generated from Tummalapalle uranium mining facility in Kadappa district, Andhra Pradesh, India

  10. Application of dry stackable tailings technologies : providing the base for reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikula, R.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2010-07-01

    The tailings containment structures are some of the largest man made features on the planet. This presentation demonstrated that dry stackable tailings technology may reduce the volume of the accumulated fluid fine tailings. Dry stackable tailings can contribute to boreal forest reclamation and reduce water requirement from the Athabasca River. Much of the water used for the production of each barrel of bitumen is recycled. The water is tied up in the pore spaces of the mineral sand, silt, and clay component which forms the mature fine tailings (MFT) that are contained behind large dykes. Syncrude and Suncor have used a wide variety of technologies to create a dry stackable tailings from this fluid fine tailings substrate. The availability of dry stackable tailings will open options for reclamation strategies that end with the original wetlands or boreal forest. Some of the tailings management options that would lead to a dry stackable tailings naturally also significantly decrease the barrels of water lost with each barrel of bitumen production. These options were discussed along with an analysis of their impact on recycle and pore water quality and quantity. There is an opportunity to remove residual bitumen during the transfer of fluid fine tailings to recover water and create dry stackable tailings. If this bitumen removal is extensive enough, it might be possible to use the dry stackable tailings directly as a reclamation material. tabs., figs.

  11. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt

  12. Isolation and characterization of lost copper and molybdenum particles in the flotation tailings of Kennecott copper porphyry ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserendavga, Tsend-Ayush

    The importance of flotation separation has long been, and continues to be, an important technology for the mining industry, especially to metallurgical engineers. However, the flotation process is quite complex and expensive, in addition to being influenced by many variables. Understanding the variables affecting flotation efficiency and how valuable minerals are lost to the tailings gives metallurgists an advantage in their attempts to increase efficiency by designing operations to target the areas of greatest potential value. A successful, accurate evaluation of lost minerals in the tailings and appropriate solutions to improve flotation efficiency can save millions of dollars in the effective utilization of our mineral resources. In this dissertation research, an attempt has been made to understand the reasons for the loss of valuable mineral particles in the tailings from Kennecott Utah Copper ores. Possibilities include liberation, particle aggregation (slime coating) and surface chemistry issues associated with the flotation separation. This research generally consisted of three main aspects. The first part involved laboratory flotation experiments and factors, which affect the flotation efficiency. Results of flotation testing are reported that several factors such as mineral exposure/liberation and slime coating and surface oxidation strongly affect the flotation efficiency. The second part of this dissertation research was to develop a rapid scan dual energy (DE) methodology using 2D radiography to identify, isolate, and prepare lost sulfide mineral particles with the advantages of simple sample preparation, short analysis time, statistically reliable accuracy and confident identification. The third part of this dissertation research was concerned with detailed characterization of lost particles including such factors as liberation, slime coating, and surface chemistry characteristics using advanced analytical techniques and instruments. Based on the

  13. Leachability of metals from gold tailings by rainwater: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mine leachates from gold tailings impoundments usually contain elevated concentrations of metals and sulphates that impact negatively on water quality. This study was aimed at assessing the leachability of such metals from tailings by rainwater. Oxidised and unoxidised tailings were leached experimentally and through ...

  14. Life Cycle Characterization of Sulfolobus Monocaudavirus 1, an Extremophilic Spindle-Shaped Virus with Extracellular Tail Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uldahl, Kristine B; Jensen, Signe B; Bhoobalan-Chitty, Yuvaraj; Martínez-Álvarez, Laura; Papathanasiou, Pavlos; Peng, Xu

    2016-06-15

    We provide here, for the first time, insights into the initial infection stages of a large spindle-shaped archaeal virus and explore the following life cycle events. Our observations suggest that Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 (SMV1) exhibits a high adsorption rate and that virions adsorb to the host cells via three distinct attachment modes: nosecone association, body association, and body/tail association. In the body/tail association mode, the entire virion, including the tail(s), aligns to the host cell surface and the main body is greatly flattened, suggesting a possible fusion entry mechanism. Upon infection, the intracellular replication cycle lasts about 8 h, at which point the virions are released as spindle-shaped tailless particles. Replication of the virus retarded host growth but did not cause lysis of the host cells. Once released from the host and at temperatures resembling that of its natural habitat, SMV1 starts developing one or two tails. This exceptional property of undergoing a major morphological development outside, and independently of, the host cell has been reported only once before for the related Acidianus two-tailed virus. Here, we show that SMV1 can develop tails of more than 900 nm in length, more than quadrupling the total virion length. Very little is known about the initial life cycle stages of viruses infecting hosts of the third domain of life, Archaea This work describes the first example of an archaeal virus employing three distinct association modes. The virus under study, Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1, is a representative of the large spindle-shaped viruses that are frequently found in acidic hot springs. The results described here will add valuable knowledge about Archaea, the least studied domain in the virology field. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Development in helicopter tail boom strake applications in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John C.; Kelley, Henry L.; Donahue, Cynthia C.; Yenni, Kenneth R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a strake or spoiler on a helicopter tail boom to beneficially change helicopter tail boom air loads was suggested in the United States in 1975. The anticipated benefits were a change of tail boom loads to reduce required tail rotor thrust and power and improve directional control. High tail boom air loads experienced by the YAH-64 and described in 1978 led to a wind tunnel investigation of the usefullness of strakes in altering such loads on the AH-64, UH-60, and UH-1 helicopters. The wind tunnel tests of 2-D cross sections of the tail boom of each demonstrated that a strake or strakes would be effective. Several limited test programs with the U.S. Army's OH-58A, AH-64, and UH-60A were conducted which showed the effects of strakes were modest for those helicopters. The most recent flight test program, with a Bell 204B, disclosed that for the 204B the tail boom strake or strakes would provide more than a modest improvement in directional control and reduction in tail rotor power.

  16. Effect of Tokay Gecko (Gekko Gecko LINNAEUS, 1758) Saliva on Angiogenesis During Wound Healing Phase of Autotomized Tail in Common Sun Skink (Eutropis Multifasciata KUHL, 1820)

    OpenAIRE

    Inayah, Nurul; Soesilo, Nyoman Puniawati; Pratiwi, Rarastoeti

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Tokay gecko saliva on morphology and angiogenesis response on the healing process of skink tail wound and also to characterize the protein profile of Gecko saliva. Twelve skinks were autotomized and wound surface of tail smeared by young gecko saliva, adult gecko saliva, and human's saliva twice per day and control. The morphological changes of the wound surface were observed. The angiogenesis response was observed in vitro using Chor...

  17. Tail-robust scheduling using Limited Processor Sharing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, J.K.; Wierman, A.; Zwart, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    From a rare events perspective, scheduling disciplines that work well under light (exponential) tailed workload distributions do not perform well under heavy (power) tailed workload distributions, and vice versa, leading to fundamental problems in designing schedulers that are robust to

  18. The radiological impacts of uranium mill tailings - A review with special emphasis on the tailings at Ranstad in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The environmental impact of uranium mill talings can be expressed in collective dose commitment and corresponding detriment per MWe.y energy produced by the uranium which corresponds to the amount of waste interest, The methods of dose commitment calculations are discussed and it is suggested for the purpose of estimation of the detriment to limit the commitment to 10,000 years. The external radiation from the tailings is easily reduced by covering but in case of a future settlement on the tailings the collective dose commitment will be some hundreds to thousands of manrad/MWe.y depending on the quality of the uranium ore. The dispersion of dust from uncovered tailings is mainly a local problem and the collective dose commitment for critical tissues in the lung will be less than a manrad/MWe.y. In the long run the cover may be lost and the resultant collective dose commitment for the critical tissues in the lung will be a few tens of manrad/MWe.y depending on the quality of the tailings. The effects of global dispersion of the material in the tailings are also discussed

  19. Summary of the Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Falls City Site, Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Falls City, Texas. Services included taking soil samples, the performance of radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 2.5 million tons of tailings at the Falls City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact. Windblown tailings, external gamma radiation and localized contamination of surface waters are other environmental effects. The two alternative remedial action options presented include on-site and off-site cleanup, fencing, and hydrological monitoring and, in addition, stabilization of pile 2 with 2 ft of cover material. The costs are $1.84 million and $2.45 million

  20. Evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings sites for liner requirements: Characterization and interaction of tailings, soil, and liner materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Martin, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of laboratory experiments using soils from Clive, Utah and tailings samples from three inactive uranium processing sites. The results are to be used to predict contaminant behavior for comparison with the regulatory criteria to decide whether a liner is needed. The interactions of leachates with soils and liner material were studied using both batch and column methods. It is determined that batch leaching tests are suitable for screening a large number of tailings samples for relative contaminant concentrations between samples but not for determining contaminant concentrations and release rates in tailings leachate. The results of column leaching tests on samples of tailings from inactive sites indicate that contaminant concentrations are highest in initial leachate from the columns and that concentrations decrease by an order of magnitude or more after one pore volume

  1. Field and modeling study of windblown particles from a uranium mill tailings pile. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Sehmel, G.A.; Horst, T.W.; Thomas, C.W.; Perkins, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    A field study is reported, showing that for a carbonate-leach-process mill tailings pile in the Grants, New Mexico region much of the residual radioactive constituents in the tailings is found associated with particles 7 μm in diameter and smaller. As the tailings material dries, particle attachment and aggregation occurs with the result that radioactive constituents become associated more with larger particles. Soil samples taken at surface and subsurface on radial lines extending from the tailings pile for 5 miles showed the distribution of radium-226 and other radionuclides in the soil. The radeium-226 deposited on the soil was distributed in such a manner that about 1.6 Ci of randon-222 per day enters the atmosphere from this secondary source. The suspension and transport of particles were studied using an array of sampling towers and wind speed and velocity instrumentation that signaled designated samplers at upwind and downwind locations to operate when wind direction and speed criteria were satisfied. Flux of particles in various size ranges was determined as a function of wind speed. The radionuclide content of airborne particles as a function of particle size was measured for some samplers. A significant fraction of airborne radioactive material is associated with respirable particles. 56 figures, 13 tables

  2. A new procedure for deep sea mining tailings disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, W.; Schott, D.L.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Deep sea mining tailings disposal is a new environmental challenge related to water pollution, mineral crust waste handling, and ocean biology. The objective of this paper is to propose a new tailings disposal procedure for the deep sea mining industry. Through comparisons of the tailings disposal

  3. Effect of magnetic starch on the clarification of hematite tailings wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tao; Wu, Xiqing

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic starch solution, synthesized by mixing the caustic starch, the Fe2+ solution (in some cases containing the Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ or Mg2+ ions) and H2O2 solution, was used as the flocculant to investigate its clarification effect on hematite tailings wastewater. Based on the clarification tests and adsorption analysis it was demonstrated that the magnetic starch produced better clarification effect than the caustic starch, and the adsorption of magnetic starch onto hematite tailings particles was also stronger than the caustic starch. AFM found that the magnetic interaction between magnetic seeds and hematite is characteristic of long range force and greatly strengthens the adsorption of magnetic seeds onto fine hematite for agglomeration. FTIR indicates the starch adsorbed onto the surfaces of hematite and magnetic seeds, thus acting as the bridging between hematite particles and magnetic seeds, resulting in an intensified coverage of the starch onto hematite and positive action in the clarification.

  4. Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, L.D.; Sale, M.J.; Webb, J.W.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The primary hazard associated with uranium mill tailings is exposure to a radioactive gas, radon-222, the concentration of which has been correlated with the occurrence of lung cancer. Previous studies on radon attenuation conclude that the placement of earthen cover materials over the tailings is the most effective technique for reducing radioactive emissions and dispersal of tailings. The success of such a plan, however, is dependent on ensuring the long-term integrity of these cover materials. Soil erosion from water and wind is the major natural cause of destabilizing earthen cover materials. Field data related to the control of soil loss are limited and only indirectly apply to the problem of isolation of uranium mill tailings over very long time periods (up to 80,000 a). However, sufficient information is available to determine benefits that will result from the changes in specific design variables and to evaluate the need for different design strategies among potential disposal sites. The three major options available for stabilization of uranium mill tailings are: rock cover, soil and revegetation, or a combination of both on different portions of the tailings cover. The optimal choice among these alternatives depends on site-specific characteristics such as climate and local geomorphology and soils, and on design variables such as embankment, heights and slopes, modification of upstream drainage, and revegetation practices. Generally, geomorphic evidence suggests that use of soil and vegetation alone will not be adequate to reduce erosion on slopes greater than about 5 to 9%

  5. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails.

  6. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE WESTERN TAIL OF NGC 2782

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf A.; Knezek, Patricia M.; Wehner, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios ∼ SFR ) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed has a local (few-kiloparsec scale) Σ SFR from Hα that is less than that expected from the total gas density, which is consistent with other observations of tidal debris. The star formation efficiency of this H II region inferred from the total gas density is low, but normal when inferred from the molecular gas density. These results suggest the presence of a very small, locally dense region in the western tail of NGC 2782 or of a low-metallicity and/or low-pressure star-forming region.

  7. Price Tails in the Smith and Farmer's Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 25 (2008), s. 31-40 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/07/1113; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/06/1417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : limit order market * continuous double auction * price increments * fat tails * tail exponent Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/E/smid-price tails in the smith and farmer's model.pdf

  8. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques

  9. A tale of two tails: Not just skin deep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal cutaneous appendage or the so called human tail is a rare congenital anomaly protruding from the lumbo-sacro-coccygeal area. These caudal appendages are divided into true-tails and pseudo-tails. We report here two cases of congenital pseudo-tail with underlying spina bifida and lipo-meningocele. In this article we seek to emphasize that, as the skin and nervous systems are intimately linked by their similar ectodermal origin, a dorsal appendage may be regarded as a cutaneous marker of the underlying spinal dysraphism.

  10. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

  11. Estimating impact forces of tail club strikes by ankylosaurid dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Megan Arbour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that the unusual tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs was used actively as a weapon, but the biological feasibility of this behaviour has not been examined in detail. Ankylosaurid tail clubs are composed of interlocking vertebrae, which form the handle, and large terminal osteoderms, which form the knob. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Computed tomographic (CT scans of several ankylosaurid tail clubs referred to Dyoplosaurus and Euoplocephalus, combined with measurements of free caudal vertebrae, provide information used to estimate the impact force of tail clubs of various sizes. Ankylosaurid tails are modeled as a series of segments for which mass, muscle cross-sectional area, torque, and angular acceleration are calculated. Free caudal vertebrae segments had limited vertical flexibility, but the tail could have swung through approximately 100 degrees laterally. Muscle scars on the pelvis record the presence of a large M. longissimus caudae, and ossified tendons alongside the handle represent M. spinalis. CT scans showed that knob osteoderms were predominantly cancellous, which would have lowered the rotational inertia of the tail club and made it easier to wield as a weapon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Large knobs could generate sufficient force to break bone during impacts, but average and small knobs could not. Tail swinging behaviour is feasible in ankylosaurids, but it remains unknown whether the tail was used for interspecific defense, intraspecific combat, or both.

  12. CT findings of normal pancreatic tail: variety of morphology and location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hye Seung; Son, San Hoo; Moon, Gae Hyuk; Kim, Hu Ho; Gong Jae Chul; Yang Jae Boum [Inchon Christian Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mee Sook [Jaesung Hospital. (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    To determine the morphology and location of normal pancreatic tail, as seen on abdominal CT. A hundred and one patients without pancreatic disease underwent CT scanning. We then determined how to relate the location of the pancreatic tail with the splenic hilum, left kidney, and pancreatic body. We compared the thickness of the tail with that of the body and analysed of the morphology of the tail. Seventy-seven percent of all pancreatic tails were located below the splenic hilum, with 59% of this proportion located 1 to 2 cm below. Fifty percent of tails were located at the level of the uppermost quarter of the left kidney, and a further 27% at the level of the second quarter; 75 % were located in the ventrolateral portion of this kidney and 23% in the ventral portion. In 48% of patients, the pancreatic tail and body were the same thickness, and in a further 48 %, the tail was thicker than the body. In 34% of patients, the tail showed focal bulging, and in another 32%, it tapered smoothly. Forty seven percent of tails were located below the pancreatic body and a further 37% were found at the same level as the body. Abdominal CT scans showed differing morphology and location of the pancreatic tail. The recognition of these variations will diminish speculation as to their true nature. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  14. Utilisation of iron ore tailings as aggregates in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Atta Kuranchie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable handling of iron ore tailings is of prime concern to all stakeholders who are into iron ore mining. This study seeks to add value to the tailings by utilising them as a replacement for aggregates in concrete. A concrete mix of grade 40 MPa was prepared in the laboratory with water–cement ratio of 0.5. The concrete were cured for 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The properties of the concrete such as workability, durability, density, compressive strength and indirect tensile strength were tested. A controlled mix of concrete was also prepared in similar way using conventional materials and the results were compared with the tailings concrete. It was found that the iron ore tailings may be utilised for complete replacement for conventional aggregates in concrete. The iron ore tailings aggregates concrete exhibited a good mechanical strength and even in the case of compressive strength, there was an improvement of 11.56% over conventional aggregates concrete. The indirect tensile strength did not improve against the control mix due high content of fines in the tailings aggregates but showed 4.8% improvement compared with the previous study where the conventional fine aggregates was partially replaced by 20% with iron ore tailings.

  15. An M-estimator of multivariate tail dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krajina, A.

    2010-01-01

    AN M-ESTIMATOR OF TAIL DEPENDENCE. Extreme value theory is the part of probability and statistics that provides the theoretical background for modeling events that almost never happen. The estimation of the dependence between two or more such unlikely events (tail dependence) is the topic of this

  16. Flotation tailings as a raw material for ceramic building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmistrov, V N; Karpunina, T I; Smolin, V N

    1986-02-01

    The VNIIstrom research institute developed a method for utilizing flotation tailings for production of bricks. Tailings are dewatered using filter presses. After dewatering, moisture content in the tailings ranges from 25 to 26%. Tailings are mixed with chamotte with a grain size to 2 mm. Using 30% chamotte improves mechanical and physical properties of the bricks and reduces energy consumption of brick firing. Tailings mixed with chamotte are granulated and dried on a conveyor. Granules with moisture content reduced to the optimum level are mixed a second time and formed in a press. The bricks are fired in a tunnel kiln with modified design. The bricks made of flotation tailings mixed with 30% chamotte are characterized by mechanical properties comparable to those of high quality bricks made of conventional materials.

  17. The hydrogeochemistry of four inactive tailings impoundments: Perspectives on tailings pore-water evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowes, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Reardon, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive hydrogeochemical investigations are currently underway at three inactive tailings impoundments in Canada. These programs include detailed measurements of pore-water and gas-phase geochemistry through the vadose zone and the groundwater zone. An extensive piezometer network has been installed at each location to monitor the groundwater flow regime. All of the impoundments studied have been inactive for 15 to 25 years, sufficient time for extensive tailings pore-water evolution. The study areas include a very high-sulfide impoundment, a low-sulfide, high-carbonate impoundment, a low-sulfide, very low-carbonate impoundment, and a moderately high-sulfide impoundment. The pore water at each of the sites has evolved in a distinctly different and characteristic manner, representing broad styles of tailings pore-water evolution. At the high sulfide impoundment the oxidation of sulfide minerals has resulted in low pH, high redox potential conditions, with Fe 2+ concentrations in excess of 60,000 mg/L. At a depth of about 40 cm a 10 cm thick layer of ferrous and calcium sulfate minerals has precipitated. This hardpan layer limits the downward movement of O 2 and infiltrating pore waters. As a result, the pore water chemistry, both above and below the hardpan layer, has remained relatively unchanged over the past 10 years. The low-sulfide, high-carbonate tailings are sufficiently well buffered that no low pH conditions are present. The high pH conditions limit the concentrations of the metals released by sulfide mineral oxidation to levels that are two or three orders of magnitude less than is observed at the high-sulfide site. Pore waters at the low-sulfide, low-carbonate site were sampled by other researchers from the University of Waterloo

  18. Variation of Pore Water Pressure in Tailing Sand under Dynamic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-xu Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense vibration affects the pore water pressure in a tailing dam, with the tendency to induce dam liquefaction. In this study, experiments were performed wherein model tailing dams were completely liquefied by sustained horizontal dynamic loading to determine the effects of the vibration frequency, vibration amplitude, and tailing density on the pore water pressure. The results revealed four stages in the increase of the tailing pore water pressure under dynamic loading, namely, a slow increase, a rapid increase, inducement of structural failure, and inducement of complete liquefaction. A lower frequency and smaller amplitude of the vibration were found to increase the time required to achieve a given pore water pressure in dense tailings. Under the effect of these three factors—vibration frequency and amplitude and tailing density—the tailing liquefaction time varied nonlinearly with the height from the base of the tailing dam, with an initial decrease followed by an increase. The pore pressure that induced structural failure also gradually decreased with increasing height. The increase in the tailing pore pressure could be described by an S-shaped model. A complementary multivariate nonlinear equation was also derived for predicting the tailing pore water pressure under dynamic loading.

  19. Near-threshold quantization and scattering for deep potentials with attractive tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltschka, Christopher; Moritz, Michael J.; Friedrich, Harald

    2000-01-01

    Near-threshold properties of bound and continuum states in a deep potential with an attractive tail depend essentially on a few 'tail parameters', which are determined by the properties of the potential tail beyond the region of r-values where WKB wavefunctions are accurate solutions of the Schroedinger equation. One of these tail parameters is a length parameter which defines the singular contribution to the level density just below threshold and the reflectivity of the tail of the potential just above threshold; another is a phase difference which, together with the length parameter, determines the mean scattering length. The near-threshold quantization rule and the actual scattering length are determined by the tail parameters together with a dimensionless constant depending on the zero-energy value of the WKB action integral. We study potentials with tails consisting of two inverse-power terms, V(r)∼-C α /r α -C α 1 /r α 1 ,α 1 >α>2and we derive exact analytical expressions for the tail parameters in the special case α 1 =2(α-1). This enables us to demonstrate the effect of a significant non-homogeneity of the potential tail on the results derived previously for homogeneous tails. (author)

  20. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC section 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miquel County. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 63 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 15 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The sites are within 1 mile of each other and are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,300 cubic yards (yd 3 ). In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designing site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM)

  1. Ground geophysical study of the Buckeye mine tailings, Boulder watershed, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Robert R.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2000-01-01

    The Buckeye mine site is located in the Boulder River watershed along Basin Creek, in northern Jefferson County, Montana. This project is part of the Boulder River watershed Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative, and is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and Bureau of Land Management in the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the U.S. Forest Service in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The site includes a large flotation milltailing deposit, which extends to the stream and meadows below the mine. These tailings contain elevated levels of metals, such as silver, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Metal-rich fluvial tailings containing these metals, are possible sources of ground and surface water contamination. Geophysical methods were used to characterize the sediments at the Buckeye mine site. Ground geophysical surveys, including electromagnetics, DC resistivity, and total field magnetic methods, were used to delineate anomalies that probably correlate with subsurface metal contamination. Subsurface conductivity was mapped using EM-31 and EM-34 terrain conductivity measuring systems. The conductivity maps represent variation of concentration of dissolved solids in the subsurface from a few meters, to an approximate depth of 30 meters. Conductive sulfides several centimeters thick were encountered in a shallow trench, dug in an area of very high conductivity, at a depth of approximately 1 to1.5 meters. Laboratory measurements of samples of the sulfide layers show the conductivity is on the order of 1000 millisiemens. DC resistivity soundings were used to quantify subsurface conductivity variations and to estimate the depth to bedrock. Total field magnetic measurements were used to identify magnetic metals in the subsurface. The EM surveys identified several areas of relatively high conductivity and detected a conductive plume extending to the southwest, toward the stream. This plume correlates well with the potentiometric surface and direction of

  2. Two active galaxies with tidal tails and companions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Spectroscopic, imaging, and radio observations of the tidally disturbed active systems VV 144 and I Zw 96 are presented, and indicate that the prominent optical extensions seen in both cases represent tidal tails rather than matter ejected from their nuclei (jets). This conclusion is based on the presence of stellar spectral features in the tails, lack of significant ionized gas over most of their length, and lack of radio emission outside the nuclei. Discrete knots in these tails are identified with remnant cores of the companion galaxies responsible for the morphological disturbances of the main galaxies and perhaps contributing to their nuclear activity. In both cases, the dynamics of the interactions are unusual in nature or viewing geometry. VV 144 is seen in the common plane of interaction and disk rotation, appearing strongly foreshortened. I Zw 96 shows tails associated with two companions; each is accompanied by changes in tail structure. This may be the result of a binary system of spirals colliding with a giant elliptical galaxy. 18 references

  3. Interactions of tailings leachate with local liner materials found at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    The mill tailings site at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania is the first mill site to receive remedial action under the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Part of this remedial action will require excavating the 53,500 m 3 (70,000 yd 3 ) of tailings on the site having a specific activity exceeding 100 pCi/g, and encapsulating these contaminated tailings in a clay-lined cell. As part of the remedial action effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been studying the interactions of tailings and tailings leachate with locally occurring clays proposed for liner materials. These studies include physical and chemical characterization of amended and unamended local clays, chemical characterization of the tailings, column studies of tailings leached with deionized water, and column studies of clays contacted with tailings solutions to determine the attenuation properties of the proposed liner materials. Column studies of tailings leached with deionized water indicated that the Canonsburg tailings could represent a source of soluble radium-226 and uranium-238, several trace metals, cations, and the anions SO 4 , NO 3 , and Cl. Of these soluble contaminants, uranium-238, radium-226, the trace metals As and Mo, and the anions F and SO 4 were present at levels exceeding maximum concentration levels in the tailings leaching column effluents. However, local clays, both in amended and unamended form were effective in attenuating contaminant migration. The soil amendments tested failed to increase radium attenuation. The tailings leaching studies indicated that the tailings will produce leachates of neutral pH and relatively low contaminant levels for at least 200 years. We believe that compacting the tailings within the encapsulation cell will help to reduce leaching of contaminants from the liner system, since very low permeabilities ( -8 cm/s) were observed for even slightly compacted tailings materials

  4. Spectrum of human tails: A report of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tail is a curiosity, a cosmetic stigma and presents as an appendage in the lumbosacral region. Six patients of tail in the lumbosacral region are presented here to discuss the spectrum of presentation of human tails. The embryology, pathology and treatment of this entity are discussed along with a brief review of the literature.

  5. Analytical Solution and Application for One-Dimensional Consolidation of Tailings Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-ming Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The pore water pressure of tailings dam has a very great influence on the stability of tailings dam. Based on the assumption of one-dimensional consolidation and small strain, the partial differential equation of pore water pressure is deduced. The obtained differential equation can be simplified based on the parameters which are constants. According to the characteristics of the tailings dam, the pore water pressure of the tailings dam can be divided into the slope dam segment, dry beach segment, and artificial lake segment. The pore water pressure is obtained through solving the partial differential equation by separation variable method. On this basis, the dissipation and accumulation of pore water pressure of the upstream tailings dam are analyzed. The example of typical tailings is introduced to elaborate the applicability of the analytic solution. What is more, the application of pore water pressure in tailings dam is discussed. The research results have important scientific and engineering application value for the stability of tailings dam.

  6. Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators: Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Buffeting alleviation results when using the rudder are presented for comparison. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

  7. Radon emanation from backfilled mill tailings in underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekananda; Patnaik, R Lokeswara; Sethy, Narendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Coarser mill tailings used as backfill to stabilize the stoped out areas in underground uranium mines is a potential source of radon contamination. This paper presents the quantitative assessment of radon emanation from the backfilled tailings in Jaduguda mine, India using a cylindrical accumulator. Some of the important parameters such as (226)Ra activity concentration, bulk density, bulk porosity, moisture content and radon emanation factor of the tailings affecting radon emanation were determined in the laboratory. The study revealed that the radon emanation rate of the tailings varied in the range of 0.12-7.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1) with geometric mean of 1.01 Bq m(-2) s(-1) and geometric standard deviation of 3.39. An increase in radon emanation rate was noticed up to a moisture saturation of 0.09 in the tailings, after which the emanation rate gradually started declining with saturation due to low diffusion coefficient of radon in the saturated tailings. Radon emanation factor of the tailings varied in the range of 0.08-0.23 with the mean value of 0.21. The emanation factor of the tailings with moisture saturation level over 0.09 was found to be about three times higher than that of the absolutely dry tailings. The empirical relationship obtained between (222)Rn emanation rate and (226)Ra activity concentration of the tailings indicated a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). This relationship may be useful for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the backfill material of similar nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. SEARCH AND MAPPING OF THE OLD BURIED TAILINGS WITH RADIOACTIVE WASTES AT THE URBAN TERRITORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, O I; Soroka, Y N; Podrezov, A A; Soroka, M N

    2017-11-01

    The article presents results of investigation on search and mapping of the old buried tailings with radioactive wastes on the territory of Kamianske City. For solving the problem used complex of methods. These methods are as follows: soil-gas 222Rn measurement and measurement of 222Rn flux density from the ground surface, gamma-radiation survey, prospecting drilling, gamma-ray logging and laboratory analysis of radionuclides. The leading method in this complex was the method of soil-gas 222Rn measurement. Using this method location of the tailings has been precisely defined. The tailings boundaries have been contoured in the plan. Other methods permitted to define such parameters as thickness of the wastes, their volume (~330 000 m3), radionuclide and chemical composition. It was found that radioactive residues occur at a depth from 2 to 11 m and contain in its composition 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the range from 8370 to 37 270 Bq kg-1. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Dam-break studies for mine tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyapalan, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes simple procedures for performing dam-break analyses. Tailings from dam failures usually liquefy and flow for substantial distances as a viscous fluid. The prediction of the possible extent of flow slide movement is illustrated using two case histories. Topics considered include the flow behavior of liquefied talings, dimensionsless numbers for mine tailings and associated flow regimes, laminar flow, and turbulent flow. The potential inundation regions downstream of mine tailings dams are assessed. It is concluded that instances of flow slides of mine waste embankments indicate that the failure of these structures has considerable potential for damage to life and property in many cases

  10. Orphan Stars Found in Long Galaxy Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Astronomers have found evidence that stars have been forming in a long tail of gas that extends well outside its parent galaxy. This discovery suggests that such "orphan" stars may be much more prevalent than previously thought. The comet-like tail was observed in X-ray light with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and in optical light with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope in Chile. The feature extends for more than 200,000 light years and was created as gas was stripped from a galaxy called ESO 137-001 that is plunging toward the center of Abell 3627, a giant cluster of galaxies. "This is one of the longest tails like this we have ever seen," said Ming Sun of Michigan State University, who led the study. "And, it turns out that this is a giant wake of creation, not of destruction." Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 The observations indicate that the gas in the tail has formed millions of stars. Because the large amounts of gas and dust needed to form stars are typically found only within galaxies, astronomers have previously thought it unlikely that large numbers of stars would form outside a galaxy. "This isn't the first time that stars have been seen to form between galaxies," said team member Megan Donahue, also of MSU. "But the number of stars forming here is unprecedented." The evidence for star formation in this tail includes 29 regions of ionized hydrogen glowing in optical light, thought to be from newly formed stars. These regions are all downstream of the galaxy, located in or near the tail. Two Chandra X-ray sources are near these regions, another indication of star formation activity. The researchers believe the orphan stars formed within the last 10 million years or so. The stars in the tail of this fast-moving galaxy, which is some 220 million light years away, would be much more isolated than the vast majority of stars in galaxies. H-alpha Image of

  11. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of a neutral, low-sulfide/high-carbonate tailings impoundment, Markušovce, eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Edgar; Petrák, Marián; Tóth, Roman; Lalinská-Voleková, Bronislava; Jurkovič, L'ubomír; Kučerová, Gabriela; Radková, Anežka; Sottník, Peter; Vozár, Jaroslav

    2013-11-01

    mineral assemblage and their occurrence follows the order: chalcopyrite > pyrite > tetrahedrite>arsenopyrite. The mineralogical composition of the tailings corresponds well to the primary mineralization mined. The neutralization capacity of the tailings is high, as confirmed by the values of neutralization potential to acid generation potential ratio, ranging from 6.7 to 63.9, and neutral to slightly alkaline pH of the tailings (paste pH 7.16-8.12) and the waters (pH 7.00-8.52). This is explained by abundant occurrence of carbonate minerals in the tailings, which readily neutralize the acidity generated by sulfide oxidation. The total solid-phase concentrations of metal(loid)s decrease as Cu>Sb>Hg>As and reflect the proportions of sulfides present in the tailings. Sulfide oxidation generally extends to a depth of 2 m. μ-XRD and EMPA were used to study secondary products developed on the surface of sulfide minerals and within the tailings. The main secondary minerals identified are goethite and X-ray amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides and their occurrence decreases with increasing tailings depth. Secondary Fe phases are found as mineral coatings or individual grains and retain relatively high amounts of metal(loid)s (up to 57.6 wt% Cu, 1.60 wt% Hg, 23.8 wt% As, and 2.37 wt% Sb). Based on batch leaching tests and lysimeter results, the mobility of potentially toxic elements in the tailings is low. The limited mobility of metals and metalloids is due to their retention by Fe oxyhydroxides and low solubilities of metal(loid)-bearing sulfides. The observations are consistent with PHREEQC calculations, which predict the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides as the main solubility-controlling mineral phases for As, Cu, Hg, and Sb. Waters discharging from tailings impoundment are characterized by a neutral to slightly alkaline pH (7.52-7.96) and low concentrations of dissolved metal(loid)s (tailings impoundment.

  12. Remote sensing to monitor uranium tailing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report concerns the feasibility of using remotely-sensed data for long-term monitoring of uranium tailings. Decommissioning of uranium mine tailings sites may require long-term monitoring to confirm that no unanticipated release of contaminants occurs. Traditional ground-based monitoring of specific criteria of concern would be a significant expense depending on the nature and frequency of the monitoring. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether available remote-sensing data and techniques were applicable to the long-term monitoring of tailings sites. This objective was met by evaluating to what extent the data and techniques could be used to identify and discriminate information useful for monitoring tailings sites. The cost associated with obtaining and interpreting this information was also evaluated. Satellite and aircraft remote-sensing-based activities were evaluated. A monitoring programme based on annual coverage of Landsat Thematic Mapper data is recommended. Immediately prior to and for several years after decommissioning of the tailings sites, airborne multispectral and thermal infrared surveys combined with field verification data are required in order to establish a baseline for the long-term satellite-based monitoring programme. More frequent airborne surveys may be required if rapidly changing phenomena require monitoring. The use of a geographic information system is recommended for the effective storage and manipulation of data accumulated over a number of years

  13. Predicting arsenic concentrations in porewaters of buried uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langmuir, D.; Mahoney, J.; MacDonald, A.; Rowson, J.

    1999-10-01

    The proposed JEB Tailings Management Facility (TMF) to be emplaced below the groundwater table in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, will contain uranium mill tailings from McClean Lake, Midwest and Cigar Lake ore bodies, which are high in arsenic (up to 10%) and nickel (up to 5%). A serious concern is the possibility that high arsenic and nickel concentrations may be released from the buried tailings, contaminating adjacent groundwaters and a nearby lake. Laboratory tests and geochemical modeling were performed to examine ways to reduce the arsenic and nickel concentrations in TMF porewaters so as to minimize such contamination from tailings buried for 50 years and longer. The tests were designed to mimic conditions in the mill neutralization circuit (3 hr tests at 25 C), and in the TMF after burial (5--49 day aging tests). The aging tests were run at 50, 25 and 4 C (the temperature in the TMF). In order to optimize the removal of arsenic by adsorption and precipitation, ferric sulfate was added to tailings raffinates having Fe/As ratios of less than 3--5. The acid raffinates were then neutralized by addition of slaked lime to nominal pH values of 7, 8, or 9. Analysis and modeling of the test results showed that with slaked lime addition to acid tailings raffinates, relatively amorphous scorodite (ferric arsenate) precipitates near pH 1, and is the dominant form of arsenate in slake limed tailings solids except those high in Ni and As and low in Fe, in which cabrerite-annabergite (Ni, Mg, Fe(II) arsenate) may also precipitate near pH 5--6. In addition to the arsenate precipitates, smaller amounts of arsenate are also adsorbed onto tailings solids. The aging tests showed that after burial of the tailings, arsenic concentrations may increase with time from the breakdown of the arsenate phases (chiefly scorodite). However, the tests indicate that the rate of change decreases and approaches zero after 72 hrs at 25 C, and may equal zero at all times in the TMF at 4 C

  14. Sandia's activities in uranium mill tailings remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, S.

    1980-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 requires that remedial action be taken at over 20 inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the United States. Standards promulgated by the EPA under this act are to be the operative standards for this activity. Proposed standards must still undergo internal review, public comment, and receive Nuclear Regulatory Commission concurrence before being finalized. Briefly reviewed, the standards deal separately with new disposal sites (Part A) and cleanup of soil and contaminated structures at existing locations (Part B). In several cases, the present sites are felt to be too close to human habitations or to be otherwise unacceptably located. These tailings will probably be relocated. New disposal sites for relocated tailings must satisfy certain standards. The salient features of these standards are summarized

  15. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic and antioxidative compounds from lizard tail (Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trakul Prommajak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lizard tail (Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is an Asian herb which has many biological activities, including antioxidative property from polyphenolic compounds. Response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design were employed to study the effect of extraction temperature (30 to 70°C, extraction time (10 to 30 min, ethanol concentration (30 to 70%, and solvent to sample ratio (2 to 6 ml/g on ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from lizard tail and antioxidant capacity of the herb extract. Extraction temperature was the most relevant factor on the responses. Optimal condition was the extraction temperature of 70°C for 30 min, using 60% ethanol concentration at the solvent to sample ratio of 5 ml/g. Model adequacies were confirmed by extraction at the optimal condition and normality of standardized residuals.

  16. Oil sands thickened froth treatment tailings exhibit acid rock drainage potential during evaporative drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-02-01

    Bitumen extraction from oil sands ores after surface mining produces different tailings waste streams: 'froth treatment tailings' are enriched in pyrite relative to other streams. Tailings treatment can include addition of organic polymers to produce thickened tailings (TT). TT may be further de-watered by deposition into geotechnical cells for evaporative drying to increase shear strength prior to reclamation. To examine the acid rock drainage (ARD) potential of TT, we performed predictive analyses and laboratory experiments on material from field trials of two types of thickened froth treatment tailings (TT1 and TT2). Acid-base accounting (ABA) of initial samples showed that both TT1 and TT2 initially had net acid-producing potential, with ABA values of -141 and -230 t CaCO₃ equiv. 1000 t(-1) of TT, respectively. In long-term kinetic experiments, duplicate ~2-kg samples of TT were incubated in shallow trays and intermittently irrigated under air flow for 459 days to simulate evaporative field drying. Leachates collected from both TT samples initially had pH~6.8 that began decreasing after ~50 days (TT2) or ~250 days (TT1), stabilizing at pH~2. Correspondingly, the redox potential of leachates increased from 100-200 mV to 500-580 mV and electrical conductivity increased from 2-5 dS m(-1) to 26 dS m(-1), indicating dissolution of minerals during ARD. The rapid onset and prolonged ARD observed with TT2 is attributed to its greater pyrite (13.4%) and lower carbonate (1.4%) contents versus the slower onset of ARD in TT1 (initially 6.0% pyrite and 2.5% carbonates). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis revealed rapid shift in microbial community when conditions became strongly acidic (pH~2) favoring the enrichment of Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus bacteria in TT. This is the first report showing ARD potential of TT and the results have significant implications for effective management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams/deposits. Copyright © 2014

  17. Environmental hazard assessment of a marine mine tailings deposit site and potential implications for deep-sea mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Nélia C; Rocha, Thiago L; Canals, Miquel; Cardoso, Cátia; Danovaro, Roberto; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Regoli, Francesco; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Bebianno, Maria João

    2017-09-01

    Portmán Bay is a heavily contaminated area resulting from decades of metal mine tailings disposal, and is considered a suitable shallow-water analogue to investigate the potential ecotoxicological impact of deep-sea mining. Resuspension plumes were artificially created by removing the top layer of the mine tailings deposit by bottom trawling. Mussels were deployed at three sites: i) off the mine tailings deposit area; ii) on the mine tailings deposit beyond the influence from the resuspension plumes; iii) under the influence of the artificially generated resuspension plumes. Surface sediment samples were collected at the same sites for metal analysis and ecotoxicity assessment. Metal concentrations and a battery of biomarkers (oxidative stress, metal exposure, biotransformation and oxidative damage) were measured in different mussel tissues. The environmental hazard posed by the resuspension plumes was investigated by a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE) model that integrated all the data. The resuspension of sediments loaded with metal mine tails demonstrated that chemical contaminants were released by trawling subsequently inducing ecotoxicological impact in mussels' health. Considering as sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) those indicated in Spanish action level B for the disposal of dredged material at sea, the WOE model indicates that the hazard is slight off the mine tailings deposit, moderate on the mine tailings deposit without the influence from the resuspension plumes, and major under the influence of the resuspension plumes. Portmán Bay mine tailings deposit is a by-product of sulphide mining, and despite differences in environmental setting, it can reflect the potential ecotoxic effects to marine fauna from the impact of resuspension of plumes created by deep-sea mining of polymetallic sulphides. A similar approach as in this study could be applied in other areas affected by sediment resuspension and for testing future deep-sea mining sites in

  18. Uranium and thorium leached from uranium mill tailing of Guangdong province (CN)) and its implication for radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Liu, J.; Zhu, L.; Qi, J. Y.; Chen, Y. H.; Xiao, T. F.; Fu, S. M.; Wang, C. L.; Li, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    The paper focused on the leaching behaviour of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) from uranium mill tailing collected from the Uranium Mill Plant in Northern Guangdong Province (CN)). Distilled water (pH 6) and sulphuric acid solution (pH 4 and 3) were used as solvent for the leaching over 22 weeks. It was found that the cumulative leach fraction from the mill tailing was 0.1, 0.1 and 0.7 % for U release, and overall 0.01 % for Th release, using distilled water, sulphuric acid solution of pH 4 and pH 3 as leaching agents, respectively. The results indicate that (1) the release of U and Th in uranium mill tailing is a slow and long-term process; (2) surface dissolution is the main mechanism for the release of U and Th when sulphuric acid solution of pH 3 is employed as the leaching agent; (3) both U and Th are released by diffusion when using sulphuric acid solution of pH 4 as the leaching agent and (4) U is released by surface dissolution, while Th is released by diffusion when using distilled water as the leaching agent. The implication for radiological risk in the real environment was also discussed. (authors)

  19. Conception and methodology of a prospective safety report for uranium mills tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.; Larue, J.; Fischer- Appelt, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koln (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    vertical transport of contaminants into the underground. - Conclusions. Based on the results of the safety analysis it can be estimated that some kind of in-situ remediation represents the best suited option. Due to the system stabilizing features the spar cover must be preserved. The seepage water flowing out at the main dam has to be collected. The tailings pond should be replanted. The surface of the pond should be adopted to the former site morphology. (authors)

  20. Conception and methodology of a prospective safety report for uranium mills tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, D.; Larue, J.; Fischer- Appelt, K.

    2006-01-01

    transport of contaminants into the underground. - Conclusions. Based on the results of the safety analysis it can be estimated that some kind of in-situ remediation represents the best suited option. Due to the system stabilizing features the spar cover must be preserved. The seepage water flowing out at the main dam has to be collected. The tailings pond should be replanted. The surface of the pond should be adopted to the former site morphology. (authors)

  1. The impact of unconfined mine tailings in residential areas from a mining town in a semi-arid environment: Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; Maier, Raina M; de la O-Villanueva, Margarita; Gómez-Alvarez, Agustín; Moreno-Zazueta, Alan; Rivera, Jacinto; Campillo, Alberto; Grandlic, Christopher J; Anaya, Ricardo; Palafox-Reyes, Juan

    2009-09-01

    Past mining activities in northern Mexico left a legacy of delerict landscapes devoid of vegetation and seasonal formation of salt efflorescence. Metal content was measured in mine tailings, efflorescent salts, soils, road dust, and residential soils to investigate contamination. Climatic effects such as heavy wind and rainfall events can have great impact on the dispersion of metals in semi-arid areas, since soils are typically sparsely vegetated. Geochemical analysis of this site revealed that even though total metal content in mine tailings was relatively low (e.g. Cu= 1000 mg kg(-1)), metals including Mn, Ba, Zn, and Cu were all found at significantly higher levels in efflorescence salts formed by evaporation on the tailings impoundment surface following the rainy season (e.g. Cu= 68,000 mg kg(-1)). Such efflorescent fine-grained salts are susceptible to wind erosion resulting in increased metal spread to nearby residential soils. Our results highlight the importance of seasonally dependent salt-formation and wind erosion in determining risk levels associated with potential inhalation or ingestion of airborne particulates originating from contaminated sites such as tailings impoundments. In low metal-content mine tailings located in arid and semi-arid environments, efflorescence salts could represent a human health risk and a challenge for plant establishment in mine tailings.

  2. Recent advancements in the geotechnical characterization of oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J. [Conetec, Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The technical aspects of soft oil sands tailings in-situ geotechnical site investigations were discussed. Geotechnical studies are conducted to determine containment structure stability as well as to determine volumetric and mass balances. The results of the studies are used in tailings management plans and construction activities. Flow penetrometers, field vane shear tests, and Gamma-CPTu tests are used in in-situ oil sands tailings geotechnical studies in order to determine pore pressure dissipation, and measure shear strength. Ball penetration tests are conducted to determine tailings strength. Methods of interpreting data from the tests were presented, and data from the tests were also compared and evaluated. Recommended procedures for strength screening were presented. Statistical methods for determining tailings behaviour types were outlined. The study showed that Gamma-CPTu data can be used to obtain reasonable preliminary estimates of solids and fines when combined with tailings behaviour type analyses. tabs., figs.

  3. Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO 3 ) and hydrated lime [Ca(OH) 2 ] for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs

  4. Influence of uranium mill tailings on tree growth at Elliot Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    A four-year study was carried out to determine the ability of coniferous trees to aid in the reclamation of uranium tailings at Elliot Lake. Five species were planted: white cedar, white spruce, jack pine, scotch pine and red pine. More than 570 bare-root, two-year-old seedlings were planted on bare tailings and in areas of established grasses. A further division was made between areas of coarse and fine tailings. Over-all survival and growth of the trees has been far below expectations based on previous experience with several varieties of grasses. The criteria for assessment have been per cent survival and yearly growth as determined by plant height. Pine was superior, with 68% survival when planted in bare coarse tailings, 45% for vegetated coarse tailings and 34% for vegetated fine tailings. Cedar had the worst survival rates at 49%, 14% and 7% respectively. No species survived on bare fine tailings. The survival and growth of the coniferous trees have been related to species, environmental conditions and tailings properties. (author)

  5. Influence of uranium mill tailings on tree growth at Elliot Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    A four year study was carried out to determine the ability of coniferous trees to aid in the reclamation of uranium tailings at Elliot Lake. Five species were planted: white cedar, white spruce, jack pine, scotch pine and red pine. More than 570 bare-root, two-year-old seedlings were planted on bare tailings and in areas of established grasses. A further division was made between areas of coarse and fine tailings. Over-all survival and growth of the trees has been far below expectations based on previous experience with several varieties of grasses. The crieteria for assessment have been per cent survival and yearly growth as determined by plant height. Pine was superior, with 68% survival when planted in bare coarse tailings, 45% for vegetated coarse tailings and 34% for vegetated fine tailings. Cedar had the worst survival rates at 49%, 14% and 7% respectively. No species survived on bare fine tailings. The survival and growth of the coniferous trees have been related to species, environmental conditions and tailings properties. (auth)

  6. Identification of poorly crystalline scorodite in uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, R.; Rowson, J.; Hughes, K.; Rinas, C.; Warner, J.

    2010-01-01

    The McClean Lake mill, located in northern Saskatchewan, processes a variety of uranium ore bodies to produce yellowcake. A by-product of this process is an acidic waste solution enriched in arsenic, referred to as raffinate. The raffinate waste stream is treated in the tailings preparation circuit, where arsenic is precipitated as a poorly crystalline scorodite phase. Raffinate neutralization studies have successfully identified poorly crystalline scorodite using XRD, SEM, EM, XANES and EXAFS methods, but to date, scorodite has not been successfully identified within the whole tailing solids. During the summer of 2008, a drilling program sampled the in situ tailings within the McClean Lake tailings management facility. Samples from this drilling campaign were sent to the Canadian Light Source Inc. for EXAFS analysis. The sample spectra positively identify a poorly crystalline scorodite phase within the McClean tailings management facility. (author)

  7. The Rum Jungle tailings dam - chemical profile of the subsoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowson, R.T.; Evans, J.V.; Sarbutt, J.V.; Sinclair, G.; Folk, E.

    1987-09-01

    In a survey of soils below the Rum Jungle uranium mine tailings dam, parameters measured were pH, moisture content, particle distribution, total Cu, water-extractable Cu, Ca and SO 4 and acid-extractable Ra. The cation profile had a marked discontinuity at the soil/tailings interface. This was attributed to a complex hydrogeology and to the presence of a reduction zone in the soil immediately below the tailings. The tailings acted as an aquaclude to a water table which fluctuated with the monsoonal season. The reduction zone acted as a cation trap, preventing cation transport. The radium concentration dropped to levels acceptable to public health within a few centimetres of the soil/tailings interface

  8. Can tail damage outbreaks in the pig be predicted by behavioural change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-03-01

    Tail biting, resulting in outbreaks of tail damage in pigs, is a multifactorial welfare and economic problem which is usually partly prevented through tail docking. According to European Union legislation, tail docking is not allowed on a routine basis; thus there is a need for alternative preventive methods. One strategy is the surveillance of the pigs' behaviour for known preceding indicators of tail damage, which makes it possible to predict a tail damage outbreak and prevent it in proper time. This review discusses the existing literature on behavioural changes observed prior to a tail damage outbreak. Behaviours found to change prior to an outbreak include increased activity level, increased performance of enrichment object manipulation, and a changed proportion of tail posture with more tails between the legs. Monitoring these types of behaviours is also discussed for the purpose of developing an automatic warning system for tail damage outbreaks, with activity level showing promising results for being monitored automatically. Encouraging results have been found so far for the development of an automatic warning system; however, there is a need for further investigation and development, starting with the description of the temporal development of the predictive behaviour in relation to tail damage outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

  11. Reactivity of the isolated perfused rat tail vascular bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. França

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated segments of the perfused rat tail artery display a high basal tone when compared to other isolated arteries such as the mesenteric and are suitable for the assay of vasopressor agents. However, the perfusion of this artery in the entire tail has not yet been used for functional studies. The main purpose of the present study was to identify some aspects of the vascular reactivity of the rat tail vascular bed and validate this method to measure vascular reactivity. The tail severed from the body was perfused with Krebs solution containing different Ca2+ concentrations at different flow rates. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (65 mg/kg and heparinized (500 U. The tail artery was dissected near the tail insertion, cannulated and perfused with Krebs solution plus 30 µM EDTA at 36oC and 2.5 ml/min and the procedures were started after equilibration of the perfusion pressure. In the first group a dose-response curve to phenylephrine (PE (0.5, 1, 2 and 5 µg, bolus injection was obtained at different flow rates (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ml/min. The mean perfusion pressure increased with flow as well as PE vasopressor responses. In a second group the flow was changed (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 ml/min at different Ca2+ concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 3.75 mM in the Krebs solution. Increasing Ca2+ concentrations did not alter the flow-pressure relationship. In the third group a similar protocol was performed but the rat tail vascular bed was perfused with Krebs solution containing PE (0.1 µg/ml. There was an enhancement of the effect of PE with increasing external Ca2+ and flow. PE vasopressor responses increased after endothelial damage with air and CHAPS, suggesting an endothelial modulation of the tone of the rat tail vascular bed. These experiments validate the perfusion of the rat tail vascular bed as a method to investigate vascular reactivity

  12. Application of tailings flow analyses to field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of tailings impoundments, in which liquefied tailings flow over substantial distances, pose severe hazards to the health and safety of people in downstream areas, and have a potential for economic and environmental devastation. The purpose of this study, an extension of prior investigations, was to develop procedures to measure Bingham flow parameters for mine tailings. In addition, the analytical procedures developed by Lucia (1981) and Jeyapalan (1980) for predicting the consequences of tailings flow failures were evaluated and applied to the Tenmile Tailings Pond at Climax, Colorado. Revisions in the simplified equilibrium procedure, developed by Lucia (1981), make it more compatible with infinite slope solutions. Jeyapalan's model was evaluated using a simple rheological analogy, and it appears there are some numerical difficulties with the operation of the computer program TFLOW used to model the displacements and velocities of flow slides. Comparable flow distances can be determined using either model if the flow volume used in the simplified equilibrium procedure is estimated properly. When both analytical procedures were applied to the Tenmile Pond, it was concluded there was no potential for a flow slide at the site

  13. Liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    The Liner Evaluation for Uranium Mill Tailings Program was conducted to evaluate the need for and performance of prospective lining materials for the long-term management of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. On the basis of program results, two materials have been identified: natural foundation soil amended with 10% sodium bentonite; catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The study showed that, for most situations, calcareous soils typical of Western US sites adequately buffer tailings leachates and prevent groundwater contamination without additional liner materials or amendments. Although mathematical modeling of disposal sites is recommended on a site-specific basis, there appears to be no reason to expect significant infiltration through the cover for most Western sites. The major water source through the tailings would be groundwater movement at sites with shallow groundwater tables. Even so column leaching studies showed that contaminant source terms were reduced to near maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water within one or two pore volumes; thus, a limited source term for groundwater contamination exists. At sites where significant groundwater movement or infiltration is expected and the tailings leachates are alkaline, however, the sodium bentonite or asphalt membrane may be necessary

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water

  15. Costs associated with tail autotomy in an ambush foraging lizard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We induced tail autotomy in free ranging male Cordylus m. melanotus and measured potential shifts in behaviour (movements, foraging behaviour, time exposed and average distance to a potential refuge), and responses to an approaching human compared to marked individuals with complete tails. Tailed and tailless ...

  16. Estimation of bitumen and clay content in fine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta Cabrera, S.C.; Bryan, J.; Kantzas, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fine tailings are the components of tailings ponds and the by-product of the oil sand extraction process, consisting mostly of water with small amounts of bitumen, sand, silts and clays. Because of the large volumes of tailings, an important environmental and production process issue involves the reduction of the remaining bitumen in the tailings stream. This paper presented the results of a study that used low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in order to estimate the bitumen, clay and water content of synthetic tailings samples. NMR is a non-destructive technique that is utilized to determine compositions of oil and brine emulsions and the viscosity of heavy oil and bitumen as well as in reservoir characterization, measuring properties such as permeability, porosity, mobile and immobile fluids, and fluid saturations. The study prepared and tested numerous samples with variable water, bitumen, sand and clay concentrations in the NMR tool under ambient conditions. Two qualities of water and bitumen were used to prepare the synthetic samples. Each type of water and bitumen was analyzed as a single substance and in a mixture with the typical solids found in tailings composition. These included kaolinite, illite, sodium montmorillonite and sand. These synthetic samples were analyzed using different mixing configurations, as a function of time and in two different NMR tools. It was concluded that NMR is a potential application for on-line determination of tailings streams composition. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs

  17. Uranium mill tailings storage, use, and disposal problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Solid and liquid residues (tailings) containing substantial quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides are produced and stored at all US uranium mill sites. These radioactive wastes are a potential health hazard with the degree of hazard depending largely on the tailings management practices at the individual sites. The principal pathways of potential radiation exposure to man are discussed. A description is presented of some past and current tailings storage practices together with a description of some of the possible problems associated with various stabilization and disposal options. 16 figures

  18. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.com; Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.com; Sethy, N.K., E-mail: sethybarc@rediffmail.com; Sahoo, S.K., E-mail: sksbarc@gmail.com

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r = 0.86, p < 0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p < 0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. - Highlights: • Uranium mill tailings pond. • Jaduguda, India. • Fresh water plants. • Uranium uptake. • Relationship of uranium with stable elements.

  19. [Assessment of anti-tremorogenic drugs--nicotine-induced tail-tremor model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemaru, K; Kawasaki, H; Gomita, Y

    1997-06-01

    The repeated administration of nicotine at small doses, which do not produce whole body tremor or convulsion, causes tremor only in the tail (tail-tremor) of rats. The tremor is accompanied by locomotor hyperactivity without rigidity and immobility of the whole body, suggesting that the nicotine-induced tail-tremor model is useful for studying the mechanism underlying tremor associated with movement. The tail-tremor induced by nicotine was suppressed by mecamylamine, a nicotinic antagonist, but not by atropine or scopolamine, muscalinic antagonists. Moreover, the tail-tremor was suppressed by the beta-blockers propranolol and pindolol, as well as the benzodiazepines diazepam and clonazepam. Tremor at rest is observed only in Parkinson's disease, which is improved with anti-muscalinic drugs. Essential tremor is one of the typical tremors connected with movement (postural and kinetic tremor) and is improved with beta-blocker. These findings and results suggest that nicotine-induced tail-tremor is useful for the study of essential tremor in animal models.

  20. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... efficiency from 1% to 80% compared to experiments with no stirring but with the same operational conditions. This showed the crucial importance of having the solids in suspension and not settled during the remediation....

  1. Managing 'tail liability'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program.

  2. A review on in situ phytoremediation of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Ji, Bin; Hu, Yuehua; Liu, Runqing; Sun, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Mine tailings are detrimental to natural plant growth due to their physicochemical characteristics, such as high pH, high salinity, low water retention capacity, high heavy metal concentrations, and deficiencies in soil organic matter and fertility. Thus, the remediation of mine tailings has become a key issue in environmental science and engineering. Phytoremediation, an in situ cost-effective technology, is emerging as the most promising remediation method for mine tailings by introducing tolerant plant species. It is particularly effective in dealing with large-area mine tailings with shallow contamination of organic, nutrient and metal pollutants. In this review, the background, concepts and applications of phytoremediation are comprehensively discussed. Furthermore, proper amendments used to improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of mine tailings are systematically reviewed and compared. Emphasis is placed on the types and characteristics of tolerant plants and their role in phytoremediation. Moreover, the role of microorganisms and their mechanism in phytoremediation are also discussed in-depth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening Assessment of Radionuclide Migration in Groundwater from the “Dneprovskoe” Tailings Impoundment (Dneprodzerzhynsk City) and Evaluation of Remedial Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalskyi, O.; Bugai, D. [Institute of Geological Sciences, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Ryazantsev, V. [State Nuclear Regularity Committee of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-05-15

    The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of the hydrogeological conditions at the “Dneprovskoe” (“D”) tailings impoundment –object of the former industrial association of “Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant”, which contains uranium ore processing wastes. This radioactively polluted site is located in a densely populated region (at the outskirts of Dneprodzerginsk City) near the major watercourse of the Ukraine — Dnieper River.The mathematical modeling utilized Visual Modflow (for groundwater flow) and Ecolego (Facilia AB, Sweden) radioecology modeling software (for radionuclide transport).Modeling results indicate the possibility of essential radioactive contamination in future of the phreatic aquifer in alluvial deposits between the “D” tailings and the Dnieper River (mainly due to migration of uranium). Therefore long-term management strategies should preclude water usage from the aquifer in the zone of the in-fluence of the “D” tailings. Filtration discharge of uranium to the Dnepr River does not represent a significant risk due to large dilution by surface waters. The important modeling conclusion is that besides the uranium ore processing wastes inside the tailings, the major source of radionuclide migration to groundwater is represented by contaminated geological deposits below the tailings. This last source was formed due to leakage of wastewaters during the operational period of the “D” tailings (1954–1968). Therefore an exemption and re-disposal of wastes from the “D” tailings to a more safe storage location (proposed by some remedial plans) will not provide significant benefit from the viewpoint of minimizing of radionuclide transport to the groundwater and Dnieper River (especially in short-and medium-term perspective). The rational remedial strategy for the “D” tailings is conservation of tailing wastes in-situ by means of specially designed “zero flux” soil screen, which would minimize infiltration of

  4. Recent hydrological observations from the Riverton and Maybell tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, T.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports on field and laboratory hydrologic studies of two inactive uranium mill tailings piles under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRA). The ultimate goal of the studies is to evaluate the nature of the contaminant potential of the piles with sufficient detail so that appropriate remedial measures can be designed and implemented under the UMTRA Program. The field studies included the monitoring of hydraulic head profiles of the piles and infiltration tests. Both the field and laboratory results from the Riverton tailings indicate a great deal of spatial variability in hydraulic properties. It is determined that the bulk of the precipitation input at the Riverton tailings is lost by evapotranspiration within the upper meter of soil cover and tailings

  5. Radium and heavy metal transport beneath an abandoned uranium tailings dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, J.J.; Sinclair, G.; Lowson, R.T.

    1988-09-01

    An abandoned uranium tailings dam at Moline in the Northern Territory of Australia was the site of a study to assess the movement of potentially toxic elements from tailings into subsoil. The tailings at Moline were first laid down in 1959 and have since been leached by prevailing rainfall. Sixteen sampling sites were selected to give a good representation of the dam. At each site, a trench was excavated through the tailings and into the subsoil, then samples of subsoil were taken at 10 cm intervals down to a depth of 50 cm. A sample of the tailings overlying the tailings-subsoil interface was also taken. Samples were analysed for radium, uranium, copper, zinc, and lead. At most sites there was only minor accumulation of these elements in the 0-10 cm subsoil layer immediately below the interface, with concentrations typically one or two orders of magnitude less than the concentrations in overlying tailings. Below 10 cm, the concentrations were typically at or close to background concentrations

  6. Tailings technology. Decommissioning and rehabilitation remedial action technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, R.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is to provide an overview of technology requirements for long-term uranium mill tailings disposal and remedial actions for existing tailings to ensure their adequate disposal. The paper examines the scientific disciplines that are the basis for the technology of uranium mill tailings stabilization and the design of barriers to control radiological exposure or environmental degradation at the location of tailings disposal. The discussion is presented as a hypothetical course of instruction at a fictitious university. Features of six mechanisms of dispersal or intrusion are examined with brief discussion of the applicable technology development for each. The paper serves as an introduction to subsequent specific technology development papers in the session. (author)

  7. Long-term ecological behaviour of abandoned uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, Margarete

    1984-12-01

    Semi-aquatic and terrestrial areas on abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings in Ontario were studied in order to identify the growth characteristics of the naturally invading species dominating these areas. Semi-aquatic areas of tailings sites have been invaded by cattails. These species formed wetland communities which varied in size, but all were essentially monocultures of Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia, or of the hybrids T. glauca. Sedges, Scripus cyperinus (wool-grass) and Phragmites australis (reed-grass), were found in transition zones between the cattail stand and the dry section of the tailings site. The expansion of the cattail stands appeared to be controlled by the hydrological conditions on the site, rather than the chemical characteristics of the tailings

  8. Environmental de-watering of fluid fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Geotechnical Center

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a surface deposition method of dewatering mature fine tailings (MFT). MFTs typically have a solids content of 35 percent. Solids contents of 60 percent or greater have been shown to produce desirable physical properties. Dewatering was considered as a flux boundary problem. Dewatering a 1.0 meter thick profile of MFT with an initial solids content of 35 percent required approximately 200 mm per 1 m{sup 2} of water to exit the boundaries of the profile. The flux boundary conditions were driven by atmospheric forcing events associated with freeze-thaw effects and evaporative drying, and were also influenced by the drainage of liquid water caused by run-off and foundation seepage. The relative contributions of the dewatering mechanisms were discussed and quantified. tabs., figs.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of C-terminal tails in cellular microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Dalibor L.; Sataric, Bogdan M.; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N.; Sataric, Miljko V.

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano-electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C-terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C-terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink-waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of C–terminal tails in cellular microtubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekulic, Dalibor L., E-mail: dalsek@uns.ac.rs; Sataric, Bogdan M.; Sataric, Miljko V. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Zdravkovic, Slobodan [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Serbia); Bugay, Aleksandr N. [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano–electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C–terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C–terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule–associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink–waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of C–terminal tails in cellular microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekulic, Dalibor L.; Sataric, Bogdan M.; Sataric, Miljko V.; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano–electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C–terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C–terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule–associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink–waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process.

  12. Modulation of 5' splice site selection using tailed oligonucleotides carrying splicing signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elela Sherif

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the use of tailed oligonucleotides as a means of reprogramming alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and in vivo. The tailed oligonucleotides that were used interfere with splicing because they contain a portion complementary to sequences immediately upstream of the target 5' splice site combined with a non-hybridizing 5' tail carrying binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. In the present study, we have tested the inhibitory activity of RNA oligonucleotides carrying different tail structures. Results We show that an oligonucleotide with a 5' tail containing the human β-globin branch site sequence inhibits the use of the 5' splice site of Bcl-xL, albeit less efficiently than a tail containing binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. A branch site-containing tail positioned at the 3' end of the oligonucleotide also elicited splicing inhibition but not as efficiently as a 5' tail. The interfering activity of a 3' tail was improved by adding a 5' splice site sequence next to the branch site sequence. A 3' tail carrying a Y-shaped branch structure promoted similar splicing interference. The inclusion of branch site or 5' splice site sequences in the Y-shaped 3' tail further improved splicing inhibition. Conclusion Our in vitro results indicate that a variety of tail architectures can be used to elicit splicing interference at low nanomolar concentrations, thereby broadening the scope and the potential impact of this antisense technology.

  13. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Henk Mathijs Johannes; Budisatria, I Gede Suparta

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers' conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-over to fat-tailed sheep have been their potential larger body size and the preference of consumers for their meat. Management systems are changing in response to the intensification of land use. The reproductive performances of fat-tailed sheep are good. Households keep four to six animals, housed close to the family quarters. This results in very high levels of faecal bacteria contamination of drinking water sources. Sheep provide a small income, manure, security and help to accumulate capital. Sheep also play a key role in religious festivities. Farmers hardly profit from the increased demand for the feast of sacrifice; animals are sold mainly when the owners have urgent cash needs. Systematic sheep fattening can contribute to higher economic results, if sufficient family labour and crop residues are available.

  14. Dewatering tailings impoundments : interior drains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlie, W.A.; Doehring, D.O.; Durnford, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    For the design of a new uranium tailings impoundment in the western United States, it was proposed that an interior drainage system be considered to economically and reliably minimize potential short- and long-term environmental impacts. The objectives were to decrease the effective hydraulic head on the clay liner, to dewater and stabilize the tailings, and to increase the amount of water recycled to the mill. In addition, desaturation of the impoundment would induce capillary pressure (negative porewater pressure), further reducing the potential movement of dissolved pollutants. This paper presents saturated and unsaturated seepage principles and reviews the concept, criteria and design of the various interior drainage systems considered

  15. Computer simulations of long-time tails: what's new?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoef, van der M.A.; Frenkel, D.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty five years ago Alder and Wainwright discovered, by simulation, the 'long-time tails' in the velocity autocorrelation function of a single particle in fluid [1]. Since then, few qualitatively new results on long-time tails have been obtained by computer simulations. However, within the

  16. Comparing downside risk measures for heavy tailed distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daníelsson, J.; Jorgensen, B.N.; Sarma, M.; Vries, de C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Using regular variation to define heavy tailed distributions, we show that prominent downside risk measures produce similar and consistent ranking of heavy tailed risk. Thus, regardless of the particular risk measure being used, assets will be ranked in a similar and consistent manner for heavy

  17. Hydrology of Quirke and Panel uranium tailings basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.M.; MacPhie, L.

    1991-11-01

    The research project described by this report provides the AECB with an independent assessment of the 'saturated tailings concept' for the decommissioning of tailing areas at the Rio Algom Quirke and Panel uranium mines near Elliot Lake in Northern Ontario. Hydrologic and hydraulic modelling for each facility showed the interrelation between the design of the water-level control facilities and the water levels in each cell for design flood and extreme low-flow conditions, taking into account all water-balance components. The estimate of seepage rates through the tailings mass is identified as a critical issue

  18. Recycling of asbestos tailings used as reinforcing fillers in polypropylene based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wensi; Wang, Yao; Deng, Yuan; Gao, Hongli; Lin, Zhen; Li, Mao

    2014-04-15

    In this work, asbestos tailings were recycled and used as reinforcing fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP). A silane coupling agent was used to chemically modify the asbestos tailings to increase the compatibility between asbestos tailings and polypropylene matrix. Both raw and chemically treated asbestos tailings with different loading levels (from 3 to 30 wt%) were utilized to fabricate composites. Mechanical properties of these composites have been investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile test and notched impact test. Results showed that hybridization of asbestos tailings in the composites enhanced the mechanical properties of neat PP evidently, and treated asbestos tailings/PP composites yielded even better mechanical properties compared with those of raw asbestos tailings/PP composites. This recycling method of asbestos tailings not only reduces disposal costs and avoids secondary pollution but also produces a new PP-based composite material with enhanced mechanical properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Arsenic readily released to pore waters from buried mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, John [Hydrologic Consultants, Inc., 143 Union Blvd., Suite 525, Lakewood, CO 80228 (United States)]. E-mail: jmahoney@hcico.com; Langmuir, Donald [Hydrochem Systems Corp., P.O. Box 17090, Golden, CO 80402 (United States); Gosselin, Neil [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Way, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Rowson, John [COGEMA Resources, Inc., P.O. Box 9204, Saskatoon, SK, S7K 3X5 (Canada)

    2005-05-15

    At the McClean Lake Operation in the Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan, the untreated acid raffinate solutions associated with U mill tailings contain up to 700 mg/L dissolved As. To reduce the concentration of As and other contaminants in acid tailing slurries at the JEB mill at McClean Lake, ferric sulfate may be added to the acid raffinates to assure that their molar Fe/As ratio equals or exceeds 3. Tailings slurries are then neutralized with lime to pH 4, and subsequently to pH 7-8. The neutralized tailings contain minerals from the original ore, which are chiefly quartz, illite, kaolinite and chlorite, and precipitated (secondary) minerals that include gypsum, scorodite, annabergite, hydrobasaluminite and ferrihydrite. Most of the As is associated with the secondary arsenate minerals, scorodite and annabergite. However, a few percent is adsorbed and/or co-precipitated, mainly by ferrihydrite. Of major concern to provincial and federal regulators is the risk that significant amounts of As might be released from the tailings to pore waters after their subaqueous disposal in the tailings management facility. A laboratory study was performed to address this issue, measuring readily desorbed As using a method known as equilibrium partitioning in closed systems (EPICS). The EPICS method was selected because it employs a leaching solution that, except for its As concentration, is identical in composition to the neutralized raffinate in contact with the tailings. Laboratory experiments and modeling results demonstrated that the As that could be readily released to pore waters is about 0.2% of the total As in the tailings. Long-term, such releases may contribute no more than a few mg/L of dissolved As to tailings pore waters.

  20. Arsenic readily released to pore waters from buried mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, John; Langmuir, Donald; Gosselin, Neil; Rowson, John

    2005-01-01

    At the McClean Lake Operation in the Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan, the untreated acid raffinate solutions associated with U mill tailings contain up to 700 mg/L dissolved As. To reduce the concentration of As and other contaminants in acid tailing slurries at the JEB mill at McClean Lake, ferric sulfate may be added to the acid raffinates to assure that their molar Fe/As ratio equals or exceeds 3. Tailings slurries are then neutralized with lime to pH 4, and subsequently to pH 7-8. The neutralized tailings contain minerals from the original ore, which are chiefly quartz, illite, kaolinite and chlorite, and precipitated (secondary) minerals that include gypsum, scorodite, annabergite, hydrobasaluminite and ferrihydrite. Most of the As is associated with the secondary arsenate minerals, scorodite and annabergite. However, a few percent is adsorbed and/or co-precipitated, mainly by ferrihydrite. Of major concern to provincial and federal regulators is the risk that significant amounts of As might be released from the tailings to pore waters after their subaqueous disposal in the tailings management facility. A laboratory study was performed to address this issue, measuring readily desorbed As using a method known as equilibrium partitioning in closed systems (EPICS). The EPICS method was selected because it employs a leaching solution that, except for its As concentration, is identical in composition to the neutralized raffinate in contact with the tailings. Laboratory experiments and modeling results demonstrated that the As that could be readily released to pore waters is about 0.2% of the total As in the tailings. Long-term, such releases may contribute no more than a few mg/L of dissolved As to tailings pore waters

  1. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the october 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Option II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost is estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three prinicpal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive

  2. Recycling and utilisation of industrial solid waste: an explorative study on gold deposit tailings of ductile shear zone type in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Huang, Fei; Du, Runxiang; Zhao, Chunming; Li, Yongli; Yu, Haoran

    2015-06-01

    Tailings are solid waste arising from mineral processing. This type of waste can cause severe damage to the environment during stockpiling as a result of the leaching of something harmful into the ecosystem. Gold deposit of ductile shear zone type is an important type of gold deposit, and the recycling of its tailings has been challenging researchers for a long time. In this article, the characteristics of this type of tailings were systematically studied by using modern technical means. Considering the characteristics of the tailings, clay was selected to make up for the shortcomings of the tailings and improve their performance. Water and raw materials were mixed to produce green bodies, which are subsequently sintered into ceramic bodies at 980 °C~1020 °C (sintering temperature). The results showed that some new kinds of mineral phases, such as mullite, anorthite and orthoclase, appear in ceramic bodies. Furthermore, the ceramic bodies have a surface hardness of 5 to 6 (Mohs scale), and their water absorption and modulus of rupture can meet some technical requirements of ceramic materials described in ISO 13006-2012 and GB 5001-1985. These gold mine tailings can be made into ceramic tiles, domestic ceramic bodies, and other kinds of ceramic bodies for commercial and industrial purposes after further improvements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Observations of Head–Tail Radio Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, Biny; Lal, Dharam V.; Rao, A. Pramesh, E-mail: biny@ncra.tifr.res.in [National Center for Radio Astrophysics—Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Post Box 3, Ganeshkhind P.O., Pune 41007 (India)

    2017-10-01

    We present results from a study of seven large known head–tail radio galaxies based on observations using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 240 and 610 MHz. These observations are used to study the radio morphologies and distribution of the spectral indices across the sources. The overall morphology of the radio tails of these sources is suggestive of random motions of the optical host around the cluster potential. The presence of multiple bends and wiggles in several head–tail sources is possibly due to the precessing radio jets. We find steepening of the spectral index along the radio tails. The prevailing equipartition magnetic field also decreases along the radio tails of these sources. These steepening trends are attributed to the synchrotron aging of plasma toward the ends of the tails. The dynamical ages of these sample sources have been estimated to be ∼10{sup 8} yr, which is a factor of six more than the age estimates from the radiative losses due to synchrotron cooling.

  4. Measurement and calculation of radon releases from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The mining and milling of uranium ores produces large quantities of radioactive wastes. Although relatively small in magnitude compared to tailings from metal mining and extraction processes, the present worldwide production of such tailings exceeds 20 million tonnes annually. There is thus a need to ensure that the environmental and health risks from these materials are reduced to an acceptable level. This report has been written as a complement to another publication entitled Current Practices for the Management and Confinement of Uranium Mill Tailings, IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 335, which provides a general overview of all the important factors in the siting, design and construction of tailings impoundments, and in the overall management of tailings with due consideration give to questions of the release of pollutants from tailings piles. The present report provides a comprehensive overview of the release, control and monitoring of radon, including computational methods. The report was first drafted in 1989 and was then reviewed at an Advisory Group meeting in 1990. 42 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  5. A tale too long for a tail too short? : identification of characteristics in pigs related to tail biting and other oral manipulations directed at conspecifics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursinus, W.W.

    2014-01-01

    Ursinus, W.W. (2014). A tale too long for a tail too short? Identification of

    characteristics in pigs related to tail biting and other oral manipulations directed

    at conspecifics. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

    Tail biting in pigs, i.e. the chewing on and

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water.

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water

  8. Risk Management - Variance Minimization or Lower Tail Outcome Elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    2002-01-01

    on future cash flows (the budget), while risk managers concerned about costly lower tail outcomes will hedge (considerably) less depending on the level of uncertainty. A risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination is in line with theoretical recommendations in a corporate value......This paper illustrates the profound difference between a risk management strategy of variance minimization and a risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination. Risk managers concerned about the variability of cash flows will tend to center their hedge decisions on their best guess......-adding perspective. A cross-case study of blue-chip industrial companies partly supports the empirical use of a risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination but does not exclude other factors from (co-)driving the observations....

  9. Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken; Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10 -8 centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated

  10. Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken [Professional Project Services, Inc., 1100 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana [Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100, Miami FL, 33174 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10{sup -8} centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated

  11. Preconcentration of a low-grade uranium ore yielding tailings of greatly reduced environmental concerns. Part V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, D.; Raicevic, M.

    1980-11-01

    The low-grade ore sample used for this investigation contained 0.057 percent uranium with uranothorite as the major uranium-bearing mineral and a small amount of brannerite, occurring in the quartz-sericite matrix of a conglomerate. The preconcentration procedures, consisting of pyrite flotation with or without flotation of radioactive minerals, followed by high intensity wet magnetic treatment of the sized flotation tailings, produced pyrite and radioactive concentrates of acceptable uranium grades ranging from 0.1 to 0.135 percent uranium. The combined concentrates comprised 37 to 49 percent of the ore by weight with the following combined recoveries: 95.6 to 97.9 percent of the uranium; 94.7 to 96.3 percent of the radium; 97.8 to 99.3 percent of the thorium over 98 percent of the pyrite. The preconcentration tailings produced comprised between 51 and 63 percent of the ore by weight and contained from: 0.0022 to 0.0037 percent U; 12 to 17 pCi/g Ra; 0.002 to 0.004 percent Th less than 0.03 percent S. Because these tailings are practically pyrite-free, they should not generate acidic conditions. Due to their low radium content, their radionuclide hazards are greatly reduced. These preconcentration tailings therefore, could be suitable for surface disposal, mine backfill, revegetation or other uses

  12. At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sebastian M.; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Proaño, Carolina B.; Anderson, David J.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase.

  13. From Globular Clusters to Tidal Dwarfs: Structure Formation in Tidal Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, K.; Hunsberger, S.; Gallagher, S.; Charlton, J.; Whitmore, B.; Hibbard, J.; Kundu, A.; Zaritsky, D.

    1999-12-01

    Galaxy interactions trigger star formation in tidal debris. How does this star formation depend on the local and global physical conditions? Using WFPC2/HST images, we investigate the range of structure within tidal tails of four classic ``Toomre Sequence'' mergers: NGC 4038/9 (``Antennae''), NGC 7252 (``Atoms for Peace''), NGC 3921, and NGC 3256. These tails contain a variety of stellar associations with sizes from globular clusters up to dwarf Irregulars. We explore whether there is a continuum between the two extremes. Our eight fields sample seven tidal tails at a variety of stages in the evolutionary sequence. Some of these tails are rich in HI while others are HI poor. Large tidal dwarfs are embedded in three of the tails. Using V and I WFPC2 images, we measure luminosities and colors of substructures within the tidal tails. The properties of globular cluster candidates in the tails will be contrasted with those of the hundreds of young clusters in the central regions of these mergers. We address whether globular clusters form and survive in the tidal tails and whether tidal dwarfs are composed of only young stars. By comparing the properties of structures in the tails of the four mergers with different ages, we examine systematic evolution of structure along the evolutionary sequence and as a function of HI content. We acknowledge support from NASA through STScI, and from NSF for an REU supplement for Karen Knierman.

  14. A Study of lymphangiogenesis in a gecko model of tail autotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsopelas, C.; Munns, S.L.; Lewis, B.; Daniels, C.B.; Cooter, R.D.; Chatterton, B.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Lymphoedema is a debilitating problem for which there is no effective cure. Lymphatic vessels do not regenerate after injuries such as infection, trauma, radiotherapy or tumour invasion. One approach is to determine whether lymph vessels can be regenerated in tissues where these structures have been damaged or removed. This study examined lymphangiogenesis in a gecko model of tail autotomy. Christinus marmoratus can regenerate its tail which is non-oedematous. The lymphatics of gecko tails were visualised using 99m Tc-Sb 2 S 3 colloid, image analyses provided lymph speed and % activity migrated from the injection site. Histological images yielded density and diameter of lymphatic vessels. Measurements were obtained for geckos with non-regenerate tails, 3,6, 9,12, 15, 18 and >24 week (fully) old regenerated tails post autotomy (pa). Fully regenerated tails had significantly slower lymph speed, slower radiocolloid migration from injection site, lower lymphatic density and higher diameter of lymphatic vessels, than similar sized geckos with non-regenerate tails. Their comparison to 6-18 week old tails, confirmed no significant difference in lymph speed, radiocolloid migration or diameter of lymphatic vessels. No measurable lymphatic flow was seen at 3 weeks pa. A functional lymphatic network was established in regenerating gecko tails, where a combination of data elude to a critical lymphangiogenesis period during 3-6 weeks post autotomy. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  15. On the Hydrodynamics of Anomalocaris Tail Fins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, K A; Rival, D E; Caron, J-B

    2018-04-25

    Anomalocaris canadensis, a soft-bodied stem-group arthropod from the Burgess Shale, is considered the largest predator of the Cambrian period. Thanks to a series of lateral flexible lobes along its dorso-ventrally compressed body, it is generally regarded as an efficient swimmer, well-adapted to its predatory lifestyle. Previous theoretical hydrodynamic simulations have suggested a possible optimum in swimming performance when the lateral lobes performed as a single undulatory lateral fin, comparable to the pectoral fins in skates and rays. However, the role of the unusual fan-like tail of Anomalocaris has not been previously explored. Swimming efficiency and maneuverability deduced from direct hydrodynamic analysis are here studied in a towing tank facility using a three-vane physical model designed as an abstraction of the tail fin. Through direct force measurements, it was found that the model exhibited a region of steady-state lift and drag enhancement at angles of attack greater than 25° when compared to a triangular-shaped reference model. This would suggest that the resultant normal force on the tail fin of Anomalocaris made it well-suited for turning maneuvers, giving it the ability to turn quickly and through small radii of curvature. These results are consistent with an active predatory lifestyle, although detailed kinematic studies integrating the full organism, including the lateral lobes, would be required to test the effect of the tail fin on overall swimming performance. This study also highlights a possible example of evolutionary convergence between the tails of Anomalocaris and birds, which, in both cases, are well-adapted to efficient turning maneuvers.

  16. 10 CFR 40.2a - Coverage of inactive tailings sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of inactive tailings sites. 40.2a Section 40.2a... Coverage of inactive tailings sites. (a) Prior to the completion of the remedial action, the Commission..., if the site is covered by the remedial action program of title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings...

  17. Containment systems for uranium-mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Buelt, J.L.

    1982-11-01

    Cover and liner systems for uranium mill tailings in the United States must satisfy stringent requirements regarding long-term stability, radon control, and radionuclide and hazardous chemical migration. The cover and liner technology discussed in this paper involves: (1) single and multilayer earthen cover systems; (2) asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems; and (3) asphalt, clay, and synthetic liner systems. These systems have been field tested at the Grand Junction, Colorado, tailings pile, where they have been shown to effectively reduce radon releases and radionuclide and chemical migration

  18. Can tail damage outbreaks in the pig be predicted by behavioural change?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    preventive methods. One strategy is the surveillance of the pigs' behaviour for known preceding indicators of tail damage, which makes it possible to predict a tail damage outbreak and prevent it in proper time. This review discusses the existing literature on behavioural changes observed prior to a tail...... damage outbreak. Behaviours found to change prior to an outbreak include increased activity level, increased performance of enrichment object manipulation, and a changed proportion of tail posture with more tails between the legs. Monitoring these types of behaviours is also discussed for the purpose......, starting with the description of the temporal development of the predictive behaviour in relation to tail damage outbreaks...

  19. Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, L.D.; Sale, M.J.; Webb, J.W.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The primary hazard associated with uranium mill tailings is exposure to a radioactive gas, radon-222, the concentration of which has been correlated with the occurrence of lung cancer. Previous studies on radon attenuation conclude that the placement of earthen cover materials over the tailings is the most effective technique for reducing radioactive emissions and dispersal of tailings. The success of such a plan, however, is dependent on ensuring the long-term integrity of these cover materials. Soil erosion from water and wind is the major natural cause of destabilizing earthen cover materials. Field data related to the control of soil loss are limited and only indirectly apply to the problem of isolation of uranium mill tailings over very long time periods (up to 80,000 a). However, sufficient information is available to determine benefits that will result from changes in specific design variables and to evaluate the need for different design strategies among potential disposal sites. The three major options available for stabilization of uranium mill tailings are (1) rock cover, (2) soil and revegetation, or (3) a combination of both on different portions of the tailings cover. The optimal choice among these alternatives depends on site-specific characteristics such as climate and local geomorphology and soils, and on design variables such as embankment heights and slopes, modification of upstream drainage, and revegetation practices. Generally, geomorphic evidence suggests that use of soil and vegetation alone will not be adequate to reduce erosion on slopes greater than about 5 to 9%. For these steeper slopes, the use of rock talus or riprap will be necessary to maximize the probability of long-term stability. The use of vegetation to control erosion on the flatter portions of the site may be practicable in regions of the USA with sufficient rainfall and suitable soil types, but revegetation practices must be carefully evaluated to ensure that long

  20. Research on the characterization and conditioning of uranium mill tailings. II. Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings: technical and economic evaluation. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; Thode, E.F.; Wangen, L.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1983-06-01

    A method of conditioning uranium mill tailings has been devised to greatly reduce radon emanation and contaminant leachability by using high-temperature treatments, i.e., thermal stabilization. The thermally stabilized products appear resistant to weathering as measured by the effects of grinding and water leaching. The technical feasibility of the process has been partially verified in pilot-scale experiments. A conceptual thermal stabilization process has been designed and the economics of the process show that the thermal stabilization of tailings can be cost competitive compared with relocation of tailings during remedial action. The alteration of morphology, structure, and composition during thermal treatment would indicate that this stabilization method may be a long-lasting solution to uranium mill tailings disposal problems

  1. The effect of the cover and landscape design of waste rock dumps and tailings ponds on the water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehne, R.; Eckart, M.; Marski, R.; Wolf, J.

    1998-01-01

    The dimensioning of cover systems for waste rock dumps and tailings ponds requires the prognosis of the water balances. Site specific field experiments as well as additional modelling efforts are necessary. The cover system could be a simple recultivation layering or a storage systems or a complex multi-layer-system. Uncovered dumps show typical percolation rates between 30 and 60%. Storage cover systems reduce the percolation rate down to 15 to 35%. The evapotranspiration rate is influenced especially by exposition and vegetation. Specific features for the cover of tailings ponds include a very low surface slope and the of percolation rate below 10%. Therefore, multi-layer-systems are most suitable, also because it is characterized by very low drainage velocities of hypodermic runoffs. The resulting, but temporarily high moisture and almost standing water at the surface leads to extreme evapotranspiration rates and consequently to an increase of percolation. (orig.) [de

  2. Geology and hydrology in the vicinity of the inactive uranium mill tailings pile, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Wienke, C.L.; Dreesen, D.R.

    1977-06-01

    A study was made of the geology and hydrology of the immediate area around a uranium mill at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The mill was in operation from June 1958 through April 1963 and produced 2.7 x 10 9 kg of tailings. The possible environmental consequences of this inactive tailings pile must first be delineated so that stabilization needs and future stabilization success can be properly assessed. The Ambrosia Lake area is underlain by over 1000 m of alternating shales, siltstones, and sandstones that dip gently to the northeast into the San Juan Basin. Water-bearing sandstones make up less than 25 percent of this sedimentary section. Water quality in the sandstones is fair to poor, with total dissolved solids ranging from 500 to 2000 mg/l. The present total volume of tailings is estimated at 1.5 x 10 6 m 3 and ranges in thickness from about 1 to 10 m. The tailings pile is underlain by the Mancos shale which dips to the northeast. The shale is about 120 m thick with three interbedded silty sandstones that are about 9 m in thickness. One of these sandstones outcrops beneath the western part of the pile; the eastern part of the pile is underlain by shale. Ground water in the shales and sandstones beneath the pile is recharged by runoff north of the pile and from three ponds located north, northeast, and east of the pile. The movement of water in shale and sandstones is to the southwest. Secondary recharge to the water in the shales and sandstone is from the basin within the tailings pile. Water in the southeast part of the tailings basin is forming a ground water mound above the underlying sediments. The major transport mechanisms of tailings and possible contaminants from the pile include wind erosion, surface water runoff, movement of ground water beneath the pile, and gaseous diffusion from the pile

  3. Comparing Phlebotomy by Tail Tip Amputation, Facial Vein Puncture, and Tail Vein Incision in C57BL/6 Mice by Using Physiologic and Behavioral Metrics of Pain and Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elizabeth S; Cleland, Thomas A; Williams, Wendy O; Peterson, Christine M; Singh, Bhupinder; Southard, Teresa L; Pasch, Bret; Labitt, Rachael N; Daugherity, Erin K

    2017-05-01

    Tail tip amputation with minimal restraint is not widely used for mouse phlebotomy. In part, this infrequency may reflect policies influenced by tail tip amputation procedures for genotyping, which involve greater handling and tissue removal. To assess tail tip amputation with minimal restraint as a phlebotomy technique, we compared it with 2 more common methods: scruffing with facial vein puncture and lateral tail vein incision with minimal restraint. Blood glucose levels, audible and ultrasonic vocalizations, postphlebotomy activity and grooming behavior, open field and elevated plus maze behaviors, nest-building scores, and histologic changes at the phlebotomy site were evaluated. Mice in the facial vein phlebotomy group produced more audible vocalizations, exhibited lower postphlebotomy activity in the open field, and had more severe histologic changes than did mice in the tail incision and tail tip amputation groups. Facial vein phlebotomy did not affect grooming behavior relative to sham groups, whereas tail vein incision-but not tail tip amputation-increased tail grooming compared with that in control mice. Blood glucose levels, nest-building scores, and elevated plus maze behavior did not differ between groups, and no mice in any group produced ultrasonic vocalizations. Tail tip amputation mice did not perform differently than sham mice in any metric analyzed, indicating that this technique is a potentially superior method of blood collection in mice in terms of animal wellbeing.

  4. Influence of Amang (Tin Tailing) on Geotechnical Properties of Clay Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfahmi, A.R.; Zuhairi, W.Y.W.; Raihan, M.T.; Sahibin, A.R.; Razi, I.W.M.; Tukimat, L.; Syakireen, Z.S.N.; Noorulakma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Amang or tin tailing is commonly found in the vicinity of disused mining area and responsible in downgrading the water quality, landscape and mechanical behaviour of soils. It was generated from extraction process of separating valuable metal from particular ore. This paper presents the geotechnical characteristics of amang-contaminated clay soil. The geotechnical properties of uncontaminated soils were studied in order to compare to that of amang contaminated soils. The base soil used in this study represents completely weathered horizon of meta sedimentary rock. Meanwhile, tin tailing sample was taken from the disused mine at Sungai Lembing, Pahang. The geotechnical characterisations of base soil and contaminated soils were determined based on consistency index, compaction behaviour, hydraulic conductivity and undrained shear strength (UU tests). Contaminated soil samples were prepared by adding 5, 10 and 20 % of tailing, based on dry weigh of the studied base soil. The results from the particle size distribution analysis showed that residual soil from meta sedimentary rock comprised 42.6 % clay, 32.2 % silt and 25.2 % sand whilst tailing was dominated by 98 % of sand fraction. XRD analysis indicated the presence of quartz, kaolinite and muscovite minerals in the studied soil. The specific gravity of soil used is 2.67 and the pH is 3.88. Tailing found to have higher specific gravity of 3.37. The consistency index of contaminated soils showed that liquid limit, wL and plastic limit, wP decreased with the increase in the percentage of tailing added to the soil samples. The value of maximum dry density, ρ dry max increased while optimum moisture content decreased due to the increase in tailing content in soil sample. The permeability of contaminated soil also increased with the increase in tailing contents ranged from 19.8 cm/ hr to 23.8 cm/ hr. The undrained shear strength, Cu, of contaminated soil decreased from 646 kPa (5 % of tailing) to 312 kPa (20 % of

  5. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miquel County. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 63 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 15 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The sites are within 1 mile of each other and are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,300 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}). In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designing site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

  6. Effects of submarine mine tailings on macrobenthic community structure and ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannum, Hilde C; Gundersen, Hege; Escudero-Oñate, Carlos; Johansen, Joachim T; Schaanning, Morten T

    2018-07-15

    A mesocosm experiment with intact benthic communities was conducted to evaluate the effects of mine tailings on benthic community structure and biogeochemical processes. Two types of tailings were supplied from process plants using flotation and flocculation chemicals, while a third type was absent of added chemicals. All tailings impacted the sediment community at thin layers, and through more mechanisms than merely hypersedimentation. In general, the strongest impact was observed in a very fine-grained tailings containing flotation chemicals. The second strongest occurred in tailings with no process chemicals. The tailings with flocculation chemicals initiated the weakest response. Fluxes of oxygen, nitrate and ammonium provided some indications on biodegradation of organic phases. Release of phosphate and silicate decreased with increasing layer thickness of all three tailings. A threshold level of 2cm was identified both for faunal responses and for fluxes of phosphate and silicate. The particular impact mechanisms should receive more attention in future studies in order to minimize the environmental risk associated with tailings disposal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Putting tailings in perspective radiologically, environmentally and managerially

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreve, J.D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Present management of uranium mill tailings is sophisticated compared with recounted practises of 15 to 20 years ago. Further improvements while possible and wanted should not be rushed. Many factors enter. The paper suggests routes to selecting radiological protective standards, elucidates the site-specific and process-specific nature of tailings control, provides comparative references on source terms of radon, uranium, thorium and radium, defends the need for multiple control and for plan endorsement in perpetuity once approval is granted, except as improved control at lesser cost proves doable. One idea is proffered for reducing tailings mass to one-third that accumulated by current practises

  8. Large-scale interaction of the solar wind with cometary plasma tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedner, M.B. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The study of the behavior of plasma tails in the context of their interaction with the solar wind could have important implications for the structure of the interplanetary medium in three dimensions. Comet Kohoutek 1973f exhibited a broad range of plasma tail behavior. On 1974 January 20, the tail was in a highly disturbed condition. Comet Kohoutek was encountering the leading edge of a very strong high-speed stream at the time the plasma tail disturbance started to develop. Comparison of the observed tail geometry on January 20 with the theoretical position angles generated from the wind sock theory of plasma tails and the corotated satellite observations shows that the tail disturbance was probably caused by large gradients of the polar component of the solar-wind velocity. Within hours after the disturbance of January 20, the plasma tail of comet Kohoutek became disconnected from the cometary head, and was replaced by a new plasma tail. The comet was very near an interplanetary sector boundary at the time of disconnection. The disconnection event (DE) is suggested to have resulted from the magnetic reconnection of plasma tail field lines. A similar analysis of other DEs found in original plate material and in published photographs shows the most DEs occur near corotated sector boundaries. Thus, the sector boundary model is further supported, and the finding provides the only known method of probing sector structure to high latitudes. Sector boundaries can often extend to high latitudes in a nearly North-South orientation, and this property is not restricted to times away from solar minimum. Furthermore, the boundaries are inferred to be randomly tilted with respect to the polarity sequence across the boundary and to the magnetic signs of the solar poles

  9. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    Results of radiological surveys of two inactive uranium-mill sites near Rifle, Colorado, in May 1976 are presented. These sites are referred to as Old Rifle and New Rifle. The calculated 226 Ra inventory of the latter site is much higher than at the older mill location. Data on above-ground measurements of gamma exposure rates, surface and near-surface concentration of 226 Ra in soil and sediment samples, concentration of 226 Ra in water, calculated subsurface distribution of 226 Ra, and particulate radionuclide concentrations in air samples are given. The data serve to define the extent of contamination in the vicinity of the mill sites and their immediate surrounding areas with tailings particles. Results of these measurements were utilized as technical input for an engineering assessment of these two sites

  10. The Rubber Tail Illusion as Evidence of Body Ownership in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Makoto; Takano, Kouji; Ora, Hiroki; Ide, Masakazu; Kansaku, Kenji

    2016-10-26

    The ownership of one's body parts represents a fundamental aspect of self-consciousness. Accumulating empirical evidence supports the existence of this concept in humans and nonhuman primates, but it is unclear whether nonprimate mammals experience similar feelings. Therefore, the present study used rubber tails to investigate body ownership in rodents. When the real tails and rubber tails were synchronously stroked, the mice responded as if their own tails were touched when the rubber tails were grasped. In contrast, when the stimuli were delivered asynchronously, there was a significantly lower mean response rate when the rubber tail was grasped. These findings suggest that mice may experience body ownership of their tails, suggestive of the rubber hand illusion in humans. To explore the manner in which the ownership of body parts is experienced, this study specifically used the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which self-consciousness can be extended out of one's own body. Accumulating empirical evidence supports the existence of this concept in humans and nonhuman primates, but it remains unclear whether nonprimate mammals experience similar feelings. This study demonstrated for the first time that mice may experience body ownership of their tails, which is suggestive of the RHI in humans and provides evidence that may highlight how humans experience the ownership of body parts. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3611133-05$15.00/0.

  11. Graphite tail powder and liquid biofertilizer as trace elements source for ground nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindersah, Reginawanti; Setiawati, M. Rochimi; Fitriatin, B. Natalie; Suryatama, Pujawati; Asmiran, Priyanka; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    Utilization of graphite tail waste from the mineral beneficiation processing is very important since it contain significant amount of essential minerals which are necessary for plant growth. These mineral are required in biochemical processes and mainly play an important role as cofactor in enzymatic reaction. The objective of this research is to investigate the performance of graphite tail on supporting plant growth and yield of ground nut (Arachishypogeae L.). A field experiment has been performed to test the performance of mixed graphite tail and reduced organic matter dose. The graphite tail size were reduced to various sieved size, -80 mesh, -100 mesh and -200 mesh. The experiment was setup in randomized block design with 4 treatments and 6 replications for each treatment, while the control plot is received without graphite tail. The results demonstrated that reduced organic matter along with -200 mesh tail has potentially decreased plant height at the end of vegetative growth stage, in contrast for to -80 mesh tail amendment increased individual fresh plant biomass. Statistically, there was no change of plant nodule, individual shoot fresh and dry weight, root nodule, number of pod following any mesh of graphite tail amendment. Reducing organic matter while adding graphite tail of 5% did not change bean weight in all plot. In contrast, reduced organic matter along with 80-mesh graphite tail amendment improved the nut yield per plot. This experiment suggests that graphite tail, mainly -80 mesh graphite tail can be possibly used in legume production.

  12. Analytical Solution and Application for One-Dimensional Consolidation of Tailings Dam

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hai-ming; Nan, Gan; Guo, Wei; Yang, Chun-he; Zhang, Chao

    2018-01-01

    The pore water pressure of tailings dam has a very great influence on the stability of tailings dam. Based on the assumption of one-dimensional consolidation and small strain, the partial differential equation of pore water pressure is deduced. The obtained differential equation can be simplified based on the parameters which are constants. According to the characteristics of the tailings dam, the pore water pressure of the tailings dam can be divided into the slope dam segment, dry beach seg...

  13. Time course for tail regression during metamorphosis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunobu, Shohei; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2015-09-01

    In most ascidians, the tadpole-like swimming larvae dramatically change their body-plans during metamorphosis and develop into sessile adults. The mechanisms of ascidian metamorphosis have been researched and debated for many years. Until now information on the detailed time course of the initiation and completion of each metamorphic event has not been described. One dramatic and important event in ascidian metamorphosis is tail regression, in which ascidian larvae lose their tails to adjust themselves to sessile life. In the present study, we measured the time associated with tail regression in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Larvae are thought to acquire competency for each metamorphic event in certain developmental periods. We show that the timing with which the competence for tail regression is acquired is determined by the time since hatching, and this timing is not affected by the timing of post-hatching events such as adhesion. Because larvae need to adhere to substrates with their papillae to induce tail regression, we measured the duration for which larvae need to remain adhered in order to initiate tail regression and the time needed for the tail to regress. Larvae acquire the ability to adhere to substrates before they acquire tail regression competence. We found that when larvae adhered before they acquired tail regression competence, they were able to remember the experience of adhesion until they acquired the ability to undergo