WorldWideScience

Sample records for sweetened beverage consumption

  1. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Lawrence; Malik, Vasanti S; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2011-06-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for type 2 diabetes; however, the role of artificially sweetened beverages is unclear. The objective was to examine the associations of sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages with incident type 2 diabetes. An analysis of healthy men (n = 40,389) from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study, was performed. Cumulatively averaged intakes of sugar-sweetened (sodas, fruit punches, lemonades, fruit drinks) and artificially sweetened (diet sodas, diet drinks) beverages from food-frequency questionnaires were tested for associations with type 2 diabetes by using Cox regression. There were 2680 cases over 20 y of follow-up. After age adjustment, the hazard ratio (HR) for the comparison of the top with the bottom quartile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.39; P for trend Intake of artificially sweetened beverages was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the age-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.72, 2.11; P for trend < 0.01) but not in the multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.21; P for trend = 0.13). The replacement of one serving of sugar-sweetened beverage with 1 cup (≈237 mL) of coffee was associated with a risk reduction of 17%. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between artificially sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes was largely explained by health status, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, and body mass index.

  2. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men123

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Lawrence; Malik, Vasanti S; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for type 2 diabetes; however, the role of artificially sweetened beverages is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine the associations of sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages with incident type 2 diabetes. Design: An analysis of healthy men (n = 40,389) from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study, was performed. Cumulatively averaged intakes of sugar-sweetened (sodas, fruit punches, lemonades, fruit drinks) and artificially sweetened (diet sodas, diet drinks) beverages from food-frequency questionnaires were tested for associations with type 2 diabetes by using Cox regression. Results: There were 2680 cases over 20 y of follow-up. After age adjustment, the hazard ratio (HR) for the comparison of the top with the bottom quartile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.39; P for trend Intake of artificially sweetened beverages was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the age-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.72, 2.11; P for trend sugar-sweetened beverage with 1 cup (≈237 mL) of coffee was associated with a risk reduction of 17%. Conclusion: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between artificially sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes was largely explained by health status, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, and body mass index. PMID:21430119

  3. Worksite nutrition supports and sugar‐sweetened beverage consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H. V.; Marx, C. M.; Tabak, R. G.; Brownson, R. C.; Yang, L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective This study examined the link between worksite environmental supports for nutrition behaviours and sugar‐sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and offers insight into potential intervention points for reducing SSB consumption and combatting overweight and obesity. Methods Perceived worksite supports for healthy nutrition and self‐reported SSB consumption were analysed for 2,015 working adults in the state of Missouri using a subset of questions from the Supports at Home and Work for Maintaining Energy Balance (SHOW‐ME) study. Results Employees' use of vending facilities and the availability of water coolers/water bottles was significantly associated with increased SSB consumption, while use of cafeterias was significantly associated with decreased SSB consumption. Symbols or signs to identify healthy alternatives were significantly associated with sports drink consumption. Conclusions This study supports previous work indicating the worksite as a necessary environment for nutrition interventions. When choices (vending and cafeteria) are provided, employees report making healthier decisions. For worksites without cafeterias, alternatives should be explored including mobile food trucks and farmer's markets. PMID:29071097

  4. Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Argentina ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Argentina is one of the world's highest consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages (predominantly sodas). This project will address the problem, and the rapidly increasing rates of obesity and diabetes among youth and adults, through evidence that supports policy development. Improved policies, better health Argentina ...

  5. Perceived parenting style and practices and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Hans

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on their consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, attitude, social influences, self-efficacy, habit strength, food-related parenting p...

  6. Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

  7. Consumption of sweetened-beverages and poverty in Colombia: when access is not an advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herran, Oscar F; Patiño, Gonzalo A; Gamboa, Edna M

    2018-01-15

    This study characterizes the intake of sweetened beverages and establishes whether economic inequalities in their consumption exists. Ecological study. Mixed methods using food frequency questionnaire and inequality indices. Based on the National Nutrition Survey, Colombia, 2010. The sweetened beverage intake of 17,514 subjects in 33 geodemographic units was estimated with a food frequency questionnaire and summarized. The calculation of inequality was based on the monetary poverty. The prevalence (yes/no) and frequency (times/day) of sweetened beverage consumption were estimated. Indices of economic inequality were calculated for both prevalence and frequency. The prevalence of sweetened beverage consumption was between 79.2% (95% CI, 75.7 to 82.8) in adults and 88.5% (95% CI, 85.8 to 91.3) in minors. The frequency of consumption in terms of times/day, was between 0.20 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.24) in adults and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.33 to 0.46) in minors. The Gini coefficient for the prevalence was close to zero, between 0.04 and 0.08; for the frequency, it was slightly higher, between 0.12 and 0.25. It was established that there is no economic inequality in the consumption of sweetened beverages. Consumption taxes could be regressive.

  8. Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Chen, Yi-Chun; You, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and to establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Most of the respondents were female (66%), white (89%), and had at least a…

  9. Association Between Artificially Sweetened Beverage Consumption During Pregnancy and Infant Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Meghan B; Sharma, Atul K; de Souza, Russell J; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Turvey, Stuart E; Subbarao, Padmaja; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of artificial sweeteners has increased substantially in recent decades, including among pregnant women. Animal studies suggest that exposure to artificial sweeteners in utero may predispose offspring to develop obesity; however, to our knowledge, this has never been studied in humans. To determine whether maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy is associated with infant body mass index (BMI [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]). This cohort study included 3033 mother-infant dyads from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study, a population-based birth cohort that recruited healthy pregnant women from 2009 to 2012. Women completed dietary assessments during pregnancy, and their infants' BMI was measured at 1 year of age (n = 2686; 89% follow-up). Statistical analysis for this study used data collected after the first year of follow-up, which was completed in October 2013. The data analysis was conducted in August 2015. Maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages and sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy, determined by a food frequency questionnaire. Infant BMI z score and risk of overweight at 1 year of age, determined from objective anthropometric measurements and defined according to World Health Organization reference standards. The mean (SD) age of the 3033 pregnant women was 32.4 (4.7) years, and their mean (SD) BMI was 24.8 (5.4). The mean (SD) infant BMI z score at 1 year of age was 0.19 (1.05), and 5.1% of infants were overweight. More than a quarter of women (29.5%) consumed artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy, including 5.1% who reported daily consumption. Compared with no consumption, daily consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was associated with a 0.20-unit increase in infant BMI z score (adjusted 95% CI, 0.02-0.38) and a 2-fold higher risk of infant overweight at 1 year of age (adjusted odds ratio

  10. Perceived parenting style and practices and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Horst (Klazine); S. Kremers (Stef); A. Ferreira (Isabel); A. Singh (Amika); A. Oenema (Anke); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383,

  11. The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has increased by 300% in the past 20 years, and 56-85% of children in school consume at least one soft drink daily. The odds ratio of becoming obese among children increases 1.6 times for each additional can or glass of sugar-sweetened drink consumed beyond their usual daily intake of the beverage. Soft drinks currently…

  12. Perceived Parenting Style and Practices and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages by Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire…

  13. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among U.S. Youth, 2011-2014. NCHS Data Brief. Number 271

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute calories and added sugars to the diets of U.S. children. Studies have suggested a link between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend…

  14. Young Children's Screen Habits are Associated with Consumption of Sweetened Beverages Independently of Parental Norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Eiben, Gabriele; Prell, Hillevi

    2014-01-01

    (OR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.1–1.9). Cross-sectional analysis showed that the likelihood of consuming sweetened beverages at least 1–3 times per week increased for each hour/day watching television (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.2–1.9), and for being exposed to commercials (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.3–2.1). TV viewing time...... these associations were independent of parental norms. Methods: In the Swedish sample of the European Identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study, parents filled in questionnaires about their 2 to 9-year-old children’s (n = 1,733) lifestyle...... and diets. Results: Associations between screen habits and sweetened beverage consumption were found independent of parental norms regarding sweetened beverages. A longitudinal analysis revealed that sweetened beverage consumption at 2-year follow-up was predicted by exposure to commercial TV at baseline...

  15. Food Environment, Policy and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption in U.S. Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liwei

    2017-01-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is a critical nutrition problem in the U.S. and has been identified as a key contributor to the current epidemic of obesity among adolescents. Up to date, little is known on how this high level of SSBs consumption can be reduced. Recently, environmental and policy interventions have been advocated as powerful strategies to address the epidemic. While there is a growing consensus that food environments and policies play important roles ...

  16. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L; Mackinnon, David P; Stacy, Alan W

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors - binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes among 198 adolescents, ages 14 to 17. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific version directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Diet was assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making on the IGT, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This work extends research findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in habitual behaviors and their relationship to snack food consumption in an understudied population of diverse adolescents not

  17. Low/No Calorie Sweetened Beverage Consumption in the National Weight Control Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Victoria A.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Thomas, J. Graham; Ogden, Lorraine G.; Roberts, Susan A.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Wing, Rena R.; Hill, James O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate prevalence of and strategies behind low/no calorie sweetened beverage (LNCSB) consumption in successful weight loss maintainers. Methods An online survey was administered to 434 members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR, individuals who have lost ≥13.6 kg and maintained weight loss for > 1 year). Results While few participants (10%) consume sugar-sweetened beverages on a regular basis, 53% regularly consume LNCSB. The top five reasons for choosing LNCSB were for taste (54%), to satisfy thirst (40%), part of routine (27%), to reduce calories (22%) and to go with meals (21%). The majority who consume LNCSB (78%) felt they helped control total calorie intake. Many participants considered changing patterns of beverage consumption to be very important in weight loss (42%) and maintenance (40%). Increasing water was by far the most common strategy, followed by reducing regular calorie beverages. Conclusions Regular consumption of LNCSB is common in successful weight loss maintainers for various reasons including helping individuals to limit total energy intake. Changing beverage consumption patterns was felt to be very important for weight loss and maintenance by a substantial percentage of successful weight loss maintainers in the NWCR. PMID:25044563

  18. Substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages with other beverage alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has become an intractable public health concern worldwide, making investigation of healthy beverage alternatives for SSBs imperative. AIM: To summarize the available evidence on the effects of replacing SSBs with beverage...

  19. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control...

  20. [Consumption of carbonated beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners in Latin American university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Record Cornwall, Jiniva; Encina Vega, Claudia; Salazar de Ariza, Julieta; Cordón Arrivillaga, Karla; Cereceda Bujaico, María del Pilar; Antezana Alzamora, Sonia; Espinoza Bernardo, Sissy

    2014-09-12

    Consumption of carbonated beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) is increasingly common in order to maintain a healthy weight, but the effect of NNS on body weight is controversial. University students (n=1,229) of both sexes aged 18 to 26, of which 472 were from Chile, 300 of Panama, 253 from Guatemala and 204 of Peru. Each student was applied a frequency survey of weekly food consumption supported by photographs of beverages with NNS from each country to determine the intake of them. Also they underwent anthropometric measurements. 80% of these students consumed carbonated beverages with NNS, none of them exceeded the acceptable daily intake for sucralose, potassium acesulfame and aspartame. Increased consumption in both men and women was observed in chilean students (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Sugar-sweetened beverage but not diet soda consumption is positively associated with progression of insulin resistance and prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Previous studies have shown an inconsistent relationship between habitual beverage consumption and insulin resistance and prediabetes. Objective: The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), rather than diet soda,...

  2. Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wang, Y. Claire

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine patterns of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among U.S. adults with type 2 diabetes in 2003–2006. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006 to estimate SSB consumption levels among 1,090 adults (aged ≥20 years) with type 2 diabetes overall and by diagnosis and control status of their diabetes. RESULTS In 2003–2006, 45% of adults with diabetes consumed SSBs on a given day, ...

  3. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by adult caregivers and their children: the role of drink features and advertising exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennessy, M.; Bleakley, A.; Piotrowski, J.; Mallya, G.; Jordan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine how parents’ beliefs about beverage attributes and exposure to sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) advertising are associated with parents’ and their children’s SSB consumption. Design. Cross-sectional representative telephone survey of Philadelphia parents in households with

  4. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption by Adult Caregivers and Their Children: The Role of Drink Features and Advertising Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Mallya, Giridhar; Jordan, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine how parents' beliefs about beverage attributes and exposure to sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) advertising are associated with parents' and their children's SSB consumption. Design: Cross-sectional representative telephone survey of Philadelphia parents in households with children between the ages of 3 and 16 years.…

  5. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific Go/No-Go task directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Dietary measures were assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Results of latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making, assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This research extends other study findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in

  6. Impact of change in sweetened caloric beverage consumption on energy intake among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Claire; Ludwig, David S; Sonneville, Kendrin; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2009-04-01

    To estimate the net caloric impact from replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) with alternatives in children and adolescents in naturalistic settings. Secondary analysis based on nationally representative cross-sectional study. Fixed-effect regression analysis of 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Children and adolescents 2 to 19 years of age (N = 3098). Within-person beverage consumption between 2 surveyed days. The association between changes in the consumption of SSBs and other beverages and changes in total energy intake (TEI) of the same individual. Each additional serving (8 oz) of SSB corresponded to a net increase of 106 kcal/d (P juice (123 kcal/d; 95% CI, 90 to 157 kcal/d). No net increases in TEI were seen for water (8 kcal/d; P = .27; 95% CI, -6 to 22 kcal/d) or diet drinks (47 kcal/d; P = .20; 95% CI, -23 to 117 kcal/d). Substituting SSBs with water was associated with a significant decrease in TEI, controlling for intake of other beverages, total beverage and nonbeverages, and fast-food and weekend effects. Each 1% of beverage replacement was associated with 6.6-kcal lower TEI, a reduction not negated by compensatory increases in other food or beverages. We estimate that replacing all SSBs with water could result in an average reduction of 235 kcal/d. Replacing SSB intake with water is associated with reductions in total calories for all groups studied.

  7. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: Implications for public health strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafekost Katherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Methods Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. Results SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. Conclusions SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required.

  8. A fizzy environment: availability and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Lana; Hector, Debra; Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley

    2013-06-01

    Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been targeted in obesity prevention strategies internationally. This study examined associations between SSB availability at school and in the home, and consumption among Australian school students. Secondary analysis of the 2010 New South Wales Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (n=8058) was conducted. Logistic regression analyses tested the impact of SSB availability at school and in the home on consumption category (low, ≤1 cup/week; moderate, 2-4 cups/week; high, ≥5 cups/week). Students in years K-10 (ages 4-16years) who usually purchased sugar-sweetened soft drinks or sports drinks from their school canteen were almost three times as likely to be high consumers (AOR 2.90; 95%CI 2.26, 3.73). Students in years 6-10 (ages 9-16years) were almost five times as likely to be high consumers if soft drinks were usually available in their home (AOR 4.63; 95%CI 3.48, 6.17), and almost ten times as likely to be high consumers if soft drinks were usually consumed with meals at home (AOR 9.83; 95%CI 6.06, 15.96). Limiting the availability of SSBs in the home and school environments is a prudent response to address high SSB consumption among school students, albeit only part of the solution for obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary salt intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association among dietary salt, fluid, and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and weight status in a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 2 to 16 years. Cross-sectional data from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Consumption of dietary salt, fluid, and SSB was determined via two 24-hour dietary recalls. BMI was calculated from recorded height and weight. Regression analysis was used to assess the association between salt, fluid, SSB consumption, and weight status. Of the 4283 participants, 62% reported consuming SSBs. Older children and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) were more likely to consume SSBs (both Ps salt intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P salt was associated with a 46 g/d greater intake of fluid, adjusted for age, gender, BMI, and SES (P salt intake was positively associated with SSB consumption (r = 0.35, P salt was associated with a 17 g/d greater intake of SSB, adjusted for age, gender, SES, and energy (P salt intake predicted total fluid consumption and SSB consumption within consumers of SSBs. Furthermore, SSB consumption was associated with obesity risk. In addition to the known benefits of lowering blood pressure, salt reduction strategies may be useful in childhood obesity prevention efforts.

  10. Determinants of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in young children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarello Paes, V; Hesketh, K; O'Malley, C; Moore, H; Summerbell, C; Griffin, S; van Sluijs, E M F; Ong, K K; Lakshman, R

    2015-11-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with adverse health outcomes. Improved understanding of the determinants will inform effective interventions to reduce SSB consumption. A total of 46,876 papers were identified through searching eight electronic databases. Evidence from intervention (n = 13), prospective (n = 6) and cross-sectional (n = 25) studies on correlates/determinants of SSB consumption was quality assessed and synthesized. Twelve correlates/determinants were associated with higher SSB consumption (child's preference for SSBs, TV viewing/screen time and snack consumption; parents' lower socioeconomic status, lower age, SSB consumption, formula milk feeding, early introduction of solids, using food as rewards, parental-perceived barriers, attending out-of-home care and living near a fast food/convenience store). Five correlates/determinants were associated with lower SSB consumption (parental positive modelling, parents' married/co-habiting, school nutrition policy, staff skills and supermarket nearby). There was equivocal evidence for child's age and knowledge, parental knowledge, skills, rules/restrictions and home SSB availability. Eight intervention studies targeted multi-level (child, parents, childcare/preschool setting) determinants; four were effective. Four intervention studies targeted parental determinants; two were effective. One (effective) intervention targeted the preschool environment. There is consistent evidence to support potentially modifiable correlates/determinants of SSB consumption in young children acting at parental (modelling), child (TV viewing) and environmental (school policy) levels. © 2015 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  11. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in relation to the metabolic syndrome among Iranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Alikhasi, Hasan; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Asgari, Sedigheh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Few data are available linking intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) with the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, findings from these studies are inconsistent and most are from Western societies; no information is available in this regard from Middle Eastern populations. This study was conducted to assess the relationship between SSB consumption and metabolic syndrome in an Iranian adult population. In this cross-sectional study, data from 1,752 people (782 men and 970 women) that were selected with the multistage cluster random sampling method from three counties of Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak were used. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess participants' usual dietary intakes. Consumption of SSBs was calculated by summing up the consumption of 'soft drinks' and 'artificially sweetened fruit juices'. To categorize participants, we used three levels of SSB consumption: 3 times/week. Biochemical assessments were done after an overnight fasting. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the guidelines of Adult Treatment Panel III. Subjects with high consumption of SSBs (>3 times/week) were younger than those with low consumption (intakes of energy and almost all food groups. We found a significant difference in serum triglyceride levels between men consuming SSBs 1-3 times/week and those consuming intake and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in either gender. After adjustment for potential confounders including BMI, we found that men in the top category of SSB intake were 17% more likely to have the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio (OR) 1.17; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56-2.46), while women in the highest category were 20% less likely to have the syndrome (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.46-1.42) as compared with those in the bottom category. However, these associations were not significant in either men or women. Our results do not support the previous findings on the association between SSB consumption and metabolic syndrome. Prospective

  12. Prospective Study of Pre-Gravid Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liwei; Hu, Frank B.; Yeung, Edwina; Willett, Walter; Zhang, Cuilin

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was related to an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in several recent studies among middle- or older-aged populations. Studies on SSB consumption and glucose intolerance among pregnant women, however, are lacking. We therefore examined the association between regular SSB consumption before pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective study amon...

  13. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and artificially sweetened beverages from childhood to adulthood in relation to socioeconomic status - 15 years follow-up in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt-Evensen, Kathrine; Vik, Frøydis N; Stea, Tonje Holte; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bere, Elling

    2018-01-17

    In Norway, social inequalities in health and health-related behaviors have been reported despite the well-developed welfare state. The objective of the present study was to analyze; (i) the development in frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) from childhood to adulthood; (ii) socioeconomic inequalities in the consumption of SSB and ASB using different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES); (iii) time trends in potential disparities in SSB and ASB consumption among different socioeconomic groups to assess the development in socioeconomic inequality from childhood to adulthood. This study uses data from the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) longitudinal cohort, including participants (n = 437) from 20 random schools from two Norwegian counties. Data from the first survey in 2001 (mean age 11.8) and follow-up surveys in 2005 (mean age 15.5) and 2016 (mean age 26.5) were used. Consumption of SSB and ASB were measured using a food frequency questionnaire, which the participants completed at school in 2001 and 2005, and online in 2016. Various indicators of SES were included; in 2001, parental education and income were measured, in 2005, participants' educational intentions in adolescence were measured, and in 2016, participants' own education and income were measured. The main analyses conducted were linear mixed effects analysis of the repeated measures. Between 2001 and 2016, a decrease in frequency of consumption of SSB (2.8 v 1.3 times/week; p = consumption of ASB (1.1 v 1.6 times/week; p = 0.002) were observed. Participants with a higher educational level in adulthood and higher educational intentions in adolescence had a significantly lower frequency of consumption of SSB at all time points (2001, 2005 and 2016). No significant widening (or narrowing) of inequalities were observed from childhood to adulthood. A decrease in consumption of SSB and an increase in consumption of

  14. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi - eating habits of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lll, Katarzyna Góralska; Klimczak, Alina; Rachubiński, Paweł; Jagłowska, Aleksandra; Kwapiszewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar are an excellent substrate for the microorganisms that inhabit the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the most commonly available sources of sugar is the sweetened drink. Students represent an interesting sub-population; the large number of classes and associated stress levels promote fixing of unhealthy behaviors, e.g. tendency to consume a lot of sweetened drinks, for example cola-type or energetic drinks. Aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in beverages and the prevalence of fungi in the oral cavity. The investigated material consisted of oral washings. Participants completed original questionnaire regarding beverages consumed. The relationship between the consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of the presence of fungi in the oral cavity was determined. Fungi were isolated from 68.1% of examined subjects. Seven species of the genus Candida were observed. Higher prevalence of fungi was seen in the oral cavity of subjects who declared consumption of beverages containing sugar. 37.8% of respondents were found to consume with beverages doses of sugar exceeding the recommended daily requirement. Significantly greater prevalence of oral cavity fungi was noted in those exceeding the recommended GDA (76.3%), compared to of those who were not (68.7%). There were positive correlations between occurrence of fungi and consumption of sweetened carbonated drinks or adding sugar to coffee and tea. The addition of sugar to coffee/tea and sugar consumption above the recommended daily amount significantly increases the risk of colonization of the oral cavity by fungi. Students, due to invalid nutritional habits especially excessive consumption of beverages containing large amounts of sugar, belong to a group with a predisposition to the occurrence of fungi in the oral cavity.

  15. Decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the rural adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpier, Terry; Giordana, Sheri; Wedin, Bitsy M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased drastically with detrimental effects such as weight gain, weakened bones, dental caries, and associated higher levels of type II diabetes in this population. While in the clinical setting, rural family nurse practitioner (FNP) students, using Kellogg-funded Smart Phones, screened adolescents aged 13 to 17 years for SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Adolescents initially were provided with a pamphlet and related oral teaching concerning SSBs by the FNP students, as well as a water bottle to encourage healthy fluid intake. Screening SSB information was loaded onto Smart Phones, which resulted in immediate access by the primary investigator sometimes even hundreds of miles distant. After 30 days, FNP students completed follow-up phone interviews to reassess SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Results concerning decreased SSB consumption were statistically significant. Additionally, Smart Phones were instrumental in high-speed data transfer. Both advantages and disadvantages were encountered when using this evolving technology. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation modeling of policies directed at youth sugar-sweetened beverage consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Friend, Karen B

    2013-03-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem requiring innovative solutions. While recent reviews indicate that some policies show promise, there is a lack of information regarding which policies, and policy combinations, work best. Low-nutrition, energy-dense foods and beverages such as sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been identified as a major contributor to the problem. The purpose of this paper is to use simulation modeling to show how changes in three categories of SSB policies-school nutrition, school-based education, and taxes-impact SSB and other food consumption. The model shows that policies directed at SSBs, particularly tax hikes, could lead to substantial reductions in the number of calories consumed by youth. The estimates, however, are subject to a high degree of uncertainty. Estimates from school-based nutrition and school-based education policies, while also helping to reduce caloric intake, generally show smaller effects than tax policies and considerable variation around parameter estimates for individual and combined policies. We conclude with a discussion of the limits of the model, and suggest where additional information is needed. Limitations notwithstanding, simulation modeling is a promising methodology that can help advance our understanding of policy effects, thereby helping policymakers to better formulate effective policies to reduce obesity prevalence and the associated social harms.

  17. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and age at menarche in a prospective study of US girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwile, J L; Willett, W C; Spiegelman, D; Hertzmark, E; Rich-Edwards, J; Frazier, A L; Michels, K B

    2015-03-01

    Is sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption associated with age at menarche? More frequent SSB consumption was associated with earlier menarche in a population of US girls. SSB consumption is associated with metabolic changes that could potentially impact menarcheal timing, but direct associations with age at menarche have yet to be investigated. The Growing up Today Study, a prospective cohort study of 16 875 children of Nurses' Health Study II participants residing in all 50 US states. This analysis followed 5583 girls, aged 9-14 years and premenarcheal at baseline, between 1996 and 2001. During 10 555 person-years of follow-up, 94% (n = 5227) of girls reported their age at menarche, and 3% (n = 159) remained premenarcheal in 2001; 4% (n = 197) of eligible girls were censored, primarily for missing age at menarche. Cumulative updated SSB consumption (composed of non-carbonated fruit drinks, sugar-sweetened soda and iced tea) was calculated using annual Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaires from 1996 to 1998. Age at menarche was self-reported annually. The association between SSB consumption and age at menarche was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. More frequent SSB consumption predicted earlier menarche. At any given age between 9 and 18.5 years, premenarcheal girls who reported consuming >1.5 servings of SSBs per day were, on average, 24% more likely [95% confidence interval (CI): 13, 36%; P-trend: 1.5 SSBs daily had an estimated 2.7-month earlier menarche (95% CI: -4.1, -1.3 months) relative to those consuming ≤2 SSBs weekly. The frequency of non-carbonated fruit drink (P-trend: 0.03) and sugar-sweetened soda (P-trend: 0.001), but not iced tea (P-trend: 0.49), consumption also predicted earlier menarche. The effect of SSB consumption on age at menarche was observed in every tertile of baseline BMI. Diet soda and fruit juice consumption were not associated with age at menarche. Although we adjusted for a variety of suspected

  18. Sleep duration and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and energy drinks among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationship between sleep duration and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy drinks (EDs) among adolescents. Data on 9,473 adolescents aged 11-20 years were obtained from the 2015 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide and cross-sectional school based survey of students in middle and high school. Respondents self-reported their sleep duration and consumption of SSBs and EDs. Those who did not meet the age-appropriate sleep duration recommendation were considered short sleepers. Overall, 81.4% and 12.0% of respondents reported that they had at least one SSBs and EDs in the past week, respectively. Males were more likely than females to consume SSBs and EDs. High school students were more likely than those in middle school to report drinking EDs. After adjusting for multiple covariates, results from logistic regression analyses indicated that short sleep duration was associated with greater odds of SSB consumption in middle school students (odd ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-2.11), but not those in high school (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.86-1.31). Short sleep duration was associated with greater odds of ED consumption in both middle (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10-2.34) and high school (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.38-2.30) students. Short sleep duration was associated with consumption of EDs in middle and high school students and with SSBs in middle school students only. Future studies are needed to establish causality and to determine whether improving sleep patterns can reduce the consumption of SSBs and EDs among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Disparities in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened and Other Beverages by Race/Ethnicity and Obesity Status among United States Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Allison Hedley; Briefel, Ronette; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Crepinsek, Mary Kay

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identify disparities by race/ethnicity and obesity status in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other beverages among United States schoolchildren to help tailor interventions to reduce childhood obesity. Design: Secondary data analysis using beverage intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls and measured height and…

  20. Cost of inaction on sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: implications for obesity in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugendhaft, Aviva; Manyema, Mercy; Veerman, Lennert J; Chola, Lumbwe; Labadarios, Demetre; Hofman, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the effect of increased sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption on future adult obesity prevalence in South Africa in the absence of preventive measures. A model was constructed to simulate the effect of a 2·4 % annual increase in SSB consumption on obesity prevalence. The model computed the change in energy intake assuming a compounding increase in SSB consumption. The population distribution of BMI by age and sex was modelled by fitting measured data from the 2012 South African National Income Dynamics Survey to the log-normal distribution and shifting the mean values. Over the past decade the prevalence of obesity and related non-communicable diseases has increased in South Africa, as have the sales and availability of SSB. Soft drink sales in South Africa are projected to grow between 2012 and 2017 at an annual compounded growth rate of 2·4 % in the absence of preventive measures to curb consumption. A 2·4 % annual growth in SSB sales alongside population growth and ageing will result in an additional 1 287 000 obese adults in South Africa by 2017, 22 % of which will be due to increased SSB consumption. In order to meet the South African target of reducing the number of people who are obese and/or overweight by 10 % by 2020, the country cannot afford to delay implementing effective population-wide interventions. In the face of plans to increase growth of SSB, the country will soon face even greater challenges in overcoming obesity and related non-communicable diseases.

  1. Association between overweight and consumption of ultra-processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages among vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Augusto Cardoso da SILVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the consumption of ultra-processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages and to identify the association of this consumption with overweight among vegetarians. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sampling method was conducted. Data were collected using an online questionnaire from 8/24/2015 to 10/8/2015. Subjects were male and female vegetarians aged >16 years. Using a food frequency questionnaire, we assessed the weekly consumption of ultra-processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages and described the frequency of daily consumption overall and according to type of vegetarianism. The association between overweight and excessive daily intake of ultra-processed food was analyzed by multiple logistic regression (OR [95CI%]. Results: Information was retrieved from 503 individuals (29.8±8.5 years old; 83.7% were women. The most frequent types of vegetarianism in our sample were ovo-lacto (45.5% and vegan (41.7%, and the median time of vegetarianism was 5.3 years. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (≥2x/day and ultra-processed food (≥3x/day was 21.0% and 16.0%, respectively, and regarding the different vegetarianism types, vegans showed the lowest frequency of excessive daily sugar-sweetened beverages and ultra-processed food consumption. In the multivariable analysis, consumption of ultra-processed food ≥3x/day (2.33 [1.36-4.03], male sex (1.73 [1.01-2.96], age ≥35 years (2.03 [1.23-3.36] and not preparing one’s food (1.67 [0.95-2.94] were independently associated with overweight. Conclusion: Although vegetarianism is frequently associated with a healthier diet and, consequently, prevention of poor health outcomes, this study found that the excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and ultra-processed food was associated with overweight.

  2. Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Brian K; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Park, Sohyun; Nielsen, Samara Joy; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2013-07-01

    Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is a recommended strategy to promote optimal health. The objective was to describe trends in SSB consumption among youth and adults in the United States. We analyzed energy intake from SSBs among 22,367 youth aged 2-19 y and 29,133 adults aged ≥20 y who participated in a 24-h dietary recall as part of NHANES, a nationally representative sample of the US population with a cross-sectional design, between 1999 and 2010. SSBs included soda, fruit drinks, sports and energy drinks, sweetened coffee and tea, and other sweetened beverages. Patterns of SSB consumption, including location of consumption and meal occasion associated with consumption, were also examined. In 2009-2010, youth consumed a mean (±SE) of 155 ± 7 kcal/d from SSBs, and adults consumed an age-adjusted mean (±SE) of 151 ± 5 kcal/d from SSBs--a decrease from 1999 to 2000 of 68 kcal/d and 45 kcal/d, respectively (P-trend trend trend < 0.01 for each). A decrease in SSB consumption among youth and adults in the United States was observed between 1999 and 2010.

  3. Sensitivity to reward is associated with snack and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Vangeel, Jolien; Maes, Lea; Eggermont, Steven; Braet, Caroline; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Goossens, Lien; Beullens, Kathleen; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2016-06-01

    High intake of palatable foods, such as energy-dense snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), is common among adolescents. An individual's sensitivity to reward (SR) may influence these intakes. The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between SR and both snack and SSB intake among adolescents. A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1104 14- to 16-year-olds (mean age = 14.7 ± 0.8 years; 50.9 % boys; 18.0 % overweight) in Flanders. Daily intakes were measured by a food frequency questionnaire. SR was assessed using the behavioral activation system (BAS) scales. Multilevel regression analyses (two level: adolescent school) were conducted using STATA version 13. BAS drive was positively associated with daily intakes of SSBs (13.79 %, p snacks (5.42 %, p snacks (p snacks (3.85 %, p snacks (6.41 %, p snacks. Interaction effects of gender and BAS RR (p snacks (6.48 %, p snacks (7.22 %, p snack and SSB consumption in adolescents, especially in girls. These findings suggest that SR should be taken into account when designing interventions to improve the snack and SSB intake of adolescents.

  4. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  5. Determinants of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Background Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been found to be positively associated with weight gain among children and adolescents. In order to develop effective interventions aimed at reducing intake or preventing an increase in intake, a better understanding of the determinants of this dietary habit is needed. Objective To identify potential determinants of the intake of SSBs among children and adolescents. Design The study is based on a review of the liter...

  6. Sociodemographic, behavioural and environmental correlates of sweetened beverage consumption among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Spence, John C; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Casey, Linda; Storey, Kate

    2012-08-01

    To identify sociodemographic and environmental correlates of sweetened beverages (regular soft drinks, fruit juice) among children of pre-school age. Children's dietary intake, food behaviours and screen time were measured by parental report. A Geographic Informational System was used to assess the number of grocery stores and fast-food restaurants available within 1 km of the children's residence. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were constructed to determine correlates of drinking soft drinks during the previous week. Edmonton region, Canada. Children aged 4 and 5 years (n 2114) attending a public health unit for immunization were recruited for a cohort study on determinants of childhood obesity, between 2005 and 2007. Children from neighbourhoods with low socio-economic status (relative risk (RR) = 1·17, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·40) or who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·28, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·45) were significantly more likely to have consumed regular soft drinks within the last week. Those who lived within 1 km of a grocery store were significantly less likely to consume regular soft drinks (RR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96). Children who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·16, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·27) were more likely to exceed the recommended weekly number of servings of fruit juice. Socio-economic and built environment factors are associated with soft drink consumption in children of pre-school age. These findings may help health professionals to advocate for policies that reduce soft drink consumption among children.

  7. Impact of individual and worksite environmental factors on water and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among overweight employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio; Wall, Sarah; Harden, Samantha; Comber, Dana L; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-05-01

    The worksite environment may influence employees' dietary behaviors. Consumption of water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) affect weight management; however, little research has evaluated the influence of worksite factors on beverage consumption. Our purpose was to determine whether individual and worksite factors are associated with water and SSB intake among overweight and obese employees. Data were collected as part of baseline assessments for a worksite-based, weight-management intervention trial. Height and weight of participants (N = 1,482; 74% female; mean age = 47 y [standard deviation (SD) = 11 y]; mean weight = 208 lbs [SD = 46 lbs]) were assessed, and participants completed a validated beverage intake questionnaire. Environmental characteristics of worksites (N = 28) were audited. A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was used to identify worksite conditions that may support healthier beverage intake patterns. Most participants were white (75% of sample) with at least some college education or a college degree (approximately 82% of sample). Mean water and SSB intake were 27 fl oz (SD = 18 fl oz) and 17 fl oz (SD = 18 fl oz), respectively; SSB intake (191 kcal [SD = 218 kcal]) exceeded the recommended discretionary energy intake. Statistical models did not identify any significant predictors of water intake. Female sex and increasing level of education and household income were associated with lower SSB intake; baseline body weight and greater number of worksite water coolers and vending machines were associated with higher SSB intake. The QCA identified worksite type (ie, not manual labor) as a condition necessary for healthier beverage consumption; a worksite break policy of 2 or more per day may lead to unhealthy beverage consumption. Lower SSB consumption was noted among older participants, female participants, and among participants with higher education and income levels. Workplace factors influence beverage consumption among overweight

  8. Socio-economic inequalities in children's snack consumption and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: the contribution of home environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ansem, Wilke J C; van Lenthe, Frank J; Schrijvers, Carola T M; Rodenburg, Gerda; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-08-14

    In the present study, we examined the association between maternal education and unhealthy eating behaviour (the consumption of snack and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)) and explored environmental factors that might mediate this association in 11-year-old children. These environmental factors include home availability of snacks and SSB, parental rules about snack and SSB consumption, parental intake of snacks and SSB, peer sensitivity and children's snack-purchasing behaviour. Data were obtained from the fourth wave of the INPACT (IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT) study (2011), in which 1318 parent-child dyads completed a questionnaire. Data were analysed using multivariate regression models. Children of mothers with an intermediate educational level were found to consume more snacks than those of mothers with a high educational level (B= 1·22, P= 0·02). This association was not mediated by environmental factors. Children of mothers with a low educational level were found to consume more SSB than those of mothers with a high educational level (B= 0·63, Pconsumption was found to be mediated by parental intake of snacks and SSB and home availability of SSB. The home environment seems to be a promising setting for interventions on reducing socio-economic inequalities in children's SSB consumption.

  9. Association Between Student Purchases of Beverages During the School Commute and In-School Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, San Francisco Bay Area, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummon, Anna H; Oliva, Ariana; Hampton, Karla E; Patel, Anisha I

    2015-12-17

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) such as sodas, fruit-flavored drinks, and sports drinks is a major contributor to childhood obesity. One strategy to reduce children's SSB consumption has been to restrict the sale of SSBs in schools. However, such policies may not sufficiently curb students' SSB intake, because students can obtain SSBs elsewhere, including from stores located on their school commute. Little is known about students' purchases of beverages during the school commute or about whether this purchasing behavior is related to in-school SSB consumption. The objective of this study was to describe where students from low-income, ethnically diverse communities obtain the SSBs they drink during school lunchtime and to examine whether students who purchase beverages while traveling to and from school are more likely to drink SSBs during school lunchtime. We analyzed survey data from a random sample of low-income, ethnically diverse middle school students (N = 597) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a water promotion intervention. We used logistic regression analysis to examine the association between students' purchase of beverages during the school commute and their SSB consumption during school lunchtime. One-fifth (20.4%) of students drank an SSB during lunch. Approximately 23% of SSBs were obtained during the school commute. Students who reported buying beverages during their school commute (50.1% of all students) were more likely to report drinking SSBs during lunch than students who reported that they do not buy beverages during the school commute (adjusted odds ratio 3.32, 95% confidence interval, 2.19-5.05, P < .001). Students' purchase of beverages during the school commute was strongly associated with SSB consumption during school lunchtime. Interventions could benefit from focusing on retail environments (e.g., encouraging retailers to promote healthy beverages, posting beverage calorie information).

  10. Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Is Associated with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Chan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs are the principle source of added sugar in diets. Cardiometabolic disturbances can occur from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the gender-specific association of SSB intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2727 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years randomly selected from three diverse economic areas in Southern Taiwan by using a multistage-sampling strategy participated in this study. Demographic, dietary, physical and anthropometric parameters were measured, and serum lipid profiles and glucose levels were determined. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF specifies that MetS requires abdominal obesity and ≥2 abnormal components, and Cook criteria for MetS require ≥3 abnormal components. We applied survey-data modules to data analyses, and used multiple regression and logistic models to adjust for covariates. An increased SSB intake was linked to a greater waist circumference in both sexes and to systolic blood pressure in boys (P for trend: ≤0.043. Male moderate and high consuming SSB drinkers exhibited triglyceride levels that were 8.0 and 8.2 mg/dL significantly higher, respectively, than those of nondrinkers. Compared with nondrinkers, boys who consumed >500 mL/day (high quantity of SSBs exhibited 10.3-fold (95% confidence intervals (CIs: 1.2-90.2 and 5.1-fold (95% CIs: 1.01-25.5 risks of contracting MetS, as defined by the IDF and Cook criteria for MetS, respectively. In girls, the risk estimates for the same comparison were not significant by the IDF criteria (6.5-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.9-∞ or Cook criteria (5.9-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.8-43.8 for MetS. High SSB consumption was also linked to 1.9-fold (95% CIs: 1.1-3.1 and 2.7-fold (95% CIs: 1.3-5.7 higher risks of being at a greater overall metabolic risk in girls and boys, respectively. In conclusion, a high SSB intake is associated with adolescent

  11. Applying Multi-Theory Model (MTM) of Health Behavior Change to Predict Water Consumption Instead of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Catalano, Hannah Priest; Nahar, Vinayak K; Lingam, Vimala C; Johnson, Paul; Ford, M Allison

    2017-02-25

    A substantial proportion of college students to not drink enough water and consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Consumption of SSBs is associated with weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dental carries, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Hence, the purpose of this study was to use the multi-theory model (MTM) in predicting initiation and sustenance of plain water consumption instead of sugar-sweetened beverages among college students. A cross-sectional study. In this cross-sectional study, a 37-item valid and reliable MTM-based survey was administered to college students in 2016 via Qualtrics at a large public university in the Southeastern United States. Overall, 410 students responded to the survey; of those, 174 were eligible for the study and completed it. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 61.8% of the variance in the initiation of drinking plain water instead of SSBs was explained by behavioral confidence (Pchanges in the physical environment (Pchange (P=0.001). Multi-theory model of health behavior change is a robust theory for predicting plain water consumption instead of SSBs in college students. Interventions should be developed based on this theory for this target population.

  12. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-05-04

    Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Data came from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  13. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopeng An

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  14. Children’s sugar-sweetened beverages consumption: associations with family and home-related factors, differences within ethnic groups explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M.J. Kruitwagen - van de Gaar (Vivian); A. van Grieken (Amy); W. Jansen (Wilma); H. Raat (Hein)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to the development of overweight among children. The present study aimed to evaluate associations between family and home-related factors and children’s SSB consumption. We explored associations within

  15. Food Purchasing Behaviors and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Canadian Secondary School Students in the COMPASS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Katelyn M; Chaurasia, Ashok; Hammond, David; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-02-23

    To examine whether several food purchasing behaviors (ie, sources of meals or snacks) are associated with adolescents' sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and whether these associations vary by province. Cross-sectional observational study. Alberta and Ontario, Canada. Secondary school students from Alberta (n = 3,300) and Ontario (n = 37,999) participating in year 2 (2013-2014) of the Cannabis Use, Obesity, Mental Health, Physical Activity, Alcohol Use, Smoking, Sedentary Behavior (COMPASS) study. Participants' self-reported frequency of consuming 3 SSB types (soft drinks, sweetened coffees/teas, and energy drinks) in a typical week. Hierarchical Poisson regression analyses. Participants from Alberta had a significantly (P purchasing meals or snacks from school food outlets compared with their Ontario counterparts. Most of the food purchasing behaviors were significantly (P purchases on weekends (vs weekdays) and from food outlets off school property (vs on school property) had a greater association with SSB consumption. Eating a home-packed lunch was protective against SSB consumption across models. Adolescents' food purchasing behaviors have a significant impact on their propensity for SSB consumption. These data demonstrate potentially important contexts for SSB consumption and have implications for possible settings and strategies for future interventions to reduce adolescents' SSB intake. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

  17. Racial Disparities in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Change Efficacy Among Male First-Year College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Thorpe, Roland J; Griffith, Derek M

    2016-11-01

    Racial disparities in weight-related outcomes among males may be linked to differences in behavioral change efficacy; however, few studies have pursued this line of inquiry. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which self-efficacy associated with changing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption intake varies by race among male first-year college students. A self-administered, cross-sectional survey was completed by a subsample of freshmen males (N = 203) at a medium-sized southern university. Key variables of interest were SSB intake and self-efficacy in reducing consumption of sugared beverages. African American and Whites had similar patterns of SSB intake (10.2 ± 2.8 vs. 10.1 ± 2.6); however, African Americans had lower proportions of individuals who were sure they could substitute sugared beverages with water (42.2% vs. 57.5%, p < .03). The results from logistic regression models suggest that self-efficacy to reduce SSB intake among males vary by race. African American males were less likely to assert confidence in their ability to change behaviors associated with SSB (odds ratio = 0.51; confidence interval [0.27, 0.95]) in the full model adjusting for weight-related variables including SSB consumption. The findings suggest that weight loss and weight prevention interventions targeting young African American males require components that can elevate self-efficacy of this group to facilitate behavioral modifications that reduce SSB consumption and their risk for obesity-related diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Water fluoridation and the association of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and dental caries in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Plastow, Katrina

    2013-03-01

    We examined demographic and socioeconomic differences in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), its association with dental caries in children, and whether exposure to water fluoridation modifies this association. In a cross-sectional study, we used a stratified, clustered sampling design to obtain information on 16 508 children aged 5 to 16 years enrolled in Australian school dental services in 2002 to 2005. Dental staff assessed dental caries, and parents completed a questionnaire about their child's residential history, sources of drinking water, toothbrushing frequency, socioeconomic status (SES), and SSB consumption. Children who brushed their teeth less often and were older, male, of low SES, from rural or remote areas consumed significantly more SSBs. Caries was significantly associated with greater SSB consumption after controlling for potential confounders. Finally, greater exposure to fluoridated water significantly reduced the association between children's SSB consumption and dental caries. Consumption of SSBs should be considered a major risk factor for dental caries. However, increased exposure to fluoridated public water helped ameliorate the association between SSB consumption and dental decay. These results reconfirm the benefits of community water fluoridation for oral health.

  19. Limiting the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in Mexico's obesogenic environment: a qualitative policy review and stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Nathalie; Cifuentes, Enrique; Orozco, Emanuel; Willett, Walter

    2011-11-01

    Mexico is building a legal framework to address its childhood obesity epidemic. Sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) in the school environment represent a major policy challenge. We addressed the following questions: What barriers inhibit political attention to SSB and childhood obesity? What political instruments, international and national, exist to guide agenda setting in Mexico? What opportunities exist for policy adoption? We conducted a systematic review of international and national legal instruments concerned with SSB consumption. We traced process, conducting interviews with key informants. Thematic analysis helped us identify barriers and opportunities for public health interventions. We found 11 national policy instruments, but detected implementation gaps and weak fiscal policies on SSB consumption in schools: limited drinking water infrastructure, SSB industry interests, and regulatory ambiguities addressing reduction of sugar in beverages. Public policy should target marketing practices and taxation. The school environment remains a promising target for policy. Access to safe drinking water must complement comprehensive and multi-sector policy approaches to reduce access to SSB.

  20. Interactions between Genetics and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Health Outcomes: A Review of Gene–Diet Interaction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E. Haslam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB, which includes soft drinks, fruit drinks, and other energy drinks, is associated with excess energy intake and increased risk for chronic metabolic disease among children and adults. Thus, reducing SSB consumption is an important strategy to prevent the onset of chronic diseases, and achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. The mechanisms by which excessive SSB consumption may contribute to complex chronic diseases may partially depend on an individual’s genetic predisposition. Gene–SSB interaction investigations, either limited to single genetic loci or including multiple genetic variants, aim to use genomic information to define mechanistic pathways linking added sugar consumption from SSBs to those complex diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available gene-SSB interaction studies investigating the relationships between genetics, SSB consumption, and various health outcomes. Current evidence suggests there are genetic predispositions for an association between SSB intake and adiposity; evidence for a genetic predisposition between SSB and type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease is limited.

  1. The role of the local retail food environment in fruit, vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ana Clara; de Almeida, Samuel Luna; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2016-04-01

    To examine the relationship between the local retail food environment and consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in São Paulo, Brazil, as well as the moderation effects of income in the studied relationships. Cross-sectional study design that drew upon neighbourhood- and individual-level data. For each participant, community (density and proximity) and community food environment (availability, variety, quality and price) measures of FV and SSB were assessed in retail food stores and specialized fresh produce markets within 1·6 km of their homes. Poisson generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to model the associations of food consumption with food environment measures, adjusted by individual-level characteristics. São Paulo, Brazil. Adults (n 1842) residing in the same census tracts (n 52) in São Paulo, Brazil as those where the neighbourhood-level measures were taken. FV availability in neighbourhoods was associated with regular FV consumption (≥5 times/week; prevalence ratio=1·41; 95 % CI 1·19, 1·67). Regular FV consumption prevalence was significantly lower among lower-income individuals living in neighbourhoods with fewer supermarkets and fresh produce markets (P-interaction food environment is associated with FV and SSB consumption in a Brazilian urban sample.

  2. Primary care interventions to reduce childhood obesity and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: Food for thought for oral health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Diane; Moultrie, Nicolette M; Sites, Elsbeth; Crawford, Patricia B

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant threat to America's children. Health care leaders have increasingly called upon oral health professionals to integrate healthy weight promotion and enhanced sugar-sweetened beverage counseling into their professional practices. The aim of this scoping review is to examine recent evidence regarding the effectiveness of primary care childhood obesity interventions that have potential for adoption by oral health professionals. Medine, and PubMed were searched from 2010 to 2016 for review articles and studies reporting patient outcomes or policy outcomes relevant to primary care childhood obesity interventions for children ages 2-11 years. Additional articles were accessed through relevant websites, journals, and references. Our screening criteria included interventions that could be adopted by oral health professionals. Forty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Effective interventions fell into four domains: family-based programs, motivational interviewing, office-based practice tools, and policy interventions. Despite strong evidence linking the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to childhood obesity, our review did not find evidence of primary care programs effectively targeting and reducing childhood sugary drinks. Effective primary care interventions for addressing childhood obesity have been identified, although only short-term effectiveness has been demonstrated. Dissemination of these practices as well as further research and advocacy are needed. Childhood obesity and poor oral health share many common risk factors. Additional research should focus on the benefits and feasibility of widespread interdisciplinary medical-oral health collaboration in addressing the two most prevalent diseases of childhood. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  3. Parental and home environmental facilitators of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among overweight and obese Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Cowgill, Burton O; Sharma, Andrea J; Uyeda, Kimberly; Sticklor, Laurel A; Alijewicz, Katie E; Schuster, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    To explore parental and home environmental facilitators of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and water consumption among obese/overweight Latino youth. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 55 overweight/obese Latino youth aged 10 to 18 and 55 parents, recruited from school-based clinics and a school in one West Coast district. All youth consumed SSBs regularly and lived in a home where SSBs were available. We used qualitative methods to examine key themes around beliefs about SSBs and water, facilitators of SSB and water consumption, and barriers to reducing SSB consumption. A few parents and youth believed that sports drinks are healthy. Although nearly all thought that water is healthy, most parents and about half of youth thought that tap water is unsafe. About half of parent-child dyads had discordant beliefs regarding their perceptions of tap water. About half of parents believed that homemade culturally relevant drinks (eg, aguas frescas), which typically contain sugar, fruit, and water, were healthy because of their "natural" ingredients. Participants cited home availability as a key factor in SSB consumption. About half of parents set no rules about SSB consumption at home. Among those with rules, most parent-child pairs differed on their beliefs about the content of the rules, and youth reported few consequences for breaking rules. Obesity programs for Latino youth should address misconceptions around water and should discuss culturally relevant drinks and sports drinks as potential sources of weight gain. Health care providers can help parents set appropriate rules by educating about the risks of keeping SSBs at home. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Advancing oral health policy and advocacy to prevent childhood obesity and reduce children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Ankit; Siddiqui, Nadia J

    2017-06-01

    While a large body of work documents the interconnections between oral health and obesity, less is known about the role that oral health professionals and organizations play to prevent childhood obesity, especially by influencing children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This review identifies efforts by oral health professionals and organizations to influence such policy and advocacy, while informing future opportunities to leverage and expand on existing efforts. A scoping review of peer-reviewed literature and a web-based review of oral health policy and advocacy initiatives addressing prevention of obesity and reducing children's consumption of SSBs were conducted. Of 30 unique references identified, four peer-reviewed and seven non-peer-reviewed references met selection criteria. Qualitative and quantitative data were extracted using a priori determined headings. Findings suggest a strong role for oral health professionals in preventing childhood obesity and reducing children's consumption of SSBs; however, only a few national, state, and local oral-health-advocacy and -policy efforts were identified, such as policy statements by national associations, state and local education campaigns, and clinical guidelines. Evidence was limited on the role of oral health professionals in influencing broader communitywide advocacy and policy efforts such as soda taxation and limiting SSB consumption in schools. This review provides an emerging evidence base to support growing recognition among oral health professionals of their dual role in preventing childhood obesity and dental caries by targeting SSB consumption. It also identifies opportunities for oral health professionals to build on initial efforts to more proactively influence future policy and advocacy. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Impact of bottle size on in-home consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages: a feasibility and acceptability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Mantzari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of sugars-sweetened beverages (SSB increases energy intake and the risk of obesity. Large packages increase consumption of food, implying that smaller bottle sizes may help curb SSB consumption, but there is a lack of relevant evidence relating to these products. This study explores the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of different bottle sizes on SSB consumption at home. Methods Households in Cambridge, England, which purchased at least 2 l of regular cola drinks per week, received a set amount of cola each week for four weeks, in bottles of one of four sizes (1500 ml, 1000 ml, 500 ml, or 250 ml in random order. The total volume received consisted of a modest excess of households’ typical weekly purchasing, but was further increased for half the study households to avoid ceiling effects. Consumption was measured by recording the number of empty bottles at the end of each week. Eligible households were invited to complete a run-in period to assess levels of active participation. Results Thirty-seven of 111 eligible households with an interest in the study completed the run-in period. The study procedures proved feasible. The target for recruitment (n = 16 households was exceeded. Measuring consumption was feasible: over three quarters (n = 30/37 of households returned all bottles on the majority (n = 88/101 of the study weeks completed across households. The validity of this measure was compromised by guests from outside the household who drank the study cola (n = 18/37 households on 48/101 study weeks and consumption of the study cola outside the home. Supplying enhanced volumes of cola to nine households was associated with higher consumption (11,592 ml vs 7869 ml. The intervention and study procedures were considered acceptable. Thirteen households correctly identified the study aims. Conclusion The findings support the feasibility

  6. Consumption of highly processed snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages and child feeding practices in a rural area of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate feeding behaviours are important for child growth and development. In societies undergoing nutrition transition, new food items are introduced that may be unfavourable for child health. Set in rural Nicaragua, the aim of this study was to describe the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices as well as the consumption of highly processed snack foods (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). All households with at least one child 0- to 35-month-old (n = 1371) were visited to collect information on current IYCF practices in the youngest child as well as consumption of SSBs and HP snacks. Breastfeeding was dominant (98%) among 0- to 1-month-olds and continued to be prevalent (60%) in the second year, while only 34% of the 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed. Complementary feeding practices were deemed acceptable for only 59% of the 6- to 11-month-old infants, with low dietary diversity reported for 50% and inadequate meal frequency reported for 30%. Consumption of HP snacks and SSBs was frequent and started early; among 6- to 8-month-olds, 42% and 32% had consumed HP snacks and SSBs, respectively. The difference between the observed IYCF behaviours and World Health Organization recommendations raises concern of increased risk of infections and insufficient intake of micronutrients that may impair linear growth. The concurrent high consumption of SSBs and HP snacks may increase the risk of displacing the recommended feeding behaviours. To promote immediate and long-term health, growth and development, there is a need to both promote recommended IYCF practices as well as discourage unfavourable feeding behaviours. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of multiple metabolic abnormalities, is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The current study was conducted to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption and MetS and its components in Iranian adults.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted among 5,852 men and women, aged 19 to 70 years, who participated in the fourth phase (2009 to 2011 of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographics, anthropometrics, biochemical measurements, and blood pressure (BP were assessed and MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Frequency and quantity of SSB intakes including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire.ResultsMean age of participants (43%, men was 40.6±12.9 years. Significant positive associations between SSBs and waist circumference, triglyceride level, systolic and diastolic BP in the third and fourth quartile of SSBs were observed, after adjustment for all potential confounding variables. The odds of MetS in the third and fourth quartiles compared to the first quartile category of SSBs was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.45 and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.58, respectively (P for trend=0.03. The odds of MetS, abdominal obesity, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated BP had increasing trends across increasing of SSB consumption (P for trend <0.05.ConclusionHigher intake of SSBs was associated with the higher odds of MetS in adults. It is suggested that reducing consumption of SSBs could be a practical approach to prevent metabolic abnormalities.

  8. Added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, dietary carbohydrate index and depression risk in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Zazpe, Itziar; Santiago, Susana; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Lahortiga-Ramos, Francisca

    2018-01-01

    The association between added sugars or sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of depression, as well as the role of carbohydrate quality in depression risk, remains unclear. Among 15 546 Spanish university graduates from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) prospective cohort study, diet was assessed with a validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. Cumulative average consumption of added sugars, sweetened drinks and an overall carbohydrate quality index (CQI) were calculated. A better CQI was associated with higher whole-grain consumption and fibre intake and lower glycaemic index and consumption of solid (instead of liquid) carbohydrates. Clinical diagnoses of depression during follow-up were classified as incident cases. Multivariable time-dependent Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of depression according to consumption of added sugars, sweetened drinks and CQI. We observed 769 incident cases of depression. Participants in the highest quartile of added sugars consumption showed a significant increment in the risk of depression (HR=1·35; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·67, P=0·034), whereas those in the highest quartile of CQI (upper quartile of the CQI) showed a relative risk reduction of 30 % compared with those in the lowest quartile of the CQI (HR=0·70; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·88). No significant association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and depression risk was found. Higher added sugars and lower quality of carbohydrate consumption were associated with depression risk in the SUN Cohort. Further studies are necessary to confirm the reported results.

  9. Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption in relation to changes in body fatness over 6 and 12 years among 9-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, M; Rangan, A; Olsen, Lasse P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives:In parallel with the obesity epidemic, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has risen over the same period. Our aim was to investigate associations between the consumption of SSB in childhood and adolescence with subsequent changes in body fatness in early adulthood.......Subjects/Methods:A longitudinal study of 9-year-old children (n=283) enrolled in the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study with a 6-year and 12-year follow-up. Data were collected at ages 9, 15 and 21 years. Multivariate regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders were used to evaluate the effect of SSB...

  10. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukri Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI and waist circumference (W_C, together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ≤ 0.001. W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  11. Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Mississippi: Is There A Disparity? Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Qobadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs is a key contributor to epidemic obesity and has dramatically increased over the past decade in the United States, little is known about its prevalence and associated factors. Data from the 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS were used to estimate the prevalence of SSB consumption and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics, behavioral factors and SSB intake in Mississippi (n = 7220. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were conducted using SAS Proc Survey procedures, to account for the BRFSS′s multistage complex survey design and sample weights. Overall prevalence of self-reported daily SSB intake was 41.1%. Our findings showed that males (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2–1.7, ref = female, blacks (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.4–2.1, ref = whites, adults aged 18–24 years (aOR = 5.0, 95% CI: 3.4–7.5, ref = 65 years or older, those with less than high school education (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4–2.6, ref = college graduate, annual income <$25,000 (aOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.7, ref ≥ $50,000 and $25,000–49,999 (aOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.6, ref ≥ $50,000, those with no physical activity (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.6, ref = physically active, daily smokers (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7–2.7, ref = non-smokers, and those who reported eating at fast food or chain restaurants (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5, ref = do not eat at fast food or chain restaurants were more likely to consume SSBs, raising concerns about overweight and obesity in Mississippi.

  12. Controlled cohort evaluation of the LiveLighter mass media campaign's impact on adults' reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Belinda C; Niven, Philippa H; Dixon, Helen G; Swanson, Maurice G; McAleese, Alison B; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2018-04-25

    To evaluate the LiveLighter 'Sugary Drinks' campaign impact on awareness, knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Cohort study with population surveys undertaken in intervention and comparison states at baseline (n=900 each), with 78% retention at follow-up (intervention: n=673; comparison: n=730). Analyses tested interactions by state (intervention, comparison) and time (baseline, follow-up). Adults aged 25-49 years residing in the Australian states of Victoria and South Australia. The 6-week mass media campaign ran in Victoria in October/November 2015. It focused on the contribution of SSBs to the development of visceral 'toxic fat', graphically depicted around vital organs, and ultimately serious disease. Paid television advertising was complemented by radio, cinema, online and social media advertising, and stakeholder and community engagement. Self-reported consumption of SSBs, artificially sweetened drinks and water. Campaign recall and recognition; knowledge of the health effects of overweight and SSB consumption; perceived impact of SSB consumption on body weight and of reduced consumption on health. A significant reduction in frequent SSB consumption was observed in the intervention state (intervention: 31% compared with 22%, comparison: 30% compared with 29%; interaction pcampaign. This is notable in a context where public health campaigns occur against a backdrop of heavy commercial product advertising promoting increased SSB consumption. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Adults Who Order Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B.; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 30% of adults consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily, many at fast food restaurants. Researchers examined fast food purchases to better understand which consumers order SSBs, particularly large SSBs. Methods Fast food customers in New York City and New Jersey provided receipts and participated in a survey during 2013–2014 (N=11,614). Logistic regression analyses predicted three outcomes: ordering no beverage or a non-SSB, a small/medium SSB, or a large SSB. Among respondents who ordered a beverage (n=3,775), additional analyses predicted number of beverage calories and odds of ordering an SSB. Covariates included demographic and behavioral factors. Results Respondents aged 18–29 years were 88% more likely to order a large SSB than a non-SSB or no beverage, as compared with respondents aged ≥50 years (pbeverage, respondents ordered more beverage calories with a large combination meal (+85.13 kcal, p=0.001) or if the restaurant had a large cup size >30 ounces (+36.07 kcal, p=0.001). Hispanic and Asian respondents were less likely to order a large SSB (AOR=0.49 and 0.52, respectively, both p≤0.026) than non-Hispanic white respondents. Odds of ordering a large SSB were higher for respondents who ate in the restaurant (AOR=1.66, pbeverage based on price (AOR=2.02, pbeverage calories increased with meal size. Increased understanding of these factors is an important step toward limiting unhealthy SSB consumption. PMID:27662697

  14. The relative reinforcing value of sweet versus savory snack foods after consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Shanon L; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sugar-sweetened (SSB) and non-nutritive sweetened (NSB) beverages on the regulation of appetite, energy intake and body weight regulation remain controversial. Using a behavioral choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a SSB or NSB on appetite and the reinforcing value of sweet relative to salty/savory snack foods. In a randomized crossover study, 21 healthy weight adults consumed 360 ml of SSB (sucrose; 31 g) or NSB (sucralose; 4 g) with a standardized meal. Hedonic ratings for the sweet and salty/savory snack foods used for the reinforcement task were assessed prior to the start of the study. Satiety and the desire to eat foods with a specific taste profile were assessed before and every 30 min post-meal for 4 h. The relative reinforcing value of the snack foods was assessed using a computer-based choice task (operant responding with concurrent schedules of reinforcement) 4 h post-meal. Hedonic ratings did not differ between the most highly liked sweet and salty/savory snack foods. Beverage type did not influence measures of satiety or the desire to eat foods with a specific taste. However, sweet snacks were more (p snack foods after consuming a NSB than after a SSB. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that NSB can increase the motivation to gain access to sweet snacks relative to salty/savory snack foods later in the day. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Fidler Mis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugary drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs and fruit juices. They have high sugar content, low satiety effect and incomplete compensation for energy, so they pose a risk for promoting positive energy balance. Each extra serving of SSBs children consume per day increases their chance of becoming obese by 60 %. Other main negative health effects of sugary drinks are: the development of preference for sweet taste, poor nutrient supply, lower mineral density, bone fractures, development of dental caries, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. SSBs are the leading source of added sugar in the diet of Slovenian adolescents. Water does not contain energy and may support a healthy weight status if it replaces sugary drinks. Cutting back on SSBs can control weight in children and adults. It is necessary that present public health strategies include education about beverage intake. Consumption of SSBs should be discouraged, whereas promoting the consumption of water should be made a priority.

  16. An 'end-game' for sugar sweetened beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundborn, G; Merriman, T R; Thornley, S; Metcalf, P; Jackson, R

    2014-03-01

    The epidemic of unhealthy weight is now in its third decade. The multitude of initiatives designed to address this issue (globally) have predominantly been ineffective as the prevalence of unhealthy weight has continued to rise. Public health professionals have proposed an 'endgame' for tobacco smoking in New Zealand by 2025, which has received widespread support. Similarly, here, to control the prevalence of unhealthy weight, we consider whether a similar approach to tobacco is justified to restrict the intake of sweetened beverages. This paper reviews the evidence relating sugar sweetened beverages to unhealthy weight and adverse health effects. Current initiatives aimed at reducing sugar sweetened beverage consumption both internationally and in New Zealand are reviewed. Epidemiological evidence consistently links sugar-sweetened drink intake with unhealthy weight and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes, gout, and raised blood pressure. Food disappearance data suggests that sugar intake continues to increase in New Zealand, and that a subtle addiction to sugar may underlie this trend. A number of successful initiatives to reduce sugary drink intake are described. IMPLICATION/CONCLUSION: We argue that an 'endgame' to the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages be supported as a means to address the issue of unhealthy weight at a population level. Finally, a preliminary draft endgame plan is presented for consideration, dialogue and debate.

  17. Declining consumption of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia: a challenge for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Barclay, Alan W

    2017-04-01

    Background: Reduced intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been the main focus of efforts to stall obesity. Although obesity has risen steeply in Australia, some evidence suggests that added-sugars and SSB intakes have declined over the same time frame. Objective: We investigated recent trends in the availability of sugars and sweeteners and changes in intakes of total sugars, added sugars, and SSBs in Australia by using multiple, independent data sources. Design: The study was designed to compare relevant data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO Statistics Division Database (FAOSTAT)], the Australian government, academia, and the food industry. Results: With the use of the FAOSTAT food balance sheets for Australia, the per capita availability of added or refined sugars and sweeteners was shown to have fallen 16% from 152 g/d in 1980 to 127 g/d in 2011 ( P -trend = 0.001). In national dietary surveys in 1995 and 2011-2012, added-sugars intake declined markedly in adult men (from 72 to 59 g/d; -18%) but not in women (44-42 g/d; NS). As a proportion of total energy, added-sugars intake fell 10% in adult men but nonsignificantly in adult women. Between 1995 and 2011-2012, the proportion of energy from SSBs (including 100% juice) declined 10% in adult men and 20% in women. More marked changes were observed in children aged 2-18 y. Data from national grocery sales indicated that per capita added-sugars intakes derived from carbonated soft drinks fell 26% between 1997 and 2011 (from 23 to 17 g/d) with similar trends for noncarbonated beverages. Conclusions: In Australia, 4 independent data sets confirmed shorter- and longer-term declines in the availability and intake of added sugars, including those contributed by SSBs. The findings challenge the widespread belief that energy from added sugars or sugars in solution are uniquely linked to the prevalence of obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Banning all sugar-sweetened beverages in middle schools: reduction of in-school access and purchasing but not overall consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Powell, Lisa M; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-03-01

    To determine whether state policies that regulate beverages in schools are associated with reduced in-school access and purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and reduced consumption of SSBs (in and out of school) among adolescents. Cross-sectional. Public schools in 40 states. Students sampled in fifth and eighth grades (spring 2004 and 2007, respectively). State policies that ban all SSBs and state policies that ban only soda for 2006-2007. In-school SSB access, in-school SSB purchasing behavior, and overall SSB consumption (in and out of school) in eighth grade. The proportions of eighth-grade students who reported in-school SSB access and purchasing were similar in states that banned only soda (66.6% and 28.9%, respectively) compared with states with no beverage policy (66.6% and 26.0%, respectively). In states that banned all SSBs, fewer students reported in-school SSB access (prevalence difference, -14.9; 95% CI, -23.6 to -6.1) or purchasing (-7.3; -11.0 to -3.5), adjusted for race/ethnicity, poverty status, locale, state obesity prevalence, and state clustering. Results were similar among students who reported access or purchasing SSBs in fifth grade compared with those who did not. Overall SSB consumption was not associated with state policy; in each policy category, approximately 85% of students reported consuming SSBs at least once in the past 7 days. Supplementary analyses indicated that overall consumption had only a modest association with in-school SSB access. State policies that ban all SSBs in middle schools appear to reduce in-school access and purchasing of SSBs but do not reduce overall consumption.

  19. The Association between the Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in School Vending Machines and Its Consumption among Adolescents in California: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (<.05. Kernel-based propensity score matching shows the SSB consumption difference to be 0.158 on the prior day (<.05. This paper strengthens the evidence for the association between SSB availability via school vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available.

  20. Simulated reductions in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages improves diet quality in Lower Mississippi Delta adults

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    Jessica L. Thomson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the effects of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs with water on energy intake and body weight have been reported, little is known about how these replacements affect diet quality.To simulate the effects of replacing SSBs with tap water on diet quality and total energy intake of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD adults.Retrospective analysis of cross-sectional dietary intake data using a representative sample of LMD adults (n=1,689. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005 scores that were computed using the population ratio method. The effects of substituting SSBs with water on diet quality were simulated by replacing the targeted items’ nutrient profile with tap water's profile.Simulating the replacement of SSBs with tap water at 25, 50, and 100% levels resulted in 1-, 2.3-, and 3.8-point increases, respectively, in the HEI-2005 total score. Based on a mean daily intake of 2,011 kcal, 100% substitution of SSBs with tap water would result in 11% reduction in energy intake.Replacing SSBs with water could substantially improve the diet quality of the LMD adult population and potentially lead to significant weight loss overtime. Prioritizing intervention efforts to focus on the replacement of SSBs with energy-free drinks may be the most efficacious approach for conveying potentially substantial health benefits in this and similar disadvantaged populations.

  1. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Lynn D; Ng, Shu Wen; Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Induni, Marta; Miles, Donna R; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-04-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake. Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015) and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015-29 February 2016) measures of (1) beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2) point-of-sale scanner data on 15.5 million checkouts for beverage prices, sales, and store revenue for two supermarket chains covering three Berkeley and six control non-Berkeley large supermarkets in adjacent cities; and (3) a representative telephone survey (17.4% cooperation rate) of 957 adult Berkeley residents. Key hypotheses were that (1) the tax would be passed through to the prices of taxed beverages among the chain stores in which Berkeley implemented the tax in 2015; (2) sales of taxed beverages would decline, and sales of untaxed beverages would rise, in Berkeley stores more than in comparison non-Berkeley stores; (3) consumer spending per transaction (checkout episode) would not increase in Berkeley stores; and (4) self-reported consumption of taxed beverages would decline. Main outcomes and measures included changes in inflation-adjusted prices (cents/ounce), beverage sales (ounces), consumers' spending measured as store revenue (inflation-adjusted dollars per transaction) in two large chains, and usual beverage intake (grams/day and kilocalories/day). Tax pass-through (changes in the price after imposition of the tax) for SSBs varied in degree and timing by store type and beverage type. Pass-through was complete in large chain supermarkets (+1.07¢/oz, p = 0.001) and small chain supermarkets and chain gas stations (1.31¢/oz, p = 0.004), partial in pharmacies (+0.45¢/oz, p = 0.03), and negative in independent corner stores and

  2. Reducing Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Is Associated with Reduced Blood Pressure: A Prospective Study among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwei; Caballero, Benjamin; Mitchell, Diane C.; Loria, Catherine; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Champagne, Catherine M.; Elmer, Patricia J.; Ard, Jamy D.; Batch, Bryan C.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Appel, Lawrence J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with an elevated risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. However, the effects of SSB consumption on blood pressure (BP) are uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between changes in SSB consumption and changes in BP among adults. Methods and Results Prospective analysis of 810 adults who participated in the PREMIER Study (an 18-month behavioral intervention trial). BP and dietary intake (by two 24-h recalls) were measured at baseline, 6-month, and 18-month. Mixed effects models were applied to estimate the changes in BP in responding to changes in SSB consumption. At baseline, mean SSB intake was 0.9 ± 1.0 servings/day (10.5 ± 11.9 fl oz/day), and mean SBP/DBP was 134.9 ± 9.6/84.8 ± 4.2 mmHg. After controlling for potential confounders, a reduction in SSB of 1 serving/day was associated with a 1.8 mmHg (95% CI: 1.2 to 2.4 mmHg) reduction in SBP and 1.1 mmHg (95% CI: 0.7 to 1.4 mmHg) reduction in DBP over 18 months. After additional adjustment for weight change over the same period, a reduction in SSB intake was still significantly associated with reductions in SBP and DBP (P sugars was also significantly associated with reduced BP. No association was found for diet beverage consumption or caffeine intake and BP. These findings suggest that sugars may be the nutrients that contribute to the observed association between SSB and BP. Conclusions Reduced consumption of SSB and sugars were significantly associated with reduced BP. Reducing SSB and sugar consumption may be an important dietary strategy to lower BP. PMID:20497980

  3. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y: NHANES 2005–2008123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. Objective: We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y. Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005–2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Results: Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake. PMID:23676421

  4. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.

  5. Middle school food environments and racial/ethnic differences in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: Findings from the Healthy Choices study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Spadano-Gasbarro, Jennifer L.; Walls, Courtney E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Greaney, Mary L.; Wang, Monica L.; Mezegebu, Solomon; Peterson, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies have demonstrated disproportionate clustering of fast food outlets around schools. Purpose To determine if racial/ethnic differences in middle school student self-reported sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is explained by differential distributions of food outlets surrounding their schools. Methods Baseline (2005) data were analyzed from 18,281 middle school students in 47 Massachusetts schools participating in Healthy Choices, an obesity prevention program. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the association of individual race/ethnicity and daily SSB consumption and the potential mediating effect of the density of food outlets (the number of fast food outlets and convenience stores in a 1500m buffer area surrounding the school) on this association adjusting for individual and school demographics. Results More SSB consumption was reported by students of all racial/ethnic minority groups compared to their White peers except Asians. The density of fast food restaurants and convenience stores was not associated with individual SSB consumption (β=0.001, p=0.875) nor did it mediate the association of race/ethnicity and SSB consumption. Conclusions Racial and ethnic differences in SSB consumption among MA middle school students cannot be fully explained by the location of fast food restaurants and convenience stores. PMID:24036015

  6. Middle school food environments and racial/ethnic differences in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: findings from the Healthy Choices study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Spadano-Gasbarro, Jennifer L; Walls, Courtney E; Austin, S Bryn; Greaney, Mary L; Wang, Monica L; Mezegebu, Solomon; Peterson, Karen E

    2013-11-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated disproportionate clustering of fast food outlets around schools. The purpose of this study is to determine if racial/ethnic differences in middle school student self-reported sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is explained by differential distributions of food outlets surrounding their schools. Baseline (2005) data were analyzed from 18,281 middle school students in 47 Massachusetts schools participating in Healthy Choices, an obesity prevention program. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the association of individual race/ethnicity and daily SSB consumption and the potential mediating effect of the density of food outlets (the number of fast food outlets and convenience stores in a 1500 m buffer area surrounding the school) on this association adjusting for individual and school demographics. More SSB consumption was reported by students of all racial/ethnic minority groups compared to their White peers except Asians. The density of fast food restaurants and convenience stores was not associated with individual SSB consumption (β=0.001, p=0.875) nor did it mediate the association of race/ethnicity and SSB consumption. Racial and ethnic differences in SSB consumption among MA middle school students cannot be fully explained by the location of fast food restaurants and convenience stores. © 2013.

  7. Do You Know What Your Kids Are Drinking? Evaluation of a Media Campaign to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy; Mallya, Giridhar; Hennessy, Michael; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates a citywide media campaign that targeted reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as a strategy for addressing obesity. Rolling cross-sectional survey data, collected before and during the media campaign, with 1367 parents to assess exposure to and effect of a televised public service advertisement (TV PSA) developed using a reasoned action approach. Televised public service advertisement campaign created by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health and disseminated on cable television channels within the Philadelphia market. Philadelphia parents/primary caregivers with a child between the ages of 3 and 16. Linear regression analysis shows that exposure to the TV PSA was significantly associated with intention to substitute nonsugary drinks for SSBs for the parent ( P = .04) and the child ( P = .02). The effect of exposure on intention to reduce child's SSB consumption increased the longer the campaign was in the field. Exposure was also significantly associated with the belief that reducing SSB consumption decreases the risk of diabetes ( P = .04) and was significantly negatively related to the belief that reducing SSB consumption would make mealtimes less enjoyable ( P = .04). These findings suggest that a theory-based mass media campaign can achieve positive changes in intention related to SSB consumption by changing relevant and salient underlying beliefs.

  8. Less-healthy eating behaviors have a greater association with a high level of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among rural adults than among urban adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley R. Dean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption is associated with the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States; however, little is known about how less-healthy eating behaviors influence high levels of SSB consumption among rural adults. Objective: We assessed the frequency of SSB consumption among rural and urban adults, examined the correlates of frequent SSB consumption, and determined difference in correlates between rural and urban adults in a large region of Texas. Design: A cross-sectional study using data on 1,878 adult participants (urban = 734 and rural = 1,144, who were recruited by random digit dialing to participate in the seven-county 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Data included demographic characteristics, eating behaviors (SSB consumption, frequency of fast-food meals, frequency of breakfast meals, and daily fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity. Results: The prevalence of any consumption of SSB and the prevalence of high consumption of SSB were significantly higher among rural adults compared with urban counterparts. The multivariable logistic regression models indicated that a high level of SSB consumption (≥3 cans or glasses SSB/day was associated with demographic characteristics (poverty-level income and children in the home, frequent consumption of fast-food meals, infrequent breakfast meals, low fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity especially among rural adults. Conclusions: This study provides impetus for understanding associations among multiple eating behaviors, especially among economically and geographically disadvantaged adults. New strategies are needed for educating consumers, not only about how to moderate their SSB intake, but also how to simultaneously disrupt the co-occurrence of undesirable eating and promote healthful eating.

  9. [Intake of sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages and body mass index: A national sample of Chilean school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, Jacqueline; Bustos, Patricia; Cerecera, Francisco; Amigo, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the association between the intake of sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages and body mass index (BMI) in Chilean school children. Food consumption frequency data were analyzed for school children aged 6 to 18. The association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and BMI was estimated by multivariate lineal regression models. Sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed on a daily basis by 92% (95%CI:90-94) of subjects with daily intake medians of 424 mL (p25-p75:212-707). Every extra daily portion of sugar-sweetened beverages consumed by school children aged 6 to 13 is associated with 0.13 BMI z-scores (95%CI:0.04-0.2;p=0.01). School children consume sugar-sweetened beverages daily with intake medians close to 0.5L. There is an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and higher BMI in Chilean school children.

  10. [Consumption of sweetened, energy and alcoholic beverages among college students in the México-US border].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Miranda, Luis Mario; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Caravalí-Meza, Nuris Yohana; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2014-09-28

    The consumption of sugary, energy and alcoholic drinks among college students might be a health risk factor. To assess the consumption of sugary, energy and alcoholic drinks and to determine their associations with body mass index (BMI) status among college students. Second and third year college students enrolled in five different majors at the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California were evaluated. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and BMI was calculated. A frequency questionnaire of 19 drinks was administered. A total of 1138 students participated in the study. The prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity was 12 and 33% with 14 and 17% in women and men respectively. Fifty-five per cent of women and 68% of men consumed more than 25g of sugar drinks per day; 12% consumed more than 100g of sugar daily. The daily caloric intake from beverages was greater than 450kcal with 350kcal in men and women respectively. Ten per cent of women and 15% of men consumed more than 30g of alcohol daily. The sugary drinks more frequently consumed were fruit juices (90%), whole milk (69%), regular soft drinks (83%), beer (37%), liquor (27%) and energy drinks (12%). Consumption of sugary, energy, and alcoholic drinks is very high, which may be a health risk in this population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Kate S; Zaidi, Marya Z; Subhani, Shazia N; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Shoukri, Mohammed; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2010-05-09

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (W_C), together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P beverage (SSCB) intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P food meal intake, savory snacks, iced desserts and total sugar consumption correlated with SSCB intake in both boys (r = 0.39, 0.13, 0.10 and 0.52 respectively, P beverages were higher in older versus younger children (P < 0.001). BMI and W_C were negatively correlated with hours of night-time sleep and exercise in boys, but only with night time sleep in girls, who also showed the lowest frequency of exercise. A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  12. Artificial Sweetened Beverages and Pediatric Obesity: The Controversy Continues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N Freswick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pediatric obesity epidemic has gathered public and political interest recently. People often choose “diet” or artificial sweetened beverages (ASB to combat this epidemic, but the obesity incidence continues to rise. First, I review the pediatric studies on the effect of ASB consumption with subsequent food intake. Next, I present pediatric studies of chronic ASB consumption and weight change. Some epidemiologic pediatric studies have supported an association between artificial sweetener use and increased BMI but cannot prove causation. Randomized control trials have provided some evidence of weight loss with ASB ingestion among children, but study limitations may minimize these conclusions. Finally, I summarize the possible mechanisms that may drive potential effects of artificial sweeteners.

  13. Development and Evaluation of the Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Media Literacy (SSB-ML) Scale and Its Relationship With SSB Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yvonnes; Porter, Kathleen J.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Zoellner, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how adults’ media literacy skill sets impact their sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake provides insight into designing effective interventions to enhance their critical analysis of marketing messages and thus improve their healthy beverage choices. However, a media literacy scale focusing on SSBs is lacking. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from a large randomized controlled trial to (a) describe the psychometric properties of an SSB Media Literacy Scale (SSB-ML) scale and its subdomains, (b) examine how the scale varies across demographic variables, and (c) explain the scale’s concurrent validity to predict SSB consumption. Results from 293 adults in rural southwestern Virginia (81.6% female, 94.0% White, 54.1% receiving SNAP and/or WIC benefits, average 410 SSB kcal daily) show that overall SSB-ML scale and its subdomains have strong internal consistencies (Cronbach’s alphas ranging from 0.65 to 0.83). The Representation & Reality domain significantly predicted SSB kilocalories, after controlling for demographic variables. This study has implications for the assessment and inclusion of context-specific media literacy skills in behavioral interventions. PMID:27690635

  14. Development and Evaluation of the Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Media Literacy (SSB-ML) Scale and Its Relationship With SSB Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yvonnes; Porter, Kathleen J; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how adults' media literacy skill sets impact their sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake provides insight into designing effective interventions to enhance their critical analysis of marketing messages and thus improve their healthy beverage choices. However, a media literacy scale focusing on SSBs is lacking. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from a large randomized controlled trial to (a) describe the psychometric properties of an SSB Media Literacy Scale (SSB-ML) scale and its subdomains, (b) examine how the scale varies across demographic variables, and (c) explain the scale's concurrent validity to predict SSB consumption. Results from 293 adults in rural southwestern Virginia (81.6% female, 94.0% White, 54.1% receiving SNAP and/or WIC benefits, average 410 SSB kcal daily) show that overall SSB-ML scale and its subdomains have strong internal consistencies (Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.65 to 0.83). The Representation & Reality domain significantly predicted SSB kilocalories, after controlling for demographic variables. This study has implications for the assessment and inclusion of context-specific media literacy skills in behavioral interventions.

  15. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda consumption and the 7-year risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, M; Nakamura, K; Miura, K; Takamura, T; Yoshita, K; Nagasawa, S Y; Morikawa, Y; Ishizaki, M; Kido, T; Naruse, Y; Suwazono, Y; Sasaki, S; Nakagawa, H

    2014-02-01

    This cohort study investigated the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and diet soda consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men. The participants were 2,037 employees of a factory in Japan. We measured consumption of SSB and diet soda using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The incidence of diabetes was determined in annual medical examinations over a 7-year period. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for diabetes were estimated after adjusting for age, body mass index, family history, and dietary and other lifestyle factors. During the study, 170 participants developed diabetes. The crude incidence rates (/1,000 person-years) across participants who were rare/never SSB consumers, Diet soda consumption was significantly associated with the incident risk of diabetes (P for trend = 0.013), and multivariate-adjusted HRs compared to rare/never diet soda consumers were 1.05 (0.62-1.78) and 1.70 (1.13-2.55), respectively, for participants who consumed diet soda was significantly associated with an increased risk for diabetes in Japanese men. Diet soda is not always effective at preventing type 2 diabetes even though it is a zero-calorie drink.

  16. Design and methods for a community-based intervention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth: H2GO! study

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    Monica L. Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB intake is an important dietary target among underserved children at high risk for obesity and associated morbidities. Community-based approaches to reduce SSB intake are needed. The use of narrative-based approaches (presenting messages within the context of a story can facilitate connection with target health messages and empower children as behavior change agents within their families. The H2GO! program is a community-based behavioral intervention that integrates narrative-based strategies to reduce SSB consumption and promote water intake among school-age youth and parents. Methods Guided by the Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Ecological Model, the H2GO! intervention consists of 6 weekly sessions that target beverage knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors through youth-produced messages and narratives to reduce SSB intake and encourage water intake and parent–child activities. To reach underserved youth and families, we identified Boys & Girls Clubs (B&GC (youth-based community centers that serve an ethnically diverse and predominantly low socioeconomic status population as a community partner and study setting. Participants (children ages 9–12 years and their parents will be recruited from B&GC sites in Massachusetts, USA. Intervention efficacy will be assessed through a site-randomized trial (N = 2 youth-based community sites, pair-matched for size and racial/ethnic composition with 54 parent–child pairs (N = 108 enrolled per site (N = 216 total. The comparison site will carry on with usual practice. Child and parental SSB and water consumption (primary outcomes and parent and child beverage knowledge and attitudes (secondary outcomes will be measured via self-report surveys. Additional outcomes include children’s anthropometric data, additional dietary behaviors, and physical activity. Measures will be collected at baseline, 2 and 6 months follow-up. With

  17. The association between self-reported grocery store access, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity in a racially diverse, low-income population

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    Lauren Nichol Gase

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index. We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7% and driving (59.9% to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9% and traveling five minutes or less to reach (50.3% the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or body mass index. Results suggest the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  18. The Association between Self-Reported Grocery Store Access, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity in a Racially Diverse, Low-Income Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren Nichol; DeFosset, Amelia Rose; Smith, Lisa V; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index (BMI). We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7%) and driving (59.9%) to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9%) and traveling 5 min or less to reach (50.3%) the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or BMI. Results suggest that the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  19. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn D Silver; Shu Wen Ng; Suzanne Ryan-Ibarra; Lindsey Smith Taillie; Marta Induni; Donna R Miles; Jennifer M Poti; Barry M Popkin

    2017-01-01

    Background Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake. Methods and findings Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015) and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015?29 Februa...

  20. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial

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    Valisa E. Hedrick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories, yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER or a physical activity group (MoveMore. Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149 (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7, p ≤ 0.001 and MoveMore (n = 143 (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2, p ≤ 0.001 participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05, over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01. Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.

  1. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risks of Obesity and Hypertension in Chinese Children and Adolescents: A National Cross-Sectional Analysis

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    Zhao-Huan Gui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB and its association with obesity and hypertension in a national sample of children and adolescents in China, where many low- and middle-income families live. Data were obtained from a 2014 national intervention program against obesity in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. Height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Information of SSB consumption, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, screen time, and physical activity were self-reported. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of SSB consumption with obesity and hypertension. A total of 66.6% of the 53,151 participants reported consuming SSB. The per capita and per consumer SSB intake were 2.84 ± 5.26 servings/week and 4.26 ± 5.96 servings/week, respectively. Boys, older children, and adolescents, and individuals with long screen time or high physical activity or low parental education level were more likely to consume SSB. Participants who were high SSB consumers had a higher odds ratio (1.133, 95% CI: 1.054–1.217 than non-consumers for having abdominal obesity after adjustment for age, sex, residence, socioeconomic status, diet, screen time, and physical activity. However, SSB consumption was not associated with general obesity or hypertension in children and adolescents. In conclusion, more than half of the children and adolescents in China consumed SSB, which was independently related to a high risk of abdominal obesity. The results of this study indicated that SSB reduction strategies and policies may be useful in preventing obesity among Chinese children and adolescents.

  2. Daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and insulin resistance in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

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    Kondaki, Katerina; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Jiménez-Pavón, David; De Henauw, Stefaan; González-Gross, Marcela; Sjöstrom, Michael; Gottrand, Frédéric; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Kafatos, Anthony; Gilbert, Chantal; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the consumption of selected food groups and insulin resistance, with an emphasis on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The present research is a large multicentre European study in adolescents, the HELENA-CSS (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study). Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Several anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Dietary assessment was conducted by using a short FFQ. The participants were a subset of the original sample (n 546) with complete data on glucose, insulin and FFQ. All participants were recruited at schools. Median (25th, 75th percentile) HOMA-IR was 0.62 (0.44, 0.87). Mean HOMA-IR was significantly higher among adolescents consuming brown bread ≤1 time/week than among those consuming 2-6 times/week (P = 0·011). Mean values of HOMA-IR were also higher in adolescents consuming SSB >5 times/week compared with those consuming less frequently, although a statistically significant difference was detected between those consuming SSB 5-6 times/week and 2-4 times/week (P = 0.049). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the frequency of SSB consumption was significantly associated with HOMA-IR after controlling for potential confounders. In particular, it was found that HOMA-IR levels were higher among adolescents consuming SSB 5-6 times/week and ≥1 time/d compared with those consuming ≤1 time/week by 0.281 and 0.191 units, respectively (P = 0.009 and 0.046, respectively). The present study revealed that daily consumption of SSB was related with increased HOMA-IR in adolescents.

  3. Trends in Fast-Food and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Their Association with Social Environmental Status in South Korea.

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    Lim, Hyunjung; Lee, Hae Jeoung; Choue, Ryowon; Wang, Youfa

    2017-10-04

    As South Korea has enjoyed rapid economic development, Koreans' diet, particularly consumption of fast food (FF) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), has changed. To examine time trends in FF and SSB consumption and their associations with social environmental status (SEnS) in South Korea. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) were a series of population-based cross-sectional surveys. Data from the KNHANES conducted in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007-2009 for 49,826 Koreans aged ≥1 year were used. Consumption of FF and SSBs were assessed by a 24-hour recall. We defined two FF categories (Western-style and Korean-style) and one SSB category. Sex, age, household income, and residence regions were investigated. The primary sampling units, strata, and sampling weights were taken into account using SAS survey-related procedures. Logistic regression models were used to test associations between SEnS and FF consumption. Over an 11-year period, the proportion of participants' who consumed Western FF and SSBs on the surveyed day doubled (P<0.05). Per capita energy contribution from Western FF also increased in adults, men, and low-income groups. SSB consumption doubled (per capita: 32 to 82 kcal/day, only consumers: 123 to 166 kcal/day), but consumption of Korean-style FF decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the low-income rural resident group, the high-income urban resident group was much more likely to consume Western FF (OR=26.7[3.7, 193.4]) and SSBs (odds ratio [OR]=3.1 [2.4, 4.1]) in 1998. However, in recent years, the patterns changed; the high-income urban resident group was more likely to consume Korean-style FF (OR=2.0[1.3, 2.9]) and SSBs (OR=1.7[1.3, 2.1]). In South Korea, people who reported consuming Western FF and SSBs on the surveyed day almost doubled during 1998-2009, whereas those who consumed Korean FF decreased. SEnS was related to FF and SSB consumption. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier

  4. Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Blood Pressure in the United States: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Ha; Abris, Grace P.; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Jung Eun

    2012-01-01

    High sugar intake has been suggested to be related to hypertension. To examine the associations between intakes of sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and the prevalence of hypertension, we used the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. A total of 3,044 participants aged ?19 years were included. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariate logistic regression model. Prevalent hypertension cases were defined as s...

  5. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study.

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    Lynn D Silver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake.Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015 and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015-29 February 2016 measures of (1 beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2 point-of-sale scanner data on 15.5 million checkouts for beverage prices, sales, and store revenue for two supermarket chains covering three Berkeley and six control non-Berkeley large supermarkets in adjacent cities; and (3 a representative telephone survey (17.4% cooperation rate of 957 adult Berkeley residents. Key hypotheses were that (1 the tax would be passed through to the prices of taxed beverages among the chain stores in which Berkeley implemented the tax in 2015; (2 sales of taxed beverages would decline, and sales of untaxed beverages would rise, in Berkeley stores more than in comparison non-Berkeley stores; (3 consumer spending per transaction (checkout episode would not increase in Berkeley stores; and (4 self-reported consumption of taxed beverages would decline. Main outcomes and measures included changes in inflation-adjusted prices (cents/ounce, beverage sales (ounces, consumers' spending measured as store revenue (inflation-adjusted dollars per transaction in two large chains, and usual beverage intake (grams/day and kilocalories/day. Tax pass-through (changes in the price after imposition of the tax for SSBs varied in degree and timing by store type and beverage type. Pass-through was complete in large chain supermarkets (+1.07¢/oz, p = 0.001 and small chain supermarkets and chain gas stations (1.31¢/oz, p = 0.004, partial in pharmacies (+0.45¢/oz, p = 0.03, and negative in independent corner stores and

  6. Can children discriminate sugar-sweetened from non-nutritively sweetened beverages and how do they like them?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, J.C.; Katan, M.B.; Kas, R.; Olthof, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Replacement of sugar-sweetened by non-nutritively sweetened beverages or water may reduce excess weight gain in children. However, it is unclear whether children like non-nutritively sweetened beverages as much as sugar-sweetened beverages. We examined whether children could taste a

  7. Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption and BMI in Mexican adolescents: Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Consumo de bebidas azucaradas y su relación con el IMC en adolescentes mexicanos: Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Jiménez-Aguilar; Mario Flores; Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body mass index (BMI) in Mexican adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the data of 10 689 adolescents (ages 10 to 19 years old) who participated in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). Consumption of SSBs (i.e. sodas, fruit beverages and sugar beverages) was evaluated by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. BMI was calculated (k...

  8. Nativity is associated with sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food meal consumption among mexican-origin women in Texas border colonias

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    Johnson Cassandra M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trends of increasing obesity are especially pronounced among Mexican-origin women. There is little understanding of dietary patterns among U.S.- and Mexico-born Mexican-origin individuals residing in new-destination immigrant communities in the United States, especially behaviors related to obesity, such as consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB and fast-food meals (FFM. Methods The study used survey data of 599 adult Mexican-origin women from the 610 women who completed the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA, which was completed in person by trained promotora-researchers in 44 colonias near the Texas border towns of Progreso and La Feria. Data included demographic characteristics (age, education, nativity or country of birth, household income, household composition, and employment status, access to transportation, self-reported height and weight, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and consumption of SSB and FFM. Descriptive statistics were calculated by nativity (U.S.-born vs. Mexico-born; multivariable linear regression models were estimated for correlates of consumption of SSB and FFM. Results There are three major findings related to nativity. First, U.S.-born women consumed more SSB and FFM than Mexican-born counterparts in the same areas of colonias. Second, in the combined sample and controlling for other population characteristics, being born in Mexico was independently associated with FFM (fewer FFM, but not with SSB. Third, in analyses stratified by nativity, FFM and SSB were associated with each other among both nativity groups. Among Mexico-born women only, age, presence of a child, or being a lone parent was significantly associated with SSB; full-time employment, being a lone parent, and SSB consumption were each independently associated with increased frequency of FFM. Conclusions Our analyses revealed differences in prevalence and correlates of SSB

  9. Nativity is associated with sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food meal consumption among Mexican-origin women in Texas border colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R

    2011-09-30

    Trends of increasing obesity are especially pronounced among Mexican-origin women. There is little understanding of dietary patterns among U.S.- and Mexico-born Mexican-origin individuals residing in new-destination immigrant communities in the United States, especially behaviors related to obesity, such as consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast-food meals (FFM). The study used survey data of 599 adult Mexican-origin women from the 610 women who completed the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA), which was completed in person by trained promotora-researchers in 44 colonias near the Texas border towns of Progreso and La Feria. Data included demographic characteristics (age, education, nativity or country of birth, household income, household composition, and employment status), access to transportation, self-reported height and weight, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and consumption of SSB and FFM. Descriptive statistics were calculated by nativity (U.S.-born vs. Mexico-born); multivariable linear regression models were estimated for correlates of consumption of SSB and FFM. There are three major findings related to nativity. First, U.S.-born women consumed more SSB and FFM than Mexican-born counterparts in the same areas of colonias. Second, in the combined sample and controlling for other population characteristics, being born in Mexico was independently associated with FFM (fewer FFM), but not with SSB. Third, in analyses stratified by nativity, FFM and SSB were associated with each other among both nativity groups. Among Mexico-born women only, age, presence of a child, or being a lone parent was significantly associated with SSB; full-time employment, being a lone parent, and SSB consumption were each independently associated with increased frequency of FFM. Our analyses revealed differences in prevalence and correlates of SSB and FFM based on country of birth. Nativity, as a proxy for

  10. Socio-economic resources, young child feeding practices, consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages: a population-based survey in rural northwestern Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariela; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-01-21

    Socio-economic resources may be associated with infant feeding in complex patterns in societies undergoing a nutrition transition. This study evaluates associations of housing quality, food security and maternal education to the World Health Organization (WHO) feeding recommendations and to consumption of highly processed snacks (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in rural Nicaragua. Data were collected from May to November 2009, with mothers of 0- to 35-month-olds being asked about young child feeding using a food frequency questionnaire. A validated questionnaire was used to assess household food insecurity and data were collected on maternal education and housing quality. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to compare proportions and determine associations between the resources and young child feeding. The three socio-economic resources and other confounders were introduced to multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the independent contribution of the resources to the feeding practices and consumption of HP snacks and SSBs. Mothers with the lowest education level were more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) their infants (OR not EBF: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.51), whilst mothers of 6- to 35-month-olds in the lowest education category had more inadequate dietary diversity (DD) (OR for not meet DD: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.08), were less likely to consume HP snacks (OR for HP snacks: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.68) and SSBs (OR for SSBs: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.98), compared to mothers with the highest level of education. Similarly, children residing in households with the highest food insecurity were also more prone to have inadequate dietary diversity (OR for not meet DD: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.05). The odds for double burden of suboptimal feeding (concurrent inadequate diet and consumption of HP snacks/SSBs) were significantly lower in children of least educated mothers (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.92). Higher level of education was associated

  11. Association between adolescents' consumption of total and different types of sugar-sweetened beverages with oral health impacts and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; Bell, Jane; Bauman, Adrian; Mihrshahi, Seema

    2018-02-01

    To examine the associations between adolescents' intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) with oral health impacts (OHI) and weight status. Cross-sectional health survey with anthropometry and self-report OHI (toothache and avoiding some foods because of oral problems) and SSB intake (fruit juice, flavoured water, soft, diet, sports and energy drinks) collected in 2015. A total of 3,671 adolescents participated (50% girls; mean age 13.2 years ±1.7). Drinking ≥1cup/day of SSBs was consistently associated with higher odds of OHI compared with drinking drinks (AOR, 5.21 95%CI 2.67, 10.18); sports drinks (AOR 3.60 95%CI 1.93, 6.73); flavoured water (AOR 3.07 95%CI 1.55, 6.06); and energy drinks (AOR 2.14 95%CI 1.44, 3.19). Daily SSB intake was not consistently associated with weight status. The odds of overweight/obesity (AOR 1.27 95%CI 1.01, 1.59) and obesity (AOR 1.61 95%CI 1.01, 2.57) were higher for energy drink consumption, compared with not drinking energy drinks; and the odds of abdominal obesity were twice as high among adolescents who drank ≥1cup/day of sports drinks, compared with energy drinks. Different types of SSB were differentially associated with OHI and weight status. Implications for public health: Different types of SSBs were differentially associated with OHI and weight status in adolescents. Diet soft drinks and new generation SSBs such as energy and sport drinks and flavoured water had a greater impact on adolescents' OHI compared with soft drinks and fruit juice. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Intake of soft drinks and sugar sweetened beverages by Colombian children and adolescents

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    Oscar Fernando Herran

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to describe the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in Colombia, South America and variables associated with this consumption. Methods: based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire applied in the National Survey of the Nutritional Situation of Colombia (2010, the prevalence and frequency/day of the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages by 10,070 subjects between 5 and 17 years old was estimated. Results: the prevalence of sugar sweetened beverages consumption in subjects between 5 and 17 years old was 85.3%, and the average frequency of consumption was 0.71 times/day. The relationship between age and the prevalence of consumption displayed a J form, and the association with frequency in times/day was linear. The highest consumption occurred at 16 years of age, with a prevalence of 90.4% and an average frequency of 0.83 times/day. Overweight and obesity were not associated with consumption (p>0.05. Conclusions: the prevalence and average frequency of consumption were positively associated with age, wealth, and level of urbanism and conversely associated with education and household food security. Children with stunting have a reduced prevalence but increased frequency of consumption. The consumption of sweetened-beverages is an expression of the stage of nutritional and food transitions.

  13. Sweetening of the global diet, particularly beverages: patterns, trends, and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Hawkes, Corinna

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that excessive intake of added sugars has adverse effects on cardiometabolic health, which is consistent with many reviews and consensus reports from WHO and other unbiased sources. 74% of products in the US food supply contain caloric or low-calorie sweeteners, or both. Of all packaged foods and beverages purchased by a nationally representative sample of US households in 2013, 68% (by proportion of calories) contain caloric sweeteners and 2% contain low-calorie sweeteners. We believe that in the absence of intervention, the rest of the world will move towards this pervasiveness of added sugars in the food supply. Our analysis of trends in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages around the world, in terms of calories sold per person per day and volume sold per person per day, shows that the four regions with the highest consumption are North America, Latin America, Australasia, and western Europe. The fastest absolute growth in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages by country in 2009-14 was seen in Chile. We believe that action is needed to tackle the high levels and continuing growth in sales of such beverages worldwide. Many governments have initiated actions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in the past few years, including taxation (eg, in Mexico); reduction of their availability in schools; restrictions on marketing of sugary foods to children; public awareness campaigns; and positive and negative front-of-pack labelling. In our opinion, evidence of the effectiveness of these actions shows that they are moving in the right direction, but governments should view them as a learning process and improve their design over time. A key challenge for policy makers and researchers is the absence of a consensus on the relation of beverages containing low-calorie sweeteners and fruit juices with cardiometabolic outcomes, since decisions about whether these are healthy substitutes for sugar-sweetened beverages are an integral part of policy

  14. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, A M; Longacre, M R; Skatrud-Mickelson, M; Li, Z; Purvis, L A; Titus, L J; Beach, M L; Dalton, M A

    2013-05-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location - urban, town or rural - and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Cross-sectional observational study. Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P = 0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Children’s sugar-sweetened beverages consumption: associations with family and home-related factors, differences within ethnic groups explored

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    V. M. van de Gaar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB may contribute to the development of overweight among children. The present study aimed to evaluate associations between family and home-related factors and children’s SSB consumption. We explored associations within ethnic background of the child. Methods Cross-sectional data from the population-based ‘Water Campaign’ study were used. Parents (n = 644 of primary school children (6-13 years completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, family and home-related factors and child’s SSB intake. The family and home-related factors under study were: cognitive variables (e.g. parental attitude, subjective norm, environmental variables (e.g. availability of SSB, parenting practices, and habitual variables (e.g. habit strength, taste preference. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between family and home-related factors and child’s SSB intake (p < 0.05. Results Mean age of the children was 9.4 years (SD: 1.8 and 54.1% were girls. The child’s average SSB intake was 0.9 litres (SD: 0.6 per day. Child’s age, parents’ subjective norm, parenting practices, and parental modelling were positively associated with the child’s SSB intake. The availability of SSB at home and school and parental attitude were negatively associated with the child’s SSB intake. The associations under study differed according to the child’s ethnic background, with the explained variance of the full models ranging from 8.7% for children from Moroccan or Turkish ethnic background to 44.4% for children with Dutch ethnic background. Conclusions Our results provide support for interventions targeting children’s SSB intake focussing on the identified family and home-related factors, with active participation of parents. Also, the relationships between these factors and the child’s SSB intake differed for children with distinct ethnic backgrounds

  16. Sweetened and unsweetened non-alcoholic beverages in New Zealand: assessment of relative availability, price, serve size, and sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Eyles Hi

    2014-03-01

    Sweetened beverages are a major contributor to sugar intakes in New Zealand, yet little information exists regarding the retail environment and the characteristics of sweetened and unsweetened beverages available for purchase. Our aim was to assess the availability, price, serve size and sugar content of sweetened and unsweetened non-alcoholic beverages available for purchase in New Zealand supermarkets. We also review and summarise the evidence for policy options relating to beverage availability, price, serve size and sugar content. Data on all non-alcoholic beverages available for purchase in two large Auckland supermarkets were sourced from Nutritrack, a brand- specific packaged food composition database. Of 680 beverages available for sale in 2012, less than one in five (17%) was low-energy or unsweetened. However, low-energy options were cheaper, on average, than their sugar-sweetened counterparts (by approximately one third). The sugar content of beverages available ranged from zero to 23 g/100 mL. Some beverages contained more than 80 g of sugar (16 teaspoons) per single serve. National and international evidence suggests that increasing prices of fizzy drinks could reduce consumption, but long-term impacts on obesity and population health are unknown. Little evidence exists regarding other strategies to create healthier retail food environments. The vast majority of beverages available for purchase in New Zealand supermarkets are either sugar-sweetened or contain naturally occurring sugars. Options to decrease availability and reduce consumption of sweetened beverages should be urgently explored.

  17. Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epidemiologique aupres des femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagherazzi, Guy; Vilier, Alice; Saes Sartorelli, Daniela; Lajous, Martin; Balkau, Beverley; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2013-03-01

    It has been extensively shown, mainly in US populations, that sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but less is known about the effects of artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). We evaluated the association between self-reported SSB, ASB, and 100% fruit juice consumption and T2D risk over 14 y of follow-up in the French prospective Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 66,118 women were followed from 1993, and 1369 incident cases of T2D were diagnosed during the follow-up. Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for T2D risk. The average consumption of sweetened beverages in consumers was 328 and 568 mL/wk for SSBs and ASBs, respectively. Compared with nonconsumers, women in the highest quartiles of SSB and ASB consumers were at increased risk of T2D with HRs (95% CIs) of 1.34 (1.05, 1.71) and 2.21 (1.56, 3.14) for women who consumed >359 and >603 mL/wk of SSBs and ASBs, respectively. Strong positive trends in T2D risk were also observed across quartiles of consumption for both types of beverage (P = 0.0088 and P < 0.0001, respectively). In sensitivity analyses, associations were partly mediated by BMI, although there was still a strong significant independent effect. No association was observed for 100% fruit juice consumption. Both SSB consumption and ASB consumption were associated with increased T2D risk. We cannot rule out that factors other than ASB consumption that we did not control for are responsible for the association with diabetes, and randomized trials are required to prove a causal link between ASB consumption and T2D.

  18. The effect of frequency of consumption of artificial sweeteners on sweetness liking by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, A; Duizer, L M

    2007-11-01

    Research into sweetness perception and preference thus far has demonstrated that sweetness preference is related not to the total sugar consumed by an individual but the amount of refined sugar ingested. Research has yet to be conducted, however, to determine whether a diet high in artificial sweeteners contributes to sweetness liking and preference with the same result as a diet high in sugar. The purpose of this research was to determine if such a relationship exists with regard to diets high in artificially sweetened beverages. Seventy-one female participants were recruited and screened for sweetener consumption in beverages. Sixty-four of these individuals were selected for sensory testing. All participants evaluated orange juice samples (ranging from 0% added sucrose to 20% added sucrose) for liking of sweetness using a 9-point hedonic scale. Based on screening survey data, participants were categorized according to sweetener consumption group (artificial sweetener consumers and natural sweetener consumers) and by overall sweetened beverage intake (low or high, regardless of sweetener type normally consumed). Sensory data were analyzed to compare sweetness liking in each of these groups. Significant differences in liking were observed, with individuals in the high sweetened beverage intake group preferring sweeter orange juice than those in the low-intake group. Categorization by sweetener type resulted in no significant differences between the groups, indicating that regardless of the type of sweetener consumed in a beverage, liking of sweetness will be influenced in the same manner.

  19. Foods and Beverages Associated with Higher Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Kevin C.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with higher caloric intakes, the amount SSBs contribute to higher intakes has not been addressed. Purpose To estimate the amount SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes and determine how the diets of SSB consumers and nonconsumers differ. Methods The WWEI America (What We Eat in America), NHANES 2003–2010 surveys were combined into a sample of 13,421 children; analyses were conducted in December 2012. To determine the contribution of SSB to higher caloric intakes, total non-SSB, food, and non-SSB beverage intakes of SSB consumers and nonconsumers were compared using linear regression models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Analyses also compared intakes between nonconsumers and SSB consumers with different amounts of SSB consumption. Results For children aged 2–5 years and 6–11 years, non-SSB intakes did not differ between nonconsumers and SSB consumers at any level of SSB consumption, indicating that SSBs were primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes among SSB consumers. A similar finding was observed among children aged 12–18 years; however, both food and SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes of adolescents consuming ≥500 kcal of SSBs. Among those aged 12–18 years, higher intakes of foods (e.g., pizza, burgers, fried potatoes, and savory snacks) and lower intakes of non-SSB beverages (e.g., fluid milk and fruit juice) were associated with increased SSB intake. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened beverages are primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes of SSB consumers, and SSB consumption is associated with intake of a select number of food and beverage groups, some of which are often unhealthy (e.g., pizza and grain-based desserts). PMID:23498100

  20. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marge Leahy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (−9.1 g/day vs. −1.4 g/day, total sugars (−10.9 g/day vs. −2.2 g/day, and added sugars (−2.0 tsp eq vs. −0.8 tsp eq than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels (p < 0.01; however, higher intake of LCSB was also associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p < 0.01. We observed lower odds ratios for elevated HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98, HOMA-IR (0.68, 0.53–0.87, and insulin levels (0.63, 0.49–0.80 in LCSB among the higher (2+ servings intake group compared to the lowest (<1 serving intake group. Contrary to conventional wisdom, LCSB consumption was associated with equal, if not better, dietary intake and glycemic response than water consumption. Although observational in nature, these results contribute to the growing body of evidence from human studies suggesting that in addition to water, LCSBs can also be sensible choices for reducing sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response.

  1. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Marge; Ratliff, Joseph C; Riedt, Claudia S; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2017-08-24

    Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB) intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (-9.1 g/day vs. -1.4 g/day), total sugars (-10.9 g/day vs. -2.2 g/day), and added sugars (-2.0 tsp eq vs. -0.8 tsp eq) than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels ( p < 0.01); however, higher intake of LCSB was also associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ( p < 0.01). We observed lower odds ratios for elevated HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98), HOMA-IR (0.68, 0.53-0.87), and insulin levels (0.63, 0.49-0.80) in LCSB among the higher (2+ servings) intake group compared to the lowest (<1 serving) intake group. Contrary to conventional wisdom, LCSB consumption was associated with equal, if not better, dietary intake and glycemic response than water consumption. Although observational in nature, these results contribute to the growing body of evidence from human studies suggesting that in addition to water, LCSBs can also be sensible choices for reducing sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response.

  2. Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults: results from EPIC-InterAct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Norat, T.; Wark, P.A.; Vergnaud, A.C.; Schulze, M.B.; Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; The InterAct Consortium, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown, largely in American populations, to increase type 2 diabetes incidence. We aimed to evaluate the association of consumption of sweet beverages (juices and nectars, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and artificially sweetened soft

  3. Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults : Results from EPIC-InterAct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Norat, T.; Wark, P. A.; Vergnaud, A. C.; Schulze, M. B.; van Woudenbergh, G. J.; Drogan, D.; Amiano, P.; Molina-Montes, E.; Sanchez, M.J.; Balkau, B.; Barricarte, A.; Beulens, J. W. J.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Crispim, S. P.; Fagherazzi, G.; Franks, P. W.; Grote, V. A.; Huybrechts, I.; Kaaks, R.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Nilsson, P.; Overvad, K.; Palli, D.; Panico, S.; Quiros, J. R.; Rolandsson, O.; Sacerdote, C.; Sieri, S.; Slimani, N.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Tjonneland, A.; Tormo, M. J.; Tumino, R.; van den Berg, S. W.; Wermeling, P. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Langenberg, C.; Sharp, S. J.; Forouhi, N. G.; Riboli, E.; Wareham, N. J.

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown, largely in American populations, to increase type 2 diabetes incidence. We aimed to evaluate the association of consumption of sweet beverages (juices and nectars, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and artificially sweetened soft drinks) with type 2

  4. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity among Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; Bucher Della Torre, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased worldwide and has reached alarming proportions. Currently, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added sugar in the diet of children and adolescents. Contradictive findings from...... that there was a direct association between SSB consumption and weight gain, overweight, and obesity in children and adolescents. However, recent evidence from well-conducted meta-analyses shows discrepant results regarding the association between SSB and weight gain, overweight, and obesity among children......-analyses by providing an up-to-date synthesis of recent evidence regarding the association between SSB consumption and weight gain, overweight, and obesity in a population of 6-month-old to 19-year-old children and adolescents. The secondary aim was to assess the quality of included reviews using the Assessment...

  5. A dynamic panel model of the associations of sweetened beverage purchases with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-05-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Frontostriatal and behavioral adaptations to daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake: a randomized controlled trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response. Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli. Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments. Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage (r = −0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation (r = −0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage (r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control (r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Analogous to previous reports, these initial results provide convergent data for a role of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed

  7. Frontostriatal and behavioral adaptations to daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S

    2017-03-01

    Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response. Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli. Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments. Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage ( r = -0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation ( r = -0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage ( r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control ( r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage ( P < 0.001). Conclusions: Analogous to previous reports, these initial results provide convergent data for a role of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed

  8. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and cancer recurrence and survival in CALGB 89803 (Alliance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Fuchs

    Full Text Available In colon cancer patients, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and high dietary glycemic load have been associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake has been associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardio-metabolic diseases, but the influence on colon cancer survival is unknown.We assessed the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on cancer recurrence and mortality in 1,011 stage III colon cancer patients who completed food frequency questionnaires as part of a U.S. National Cancer Institute-sponsored adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated with Cox proportional hazard models.Patients consuming ≥ 2 servings of sugar-sweetened beverages per day experienced an adjusted HR for disease recurrence or mortality of 1.67 (95% CI, 1.04-2.68, compared with those consuming <2 servings per month (P(trend = 0.02. The association of sugar-sweetened beverages on cancer recurrence or mortality appeared greater among patients who were both overweight (body mass index ≥ 2 5 kg/m(2 and less physically active (metabolic equivalent task-hours per week <18 (HR = 2.22; 95% CI, 1.29-3.81, P(trend = 0.0025.Higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality in stage III colon cancer patients.

  9. By Ounce or By Calorie: The Different Effects of Alternative Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen, Chen; Brissette, Ian; Ruff, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic and excessive consumption of sugary beverages has led to proposals of economics-based interventions to promote healthy eating. We quantify the differential effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by calories and by ounce on consumer demand, using a fully modified distance metric model of differentiated product demand that endogenizes the representation of group and rival product prices. The novel demand model outperformed the conventional distance metric model in both...

  10. Association of δ13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be refle...

  11. Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages: results from a 2011 national public opinion survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Gollust, Sarah E

    2013-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages including nondiet sodas, sport drinks, and energy drinks has been linked with obesity. Recent state and local efforts to tax these beverages have been unsuccessful. Enactment will be unlikely without public support, yet little research is available to assess how to effectively make the case for such taxes. The objectives were to assess public opinion about arguments used commonly in tax debates regarding sugar-sweetened beverages and to assess differences in public opinion by respondents' political party affiliation. A public opinion survey was fielded in January-March 2011 using a probability-based sample of respondents from a large, nationally representative online panel to examine public attitudes about nine pro- and eight anti-tax arguments. These data were analyzed in August 2011. Findings indicated greater public agreement with anti- than pro-tax arguments. The most popular anti-tax argument was that a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages is arbitrary because it does not affect consumption of other unhealthy foods (60%). A majority also agreed that such taxes were a quick way for politicians to fill budget holes (58%); an unacceptable intrusion of government into people's lives (53.8%); opposed by most Americans (53%); and harmful to the poor (51%). No pro-tax arguments were endorsed by a majority of the public. Respondents reported highest agreement with the argument that sugar-sweetened beverages were the single largest contributor to obesity (49%) and would raise revenue for obesity prevention (41%). Without bolstering public support for existing pro-tax messages or developing alternative pro-tax messages, enacting such policies will be difficult. Message-framing studies could be useful in identifying promising strategies for persuading Americans that taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages are warranted. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea and depression risk among older US adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguang Guo

    Full Text Available Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995-1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI comparing ≥4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17-1.44 for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15-1.65 for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84-0.98 for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001. Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16-1.47 for diet versus 1.22 (1.03-1.45 for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18-1.92 for diet versus 1.08 (0.79-1.46 for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10-1.41 for diet versus 0.94 (0.83-1.08 for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk.

  13. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Their Role in Obesity Prevention Programs and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Franckle, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with obesity and chronic diseases. Although there is some emerging evidence that consumption of added sugars is declining in the United States, on average Americans’ consumption still exceeds recommended levels. Consequently, it is imperative that researchers continue to delve further into the question of exactly how SSBs influence obesity and associated chronic diseases, as well as consider creative and novel strateg...

  14. Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations.

  15. The Effect of Price and Socio-Economic Level on the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB): The Case of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraje, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of demand for SSB in Ecuador, as an indispensable step for predicting a reduction in the consumption of said beverages caused by the potential implementation of taxes in Ecuador. In addition, the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of sugar-free substitutes like mineral water and diet soft drinks and juices are also estimated. The data from the 2011-2012 ENIGHUR, which contains detailed information on household consumption and socioeconomic variables, was used. The estimates are done using Deaton's Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) which accounts for differences in the quality of goods purchased. This demand system is estimated for different socio-economic groups, according to total household expenditure. The results reveal own-price elasticities for SSB between -1.17 and -1.33 depending on the socio-economic group, in line with the existing evidence for developed countries. Own-price elasticity for non-SSB is between -1 and -1.24. Income elasticities reveal that both SSB and non-SSB are normal goods with elasticities decreasing for higher socio-economic groups. These results show that the consumption of SSB is sensitive to price changes, meaning that the implementation of taxes on said beverages could be effective in reducing their consumption. The fact that non-SSB are also sensitive to price changes would indicate that subsidies could be implemented for the production of some of them.

  16. The Effect of Price and Socio-Economic Level on the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB: The Case of Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Paraje

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to estimate the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of demand for SSB in Ecuador, as an indispensable step for predicting a reduction in the consumption of said beverages caused by the potential implementation of taxes in Ecuador. In addition, the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of sugar-free substitutes like mineral water and diet soft drinks and juices are also estimated. The data from the 2011-2012 ENIGHUR, which contains detailed information on household consumption and socioeconomic variables, was used. The estimates are done using Deaton's Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS which accounts for differences in the quality of goods purchased. This demand system is estimated for different socio-economic groups, according to total household expenditure. The results reveal own-price elasticities for SSB between -1.17 and -1.33 depending on the socio-economic group, in line with the existing evidence for developed countries. Own-price elasticity for non-SSB is between -1 and -1.24. Income elasticities reveal that both SSB and non-SSB are normal goods with elasticities decreasing for higher socio-economic groups. These results show that the consumption of SSB is sensitive to price changes, meaning that the implementation of taxes on said beverages could be effective in reducing their consumption. The fact that non-SSB are also sensitive to price changes would indicate that subsidies could be implemented for the production of some of them.

  17. Intake of sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages and body mass index: A national sample of Chilean school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Araneda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the association between the intake of sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages and body mass index (BMI in Chilean school children. Materials and methods. Food consumption frequency data were analyzed for school children aged 6 to 18. The association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and BMI was estimated by multivariate lineal regression models. Results. Sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed on a daily basis by 92% (95%CI:90-94 of subjects with daily intake medians of 424 mL (p25-p75:212-707. Every extra daily portion of sugar-sweetened beverages consumed by school children aged 6 to 13 is associated with 0.13 BMI z-scores (95%CI:0.04- 0.2;p=0.01. Conclusions. School children consume sugarsweetened beverages daily with intake medians close to 0.5 L. There is an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and higher BMI in Chilean school children.

  18. Effects of aspartame-, monk fruit-, stevia- and sucrose-sweetened beverages on postprandial glucose, insulin and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, S L; Salleh, N B; Henry, J; Forde, C G

    2017-03-01

    Substituting sweeteners with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) may aid in glycaemic control and body weight management. Limited studies have investigated energy compensation, glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to artificial and natural NNS. This study compared the effects of consuming NNS (artificial versus natural) and sucrose (65 g) on energy intake, blood glucose and insulin responses. Thirty healthy male subjects took part in this randomised, crossover study with four treatments: aspartame-, monk fruit-, stevia- and sucrose-sweetened beverages. On each test day, participants were asked to consume a standardised breakfast in the morning, and they were provided with test beverage as a preload in mid-morning and ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after test beverage consumption. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured every 15 min within the first hour of preload consumption and every 30 min for the subsequent 2 h. Participants left the study site 3 h after preload consumption and completed a food diary for the rest of the day. Ad libitum lunch intake was significantly higher for the NNS treatments compared with sucrose (P=0.010). The energy 'saved' from replacing sucrose with NNS was fully compensated for at subsequent meals; hence, no difference in total daily energy intake was found between the treatments (P=0.831). The sucrose-sweetened beverage led to large spikes in blood glucose and insulin responses within the first hour, whereas these responses were higher for all three NNS beverages following the test lunch. Thus, there were no differences in total area under the curve (AUC) for glucose (P=0.960) and insulin (P=0.216) over 3 h between the four test beverages. The consumption of calorie-free beverages sweetened with artificial and natural NNS have minimal influences on total daily energy intake, postprandial glucose and insulin compared with a sucrose-sweetened beverage.

  19. Significados culturalmente construidos para el consumo de bebidas azucaradas entre escolares de la Ciudad de México Culturally constructed meanings for consumption of sweetened beverages among schoolchildren in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Théodore

    2011-10-01

    necesidad de considerarlos también en el diseño de las intervenciones con escolares. Resalta asimismo la necesidad de transformar la concepción actual de los niños con respecto a lo que beben, guiándolos y estimulándolos para que identifiquen el agua como una bebida que se toma a lo largo del día y no exclusivamente después de un esfuerzo físico. Finalmente, es perentorio en México que se garantice el acceso libre al agua potable dentro de las escuelas y se regule la publicidad alimentaria dirigida a los niños.OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate the importance of the cultural factors that currently motivate Mexican children to consume sweetened beverages and examine their implications for the design of programs for the promotion of healthy lifestyles. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological study involving nine peer interviews and four discussion groups was conducted among children aged 9 and 10 years in four public schools in southern Mexico City. The interviews employed nine photographs of beverages that are available in schools and homes. The aim was to identify the culinary rules associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and the different views held by the children about the beverages. The complete interviews and group discussions were recorded and transcribed. Matrixes were developed for analysis of the subject categories identified during the study. The analysis was based on "continuous comparison" of the statements made by boys and girls, and among students from the four schools. RESULTS: Two main sociocultural elements, constructed in a given cultural framework, partly explain the children's current consumption patterns. The first, the nearly nonexistent concept that water is for drinking, with water consumption being limited to engagement in physical activity, in contrast to the wide range of circumstances and occasions found for the consumption of a sweetened beverage. Secondly, the identification of three principles that appear to underlie beverage

  20. Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and risk of obesity-related cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Allison M; Bassett, Julie K; Milne, Roger L; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G

    2018-02-21

    To test the hypothesis that more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks would be associated with increased risk of obesity-related cancers. Associations for artificially sweetened soft drinks were assessed for comparison. Prospective cohort study with cancers identified by linkage to cancer registries. At baseline, participants completed a 121-item FFQ including separate questions about the number of times in the past year they had consumed sugar-sweetened or artificially sweetened soft drinks. Anthropometric measurements, including waist circumference, were taken and questions about smoking, leisure-time physical activity and intake of alcoholic beverages were completed. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) is a prospective cohort study which recruited 41 514 men and women aged 40-69 years between 1990 and 1994. A second wave of data collection occurred in 2003-2007. Data for 35 593 participants who developed 3283 incident obesity-related cancers were included in the main analysis. Increasing frequency of consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks was associated with greater waist circumference at baseline. For sugar-sweetened soft drinks, the hazard ratio (HR) for obesity-related cancers increased as frequency of consumption increased (HR for consumption >1/d v. 1/d v. drinks.

  2. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review123

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Vasanti S; Schulze, Matthias B; Hu, Frank B

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity, by virtue of these beverages’ high added sugar content, low satiety, and incomplete compensation for total energy. Whether an association exists between SSB intake and weight gain is unclear. We searched English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through May 2005 for cross-sectional, prospective cohort, and experimental studies of the r...

  3. Development of a brief questionnaire to assess habitual beverage intake (BEVQ-15): sugar-sweetened beverages and total beverage energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Savla, Jyoti; Comber, Dana L; Flack, Kyle D; Estabrooks, Paul A; Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A; Ortmeier, Stacie; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-06-01

    Energy-containing beverages, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, may contribute to weight gain and obesity development. Yet, no rapid assessment tools are available which quantify habitual beverage intake (grams, energy) in adults. Determine the factorial validity of a newly developed beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) and identify potential to reduce items. Participants from varying economic and educational backgrounds (n=1,596, age 43±12 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 31.5±0.2) completed a 19-item BEVQ (BEVQ-19). Beverages that contributed sugar-sweetened beverages, energy and grams were identified for potential removal. Factor analyses identified beverage categories that could potentially be combined. Regression analyses compared BEVQ-19 outcomes with the reduced version's (BEVQ-15) variables. Inter-item reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α. Following BEVQ-15 development, a subsequent study (n=70, age 37±2 years; body mass index 24.5±0.4) evaluated the relative validity of the BEVQ-15 through comparison of three 24-hour dietary recalls' beverage intake. Three beverage items were identified for elimination (vegetable juice, meal replacement drinks, and mixed alcoholic drinks); beer and light beer were combined into one category. Regression models using BEVQ-15 variables explained 91% to 99% of variance in the four major outcomes of the BEVQ-19 (all Psugar-sweetened beverages (R(2)=0.69), and total beverage energy (R(2)=0.59) were more highly correlated with three 24-hour dietary recalls' than previously reported for the BEVQ-19. The BEVQ-15 produced a lower readability score of 4.8, which is appropriate for individuals with a fourth-grade education or greater. The BEVQ-19 can be reduced to a 15-item questionnaire. This brief dietary assessment tool will enable researchers and practitioners to rapidly (administration time of ∼2 minutes) assess habitual beverage intake, and to determine possible associations of beverage

  4. 'The university should promote health, but not enforce it': opinions and attitudes about the regulation of sugar-sweetened beverages in a university setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Elly; Freeman, Becky; Wu, Jason H Y; Rooney, Kieron

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to determine the opinions and attitudes of a university population regarding the regulation of sugar-sweetened beverages in a university setting, primarily looking at differences in opinion between younger adults (under 30 years of age) and older adults (30 years of age or older). An online survey was conducted at an Australian university in April-May 2016 using a convenience sample of students and staff between the ages of 16 and 84 years. The survey included questions about consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and level of agreement and support of proposed sugar-sweetened beverage interventions. Quantitative response data and qualitative open-ended response data were analysed. Nine hundred thirteen responses from students and staff were analysed. In this population, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was low and awareness of the health risks of sugar-sweetened beverages was high. Overall, the surveyed population indicated more support for interventions that require higher levels of personal responsibility. The population did support some environment-centred, population-based interventions, such as increasing access to drinking water and reducing the price of healthier beverage alternatives. However there was less support for more restrictive interventions such as removing sugar-sweetened beverages from sale. Young adults tended to be less supportive of most interventions than older adults. These findings indicate there is some support for environment-centred, population-based approaches to reduce the availability and appeal of sugar-sweetened beverages in an adult environment such as a university setting. However these results suggest that public health may need to focus less on educating populations about the harms associated with sugar-sweetened beverages. Instead, there should be greater emphasis on explaining to populations and communities why environment-centred approaches relating to the sale and promotion of sugar-sweetened

  5. Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products.

  6. Strategic messaging to promote taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages: lessons from recent political campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the use of strategic messaging by proponents of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation to influence public opinion and shape the policy process, emphasizing the experiences in El Monte and Richmond, California, with SSB tax proposals in 2012. We conducted 18 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders about the use and perceived effectiveness of messages supporting and opposing SSB taxation, knowledge sharing among advocates, message dissemination, and lessons learned from their messaging experiences. The protax messages most frequently mentioned by respondents were reinvesting tax revenue into health-related programs and linking SSB consumption to health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes. The most frequently mentioned antitax messages addressed negative economic effects on businesses and government restriction of personal choice. Factors contributing to perceived messaging success included clearly defining "sugar-sweetened beverage" and earmarking funds for obesity prevention, incorporating cultural sensitivity into messaging, and providing education about the health effects of SSB consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage taxation has faced significant challenges in gaining political and public support. Future campaigns can benefit from insights gained through the experiences of stakeholders involved in previous policy debates.

  7. Compliance with New York City's beverage regulations and beverage consumption among children in early child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakietek, Jakub; Osuji, Thearis A; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Breck, Andrew; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-10-16

    This article examines the association between the New York City regulations on beverages served in child care centers and beverage consumption among enrolled children. The regulations include requirements related to beverages served to children throughout the day. Beverage consumption data were collected on 636 children enrolled in 106 group child care centers in New York City. Data on compliance with the regulations were collected through direct observation, interviews with center staff, and a site inventory. Logistic regression for rare events was used to test associations between compliance with the regulations and beverage consumption. Compliance with the regulations was associated with lower odds of children consuming milk with more than 1% fat content and sugar-sweetened beverages during meals and snacks. There was not a significant relationship between compliance with the regulations and children's consumption of water. The findings suggest a strong, direct relationship between what a center serves and what a child consumes, particularly regarding consumption of higher-fat milk and sugar-sweetened beverages. Therefore, policies governing the types of beverages served in child care centers may increase children's consumption of more healthful beverages and reduce the consumption of less healthful ones.

  8. Compliance With New York City’s Beverage Regulations and Beverage Consumption Among Children in Early Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Thearis A.; O’Dell, Sarah Abood; Breck, Andrew; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This article examines the association between the New York City regulations on beverages served in child care centers and beverage consumption among enrolled children. The regulations include requirements related to beverages served to children throughout the day. Methods Beverage consumption data were collected on 636 children enrolled in 106 group child care centers in New York City. Data on compliance with the regulations were collected through direct observation, interviews with center staff, and a site inventory. Logistic regression for rare events was used to test associations between compliance with the regulations and beverage consumption. Results Compliance with the regulations was associated with lower odds of children consuming milk with more than 1% fat content and sugar-sweetened beverages during meals and snacks. There was not a significant relationship between compliance with the regulations and children’s consumption of water. Conclusion The findings suggest a strong, direct relationship between what a center serves and what a child consumes, particularly regarding consumption of higher-fat milk and sugar-sweetened beverages. Therefore, policies governing the types of beverages served in child care centers may increase children’s consumption of more healthful beverages and reduce the consumption of less healthful ones. PMID:25321631

  9. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Rehm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001, added sugars (−16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001, SSBs (−0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL/day; p-trend < 0.001, and sodium (−166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001. Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  10. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend trend trend trend restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures. PMID:27983573

  11. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-12-13

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4-19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (-32 kcal/day, p -trend fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children's diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  12. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: Enact taxes on sugar sweetened beverages to prevent chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Fallon, Megan; Chaloupka, Frank J; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Schwartz, Marlene B; Harris, Jennifer L

    2018-04-10

    The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) encourages stakeholders to implement a sugar sweetened beverage excise tax. Sugar sweetened beverages are the largest source of added sugars in the USA and have detrimental effects on population health by increasing risks for chronic diseases. Based on existing research evidence, SBM supports an excise tax equivalent to at least 20% to meaningfully affect consumption patterns. As evidenced by research studies in Mexico and the USA, sugar sweetened beverage taxes can have positive impacts on population health and can raise significant tax revenue. To avoid potential unintended consequences that may arise from taxes to improve diet-related behaviors, it is important to monitor industry and consumer behavior in response to the tax.

  13. Relationship between Nutritional Knowledge and the Amount of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumed in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N.; Robles, Brenda; Barragan, Noel C.; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with many negative health outcomes, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, the relationship between consumer nutritional knowledge and the amount consumed is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between knowledge of…

  14. A scoping review of skills and tools oral health professionals need to engage children and parents in dietary changes to prevent childhood obesity and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallonee, Lisa F; Boyd, Linda D; Stegeman, Cynthia

    2017-06-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to obesity. Obesity now affects one in six children in the United States. The purpose of this scoping review is to identify and review published studies that discuss skills and tools oral health professionals can use with children (under age 12) and their parents to encourage dietary changes to aid in preventing childhood obesity and reducing consumption of SSBs. Key search terms were identified and used to examine selected databases via PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. A total of 637 records were identified. After duplicates were removed and records were screened for eligibility, 33 remained. Six met established inclusion/exclusion criteria and were included in the review. Only two full-text articles included dental-office-based weight interventions. Patient response to education on healthy habits and weight maintenance in the dental setting was favorable. Literature supports oral health professionals expanding their role in health care delivery by offering nutrition and physical activity recommendations to prevent and/or reduce chronic disease. Active listening and motivational interviewing were techniques identified to promote beneficial lifestyle changes. There is limited research on behavior modification tools and skills that have been effectively implemented in the dental setting to decrease risk of obesity. Oral health professionals are uniquely positioned to address consumption of SSBs and promote positive dietary habits for improved weight management. Future studies are needed to identify effective techniques that techniques that oral health professionals can integrate into preventive patient care. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. Association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Caroline S; Diorio, Caroline

    2014-07-28

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OH)D levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, 3 servings/week, respectively; r = -0.11 (p = 0.004)). A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OH)D concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = -0.06 (p = 0.10)). No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OH)D concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation.

  16. Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OHD were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OHD levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = −0.11 (p = 0.004. A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OHD concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = −0.06 (p = 0.10. No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OHD concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OHD levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation.

  17. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000-2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003-2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. We found "prudent" and "breakfast" patterns in Homescan and NHANES, "ready-to-eat meals/fast-food" and "prudent/snacks/LCS desserts" patterns in Homescan, and "protein/potatoes" and "CS desserts/sweeteners" patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS-beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the United States.

  18. Metabolic Effects of Replacing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages with Artificially-Sweetened Beverages in Overweight Subjects with or without Hepatic Steatosis: A Randomized Control Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Vanessa; Despland, Camille; Brandejsky, Vaclav; Kreis, Roland; Schneiter, Philippe; Boesch, Chris; Tappy, Luc

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Addition of fructose to the diet of normal weight and overweight subjects can increase postprandial plasma triglyceride and uric acid concentration. We, therefore, assessed whether replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) with artificially-sweetened beverages (ASB) in the diet of overweight and obese subjects would decrease these parameters. METHODS Twenty-six participants of the REDUCS study, which assessed the effects of replacing SSB by ASB over 12 weeks on intra-hep...

  19. Tax on sugar sweetened beverages in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortún, Vicente; G López-Valcárcel, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime

    2016-10-13

    This article provides a critical review about the challenges that taxes on sugary drinks as an instrument of health policy must face to reverse the trend of the current epidemics of obesity. We analyzed the experiences of the leading countries, particularly Mexico, and reflect on the counterweight exerted by the industry against obesity policies, and on the power of lobbyists. Those tax policies for public health have to overcome the enormous strength of the industry, which is exerted in several-science and research, brand reputation, influence on regulators-levels. We suggest that a specific tax on sugary drinks has enough potential to reduce noncommunicable diseases and risk -diabetes, Hypertriglyceridemia, hyperholesterolemia LDL, hypertension- via reduced consumption thanks to the high price elasticity of those drinks. Furthermore, the effects are amplified even in the medium term, once established new habits to healthier eating. These taxes could encourage business innovation without inflicting costs of lost jobs and contribute to reducing the social gradient in obesity.

  20. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrapnel, William

    2015-09-23

    Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the "small change" in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high.

  1. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Shrapnel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the “small change” in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high.

  2. Relationship between dental caries status, nutritional status, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumption among primary schoolchildren grade 4-6 in Nongbua Khamsaen school, Na Klang district, Nongbua Lampoo Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueangpiansamut, Juthamas; Chatrchaiwiwatana, Supaporn; Muktabhant, Benja; Inthalohit, Warangkana

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate relationship between dental caries status, nutritional status, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumption among primary schoolchildren grade 4-6 in Na Klang district, Nongbua Lampoo province, Thailand in 2011. The subjects included 111 children (57 boys and 54 girls), aged 11 and 12 years, who were studying in grades 4 to 6 in the year 2011. The data were collected through questionnaires, interview, and oral examination. Results were obtained by means of descriptive, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses. Prevalence of dental caries in the children was 82.9% with the mean DMFT of 2.28. The dental caries prevalence in permanent and primary dentitions was 69.4% and 34.2%, respectively. About 10.2% of the children were underweight, 13.0% were obese, and 7.5% were stunting. Findings from the final multiple logistic regression models showed that weight-for-age malnutrition as well as eating sweets before bedtime were significantly related to dental caries in primary dentition, with the adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) being 6.68 (1.57, 28.41) and 5.34 (1.60, 17.77), respectively. Family income was significantly related to permanent dental caries with the odds ratio (95% CI) being 9.60 (1.89, 48.59). Nutritional status is associated with dental caries among these elementary schoolchildren. Larger studies extending to cover other elementary schools in Na Klang district should be conducted so that the results will be representative of all elementary schools in Na Klang district, Nongbua Lampoo province.

  3. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. Objective: The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. Design: We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000–2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003–2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. Results: We found “prudent” and “breakfast” patterns in Homescan and NHANES, “ready-to-eat meals/fast-food” and “prudent/snacks/LCS desserts” patterns in Homescan, and “protein/potatoes” and “CS desserts/sweeteners” patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS–beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the

  4. Beverage purchases from stores in Mexico under the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Popkin, Barry M; Rivera, Juan A; Ng, Shu Wen

    2016-01-06

    What has been the effect on purchases of beverages from stores in Mexico one year after implementation of the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages? In this observational study the authors used data on the purchase of beverages in Mexico from January 2012 to December 2014 from an unbalanced panel of 6253 households providing 205 112 observations in 53 cities with more than 50 000 inhabitants. To test whether the post-tax trend in purchases was significantly different from the pretax trend, the authors used a difference in difference fixed effects model, which adjusts for both macroeconomic variables that can affect the purchase of beverages over time, and pre-existing trends. The variables used in the analysis included demographic information on household composition (age and sex of household members) and socioeconomic status (low, middle, and high). The authors compared the predicted volumes (mL/capita/day) of taxed and untaxed beverages purchased in 2014-the observed post-tax period-with the estimated volumes that would have been purchased if the tax had not been implemented (counterfactual) based on pretax trends. Relative to the counterfactual in 2014, purchases of taxed beverages decreased by an average of 6% (-12 mL/capita/day), and decreased at an increasing rate up to a 12% decline by December 2014. All three socioeconomic groups reduced purchases of taxed beverages, but reductions were higher among the households of low socioeconomic status, averaging a 9% decline during 2014, and up to a 17% decrease by December 2014 compared with pretax trends. Purchases of untaxed beverages were 4% (36 mL/capita/day) higher than the counterfactual, mainly driven by an increase in purchases of bottled plain water. The tax on sugar sweetened beverages was associated with reductions in purchases of taxed beverages and increases in purchases of untaxed beverages. Continued monitoring is needed to understand purchases longer term, potential substitutions, and health

  5. Limited evidence that competitive food and beverage practices affect adolescent consumption behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericker, Tracy C

    2013-02-01

    Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and adolescent consumption patterns using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Results from value-added multivariate regression models reveal limited evidence that competitive food policy affects fruit and vegetable consumption. Findings suggest a stronger link between competitive beverage policy and consumption of sweetened beverages for population subgroups.

  6. Association between intake of artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages and preterm delivery: a large prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund-Ögge, Linda; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margareta; Sengpiel, Verena; Khatibi, Ali; Myhre, Ronny; Myking, Solveig; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kacerovsky, Marian; Nilsen, Roy M; Jacobsson, Bo

    2012-09-01

    Artificially sweetened (AS) and sugar-sweetened (SS) beverages are commonly consumed during pregnancy. A recent Danish study reported that the daily intake of an AS beverage was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. We examined the intake of AS and SS beverages in pregnant women to replicate the Danish study and observe whether AS intake is indeed associated with preterm delivery. This was a prospective study of 60,761 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Intakes of carbonated and noncarbonated AS and SS beverages and use of artificial sweeteners in hot drinks were assessed by a self-reported food-frequency questionnaire in midpregnancy. Preterm delivery was the primary outcome, and data were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. Intakes of both AS and SS beverages increased with increasing BMI and energy intake and were higher in women with less education, in daily smokers, and in single women. A high intake of AS beverages was associated with preterm delivery; the adjusted OR for those drinking >1 serving/d was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24). Drinking >1 serving of SS beverages per day was also associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.45). The trend tests were positive for both beverage types. This study suggests that a high intake of both AS and SS beverages is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery.

  7. Sugar- and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and the Risks of Incident Stroke and Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Aparicio, Hugo J; Satizabal, Claudia L; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha; Jacques, Paul F

    2017-05-01

    Sugar- and artificially-sweetened beverage intake have been linked to cardiometabolic risk factors, which increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease and dementia. We examined whether sugar- or artificially sweetened beverage consumption was associated with the prospective risks of incident stroke or dementia in the community-based Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. We studied 2888 participants aged >45 years for incident stroke (mean age 62 [SD, 9] years; 45% men) and 1484 participants aged >60 years for incident dementia (mean age 69 [SD, 6] years; 46% men). Beverage intake was quantified using a food-frequency questionnaire at cohort examinations 5 (1991-1995), 6 (1995-1998), and 7 (1998-2001). We quantified recent consumption at examination 7 and cumulative consumption by averaging across examinations. Surveillance for incident events commenced at examination 7 and continued for 10 years. We observed 97 cases of incident stroke (82 ischemic) and 81 cases of incident dementia (63 consistent with Alzheimer's disease). After adjustments for age, sex, education (for analysis of dementia), caloric intake, diet quality, physical activity, and smoking, higher recent and higher cumulative intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks were associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, all-cause dementia, and Alzheimer's disease dementia. When comparing daily cumulative intake to 0 per week (reference), the hazard ratios were 2.96 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-6.97) for ischemic stroke and 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-7.07) for Alzheimer's disease. Sugar-sweetened beverages were not associated with stroke or dementia. Artificially sweetened soft drink consumption was associated with a higher risk of stroke and dementia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not 100% fruit juice, is associated with fasting high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations in U.S. adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Dyslipidemia, characterized by high triglyceride (TG) and low HDL concentrations, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Decreasing dietary sugar consumption is one dietary modification that may influence dyslipidemia risk to reduce the risk for CVD. Two major sources of di...

  9. Overweight, obesity, physical activity and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in adolescents of Pacific islands: results from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessaram, Tara; McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Merilles, Onofre Edwin A; Pullar, Jessica; Roth, Adam; White, Paul; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Overweight, obesity and their consequences are challenges to sustainable social and economic development in Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs). Complementing previous analyses for adults, the purpose of this paper is to synthesise available data on overweight, obesity and their risk factors in adolescents in the region. The resulting Pacific perspective for the younger generation will inform both the national and regional public health response to the crisis of noncommunicable diseases. We examined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, physical activity and carbonated sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, by using published results of two cross-sectional surveys: the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). GSHS was conducted in ten PICTs between 2010 and 2013 and provided results for 13-15 year olds. YRBSS surveys, conducted repeatedly in five PICTs between 1999 and 2013, provided results for grade 9-12 students (approximately 14-18 years) and enabled examination of trends. Obesity prevalence ranged from 0 % in female students in Vanuatu to 40 % in males in Niue (GSHS). Among grade 9-12 students (YRBSS), obesity was highest in American Samoa (40 % of males; 37 % of females). Approximately 60 % of students in the Cook Islands, Niue and Tonga (GSHS) and American Samoa (YRBSS), were overweight. In both surveys, less than half of students reported engaging in sixty minutes of physical activity on at least 5 days of the past week. Daily consumption of carbonated SSBs in the past month was reported by over 42 % of students in six PICTs (GSHS), and in the past week by more than 18 % of students in three PICTs (YRBSS). In PICTs conducting YRBSS, obesity prevalence remained high or increased within the period 1999-2013. There is a need for urgent action on overweight, obesity and their risk factors in Pacific youth. The multiple social, economic and physical determinants of this

  10. The government policy related to sugar-sweetened beverages in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Thahir Haning

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several options to enforce reduction in the use of sugary drinks such as strengthening regulations, taxation on the products and food labeling.  Aims & Objectives: 1 Identify the policy in Indonesia that regulates the quantity and the use of sugar in a beverage product; 2 Describe the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB and its impact on human health. Material & Methods: Literature search on sugar use and tax policies on SSB was conducted and 6 relevant documents were found. A total of 91 SSB products were selected systematically by randomly selecting 5 beverages per day for 20 days. Beverages chosen were certified Halal by Majelis Ulama Indonesia, having product labeling, and certified by BPOM. Results: Indonesia has no policy related to restriction of sugar use. The contribution of sugar to energy of SSB products is quite high (75.68%. SSB intake may increase the risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Conclusion: The absence of tax policy and rules for regulating the use of sugar in a product can cause an increase in sugar consumption per day. It could potentially lead to non-communicable diseases and could have enormous consequences in health financing. The government needs to create policies for preventing the widespread impact of sugar consumption. Advocacy efforts to encourage the establishment of SSB taxation should be done.

  11. Correlates of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Purchased for Children at Fast-Food Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jonathan; Breck, Andrew; Elbel, Brian

    2016-11-01

    To determine consumer and fast-food purchase characteristics associated with the purchase of a sugar-sweetened beverage, as well as calories and grams of sugar, for children at a fast-food restaurant. We completed cross-sectional analyses of fast-food restaurant receipts and point-of-purchase surveys (n = 483) collected during 2013 and 2014 in New York City and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey. Caregivers purchased beverages for half of all children in our sample. Approximately 60% of these beverages were sugar-sweetened beverages. Fast-food meals with sugar-sweetened beverages had, on average, 179 more calories than meals with non-sugar-sweetened beverages. Being an adolescent or male, having a caregiver with a high school degree or less, having a caregiver who saw the posted calorie information, ordering a combination meal, and eating the meal in the restaurant were associated with ordering a sugar-sweetened beverage. Purchases that included a combination meal or were consumed in the restaurant included more beverage grams of sugar and calories. Characteristics of fast-food purchases appear to have the largest and most important association to beverage calories for children at fast-food restaurants. Targeting fast-food restaurants, particularly combination meals, may improve childhood obesity rates.

  12. Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Duchaine, Caroline S.; Diorio, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a valida...

  13. Report of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Offered in Pennsylvania Childcare Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzkanin, Kristen M; Myers, Abigail K; Schaefer, Eric W; Sekhar, Deepa L

    2016-06-01

    The study objective was to quantify sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) offerings to children in Pennsylvania (PA) childcare centers and determine whether this information is communicated to parents. In October 2014, a SurveyMonkey link was sent to 4461 PA childcare centers. The 518 respondents represented 88% of PA counties. 279 centers (54%) serve SSBs. 330 (65%) of childcare centers provide parents a report of their child's daily intake. Of 185 centers serving SSBs and providing a daily intake report, 91% include SSB consumption. In total, 38% of centers (103/272) offer but do not report SSB consumption. In 96% of centers, parents may request their child not receive SSBs. In conclusion, though more than half of PA childcare centers surveyed offer SSBs, those providing daily intake reports usually include SSB consumption. Requiring daily intake reports may be a strategy to increase parental awareness of items consumed outside the home. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Lack of findings for the association between obesity risk and usual sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in adults--a primary analysis of databases of CSFII-1989-1991, CSFII-1994-1998, NHANES III, and combined NHANES 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sam Z; Empie, Mark W

    2007-08-01

    The relationship between obesity risk and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption was examined together with multiple lifestyle factors. Statistical analysis was performed using population dietary survey databases of USDA CSFII 1989-1991, CSFII 1994-1996, CDC NHANES III, and combined NHANES 1999-2002. Totally, 38,409 individuals, ages 20-74 years, with accompanying data of dietary intake, lifestyle factors, and anthropometrics were included in the descriptive statistics and risk analysis. Analytical results indicate that obesity risk was significantly and positively associated with gender, age, daily TV/screen watching hours and dietary fat content, and negatively associated with smoking habit, education and physical activity; obesity risk was not significantly associated with SSB consumption pattern, dietary saturated fat content and total calorie intake. No elevated BMI values or increased obesity rates were observed in populations frequently consuming SSB compared to populations infrequently consuming SSB. Additionally, one-day food consumption data was found to overestimate SSB usual intake by up to 38.9% compared to the data of multiple survey days. multiple lifestyle factors and higher dietary fat intake were significantly associated with obesity risk. Populations who frequently consumed SSB, primarily HFCS sweetened beverages, did not have a higher obesity rate or increased obesity risk than that of populations which consumed SSB infrequently.

  15. Global Trends in the Affordability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, 1990-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan; Liber, Alex C; Drope, Jeffrey M; Nguyen, Binh; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-05-04

    The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, a product implicated as a contributor to rising rates of obesity worldwide, as a function of product price and personal income. We used international survey data in a retrospective analysis of 40 high-income and 42 low-income and middle-income countries from 1990 to 2016. Prices of sugar-sweetened beverages were from the Economist Intelligence Unit's World Cost of Living Survey. Income and inflation data were from the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database. The measure of affordability was the average annual percentage change in the relative-income price of sugar-sweetened beverages, which is the annual rate of change in the proportion of per capita gross domestic product needed to purchase 100 L of Coca-Cola in each country in each year of the study. In 79 of 82 countries, the proportion of income needed to purchase sugar-sweetened beverages declined on average (using annual measures) during the study period. This pattern, described as an increase in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, indicated that sugar-sweetened beverages became more affordable more rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries, a fact largely attributable to the higher rate of income growth in those countries than to a decline in the real price of sugar-sweetened beverages. Without deliberate policy action to raise prices, sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to become more affordable and more widely consumed around the world.

  16. Global Trends in the Affordability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, 1990–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan; Liber, Alex C.; Nguyen, Binh; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, a product implicated as a contributor to rising rates of obesity worldwide, as a function of product price and personal income. Methods We used international survey data in a retrospective analysis of 40 high-income and 42 low-income and middle-income countries from 1990 to 2016. Prices of sugar-sweetened beverages were from the Economist Intelligence Unit’s World Cost of Living Survey. Income and inflation data were from the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook Database. The measure of affordability was the average annual percentage change in the relative-income price of sugar-sweetened beverages, which is the annual rate of change in the proportion of per capita gross domestic product needed to purchase 100 L of Coca-Cola in each country in each year of the study. Results In 79 of 82 countries, the proportion of income needed to purchase sugar-sweetened beverages declined on average (using annual measures) during the study period. This pattern, described as an increase in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, indicated that sugar-sweetened beverages became more affordable more rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries, a fact largely attributable to the higher rate of income growth in those countries than to a decline in the real price of sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusion Without deliberate policy action to raise prices, sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to become more affordable and more widely consumed around the world. PMID:28472607

  17. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Fabricius, N.; Fagt, Sisse

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mgl(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners...

  18. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Juan A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.

  19. ‘The university should promote health, but not enforce it’: opinions and attitudes about the regulation of sugar-sweetened beverages in a university setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Howse

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to determine the opinions and attitudes of a university population regarding the regulation of sugar-sweetened beverages in a university setting, primarily looking at differences in opinion between younger adults (under 30 years of age and older adults (30 years of age or older. Methods An online survey was conducted at an Australian university in April–May 2016 using a convenience sample of students and staff between the ages of 16 and 84 years. The survey included questions about consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and level of agreement and support of proposed sugar-sweetened beverage interventions. Quantitative response data and qualitative open-ended response data were analysed. Results Nine hundred thirteen responses from students and staff were analysed. In this population, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was low and awareness of the health risks of sugar-sweetened beverages was high. Overall, the surveyed population indicated more support for interventions that require higher levels of personal responsibility. The population did support some environment-centred, population-based interventions, such as increasing access to drinking water and reducing the price of healthier beverage alternatives. However there was less support for more restrictive interventions such as removing sugar-sweetened beverages from sale. Young adults tended to be less supportive of most interventions than older adults. Conclusions These findings indicate there is some support for environment-centred, population-based approaches to reduce the availability and appeal of sugar-sweetened beverages in an adult environment such as a university setting. However these results suggest that public health may need to focus less on educating populations about the harms associated with sugar-sweetened beverages. Instead, there should be greater emphasis on explaining to populations and communities why environment

  20. Support for Food and Beverage Worksite Wellness Strategies and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Employed U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Pan, Liping; Kimmons, Joel; Foltz, Jennifer; Park, Sohyun

    2017-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is high among U.S. adults and is associated with obesity. Given that more than 100 million Americans consume food or beverages at work daily, the worksite may be a venue for interventions to reduce SSB consumption. However, the level of support for these interventions is unknown. We examined associations between workday SSB intake and employees' support for worksite wellness strategies (WWSs). We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from Web-based annual surveys that gather information on health-related attitudes and behaviors. Study setting was the United States. A total of 1924 employed adults (≥18 years) selected using probability-based sampling. The self-reported independent variable was workday SSB intake (0, food/drink, (3) available healthy options, and (4) less available SSB. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for sociodemographic variables, employee size, and availability of cafeteria/vending machine. About half of employees supported accessible free water (54%), affordable healthy food/drink (49%), and available healthy options (46%), but only 28% supported less available SSB. Compared with non-SSB consumers, daily SSB consumers were significantly less supportive of accessible free water (adjusted odds ratio, .67; p < .05) or less available SSB (odds ratio, .49; p < .05). Almost half of employees supported increasing healthy options within worksites, although daily workday SSB consumers were less supportive of certain strategies. Lack of support could be a potential barrier to the successful implementation of certain worksite interventions.

  1. Do sugar-sweetened beverages cause adverse health outcomes in adults? A systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, impose significant burden to public health. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, overweight and obesity, and tobacco usage. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribution in the development of chronic diseases, a systematic review is warranted. We will assess whether the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in adults is associated with adverse health outcomes and what the potential moderating factors are. Methods/Design Of interest are studies addressing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, taking a broad perspective. Both direct consumption studies as well as those evaluating interventions that influence consumption (e.g. school policy, educational) will be relevant. Non-specific or multi-faceted behavioural, educational, or policy interventions may also be included subject to the level of evidence that exists for the other interventions/exposures. Comparisons of interest and endpoints of interest are pre-specified. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series studies, controlled before-after studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case-control studies, and nested case-control designs. The MEDLINE®, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO® databases and grey literature sources will be searched. The processes for selecting studies, abstracting data, and resolving conflicts are described. We will assess risk of bias using design-specific tools. To determine sets of confounding variables that should be adjusted for, we have developed causal directed acyclic graphs and will use those to inform our risk of bias assessments. Meta-analysis will

  2. Opportunities to reduce children's excessive consumption of calories from beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Ryan K; Mullen, Kathy B; Sterkel, Randall; Strunk, Robert C; Garbutt, Jane M

    2014-10-01

    To describe children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and 100% fruit juice (FJ), and identify factors that may reduce excessive consumption. A total of 830 parents of young children completed a 36-item questionnaire at the pediatricians' office. Children consumed soda (62.2%), other SSBs (61.6%), and FJ (88.2%): 26.9% exceeded the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommended daily FJ intake. 157 (18.9%) children consumed excessive calories (>200 kcal/d) from beverages (median = 292.2 kcal/d, range 203.8-2177.0 kcal/d). Risk factors for excessive calorie consumption from beverages were exceeding recommendations for FJ (odds ratio [OR] = 119.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 52.2-274.7), being 7 to 12 years old (OR = 4.3, 95%CI = 1.9-9.9), and having Medicaid insurance (OR = 2.6, 95%CI = 1.1-6.0). Parents would likely reduce beverage consumption if recommended by the physician (65.6%). About 1 in 5 children consumes excessive calories from soda, other SSBs and FJ, with FJ the major contributor. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Adults Who Order Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Sociodemographics and Meal Patterns at Fast Food Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 30% of adults consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily, many at fast food restaurants. Researchers examined fast food purchases to better understand which consumers order SSBs, particularly large SSBs. Fast food customers in New York City and New Jersey provided receipts and participated in a survey during 2013-2014 (N=11,614). Logistic regression analyses predicted three outcomes: ordering no beverage or a non-SSB, a small/medium SSB, or a large SSB. Among respondents who ordered a beverage (n=3,775), additional analyses predicted number of beverage calories and odds of ordering an SSB. Covariates included demographic and behavioral factors. Respondents aged 18-29 years were 88% more likely to order a large SSB than a non-SSB or no beverage, as compared with respondents aged ≥50 years (pbeverage, respondents ordered more beverage calories with a large combination meal (+85.13 kcal, p=0.001) or if the restaurant had a large cup size >30 ounces (+36.07 kcal, p=0.001). Hispanic and Asian respondents were less likely to order a large SSB (AOR=0.49 and 0.52, respectively, both p≤0.026) than non-Hispanic white respondents. Odds of ordering a large SSB were higher for respondents who ate in the restaurant (AOR=1.66, pbeverage based on price (AOR=2.02, pbeverage calories increased with meal size. Increased understanding of these factors is an important step toward limiting unhealthy SSB consumption. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Vasanti S; Schulze, Matthias B; Hu, Frank B

    2006-08-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity, by virtue of these beverages' high added sugar content, low satiety, and incomplete compensation for total energy. Whether an association exists between SSB intake and weight gain is unclear. We searched English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through May 2005 for cross-sectional, prospective cohort, and experimental studies of the relation between SSBs and the risk of weight gain (ie, overweight, obesity, or both). Thirty publications (15 cross-sectional, 10 prospective, and 5 experimental) were selected on the basis of relevance and quality of design and methods. Findings from large cross-sectional studies, in conjunction with those from well-powered prospective cohort studies with long periods of follow-up, show a positive association between greater intakes of SSBs and weight gain and obesity in both children and adults. Findings from short-term feeding trials in adults also support an induction of positive energy balance and weight gain by intake of sugar-sweetened sodas, but these trials are few. A school-based intervention found significantly less soft-drink consumption and prevalence of obese and overweight children in the intervention group than in control subjects after 12 mo, and a recent 25-week randomized controlled trial in adolescents found further evidence linking SSB intake to body weight. The weight of epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicates that a greater consumption of SSBs is associated with weight gain and obesity. Although more research is needed, sufficient evidence exists for public health strategies to discourage consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle.

  5. Artificially sweetened beverages, sugar-sweetened beverages, plain water, and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women: the prospective Women's Health Initiative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengna; Quddus, Abdullah; Stinson, Lynda; Shikany, James M; Howard, Barbara V; Kutob, Randa M; Lu, Bing; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B

    2017-08-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), whereas the association with artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) is unclear. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations of ASB and SSB consumption with the risk of developing DM and the potential benefit of replacing SSBs with ASBs or water. Design: The national Women's Health Initiative recruited a large prospective cohort of postmenopausal women between 1993 and 1998. ASB, SSB, and water consumption was measured by lifestyle questionnaires, and DM was self-reported. Results: Of 64,850 women, 4675 developed diabetes over an average of 8.4 y of follow-up. ASBs and SSBs were both associated with an increased risk of DM with an HR of 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.36) comparing ASB consumption of ≥2 serving/d to never or <3 serving/mo, and an HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.75) comparing SSB consumption of ≥2 serving/d to <1 serving/wk (1 serving = one 12-ounce can or 355 mL). Subgroup analysis found an increased risk of DM associated with ASBs only in the obese group. Modeling the substitution of SSBs with an equal amount of ASBs did not significantly reduce the risk of developing DM. However, statistically substituting 1 serving of ASBs with water was associated with a significant risk reduction of 5% (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99), whereas substituting 1 serving of SSBs with water was associated with a risk reduction of 10% (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.95). Conclusions: ASBs were associated with a 21% increased risk of developing DM, approximately half the magnitude of SSBs (associated with a 43% increased risk). Replacing ASBs and SSBs with water could potentially reduce the risk. However, caution should be taken in interpreting these results as causal because both residual confounding and reverse causation could explain these results. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Guerrero-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile is the second world’s largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households’ consumption to changes in prices. Methods We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012–2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. Results We found an own price-elasticity of −1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. Conclusions The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  7. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  8. Effects of energy-content labels and motivational posters on sales of sugar-sweetened beverages: stimulating sales of diet drinks among adults study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Dara; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the effects of an environmental intervention promoting more non-energy-containing beverage consumption compared to sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption through vending machines in an urban college setting. Eight soft drink vending machines were randomly selected and assigned to one of three conditions over a 9-week period: energy-content labels on non-energy-containing beverage selection panels (intervention I), labels plus motivational posters (intervention II), or control. The totals of all beverages sold and machine revenue were recorded at baseline (2 weeks), intervention (5 weeks), and postintervention (2 weeks) periods. Use of energy-content labels and motivational posters, compared with control group, resulted in a significantly lower growth rate of sugar-sweetened beverage sales (Psales.

  9. Price elasticity of the demand for sugar sweetened beverages and soft drinks in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M A; Salgado, J C; Unar-Munguía, M; Hernández-Ávila, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J A

    2015-12-01

    A large and growing body of scientific evidence demonstrates that sugar drinks are harmful to health. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mexico has one of the largest per capita consumption of soft drinks worldwide and high rates of obesity and diabetes. Fiscal approaches such as taxation have been recommended as a public health policy to reduce SSB consumption. We estimated an almost ideal demand system with linear approximation for beverages and high-energy food by simultaneous equations and derived the own and cross price elasticities for soft drinks and for all SSB (soft drinks, fruit juices, fruit drinks, flavored water and energy drinks). Models were stratified by income quintile and marginality index at the municipality level. Price elasticity for soft drinks was -1.06 and -1.16 for SSB, i.e., a 10% price increase was associated with a decrease in quantity consumed of soft drinks by 10.6% and 11.6% for SSB. A price increase in soft drinks is associated with larger quantity consumed of water, milk, snacks and sugar and a decrease in the consumption of other SSB, candies and traditional snacks. The same was found for SSB except that an increase in price of SSB was associated with a decrease in snacks. Higher elasticities were found among households living in rural areas (for soft drinks), in more marginalized areas and with lower income. Implementation of a tax to soft drinks or to SSB could decrease consumption particularly among the poor. Substitutions and complementarities with other food and beverages should be evaluated to assess the potential impact on total calories consumed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability.

  11. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  12. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  13. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  14. Factors that Affect Sugar Sweetened Beverage Intake in Rural, Southern College Students in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Chau, Tak Yan; Rutledge, Julie M; Erickson, Dawn; Lim, Yunsook

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate factors that affect sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake in rural, southern college students in the US. The majority of the participants were male (58 %) and Caucasian (63 %). The average total SSB consumption was 79.4 fl oz/day (2.35 L/d). Results of binary logistic regression analyses of total SSB intake greater than 57.4 fl oz/day (1.8 L/d) versus less than 57.4 fl oz/day showed that factors associated with greater odds for high SSB intake were age greater than 20 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 3.551, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.385 - 9.104, p = 0.008) and being African American (OR = 3.477, 95 % CI = 1.291 - 9.363, p = 0.013). Results of binary logistic regression analyses of total bottled water intake greater than 39.4 fl oz/day (median) versus less than 39.4 fl oz/day showed that consuming alcohol was significantly related to an increased probability of drinking more than 39.4 fl oz (1.17 L/d) of bottled water per day (median; OR = 2.914, 95 % CI = 1.223 - 6.943, p = 0.016). Culturally sensitive strategies are needed to raise awareness for making healthy beverage choices when dining on campus to effectively reduce college student's SSB consumption.

  15. Predicting the Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes on Food and Beverage Demand in a Large Demand System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E

    2014-01-01

    A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction.

  16. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Vasanti S; Schulze, Matthias B; Hu, Frank B

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity, by virtue of these beverages’ high added sugar content, low satiety, and incomplete compensation for total energy. Whether an association exists between SSB intake and weight gain is unclear. We searched English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through May 2005 for cross-sectional, prospective cohort, and experimental studies of the relation between SSBs and the risk of weight gain (ie, overweight, obesity, or both). Thirty publications (15 cross-sectional, 10 prospective, and 5 experimental) were selected on the basis of relevance and quality of design and methods. Findings from large cross-sectional studies, in conjunction with those from well-powered prospective cohort studies with long periods of follow-up, show a positive association between greater intakes of SSBs and weight gain and obesity in both children and adults. Findings from short-term feeding trials in adults also support an induction of positive energy balance and weight gain by intake of sugar-sweetened sodas, but these trials are few. A school-based intervention found significantly less soft-drink consumption and prevalence of obese and overweight children in the intervention group than in control subjects after 12 mo, and a recent 25-week randomized controlled trial in adolescents found further evidence linking SSB intake to body weight. The weight of epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicates that a greater consumption of SSBs is associated with weight gain and obesity. Although more research is needed, sufficient evidence exists for public health strategies to discourage consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:16895873

  17. Association of δ¹³C in fingerstick blood with added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M; Jahren, A Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E; Comber, Dana L

    2011-06-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added-sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related comorbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of ¹³C, a naturally occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary dietary source, might be reflected in the δ¹³C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay because of its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the δ¹³C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Individuals aged 21 years and older (n = 60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire, sequence two: 4-day food intake record). Sequence one participants completed a food intake record at visit two, and nonfasting blood samples were obtained via routine fingersticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a beverage intake questionnaire at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for δ¹³C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. δ¹³C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added-sugar intake. Reported mean added-sugar consumption was 66 ± 5 g/day, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was 330 ± 53 g/day and 134 ± 25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick δ¹³C value was -19.94‰ ± 0.10‰, which differed by body mass index status. δ¹³C value was associated (all P intake

  18. Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: impact on overweight and obesity in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Schwendicke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs increases the risk of overweight and obesity. Taxing SSBs could decrease daily energy consumption and body weight. This model-based study evaluated the impact of a 20% SSB-sales tax on overweight and obesity in the context of Germany. Methods The population aged 15–79 years was modelled. Taxation was assumed to affect energy consumption via demand elasticities, which affected weight and BMI. Model-based analysis was performed to estimate the tax impact on BMI in different age, gender and income groups. Results Implementing a 20% SSB tax reduced energy consumption mainly in younger age groups, males, and those with low income. Taxation decreased the mean BMI in younger groups, with the largest decrease in those aged 20–29 years, while effects in groups 60 years or above were minimal. In absolute terms, taxation was estimated to avoid 1,028,000 (−3% relative reduction overweight individuals and 479,000 obese individuals (−4%. Overweight decreased the most in males aged 20–29 years (408,000 fewer cases /−22%, the same applied for obesity (204,000/−22%. Conclusions An SSB tax could have significant impact on overweight and obesity, which could translate into substantial reductions of morbidity and mortality.

  19. Assessing attitudes and actions of pediatric dentists toward childhood obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Casamassimo, Paul S

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a major US health concern, and oral health professionals have opportunities to participate in an interprofessional effort to intervene owing to their access to young patients and their abilities in addressing obesity-related dietary habits like consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This study determined attitudes, behaviors, future intentions, and perceived barriers of pediatric dentists regarding efforts to prevent childhood obesity and reduce children's consumption of SSBs. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry conducted an online electronic survey with a convenience sample of approximately 7,450 pediatric dentists and pediatric dental residents during spring 2016. Over 17 percent of pediatric dentists offer childhood obesity interventions. Of those not providing interventions, 67 percent were interested in offering obesity-prevention services. Nearly 94 percent of pediatric dentists offer information or other interventions on consumption of SSBs. Statistically significant barriers to providing healthy weight interventions were fear of offending parents, appearing judgmental, or creating parent dissatisfaction and a lack of parental acceptance of guidance about weight management from a dentist. Significant barriers to SSB interventions were sufficient time and health professional education. More pediatric dentists stated they offer childhood obesity interventions than in previous surveys reporting 6 percent, but respondents suggested that a child's weight is seen as a medical rather than dental issue. Most pediatric dentists provide interventions related to consumption of SSBs, perceiving the issue as integral to their care of children. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jensen, U.; Fagt, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks. The esti......In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks...

  1. Effectiveness of sugar-sweetened beverages taxes to reduce obesity: evidence brief for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán, Josefina; Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2017-10-25

    The high prevalence of obesity in Chile, along with the increasing consumption of sugary drinks in the country, has made apparent the need to propose fiscal measures, through taxes on specific foods, as a complementary alternative to approach this problem. Since 2014, an additional 5% increase in the tax on sugar-sweetened nonalcoholic beverages has been in effect in Chile, an amount that may be insufficient to produce an impact on obesity levels. The evidence of the effectiveness of fiscal measures upon sugary beverages, in terms of price modification, generally reflects a high transfer of the tax to the final consumers, which is variable according to local conditions. After the analysis of the literature, a sensitivity of the demand to the changes in prices of sugary drinks was evidenced, by means of negative elasticity close to -1, for different groups observed, besides a decrease in the consumption of these products. On the other hand, effects on body weight after the application of these taxes were analyzed by several simulation studies, reporting a decrease on prevalence of obesity between 0.99% and 2.4%. Within the acceptability of a fiscal measure of this nature, there were variable support figures between 36% and 60% among general population. Regarding possible negative effects on employment, an international study even evidenced a rise in the figures for employment in two locations following the application of a tax on sugary drinks. The research showed that there is evidence to support the implementation of a fiscal measure upon sugary beverages in Chile; however, there is a lack of local simulation studies to explore the possible effects and implications of a new tax of this kind in the country. Taxation measures upon foods seem to be both viable and effective alternatives to address the problem of obesity in Chile, but they should be considered as part of an overall strategy with the clear goal of reducing the prevalence of national obesity.

  2. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Clinic-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Beverage Consumption Among Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Amy L; Fernandez, Alicia; Rojina, Jenssy; Cabana, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate an educational module for Latino parents about the health effects of sweet beverages. Latino parents were randomized to receive the beverage module or a control module. Child beverage consumption was assessed at baseline, 2 weeks, 2 months, and 3 months via a beverage recall survey. At 2-week follow-up, children of intervention participants had a mean reduction in 7-day total sugar-sweetened beverage and 100% fruit juice consumption of 16 ounces while controls had a mean increase of 4 ounces ( P = .01). At 2-month and 3-month follow-up, there was a reduction in mean total sugar-sweetened beverage and 100% fruit juice consumption among both intervention and control children. An educational module on beverages for Latino parents reduced child consumption of sweet beverages at 2-week follow-up. However, study participation appears to have also reduced controls' beverage consumption suggesting that frequent intensive surveys of beverage intake may be an intervention unto itself.

  3. Do High Consumers of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Respond Differently to Price Changes? A Finite Mixture IV-Tobit Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etilé, Fabrice; Sharma, Anurag

    2015-09-01

    This study compares the impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) tax between moderate and high consumers in Australia. The key methodological contribution is that price response heterogeneity is identified while controlling for censoring of consumption at zero and endogeneity of expenditure by using a finite mixture instrumental variable Tobit model. The SSB price elasticity estimates show a decreasing trend across increasing consumption quantiles, from -2.3 at the median to -0.2 at the 95th quantile. Although high consumers of SSBs have a less elastic demand for SSBs, their very high consumption levels imply that a tax would achieve higher reduction in consumption and higher health gains. Our results also suggest that an SSB tax would represent a small fiscal burden for consumers whatever their pre-policy level of consumption, and that an excise tax should be preferred to an ad valorem tax. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J S; Hobbs, L J; Fernandez, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in commercial carbonated beverages conforms to commonly assumed fructose percentages and industry technical specifications, and fulfills beverage product label regulations and Food Chemicals Codex-stipulated standards. Design: A high-pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and verified for analysis of sugars in carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The method was used to measure percent fructose in three carbonated beverage categories. Method verification was demonstrated by acceptable linearity (R2>0.99), accuracy (94–104% recovery) and precision (RSDbeverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The difference in fructose measurements between laboratories was significant but small (0.1%), and lacked relevance. Differences in fructose by product category or by product age were not statistically significant. Total sugars content of carbonated beverages showed close agreement within product categories (95% confidence interval=0.01–0.54%). Conclusions: Using verified analytical methodology for HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages, this study confirmed the hypothesis that fructose as a percentage of total sugars is in close agreement with published specifications in industry technical data sheets, published literature values and governmental standards and requirements. Furthermore, total sugars content of commercial beverages is consistent with common industry practices for canned and bottled products and met the US Federal requirements for nutritional labeling and nutrient claims. Prior concerns about composition were likely owing to use of improper and unverified methodology. PMID

  5. The government policy related to sugar-sweetened beverages in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Thahir Haning; Andi Imam Arundhana; Asry Dwi Muqni

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are several options to enforce reduction in the use of sugary drinks such as strengthening regulations, taxation on the products and food labeling.  Aims & Objectives: 1) Identify the policy in Indonesia that regulates the quantity and the use of sugar in a beverage product; 2) Describe the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and its impact on human health. Material & Methods: Literature search on sugar use and tax policies on SSB was conducted and 6 rel...

  6. Trends in beverage prices following the introduction of a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Miriam; Kostova, Deliana; Suhrcke, Marc; Hambleton, Ian; Hassell, Trevor; Samuels, T Alafia; Adams, Jean; Unwin, Nigel

    2017-12-01

    A 10% excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) was implemented in Barbados in September 2015. A national evaluation has been established to assess the impact of the tax. We present a descriptive analysis of initial price changes following implementation of the SSB tax using price data provided by a major supermarket chain in Barbados over the period 2014-2016. We summarize trends in price changes for SSBs and non-SSBs before and after the tax using year-on-year mean price per liter. We find that prior to the tax, the year-on-year growth of SSB and non-SSB prices was very similar (approximately 1%). During the quarter in which the tax was implemented, the trends diverged, with SSB price growth increasing to 3% and that of non-SSBs decreasing slightly. The growth of SSB prices outpaced non-SSBs prices in each quarter thereafter, reaching 5.9% compared to tax price changes. A continued examination of the impact of the SSB tax in Barbados will expand the evidence base available to policymakers worldwide in considering SSB taxes as a lever for reducing the consumption of added sugar at the population level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Beverages Sales in Mexico before and after Implementation of a Sugar Sweetened Beverage Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M. A; Guerrero-López, Carlos Manuel; Molina, Mariana; Rivera, Juan Angel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate changes in sales of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and plain water after a 1 peso per liter excise SSB tax was implemented in Mexico in January 2014. Material and Methods We used sales data from the Monthly Surveys of the Manufacturing Industry from January 2007 to December 2015. We estimated Ordinary Least Squares models to assess changes in per capita sales of SSB and plain water adjusting for seasonality and the global indicator of economic activity. Results We found a decrease of 7.3% in per capita sales of SSB and an increase of 5.2% of per capita sales of plain water in 2014–2015 compared to the pre-tax period (2007–2013). Conclusions Adjusting for variables that change over time and that are associated with the demand for SSB, we found the tax was associated with a reduction in per capita sales of SSB. The effectiveness of the tax should be evaluated in the medium and long term. PMID:27668875

  8. Beverages Sales in Mexico before and after Implementation of a Sugar Sweetened Beverage Tax.

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    M A Colchero

    Full Text Available To estimate changes in sales of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB and plain water after a 1 peso per liter excise SSB tax was implemented in Mexico in January 2014.We used sales data from the Monthly Surveys of the Manufacturing Industry from January 2007 to December 2015. We estimated Ordinary Least Squares models to assess changes in per capita sales of SSB and plain water adjusting for seasonality and the global indicator of economic activity.We found a decrease of 7.3% in per capita sales of SSB and an increase of 5.2% of per capita sales of plain water in 2014-2015 compared to the pre-tax period (2007-2013.Adjusting for variables that change over time and that are associated with the demand for SSB, we found the tax was associated with a reduction in per capita sales of SSB. The effectiveness of the tax should be evaluated in the medium and long term.

  9. Beverage consumption and individual-level associations in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Kim, Tae Hyun; Powell, Lisa M

    2013-03-06

    Few previous studies investigated consumption distributions of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) over time and individual-level associations in Asia despite the recent interest in SSBs regarding obesity control. This study aimed to provide recent evidence on beverage consumption trends from 2001 to 2009 for overall and subtypes of SSBs and for milk as a comparable healthy beverage in South Korea, as well as associations with individual-level socioeconomic status (SES). The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2001 to 2009 were used. Consumption prevalence and average caloric intake by SSB type were examined. Associations of SES with consumption were assessed in a multivariate logistic regression model (consumption prevalence) and in a multivariate two-part regression model (overall caloric intake adjusting for consumption probability). SSB consumption prevalence increased to 38%, 69%, 70%, and 50% by 2009 up from 31%, 66%, 63%, and 32% in 2001 among adolescents, young adults, adults, and the elderly, respectively. Miscellaneous SSBs (sports/energy drinks, coffee/tea products, flavored milk, and others) were the most prevalent and their prevalence increased among adults (from 62% to 69%) and the elderly (from 30% to 47%) between 2001 and 2009. Adolescents consumed the most calories from miscellaneous SSBs among all beverage types although its prevalence was lower than regular soda and milk in both 2001 and 2009. Women (top- income group only) and men in higher income groups showed higher odds of consuming total SSBs (OR = 1.18-1.25), soda (OR = 1.18, men only), fruit drinks (OR = 1.18, the top-income only for both genders), and miscellaneous SSBs (OR = 1.1-1.2). Men with higher-education showed higher odds of total SSB consumption (OR = 1.14-1.20), and all subtypes of SSBs (OR = 1.18, 1.29, 1.19 for soda, fruit drinks, and miscellaneous SSBs, respectively for the top-education group only). There were statistically

  10. Effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in beverages on the reward value after repeated exposure.

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    Sanne Griffioen-Roose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink on reward value after repeated exposure. DESIGN: We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women with a mean ± SD age of 21 ± 2 y and BMI of 21.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2 consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS and sugar sweetened (SS versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18 fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks. RESULTS: Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks.

  11. Effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in beverages on the reward value after repeated exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Smeets, Paul A M; Weijzen, Pascalle L G; van Rijn, Inge; van den Bosch, Iris; de Graaf, Cees

    2013-01-01

    The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink) versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink) on reward value after repeated exposure. We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women) with a mean ± SD age of 21 ± 2 y and BMI of 21.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2) consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS) and sugar sweetened (SS) versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced) for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18) fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks. Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects. Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks.

  12. "If it tastes good, I'm drinking it": qualitative study of beverage consumption among college students.

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    Block, Jason P; Gillman, Matthew W; Linakis, Stephanie K; Goldman, Roberta E

    2013-06-01

    This study examined how college students choose beverages and whether behavioral interventions might reduce their heavy consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. From April to June 2010, 90 students participated in 12 focus groups at 6 colleges in Massachusetts and Louisiana. The study team undertook a group content analysis of the verbatim focus group transcripts using the immersion-crystallization method. The mean age of participants was 19 years. Fifty percent were white, and 47% were black. Several themes emerged in focus groups: taste is paramount; price is important but secondary; health and nutritional content of beverages are of limited interest; juice has a "health halo"; and water is consumed primarily for hydration. Students were often highly fixated on favorite sugar-sweetened beverages. Price was uniquely important for good-tasting beverages costing less than one dollar. Some students reported calorie content as important for food choices, but most had no awareness of beverage calorie content. Students' negative perceptions of sugar-sweetened beverages focused largely on the "dangers" of sugar and chemicals in sodas. They expressed particular concern about soda's corrosive chemical properties or diet soda causing cancer. The health halo for juice persisted even with some recognition of high sugar content. Students thought shocking educational messages would be necessary to get them to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among college students, taste and price were the most important factors in choosing beverages. Interventions using shocking visual images or providing low-cost or free water may conquer taste and brand preference to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Beverage consumption patterns of Canadian adults aged 19 to 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikpartow, Nooshin; Danyliw, Adrienne D; Whiting, Susan J; Lim, Hyun J; Vatanparast, Hassanali

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the beverage intake patterns of Canadian adults and explore characteristics of participants in different beverage clusters. Analyses of nationally representative data with cross-sectional complex stratified design. Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 (2004). A total of 14 277 participants aged 19-65 years, in whom dietary intake was assessed using a single 24 h recall, were included in the study. After determining total intake and the contribution of beverages to total energy intake among age/sex groups, cluster analysis (K-means method) was used to classify males and females into distinct clusters based on the dominant pattern of beverage intakes. To test differences across clusters, χ2 tests and 95 % confidence intervals of the mean intakes were used. Six beverage clusters in women and seven beverage clusters in men were identified. 'Sugar-sweetened' beverage clusters - regular soft drinks and fruit drinks - as well as a 'beer' cluster, appeared for both men and women. No 'milk' cluster appeared among women. The mean consumption of the dominant beverage in each cluster was higher among men than women. The 'soft drink' cluster in men had the lowest proportion of the higher levels of education, and in women the highest proportion of inactivity, compared with other beverage clusters. Patterns of beverage intake in Canadian women indicate high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages particularly fruit drinks, low intake of milk and high intake of beer. These patterns in women have implications for poor bone health, risk of obesity and other morbidities.

  14. Higher Retail Prices of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages 3 Months After Implementation of an Excise Tax in Berkeley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbe, Jennifer; Rojas, Nadia; Grummon, Anna H; Madsen, Kristine A

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the short-term ability to increase retail prices of the first US 1-cent-per-ounce excise tax on the distribution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which was implemented in March 2015 by Berkeley, California. In 2014 and 2015, we examined pre- to posttax price changes of SSBs and non-SSBs in a variety of retailers in Berkeley and in the comparison cities Oakland and San Francisco, California. We examined price changes by beverage, brand, size, and retailer type. For smaller beverages (≤ 33.8 oz), price increases (cents/oz) in Berkeley relative to those in comparison cities were 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.36, 1.03) for soda, 0.47 (95% CI = 0.08, 0.87) for fruit-flavored beverages, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.25, 0.69) for SSBs overall. For 2-liter bottles and multipacks of soda, relative price increases were 0.46 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.89) and 0.49 (95% CI = 0.21, 0.77). We observed no relative price increases for nontaxed beverages overall. Approximately 3 months after the tax was implemented, SSB retail prices increased more in Berkeley than in nearby cities, marking a step in the causal pathway between the tax and reduced SSB consumption.

  15. Beverage Intake, Smoking Behavior, and Alcohol Consumption in Contemporary China—A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey

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    Yen-Han Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese residents enjoy various types of beverages in their daily life. With the rapid Westernization of contemporary China, several adverse health concerns—such as diabetes linked to sweetened beverages—have emerged. Until now, no research that examines associations between beverage consumption and smoking/drinking behaviors has been made available, despite the large Chinese populations partaking in such activities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between beverage intake frequencies and smoking/drinking behaviors in 12,634 adult respondents who participated in the latest wave (2011 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Further, we applied Tukey’s Honest Significance test for pairwise comparisons. We defined the consumption categories as daily (at least one serving per day, weekly (less than one serving per day, at least one serving per week, monthly (less than one serving per week, at least one serving per month, and less than monthly or none—for sweetened beverage, water, tea, and coffee consumptions. The data showed that both tea and sweetened beverages are associated with smoking/drinking behaviors. Compared to respondents who consume tea and sweetened beverages daily, the odds of smoking behaviors are lower for those who consume such beverages less frequently. Further policy implications are discussed, including higher taxes on sweetened beverages and lessons from other countries.

  16. Replacing sweetened caloric beverages with drinking water is associated with lower energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Constant, Florence; Gardner, Christopher D; Popkin, Barry M

    2007-12-01

    Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs. Secondary analysis of data from the Stanford A TO Z intervention evaluated change in beverage pattern and total energy intake in 118 overweight women (25 to 50 years) who regularly consumed SCBs (>12 ounces/d) at baseline. At baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months, mean daily beverage intake (SCBs, drinking water, non-caloric diet beverages, and nutritious caloric beverages), food composition (macronutrient, water, and fiber content), and total energy intake were estimated using three 24-hour diet recalls. Beverage intake was expressed in relative terms (percentage of beverages). In fixed effects models that controlled for total beverage intake, non-caloric and nutritious caloric beverage intake (percentage of beverages), food composition, and energy expenditure [metabolic equivalent (MET)], replacing SCBs with drinking water was associated with significant decreases in total energy intake that were sustained over time. The caloric deficit attributable to replacing SCBs with water was not negated by compensatory increases in other food or beverages. Replacing all SCBs with drinking water was associated with a predicted mean decrease in total energy of 200 kcal/d over 12 months. The results suggest that replacing SCBs with drinking water can help lower total energy intake in overweight consumers of SCBs motivated to diet.

  17. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche.

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    Mueller, Noel T; Jacobs, David R; MacLehose, Richard F; Demerath, Ellen W; Kelly, Scott P; Dreyfus, Jill G; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse. We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9-10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks was positively associated with risk of early menarche in a US cohort of African American and Caucasian girls. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Loneliness, social integration and consumption of sugar-containing beverages: testing the social baseline theory.

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    Roger Ekeberg Henriksen

    Full Text Available Social Baseline Theory (SBT proposes that close relationships aid in metabolic resource management and that individuals without significant relationships may experience more demands on their own neural metabolic resources on a daily basis when solving problems, remaining vigilant against potential threats and regulating emotional responses. This study tests a hypothesised consequence derived from SBT: relative social isolation leads to increased levels of sugar intake.Based on cross-sectional, self-reported data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 90 084, information on social integration and the consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened sodas and juices was obtained from a large number of women in early pregnancy. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess whether loneliness, marital status, relationship satisfaction, advice from others than partner, and cohesion at work is associated with consumption of sodas and juices.Perceived loneliness was associated with elevated intake of all sugary beverages, while relationship satisfaction was negatively associated with all sugary beverages. Being married or cohabitating, having supportive friends, and having a sense of togetherness at work were associated with lower intake of two out of three sugar-containing beverages. These associations were significant, even after controlling for factors such as body mass index, weight related self-image, depression, physical activity, educational level, age and income. In comparison, a statistically significant relationship emerged between relationship satisfaction and artificially sweetened cola. No other predictor variables were significantly associated with any type of artificially sweetened beverage.This study indicates that loneliness and social integration influence the level of consumption of sugary beverages. The results support the hypothesis derived from the Social Baseline Theory that relative social

  19. Loneliness, social integration and consumption of sugar-containing beverages: testing the social baseline theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Roger Ekeberg; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2014-01-01

    Social Baseline Theory (SBT) proposes that close relationships aid in metabolic resource management and that individuals without significant relationships may experience more demands on their own neural metabolic resources on a daily basis when solving problems, remaining vigilant against potential threats and regulating emotional responses. This study tests a hypothesised consequence derived from SBT: relative social isolation leads to increased levels of sugar intake. Based on cross-sectional, self-reported data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 90 084), information on social integration and the consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened sodas and juices was obtained from a large number of women in early pregnancy. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess whether loneliness, marital status, relationship satisfaction, advice from others than partner, and cohesion at work is associated with consumption of sodas and juices. Perceived loneliness was associated with elevated intake of all sugary beverages, while relationship satisfaction was negatively associated with all sugary beverages. Being married or cohabitating, having supportive friends, and having a sense of togetherness at work were associated with lower intake of two out of three sugar-containing beverages. These associations were significant, even after controlling for factors such as body mass index, weight related self-image, depression, physical activity, educational level, age and income. In comparison, a statistically significant relationship emerged between relationship satisfaction and artificially sweetened cola. No other predictor variables were significantly associated with any type of artificially sweetened beverage. This study indicates that loneliness and social integration influence the level of consumption of sugary beverages. The results support the hypothesis derived from the Social Baseline Theory that relative social isolation leads

  20. Patterns and trends of beverage consumption among children and adults in Great Britain, 1986-2009.

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    Ng, Shu Wen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jebb, Susan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-08-01

    Many dietary recommendations include reduction of excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and other energy-rich beverages such as juices and alcohol. The present study examines surveys of both individual dietary intake data and household food expenditure surveys to provide a picture of patterns and trends in beverage intake and purchases in Great Britain from 1986 to 2009, and estimates the potential for pricing policy to promote more healthful beverage purchase patterns. In 2008-9, beverages accounted for 21, 14 and 18 % of daily energy intake for children aged 1·5-18 and 4-18 years, and adults (19-64 years), respectively. Since the 1990s, the most important shifts have been a reduction in consumption of high-fat dairy products and an increased consumption of fruit juices and reduced-fat milk among preschoolers, children and adolescents. Among adults, consumption of high-fat milk beverages, sweetened tea and coffee and other energy-containing drinks fell, but reduced-fat milk, alcohol (particularly beer) and fruit juice rose. In testing taxation as an option for shifting beverage purchase patterns, we calculate that a 10 % increase in the price of SSB could potentially result in a decrease of 7·5 ml/capita per d. A similar 10 % tax on high-fat milk is associated with a reduction of high-fat milk purchases by 5 ml/capita per d and increased reduced-fat milk purchase by 7 ml/capita per d. This analysis implies that taxation or other methods of shifting relative costs of these beverages could be a way to improve beverage choices in Great Britain.

  1. Predicting the Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes on Food and Beverage Demand in a Large Demand System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E.

    2013-01-01

    A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction. PMID:24839299

  2. Elevated serum triglyceride and retinol-binding protein 4 levels associated with fructose-sweetened beverages in adolescents.

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    Te-Fu Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA production. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 among Taiwanese adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl. The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (≥24 interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r = 0.253 to 0.404, but not among non-drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4.

  3. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject's estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals consuming SSBs occurred independently of the relative

  4. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. Objective: We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. Design: We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)–sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. Results: In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject’s estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). Conclusions: In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals

  5. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, Janne C; Olthof, Margreet R; Seidell, Jacob C; Katan, Martijn B

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of beverages that contain sugar is associated with overweight, possibly because liquid sugars do not lead to a sense of satiety, so the consumption of other foods is not reduced. However, data are lacking to show that the replacement of sugar-containing beverages with

  6. Sweetened beverages intake, hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome. The Mexico City Diabetes Study.

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    Rubén López-Molina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine prevalence of hyperuricemia and its relation with intake of sweetened beverages (SB and metabolic syndrome (MS in low income urban Mexican population. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional analysis of The Mexico City Diabetes Study, a prospective population-based investigation (1 173 participants was performed. We used logistic regression, adjusted by pertinent variables. We determined prevalence of hyperuricemia and explored associations of uric acid levels with MS and intake of SB. Results. Prevalence of hyperuricemia was 26.5 and 19.8% in males and females respectively. In an adjusted multivariate model, body mass index, waist circumference, and triglyceride were higher as uric acid quartiles increased (p menor que 0.005-0.001. The odds ratio for MS was 1.48 for 3rd uric acid quartile and 2.03 for 4th quartile. Higher consumption of SB was associated with higher uric acid levels (p menor que 0.001. Conclusion. Prevalence of hyperuricemia is high. Potential association with intake of SB, resulting in metabolic alterations should be considered.

  7. A Multicomponent Intervention Helped Reduce Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in Economically Disadvantaged Hispanic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Du; Song, Huaxin; Esperat, M Christina; Black, Ipuna

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of a multicomponent intervention program on consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and lifestyle factors associated with SSB intake, in Hispanic children from low-income families. A five-wave longitudinal study using a quasi-experimental design was conducted. Five elementary schools in West Texas served as the setting. Participants included 555 predominantly Hispanic children (ages 5-9 years) from low-income families and their parents (n = 525). A multicomponent intervention program was implemented. Children's anthropometric measures were obtained. Their weight status was determined based on body mass index for age and gender. Parents responded to a demographic questionnaire, a shelf inventory, an acculturation scale, and a family survey. Growth curve analyses were used to test differences between intervention and comparison participants' SSB intake and to examine potential covariates. Comparison group children's daily SSB intake significantly increased over time (B = 1.06 ± .40 ounces per month, p < .01), but this linear increase of SSB was slowed down by the intervention (B = -.29 ± .12, p < .05). More daily TV time, more fast food intake, and more types of SSBs available at home were associated with higher SSB intake. Risk factors of childhood obesity were associated with each other. The intervention program produced a modest reduction in SSB consumed by economically disadvantaged and predominantly Hispanic children. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  8. The effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages across different income groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Siciliani, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) taxes on consumption, bodyweight and tax burden for low-income, middle-income and high-income groups using an Almost Ideal Demand System and 2011 Household level scanner data. A significant contribution of our paper is that we compare two types of SSB taxes recently advocated by policy makers: A 20% flat rate sales (valoric) tax and a 20 cent/L volumetric tax. Censored demand is accounted for using a two-step procedure. We find that the volumetric tax would result in a greater per capita weight loss than the valoric tax (0.41 kg vs. 0.29 kg). The difference between the change in weight is substantial for the target group of heavy purchasers of SSBs in low-income households, with a weight reduction of up to 3.20 kg for the volumetric and 2.06 kg for the valoric tax. The average yearly per capita tax burden on low-income households is $17.87 (0.21% of income) compared with $15.17 for high-income households (0.07% of income) for the valoric tax, and $13.80 (0.15%) and $10.10 (0.04%) for the volumetric tax. Thus, the tax burden is lower, and weight reduction is higher under a volumetric tax. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Levy, Douglas E; Macias-Navarro, Lorena; Rimm, Eric B; Thorndike, Anne N

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the effectiveness of financial incentives and traffic-light labels to reduce purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages in a community supermarket. In this randomized controlled trial, after a 2-month baseline period (February-March 2014), in-store traffic-light labels were posted to indicate healthy (green), less healthy (yellow) or unhealthy (red) beverages. During the subsequent five months (April-August 2014), participants in the intervention arm were eligible to earn a $US 25 in-store gift card each month they refrained from purchasing red-labelled beverages. Urban supermarket in Chelsea, MA, USA, a low-income Latino community. Participants were customers of this supermarket who had at least one child living at home. A total of 148 customers (n 77 in the intervention group and n 71 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. Outcomes were monthly in-store purchases tracked using a store loyalty card and self-reported consumption of red-labelled beverages. Compared with control participants, the proportion of intervention participants who purchased any red-labelled beverages decreased by 9 % more per month (P=0·002). More intervention than control participants reduced their consumption of red-labelled beverages (-23 % v. -2 % for consuming ≥1 red beverage/week, P=0·01). Overall, financial incentives paired with in-store traffic-light labels modestly reduced purchase and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by customers of a community supermarket.

  10. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER: Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male...... out at the University of Rochester during 2009-2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Men aged 18-22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze...... the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (≥1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1...

  11. Expected population weight and diabetes impact of the 1-peso-per-litre tax to sugar sweetened beverages in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez

    Full Text Available What effect on body mass index, obesity and diabetes can we expect from the 1-peso-per-litre tax to sugar sweetened beverages in Mexico?Using recently published estimates of the reductions in beverage purchases due to the tax, we modelled its expected long-term impacts on body mass index (BMI, obesity and diabetes. Microsimulations based on a nationally representative dataset were used to estimate the impact of the tax on BMI and obesity. A Markov population model, built upon an age-period-cohort model of diabetes incidence, was used to estimate the impact on diagnosed diabetes in Mexico. To analyse the potential of tax increases we also modelled a 2-peso-per-litre tax scenario.Ten years after the implementation of the tax, we expect an average reduction of 0.15 kg/m2 per person, which translates into a 2.54% reduction in obesity prevalence. People in the lowest level of socioeconomic status and those between 20 and 35 years of age showed the largest reductions in BMI and overweight and obesity prevalence. Simulations show that by 2030, under the current implementation of 1-peso-per-litre, the tax would prevent 86 to 134 thousand cases of diabetes. Overall, the 2-peso-per-litre scenario is expected to produce twice as much of a reduction. These estimates assume the tax effect on consumption remains stable over time. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of findings; similar results were obtained with various parameter assumptions and alternative modelling approaches.The sugar-sweetened beverages tax in Mexico is expected to produce sizable and sustained reductions in obesity and diabetes. Increasing the tax could produce larger benefits. While encouraging, estimates will need to be updated once data on direct changes in consumption becomes available.

  12. Expected population weight and diabetes impact of the 1-peso-per-litre tax to sugar sweetened beverages in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda-Tello, Rodrigo; Rodrigues, Eliane R.; Colchero-Aragonés, Arantxa; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan; Meza, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Study question What effect on body mass index, obesity and diabetes can we expect from the 1-peso-per-litre tax to sugar sweetened beverages in Mexico? Methods Using recently published estimates of the reductions in beverage purchases due to the tax, we modelled its expected long-term impacts on body mass index (BMI), obesity and diabetes. Microsimulations based on a nationally representative dataset were used to estimate the impact of the tax on BMI and obesity. A Markov population model, built upon an age-period-cohort model of diabetes incidence, was used to estimate the impact on diagnosed diabetes in Mexico. To analyse the potential of tax increases we also modelled a 2-peso-per-litre tax scenario. Study answer and limitations Ten years after the implementation of the tax, we expect an average reduction of 0.15 kg/m2 per person, which translates into a 2.54% reduction in obesity prevalence. People in the lowest level of socioeconomic status and those between 20 and 35 years of age showed the largest reductions in BMI and overweight and obesity prevalence. Simulations show that by 2030, under the current implementation of 1-peso-per-litre, the tax would prevent 86 to 134 thousand cases of diabetes. Overall, the 2-peso-per-litre scenario is expected to produce twice as much of a reduction. These estimates assume the tax effect on consumption remains stable over time. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of findings; similar results were obtained with various parameter assumptions and alternative modelling approaches. What this study adds The sugar-sweetened beverages tax in Mexico is expected to produce sizable and sustained reductions in obesity and diabetes. Increasing the tax could produce larger benefits. While encouraging, estimates will need to be updated once data on direct changes in consumption becomes available. PMID:28520716

  13. Sweetened beverages intake, hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome. The Mexico City Diabetes Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén López-Molina; Socorro Parra-Cabrera; Ruy López-Ridaura; María E González-Villalpando; Ele Ferrannini; Clicerio González-Villalpando

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine prevalence of hyperuricemia and its relation with intake of sweetened beverages (SB) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in low income urban Mexican population. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional analysis of The Mexico City Diabetes Study, a prospective population-based investigation (1 173 participants) was performed. We used logistic regression, adjusted by pertinent variables. We determined prevalence of hyperuricemia and explored associations of uric acid levels with...

  14. Changes in beverage consumption among adolescents from public schools in the first decade of the century XXI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luana Silva; Vasconcelos, Thaís Meirelles de; Veiga, Gloria Valéria da; Pereira, Rosângela Alves

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in beverage consumption among adolescents between 2003 and 2008. Two school-based cross-sectional studies were carried out with public school students (12 to 19 years-old) from Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data from three food records were used to estimate daily, weekdays and weekend average consumption (volume and percent contribution for total daily energy intake) of milk and milk-based beverages, sugar sweetened beverages, fresh squeezed fruit juices, caffeinated and alcoholic beverages. Beverage consumption age-adjusted means for weekdays and weekends were compared using linear regression (Generalized Linear Models - GLM). A total of 433 adolescents were examined in 2003, and 510 in 2008. The prevalence of overweight was 17% in 2003 and 22% in 2008 (p > 0.05). Milk was the most consumed beverage, being reported by 89% of adolescents, followed by sodas (75%). In general, in the five-year period, there was an increase in the prevalence of consumption of alcoholic drinks, guarana syrup refreshment, and processed fruit drinks, especially on weekdays. The soft drink was the largest contributor to the total energy consumption, corresponding on average to 4% of daily energy intake. The main changes in the beverage consumption among adolescents from Niterói, in the first decade of the XXI century, were the tendency to reduce the consumption of milk and the increase in the consumption of processed and alcoholic beverages.

  15. The Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Health Warning Labels on Parents' Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Wong, Diandra; Musicus, Aviva; Hammond, David

    2016-02-01

    US states have introduced bills requiring sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to display health warning labels. This study examined how such labels may influence parents and which labels are most impactful. In this study, 2381 demographically and educationally diverse parents participated in an online survey. Parents were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 conditions: (1) no warning label (control); (2) calorie label; or (3-6) 1 of 4 text versions of a warning label (eg, Safety Warning: Drinking beverages with added sugar[s] contributes to obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay). Parents chose a beverage for their child in a vending machine choice task, rated perceptions of different beverages, and indicated interest in receiving beverage coupons. Regression analyses controlling for frequency of beverage purchases were used to compare the no warning label group, calorie label group, and all warning label groups combined. Significantly fewer parents chose an SSB for their child in the warning label condition (40%) versus the no label (60%) and calorie label conditions (53%). Parents in the warning label condition also chose significantly fewer SSB coupons, believed that SSBs were less healthy for their child, and were less likely to intend to purchase SSBs. All P values parents' understanding of health harms associated with overconsumption of such beverages and may reduce parents' purchase of SSBs for their children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. METHODS: A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who partic...

  17. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake, chromosome 9p21 variants, and risk of myocardial infarction in Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Li, Yanping; Huang, Tao; Cheng, Han-Ling; Campos, Hannia; Qi, Lu

    2016-04-01

    Chromosome 9p21 variants are among the most robust genetic markers for coronary artery disease (CAD), and previous studies have suggested that genetic effects of this locus might be modified by dietary factors. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which are the main dietary source of added sugar, has been shown to interact with genetic factors in affecting CAD risk factors such as obesity. We aimed to test whether SSB intake modified the association between chromosome 9p21 variants and CAD risk in Hispanics living in Costa Rica. The current study included 1560 incident cases of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and 1751 population-based controls. Three independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the chromosome 9p21 locus were genotyped. SSB intake was assessed with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire and was defined as the frequency of intake of daily servings of sweetened beverages and fruit juice. We showed a significant interaction between SSB intake and one of the 3 variants (i.e., rs4977574) on MI risk. The per–risk allele OR (95% CI) of rs4977574 for MI was 1.44 (1.19, 1.74) in participants with higher SSB consumption (>2 servings/d), 1.21 (1.00, 1.47) in those with average consumption (1–2 servings/d), and 0.97 (0.81, 1.16) in subjects with lower consumption (intake on MI risk (P-interaction = 0.03). Our data suggest that unhealthy dietary habits such as higher intake of SSBs could exacerbate the effects of chromosome 9p21 variants on CAD.

  18. Sugar-sweetened beverages, vascular risk factors and events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amelie; Heitmann, Berit L; Olsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    or blood sugar, or CVD events such as stroke or myocardial infarction. Only intervention and longitudinal studies were included. SUBJECTS: Only studies in adults (aged 18+ years old) were considered. RESULTS: Two of four prospective studies found clear direct associations between SSB consumption and CHD......, while two of three studies, including both men and women, found direct associations between SSB consumption and stroke; however, the association was significant among women only. All included studies examining vascular risk factors found direct associations between SSB consumption and change in blood...

  19. Changes in Prices After an Excise Tax to Sweetened Sugar Beverages Was Implemented in Mexico: Evidence from Urban Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arantxa Colchero

    Full Text Available In 2014 an excise tax to non-alcoholic sweetened beverages (SSB was implemented in Mexico. The objective of this paper is to study whether and to what degree these taxes passed-through onto SSB prices in urban areas overall and by region, type of beverage and package size. Prices were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography from 2011 to 2014. We applied a pre-post quasi-experimental approach using fixed effects models. In sensitivity analysis we applied other model specifications to test the robustness of the findings and we also present weighted estimations based on household purchases. The dependent variables are real prices of a specific beverage category; the main independent variables are dummies for each month of 2014, and the models adjust for time trends and seasonality. Results suggest that the SSB tax passed along to consumers for all SSBs and we found overshifting for the carbonated SSBs. A greater effect is seen among the small package sizes, and we see heterogeneous effects by region. Estimating the effect of the tax on prices is important to understand the potential effect on consumption.

  20. Simultaneous determination of sweeteners in beverages by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Azusa; Tamura, Masayoshi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    A new method was established for the simultaneous determination of 10 sweeteners and a degradation product in beverages by using LC-MS/MS. An ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) was used as the LC column and 0.1% each of aqueous formic acid and formic acid in acetonitrile were used as the mobile phase. A simple and rapid determination of sweeteners was possible by diluting with a solvent, and in the case of some samples containing a large amount of foreign matter, after pre-treatment by diluting with solvent and clean-up of the sample using an Oasis HLB cartridge. All the validation results were satisfactory. As the regulations and standards for sweeteners vary from country to country, a field survey of 58 beverages marketed in Japan was performed using the present method. No issues concerning the labelling or food sanitation law were found in the tested samples.

  1. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk, Maria; Sparre, Anita Belza; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) has been associated with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders in observational and short-term intervention studies. Too few long-term intervention studies in humans have examined the effects of soft drinks....

  2. Association of δ13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be reflected in the δ13C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay due to its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the δ13C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake. Individuals aged ≥21 years (n=60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire [BEVQ], sequence two: four-day food intake record [FIR]). Sequence one participants completed an FIR at visit two, and non-fasting blood samples were obtained via routine finger sticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a BEVQ at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for δ13C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. δ13C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added sugar intake. Reported mean added sugar consumption was 66±5g/day, and SSB consumption was 330±53g/day and 134±25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick δ13C value was −19.94±0.10‰, which differed by BMI status. δ13C value was associated (all pintake of total added sugars (g, r=0.37; kcal, r=0.37), soft drinks (g, r=0.26; kcal, r=0.27), and total SSB (g, r=0

  3. Sugary beverage and food consumption, and leukocyte telomere length maintenance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, C W; Laraia, B A; Coleman-Phox, K; Bush, N R; Lin, J; Blackburn, E H; Adler, N E; Epel, E S

    2016-09-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been inversely associated with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in cross-sectional studies, but no studies have examined whether dietary intake influences LTL over time. This study examined longitudinal associations between sugary foods and beverages and LTL. Participants were 65 overweight and obese pregnant women, aged 18-45 years, from a mindfulness intervention study conducted from early pregnancy (⩽16 weeks gestation) and followed through 9 months postpartum. During pregnancy and postpartum, dietary intake was measured with 24-h diet recalls, and LTL was assessed using quantitative PCR. Adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics, decreased SSB consumption from baseline to 9 months postpartum was associated with greater concurrent LTL lengthening (β=-0.102, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.192, -0.013). No associations between sugary foods and LTL were found in either period. The finding that reduced SSB consumption is associated with increased LTL warrants investigation in large cohort studies.

  4. Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption and BMI in Mexican adolescents: Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Consumo de bebidas azucaradas y su relación con el IMC en adolescentes mexicanos: Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Jiménez-Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs and body mass index (BMI in Mexican adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the data of 10 689 adolescents (ages 10 to 19 years old who participated in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. Consumption of SSBs (i.e. sodas, fruit beverages and sugar beverages was evaluated by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. BMI was calculated (kg/m². RESULTS: Mean age was 13.8 ± 2.7 years. Fifty percent were females. Mean BMI was 21.7 ± 4.5. Thirty percent of adolescents were overweight or obese. Ninety percent of adolescents consumed at least one SSB during the 7 days before the interview. The median consumption of SSBs was 0.89 portion per day. Multiple-linear regression analysis showed that for each portion of sodas consumed, a 0.17-point increase in BMI was observed in boys after adjusting for confounders (95% CI; 0.02-0.32, p 0.03. Positive interactions of SSB consumption with age and time watching TV were observed in boys. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of sodas was positively associated with BMI in Mexican boys.OBJETIVO: Examinar la asociación entre el consumo de bebidas refrescantes azucaradas (BRA y el índice de masa corporal (IMC en adolescentes mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de 10 689 adolescentes (10 a 19 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. El consumo de bebidas refrescantes azucaradas (BRA: refrescos, bebidas de fruta y bebidas endulzadas se evaluó con un cuestionario semicuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos. Se calculó el índice de masa corporal (kg/m². RESULTADOS: La media de edad fue de 13.8 ± 2.7 años. El 50.4% fueron mujeres. La media de IMC fue de 21.7 ± 4.5. Un 30% de los adolescentes presentó sobrepeso u obesidad. El 90% de los adolescentes consumieron al menos una BRA en los 7 días previos a la

  5. Are sweet snacks more sensitive to price increases than sugar-sweetened beverages: analysis of British food purchase data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Cornelsen, Laura; Quirmbach, Diana; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2018-04-26

    Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is now advocated, and implemented, in many countries as a measure to reduce the purchase and consumption of sugar to tackle obesity. To date, there has been little consideration of the potential impact that such a measure could have if extended to other sweet foods, such as confectionery, cakes and biscuits that contribute more sugar to the diet than SSBs. The objective of this study is to compare changes in the demand for sweet snacks and SSBs arising from potential price increases. Secondary data on household itemised purchases of all foods and beverages from 2012 to 2013. Representative sample of 32 249 households in Great Britain. Change in food and beverage purchases due to changes in their own price and the price of other foods or beverages measured as price elasticity of demand for the full sample and by income groups. Chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits have similar price sensitivity as SSBs, across all income groups. Unlike the case of SSBs, price increases in these categories are also likely to prompt reductions in the purchase of other sweet snacks and SSBs, which magnify the overall impact. The effects of price increases are greatest in the low-income group. Policies that lead to increases in the price of chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits may lead to additional and greater health gains than similar increases in the price of SSBs through direct reductions in the purchases of these foods and possible positive multiplier effects that reduce demand for other products. Although some uncertainty remains, the associations found in this analysis are sufficiently robust to suggest that policies-and research-concerning the use of fiscal measures should consider a broader range of products than is currently the case. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  6. Averting obesity and type 2 diabetes in India through sugar-sweetened beverage taxation: an economic-epidemiologic modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Agrawal, Sutapa; Stuckler, David; Popkin, Barry; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been proposed in high-income countries to reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes. We sought to estimate the potential health effects of such a fiscal strategy in the middle-income country of India, where there is heterogeneity in SSB consumption, patterns of substitution between SSBs and other beverages after tax increases, and vast differences in chronic disease risk within the population. Using consumption and price variations data from a nationally representative survey of 100,855 Indian households, we first calculated how changes in SSB price alter per capita consumption of SSBs and substitution with other beverages. We then incorporated SSB sales trends, body mass index (BMI), and diabetes incidence data stratified by age, sex, income, and urban/rural residence into a validated microsimulation of caloric consumption, glycemic load, overweight/obesity prevalence, and type 2 diabetes incidence among Indian subpopulations facing a 20% SSB excise tax. The 20% SSB tax was anticipated to reduce overweight and obesity prevalence by 3.0% (95% CI 1.6%-5.9%) and type 2 diabetes incidence by 1.6% (95% CI 1.2%-1.9%) among various Indian subpopulations over the period 2014-2023, if SSB consumption continued to increase linearly in accordance with secular trends. However, acceleration in SSB consumption trends consistent with industry marketing models would be expected to increase the impact efficacy of taxation, averting 4.2% of prevalent overweight/obesity (95% CI 2.5-10.0%) and 2.5% (95% CI 1.0-2.8%) of incident type 2 diabetes from 2014-2023. Given current consumption and BMI distributions, our results suggest the largest relative effect would be expected among young rural men, refuting our a priori hypothesis that urban populations would be isolated beneficiaries of SSB taxation. Key limitations of this estimation approach include the assumption that consumer expenditure behavior from prior years, captured in price elasticities

  7. Averting obesity and type 2 diabetes in India through sugar-sweetened beverage taxation: an economic-epidemiologic modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Basu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs has been proposed in high-income countries to reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes. We sought to estimate the potential health effects of such a fiscal strategy in the middle-income country of India, where there is heterogeneity in SSB consumption, patterns of substitution between SSBs and other beverages after tax increases, and vast differences in chronic disease risk within the population.Using consumption and price variations data from a nationally representative survey of 100,855 Indian households, we first calculated how changes in SSB price alter per capita consumption of SSBs and substitution with other beverages. We then incorporated SSB sales trends, body mass index (BMI, and diabetes incidence data stratified by age, sex, income, and urban/rural residence into a validated microsimulation of caloric consumption, glycemic load, overweight/obesity prevalence, and type 2 diabetes incidence among Indian subpopulations facing a 20% SSB excise tax. The 20% SSB tax was anticipated to reduce overweight and obesity prevalence by 3.0% (95% CI 1.6%-5.9% and type 2 diabetes incidence by 1.6% (95% CI 1.2%-1.9% among various Indian subpopulations over the period 2014-2023, if SSB consumption continued to increase linearly in accordance with secular trends. However, acceleration in SSB consumption trends consistent with industry marketing models would be expected to increase the impact efficacy of taxation, averting 4.2% of prevalent overweight/obesity (95% CI 2.5-10.0% and 2.5% (95% CI 1.0-2.8% of incident type 2 diabetes from 2014-2023. Given current consumption and BMI distributions, our results suggest the largest relative effect would be expected among young rural men, refuting our a priori hypothesis that urban populations would be isolated beneficiaries of SSB taxation. Key limitations of this estimation approach include the assumption that consumer expenditure behavior from prior years, captured in price

  8. Relationship between insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels in US adolescents: findings from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Andrew A; Auinger, Peggy; Byrd, Robert S

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels. A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. Nationally representative samples of US adolescents participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 1999-2004. A total of 6967 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and physical activity levels. Glucose and insulin concentrations, a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, triglyceride concentrations, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) percentile for age and sex. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that increased sugar-sweetened beverage intake was independently associated with increased HOMA-IR, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index percentile for age and sex and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations; alternatively, increased physical activity levels were independently associated with decreased HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and triglyceride concentrations and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Furthermore, low sugar-sweetened beverage intake and high physical activity levels appear to modify each others' effects of decreasing HOMA-IR and triglyceride concentrations and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels are each independently associated with insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements in adolescents. Moreover, low sugar-sweetened

  9. Relationship between Research Outcomes and Risk of Bias, Study Sponsorship, and Author Financial Conflicts of Interest in Reviews of the Effects of Artificially Sweetened Beverages on Weight Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mandrioli

    Full Text Available Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has steadily increased in the last 40 years. Several reviews examining the effects of artificially sweetened beverages on weight outcomes have discrepancies in their results and conclusions.To determine whether risk of bias, results, and conclusions of reviews of effects of artificially sweetened beverage consumption on weight outcomes differ depending on review sponsorship and authors' financial conflicts of interest.We performed a systematic review of reviews of the effects of artificially sweetened beverages on weight. Two assessors independently screened articles for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We compared risk of bias, results and conclusions of reviews by different industry sponsors, authors' financial conflict of interest and journal sponsor. We also report the concordance between review results and conclusions.Artificial sweetener industry sponsored reviews were more likely to have favorable results (3/4 than non-industry sponsored reviews (1/23, RR: 17.25 (95% CI: 2.34 to 127.29, as well as favorable conclusions (4/4 vs. 15/23, RR: 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14 to 2.06. All reviews funded by competitor industries reported unfavorable conclusions (4/4. In 42% of the reviews (13/31, authors' financial conflicts of interest were not disclosed. Reviews performed by authors that had a financial conflict of interest with the food industry (disclosed in the article or not were more likely to have favorable conclusions (18/22 than reviews performed by authors without conflicts of interest (4/9, RR: 7.36 (95% CI: 1.15 to 47.22. Risk of bias was similar and high in most of the reviews.Review sponsorship and authors' financial conflicts of interest introduced bias affecting the outcomes of reviews of artificially sweetened beverage effects on weight that could not be explained by other sources of bias.

  10. Relationship between Research Outcomes and Risk of Bias, Study Sponsorship, and Author Financial Conflicts of Interest in Reviews of the Effects of Artificially Sweetened Beverages on Weight Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Cristin E; Bero, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has steadily increased in the last 40 years. Several reviews examining the effects of artificially sweetened beverages on weight outcomes have discrepancies in their results and conclusions. Objectives To determine whether risk of bias, results, and conclusions of reviews of effects of artificially sweetened beverage consumption on weight outcomes differ depending on review sponsorship and authors’ financial conflicts of interest. Methods We performed a systematic review of reviews of the effects of artificially sweetened beverages on weight. Two assessors independently screened articles for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We compared risk of bias, results and conclusions of reviews by different industry sponsors, authors’ financial conflict of interest and journal sponsor. We also report the concordance between review results and conclusions. Results Artificial sweetener industry sponsored reviews were more likely to have favorable results (3/4) than non-industry sponsored reviews (1/23), RR: 17.25 (95% CI: 2.34 to 127.29), as well as favorable conclusions (4/4 vs. 15/23), RR: 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14 to 2.06). All reviews funded by competitor industries reported unfavorable conclusions (4/4). In 42% of the reviews (13/31), authors’ financial conflicts of interest were not disclosed. Reviews performed by authors that had a financial conflict of interest with the food industry (disclosed in the article or not) were more likely to have favorable conclusions (18/22) than reviews performed by authors without conflicts of interest (4/9), RR: 7.36 (95% CI: 1.15 to 47.22). Risk of bias was similar and high in most of the reviews. Conclusions Review sponsorship and authors’ financial conflicts of interest introduced bias affecting the outcomes of reviews of artificially sweetened beverage effects on weight that could not be explained by other sources of bias. PMID:27606602

  11. Mothers' child-feeding practices are associated with children's sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Li, Ruowei; Birch, Leann

    2015-04-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is a substantial source of energy in the diet of US children. We examined the associations between mothers' child-feeding practices and SSB intake among 6-y-old children. We analyzed data from the Year 6 Follow-up of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II in 1350 US children aged 6 y. The outcome variable was child's SSB intake. The exposure variables were 4 child-feeding practices of mothers: setting limits on sweets or junk foods, regulating their child's favorite food intake to prevent overconsumption, pressuring their child to eat enough, and pressuring their child to "clean the plate." We used multinomial logistic regression and controlled for child and maternal characteristics. Analyses were stratified on child weight status. The consumption of SSBs ≥1 time/d was observed among 17.1% of underweight/normal-weight children and in 23.2% of overweight/obese children. Adjusted ORs (aORs) of consuming SSBs ≥1 time/d (vs. no SSB consumption) were significantly lower in children whose mothers reported setting limits on sweets/junk foods (aOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.58 for underweight/normal-weight children; aOR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.79 for overweight/obese children). SSB intake was higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers reported trying to keep the child from eating too much of their favorite foods (aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.25, 3.29). Mothers' tendency to pressure their children to consume more food or to "clean the plate" was not associated with child's SSB intake. SSBs were commonly consumed by young children. The odds of daily SSB intake were lower among children whose mothers set limits on sweets/junk foods regardless of child's weight but were higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers restricted the child's favorite food intake. Future studies can investigate the impact of alternatives to restrictive feeding practices that could reduce children's SSB intake. © 2015 American Society

  12. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J; Williams, P L; Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Swan, S H; Chavarro, J E

    2014-07-01

    Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried out at the University of Rochester during 2009-2010. Men aged 18-22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (≥1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1.9,17.8) percentage units lower progressive sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents, more studies are required to draw conclusions on the relation of SSB with semen quality or male infertility. Supported by the European Union Seventh Framework Program (Environment), 'Developmental Effects of Environment on Reproductive Health' (DEER) grant 212844. Grant P30 DK046200 and Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32 DK007703-16 and T32HD060454 from the National Institutes of Health. None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to declare.

  13. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luís G; Sequeira, Cédric; Veloso, Ana C A; Sousa, Mara E B C; Peres, António M

    2014-10-27

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue's capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: Radj>0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7sweetness perceptionevaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children

    OpenAIRE

    de Ruyter, Janne C.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Liem, Djin G.; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials.Methods:We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to receive 250 mL per day of an artificially sweetened sugar-free beverage or a similarly looking and tasting sugar-sweetened beverage. We measured satiety on a 5-point scale by questionnaire at 0, 6...

  15. Metabolic Effects of Replacing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages with Artificially-Sweetened Beverages in Overweight Subjects with or without Hepatic Steatosis: A Randomized Control Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Vanessa; Despland, Camille; Brandejsky, Vaclav; Kreis, Roland; Schneiter, Philippe; Boesch, Chris; Tappy, Luc

    2017-02-27

    Addition of fructose to the diet of normal weight and overweight subjects can increase postprandial plasma triglyceride and uric acid concentration. We, therefore, assessed whether replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) with artificially-sweetened beverages (ASB) in the diet of overweight and obese subjects would decrease these parameters. Twenty-six participants of the REDUCS study, which assessed the effects of replacing SSB by ASB over 12 weeks on intra-hepatocellular lipid concentration, were included in this sub-analysis. All were studied after a four-week run-in period during which they consumed their usual diet and SSBs, and after a 12-week intervention in which they were randomly assigned to replace their SSBs with ASBs (ASB arm) or to continue their usual diet and SSBs (control arm, CTRL). At the end of run-in (week 4) and again at the end of intervention (week 16), they took part in an 8.5 h metabolic investigation during which their plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, lactate, triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and uric acid concentrations were measured over a 30 min fasting period (-30-0 min), then every 2 h over 480 min. with ingestion of standard breakfast at time 0 min and a standard lunch at time 240 min. Breakfast and lunch were consumed together with a 3.3 dL SSB at week 4 and with either an ASB (ASB arm) or a SSB (CTRL arm) at week 16. After analyzing the whole group, a secondary analysis was performed on 14 subjects with hepatic steatosis (seven randomized to ASB, seven to CTRL) and 12 subjects without hepatic steatosis (six randomized to ASB and six to CTRL). Ingestion of meals increased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, lactate, and TG concentrations and decreased NEFA concentrations, but with no significant difference of integrated postprandial responses between week 4 and week 16 in both ASB and CTRL, except for a slightly decreased glucagon response in ASB. There was, however, no significant postprandial increase in

  16. Metabolic Effects of Replacing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages with Artificially-Sweetened Beverages in Overweight Subjects with or without Hepatic Steatosis: A Randomized Control Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Campos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Addition of fructose to the diet of normal weight and overweight subjects can increase postprandial plasma triglyceride and uric acid concentration. We, therefore, assessed whether replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB with artificially-sweetened beverages (ASB in the diet of overweight and obese subjects would decrease these parameters. Methods: Twenty-six participants of the REDUCS study, which assessed the effects of replacing SSB by ASB over 12 weeks on intra-hepatocellular lipid concentration, were included in this sub-analysis. All were studied after a four-week run-in period during which they consumed their usual diet and SSBs, and after a 12-week intervention in which they were randomly assigned to replace their SSBs with ASBs (ASB arm or to continue their usual diet and SSBs (control arm, CTRL. At the end of run-in (week 4 and again at the end of intervention (week 16, they took part in an 8.5 h metabolic investigation during which their plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, lactate, triglyceride (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and uric acid concentrations were measured over a 30 min fasting period (−30–0 min, then every 2 h over 480 min. with ingestion of standard breakfast at time 0 min and a standard lunch at time 240 min. Breakfast and lunch were consumed together with a 3.3 dL SSB at week 4 and with either an ASB (ASB arm or a SSB (CTRL arm at week 16. After analyzing the whole group, a secondary analysis was performed on 14 subjects with hepatic steatosis (seven randomized to ASB, seven to CTRL and 12 subjects without hepatic steatosis (six randomized to ASB and six to CTRL. Results: Ingestion of meals increased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, lactate, and TG concentrations and decreased NEFA concentrations, but with no significant difference of integrated postprandial responses between week 4 and week 16 in both ASB and CTRL, except for a slightly decreased glucagon response in ASB. There was, however, no

  17. Implications of a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax when substitutions to non-beverage items are considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Zhen, Chen; Bilger, Marcel; Nonnemaker, James; Farooqui, Assad M; Todd, Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2006 Homescan panel, we estimate the changes in energy, fat and sodium purchases resulting from a tax that increases the price of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by 20% and the effect of such a tax on body weight. In addition to substitutions that may arise with other beverages, we account for substitutions between SSBs and 12 major food categories. Our main findings are that the tax would result in a decrease in store-bought energy of 24.3kcal per day per person, which would translate into an average weight loss of 1.6 pounds during the first year and a cumulated weight loss of 2.9 pounds in the long run. We do not find evidence of substitution to sugary foods and show that complementary foods could contribute to decreasing energy purchases. Despite their significantly lower price elasticity, the tax has a similar effect on calories for the largest purchasers of SSBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The negative impact of sugar-sweetened beverages on children’s health: an update of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara N. Bleich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While sugar sweetened beverage (SSB consumption has declined in the last 15 years, consumption of SSBs is still high among children and adolescents. This research synthesis updates a prior review on this topic and examines the evidence regarding the various health impacts of SSBs on children’s health (overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, dental caries, and caffeine-related effects. We searched PubMed, CAB Abstracts and PAIS International to identify cross-sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies examining the health impacts of SSBs in children published after January 1, 2007. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles. Overall, most studies found consistent evidence for the negative impact of SSBs on children’s health, with the strongest support for overweight/obesity risk and dental caries, and emerging evidence for insulin resistance and caffeine-related effects. The majority of evidence was cross-sectional highlighting the need for more longitudinal and intervention studies to address this research question. There is substantial evidence that SSBs increase the risk of overweight/obesity and dental caries and developing evidence for the negative impact of SSBs on insulin resistance and caffeine-related effects. The vast majority of literature supports the idea that a reduction in SSB consumption would improve children’s health.

  19. Susceptibility to Food Advertisements and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in Non-Hispanic Black and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervi, Meredith M; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Dwyer, Laura A; Thai, Chan L; Moser, Richard P; Nebeling, Linda C

    2017-08-01

    Obesity among adolescents in the United States has risen by 16% in the past 30 years. One important contributing factor may be the increased consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), which is encouraged by advertisements for unhealthy foods and drinks that are targeted to adolescents. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between susceptibility to food and drink advertisements and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adolescents and to examine if BMI is associated with SSB consumption. Data were obtained from 765 NHB and NHW of ages 14-17 who were surveyed in the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. Two weighted adjusted logistic regression models were conducted. The first examined the associations of advertisement susceptibility, race, and BMI with SSB consumption. The second examined the associations of race and BMI with advertisement susceptibility. Adolescents with high advertisement susceptibility were more likely to consume at least one SSB daily (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.21, 2.47). Additionally, non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to consume at least one SSB daily (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.08, 2.85) and more likely to be highly susceptible to advertisements (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.19, 2.48) than non-Hispanic whites. No significant associations were found between BMI and advertising susceptibility or BMI and daily SSB consumption. One approach to addressing the consumption of SSBs may be to reduce advertising that markets unhealthy food and beverages to adolescents and minorities.

  20. Postpartum teens' breakfast consumption is associated with snack and beverage intake and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Schwarz, Cynthia; Budd, Elizabeth; Yount, Byron W; Lapka, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Addressing high-risk dietary patterns among postpartum teens may help reduce weight retention and prevent intergenerational obesity. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between breakfast consumption and outcomes of snack and beverage intake and body mass index (BMI) among postpartum teens. During 2007-2009, 1,330 postpartum teens across 27 states participated in a cross-sectional, baseline assessment of a group-randomized, nested cohort study. Participants were enrolled in the Parents as Teachers Teen Program and completed a 7-day recall of breakfast, snack, and beverage consumption. BMI was calculated from heights and weights obtained by on-site staff. Sample descriptives were compared across breakfast consumption frequency groupings by one-way analysis of variance tests or χ² tests. General linear models assessed relationships between breakfast consumption and measures of snack and sweetened beverage intake, water consumption, and BMI-for-age percentile. Almost half (42%) of the sample consumed breakfast fewer than 2 days per week. Those who ate breakfast 6 to 7 days/week consumed 1,197 fewer kilocalories per week from sweet and salty snacks, 1,337 fewer kilocalories per week from sweetened drinks, and had a lower BMI compared to those who ate breakfast fewer than 2 days per week (P teens is low, those who regularly consume breakfast had healthier snacking behaviors and weight. Interventions are needed to encourage breakfast consumption among teen mothers. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luís G., E-mail: ldias@ipb.pt [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Sequeira, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.b.s@hotmail.com [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Veloso, Ana C.A., E-mail: anaveloso@isec.pt [Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Sousa, Mara E.B.C., E-mail: mebsousadias@gmail.com [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Peres, António M., E-mail: peres@ipb.pt [LSRE – Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering – Associate Laboratory LSRE/LCM, Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal)

    2014-10-27

    Highlights: • Overconsumption of soft-drinks and fruit-beverages may enhance health risks. • Beverage’s healthy and sensory indexes were calculated using chromatographic data. • A potentiometric electronic tongue with multivariate linear models was applied. • E-tongue discriminated samples according to glycemic load or fructose-intolerance levels. • Healthy and sensory indexes were accurately quantified using E-tongue data. - Abstract: Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue’s capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: R{sub adj} > 0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7 < glycemic load ≤ 30; 0.4 < fructose intolerance index ≤ 1.5; 32 < sweetness perception < 155; 1.3 < total acid flavor, g L{sup −1} < 8.3; and, 5.8 < well-balanced flavor ≤ 74. So, the proposed electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage’s healthy and sensory evaluation.

  2. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Luís G.; Sequeira, Cédric; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Peres, António M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overconsumption of soft-drinks and fruit-beverages may enhance health risks. • Beverage’s healthy and sensory indexes were calculated using chromatographic data. • A potentiometric electronic tongue with multivariate linear models was applied. • E-tongue discriminated samples according to glycemic load or fructose-intolerance levels. • Healthy and sensory indexes were accurately quantified using E-tongue data. - Abstract: Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue’s capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: R adj > 0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7 < glycemic load ≤ 30; 0.4 < fructose intolerance index ≤ 1.5; 32 < sweetness perception < 155; 1.3 < total acid flavor, g L −1 < 8.3; and, 5.8 < well-balanced flavor ≤ 74. So, the proposed electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage’s healthy and sensory evaluation

  3. Changing beverage consumption patterns have resulted in fewer liquid calories in the diets of US children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesirow, Maurissa S C; Welsh, Jean A

    2015-04-01

    Beverage consumption patterns have been linked to obesity and chronic disease risk. Although the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has decreased recently, little is known about the parallel trends in intake of other beverages. To describe recent trends in consumption of all commonly consumed beverages among US children aged 2 to 19 years. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls from 18,541 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001-2010 were used to assess beverage intake, including SSBs (ie, sodas, fruit-flavored drinks, sport and energy drinks, fruit juices, coffees/teas, and other [nondairy] sugar-sweetened drinks); milks (ie, plain whole, reduced fat, and low-/nonfat, sweetened, other milks/milk-based drinks, and milk alternatives); 100% juices (ie, fruit, and vegetable/mixed without added sugar); low-/no-calorie beverages (ie, unsweetened or artificially sweetened: sodas, coffees/teas, flavored waters, diet sport/energy drinks, and other low/no-calorie drinks); alcohol-containing; and plain water (during 2005-2010 only). Weighted mean intakes (percent total energy and total ounces) and consumption prevalence were estimated. Regression models and analytical procedures that account for the complex sampling methods were used to test trends. Between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010, total daily beverage consumption (excluding water) decreased from 24.4% to 21.1% energy (32.0 to 27.9 oz). Significant decreases (Penergy), whole milk (2.7% to 1.6% energy), fruit juices with sugar added (2.3% to 2.1% energy), and fruit-flavored drinks (1.6% to 0.8% energy). Significant increases occurred for sweetened coffees/teas, energy drinks, sport drinks, and unsweetened juices though the contribution of each to total energy intake remained drink consumption also increased, rising from 0.2 to 1.3 oz/day. Changing beverage consumption patterns reflect positive trends in the form of reduced intake of SSBs, whole milk, and total calories from

  4. Associations between the consumption of carbonated beverages and periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Consumption of carbonated beverages was reported to be associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This study was performed to assess the relationship between the consumption of carbonated beverages and periodontal disease using nationally representative data. The data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2010 were used; the analysis in this study was confined to a total of 5517 respondents >19 years old who had no missing values for the consumption of carbonated beverages or outcome variables. The community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was defined as periodontal disease. The odds ratios of the percentage of individuals with periodontal treatment needs tended to increase with the consumption of carbonated beverages. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals adjusted for various factors including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, dental checkup within a year, consumption of coffee of the individuals with the consumption of carbonated beverages once or less per month, once or less per week and twice or more per week were 1.109(0.804,1.528), 1.404(1.035,1.906), and 1.466(1.059,2.029), respectively. A subgroup analysis revealed that in individuals with body mass index carbonated beverages (P for trend carbonated beverages was positively associated with the risk of periodontal disease in Korean adults. In a subgroup analysis, the individuals consuming carbonated beverages with body mass index carbonated beverages may be considered to be an independent risk indicator for periodontal disease and periodontal health of nonobese individuals may benefit from reduction of carbonated beverage consumption. PMID:27428235

  5. Feasibility and impact of placing water coolers on sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Dutch secondary school canteens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Tommy L S; van Hal, Wendy C W; Blokdijk, Lobke; Seidell, Jaap C; Renders, Carry M; Bemelmans, Wanda J E

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of placing water coolers on sugar-sweetened beverage sales at secondary schools (age 12-18 years) in the city of Zwolle, the Netherlands. METHODS: Six schools, hosting 5,866 pupils, were divided in three

  6. Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterlander, W.E.; Mhurchu, C.N.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to

  7. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

  8. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  9. A randomized trial to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage and juice intake in preschool-aged children: description of the Smart Moms intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke T. Nezami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity in young children remains a public health concern, and maternal weight is one of the strongest predictors of obesity in early childhood. However, parental adherence in interventions for young children is often low and existing programs have had mixed success. An innovative approach to treatment is needed that increases adherence among mothers and improves weight-related behaviors simultaneously in mothers and children. The objective of the Smart Moms randomized controlled trial (RCT is to test the efficacy of a 6-month primarily smartphone-delivered program to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage and juice consumption among children ages 3–5 whose mothers are overweight or obese. This paper describes the study design and intervention. Methods/Design Mother-child dyads were eligible if the mother was overweight or obese, owned a smartphone, and if the child was between the ages of 3–5 and consumed 12 oz or more per day of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs and 100 % fruit juice. Participants were randomly assigned to the Smart Moms intervention or a waitlist control group. The intervention consisted of theoretically grounded and evidence-based behavioral strategies delivered through one group session, lessons on a mobile-optimized website, and text messages. Mothers submitted self-monitoring information via text message and received regular tailored feedback emails from interventionists. The primary outcome is change in child SSB and juice consumption and a secondary outcome is change in maternal weight. Discussion This Smart Moms study was designed to determine if a low-burden intervention delivered using mobile methods and targeted towards mothers could be effective at changing child sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Results will indicate if mobile-based methods can be a feasible way to engage mothers in family-based studies and will inform successful strategies to prevent childhood obesity through parent

  10. Trends in purchases and intake of foods and beverages containing caloric and low-calorie sweeteners over the last decade in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Background Current food databases might not capture rapidly occurring changes in the food supply, such as the increased use of caloric (CS) and low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) in products. Objective We explored trends in purchases and intake of foods and beverages containing LCS, CS or both sweeteners over the last decade in the U.S., as well as household and SES predictors of these trends. Methods We analyzed household purchases from Homescan 2000–10 (n=140,352 households; 408,458 individuals); and dietary intake from NHANES 2003–10 (n=34,391 individuals). We estimated per-capita purchases and intake (g or mL/d) and percent of consumers of foods and beverages containing LCS, CS, or both LCS+CS. We estimated change in purchases associated with SES and household composition using random-effects longitudinal models. Results From 2000–10, percent of households purchasing CS products decreased, whereas for LCS and LCS+CS products increased among all types of households and particularly among those with children. African-American, Hispanic, and households with children had a higher % CS beverage purchases (+9%; +4%; +3% respectively, Pbeverage purchases (−12%; −5%; −2% respectively, P<0.001). Conclusions During a period of declining purchases and consumption of CS products, we have documented an increasing trend in products that contain LCS and a previously unexplored trend in products with both LCS and CS, especially important among households with children. PMID:23529974

  11. Evaluation of South Africa's excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Non-communicable diseases, which contribute significantly to South Africa's disease burden, are largely driven by obesity and associated illnesses. Obesity prevalence has increased by 30% over the last decade, while consumption of energy-dense, ultra-processed foods and beverages has grown substantially, with sales ...

  12. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Elwan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Methods: Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7. SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69. Results: High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Conclusion: Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska.

  13. Targeting Overconsumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages vs. Overall Poor Diet Quality for Cardiometabolic Diseases Risk Prevention: Place Your Bets!

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    Benoit J. Arsenault

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs is amongst the dietary factors most consistently found to be associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in large epidemiological studies. Intervention studies have shown that SSB overconsumption increases intra-abdominal obesity and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver, and also exacerbates cardiometabolic risk. Similar to the prevalence of obesity and T2D, national surveys of food consumption have shown that chronic overconsumption of SSBs is skyrocketing in many parts of the world, yet with marked heterogeneity across countries. SSB overconsumption is also particularly worrisome among children and adolescents. Although the relationships between SSB overconsumption and obesity, T2D, and CVD are rather consistent in epidemiological studies, it has also been shown that SSB overconsumption is part of an overall poor dietary pattern and is particularly prevalent among subgroups of the population with low socioeconomic status, thereby questioning the major focus on SSBs to target/prevent cardiometabolic diseases. Public health initiatives aimed specifically at decreasing SSB overconsumption will most likely be successful in influencing SSB consumption per se. However, comprehensive strategies targeting poor dietary patterns and aiming at improving global dietary quality are likely to have much more impact in addressing the unprecedented public health challenges that we are currently facing.

  14. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents: Policies, Taxation, and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yilin; Simoes, Eduardo J

    2018-04-18

    Obesity has grown at an alarming rate in children and adolescents. Concurrently, consumption on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) also rose significantly. This review provides an overview of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) related to SSBs and current policies restricting SSBs in schools, school-based interventions, and taxation on reducing SSB intake and obesity. We also discuss challenges of and future steps for these initiatives. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest a strong association between SSB intake and obesity and T2DM. School food policies have been initiated at federal, state, and local levels. School-based interventions have shown positive effects on SSB intake and obesity reduction. Taxation on SSBs is promising in combating obesity and in generating revenue. Challenges towards compliance and implementation of the policies and programs exist. The relationship between SSB and obesity and T2DM is a complex problem which requires comprehensive solutions. Continued efforts in restricting SSBs in schools are needed. Intervention programs should be tailored to age, gender, language, and culture and involve participation from families and local communities. Taxation can reduce SSB consumption by direct economic incentive, earmarking revenues to support healthy foods, and sending negative message. However, a higher tax rate may be necessary to have a measurable effect on weight.

  15. Public Health and Legal Arguments in Favor of a Policy to Cap the Portion Sizes of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    In 2012, the New York City Board of Health passed a regulation prohibiting the sale of sugar-sweetened beverages in containers above 16 ounces in the city's food service establishments. The beverage industry and various retailers sued the city to prevent enforcement of the law, arguing that the board had overstepped its authority. In June 2014, the state's highest court agreed and struck down the regulation. Here we report the results of a content analysis of the public testimony related to the case submitted to the New York City Department of Mental Health and Hygiene. We identified major arguments in support of and against the sugar-sweetened beverage portion limit policy. We offer legal and scientific arguments that challenge the major anti-policy arguments and contend that, although this policy was not implemented in New York City, it can be legally pursued by other legislatures.

  16. The relationship between sugar-sweetened beverages and liver enzymes among healthy premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimony, Maya K; Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ahrens, Katherine A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Rotman, Yaron; Perkins, Neil J; Pollack, Anna Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mumford, Sunni L

    2016-03-01

    To prospectively assess the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), added sugar, and total fructose and serum concentrations of liver enzymes among healthy, reproductive-age women. A prospective cohort of 259 premenopausal women (average age 27.3 ± 8.2 years; BMI 24.1 ± kg/m(2)) were followed up for up to two menstrual cycles, providing up to eight fasting blood specimens/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Women with a history of chronic disease were excluded. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) were measured in serum samples. Linear mixed models estimated associations between average SSB, added sugar, and total fructose intake and log-transformed liver enzymes adjusting for age, race, body mass index, total energy and alcohol intake, and Mediterranean diet score. For every 1 cup/day increase in SSB consumption and 10 g/day increase in added sugar and total fructose, log ALT increased by 0.079 U/L (95 % CI 0.022, 0.137), 0.012 U/L (95 % CI 0.002, 0.022), and 0.031 (0.012, 0.050), respectively, and log AST increased by 0.029 U/L (-0.011, 0.069), 0.007 U/L (0.000, 0.014), and 0.017 U/L (0.004, 0.030), respectively. Women who consumed ≥1.50 cups/day (12 oz can) SSB versus less had 0.127 U/L (95 % CI 0.001, 0.254) higher ALT [percent change 13.5 % (95 % CI 0.1, 28.9)] and 0.102 (95 % CI 0.015, 0.190) higher AST [percent change 10.8 % (95 % CI 1.5, 20.9)]. Sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with higher serum ALT and AST concentrations among healthy premenopausal women, indicating that habitual consumption of even moderate SSB may elicit hepatic lipogenesis.

  17. Consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks in pregnancy and risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Maslova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. METHODS: We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. RESULTS: At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33 times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66 and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29 registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74 during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially-sweetened

  18. Consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks in pregnancy and risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2013-01-01

    Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33) times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66) and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29) registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74) during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy may play a role in offspring

  19. Consumption of alcoholic beverages among pregnant urban Ugandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namagembe, Imelda; Jackson, Leila W; Zullo, Melissa D; Frank, Scott H; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda about consumption of traditional and commercial alcoholic beverages before and after learning of pregnancy. Predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were examined and a practical screening algorithm was developed for use in antenatal clinics. One hundred eighty women (30%) drank alcohol at least monthly before learning of their pregnancy. Among these women, almost one-third reported usual consumption of at least one beverage type at quantities that equal binging levels for women. Overall, 151 women (25%) consumed alcohol after learning of pregnancy. Commercial beverages, particularly beer, were consumed more often than traditional drinks. A two-stage screening algorithm asking women about their religion, male partner or friends' drinking, and any lifetime drinking predicted self-reported consumption of alcohol during pregnancy with 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Alcohol consumption among pregnant Ugandan women attending antenatal care is high. A feasible screening algorithm can help providers target education and counseling to women who are likely drinking during pregnancy. Given the preference for commercial alcoholic beverages, it is recommended that labels be placed prominently on bottled alcoholic beverages warning of the adverse effects of consuming alcohol during pregnancy.

  20. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF CONSUMPTION OF CARBONATED BEVERAGES: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Mufeed Siddiqui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A soft drink or a carbonated drink is a non-alcoholic drink that commonly contains water, a sweetener, carbon dioxide, acidulants, colorings, preservatives, antioxidants, and/or foaming agents, and a flavoring agent. A total of 200 adult patients of low socioeconomic status, aged 18-35 years, were selected to participate in the study. A questionnaire with 26 closed ended questions was designed for the present study which consists of questions regarding knowledge, attitude and practice of consumption of sweetened carbonated beverages. One hundred and ninety nine (99.5% of the subjects enjoyed drinking soft drinks. Out of 200 subjects only 8 (4% responded that they will stop drinking soft drinks. The present study results showed that all the target population heard about soft drinks but very few of them were aware of the ill effects on general health and on teeth. So there is a need to spread awareness among people about the adverse effects of the carbonated beverages consumption and thus there is a need to plan health education programs.

  1. Fifty years of beverages consumption trends in Spanish households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Alonso, Paula; Del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Valero Gaspar, Teresa; Ruiz Moreno, Emma; Ávila Torres, José Manuel; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-07-13

    To describe the evolution of non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages consumption in the Spanish households from the 60's to nowadays. This study is based on beverages and food consumption in Spanish households; the data sample consisted of consumption and distribution data, obtained from the Household Budget Survey (HBS) since 1964 to 1991 and from the Food Consumption Survey (FCS) since 2000 to 2014, in collaboration with the Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN). In 2014 the average consumption of non-alcoholic beverages was 332 g/person/day, whereas alcoholic beverages consumption represented 72.6 g/person/day. Consumption of non-alcoholic beverages has increased 721% (1964: 46 g/person/day; 1991: 96 g/person/day; 2000: 240 g/person/day and 2014: 332 g/person/day), whereas alcoholic beverages consumption has decreased roughly a 50% (1964: 145 g/person/day; 1991: 113 g/person/day; 2000: 78.4 g/person/day and 2014: 72.6 g/person/day). The most consumed alcoholic beverage in 2014 was beer (41.3 g/day), followed by wine (23.0 g/day). Regarding non-alcoholic beverages, the most consumed was water (144 g/day), followed by cola (ordinary: 30.7 g/day and diet: 20.5 g/day).According to Spanish regions, in 2014 non-alcoholic beverages were the most consumed in the islands (Balearic Islands 521 grams/person/day; Canary Islands 515 grams/person/day), as it was in the nineties (Balearic Islands 148 grams/person/day and Canary Islands 281 grams/person/day). However in 1980-81 the largest consumption of alcoholic beverages was that of Galicia, 408 g/person per day, and the lower in the Canary Islands, 63 g/person per day. In 2014, Murcia and Andalucía represented the regions with the highest consumption of alcoholic beverages. In 2014, alcoholic beverages provided roughly 1.89% of the total energy and 1.47% of sugars, whereas non-alcoholic beverages provided 3.28% of energy and 15.72% of sugars and, in 2000, alcoholic beverages contributed 2.29% of the energy and 1.47% of sugars

  2. Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages to Reduce Overweight and Obesity in Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhimovsky, Sharon S; Feigl, Andrea B; Avila, Carlos; O'Sullivan, Gael; Macgregor-Skinner, Elizabeth; Spranca, Mark

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which can lead to weight gain, is rising in middle-income countries (MICs). Taxing SSBs may help address this challenge. Systematic reviews focused on high-income countries indicate that taxing SSBs may reduce SSB consumption. Responsiveness to price changes may differ in MICs, where governments are considering the tax. To help inform their policy decisions, this review compiles evidence from MICs, assessing post-tax price increases (objective 1), changes in demand for SSBs and other products, overall and by socio-economic groups (objective 2), and effects on overweight and obesity prevalence (objective 3). We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of SSB taxation in MICs (1990-2016) and identified nine studies from Brazil, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Peru, and South Africa. Estimates for own-price elasticity ranged from -0.6 to -1.2, and decreases in SSB consumption ranged from 5 to 39 kilojoules per person per day given a 10% increase in SSB prices. The review found that milk is a likely substitute, and foods prepared away from home, snacks, and candy are likely complements to SSBs. A quasi-experimental study and two modeling studies also found a negative relationship between SSB prices and obesity outcomes after accounting for substitution effects. Estimates are consistent despite variation in baseline obesity prevalence and per person per day consumption of SSBs across countries studied. The review indicates that taxing SSBs will increase the prices of SSBs, especially sugary soda, in markets with few producers. Taxing SSBs will also reduce net energy intake by enough to prevent further growth in obesity prevalence, but not to reduce population weight permanently. Additional research using better survey data and stronger study designs is needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of an SSB tax on obesity prevalence in MICs.

  3. Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages to Reduce Overweight and Obesity in Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon S Nakhimovsky

    Full Text Available The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs, which can lead to weight gain, is rising in middle-income countries (MICs. Taxing SSBs may help address this challenge. Systematic reviews focused on high-income countries indicate that taxing SSBs may reduce SSB consumption. Responsiveness to price changes may differ in MICs, where governments are considering the tax. To help inform their policy decisions, this review compiles evidence from MICs, assessing post-tax price increases (objective 1, changes in demand for SSBs and other products, overall and by socio-economic groups (objective 2, and effects on overweight and obesity prevalence (objective 3.We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of SSB taxation in MICs (1990-2016 and identified nine studies from Brazil, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Peru, and South Africa. Estimates for own-price elasticity ranged from -0.6 to -1.2, and decreases in SSB consumption ranged from 5 to 39 kilojoules per person per day given a 10% increase in SSB prices. The review found that milk is a likely substitute, and foods prepared away from home, snacks, and candy are likely complements to SSBs. A quasi-experimental study and two modeling studies also found a negative relationship between SSB prices and obesity outcomes after accounting for substitution effects. Estimates are consistent despite variation in baseline obesity prevalence and per person per day consumption of SSBs across countries studied.The review indicates that taxing SSBs will increase the prices of SSBs, especially sugary soda, in markets with few producers. Taxing SSBs will also reduce net energy intake by enough to prevent further growth in obesity prevalence, but not to reduce population weight permanently. Additional research using better survey data and stronger study designs is needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of an SSB tax on obesity prevalence in MICs.

  4. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Are the Main Sources of Added Sugar Intake in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Batis, Carolina; Lutter, Chessa K; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Sugar intake has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, other noncommunicable diseases, and dental caries. The WHO recommends that free sugars should be ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Survey) 2012], which represents 3 geographic regions and urban and rural areas. Dietary information was obtained by administering a 24-h recall questionnaire to 10,096 participants. Total sugar intake was estimated by using the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) food-composition table and an established method to estimate added sugars. The mean intakes of total, intrinsic, and added sugars were 365, 127, and 238 kcal/d, respectively. Added sugars contributed 13% of TEI. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) were the main source of sugars, contributing 69% of added sugars. Food products high in saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) were the second main sources of added sugars, contributing 25% of added sugars. The average intake of added sugars in the Mexican diet is higher than WHO recommendations, which may partly explain the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Mexico. Because SSBs and HSFAS contribute >94% of total added sugars, strategies to reduce their intake should be strengthened. This includes stronger food labels to warn the consumer about the content of added sugars in foods and beverages. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Feasibility and impact of placing water coolers on sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Dutch secondary school canteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Tommy L S; van Hal, Wendy C W; Blokdijk, Lobke; Seidell, Jaap C; Renders, Carry M; Bemelmans, Wanda J E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of placing water coolers on sugar-sweetened beverage sales at secondary schools (age 12-18 years) in the city of Zwolle, the Netherlands. Six schools, hosting 5,866 pupils, were divided in three intervention and three control schools. In the intervention schools, water coolers were placed in the canteen. Hidden observations were performed in one school to study the intervention's feasibility, and school personnel was interviewed. Beverage sales were monitored before and during the intervention. After the intervention period, 366 class 1 and 2 pupils completed a questionnaire about their drinking habits (response rate 81%). Placement of water coolers appeared to be a feasible intervention at secondary schools. However, it did not affect sales of sugar-sweetened beverages at schools. Although mean intake of sugar-sweetened beverages at school was high, more than 500 ml/day for boys, and more than 250 ml/day for girls, only a minority of these quantities was purchased at school. We conclude that placing water coolers as a single-issue intervention in secondary school canteens should not be prioritized in the combat against obesity. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y.H.; Afeiche, M.C.; Gaskins, A.J.; Williams, P.L.; Mendiola, J.; Jørgensen, N.; Swan, S.H.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried out at the University of Rochester during 2009–2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Men aged 18–22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (≥1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1.9,17.8) percentage units lower progressive sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (hormones levels. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION As in all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. An additional problem is that only single semen sample was obtained from each subject. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relation between SSB intake and low semen quality beyond the contribution of caffeinated beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents, more studies are required to draw conclusions on the relation of SSB with semen quality or male infertility. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) Supported by the European Union Seventh Framework Program (Environment),

  7. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungho Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001. Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32–0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23–0.79; p for trend = 0.0113. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26–1.05; p for trend = 0.0310. These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  8. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Cho-il; Joung, Hyojee; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2016-01-08

    Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001). Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.79; p for trend = 0.0113). Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26-1.05; p for trend = 0.0310). These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  9. Sweetened Soft Drinks Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome: Cross-sectional Analysis from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Benseñor, Isabela M; Cardoso, Leticia O; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Moreira, Alexandra D; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina S; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2017-02-01

    To estimate the association between regular consumption of sweetened soft drinks, natural fruit juice, and coconut water with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study including men and women aged 35-74 years from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Study, excluding patients with type 2 diabetes. The main explanatory variables were beverage consumption and the outcome variable was metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III). After adjustments, a daily intake of 250 ml of soft drink increased the chance of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.38). There was no association between coconut water and MetS. Moderate consumption of fruit juices has low odds of MetS compared to no consumption. Our results add evidence to potential negative effects of sweetened soft drinks on cluster metabolic abnormalities in middle-income countries.

  10. Evaluation of South Africa's excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Obesity prevalence has increased by 30% over the last decade, while consumption of energy-dense, ultra-processed foods and beverages has grown substantially, with sales of ... Le nouveau site Web facilitera l'enregistrement des événements démographiques afin d'améliorer l'accès aux services pour tous. Le nouveau ...

  11. Caffeine-containing beverages, total fluid consumption, and premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, A M; Bonnlander, H

    1990-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether daily consumption of caffeine-containing beverages is related to the prevalence and severity of premenstrual syndrome apart from any effects of daily total fluid consumption. A secondary objective was to determine whether daily total fluid consumption itself is related to premenstrual syndrome. The study is based on 841 responses to a questionnaire probing menstrual and premenstrual health, and daily fluid consumption, which was mailed to female university students in Oregon. Analysis of the data revealed that consumption of caffeine-containing beverages was strongly related to the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome. Among women with more severe symptoms, the relation between consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and premenstrual syndrome was dose-dependent, with prevalence odds ratios equal to 1.3 for consumers of one cup of a caffeine-containing beverage per day and increasing steadily to 7.0 for consumers of eight to 10 cups per day. The effects were apparent among both caffeine-containing tea/coffee consumers and caffeine-containing soda consumers. The observed effects were only slightly reduced when daily total fluid consumption was controlled. Daily total fluid consumption also was related to the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms although the effects were large only for consumers of 13-19 cups of fluid per day (the largest amount studied).

  12. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitt, Sally D

    2015-08-11

    The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of "liquid" energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity.

  13. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally D. Poppitt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB. Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of “liquid” energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity.

  14. The impact of a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages according to socio-economic position: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backholer, Kathryn; Sarink, Danja; Beauchamp, Alison; Keating, Catherine; Loh, Venurs; Ball, Kylie; Martin, Jane; Peeters, Anna

    2016-12-01

    A tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been proposed to address population weight gain but the effect across socio-economic position (SEP) is unclear. The current study aimed to clarify the differential impact(s) of SSB taxes on beverage purchases and consumption, weight outcomes and the amount paid in SSB taxes according to SEP. Databases (OVID and EMBASE) and grey literature were systematically searched in June 2015 to identify studies that examined effects of an SSB price increase on beverage purchases or consumption, weight outcomes or the amount paid in tax across SEP, within high-income countries. Of the eleven included articles, three study types were identified: (i) those that examined the association between variation in SSB taxes and SSB consumption and/or body weight (n 3); (ii) price elasticity estimation of SSB demand (n 1); and (iii) modelling of hypothetical SSB taxes by combining price elasticity estimates with population SEP-specific beverage consumption, energy intake or body weight (n 7). Few studies statistically tested differences in outcomes between SEP groups. Nevertheless, of the seven studies that reported on changes in weight outcomes for the total population following an increase in SSB price, all reported either similar reductions in weight across SEP groups or greater reductions for lower compared with higher SEP groups. All studies that examined the average household amount paid in tax (n 5) reported that an SSB tax would be regressive, but with small differences between higher- and lower-income households (0·10-1·0 % and 0·03 %-0·60 % of annual household income paid in SSB tax for low- and high-income households, respectively). Based on the available evidence, a tax on SSB will deliver similar population weight benefits across socio-economic strata or greater benefits for lower SEP groups. An SSB tax is shown to be consistently financially regressive, but to a small degree.

  15. Beverage consumption pattern among undergraduates of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few admitted always drinking while with friends (7.3%) or had feeling of guilt about drinking habit (9%) while over 70% agreed to parents` or guardians` awareness of drinking habit. Conclusion: Higher percentage of the respondents consumed more of healthy beverage such as fruit juices and soft drinks than alcoholic ...

  16. Caloric Sweetener Consumption and Dyslipidemia Among US Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A.; Sharma, Andrea; Abramson, Jerome L.; Vaccarino, Viola; Gillespie, Cathleen; Vos, Miriam B.

    2011-01-01

    Context Dietary carbohydrates have been associated with dyslipidemia, a lipid profile known to increase cardiovascular disease risk. Added sugars (caloric sweeteners used as ingredients in processed or prepared foods) are an increasing and potentially modifiable component in the US diet. No known studies have examined the association between the consumption of added sugars and lipid measures. Objective To assess the association between consumption of added sugars and blood lipid levels in US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional study among US adults (n=6113) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2006. Respondents were grouped by intake of added sugars using limits specified in dietary recommendations (estimate adjusted mean lipid levels. Logistic regression was used to determine adjusted odds ratios of dyslipidemia. Interactions between added sugars and sex were evaluated. Main Outcome Measures Adjusted mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), geometric mean triglycerides, and mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and adjusted odds ratios of dyslipidemia, including low HDL-C levels (3.8). Results were weighted to be representative of the US population. Results A mean of 15.8% of consumed calories was from added sugars. Among participants consuming less than 5%, 5% to less than 17.5%, 17.5% to less than 25%, and 25% or greater of total energy as added sugars, adjusted mean HDL-C levels were, respectively, 58.7, 57.5, 53.7, 51.0, and 47.7 mg/dL (Padded sugars) the odds of low HDL-C levels were 50% to more than 300% greater compared with the reference group (added sugars). Conclusion In this study, there was a statistically significant correlation between dietary added sugars and blood lipid levels among US adults. PMID:20407058

  17. Analysis of sucralose and other sweeteners in water and beverage samples by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E Michael

    2010-06-18

    A methodology for the chromatographic separation and analysis of three of the most popular artificial sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose) in water and beverage samples was developed using liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS). The sweeteners were extracted from water samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Furthermore, several beverages were analyzed by a rapid and simple method without SPE, and the presence of the sweeteners was confirmed by accurate mass measurements below 2-ppm error. The unambiguous confirmation of the compounds was based on accurate mass measurements of the protonated molecules [M+H](+), their sodium adducts and their main fragment ions. Quantitation was carried out using matrix-matched standard calibration and linearity of response over 2 orders of magnitude was demonstrated (r>0.99). A detailed fragmentation study for sucralose was carried out by time-of-flight and a characteristic spectrum fingerprint pattern was obtained for the presence of this compound in water samples. Finally, the analysis of several wastewater, surface water and groundwater samples from the US showed that sucralose can be found in the aquatic environment at concentrations up to 2.4microg/L, thus providing a good indication of wastewater input from beverage sources. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Water and beverage consumption patterns among 4 to 13-year-old children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Maillot, Matthieu; Constant, Florence; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-05-19

    The UK government has announced a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages. The aim of this study was to assess consumption patterns for plain drinking water relative to sugary beverages among UK children. Dietary intake data for 845 children aged 4-13 years came from the nationally representative cross-sectional National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2008-2011. Beverage categories were drinking water (tap or bottled), milk, 100% fruit juices, soda, fruit drinks, tea, coffee, sports drinks, flavored waters, and liquid supplements. Consumption patterns were examined by age group, gender, household incomes, time and location of consumption, region and seasonality. Total water consumption from drinking water, beverages, and foods, and the water-to-calorie ratios (L/kcal) were compared to the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) adequate intake standards. Total water intake (1338 ml/d) came from plain water (19%), beverages (48%), and food moisture (33%). Plain drinking water provided 258 g/d (241 g/d for children aged 4-8 years; 274 g/d for 9-13 years), mostly (83.8%) from tap. Water and beverages supplied 901 g /d of water. Tap water consumption increased with income and was highest in the South of England. The consumption of bottled water, soda, tea and coffee increased with age, whereas milk consumption declined. About 88.7% of children did not meet EFSA adequate intake standards. The daily water shortfall ranged from 322 ml/d to 659 ml/d. Water-to-calorie ratio was 0.845 L/1000 kcal short of desirable levels of 1.0-1.5 L/1000 kcal. Total water intake were at 74.8% of EFSA reference values. Drinking water consumption among children in the UK was well below US and French estimates.

  19. Self-reported advertising exposure to sugar-sweetened beverages among US youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Onufrak, Stephen; Zytnick, Deena; Kingsley, Beverly; Park, Sohyun

    2015-05-01

    According to the Federal Trade Commission, in 2009, the top food category with teen-directed marketing expenditures was sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The present study reports on exposure to SSB advertisements using self-report data from adolescents. Cross-sectional study design using descriptive statistics to assess self-reported frequency of exposure to SSB advertisements and multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between frequency of SSB advertising exposure and sociodemographic variables. Online survey conducted at home. US adolescents aged 12-17 years (n 847). Among the surveyed adolescents, 42 % to 54 % reported seeing/hearing SSB advertisements ≥1 time/d. Those aged 14-15 years were more likely to report seeing/hearing soda, sports drink and energy drink advertisements ≥1 time/d than 16- to 17-year-olds. Males were more likely to report seeing/hearing sports drink advertising ≥1 time/d than females. Non-Hispanic black adolescents were more likely to report seeing/hearing fruit drink and sports drink advertisements ≥1 time/d than non-Hispanic white adolescents. Adolescents whose parents had high-school education or less were more likely to report seeing/hearing soda, fruit drink and energy drink advertisements ≥1 time/d than adolescents whose parents were college graduates. Almost half of the adolescents sampled reported daily SSB advertising exposure, with higher exposure among African Americans and adolescents with less educated parents. These data can help inform potential actions that decision makers might take, such as education of adolescents and their caregivers on the potential impact of beverage advertising, especially among groups at higher risk for obesity.

  20. Sugar-sweetened beverages coverage in the British media: an analysis of public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott-Green, Alex; Hyseni, Lirije; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-07-19

    To assess the extent of media-based public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging regarding sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). We conducted a systematic analysis to identify and examine all articles regarding SSBs published in all mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. We initially conducted a brief literature search to develop appropriate search terms and categorisations for grouping and analysing the articles. Articles were then coded according to the publishing newspaper, article type, topic, prominence and slant (pro-SSB or anti-SSB). A contextual analysis was undertaken to examine key messages in the articles. We identified 374 articles published during 2014. The majority of articles (81%) suggested that SSBs are unhealthy. Messaging from experts, campaign groups and health organisations was fairly consistent about the detrimental effects of SSB on health. However, relatively few articles assessed any approaches or solutions to potentially combat the problems associated with SSBs. Only one-quarter (24%) suggested any policy change. Meanwhile, articles concerning the food industry produced consistent messages emphasising consumer choice and individual responsibility for making choices regarding SSB consumption, and promoting and advertising their products. The food industry thus often managed to avoid association with the negative press that their products were receiving. SSBs were frequently published in mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites during 2014. Public health media advocacy was prominent throughout, with a growing consensus that sugary drinks are bad for people's health. However, the challenge for public health will be to mobilise supportive public opinion to help implement effective regulatory policies. Only then will our population's excess consumption of SSBs come under control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  1. The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, J.C.; Katan, M.B.; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Liem, D.G.; Olthof, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials.Methods:We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to

  2. Underlying Beliefs Associated With College Student Consumption of Energy Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Collins, William B

    2018-01-01

    College students are heavy consumers of energy beverages, yet further study is needed to better understand determinants of use. The purpose of this cross-sectional study ( N = 283) was to identify beliefs explaining unsafe consumption practices. A principal components analysis revealed three eigenvalues >1 explaining approximately 55% of the variance (health and appearance, performance and fatigue, and recreation and alcohol). Multiple regression analysis explained 75% of the variance for intent to consume. Standardized beta for attitude and subjective norms was p behavioral control was p Students viewed energy beverages as useful for managing health and appearance and performance and fatigue, and as a way to enhance recreation and alcohol consumption.

  3. Assessing Intake of Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents: its Relationship with Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Laura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of the study is to evaluate fluid intake during adolescence and correlate it with weight status. Material and methods. We assessed fluid intake using a validated questionnaire in a group of 106 adolescent students (22 boys - 20.8%, aged 15-19 years. Weight status was evaluated with the BMI-for-age values,using growth normograms. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of water intake between sexes (p>0.05. Water intake at least 3 times a day was declared by 72.16% of normal weight students and in 66% of overweight and obese, the difference being statistically significant (p=0.003. Boys consumed larger amounts of water (p=0.042 than girls. Intake of 100% natural fruit juice was significantly higher in boys compared to girls (p=0.002. A significantly higher percentage of normal weight adolescents consumed≤500 mL/day non-carbonated (p=0.004 and carbonated (p<0.001 sugar-sweetened beverages compared to the overweight or obese, who consumed ≥500 mL/day. Conclusions. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of fluid intake among adolescents is a mandatory step in the assessment of calorie and nutritional intake. Promoting low-calorie fluid intake in this age group, along with the principles of healthy eating, could contribute to achieving an optimal weight status.

  4. The impact on productivity of a hypothetical tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Takeshi; Cunich, Michelle; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Veerman, J Lennert

    2017-06-01

    To quantify the potential impact of an additional 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on productivity in Australia. We used a multi-state lifetable Markov model to examine the potential impact of an additional 20% tax on SSBs on total lifetime productivity in the paid and unpaid sectors of the economy. The study population consisted of Australians aged 20 years or older in 2010, whose health and other relevant outcomes were modelled over their remaining lifetime. The SSBs tax was estimated to reduce the number of people with obesity by 1.96% of the entire population (437,000 fewer persons with obesity), and reduce the number of employees with obesity by 317,000 persons. These effects translated into productivity gains in the paid sector of AU$751 million for the working-age population (95% confidence interval: AU$565 million to AU$954 million), using the human capital approach. In the unpaid sector, the potential productivity gains amounted to AU$1172 million (AU$929 million to AU$1435 million) using the replacement cost method. These productivity benefits are in addition to the health benefits of 35,000 life years gained and a reduction in healthcare costs of AU$425 million. An additional 20% tax on SSBs not only improves health outcomes and reduces healthcare costs, but provides productivity gains in both the paid and unpaid sectors of the economy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Obesogenic Environments: Access to and Advertising of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Soweto, South Africa, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Gillian; Christofides, Nicola; Norris, Shane A; Achia, Thomas; Hofman, Karen J

    2015-10-29

    Rates of obesity and overweight among South Africans are increasing. Food marketing has a profound impact on children and affects their lifelong eating patterns; in urban areas of South Africa, disposable incomes are growing and ultra-processed food is increasingly available at low cost. The combination of these factors will strain an already fragile health system. Our aim was to investigate the density of outdoor sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) advertising and the number of formal and informal vendors selling SSBs in a transforming, historically disadvantaged urban setting of South Africa. A digital camera and global positioning system navigation system were used to record the location of SSB advertisements and food vendors in a demarcated area in Soweto. Data were collected by walking or driving through each street; a food inventory was completed for every food vendor. Spatial analyses were conducted using a geographic information system. A total of 145 advertisements for SSBs were found over a driven or walked distance of 111.9 km. The density of advertisements was 3.6 per km(2) in relation to schools, and 50% of schools had branded advertising of SSBs on their school property. Most (n = 104; 58%) of the 180 vendors in the study sold SSBs. This is the first study in South Africa to document the location of billboard advertisements and vendors in relation to schools. Marketing of products that contribute to obesity is common in urban Soweto. Our findings have implications for policies that regulate SSB advertising, especially in the proximity of schools.

  6. High fructose corn syrup use in beverages: Composition, manufacturing, properties, consumption, and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been used in beverages for more than 30 years. Technology to produce it was developed in the 1960s, it was introduced to the food and beverage industry as a liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (sugar) in the 1970s, and it fully replaced sucrose in the USA in m...

  7. Taxing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Not a “Holy Grail” but a Cup at Least Half; Comment on “Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Block

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, we argue for the implementation of a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB tax as a tool to help address the global obesity and diabetes epidemics. Consumption of SSBs has increased exponentially over the last several decades, a trend that has been an important contributor to the obesity and diabetes epidemics. Prior evidence demonstrates that a SSB tax will likely decrease SSB consumption without significantly increasing consumption of other unhealthy food or beverages. Further, this tax is unlikely to have effects on income inequality and should not contribute to weight-based discrimination. A SSB tax also should raise revenue for government entities that already pay, through health care expenditures and health programs, for the consequences of excess SSB consumption.

  8. Beverage Consumption in Relation to Discretionary Food Intake and Diet Quality among US Adults, 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    A majority of Americans consume beverages and discretionary foods-foods that are typically low in nutrient value but high in sugar, sodium, fats, and cholesterol-as part of their daily diet, which profoundly impacts their energy balance and nutritional status. This study examined consumption of different types of beverages in relation to discretionary food intake and diet quality among US adults. Nationally representative sample of 22,513 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2012 waves were analyzed. The discretionary food category identifies energy-dense, nutrient-poor food products that do not necessarily provide essential nutrients that the human body needs, but can add variety. First-difference estimator addressed confounding bias from time-invariant unobservables (eg, eating habits, taste preferences) by using within-individual variations in diet and beverage consumption between 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Approximately 21.7%, 42.9%, 52.8%, 26.3%, and 22.2% of study participants consumed diet beverage, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), coffee, tea, and alcohol, respectively, and 90.1% consumed discretionary foods on any given day. Across beverage types, alcohol (384.8 kcal) and SSB (226.2 kcal) consumption was associated with the largest increase in daily total calorie intake; coffee (60.7 kcal) and diet-beverage (48.8 kcal) consumption was associated with the largest increase in daily calorie intake from discretionary foods, and SSB consumption was associated with the largest reduction in daily overall diet quality measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010. The impact of beverage consumption on daily calorie intake (overall and from discretionary foods) and diet quality differed across individual sociodemographics and body-weight status. The incremental daily calorie intake from discretionary foods associated with diet-beverage consumption was highest in obese adults, and that associated with SSB was highest in

  9. Food and beverage consumption and food addiction among women in the Nurses' Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshow, Adina R; Rimm, Eric B; Hasin, Deborah S; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Flint, Alan J; Field, Alison E; Genkinger, Jeanine M

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have not addressed a fundamental component of a food addiction disorder: the compulsive relationship between eating and potentially positively reinforcing foods. We aimed to evaluate the association between food consumption and food addiction. We conducted cross-sectional analyses merging data from the Nurses' Health Study (n = 58,625) and Nurses' Health Study II (n = 65,063), two prospective cohort studies of female nurses in the United States. Diet was assessed in 2006-2007 using a food frequency questionnaire, and food addiction was assessed in 2008-2009 using the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale. The prevalence of food addiction was 5.4%. The odds of food addiction were strongest among nurses consuming 5+ servings/week (compared with <1 serving/month) of hamburgers (multivariable odds ratio (MVOR) 4.08; 95% CI, 2.66-6.25), French fries (MVOR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.59-3.51) and pizza (MVOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.67-3.69). Consumption of red/processed meat, low/no fat snacks/desserts, and low calorie beverages was positively associated with food addiction, while consumption of refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages and fruits, vegetables, and legumes was inversely associated with food addiction. This epidemiologic study was the largest to examine food consumption and food addiction. Food addiction was positively associated with consumption of many hypothesized positively reinforcing foods that include a combination of carbohydrates and fats such as snacks, "fast foods," and candy bars. However, it was inversely or not associated with certain sweet foods, refined grains, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which is consistent with literature suggesting that carbohydrates (without other ingredients) are less associated with food addiction. Longitudinal analyses will help untangle the temporal order between food consumption and food addiction, as some relationships in our analyses were difficult to interpret due to the cross-sectional design. Copyright

  10. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Sally D. Poppitt

    2015-01-01

    The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mecha...

  11. Determinants of Non Alcoholic Beverages (NAB) Consumption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Non alcoholic beverages (NAB) consumption in Nigeria has been steadily increasing over the years to the point where nearly half of the populace are ... caffeine (Valentine, 2001). Demand for fruit juice in Nigeria has grown ... According to economic theory and observed behavior age has a negative effect on ...

  12. The Short-Term Impacts of the Philadelphia Beverage Tax on Beverage Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yichen; Auchincloss, Amy H; Lee, Brian K; Kanter, Genevieve P

    2018-04-11

    On January 1, 2017, Philadelphia implemented a beverage tax of $0.015/ounce on sugar ("regular") and sugar-substitute ("diet") beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate impact of the tax on residents' consumption of soda, fruit drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water. A repeat cross-sectional study design used data from a random-digit-dialing phone survey during a no-tax period (December 6-31, 2016) and a tax period (January 15-February 31, 2017) among 899 respondents in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and 878 respondents in three nearby comparison cities. Survey questions included frequency and volume of bottled water and beverages. Outcomes were daily consumption, and 30-day consumption frequency and volume. Propensity score-weighted difference-in-differences regression was used to control for secular time trend and confounding. Covariates were sociodemographics, BMI, health status, smoking, and alcohol use. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Within the first 2 months of tax implementation, relative to the comparison cities, in Philadelphia the odds of daily consumption of regular soda was 40% lower (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.37, 0.97); energy drink was 64% lower (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.17, 0.76); bottled water was 58% higher (OR=1.58, 95% CI=1.13, 2.20); and the 30-day regular soda consumption frequency was 38% lower (ratio of consumption frequency=0.62, 95% CI=0.40, 0.98). Early results suggest that the tax influenced daily consumption of regular soda, energy drinks, and bottled water. Future studies are needed to evaluate longer-term impact of the tax on sugared beverage consumption and substitutions. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Noncariogenic intense natural sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, A D; Kaneda, N; Baek, N I; Kennelly, E J; Soejarto, D D

    1998-09-01

    There is a definite relationship between the dietary consumption of sucrose and the incidence of dental caries. Noncaloric sucrose substitutes for use in the sweetening of foods, beverages, and medicines may be either synthetic compounds or natural products. In the United States, four potently sweet artificial sweeteners are approved, namely, saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose. Highly sweet plant constituents are used in Japan and some other countries, including the diterpene glycoside stevioside and the protein thaumatin. Recent progress in a research project oriented towards the discovery and evaluation of novel potentially noncariogenic sweeteners from plants has focused on substances in the sesquiterpenoid, diterpenoid, triterpenoid, steroidal saponin, and proanthocyanidin structural classes. The feasibility of using Mongolian gerbil electrophysiological and behavioral assays to monitor the sweetness of plant extracts, chromatographic fractions, and pure isolates has been investigated. An in vivo cariogenicity study on the commercially available natural sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A has been carried out.

  14. Glass shape influences consumption rate for alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Stothart, George; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-01-01

    High levels of alcohol consumption and increases in heavy episodic drinking (binge drinking) are a growing public concern, due to their association with increased risk of personal and societal harm. Alcohol consumption has been shown to be sensitive to factors such as price and availability. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of glass shape on the rate of consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. This was an experimental design with beverage (lager, soft drink), glass (straight, curved) and quantity (6 fl oz, 12 fl oz) as between-subjects factors. Social male and female alcohol consumers (n = 159) attended two experimental sessions, and were randomised to drink either lager or a soft drink from either a curved or straight-sided glass, and complete a computerised task identifying perceived midpoint of the two glasses (order counterbalanced). Ethical approval was granted by the Faculty of Science Research Ethics Committee at the University of Bristol. The primary outcome measures were total drinking time of an alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage, and perceptual judgement of the half-way point of a straight and curved glass. Participants were 60% slower to consume an alcoholic beverage from a straight glass compared to a curved glass. This effect was only observed for a full glass and not a half-full glass, and was not observed for a non-alcoholic beverage. Participants also misjudged the half-way point of a curved glass to a greater degree than that of a straight glass, and there was a trend towards a positive association between the degree of error and total drinking time. Glass shape appears to influence the rate of drinking of alcoholic beverages. This may represent a modifiable target for public health interventions.

  15. Sweets, sweetened beverages, and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, June M; Wang, Furong; Holly, Elizabeth A

    2009-08-01

    We examined the associations between sweets, sweetened and unsweetened beverages, and sugars and pancreatic cancer risk. We conducted a population-based case-control study (532 cases, 1,701 controls) and used multivariate logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Because associations were often different by sex, we present results for men and women combined and separately. Among men, greater intakes of total and specific sweets were associated with pancreatic cancer risk (total sweets: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.6; sweet condiments: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.1; chocolate candy: OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.0; other mixed candy bars: OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 7.3 for 1 + servings/day versus none/rarely). Sweets were not consistently associated with risk among women. Sweetened beverages were not associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. In contrast, low-calorie soft drinks were associated with increased risk among men only; while other low-/non-caloric beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, and water) were unassociated with risk. Of the three sugars assessed (lactose, fructose, and sucrose), only the milk sugar lactose was associated with pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 comparing extreme quartiles). These results provide limited support for the hypothesis that sweets or sugars increase pancreatic cancer risk.

  16. Decreasing the Burden of Type 2 Diabetes in South Africa: The Impact of Taxing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Manyema

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes poses an increasing public health burden in South Africa (SA with obesity as the main driver of the epidemic. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs is linked to weight gain and reducing SSB consumption may significantly impact the prevalence of obesity and related diseases. We estimated the effect of a 20% SSB tax on the burden of diabetes in SA.We constructed a life table-based model in Microsoft Excel (2010. Consumption data from the 2012 SA National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, previously published own- and cross-price elasticities of SSBs and energy balance equations were used to estimate changes in daily energy intake and its projected impact on BMI arising from increased SSB prices. Diabetes relative risk and prevalent years lived with disability estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study and modelled disease epidemiology estimates from a previous study were used to estimate the effect of the BMI changes on diabetes burden. Diabetes cost estimates were obtained from the South African Council for Medical Schemes. Over 20 years, a 20% SSB tax could reduce diabetes incident cases by 106 000 in women (95% uncertainty interval (UI 70 000-142 000 and by 54 000 in men (95% UI: 33 000-80 000; and prevalence in all adults by 4.0% (95% UI: 2.7%-5.3%. Cumulatively over twenty years, approximately 21 000 (95% UI: 14 000-29 000 adult T2DM-related deaths, 374 000 DALYs attributed to T2DM (95% UI: 299 000-463 000 and over ZAR10 billion T2DM healthcare costs (95% UI: ZAR6.8-14.0 billion equivalent to USD860 million (95% UI: USD570 million-USD1.2 billion may be averted.Fiscal policy on SSBs has the potential to mitigate the diabetes epidemic in South Africa and contribute to the National Department of Health goals stated in the National NCD strategic plan.

  17. Projected Impact of Mexico’s Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Policy on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Romero, Luz Maria; Penko, Joanne; Coxson, Pamela G.; Fernández, Alicia; Mason, Antoinette; Moran, Andrew E.; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Barquera, Simón; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of diabetes in Mexico are among the highest worldwide. In 2014, Mexico instituted a nationwide tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in order to reduce the high level of SSB consumption, a preventable cause of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We used an established computer simulation model of CVD and country-specific data on demographics, epidemiology, SSB consumption, and short-term changes in consumption following the SSB tax in order to project potential long-range health and economic impacts of SSB taxation in Mexico. Methods and Findings We used the Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model–Mexico, a state transition model of Mexican adults aged 35–94 y, to project the potential future effects of reduced SSB intake on diabetes incidence, CVD events, direct diabetes healthcare costs, and mortality over 10 y. Model inputs included short-term changes in SSB consumption in response to taxation (price elasticity) and data from government and market research surveys and public healthcare institutions. Two main scenarios were modeled: a 10% reduction in SSB consumption (corresponding to the reduction observed after tax implementation) and a 20% reduction in SSB consumption (possible with increases in taxation levels and/or additional measures to curb consumption). Given uncertainty about the degree to which Mexicans will replace calories from SSBs with calories from other sources, we evaluated a range of values for calorie compensation. We projected that a 10% reduction in SSB consumption with 39% calorie compensation among Mexican adults would result in about 189,300 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 155,400–218,100) fewer incident type 2 diabetes cases, 20,400 fewer incident strokes and myocardial infarctions, and 18,900 fewer deaths occurring from 2013 to 2022. This scenario predicts that the SSB tax could save Mexico 983 million international dollars (95% UI $769 million–$1,173 million). The largest relative and absolute reductions in

  18. Projected Impact of Mexico's Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Policy on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: A Modeling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria Sánchez-Romero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rates of diabetes in Mexico are among the highest worldwide. In 2014, Mexico instituted a nationwide tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs in order to reduce the high level of SSB consumption, a preventable cause of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. We used an established computer simulation model of CVD and country-specific data on demographics, epidemiology, SSB consumption, and short-term changes in consumption following the SSB tax in order to project potential long-range health and economic impacts of SSB taxation in Mexico.We used the Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-Mexico, a state transition model of Mexican adults aged 35-94 y, to project the potential future effects of reduced SSB intake on diabetes incidence, CVD events, direct diabetes healthcare costs, and mortality over 10 y. Model inputs included short-term changes in SSB consumption in response to taxation (price elasticity and data from government and market research surveys and public healthcare institutions. Two main scenarios were modeled: a 10% reduction in SSB consumption (corresponding to the reduction observed after tax implementation and a 20% reduction in SSB consumption (possible with increases in taxation levels and/or additional measures to curb consumption. Given uncertainty about the degree to which Mexicans will replace calories from SSBs with calories from other sources, we evaluated a range of values for calorie compensation. We projected that a 10% reduction in SSB consumption with 39% calorie compensation among Mexican adults would result in about 189,300 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 155,400-218,100 fewer incident type 2 diabetes cases, 20,400 fewer incident strokes and myocardial infarctions, and 18,900 fewer deaths occurring from 2013 to 2022. This scenario predicts that the SSB tax could save Mexico 983 million international dollars (95% UI $769 million-$1,173 million. The largest relative and absolute reductions in diabetes and CVD events

  19. Alcoholic beverages and carbonated soft drinks: consumption and gastrointestinal cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Rosario; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages (ABs) and carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) are widely consumed worldwide. Given the high consumption of these beverages, the scientific community has increased its focus on their health impact. There is epidemiological evidence of a causal association between AB intake and digestive cancer, but the role of alcohol in determining cancer is not fully defined. Experimental studies have so far identified multiple mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis; ethanol itself is not carcinogenic but available data suggest that acetaldehyde (AA) and reactive oxygen species-both products of ethanol metabolism-have a genotoxic effect promoting carcinogenesis. Other carcinogenetic mechanisms include nutritional deficits, changes in DNA methylation, and impaired immune surveillance. As CSDs are often suspected to cause certain gastrointestinal disorders, consequently, some researchers have hypothesized their involvement in gastrointestinal cancers. Of all the ingredients, carbon dioxide is prevalently involved in the alteration of gastrointestinal physiology by a direct mucosal effect and indirect effects mediated by the mechanical pressure determined by gas. The role of sugar or artificial sweeteners is also debated as factors involved in the carcinogenic processes. However, several surveys have failed to show any associations between CSDs and esophageal, gastric, or colon cancers. On the other hand, a slight correlation between risk of pancreatic cancer and CSD consumption has been found.

  20. Effect of increasing the price of sugar-sweetened beverages on alcoholic beverage purchases: an economic analysis of sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirmbach, Diana; Cornelsen, Laura; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa; Smith, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Taxing soft-drinks may reduce their purchase, but assessing the impact on health demands wider consideration on alternative beverage choices. Effects on alcoholic drinks are of particular concern, as many contain similar or greater amounts of sugar than soft-drinks and have additional health harms. Changes in consumption of alcoholic drinks may reinforce or negate the intended effect of price changes for soft-drinks. A partial demand model, adapted from the Almost Ideal Demand System, was applied to Kantar Worldpanel data from 31 919 households from January 2012 to December 2013, covering drink purchases for home consumption, providing ~6 million purchases aggregated into 11 groups, including three levels of soft-drink, three of other non-alcoholic drinks and five of alcoholic drinks. An increase in the price of high-sugar drinks leads to an increase in the purchase of lager, an increase in the price of medium-sugar drinks reduces purchases of alcoholic drinks, while an increase in the price of diet/low-sugar drinks increases purchases of beer, cider and wines. Overall, the effects of price rises are greatest in the low-income group. Increasing the price of soft-drinks may change purchase patterns for alcohol. Increasing the price of medium-sugar drinks has the potential to have a multiplier-effect beneficial to health through reducing alcohol purchases, with the converse for increases in the price of diet-drinks. Although the reasons for such associations cannot be explained from this analysis, requiring further study, the design of fiscal interventions should now consider these wider potential outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption among children and adolescents: effect on energy, beverage, and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Nguyen, Binh T

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators, and beverage consumption. Individual-level fixed-effects estimation based on 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Nationally representative data from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Children aged 2 to 11 years (n = 4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (n = 4699). Daily total energy intake in kilocalories; intake of grams of sugar, total fat, saturated fat, and protein and milligrams of sodium; and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages, regular soda, and milk consumed. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126.29 kcal and 160.49 kcal for children and 309.53 kcal and 267.30 kcal for adolescents and with higher intake of regular soda (73.77 g and 88.28 g for children and 163.67 g and 107.25 g for adolescents) and sugar-sweetened beverages generally. Fast-food consumption increased intake of total fat (7.03-14.36 g), saturated fat (1.99-4.64 g), and sugar (5.71-16.24 g) for both age groups and sodium (396.28 mg) and protein (7.94 g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were (1) adverse effects on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents and (2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality.

  2. The cephalic phase insulin response to nutritive and low-calorie sweeteners in solid and beverage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Jaapna; Lee, Janice Y; Mattes, Richard D

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the role of the cephalic phase insulin response (CPIR) following exposure to nutritive and low-calorie sweeteners in solid and beverage form in overweight and obese adults. In addition, the role of learning on the CPIR to nutritive and low-calorie sweetener exposure was tested. Sixty-four overweight and obese adults (age: 18-50years, BMI: 24-37kg/m 2 , body fat percentage>25% for men and >32% for women) were sham-fed (at 2-minute intervals for 14min) a randomly assigned test load comprised of a nutritive (sucrose) or low-calorie sweetener (sucralose) in beverage or solid form in phase 1 of the study. A 2-3ml blood sample was collected before and 2, 6, 10, 14, 61, 91 and 121min after oral exposure for serum insulin and glucose analysis. During phase 2, participants underwent a 2-week training period to facilitate associative learning between the sensory properties of test loads and their post-ingestive effects. In phase 3, participants were retested for their cephalic phase responses as in phase 1. Participants were classified as responders if they demonstrated a positive insulin response (rise of serum insulin above baseline i.e. Δ insulin) 2min post-stimulus in phase 1. Among responders exposed to the same sweetener in Phases 1 and 3, the proportion of participants that displayed a rise of insulin with oral exposure to sucralose was significantly greater when the stimulus was in the solid form compared to the beverage form. Sucralose and sucrose exposure elicited similarly significant increases in serum insulin 2min after exposure and significant decreases after 2min in responders in both food forms. The solid food form elicited greater CPIR over 2, 6 and 10min than the beverage form. There was no effect of learning on insulin responses after training. The results indicate the presence of a significant CPIR in a subset of individuals with overweight or obesity after oral exposure to sucralose, especially when present in

  3. Changes in sensory characteristics and their relation with consumers' liking, wanting and sensory satisfaction: Using dietary fibre and lime flavour in Stevia rebaudiana sweetened fruit beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Line H.; Andersen, Barbara Vad; Jensen, Sidsel

    2016-01-01

    The beverage industry has long revolved around sugar reduction as a response to heightened calorie and health awareness. More recently dietary fibre has also garnered attention to meet the consumer's demands for low calorie and yet more satiating food and beverages. From a health perspective...... the sweetener Stevia rebaudiana and the fibre β-glucan seem like very good solutions, as stevia is the only natural non-nutritive sweetener and β-glucans have been related to various health benefits besides increasing satiety. However, both also have distinctive perceptual effects on the sensory characteristics...... of the products they are added to. To gain knowledge on the sensory characteristics of fruit based beverages sweetened with S. rebaudiana and added β-glucans and lime flavour, and how consumers respond to the products, sensory descriptive analysis and a consumer study were conducted. The sensory characteristics...

  4. [Retrospection and reflection on international progress of sugar-sweetened beverages tax policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Zhai, Y; Zhao, W H

    2017-12-06

    Since the invention of sugar, added sugars bring us enjoyment. As consumption continues to rise, especially the advent of sugary drinks makes it easier for people to consume added sugars, less sugars and reduced sugars have also become a of concern around the world. In recent years, in WHO and several countries, tax on sugary beverages has been designed to reduce the intake of sugar and prevent the economic costs of obesity and other diseases. This paper reviews the WHO's proposal on sugary drinks tax and the progress of sugary drinks tax in Hungary, Finland, France, Mexico, the United States, South Africa and other countries and regions. The effect of policy on sugary drinks tax was analyzed and considered. Suggestion and support for the progress of China's reduced sugars was provided in the last.

  5. Food and beverage television advertising exposure and youth consumption, body mass index and adiposity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Khan, Tamkeen; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationships between exposure to food and beverage product television advertisements and consumption and obesity outcomes among youth. Individual-level data on fast-food and soft drink consumption and body mass index (BMI) for young adolescents from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort (1998-1999) and adiposity measures for children from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2004) were combined with designated market area (DMA) Nielsen media advertising ratings data. To account for unobserved individual-level and DMA-level heterogeneity, various fixed- and random-effects models were estimated. The results showed that exposure to soft drink and sugar-sweetened beverage advertisements are economically and statistically significantly associated with higher frequency of soft drink consumption among youth even after controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, with elasticity estimates ranging from 0.4 to 0.5. The association between fast-food advertising exposure and fast-food consumption disappeared once we controlled for unobservables. Exposure to cereal advertising was significantly associated with young adolescents' BMI percentile ranking but exposures to fast-food and soft drink advertisements were not. The results on adiposity outcomes revealed that children's exposure to cereal advertising was associated with both percent body and trunk fatness; fast-food advertising was significantly associated with percent trunk fatness and marginally significantly associated with percent body fatness; and, exposure to SSB advertising was marginally significantly associated with percent body and trunk fatness. The study results suggest that continued monitoring of advertising is important and policy debates regarding the regulation of youth-directed marketing are warranted.

  6. Targeted Calorie Message Promotes Healthy Beverage Consumption Better than Charity Incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policastro, Peggy; Palm, Taylor; Schwartz, Janet; Chapman, Gretchen

    2017-08-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is cited as a major contributor to the U.S. obesity epidemic. The objective of this paper was to leverage insights from behavioral economics to examine whether nudges would entice college students to save meal calories by choosing water over SSBs. Three message-based nudge interventions, with washout periods between, were used during the 7-week study. Calorie savings (self-interest), charity (prosocial), or charity-plus-calorie message posters were displayed in a college-based food franchise. Multilevel logistic regressions compared the proportions of students choosing water during three experimental conditions. This study assessed whether the frequency of dining establishment visits over the study period moderated effects of the experimental conditions on beverage choices. Multiple data points from the same customer were treated as repeated measures. A total of 2,393 unique students purchased 6,730 meals. Posters displaying calorie information increased water choice relative to washout periods, while the poster without calorie information (charity only) had no effect. Controlling for fixed effects produced the same results. The calorie message poster influenced less frequent diners more than frequent diners. Food-service operations can nudge college students to substitute water for SSBs with a simple calorie-based message to save hundreds of calories per meal. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  7. Individual and Worksite Environmental Factors Associated with Habitual Beverage Consumption among Overweight and Obese Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Comber, Dana Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The number of overweight adults has risen to two-thirds of the population, thus increases in energy intake, particularly from beverages are of great concern. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has increased by 222 calories in recent decades, which contributes a significant source of added sugars to the American diet. It has been reported that water consumers have a lower overall energy intake (~194 kcals) as compared to non-consumers of water therefore substituting water for SSBs may facil...

  8. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity Risk in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis on How Methodological Quality May Influence Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher Della Torre, Sophie; Keller, Amélie; Laure Depeyre, Jocelyne; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-04-01

    In the context of a worldwide high prevalence of childhood obesity, the role of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as a cause of excess weight gain remains controversial. Conflicting results may be due to methodological issues in original studies and in reviews. The aim of this review was to systematically analyze the methodology of studies investigating the influence of SSB consumption on risk of obesity and obesity among children and adolescents, and the studies' ability to answer this research question. A systematic review of cohort and experimental studies published until December 2013 in peer-reviewed journals was performed on Medline, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Studies investigating the influence of SSB consumption on risk of obesity and obesity among children and adolescents were included, and methodological quality to answer this question was assessed independently by two investigators using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist. Among the 32 identified studies, nine had positive quality ratings and 23 studies had at least one major methodological issue. Main methodological issues included SSB definition and inadequate measurement of exposure. Studies with positive quality ratings found an association between SSB consumption and risk of obesity or obesity (n=5) (ie, when SSB consumption increased so did obesity) or mixed results (n=4). Studies with a neutral quality rating found a positive association (n=7), mixed results (n=9), or no association (n=7). The present review shows that the majority of studies with strong methodology indicated a positive association between SSB consumption and risk of obesity or obesity, especially among overweight children. In addition, study findings highlight the need for the careful and precise measurement of the consumption of SSBs and of important confounders. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Vasanti S; Pan, An; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2013-10-01

    The relation between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body weight remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the evidence in children and adults. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through March 2013 for prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the SSB-weight relation. Separate meta-analyses were conducted in children and adults and for cohorts and RCTs by using random- and fixed-effects models. Thirty-two original articles were included in our meta-analyses: 20 in children (15 cohort studies, n = 25,745; 5 trials, n = 2772) and 12 in adults (7 cohort studies, n = 174,252; 5 trials, n = 292). In cohort studies, one daily serving increment of SSBs was associated with a 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.10) and 0.05 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.07)-unit increase in BMI in children and 0.22 kg (95% CI: 0.09, 0.34 kg) and 0.12 kg (95% CI: 0.10, 0.14 kg) weight gain in adults over 1 y in random- and fixed-effects models, respectively. RCTs in children showed reductions in BMI gain when SSBs were reduced [random and fixed effects: -0.17 (95% CI: -0.39, 0.05) and -0.12 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.2)], whereas RCTs in adults showed increases in body weight when SSBs were added (random and fixed effects: 0.85 kg; 95% CI: 0.50, 1.20 kg). Sensitivity analyses of RCTs in children showed more pronounced benefits in preventing weight gain in SSB substitution trials (compared with school-based educational programs) and among overweight children (compared with normal-weight children). Our systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and RCTs provides evidence that SSB consumption promotes weight gain in children and adults.

  10. Association between noncow milk beverage consumption and childhood height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, Marie-Elssa; Birken, Catherine S; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; L'Abbé, Mary; Lee, Grace J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2017-08-01

    Background: Cow milk consumption in childhood has been associated with increased height, which is an important measure of children's growth and development. Many parents are choosing noncow milk beverages such as soy and almond milk because of perceived health benefits. However, noncow milk contains less protein and fat than cow milk and may not have the same effect on height. Objective: We sought to determine whether there is an association between noncow milk consumption and lower height in childhood and assess whether cow milk consumption mediates the relation between noncow milk consumption and height. Design: This was a cross-sectional study of 5034 healthy Canadian children aged 24-72 mo enrolled in the Applied Research Group for Kids cohort. The primary exposure was the volume of noncow milk consumption (number of 250-mL cups per day). The primary outcome was height, which was measured as height-for-age z score. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between noncow milk consumption and height. A mediation analysis was conducted to explore whether cow milk consumption mediated the association between noncow milk consumption and height. Results: There was a dose-dependent association between higher noncow milk consumption and lower height ( P milk consumed, children were 0.4 cm (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8 cm) shorter . In the mediation analysis, lower cow milk consumption only partially mediated the association between noncow milk consumption and lower height. The height difference for a child aged 3 y consuming 3 cups noncow milk/d relative to 3 cups cow milk/d was 1.5 cm (95% CI: 0.8, 2.0 cm). Conclusions: Noncow milk consumption was associated with lower childhood height. Future research is needed to understand the causal relations between noncow milk consumption and height. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Weight loss strategies: association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Cross-sectional analysis of 24-h dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (N=9440). Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (p70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (pConsumption of discretionary calories is high regardless of body weight or weight loss intention. Promoting reduced SSB and snack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels; Kristensen, Peter; Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Lempert, Susanne Merethe; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who participated in the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study was followed for development of body fatness over 6 y. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the associations between beverage intake at baseline and change in body fatness (body mass index z score [BMIz]), waist circumference (WC), and sum of four skinfolds (Σ4SF) over 6 y with adjustment for potential confounders. Substitution models were used to evaluate various beverages as alternatives to SSBs. SSB intake at age 9 y, but not intake of other beverages, was directly associated with subsequent 6-y changes in BMIz (β = 0.05; P = 0.02) and Σ4SF (β = 0.86; P = 0.02). Daily substitution of 100 g water for 100 g SSB was inversely associated with changes in BMIz (β = -0.04; P = 0.02), WC (β =-0.29; P = 0.04), and Σ4SF (β = -0.91; P = 0.02) over 6 y. Daily substitution of 100 g milk for 100 g SSB was also inversely associated with changes in BMIz (β = -0.05; P = 0.02), WC (β = -0.33; P = 0.046), and Σ4SF (β = -0.79; P = 0.06). No effect was observed for substitution of SSB by 100% fruit juice. Our results suggest that SSB intake is associated with long-term changes in body fatness in children, and replacing SSBs with water or milk, but not 100% fruit juice, is inversely associated with body fatness development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A dose-response of consuming high fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with increased intake of added sugar across quintiles. Objective: To determine the dose response effects of consuming beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at zero, ...

  14. Effect of sugar-sweetened beverages on body weight in children: design and baseline characteristics of the Double-blind, Randomized INtervention study in Kids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, J.C.; Olthof, M.R.; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with overweight in observational studies. A possible explanation is that liquid sugars do not satiate and that their intake is not compensated by reduced caloric intake from other foods. However, evidence from intervention studies for

  15. Artificial sweeteners are not the answer to childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E

    2015-10-01

    While no single factor is responsible for the recent, dramatic increases in overweight and obesity, a scientific consensus has emerged suggesting that consumption of sugar-sweetened products, especially beverages, is casually linked to increases in risk of chronic, debilitating diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke. One approach that might be beneficial would be to replace sugar-sweetened items with products manufactured with artificial sweeteners that provide sweet tastes but with fewer calories. Unfortunately, evidence now indicates that artificial sweeteners are also associated with increased risk of the same chronic diseases linked to sugar consumption. Several biologically plausible mechanisms may explain these counterintuitive negative associations. For example, artificial sweeteners can interfere with basic learning processes that serve to anticipate the normal consequences of consuming sugars, leading to overeating, diminished release of hormones such as GLP-1, and impaired blood glucose regulation. In addition, artificial sweeteners can alter gut microbiota in rodent models and humans, which can also contribute to impaired glucose regulation. Use of artificial sweeteners may also be particularly problematic in children since exposure to hyper-sweetened foods and beverages at young ages may have effects on sweet preferences that persist into adulthood. Taken as a whole, current evidence suggests that a focus on reducing sweetener intake, whether the sweeteners are caloric or non-caloric, remains a better strategy for combating overweight and obesity than use of artificial sweeteners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. Objective: We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Design: Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Results: Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783. PMID:23364015

  17. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-03-01

    Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783.

  18. Artificial Sweeteners: A systematic review of metabolic effects in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca J.; De Banate, Mary Ann; Rother, Kristina I.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological data have demonstrated an association between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. Evidence of a causal relationship linking artificial sweetener use to weight gain and other metabolic health effects is limited. However, recent animal studies provide intriguing information that supports an active metabolic role of artificial sweeteners. This systematic review examines the current literature on artificial sweetener consumption in children and its health effects. Eighteen studies were identified. Data from large, epidemiologic studies support the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Randomized controlled trials in children are very limited, and do not clearly demonstrate either beneficial or adverse metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners. Presently, there is no strong clinical evidence for causality regarding artificial sweetener use and metabolic health effects, but it is important to examine possible contributions of these common food additives to the global rise in pediatric obesity and diabetes. PMID:20078374

  19. Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca J; de Banate, Mary Ann; Rother, Kristina I

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiological data have demonstrated an association between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. Evidence of a causal relationship linking artificial sweetener use to weight gain and other metabolic health effects is limited. However, recent animal studies provide intriguing information that supports an active metabolic role of artificial sweeteners. This systematic review examines the current literature on artificial sweetener consumption in children and its health effects. Eighteen studies were identified. Data from large, epidemiologic studies support the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Randomized controlled trials in children are very limited, and do not clearly demonstrate either beneficial or adverse metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners. Presently, there is no strong clinical evidence for causality regarding artificial sweetener use and metabolic health effects, but it is important to examine possible contributions of these common food additives to the global rise in pediatric obesity and diabetes.

  20. Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma Elzeline; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2014-07-01

    Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a price increase on SSBs on beverage and snack purchases using a randomized controlled design within a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. The trial contained two conditions: experimental condition with a 19% tax on SSBs (to reflect an increase in Dutch value added tax from 6% to 19%); and a control condition with regular prices. N = 102 participants were randomized and purchased groceries on a single occasion at a three-dimensional Virtual Supermarket. Data were analysed using independent t-tests and regression analysis. Results showed that participants in the price increase condition purchased significantly less SSBs than the control group (B = -.90; 95% CI = -1.70 to -.10 L per household per week). There were no significant effects on purchases in other beverage or snack food categories. This means that the higher VAT rate was effective in reducing SSB purchases and had no negative side-effects. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Local news media framing of obesity in the context of a sugar-sweetened beverage reduction media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Gilmore, Joelle Sano; Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This study examined local news media's framing of obesity preceding and surrounding the Philadelphia sugar-sweetened beverage reduction media campaign. Using key search terms pertaining to obesity and sugary beverages, the authors searched the LexisNexis database and gathered local news stories (n = 167) that were aired or published between October, 2010 and March, 2011. They conducted a content analysis, coding for framing-related outcome measures (underlying factors, action steps, and contextual agents). Overall, the news media employed individual-level framing in the majority of stories when discussing obesity, both before and after the campaign launch. After the campaign launched, however, stories were significantly more likely to mention systemic-level contextual agents such as food companies (P = .008), beverage companies (P = .03), and champions or advocates (P = .001). The researchers observed a shift in the local news media discourse toward more thematic framing of obesity, and suggest that public health officials consider the potential impact of news media frames on garnering public support for future policy implementations. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Water and beverage consumption patterns among 4 to 13-year-old children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Vieux

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK government has announced a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages. The aim of this study was to assess consumption patterns for plain drinking water relative to sugary beverages among UK children. Methods Dietary intake data for 845 children aged 4–13 years came from the nationally representative cross-sectional National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2008–2011. Beverage categories were drinking water (tap or bottled, milk, 100% fruit juices, soda, fruit drinks, tea, coffee, sports drinks, flavored waters, and liquid supplements. Consumption patterns were examined by age group, gender, household incomes, time and location of consumption, region and seasonality. Total water consumption from drinking water, beverages, and foods, and the water-to-calorie ratios (L/kcal were compared to the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority adequate intake standards. Results Total water intake (1338 ml/d came from plain water (19%, beverages (48%, and food moisture (33%. Plain drinking water provided 258 g/d (241 g/d for children aged 4–8 years; 274 g/d for 9–13 years, mostly (83.8% from tap. Water and beverages supplied 901 g /d of water. Tap water consumption increased with income and was highest in the South of England. The consumption of bottled water, soda, tea and coffee increased with age, whereas milk consumption declined. About 88.7% of children did not meet EFSA adequate intake standards. The daily water shortfall ranged from 322 ml/d to 659 ml/d. Water-to-calorie ratio was 0.845 L/1000 kcal short of desirable levels of 1.0–1.5 L/1000 kcal. Conclusion Total water intake were at 74.8% of EFSA reference values. Drinking water consumption among children in the UK was well below US and French estimates.

  3. Retailer-Led Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Price Increase Reduces Purchases in a Hospital Convenience Store in Melbourne, Australia: A Mixed Methods Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Miranda R; Peeters, Anna; Lancsar, Emily; Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Corben, Kirstan; Stevenson, Christopher E; Palermo, Claire; Backholer, Kathryn

    2017-09-01

    Limited evidence has been gathered on the real-world impact of sugar-sweetened beverage price changes on purchasing behavior over time or in community-retail settings. Our aim was to determine changes in beverage purchases, business outcomes, and customer and retailer satisfaction associated with a retailer-led sugar-sweetened beverage price increase in a convenience store. We hypothesized that purchases of less-healthy beverages would decrease compared to predicted sales. A convergent parallel mixed methods design complemented sales data (122 weeks pre-intervention, 17 weeks during intervention) with stakeholder interviews and customer surveys. Electronic beverage sales data were collected from a convenience store in Melbourne, Australia (August through November 2015). Convenience store staff completed semi-structured interviews (n=4) and adult customers exiting the store completed surveys (n=352). Beverages were classified using a state government framework. Prices of "red" beverages (eg, nondiet soft drinks, energy drinks) increased by 20%. Prices of "amber" (eg, diet soft drinks, small pure fruit juices) and "green" beverages (eg, water) were unchanged. Changes in beverage volume, item sales, and revenue during the intervention were compared with predicted sales. Sales data were analyzed using time series segmented regression while controlling for pre-intervention trends, autocorrelation in sales data, and seasonal fluctuations. Beverage volume sales of red (-27.6%; 95% CI -32.2 to -23.0) and amber (-26.7%; 95% CI -39.3 to -16.0) decreased, and volume of green beverages increased (+26.9%; 95% CI +14.1 to +39.7) in the 17th intervention week compared with predicted sales. Store manager and staff considered the intervention business-neutral, despite a small reduction in beverage revenue. Fifteen percent of customers noticed the price difference and 61% supported the intervention. A 20% sugar-sweetened beverage price increase was associated with a reduction

  4. Energy contribution of sugar-sweetened beverage refills at fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Cantor, Jonathan H; Elbel, Brian

    2017-09-01

    To identify demographic and consumer characteristics associated with refilling a soft drink at fast-food restaurants and the estimated energy content and volume of those refills. Logistic and linear regression with cross-sectional survey data. Data include fast-food restaurant receipts and consumer surveys collected from restaurants in New York City (all boroughs except Staten Island), and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey, during 2013 and 2014. Fast-food restaurant customers (n 11795) from ninety-eight restaurants. Thirty per cent of fast-food customers ordered a refillable soft drink. Nine per cent of fast-food customers with a refillable soft drink reported refilling their beverage (3 % of entire sample). Odds of having a beverage refill were higher among respondents with a refillable soft drink at restaurants with a self-serve refill kiosk (adjusted OR (aOR)=7·37, P<0·001) or who ate in the restaurant (aOR=4·45, P<0·001). KFC (aOR=2·18, P<0·001) and Wendy's (aOR=0·41, P<0·001) customers had higher and lower odds, respectively, of obtaining a refill, compared with Burger King customers. Respondents from New Jersey (aOR=1·47, P<0·001) also had higher odds of refilling their beverage than New York City customers. Customers who got a refill obtained on average 29 more 'beverage ounces' (858 ml) and 250 more 'beverage calories' (1046 kJ) than customers who did not get a refill. Refilling a beverage was associated with having obtained more beverage calories and beverage ounces. Environmental cues, such as the placement and availability of self-serve beverage refills, may influence consumer beverage choice.

  5. A mouse model for binge-like sucrose overconsumption: Contribution of enhanced motivation for sweetener consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasoshima, Yasunobu; Shimura, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral and neural features of binge-like sugar overconsumption have been studied using rat models. However, few mouse models are available to examine the interaction between neural and genetic underpinnings of bingeing. In the present study, we first aim to establish a simple mouse model of binge-like sucrose overconsumption using daytime limited access training in food-restricted male mice. Trained mice received 4-h limited access to both 0.5M sucrose solution and chow for 10 days. Three control groups received (1) 4-h sucrose and 20-h chow access, (2) 20-h sucrose and 4-h, or (3) 20-h chow access, respectively. Only the trained group showed progressively increased sucrose consumption during brief periods of time and developed binge-like excessive behavior. Next, we examined whether the present mouse model mimicked a human feature of binge eating known as "eating when not physically hungry." Trained mice consumed significantly more sucrose or non-caloric sweetener (saccharin) during post-training days even after they nocturnally consumed substantial chow prior to daytime sweetener access. In other trained groups, both a systemic administration of glucose and substantial chow consumption prior to the daytime limited sucrose access failed to reduce binge-like sucrose overconsumption. Our results suggest that even when caloric consumption is not necessarily required, limited access training shapes and triggers binge-like overconsumption of sweetened solution in trained mice. The binge-like behavior in trained mice may be mainly due to enhanced hedonic motivation for the sweetener's taste. The present study suggests that our mouse model for binge-like sugar overconsumption may mimic some human features of binge eating and can be used to investigate the roles of neural and genetic mechanisms in binge-like overconsumption of sweetened substances in the absence of physical hunger. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Financial conflicts of interest and reporting bias regarding the association between sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Schulze, Matthias B; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2013-12-01

    Industry sponsors' financial interests might bias the conclusions of scientific research. We examined whether financial industry funding or the disclosure of potential conflicts of interest influenced the results of published systematic reviews (SRs) conducted in the field of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and weight gain or obesity. We conducted a search of the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases to identify published SRs from the inception of the databases to August 31, 2013, on the association between SSB consumption and weight gain or obesity. SR conclusions were independently classified by two researchers into two groups: those that found a positive association and those that did not. These two reviewers were blinded with respect to the stated source of funding and the disclosure of conflicts of interest. We identified 17 SRs (with 18 conclusions). In six of the SRs a financial conflict of interest with some food industry was disclosed. Among those reviews without any reported conflict of interest, 83.3% of the conclusions (10/12) were that SSB consumption could be a potential risk factor for weight gain. In contrast, the same percentage of conclusions, 83.3% (5/6), of those SRs disclosing some financial conflict of interest with the food industry were that the scientific evidence was insufficient to support a positive association between SSB consumption and weight gain or obesity. Those reviews with conflicts of interest were five times more likely to present a conclusion of no positive association than those without them (relative risk: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.3-19.3). An important limitation of this study is the impossibility of ruling out the existence of publication bias among those studies not declaring any conflict of interest. However, the best large randomized trials also support a direct association between SSB consumption and weight gain or obesity. Financial conflicts of interest may bias conclusions from SRs on SSB consumption and weight gain

  7. Health benefits of reducing sugar-sweetened beverage intake in high risk populations of California: results from the cardiovascular disease (CVD) policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tekeshe A; Odden, Michelle C; Coxson, Pamela G; Guzman, David; Lightwood, James; Wang, Y Claire; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD). Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified. We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model - CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10-20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars. Over the next decade, a 10-20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8-3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5-1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5-0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320-620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14-27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided. A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits.

  8. Health benefits of reducing sugar-sweetened beverage intake in high risk populations of California: results from the cardiovascular disease (CVD policy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekeshe A Mekonnen

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD. Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified.We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model - CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10-20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars.Over the next decade, a 10-20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8-3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5-1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5-0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320-620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14-27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided.A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits.

  9. Weight loss strategies: Association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (N=9,440). Results Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (p 70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (p intention. Practice Implications Promoting reduced SSB and snack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. PMID:24801411

  10. The potential impact of a 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages on obesity in South African adults: a mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Manyema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity in South Africa has risen sharply, as has the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Research shows that consumption of SSBs leads to weight gain in both adults and children, and reducing SSBs will significantly impact the prevalence of obesity and its related diseases. We estimated the effect of a 20% tax on SSBs on the prevalence of and obesity among adults in South Africa. METHODS: A mathematical simulation model was constructed to estimate the effect of a 20% SSB tax on the prevalence of obesity. We used consumption data from the 2012 SA National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and a previous meta-analysis of studies on own- and cross-price elasticities of SSBs to estimate the shift in daily energy consumption expected of increased prices of SSBs, and energy balance equations to estimate shifts in body mass index. The population distribution of BMI by age and sex was modelled by fitting measured data from the SA National Income Dynamics Survey 2012 to the lognormal distribution and shifting the mean values. Uncertainty was assessed with Monte Carlo simulations. RESULTS: A 20% tax is predicted to reduce energy intake by about 36 kJ per day (95% CI: 9-68 kJ. Obesity is projected to reduce by 3.8% (95% CI: 0.6%-7.1% in men and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.4%-4.4% in women. The number of obese adults would decrease by over 220 000 (95% CI: 24 197-411 759. CONCLUSIONS: Taxing SSBs could impact the burden of obesity in South Africa particularly in young adults, as one component of a multi-faceted effort to prevent obesity.

  11. Public support for a sugar-sweetened beverage tax and pro-tax messages in a Mid-Atlantic US state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Cohen, Joanna E; Rutkow, Lainie; Villanti, Andrea C; Kanarek, Norma F; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-08-01

    To examine the characteristics of supporters and opponents of a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax and to identify pro-tax messages that resonate with the public. A survey was administered by telephone in February 2013 to assess public opinion about a penny-per-ounce tax on SSB. Support was also examined for SSB consumption reduction and pro-tax messages. Individual characteristics including sociodemographics, political affiliation, SSB consumption behaviours and beliefs were explored as predictors of support using logistic regression. A representative sample of voters was recruited from a Mid-Atlantic US state. The sample included 1000 registered voters. Findings indicate considerable support (50 %) for an SSB tax. Support was stronger among Democrats, those who believe SSB are a major cause of childhood obesity and those who believe childhood obesity warrants a societal intervention. Belief that a tax would be effective in lowering obesity rates was associated with support for the tax and pro-tax messages. Respondents reporting that a health-care provider had recommended they lose weight were less convinced by pro-tax messages. Women, Independents and those concerned about childhood obesity were more convinced by the SSB reduction messages. Overall, the most popular messages focused on the importance of reducing consumption among children without mentioning the tax. Understanding who supports and opposes SSB tax measures can assist advocates in developing strategies to maximize support for this type of intervention. Messages that focus on the effect of consumption on children may be useful in framing the discussion around SSB tax proposals.

  12. The potential impact of a 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages on obesity in South African adults: a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyema, Mercy; Veerman, Lennert J; Chola, Lumbwe; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Sartorius, Benn; Labadarios, Demetre; Hofman, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in South Africa has risen sharply, as has the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Research shows that consumption of SSBs leads to weight gain in both adults and children, and reducing SSBs will significantly impact the prevalence of obesity and its related diseases. We estimated the effect of a 20% tax on SSBs on the prevalence of and obesity among adults in South Africa. A mathematical simulation model was constructed to estimate the effect of a 20% SSB tax on the prevalence of obesity. We used consumption data from the 2012 SA National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and a previous meta-analysis of studies on own- and cross-price elasticities of SSBs to estimate the shift in daily energy consumption expected of increased prices of SSBs, and energy balance equations to estimate shifts in body mass index. The population distribution of BMI by age and sex was modelled by fitting measured data from the SA National Income Dynamics Survey 2012 to the lognormal distribution and shifting the mean values. Uncertainty was assessed with Monte Carlo simulations. A 20% tax is predicted to reduce energy intake by about 36 kJ per day (95% CI: 9-68 kJ). Obesity is projected to reduce by 3.8% (95% CI: 0.6%-7.1%) in men and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.4%-4.4%) in women. The number of obese adults would decrease by over 220 000 (95% CI: 24 197-411 759). Taxing SSBs could impact the burden of obesity in South Africa particularly in young adults, as one component of a multi-faceted effort to prevent obesity.

  13. Effects of Low-Dose Non-Caloric Sweetener Consumption on Gut Microbiota in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Uebanso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NASs provide sweet tastes to food without adding calories or glucose. NASs can be used as alternative sweeteners for controlling blood glucose levels and weight gain. Although the consumption of NASs has increased over the past decade in Japan and other countries, whether these sweeteners affect the composition of the gut microbiome is unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of sucralose or acesulfame-K ingestion (at most the maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI levels, 15 mg/kg body weight on the gut microbiome in mice. Consumption of sucralose, but not acesulfame-K, for 8 weeks reduced the relative amount of Clostridium cluster XIVa in feces. Meanwhile, sucralose and acesulfame-K did not increase food intake, body weight gain or liver weight, or fat in the epididymis or cecum. Only sucralose intake increased the concentration of hepatic cholesterol and cholic acid. Moreover, the relative concentration of butyrate and the ratio of secondary/primary bile acids in luminal metabolites increased with sucralose consumption in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that daily intake of maximum ADI levels of sucralose, but not acesulfame-K, affected the relative amount of the Clostridium cluster XIVa in fecal microbiome and cholesterol bile acid metabolism in mice.

  14. Exploring perceptions of the Mexican sugar-sweetened beverage tax among adolescents in north-west Mexico: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Avila, Ana G; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jago, Russell

    2018-02-01

    To explore awareness and perceptions of the sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax implemented in Mexico in 2014 among a sample of Mexican adolescents, and to investigate how the tax has affected their purchases and intake of SSB. Qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in April-May 2016. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Adolescents residing in north-west Mexico (n 29, 55·2 % females), aged 15-19 years. Four main themes emerged: awareness of taxation; perceptions of how the tax has affected SSB intake; reasons why the tax was not perceived to have affected SSB intake; and preferences for substitution of the taxed SSB. Participants were mostly unaware of the tax and perceived that it would not cause reductions in their intake of SSB; they felt that the price increase was low and insufficient to affect intake. Taste preferences and 'addiction' to SSB were highlighted as the main reasons why participants perceived taxation would not affect intake. If SSB prices were to increase further via a higher tax, participants would consider substituting SSB with other beverages, namely home-made drinks (e.g. 100 % fruit juices), non-caloric, instant-flavoured drinks and water. These findings provide important insights into the views of this sample of Mexican adolescents regarding the taxation of SSB, by pointing out several possible limitations of the tax policy in Mexico. These results could inform the design of future interventions directed at Mexican youth that would complement and strengthen the current SSB taxation.

  15. A comparison of fruits, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, and desserts in the packed lunches of elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Alisha R; Misyak, Sarah; Duffey, Kiyah J; Mann, Georgianna R; Davis, George C; Hosig, Kathy; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; McFerren, Mary M; Serrano, Elena L

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 40% of children bring a packed lunch to school. These lunches are not required to meet nutrition standards. The aim of this study was to compare differences in the nutritional quality of elementary packed lunches by the presence or absence of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), desserts, and fruits and vegetables (FVs). Observational data for prekindergarten and kindergarten packed lunches were collected from three schools in rural Virginia for 5 consecutive school days and analyzed for macro- and micronutrients and by the presence or absence of food and beverage items. Of the 561 packed lunch observations collected, 41.7% contained no FV, 41.2% contained an SSB, and 61.1% contained a dessert. The nutrient profile of packed lunches with at least one fruit or vegetable had significantly higher levels of carbohydrate, fiber, sugar, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Packed lunches containing an SSB had significantly higher levels of sugar and vitamin C and significantly lower levels of protein, fiber, vitamin A, calcium, and iron. Packed lunches containing a dessert had significantly higher levels of energy, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, sodium, sugar, vitamin C, and iron and significantly lower levels of vitamin A. Additional research is needed to fully understand parent and child motivations for packing lunches and the decision processes that influence the inclusion of food items. The development of packed lunch interventions, encouragement of National School Lunch Program participation, or enactment of school policies to increase the nutritional value of packed lunches is warranted.

  16. Mixing alcohol with artificially sweetened beverages: Prevalence and correlates among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamates, Amy L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-11-01

    Mixing alcohol with diet beverages, as compared to mixing the same amount of alcohol with a regular beverage, is associated with greater intoxication. This may occur because diet mixers increase alcohol absorption rates. Thus, it is plausible that the use of diet mixers may increase the risk of alcohol-related harms. The current study sought to (1) determine the rate/frequency of use in among college students, (2) examine the relationship between mixing alcohol with diet beverages and alcohol-related problems, above typical alcohol use and sensation seeking, and (3) explore key traits (gender, restricting food while drinking, and body mass index [BMI]) that may characterize users. Participants were 686 (73% female) undergraduate students who completed self-reports of alcohol use (including diet mixer use), alcohol-related problems, eating behaviors while drinking, sensation seeking, and demographic information. Results revealed that about 36% of the sample reported consuming alcohol with diet mixers, and users typically consumed this beverage at least once a month. Students who reported mixing alcohol with diet beverages experienced more alcohol-related problems. And, the more frequently one consumed this beverage, the more problems were reported. These associations were found after controlling for typical level of alcohol use and sensation seeking. No differences were observed between user-status on gender, eating behaviors while drinking, and BMI. Our findings suggest that mixing alcohol with diet beverages could be a risk factor for experiencing more alcohol-related harms. Further research is needed to understand this relationship, as it may help guide intervening efforts aimed to reduce alcohol-related risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-11-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in the US food supply is limited. This study uses full ingredient list and Nutrition Facts label data from Gladson Nutrition Database and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of caloric sweeteners (including fruit juice concentrate) and noncaloric sweeteners in consumer packaged foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005 through 2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with caloric sweetener only, 1% with noncaloric sweetener only, 6% with both caloric and noncaloric sweeteners). Caloric sweetener are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Noncaloric sweetener are in >33% of yogurts and sport/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most dietetic sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and fruit juice concentrate. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the United States in 2005-2009 contained caloric sweeteners and 3% contained noncaloric sweeteners, and 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained caloric sweetener and 15% contained noncaloric sweetener. Trends during this period suggest a shift toward the purchase of noncaloric sweetener-containing products. Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the United States by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of caloric sweetener and noncaloric sweetener and additional requirements on Nutrition Facts labels on consumer packaged foods. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in adolescents’ and parents’ intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetables after 20 months: results from the HEIA study – a comprehensive, multi-component school-based randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Bjelland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions conducted in school-aged children often involve parents, but few studies have reported effects on parents’ own behaviour as a result of these interventions. Objective: To determine if a multi-component, cluster randomized controlled trial targeting 11–13 year olds influenced their consumption of fruit, vegetables, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks, and to explore whether the results varied by gender, adolescent weight status or parental educational level. A final aim was to assess whether the parents’ intakes were affected by the intervention. Design: Participants were 1,418 adolescents, 849 mothers and 680 fathers. Baseline and post-intervention data from the 20 months intervention study HEIA (HEalth In Adolescents were included. Data were collected assessing frequency (and amounts; beverages only. Results: No significant differences were found at baseline between the intervention and control groups, except for the parental groups (educational level and intakes. At post-intervention, the adolescents in the intervention group consumed fruit more frequently (P<0.001 and had a lower intake of sugar-sweetened fruit drinks compared to the control group (P=0.02. The parental educational level moderated the effect on intake of sugar-sweetened fruit drinks in adolescents. The intake was less frequent in the intervention groups compared to the control groups (P=0.02 for those who had parents with low and medium educational level. Furthermore, the intervention may have affected mothers’ fruit intake and the vegetable intake in higher educated fathers. Conclusion: Favourable effects in favour of the intervention group were found for intake of fruit and sugar-sweetened fruit drinks among the adolescents in the HEIA study. Our results indicate that it is possible to reduce adolescents’ intake of sugar-sweetened fruit drinks across parental education, and potentially affect sub-groups of parents.

  19. Excessive consumption of fructose-containing sugars: An emerging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and processed foods has increased in the last decade in developed countries. This has been associated with the prevalence of diet-induced obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus, albeit a causal relationship has not been proven. Although sugar-sweetened beverages and foods ...

  20. Effects of Low versus High Glycemic Index Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Postprandial Vasodilatation and Inactivity-Induced Impairment of Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Keller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB may contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether functional sugars with low compared to high glycemic index (GI have beneficial effects on arterial stiffness during a period of low-physical activity. In a controlled cross-over dietary intervention (55% CHO, 30% fat, 15% protein, 13 healthy men (age: 23.7 ± 2.2 years, body mass index: 23.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2 completed 2 × 1 week of low physical activity following 1 week of normal physical activity (2363 ± 900 vs. 11,375 ± 3124 steps/day. During inactive phases participants consumed either low-GI (isomaltulose or high-GI SSB (maltodextrin-sucrose, providing 20% of energy requirements. Postprandial vasodilatation (augmentation index, AIx, insulin sensitivity (IS and Glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1 responses were measured during a meal test before and after SSB-intervention. Compared to maltodextrin-sucrose-SSB, postprandial vasodilatation was prolonged (AIx after 120 min: 9.9% ± 4.3% vs. 11.4% ± 3.7%, p < 0.05 and GLP-1 secretion was higher with isomaltulose-SSB (total area under the GLP-1 curve (tAUCGLP-1: 8.0 ± 4.4 vs. 5.4 ± 3.4 pM × 3 h; p < 0.05. One week of low-physical activity led to impaired IS that was attenuated with low-GI SSB consumption, but did not affect arterial stiffness (p > 0.05. Higher postprandial GLP-1 secretion after intake of low compared to high-GI beverages may contribute to improved postprandial vasodilatation. Although one week of low-physical activity led to marked impairment in IS, it had no effect on arterial stiffness in healthy men.

  1. Public responses to proposals for a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages: A thematic analysis of online reader comments posted on major UK news websites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Thomas-Meyer

    Full Text Available Regular consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs is associated with weight gain, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries. The UK will introduce a levy on the manufacturers of SSBs in 2018. Details will be negotiated over the next two years. How the UK public views SSB taxes is likely to be an important determinant of the content and success of the final policy. We aimed to capture the views, ideas and concerns of commenters on major UK news websites on SSB taxes.We conducted a qualitative analysis of reader comments to online news coverage of one proposal for an SSB tax in the UK. 1645 comments on four articles were included. Three underpinning themes influenced support or opposition to the tax: the balance between individual responsibility and autonomy, and population need; mistrust of the intention of the proposed tax and those promoting it; and variations in the perceived complexity of unhealthy diets and obesity associated with variations in what are considered appropriate interventions. Arguments under each theme were used to justify both support and opposition in different cases.As the final form of the UK SSB tax is negotiated, effort should be made to address the concerns we identified. Our results suggest these efforts could usefully focus on emphasising the social and environmental determinants of diet and obesity, reinforcing the benefits of the tax to the NHS, and pitching the tax as playing into a variety of different conceptualisations of obesity.

  2. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweeteners among U.S. Adults Is Associated with Higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005 Scores and More Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Drewnowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008 NHANES. A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005 and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol. LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity.

  3. Alcohol consumption, type of alcoholic beverage and risk of colorectal cancer at specific subsites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, B.W.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, we investigated associations between total alcohol consumption, specific alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) according to anatomical subsite. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated

  4. The effect of sugar-free versus sugar-sweetened beverages on satiety, liking and wanting: an 18 month randomized double-blind trial in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne C de Ruyter

    Full Text Available Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials.We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to receive 250 mL per day of an artificially sweetened sugar-free beverage or a similarly looking and tasting sugar-sweetened beverage. We measured satiety on a 5-point scale by questionnaire at 0, 6, 12 and 18 months. We calculated the change in satiety from before intake to 1 minute after intake and 15 minutes after intake. We then calculated the odds ratio that satiety increased by 1 point in the sugar-group versus the sugar-free group. We also investigated how much the children liked and wanted the beverages.146 children or 72% completed the study. We found no statistically significant difference in satiety between the sugar-free and sugar-sweetened group; the adjusted odds ratio for a 1 point increase in satiety in the sugar group versus the sugar-free group was 0.77 at 1 minute (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.29, and 1.44 at 15 minutes after intake (95% CI, 0.86 to 2.40. The sugar-group liked and wanted their beverage slightly more than the sugar-free group, adjusted odds ratio 1.63 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.54 and 1.65 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.55, respectively.Sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages produced similar satiety. Therefore when children are given sugar-free instead of sugar-containing drinks they might not make up the missing calories from other sources. This may explain our previous observation that children in the sugar-free group accumulated less body fat than those in the sugar group.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893529 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00893529.

  5. Development and evaluation of a brief screener to estimate fast food and beverage consumption among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Sweetened beverage and fast food intake have been identified as important targets for obesity prevention. However, there are few brief dietary assessment tools available to evaluate these behaviors among adolescents. The objective of this research was to examine reliability and validity of a 22-item dietary screener assessing adolescent consumption of specific caloric and non-caloric beverages (9 items) and fast food (13 items). The screener was administered to adolescents (ages 11–18 years), recruited from the Minneapolis/St. Paul metro region. One sample of adolescents completed test-retest reliability of the screener (n=33, primarily Caucasian). Another adolescent sample completed the screener along with 3 24-hour dietary recalls to assess criterion validity (n=59 Caucasian). Test-retest assessments were completed approximately 7–14 days apart, and agreement between the two administrations of the screener was substantial, with most items yielding Spearman correlations and Kappa statistics that were >0.60. When compared to the “gold standard” dietary recall data, findings indicate that the validity of the screener items assessing adolescents’ intake of regular soda, sports drinks, milk and water was fair. However, the differential assessment periods captured by the two methods (i.e., one month for the screener vs. 3 days for the recalls) posed challenges in analysis and made it impossible to assess the validity of some screener items. Overall while these screener items largely represent reliable measures with fair validity, our findings highlight the challenges inherent in the validation of brief dietary assessment tools. PMID:19328271

  6. Modelling the potential impact of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax on stroke mortality, costs and health-adjusted life years in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Manyema

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke poses a growing human and economic burden in South Africa. Excess sugar consumption, especially from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs, has been associated with increased obesity and stroke risk. Research shows that price increases for SSBs can influence consumption and modelling evidence suggests that taxing SSBs has the potential to reduce obesity and related diseases. This study estimates the potential impact of an SSB tax on stroke-related mortality, costs and health-adjusted life years in South Africa. Methods A proportional multi-state life table-based model was constructed in Microsoft Excel (2010. We used consumption data from the 2012 South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, previously published own and cross price elasticities of SSBs and energy balance equations to estimate changes in daily energy intake and BMI arising from increased SSB prices. Stroke relative risk, and prevalent years lived with disability estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study and modelled disease epidemiology estimates from a previous study, were used to estimate the effect of the BMI changes on the burden of stroke. Results Our model predicts that an SSB tax may avert approximately 72 000 deaths, 550 000 stroke-related health-adjusted life years and over ZAR5 billion, (USD400 million in health care costs over 20 years (USD296-576 million. Over 20 years, the number of incident stroke cases may be reduced by approximately 85 000 and prevalent cases by about 13 000. Conclusions Fiscal policy has the potential, as part of a multi-faceted approach, to mitigate the growing burden of stroke in South Africa and contribute to the achievement of the target set by the Department of Health to reduce relative premature mortality (less than 60 years from non-communicable diseases by the year 2020.

  7. Kelston Beverages Pilot Study: Rationale, design and implementation of a community and school based intervention to reduce sugary drink consumption among children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundborn, G; Ni Mhurchu, C; Ness, C; Latu, H; Jackson, R

    2014-03-01

    The Kelston Beverages Study was designed to increase awareness of the sugar content of sugary drinks, the poor health consequences that high intake of these drinks have, and inform on ways to reduce intake of students. The aims of this pilot study were to refine interventions and processes designed to raise awareness of the harms that sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) have on health, and to reduce their consumption among the youth of a small West Auckland suburb. There were three arms to this interventional study, one in schools, another in community organisations (churches, sports clubs and community groups), and the final arm is in the local retail sector. The school arm was the most extensive component and initially involved a survey of children's knowledge and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) using a brief questionnaire. The study evaluated any SSB policies in schools and for schools that did not have policies, opportunities were scoped to develop and implement them; a canteen AUDIT focussed particularly on beverages was carried out; and finally a student partnered social marketing exercise was undertaken that comprised 2 competitions, one to design a poster, and another to write and perform a rap. Children were re-surveyed at the completion of the intervention (7 months later) to determine change in knowledge and self-reported consumption of SSBs. Both the community organisations and retail arms of this study focussed on raising awareness into the harmful effects of SSBs and establishing healthy beverage policy in the respective organisations. Promising results with regards to acceptability, feasibility, and recruitment as well as valuable learnings with regard to process support the development of a proposal to conduct a cluster randomised trial of the interventions successfully tested in this pilot study.

  8. Consumption of Sugars, Sugary Foods and Sugary Beverages in Relation to Adiposity-Related Cancer Risk in the Framingham Offspring Cohort (1991-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Nour; Bandera, Elisa V; Lin, Yong; Jacques, Paul; Hayes, Richard B; Parekh, Niyati

    2018-04-19

    Higher sugar consumption may increase cancer risk by promoting insulin-glucose dysregulation, oxidative stress, hormonal imbalances, and excess adiposity. This prospective study investigates the association between dietary sugars(fructose and sucrose) and sugary foods and beverages in relation to combined and site-specific (breast, prostate, colorectal) adiposity-associated cancers. The analytic sample consisted of 3,184 adults, aged 26-84y, from the Framingham Offspring cohort. Diet data was first collected between 1991-1995 using a food frequency questionnaire. Intakes of fructose, sucrose, sugary foods and sugary beverages (fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverages) were derived. Participants were followed up until 2013 to ascertain cancer incidence; 565 doctor-diagnosed adiposity-related cancers, including 124 breast, 157 prostate and 68 colorectal cancers occurred. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations. Tests for interaction with BMI and waist circumference were conducted. No associations were observed between fructose, sucrose, sugary food consumption and combined incidence of adiposity-related cancers or the examined site-specific cancers. While total consumption of sugary beverages was not associated with site-specific cancer risk, higher intakes of fruit juice were associated with 58% increased prostate cancer risk(HR:1.58;95%CI:1.04-2.41) in multivariable-adjusted models. In exploratory stratified analyses, higher sugary beverage intakes increased overall adiposity-related cancer risk by 59% in participants with excessive central adiposity(HR:1.59;95%CI:1.01-2.50)(p-trend=0.057). In this cohort of American adults, higher sugary beverage consumption was associated with increased cancer risk among participants with central adiposity. These analyses suggest that avoiding sugary beverages represents a simple dietary modification that may be used as an effective cancer control strategy. Copyright ©2018

  9. No differential effect of beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, or glucose on systemic or adipose tissue inflammation in normal-weight to obese adults: a randomized controlled trial1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Gail; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Weigle, David S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease. Objective: We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight. Secondary endpoints included adipose tissue inflammation, intestinal permeability, and plasma fetuin-A as potential mechanistic links between fructose intake and low-grade inflammation. Design: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover design dietary intervention (the Diet and Systemic Inflammation Study) in 24 normal-weight to obese adults without fructose malabsorption. Participants drank 4 servings/d of fructose-, glucose-, or HFCS-sweetened beverages accounting for 25% of estimated calorie requirements while consuming a standardized diet ad libitum for three 8-d periods. Results: Subjects consumed 116% of their estimated calorie requirement while drinking the beverages with no difference in total energy intake or body weight between groups as reported previously. Fasting plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 did not differ significantly at the end of the 3 diet periods. We did not detect a consistent differential effect of the diets on measures of adipose tissue inflammation except for adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue (P = 0.005), which was lowest after the glucose phase. We also did not detect consistent evidence of a differential impact of these sugars on measures of intestinal permeability (lactulose:mannitol test, plasma zonulin, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). Conclusion: Excessive

  10. Adolescent consumption of sports and energy drinks: linkages to higher physical activity, unhealthy beverage patterns, cigarette smoking, and screen media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Dewolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Data were drawn from Eating and Activity in Teens, a population-based study. Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN completed classroom-administered surveys. A total of 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6-12. Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only after vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption, to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Local food environments are associated with girls' energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Galvez, Maida P; Yen, Irene H; Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S

    2014-10-01

    To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes. Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets. Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004-2006. Girls aged 6-8 years (n 1010). Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P snack foods/sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets>1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets>3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use. Girls' frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets.

  12. Determination of artificial sweeteners in beverages with green mobile phases and high temperature liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

    2015-02-15

    A new analytical procedure involving the use of water and a low percentage of ethanol combined to high temperature liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in a variety of drink samples. The method permitted the analysis in 23min (including column reequilibration) and consuming only 0.85mL of a green organic solvent (ethanol). This methodology provided limits of detection (after 50-fold dilution) in the 0.05-10mg/L range, with recoveries (obtained from five different types of beverages) being in the 86-110% range and relative standard deviation values lower than 12%. Finally, the method was applied to 25 different samples purchased in Spain, where acesulfame and sucralose were the most frequently detected analytes (>50% of the samples) and cyclamate was found over the legislation limit set by the European Union in a sample and at the regulation boundary in three others. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementation of Media Production Activities in an Intervention Designed to Reduce Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathleen J; Chen, Yvonnes; Lane, Hannah G; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2018-02-01

    To inform the implementation of media production activities with adult populations by describing the construction of counter-advertisements (counter-ads) within a behavioral intervention. SIPsmartER participants could create 2 types of counter ads during the intervention's media literacy lesson. Participants (n = 40) were from rural southwestern Virginia. Most were female (85%) and white (93%), and 28% were low health literate. Descriptive statistics and Fisher exact tests were used to compare completion rates, content, techniques used, and persuasive intent with counter ad type and health literacy status. Each participant produced 2.1 (SD, 0.8) counter-ads. Ads included health risks (64%) and nutrition facts (16%). The majority used persuasive techniques (72%) and were persuasive for drinking fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (72%). There were differences by type but not health literacy status. Findings suggested that counter-ads can be used in behavioral interventions for adults. Guidance is provided to support their implementation. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. News Media Framing of New York City’s Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Portion-Size Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E.; Truant, Patricia L.; Rutkow, Lainie; Kanarek, Norma F.; Barry, Colleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed news media framing of New York City’s proposed regulation to prohibit the sale of sugar-sweetened beverages greater than 16 ounces. Methods. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of print and television news from within and outside New York City media markets. We examined support for and opposition to the portion-size cap in the news coverage from its May 31, 2012, proposal through the appellate court ruling on July 31, 2013. Results. News coverage corresponded to key events in the policy’s evolution. Although most stories mentioned obesity as a problem, a larger proportion used opposing frames (84%) than pro-policy frames (36%). Mention of pro-policy frames shifted toward the policy’s effect on special populations. The debate’s most prominent frame was the opposing frame that the policy was beyond the government’s role (69%). Conclusions. News coverage within and outside the New York City media market was more likely to mention arguments in opposition to than in support of the portion-size cap. Understanding how the news media framed this issue provides important insights for advocates interested in advancing similar measures in other jurisdictions. PMID:26378853

  15. Legal and Administrative Feasibility of a Federal Junk Food and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax to Improve Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Wilde, Parke; Huang, Yue; Micha, Renata; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate legal and administrative feasibility of a federal "junk" food (including sugar-sweetened beverages [SSBs]) tax to improve diet. To assess food definitions and administration models, we systematically searched (1) PubMed (through May 15, 2017) for articles defining foods subject to taxes, and legal and legislative databases as well as online for (2) US federal, state, and tribal junk food tax bills and laws (January 1, 2012-February 28, 2017); SSB taxes (January 1, 2014-February 28, 2017); and international junk food tax laws (as of February 28, 2017); and (3) federal taxing mechanisms and administrative methods (as of February 28, 2017). Articles recommend taxing foods by product category, broad nutrient criteria, specific nutrients or calories, or a combination. US junk food tax bills (n = 6) and laws (n = 3), international junk food laws (n = 2), and US SSB taxes (n = 10) support taxing foods using category-based (n = 8), nutrient-based (n = 1), or combination (n = 12) approaches. Federal taxing mechanisms (particularly manufacturer excise taxes on alcohol) and administrative methods provide informative models. From legal and administrative perspectives, a federal junk food tax appears feasible based on product categories or combination category-plus-nutrient approaches, using a manufacturer excise tax, with additional support for sugar and graduated tax strategies.

  16. Gender Differences in the relationship between carbonated sugar-sweetened beverage intake and the likelihood of hypertension according to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong Ji; Paek, Yu Jin; Choi, Min Kyu; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between hypertension and carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) intake according to gender and obesity. The study used data from 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. A total of 9869 subjects (men = 3845 and women = 6024) were included. SSB intakes were calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for hypertension were assessed using survey logistic regression and multivariable adjusted models. A total of 14.5 % of individuals were classified as having hypertension. The likelihood of hypertension in the third, fourth and fifth quintiles for SSB intake increased to OR 1.00, 1.20 and 1.42 respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors. Compared to the participants in the lowest tertile for SSB intake, participants in the third tertile showed an increased likelihood of hypertension with ORs (CI) of 2.00 (1.21-3.31) and 1.75 (1.23-2.49) for obese women and non-obese men, respectively. The present study showed gender differences in the relationship between carbonated SSB intake and the hypertension according to obesity.

  17. Cola beverage consumption induces bone mineralization reduction in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Contreras, F; Paniagua, R; Avila-Díaz, M; Cabrera-Muñoz, L; Martínez-Muñiz, I; Foyo-Niembro, E; Amato, D

    2000-01-01

    A significant association of cola beverage consumption and increased risk of bone fractures has been recently reported. The present study was carried out to examine the relationship of cola soft drink intake and bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats. Study 1. Four groups of 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Animals from groups II, III, and IV were bilaterally ovariectomized. Animals from groups I and II received tap water for drinking, while animals from groups III and IV each drank a different commercial brand of cola soft drink. After 2 months on these diets, the following were measured: solid diet and liquid consumption; bone mineral density; calcium in bone ashes; femoral cortex width; calcium; phosphate; albumin; creatinine; alkaline phosphatase; 25-OH hydroxyvitamin D, and PTH. Study 2. Two groups of seven ovariectomized rats were compared. Group A animals received the same management as the group III animals from study 1 (cola soft drink and rat chow ad libitum), while rats from group B received tap water for drinking and pair-feeding. After 2 months plasmatic ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, albumin, calcium in femoral ashes, and femoral cortex width were measured. Study 1. Rats consuming cola beverages (groups III and IV) had a threefold higher liquid intake than rats consuming water (groups I and II). Daily solid food intake of rats consuming cola soft drinks was one-half that of rats consuming water. Rats consuming soft drinks developed hypocalcemia and their femoral mineral density measured by DEXA was significantly lower than control animals as follows: group I, 0.20 +/- 0.02; group II, 0.18 +/- 0.01; group III, 0.16 +/- 0.01, and group IV, 0.16 +/- 0.01 g/cm(2). Study 2. To rule out the possibility that these calcium and bone mineral disorders were caused by decreased solid food intake, a pair-fed group was studied. Despite a lower body weight, pair-fed animals consuming tap water did not develop bone mineral reduction or

  18. Sugar-sweetened product consumption alters glucose homeostasis compared with dairy product consumption in men and women at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Nieman, Kristin M; Schild, Arianne L; Kaden, Valerie N; Lawless, Andrea L; Kelley, Kathleen M; Rains, Tia M

    2015-03-01

    Dietary patterns characterized by high intakes of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and low glycemic load have been associated with lower type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. In contrast, dietary patterns that include high intakes of refined grains, processed meats, and high amounts of added sugars have been associated with increased T2DM risk. This randomized, 2-period crossover trial compared the effects of dairy and sugar-sweetened product (SSP) consumption on insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell function in men and women at risk of the development of T2DM who habitually consume sugar-sweetened beverages. In a randomized, controlled crossover trial, participants consumed dairy products (474 mL/d 2% milk and 170 g/d low-fat yogurt) and SSPs (710 mL/d nondiet soda and 108 g/d nondairy pudding), each for 6 wk, with a 2-wk washout between treatments. A liquid meal tolerance test (LMTT) was administered at baseline and the end of each period. Participants were 50% female with a mean age and body mass index of 53.8 y and 32.2 kg/m(2), respectively. Changes from baseline were significantly different between dairy product and SSP conditions for median homeostasis model assessment 2-insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-%S) (1.3 vs. -21.3%, respectively, P = 0.009; baseline = 118%), mean LMTT disposition index (-0.03 vs. -0.36, respectively, P = 0.011; baseline = 2.59), mean HDL cholesterol (0.8 vs. -4.2%, respectively, P = 0.015; baseline = 44.3 mg/dL), and mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (11.7 vs. -3.3, respectively, P = 0.022; baseline = 24.5 μg/L). Changes from baseline in LMTT Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (-0.10 vs. -0.49, respectively; baseline = 4.16) and mean HOMA2-β-cell function (-2.0 vs. 5.3%, respectively; baseline = 72.6%) did not differ significantly between treatments. These results suggest that SSP consumption is associated with less favorable values for HOMA2-%S, LMTT disposition index, HDL cholesterol, and serum 25

  19. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Katherine R; Largo, Thomas W; Miller, Corinne; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D

    2015-11-12

    Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking.

  20. Do children report differently from their parents and from observed data? Cross-sectional data on fruit, water, sugar-sweetened beverages and break-time foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. van de Gaar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable assessment of children’s dietary behaviour is needed for research purposes. The aim of this study was (1 to investigate the level of agreement between observed and child-reported break-time food items; and (2 to investigate the level of agreement between children’s reports and those of their parents regarding children’s overall consumption of fruit, water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB. Methods The children in this study were 9–13 years old, attending primary schools in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Children were observed with respect to foods brought for break-time at school. At the same day, children completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to recall the food(s they brought to school to consume during break-time. Only paired data (observed and child-reported were included in the analyses (n = 407 pairs. To determine each child’s daily consumption and average amounts of fruit, water and SSB consumed, children and their parents completed parallel questionnaires. Only paired data (parent-reported and child-reported were included in the analyses (n = 275 pairs. The main statistical measures were level of agreement between break-time foods, fruit, water and SSB; and Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC. Results More children reported bringing sandwiches and snacks for break-time than was observed (73 % vs 51 % observed and 84 % vs 33 % observed. The overall agreement between observed and child-reported break-time foods was poor to fair, with ICC range 0.16–0.39 (p < 0.05. Children reported higher average amounts of SSB consumed than did their parents (1.3 vs 0.9 L SSB, p < 0.001. Child and parent estimations of the child’s water and fruit consumption were similar. ICC between parent and child reports was poor to good (range 0.22–0.62, p < 0.05. Conclusion Children report higher on amount of break-time foods as compared to observations and children’s reports of

  1. Formation of Polyphenol-Denatured Protein Flocs in Alcohol Beverages Sweetened with Refined Cane Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Triplett, Alexa

    2017-11-08

    The sporadic appearance of floc from refined, white cane sugars in alcohol beverages remains a technical problem for both beverage manufacturers and sugar refiners. Cane invert sugars mixed with 60% pure alcohol and water increased light scattering by up to ∼1000-fold. Insoluble and soluble starch, fat, inorganic ash, oligosaccharides, Brix, and pH were not involved in the prevailing floc-formation mechanism. Strong polynomial correlations existed between the haze floc and indicator values (IVs) (color at 420 nm pH 9.0/color at pH 4.0-an indirect measure of polyphenolic and flavonoid colorants) (R 2 = 0.815) and protein (R 2 = 0.819) content of the invert sugars. Ethanol-induced denaturation of the protein exposed hydrophobic polyphenol-binding sites that were further exposed when heated to 80 °C. A tentative mechanism for floc formation was advanced by molecular probing with a haze (floc) active protein and polyphenol as well as polar, nonpolar, and ionic solvents.

  2. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Shilpa S; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-11-16

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener.

  3. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Gelder, Boukje M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2014-02-01

    Accelerated cognitive decline increases the risk of dementia. Slowing down the rate of cognitive decline leads to the preservation of cognitive functioning in the elderly, who can live independently for a longer time. Alcohol consumption may influence the rate of cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between the total consumption of alcoholic beverages and different types of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age. In 2613 men and women of the Doetinchem Cohort Study, aged 43-70 years at baseline (1995-2002), cognitive function (global cognitive function and the domains memory, speed and flexibility) was assessed twice, with a 5-year time interval. In linear regression analyses, the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages was analysed in relation to cognitive decline, adjusting for confounders. We observed that, in women, the total consumption of alcoholic beverages was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function over a 5-year period (P for trend = 0·02), while no association was observed in men. Regarding the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages in men and women together, red wine consumption was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function (P for trend alcoholic beverages were associated with cognitive decline. In conclusion, only (moderate) red wine consumption was consistently associated with less strong cognitive decline. Therefore, it is most likely that non-alcoholic substances in red wine are responsible for any cognition-preserving effects.

  4. Do children report differently from their parents and from observed data? Cross-sectional data on fruit, water, sugar-sweetened beverages and break-time foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Gaar, V M; Jansen, W; van der Kleij, M J J; Raat, H

    2016-04-18

    Reliable assessment of children's dietary behaviour is needed for research purposes. The aim of this study was (1) to investigate the level of agreement between observed and child-reported break-time food items; and (2) to investigate the level of agreement between children's reports and those of their parents regarding children's overall consumption of fruit, water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The children in this study were 9-13 years old, attending primary schools in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Children were observed with respect to foods brought for break-time at school. At the same day, children completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to recall the food(s) they brought to school to consume during break-time. Only paired data (observed and child-reported) were included in the analyses (n = 407 pairs). To determine each child's daily consumption and average amounts of fruit, water and SSB consumed, children and their parents completed parallel questionnaires. Only paired data (parent-reported and child-reported) were included in the analyses (n = 275 pairs). The main statistical measures were level of agreement between break-time foods, fruit, water and SSB; and Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC). More children reported bringing sandwiches and snacks for break-time than was observed (73 % vs 51 % observed and 84 % vs 33 % observed). The overall agreement between observed and child-reported break-time foods was poor to fair, with ICC range 0.16-0.39 (p good (range 0.22-0.62, p < 0.05). Children report higher on amount of break-time foods as compared to observations and children's reports of SSB consumption are higher than those of their parents. Since the level of agreement between the observed break-time foods and that reported by children and the agreement of child's intake between parent and child reports are relatively weak, future studies should focus on improving methods of evaluating children's consumption

  5. Effect of Sweetened Dried Cranberry Consumption on Urinary Proteome and Fecal Microbiome in Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiares, Nell; Krueger, Christian G; Meudt, Jennifer J; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Reed, Jess D

    2018-02-01

    The relationship among diet, human health, and disease is an area of growing interest in biomarker research. Previous studies suggest that the consumption of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) could beneficially influence urinary and digestive health. The present study sought to determine if daily consumption of sweetened dried cranberries (SDC) changes the urinary proteome and fecal microbiome, as determined in a prospective sample of 10 healthy individuals. Baseline urine and fecal samples were collected from the subjects in the fasted (8-12 h) state. The subjects then consumed one serving (42 g) of SDC daily with lunch for 2 weeks. Urine and fecal samples were collected again the day after 2 weeks of SDC consumption. Orbitrap Q-Exactive mass spectrometry of urinary proteins showed that consumption of SDC resulted in changes to 22 urinary proteins. Multiplex sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes in fecal samples indicated changes in relative abundance of several bacterial taxonomic units after consumption of SDC. There was a shift in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, increases in commensal bacteria, and decreases or the absence of bacteria associated with negative health effects. A decrease in uromodulin in all subjects and an increase in Akkermansia bacteria in most subjects were observed and warrant further investigation. Future larger clinical studies with multiomics and multitissue sampling designs are required to determine the effects of SDC consumption on nutrition and health.

  6. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Mihama diabetes prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Nobuko; Shimo, Miho; Miyazawa, Kae; Konegawa, Sachi; Matsumoto, Aki; Onishi, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryoma; Suzuki, Toshinari; Yano, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kazutaka; Yamada, Tomomi; Gabazza, Esteban Cesar; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing for several reasons, including increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, whether SSBs cause T2DM by excess of energy production resulting in obesity remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of SSB intake on the development of T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Ninety-three subjects (30 males and 63 females) with IGT aged 40-69 y and residing in the Mihama district (southern Mie Prefecture, Japan) were included in the study. The mean observational period was 3.6 y. All subjects underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and completed a lifestyle questionnaire survey related to SSB intake. OGTT results and SSB intake were evaluated before and after the observational period. In addition, the correlation between SSB intake and development of T2DM was investigated. Of the 93 subjects, 20 (21.5%) developed T2DM (T2DM group) and demonstrated a significantly high SSB intake compared with the group that did not develop the disease (non-T2DM group). The odds ratio for the incidence of T2DM based on SSB intake was 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-9.06). The body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R) values was significantly higher in the T2DM group than in the non-T2DM group, while the insulinogenic indices were significantly lower in the former than in the latter group. The sum of insulin secretion levels during OGTT was not significantly different between groups. SSB intake correlated with the predisposition for developing T2DM, possibly by influencing body weight, insulin resistance, and the ability of the pancreatic beta cells to effectively compensate for the insulin resistance.

  7. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity Risk in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher Della Torre, Sophie; Keller, Amélie; Laure Depeyre, Jocelyne

    2016-01-01

    : The aim of this review was to systematically analyze the methodology of studies investigating the influence of SSB consumption on risk of obesity and obesity among children and adolescents, and the studies' ability to answer this research question. METHODS: A systematic review of cohort and experimental...... studies published until December 2013 in peer-reviewed journals was performed on Medline, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Studies investigating the influence of SSB consumption on risk of obesity and obesity among children and adolescents were included, and methodological quality...... a positive association (n=7), mixed results (n=9), or no association (n=7). CONCLUSIONS: The present review shows that the majority of studies with strong methodology indicated a positive association between SSB consumption and risk of obesity or obesity, especially among overweight children. In addition...

  8. The Impact of a Tax on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Health and Health Care Costs: A Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J Lennert; Sacks, Gary; Antonopoulos, Nicole; Martin, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the consequences of an additional 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on health and health care expenditure. Participants were adult (aged > = 20) Australians alive in 2010, who were modelled over their remaining lifetime. We used lifetable-based epidemiological modelling to examine the potential impact of a 20% valoric tax on SSBs on total lifetime disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), incidence, prevalence, and mortality of obesity-related disease, and health care expenditure. Over the lifetime of adult Australian alive in 2010, seemingly modest estimated changes in average body mass as a result of the SSB tax translated to gains of 112,000 health-adjusted life years for men (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 73,000-155,000) and 56,000 (95% UI: 36,000-76,000) for women, and a reduction in overall health care expenditure of AUD609 million (95% UI: 368 million- 870 million). The tax is estimated to reduce the number of new type 2 diabetes cases by approximately 800 per year. Twenty-five years after the introduction of the tax, there would be 4,400 fewer prevalent cases of heart disease and 1,100 fewer persons living with the consequences of stroke, and an estimated 1606 extra people would be alive as a result of the tax. The tax would generate an estimated AUD400 million in revenue each year. Governments should consider increasing the tax on sugared drinks. This would improve population health, reduce health care costs, as well as bring in direct revenue.

  9. The Impact of a Tax on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Health and Health Care Costs: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lennert Veerman

    Full Text Available This paper aims to estimate the consequences of an additional 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs on health and health care expenditure. Participants were adult (aged > = 20 Australians alive in 2010, who were modelled over their remaining lifetime. We used lifetable-based epidemiological modelling to examine the potential impact of a 20% valoric tax on SSBs on total lifetime disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, incidence, prevalence, and mortality of obesity-related disease, and health care expenditure. Over the lifetime of adult Australian alive in 2010, seemingly modest estimated changes in average body mass as a result of the SSB tax translated to gains of 112,000 health-adjusted life years for men (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 73,000-155,000 and 56,000 (95% UI: 36,000-76,000 for women, and a reduction in overall health care expenditure of AUD609 million (95% UI: 368 million- 870 million. The tax is estimated to reduce the number of new type 2 diabetes cases by approximately 800 per year. Twenty-five years after the introduction of the tax, there would be 4,400 fewer prevalent cases of heart disease and 1,100 fewer persons living with the consequences of stroke, and an estimated 1606 extra people would be alive as a result of the tax. The tax would generate an estimated AUD400 million in revenue each year. Governments should consider increasing the tax on sugared drinks. This would improve population health, reduce health care costs, as well as bring in direct revenue.

  10. Modelled health benefits of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax across different socioeconomic groups in Australia: A cost-effectiveness and equity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Lal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB tax in Mexico has been effective in reducing consumption of SSBs, with larger decreases for low-income households. The health and financial effects across socioeconomic groups are important considerations for policy-makers. From a societal perspective, we assessed the potential cost-effectiveness, health gains, and financial impacts by socioeconomic position (SEP of a 20% SSB tax for Australia.Australia-specific price elasticities were used to predict decreases in SSB consumption for each Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA quintile. Changes in body mass index (BMI were based on SSB consumption, BMI from the Australian Health Survey 2011-12, and energy balance equations. Markov cohort models were used to estimate the health impact for the Australian population, taking into account obesity-related diseases. Health-adjusted life years (HALYs gained, healthcare costs saved, and out-of-pocket costs were estimated for each SEIFA quintile. Loss of economic welfare was calculated as the amount of deadweight loss in excess of taxation revenue. A 20% SSB tax would lead to HALY gains of 175,300 (95% CI: 68,700; 277,800 and healthcare cost savings of AU$1,733 million (m (95% CI: $650m; $2,744m over the lifetime of the population, with 49.5% of the total health gains accruing to the 2 lowest quintiles. We estimated the increase in annual expenditure on SSBs to be AU$35.40/capita (0.54% of expenditure on food and non-alcoholic drinks in the lowest SEIFA quintile, a difference of AU$3.80/capita (0.32% compared to the highest quintile. Annual tax revenue was estimated at AU$642.9m (95% CI: $348.2m; $1,117.2m. The main limitations of this study, as with all simulation models, is that the results represent only the best estimate of a potential effect in the absence of stronger direct evidence.This study demonstrates that from a 20% tax on SSBs, the most HALYs gained and healthcare costs saved would accrue to the most

  11. The association of dietary intake of purine-rich vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages and dairy with plasma urate, in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgaga, Lina; Theodoratou, Evropi; Kyle, Janet; Farrington, Susan M; Agakov, Felix; Tenesa, Albert; Walker, Marion; McNeill, Geraldine; Wright, Alan F; Rudan, Igor; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Campbell, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is a strong risk factor for gout. The incidence of gout and hyperuricemia has increased recently, which is thought to be, in part, due to changes in diet and lifestyle. Objective of this study was to investigate the association between plasma urate concentration and: a) food items: dairy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and purine-rich vegetables; b) related nutrients: lactose, calcium and fructose. A total of 2,076 healthy participants (44% female) from a population-based case-control study in Scotland (1999-2006) were included in this study. Dietary data was collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient intake was calculated using FFQ and composition of foods information. Urate concentration was measured in plasma. Mean urate concentration was 283.8±72.1 mmol/dL (females: 260.1±68.9 mmol/dL and males: 302.3±69.2 mmol/dL). Using multivariate regression analysis we found that dairy, calcium and lactose intakes were inversely associated with urate (p = 0.008, p = 0.003, p = 0.0007, respectively). Overall SSB consumption was positively associated with urate (p = 0.008), however, energy-adjusted fructose intake was not associated with urate (p = 0.66). The intake of purine-rich vegetables was not associated to plasma urate (p = 0.38). Our results suggest that limiting purine-rich vegetables intake for lowering plasma urate may be ineffectual, despite current recommendations. Although a positive association between plasma urate and SSB consumption was found, there was no association with fructose intake, suggesting that fructose is not the causal agent underlying the SSB-urate association. The abundant evidence supporting the inverse association between plasma urate concentration and dairy consumption should be reflected in dietary guidelines for hyperuricemic individuals and gout patients. Further research is needed to establish which nutrients and food products influence plasma urate

  12. The association of dietary intake of purine-rich vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages and dairy with plasma urate, in a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zgaga

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia is a strong risk factor for gout. The incidence of gout and hyperuricemia has increased recently, which is thought to be, in part, due to changes in diet and lifestyle. Objective of this study was to investigate the association between plasma urate concentration and: a food items: dairy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB and purine-rich vegetables; b related nutrients: lactose, calcium and fructose.A total of 2,076 healthy participants (44% female from a population-based case-control study in Scotland (1999-2006 were included in this study. Dietary data was collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrient intake was calculated using FFQ and composition of foods information. Urate concentration was measured in plasma.Mean urate concentration was 283.8±72.1 mmol/dL (females: 260.1±68.9 mmol/dL and males: 302.3±69.2 mmol/dL. Using multivariate regression analysis we found that dairy, calcium and lactose intakes were inversely associated with urate (p = 0.008, p = 0.003, p = 0.0007, respectively. Overall SSB consumption was positively associated with urate (p = 0.008, however, energy-adjusted fructose intake was not associated with urate (p = 0.66. The intake of purine-rich vegetables was not associated to plasma urate (p = 0.38.Our results suggest that limiting purine-rich vegetables intake for lowering plasma urate may be ineffectual, despite current recommendations. Although a positive association between plasma urate and SSB consumption was found, there was no association with fructose intake, suggesting that fructose is not the causal agent underlying the SSB-urate association. The abundant evidence supporting the inverse association between plasma urate concentration and dairy consumption should be reflected in dietary guidelines for hyperuricemic individuals and gout patients. Further research is needed to establish which nutrients and food products influence plasma urate

  13. Modelled health benefits of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax across different socioeconomic groups in Australia: A cost-effectiveness and equity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Anita; Mantilla-Herrera, Ana Maria; Veerman, Lennert; Backholer, Kathryn; Sacks, Gary; Moodie, Marjory; Siahpush, Mohammad; Carter, Rob; Peeters, Anna

    2017-06-01

    A sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax in Mexico has been effective in reducing consumption of SSBs, with larger decreases for low-income households. The health and financial effects across socioeconomic groups are important considerations for policy-makers. From a societal perspective, we assessed the potential cost-effectiveness, health gains, and financial impacts by socioeconomic position (SEP) of a 20% SSB tax for Australia. Australia-specific price elasticities were used to predict decreases in SSB consumption for each Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) quintile. Changes in body mass index (BMI) were based on SSB consumption, BMI from the Australian Health Survey 2011-12, and energy balance equations. Markov cohort models were used to estimate the health impact for the Australian population, taking into account obesity-related diseases. Health-adjusted life years (HALYs) gained, healthcare costs saved, and out-of-pocket costs were estimated for each SEIFA quintile. Loss of economic welfare was calculated as the amount of deadweight loss in excess of taxation revenue. A 20% SSB tax would lead to HALY gains of 175,300 (95% CI: 68,700; 277,800) and healthcare cost savings of AU$1,733 million (m) (95% CI: $650m; $2,744m) over the lifetime of the population, with 49.5% of the total health gains accruing to the 2 lowest quintiles. We estimated the increase in annual expenditure on SSBs to be AU$35.40/capita (0.54% of expenditure on food and non-alcoholic drinks) in the lowest SEIFA quintile, a difference of AU$3.80/capita (0.32%) compared to the highest quintile. Annual tax revenue was estimated at AU$642.9m (95% CI: $348.2m; $1,117.2m). The main limitations of this study, as with all simulation models, is that the results represent only the best estimate of a potential effect in the absence of stronger direct evidence. This study demonstrates that from a 20% tax on SSBs, the most HALYs gained and healthcare costs saved would accrue to the most disadvantaged

  14. Brand-specific consumption of flavored alcoholic beverages among underage youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Erin K; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have identified flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) as being popular among underage drinkers, no previous study has ascertained the prevalence of brand-specific FAB consumption among a national sample of underage youth. To ascertain the brand-specific consumption prevalence and consumption share of FABs among a national sample of underage drinkers in the United States. In 2012, we conducted an online, self-administered survey of a national sample of 1031 underage drinkers, ages 13-20 years, to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcoholic beverage brands, including 62 FABs, and each brand's youth consumption share, based on the estimated total number of standard drinks consumed. There were three brand-specific outcome measures: prevalence of consumption, prevalence of consumption during heavy episodic drinking, and consumption share, defined as the percentage of the total drinks consumed by all respondents combined that was attributable to a particular brand. The FAB brands with the highest prevalence of past 30-day consumption were Smirnoff malt beverages, 17.7%; Mike's, 10.8%; Bacardi malt beverages, 8.0%; and Four Loko/Four MaXed, 6.1%. Just five brands accounted for almost half (49.1%) of the total consumption share by volume within the FAB category. Flavored alcoholic beverages are highly popular among underage drinkers, and the FAB brand preferences of this group are highly concentrated among a small number of brands. To decrease the consumption of FABs by underage youth, all states should reclassify these beverages as distilled spirits rather than beer.

  15. Brand-Specific Consumption of Flavored Alcoholic Beverages among Underage Youth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Erin K.; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several studies have identified flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) as being popular among underage drinkers, no previous study has ascertained the prevalence of brand-specific FAB consumption among a national sample of underage youth. Objectives To ascertain the brand-specific consumption prevalence and consumption share of FABs among a national sample of underage drinkers in the United States. Methods In 2012, we conducted an online, self-administered survey of a national sample of 1,031 underage drinkers, ages 13-20, to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcoholic beverage brands, including 62 FABs, and each brand’s youth consumption share, based on the estimated total number of standard drinks consumed. There were three brand-specific outcome measures: prevalence of consumption, prevalence of consumption during heavy episodic drinking, and consumption share, defined as the percentage of the total drinks consumed by all respondents combined that was attributable to a particular brand. Results The FAB brands with the highest prevalence of past 30-day consumption were Smirnoff Malt Beverages, 17.7%; Mike’s, 10.8%; Bacardi Malt Beverages, 8.0%; and Four Loko/Four MaXed, 6.1%. Just five brands accounted for almost half (49.1%) of the total consumption share by volume within the FAB category. Conclusion Flavored alcoholic beverages are highly popular among underage drinkers, and their FAB brand preferences are highly concentrated among a small number of brands. To decrease the consumption of FABs by underage youth, all states should re-classify these beverages as distilled spirits rather than beer. PMID:24266600

  16. Consumption of caffeinated beverages and the awareness of their caffeine content among Dutch students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora J A E; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew; Verster, Joris C

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the knowledge of caffeine content of a variety of caffeinated beverages among Dutch university students. A pencil-and-paper survey was conducted among N = 800 Dutch students. Most participants (87.8%) reported consuming caffeinated beverages during the past 24 h. Their mean ± SD past 24-h caffeine intake from beverages was 144.2 ± 169.5 mg (2.2 ± 3.0 mg/kg bw). Most prevalent sources of caffeine were coffee beverages (50.8%) and tea (34.8%), followed by energy drink (9.2%), cola (4.7%), and chocolate milk (0.5%). Participants had poor knowledge on the relative caffeine content of caffeinated beverages. That is, they overestimated the caffeine content of energy drinks and cola, and underestimated the caffeine content of coffee beverages. If caffeine consumption is a concern, it is important to inform consumers about the caffeine content of all caffeine containing beverages, including coffee and tea. The current findings support previous research that the most effective way to reduce caffeine intake is to limit the consumption of coffee beverages and tea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mothers’ Perceptions of Toddler Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Rigo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity. Furthermore, preschooler beverage consumption may develop into dietary habits that track into adulthood. There is little research on factors influencing parents’ decision-making when serving beverages to their preschoolers, or on mothers’ perceptions of preschooler’s beverages. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ perceptions of commonly consumed preschooler beverages. Methods: The Repertory Grid Technique and the Laddering Technique methodologies were utilized in interviews with 28 mothers from Melbourne, Australia, to explore beverage perceptions. Results: A large number of diverse perceptual categories (‘constructs’ (n = 22 about beverages were elicited, demonstrating the complexity of mothers’ perceptions when making beverage choices for their preschoolers. The five most common categories were related to health, sugar, dairy, packaging, and additives. Thematic analysis of responses from the laddering method identified three major themes: concerns about the types of beverages mothers would like to provide their preschoolers, the healthiness of a beverage, and the sugar content. Conclusions: Mothers’ perceptions of beverages are sophisticated and need to be included in the design of health communication strategies by health promoters and government agencies to influence mothers’ beverage selections for their preschoolers.

  18. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  19. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young woman: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  20. Effect of Replacing Sugar with Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages on the Reward Value after Repeated Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Weijzen, P.L.G.; Rijn, van I.; Bosch, van den I.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. Objective: To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty

  1. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Kelder, Steven H; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-07-27

    Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students' in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Student data on consumption of various SSBs and in-school access to vending machines that sold SSBs were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS), conducted in 2010. Student data were linked to state laws regarding the sale of soda in school in 2010. Students were cross-classified based on their access to vending machines and whether their state banned soda in school, creating 4 comparison groups. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to compare these 4 groups with respect to students’ self-reported consumption of diet soda, sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, or other SSBs. Students who had access to vending machines in a state that did not ban soda were the reference group. Models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, sex, grade, home food access, state median income, and U.S. Census region. Students consumed more servings of sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, and other SSBs if they resided in a state that banned soda in school but attended a school with vending machines that sold other SSBs. Similar results were observed where schools did not have vending machines but the state allowed soda to be sold in school. Intake was generally not elevated where both states and schools limited SSB availability – i.e., states banned soda and schools did not have SSB vending machines. State laws that ban soda but allow other SSBs may lead students to substitute other non-soda SSBs. Additional longitudinal research is needed to confirm this

  2. Study of association between beverage consumption pattern and lipid profile in shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Saadat, Saeed; Afsharmanesh, Mohammad Reza; Shirali, Saeed

    The circadian system influences on health and metabolic function that can cause raising some risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Few studies have examined data that incorporate the full complexity of daily beverage intake pattern on lipid profiles. The purpose of this study was to investigate relation between daily water and beverage intake of adults working in day or shift work and lipid profile. Total beverages intake was estimated in shift and administrative staff of Ahvaz International Airport, Iran. Forty five male, aged 25-55 years, attending this institute were invited to participate in this study. They completed a three-day food records and all participants were measured plasma lipid profiles. Forty one of participants completed all aspects of the study. Two clusters were emerged, labeled descriptively as Conventional including "high Sugar-sweetened drinkers" and "low sugar drinkers". The highest intake of water was in cluster 1 (1170.9ml/day) even this amount is much less than the daily recommended amounts. There were significant differences in triglyceride levels among day and night shift workers. According to the results, there is inadequacy of water and high sugar beverage intake among the shift workers which it is a potential risk of some related chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome with high triglyceride level in the future. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in the food and beverage consumption pattern in Argentina, 1996-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Zapata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The dietary pattern of the population has shifted in recent years as a result of cultural changes and modifications in food accessibility. In order to describe the changes in food and beverage consumption patterns in the last two decades in Argentina, the National Survey of Household Expenditure [Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares] was analyzed for the periods 1996-1997, 2004-2005 and 2012-2013. The average apparent consumption of food and beverages in grams or milliliters of net weight per adult equivalent was estimated for each period. The variation in the amount of food and beverages available for consumption between 1996 and 2013 shows that the structure of the dietary pattern has changed, appearing to indicate shifts in the ways of buying, preparing and consuming foods related to greater convenience and accessibility and less time spent on food preparation.

  4. [Changes in the food and beverage consumption pattern in Argentina, 1996-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, María Elisa; Rovirosa, Alicia; Carmuega, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The dietary pattern of the population has shifted in recent years as a result of cultural changes and modifications in food accessibility. In order to describe the changes in food and beverage consumption patterns in the last two decades in Argentina, the National Survey of Household Expenditure [Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares] was analyzed for the periods 1996-1997, 2004-2005 and 2012-2013. The average apparent consumption of food and beverages in grams or milliliters of net weight per adult equivalent was estimated for each period. The variation in the amount of food and beverages available for consumption between 1996 and 2013 shows that the structure of the dietary pattern has changed, appearing to indicate shifts in the ways of buying, preparing and consuming foods related to greater convenience and accessibility and less time spent on food preparation.

  5. Cola beverage consumption delays alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mazzonetto Teófilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that cola beverage consumption may affect bone metabolism and increase bone fracture risk. Experimental evidence linking cola beverage consumption to deleterious effects on bone is lacking. Herein, we investigated whether cola beverage consumption from weaning to early puberty delays the rate of reparative bone formation inside the socket of an extracted tooth in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats received cola beverage (cola group or tap water (control group ad libitum from the age of 23 days until tooth extraction at 42 days and euthanasia 2 and 3 weeks later. The neoformed bone volume inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semi-serial longitudinal sections using a quantitative differential point-counting method. Histological examination suggested a decrease in the osteogenic process within the tooth sockets of rats from both cola groups, which had thinner and sparser new bone trabeculae. Histometric data confirmed that alveolar bone healing was significantly delayed in cola-fed rats at three weeks after tooth extraction (ANOVA, p = 0.0006, followed by Tukey's test, p < 0.01. Although the results of studies in rats cannot be extrapolated directly to human clinical dentistry, the present study provides evidence that cola beverage consumption negatively affect maxillary bone formation.

  6. Alcoholic beverage consumption, nutrient intakes, and diet quality in the US adult population, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Rosalind A; Guenther, Patricia M; Juan, Wenyen; Graubard, Barry I

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about associations between alcoholic beverage consumption, nutrient intakes, and diet quality, although each has been independently associated with chronic disease outcomes. This study examines cross-sectional relationships between alcoholic beverage consumption, nutrient intakes, and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005] scores) in the US adult population. Data were from four cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006). Weighted multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, and body mass index included 8,155 men and 7,715 women aged >or=20 years who reported their past-year alcoholic beverage consumption and 24-hour dietary intake. Alcoholic beverage consumption was defined by drinking status (never, former, current drinker) and, among current drinkers, by drinking level (number of drinks per day, on average: men or=5; women or=3). Among men, there was no association between drinking status and intakes of energy, most nutrients, or total HEI-2005 score. Among women, former and current (compared to never) drinkers had significantly higher intakes of energy and several nutrients, and current drinkers had significantly lower total HEI-2005 scores (current drinkers 58.9; never drinkers 63.2). Among current drinkers of both sexes, as drinking level increased, intakes of energy and several nutrients significantly increased, whereas total HEI-2005 scores significantly decreased (from 55.9 to 41.5 in men, and from 59.5 to 51.8 in women). Among men and women, increasing alcoholic beverage consumption was associated with a decline in total diet quality as measured by the HEI-2005, apparently due to higher energy intake from alcohol as well as other differences in food choices. Educational messages should focus on nutrition and chronic disease risk associated with high consumption of alcoholic beverages and poor food choices, including excessive energy intake. Published

  7. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. Methods We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol’s price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Results Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (−0.820), wine (−0.955), whisky (−0.587), brandy (−0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. Conclusions A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan. PMID:24010885

  8. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Yuan; Ho, Li-Ming; Lee, Jie-Min; Hwang, Jhe-Yo

    2013-09-08

    The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol's price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (-0.820), wine (-0.955), whisky (-0.587), brandy (-0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan.

  9. Changes and tracking of fruit, vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages intake from 18 months to 7 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Mona; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Nystad, Wenche; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2013-08-30

    A few studies have investigated tracking of dietary patterns or nutrient intake in pre-school children, but no studies have been identified examining tracking of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fruit and vegetable intakes in early childhood (1-7 year olds). The purpose of this study was to investigate changes and tracking of intakes of fruit, vegetables and SSB, and association between maternal education and dietary tracking, from 18 months to 7 years of age. Longitudinal data from the nation-wide Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health were used, including 9025 children participating at three time points (18 months, 36 months and 7 years). Frequencies of fruit, vegetables and SSB were assessed by questionnaire. Slightly different questions were used at each time point to collect information about intake. Maternal education was categorized into ≤ 12 years, 13-16 years, ≥ 17 years. Cross-tabulation, Spearman's rho and multinomial logistic regression were used for assessing change, tracking and differences by maternal education. Analyses by gender indicated largest changes for intake of fruit and SSB from age 18 months to 7 years. Fair to moderate tracking coefficients (Spearman's rho = 0.23-0.46) for intake of fruit, vegetables and SSB were found and children assigned to low, medium and high frequency of consumption at 18 months continued to be in the same group at age 36 months and 7 years. Children of mothers with low education consumed fruit and vegetables less often and SSB more often compared to children of mothers with high education at 18 months of age. Children with higher educated mothers had lower odds for increasing fruit intake or decreasing SSB intake, compared to children with lower educated mothers showing a stable intake. The tracking coefficients for intakes were fair to moderate and differences in intakes according to maternal education were found already at age 18 months. This

  10. Cross-sectional survey of the amount of free sugars and calories in carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages on sale in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the free sugars and calorie content of carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (CSSB) available in the main UK supermarkets. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2014 of 169 CSSB. The free sugars (sugars g/100 mL) and calorie (kcal/100 mL) were collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of CSSB available in 9 main UK supermarkets. The average free sugars content in CSSB was 30.1±10.7 g/330 mL, and 91% of CSSB would receive a 'red' (high) label for sugars per serving. There was a large variation in sugars content between different flavours of CSSB and within the same type of flavour ranging from 3.3 to 52.8 g/330 mL. On average, ginger beer (38.5±9.9 g/330 mL) contained the highest amounts of sugars and ginger ale (22.9±7.7 g/330 mL) contained the lowest. Cola flavour is the most popular flavour in the UK with an average free sugars content of 35.0±1.1 g/330 mL. On average, the supermarket own brand contained lower levels of sugars than branded products (27.9±10.6 vs 31.6±10.6 g/330 mL, p=0.02). The average calorie content in CSSB was 126.1±43.5 kcal/330 mL. Cola flavour had a calorie content of 143.5±5.2 kcal/330 mL. Among the 169 products surveyed, 55% exceeded the maximum daily recommendation for free sugars intake (30 g) per 330 mL. Free sugars content of CSSB in the UK is high and is a major contributor to free sugars intake. There is a wide variation in the sugars content of CSSB and even within the same flavour of CSSB. These findings demonstrate that the amount of free sugars added to CSSB can be reduced without technical issues, and there is an urgent need to set incremental free sugars reduction targets. A reduction in sugars content and overall CSSB consumption will be very beneficial in reducing obesity, type 2 diabetes and dental caries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Cross-sectional survey of the amount of free sugars and calories in carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages on sale in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the free sugars and calorie content of carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (CSSB) available in the main UK supermarkets. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2014 of 169 CSSB. Methods The free sugars (sugars g/100 mL) and calorie (kcal/100 mL) were collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of CSSB available in 9 main UK supermarkets. Results The average free sugars content in CSSB was 30.1±10.7 g/330 mL, and 91% of CSSB would receive a ‘red’ (high) label for sugars per serving. There was a large variation in sugars content between different flavours of CSSB and within the same type of flavour ranging from 3.3 to 52.8 g/330 mL. On average, ginger beer (38.5±9.9 g/330 mL) contained the highest amounts of sugars and ginger ale (22.9±7.7 g/330 mL) contained the lowest. Cola flavour is the most popular flavour in the UK with an average free sugars content of 35.0±1.1 g/330 mL. On average, the supermarket own brand contained lower levels of sugars than branded products (27.9±10.6 vs 31.6±10.6 g/330 mL, p=0.02). The average calorie content in CSSB was 126.1±43.5 kcal/330 mL. Cola flavour had a calorie content of 143.5±5.2 kcal/330 mL. Among the 169 products surveyed, 55% exceeded the maximum daily recommendation for free sugars intake (30 g) per 330 mL. Conclusions Free sugars content of CSSB in the UK is high and is a major contributor to free sugars intake. There is a wide variation in the sugars content of CSSB and even within the same flavour of CSSB. These findings demonstrate that the amount of free sugars added to CSSB can be reduced without technical issues, and there is an urgent need to set incremental free sugars reduction targets. A reduction in sugars content and overall CSSB consumption will be very beneficial in reducing obesity, type 2 diabetes and dental caries. PMID:28186923

  12. Consumo de bebidas para una vida saludable: recomendaciones para la población mexicana Beverage consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Rivera

    2008-04-01

    Population was convened by the Secretary of Health for the purpose of developing evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has found that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including the health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages into six levels. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage and range from the healthier (level 1 to least healthy (level 6 options, as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1% milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks, and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea. The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category and healthy consumption patterns for men and women are illustrated.

  13. The impact of price discounts and calorie messaging on beverage consumption: a multi-site field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, J Jane S; Press, Matthew J; McDonald, Daniel; Volpp, Kevin G; Asch, David A; Mitra, Nandita; Stanowski, Anthony C; Loewenstein, George

    2012-12-01

    To examine the efficacy of alternative approaches for shifting consumers toward zero calorie beverages. We examined the effect of price discounts and novel presentations of calorie information on sales of beverages. This prospective interrupted time-series quasi-experiment included three sites in Philadelphia, PA, Evanston, IL, and Detroit, MI. Each site received five interventions: (1) a 10% price discount on zero-calorie beverages; (2) the 10% discount plus discount messaging; (3) messaging comparing calorie information of sugared beverages with zero-calorie beverages; (4) messaging comparing exercise equivalent information; and (5) messaging comparing both calorie and exercise equivalent information. The main outcome was daily sales of bottled zero-calorie and sugared beverages. Data was collected from October 2009 until May 2010 and analyzed from May 2010 until May 2011. The overall analysis failed to demonstrate a consistent effect across all interventions. Two treatments had statistically significant effects: the discount plus discount messaging, with an increase in purchases of zero calorie beverages; and the calorie messaging intervention, with an increase in purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages. Individual site analysis results were similar. The effects of price discounts and calorie messaging in different forms on beverage purchases were inconsistent and frequently small. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is consumption of sugar‐sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy associated with birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundt, Jacob H.; Eide, Geir Egil; Brantsæter, Anne‐Lise; Haugen, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Norway, there were parallel increases and subsequent decreases in birth weight (BW) and consumption of sugar‐sweetened carbonated soft drinks (SSC) during the period 1990–2010, and by an ecological approach, we have suggested that the relationship was causal. The objective of this study was to examine if such a relationship was present in a prospectively followed cohort of pregnant women. The study population included 62,494 term singleton mother–infant dyads in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), a national prospective cohort study in Norway from 1999 to 2008. The association between SSC consumption and BW was assessed using multiple regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders. Each 100 ml intake of SSC was associated with a 7.8 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: −10.3 to −5.3) decrease in BW, a decreased risk of BW > 4,500 g (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90 to 0.97) and a near significantly increased risk of BW  4,500 g (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.39) and a trend towards significant increase in mean BW (25.1 g, 95% CI: −2.0 to 52.2) per 100 ml SSC. Our findings suggest that increasing consumption of rapidly absorbed sugar from SSC had opposite associations with BW in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:27928892

  15. Impact of masked replacement of sugar-sweetened with sugar-free beverages on body weight increases with initial bmi : Secondary analysis of data from an 18 month double-blind trial in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, Martijn B.; De Ruyter, Janne C.; Kuijper, Lothar D J; Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. This effect may be more pronounced in children with a high body mass index (BMI) because their sensing of kilocalories might be compromised. We investigated the impact of sugar-free versus sugary drinks separately

  16. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake associations with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations are not modified by selected genetic variants in a ChREBP-FGF21 pathway: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major dietary contributor to fructose intake. A molecular pathway involving the carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) may influence sugar metabolism and, thereby, contribute to fru...

  17. The taxation of unhealthy energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs): An overview of patterns observed in the policy content and policy context of 13 case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, Luc Louis; Jeurissen, Patrick Paulus Theodoor; Klazinga, Niek Sieds

    2017-01-01

    Taxation of energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is increasingly of interest as a novel public health and fiscal policy instrument. However academic interest in policy determinants has remained limited. We address this paucity by comparing the policy content and policy

  18. Consumption of alcoholic beverages in adolescence and adulthood and risk of testicular germ cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Mary L; Doody, David R; Trabert, Britton; Starr, Jacqueline R; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    The etiology of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) remains obscure and accumulating evidence suggests that postnatal environmental or lifestyle factors may play a role. To investigate whether consumption of alcoholic beverages during adolescence or adulthood is associated with TGCT risk, we analyzed data from a USA population-based case-control study of 540 18-44 year-old TGCT cases and 1,280 age-matched controls. Participants were queried separately about consumption of beer, wine and liquor during grades 7-8, grades 9-12 and the 5 years before reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and corresponding date for controls). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of TGCT risk with alcoholic beverage consumption during the different periods, both total and by specific beverage types and separately for seminomas and nonseminomas. Compared with nondrinkers in the 5 years before reference date, the OR (95% CI) for 1-6, 7-13 and ≥14 drinks per week were 1.20 (0.85, 1.69), 1.23 (0.81, 1.85) and 1.56 (1.03, 2.37), respectively (p-trend = 0.04). The corresponding results for alcohol consumption in grades 9-12 were 1.39 (1.06, 1.82), 1.07 (0.72, 1.60), 1.53 (1.01, 2.31) (p-trend = 0.05). Alcohol consumption in grades 7-8 was uncommon and no statistically significant associations with TGCT were observed. Associations with alcohol consumption in the 5 years before reference date appeared stronger for nonseminomas than for seminomas, but the differences were not statistically significant (p≥0.10). Associations were similar across different alcoholic beverage types. Consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with an increased TGCT risk. © 2016 UICC.

  19. Relationships between tea and other beverage consumption to work performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Janet; Tuckey, Michelle; Einöther, Suzanne J L; Garczarek, Ursula; Garrick, Adam; De Bruin, Eveline A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to examine relationships between tea, coffee and other beverage consumption and associates of work performance and mood among individuals in relatively stressful and cognitively demanding work-place settings. Using a naturalistic, cross-sectional study design, 95 professional and academic staff logged their beverage intake and completed self-reports of associates of work performance (fatigue/exhaustion, mindfulness, work engagement), subjective work performance, mood, work-related strain and recovery four times daily during ten working days. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling in keeping with the hierarchical structure of the data. Tea consumption was associated with increased perceived work performance and reduced tiredness, especially when consumed without milk or sugar. Consumption of non-caffeinated beverages was associated with increased relaxation and recovery from work. In contrast, tea and other caffeinated beverages were found to enhance the negative effects of evening recovery and morning mood on mindfulness during the day. The findings suggest that beverage intake may have a role in optimising work-related psychological states and performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Proximity of snacks to beverages increases food consumption in the workplace: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Ernest; Gorlin, Margarita; Chance, Zoë; Novemsky, Nathan; Dhar, Ravi; Huskey, Kim; Hatzis, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to bolster employee satisfaction, many employers provide free snacks at the office. Unfortunately, keeping employees happy can conflict with the goal of keeping them healthy, since increased snacking at work can contribute to overeating and obesity. Building on the growing body of research in choice architecture, we tested one factor that might influence snack consumption without impacting satisfaction: the relative distance between snacks and beverages. In a large field study at Google, we measured snack consumption when snacks were closer to or farther from beverages. We found that employees who used the beverage station closer to the snack station were more likely to take a snack- the likelihood of snacking increased from 12% to 23% for men and from 13% to 17% for women when the beverage station closest to the snack station was used. These results imply that employers and even families could reduce snack consumption easily, cheaply, and without backlash, by increasing the relative distance between beverages and snacks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluids Intake and Beverage Consumption Pattern among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Ghaemmaghami

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insufficient and inappropriate daily fluid intake in a long period may have adverseeffect on human's health. Therefore, the present study evaluated the amounts and sources of fluidsconsumed by university students to determine whether these amounts and sources of fluid wereenough and appropriate.Methods: In this descriptive study, 245 (142 females and 103 males volunteer students of TabrizUniversity of Medical Sciences in 2009 were recruited. Food and fluid intake of subjects were assessedby 24-hour recall method of 3 days (two week days and one week- end included. Dietaryintake of subjects was analyzed by Nutritionist III software program. The mean total fluid intake(drinking fluid values merged with data on the water content of foods and the rate of metabolicwater were figured out. Comparisons of the results with recommended dietary values were madeusing student's t-test.. Data of dietary intakes for two under-reporter female subjects were notincluded in the statistical analysis.Results: Daily total mean of fluid intake for girls (1598±40ml and boys (1861±59ml reflect thesum of beverages (Girls, 818±29ml; boys, 1147±57ml and food water (Girls, 780±47ml; boys,714±86m. The most consumed beverage for girls and boys were water (40% and tea (49%respectively. Daily mean intake of milk for girls and boys were 106.31±10ml (13% and57.30±11ml (5%, respectively.Conclusion: The mean daily fluid intake of subjects, specially water, and milk was lower than recommendedvalues. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tailored nutrition intervention targetingthe young adults to improve their beverage choices.

  2. [ASSOCIATION BETWEEN STEVIA SWEETENER CONSUMPTION AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Vásquez Leiva, Alejandra; Morales Illanes, Gladys; Schifferli Castro, Ingrid; Sanhueza Espinoza, Claudia; Encina Vega, Claudia; Vivanco Cuevas, Karla; Mena Bolvaran, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    stevia consumption has increased worlwide among the different age groups; however, studies regarding the association between stevia intake and nutritional status in adults are scarce. to evaluate stevia intake in first year university students from five chilean cities (Santiago, Temuco, Viña del Mar, Concepción and Antofagasta) controlling by nutritional status, socioeconomic level, gender and whether their undergraduate program belongs to the health sciences. 486 first year university students belonging to 4 Chilean universities were evaluated. Each student completed a weekly food frequency questionnaire including food and beverages containing stevia. Selfreport of weight and height was requested. 69.8% of the students consumed stevia every week, the liquid form being the main contributor to the dietary stevia intake (81.2%). Only 1.4% of the students went over the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Normal weight women show a higher stevia intake compared to those obese or overweight (p stevia consumption appears to be positively associated to normal weight in the first model (adjusted) (OR = 0.219; IC 95%: 0.13-0.35; p stevia consumption was positively associated with normal nutritional status in Chilean university students. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of moderate consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners on glucose tolerance and body composition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Ashley P; Navalta, James W; Kruskall, Laura J; Young, John C

    2017-11-01

    Glucose tolerance and body composition were determined in male rats given non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) (aspartame or sucralose) in drinking water. Areas under the curve for glucose and insulin with NNS did not differ from control. NNS treatment had no effect on weight gain or percent body fat. Epididymal fat pad mass was higher with aspartame and the ratio of trunk to total fat was less with sucralose versus control, suggesting that NNS consumption altered body fat distribution.

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of sugar-sweetened beverages intake among schoolchildren aged 9 to 17 years from Bogotá, Colombia: the FUPRECOL Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Fuerte-Celis, Juan Camilo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique

    2017-03-30

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and to examine of associated factors among schoolchildren from Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: From a total of 8,136 schoolchildren and adolescents (age 9-17.9 years) taking part in the FUPRECOL Study. Sugar-sweetened beverages intake was based on intake from “regular soda”, “drink tea” and/or “concentrated juices”. Body weigth, heigth, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percentage body fat by electrical bioimpedance analysis were measured such as adiposity markers. Associated factors (sex, age, abdominal obesity, BMI classification, mothers’ and fathers’ educational level and nutritional status by “Krece plus” questionnaire), were collected by structured questionnaire. Associations were established through a binary logistic regression. Results: Of the subjects, 58.4% were women. According to sex, boys response highest intake of “regular soda” daily/weekly frequency of the 70.9% and 21.0%, respectively, followed by “concentrated juices” (64.4% weekly vs.11.3% daily). In both gender, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was higher in schoolchildren that responded to intake “regular soda” (23.3%), “concentrated juices” (13.2%) and “drink tea” daily (9.7%). Age [OR 1.15 (95%CI 1.03 to 1.28)], mothers’ [OR 1.30 (95%CI 1.03 to 1.65)], and fathers’ [OR 1.34 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.79) low educational level and nutritional status [OR 2.60 (95%CI 2.09 to 3.25)], were associated with daily intake of “regular soda”. Conclusion: Age, parental education level and dietary patterns were associated with sugar-sweetened beverages in schoolchildren in Bogotá, Colombia. We recommended comprehensive interventions which are involved nutritional and educational component among children and adolescents from Bogotá, Colombia.

  5. External versus Internal Control of Beverage Consumption in Males at Risk for Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisman, Stephen A.; And Others

    Alcohol researchers have sought to characterize the relationship between cue responsivity and alcohol consumption by alcoholics. This study used the beverage tasting paradigm to test for differences in cue responsivity in adolescent sons of alcoholics. It was hypothesized that, compared to sons of nonalcoholics, sons of alcoholics would be more…

  6. Patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages among adolescent school children in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Boutkabout, C.; Levie, D.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequency of intake and patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages in school children in the Netherlands. METHODS: A cross-sectional, single centre study was performed among 502 school children in Rotterdam, in age varying between 12 and 19 years. Data on

  7. Aspects of the manufacture and consumption of Kenyan traditional fermented beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    1981-01-01

    This study was aimed at providing fundamental information con ern ing the manufacture, composition, and consumption of the major Kenyan traditional fermented beverages.

    In Chapter 1, the reader is introduced to Kenya, its population and climate, and several aspects of its agriculture

  8. Impact of Masked Replacement of Sugar-Sweetened with Sugar-Free Beverages on Body Weight Increases with Initial BMI: Secondary Analysis of Data from an 18 Month Double–Blind Trial in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Martijn B.; de Ruyter, Janne C.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. This effect may be more pronounced in children with a high body mass index (BMI) because their sensing of kilocalories might be compromised. We investigated the impact of sugar-free versus sugary drinks separately in children with a higher and a lower initial BMI z score, and predicted caloric intakes and degree of compensation in the two groups. Methods and Findings This is a secondary, explorative analysis of our double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) which showed that replacement of one 250-mL sugary drink per day by a sugar—free drink for 18 months significantly reduced weight gain. In the 477 children who completed the trial, mean initial weights were close to the Dutch average. Only 16% were overweight and 3% obese. Weight changes were expressed as BMI z-score, i.e. as standard deviations of the BMI distribution per age and sex group. We designated the 239 children with an initial BMI z-score below the median as ‘lower BMI’ and the 238 children above the median as ‘higher BMI’. The difference in caloric intake from experimental beverages between treatments was 86 kcal/day both in the lower and in the higher BMI group. We used a multiple linear regression and the coefficient of the interaction term (initial BMI group times treatment), indicated whether children with a lower BMI responded differently from children with a higher BMI. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Relative to the sugar sweetened beverage, consumption of the sugar—free beverage for 18 months reduced the BMI z-score by 0.05 SD units within the lower BMI group and by 0.21 SD within the higher BMI group. Body weight gain was reduced by 0.62 kg in the lower BMI group and by 1.53 kg in the higher BMI group. Thus the treatment reduced the BMI z-score by 0.16 SD units more in the higher BMI group than in the lower BMI group (p = 0.04; 95% CI -0.31 to -0.01). The impact of the

  9. Impact of Masked Replacement of Sugar-Sweetened with Sugar-Free Beverages on Body Weight Increases with Initial BMI: Secondary Analysis of Data from an 18 Month Double-Blind Trial in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Martijn B; de Ruyter, Janne C; Kuijper, Lothar D J; Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D; Olthof, Margreet R

    2016-01-01

    Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. This effect may be more pronounced in children with a high body mass index (BMI) because their sensing of kilocalories might be compromised. We investigated the impact of sugar-free versus sugary drinks separately in children with a higher and a lower initial BMI z score, and predicted caloric intakes and degree of compensation in the two groups. This is a secondary, explorative analysis of our double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) which showed that replacement of one 250-mL sugary drink per day by a sugar-free drink for 18 months significantly reduced weight gain. In the 477 children who completed the trial, mean initial weights were close to the Dutch average. Only 16% were overweight and 3% obese. Weight changes were expressed as BMI z-score, i.e. as standard deviations of the BMI distribution per age and sex group. We designated the 239 children with an initial BMI z-score below the median as 'lower BMI' and the 238 children above the median as 'higher BMI'. The difference in caloric intake from experimental beverages between treatments was 86 kcal/day both in the lower and in the higher BMI group. We used a multiple linear regression and the coefficient of the interaction term (initial BMI group times treatment), indicated whether children with a lower BMI responded differently from children with a higher BMI. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Relative to the sugar sweetened beverage, consumption of the sugar-free beverage for 18 months reduced the BMI z-score by 0.05 SD units within the lower BMI group and by 0.21 SD within the higher BMI group. Body weight gain was reduced by 0.62 kg in the lower BMI group and by 1.53 kg in the higher BMI group. Thus the treatment reduced the BMI z-score by 0.16 SD units more in the higher BMI group than in the lower BMI group (p = 0.04; 95% CI -0.31 to -0.01). The impact of the intervention on body weight gain differed by 0

  10. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. Tea with Symbiotic Consortium of Bacteria and Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub D. Cvetković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L. with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY. In this study, lemon balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of fi nished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L, the value which is confi rmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. offi cinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  11. Using the theory of planned behavior to understand caregivers' intention to serve sugar-sweetened beverages to non-Hispanic black preschoolers.