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Sample records for sweet taste signaling

  1. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

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    Menizibeya O. Welcome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  2. Sweet taste signaling functions as a hypothalamic glucose sensor

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    Xueying Ren

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain glucosensing is essential for normal body glucose homeostasis and neuronal function. However, the exact signaling mechanisms involved in the neuronal sensing of extracellular glucose levels remain poorly understood. Of particular interest is the identification of candidate membrane molecular sensors allowing neurons to change firing rates independently of intracellular glucose metabolism. Here we describe for the first time the expression of the taste receptor genes Tas1r1, Tas1r2 and Tas1r3, and their associated G-protein genes, in the mammalian brain. Neuronal expression of taste genes was detected in different nutrient-sensing forebrain regions, including the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus, the CA fields and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the habenula, and cortex. Expression was also observed in the intra-ventricular epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. These same regions were found to express the corresponding gene products that form the heterodimeric T1R2/T1R3 and T1R1/T1R3 sweet and L-amino acid taste G-protein coupled receptors, respectively. These regions were also found to express the taste G-protein α-Gustducin. Moreover, in vivo studies in mice demonstrate that the hypothalamic expression of taste-related genes is regulated by the nutritional state of the animal, with food deprivation significantly increasing expression levels of Tas1r1 and Tas1r2 in hypothalamus, but not in cortex. Furthermore, exposing mouse hypothalamic cells to a low-glucose medium, while maintaining normal L-amino acid concentrations, specifically resulted in higher expression levels of the sweet-associated gene Tas1r2. This latter effect was reversed by adding the non-metabolizable artificial sweetener sucralose to the low-glucose medium, indicating that taste-like signaling in hypothalamic neurons does not require intracellular glucose oxidation. Our findings suggest that the G-protein coupled sweet receptor T1R2/T1R3 is a

  3. Genetics of sweet taste preferences†

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Floriano, Wely B; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Lin, Cailu; Murovets, Vladimir O; Reed, Danielle R; Zolotarev, Vasily A; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. There is considerable variation in sweet taste perception and preferences within and among species. Although learning and homeostatic mechanisms contribute to this variation in sweet taste, much of it is genetically determined. Recent studies have shown that variation in the T1R genes contributes to within- and between-species differences in sweet taste. In addition, our ongoing studies using the mouse model demonstrate that a sign...

  4. Development of full sweet, umami, and bitter taste responsiveness requires Regulator of G protein Signaling-21 (RGS21).

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    Schroer, Adam B; Gross, Joshua D; Kaski, Shane W; Wix, Kim; Siderovski, David P; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Setola, Vincent

    2018-04-26

    The mammalian tastes of sweet, umami, and bitter are initiated by activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the T1R and T2R families on taste receptor cells. GPCRs signal via nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis, the latter hastened by GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) that include the Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) protein family. We previously reported that RGS21, uniquely expressed in Type II taste receptor cells, decreases the potency of bitter-stimulated T2R signaling in cultured cells, consistent with its in vitro GAP activity. However, the role of RGS21 in organismal responses to GPCR-mediated tastants was not established. Here, we characterized mice lacking the Rgs21 fifth exon. Eliminating Rgs21 expression had no effect on body mass accumulation (a measure of alimentation), fungiform papillae number and morphology, circumvallate papillae morphology, and taste bud number. Two-bottle preference tests, however, revealed that Rgs21-null mice have blunted aversion to quinine and denatonium, and blunted preference for monosodium glutamate, the sweeteners sucrose and SC45647, and (surprisingly) NaCl. Observed reductions in GPCR-mediated tastant responses upon Rgs21 loss are opposite to original expectations, given that loss of RGS21 -- a GPCR signaling negative regulator -- should lead to increased responsiveness to tastant-mediated GPCR signaling (all else being equal). Yet, reduced organismal tastant responses are consistent with observations of reduced chorda tympani nerve recordings in Rgs21-null mice. Reduced tastant-mediated responses and behaviors exhibited by adult mice lacking Rgs21 expression since birth have thus revealed an underappreciated requirement for a GPCR GAP to establish the full character of tastant signaling.

  5. Sweet taste of prosocial status signaling: When eating organic foods makes you happy and hopeful.

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    Puska, Petteri; Kurki, Sami; Lähdesmäki, Merja; Siltaoja, Marjo; Luomala, Harri

    2018-02-01

    As the current research suggests that there are links between prosocial acts and status signaling (including sustainable consumer choices), we empirically study (with three experiments) whether food consumers go green to be seen. First, we examine how activating a motive for status influences prosocial organic food preferences. Then, we examine how the social visibility of the choice (private vs. public) affects these preferences. We found that when consumers' desire for status was elicited, they preferred organic food products significantly over their nonorganic counterparts; making the choice situation visible created the same effect. Finally, we go beyond consumers' evaluative and behavioral domains that have typically been addressed to investigate whether this (nonconscious) "going green to be seen" effect is also evident at the level of more physiologically-driven food responses. Indeed, status motives and reputational concerns created an improved senso-emotional experience of organic food. Specifically, when consumers were led to believe that they have to share their organic food taste experiences with others, an elevation could be detected not only in the pleasantness ratings but also in how joyful and hopeful they felt after eating a food sample. We claim that the reason for this is that a tendency to favor organic foods can be viewed as a costly signaling trait, leading to flaunting about one's prosocial tendencies. According to these findings, highlighting socially disapproved consumption motives, such as reputation management, may be an effective way to increase the relatively low sales of organic foods and thereby promote sustainable consumer behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of the Sweet Taste Receptor in Enteroendocrine Cells and Pancreatic β-Cells

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    Itaru Kojima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The sweet taste receptor is expressed in taste cells located in taste buds of the tongue. This receptor senses sweet substances in the oral cavity, activates taste cells, and transmits the taste signals to adjacent neurons. The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of two G protein-coupled receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. Recent studies have shown that this receptor is also expressed in the extragustatory system, including the gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic β-cells, and glucose-responsive neurons in the brain. In the intestine, the sweet taste receptor regulates secretion of incretin hormones and glucose uptake from the lumen. In β-cells, activation of the sweet taste receptor leads to stimulation of insulin secretion. Collectively, the sweet taste receptor plays an important role in recognition and metabolism of energy sources in the body.

  7. Sweet and sour taste preferences of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    In the industrialized countries children have many foods to choose from, both healthy and unhealthy products, these choices mainly depend on children's taste preferences. The present thesis focused on preferences for sweet and sour taste of young children (4- to 12-years of age) living in the US and

  8. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is specifically involved in sweet taste transmission.

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    Takai, Shingo; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Inoue, Mayuko; Iwata, Shusuke; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Drucker, Daniel J; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-06-01

    Five fundamental taste qualities (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami) are sensed by dedicated taste cells (TCs) that relay quality information to gustatory nerve fibers. In peripheral taste signaling pathways, ATP has been identified as a functional neurotransmitter, but it remains to be determined how specificity of different taste qualities is maintained across synapses. Recent studies demonstrated that some gut peptides are released from taste buds by prolonged application of particular taste stimuli, suggesting their potential involvement in taste information coding. In this study, we focused on the function of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in initial responses to taste stimulation. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) null mice had reduced neural and behavioral responses specifically to sweet compounds compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Some sweet responsive TCs expressed GLP-1 and its receptors were expressed in gustatory neurons. GLP-1 was released immediately from taste bud cells in response to sweet compounds but not to other taste stimuli. Intravenous administration of GLP-1 elicited transient responses in a subset of sweet-sensitive gustatory nerve fibers but did not affect other types of fibers, and this response was suppressed by pre-administration of the GLP-1R antagonist Exendin-4(3-39). Thus GLP-1 may be involved in normal sweet taste signal transmission in mice. © FASEB.

  9. Bitter and sweet tasting molecules: It's complicated.

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    Di Pizio, Antonella; Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, Yaron; Hayes, John E; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-04-19

    "Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25-member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs. Molecules humans describe as sweet are recognized by a TAS1R2/TAS1R3 heterodimer of class C GPCRs. Here we characterize the chemical space of bitter and sweet molecules: the majority of bitter compounds show higher hydrophobicity compared to sweet compounds, while sweet molecules have a wider range of sizes. Importantly, recent evidence indicates that TAS1Rs and TAS2Rs are not limited to the oral cavity; moreover, some bitterants are pharmacologically promiscuous, with the hERG potassium channel, cytochrome P450 enzymes, and carbonic anhydrases as common off-targets. Further focus on polypharmacology may unravel new physiological roles for tastant molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

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    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  11. Sweet taste receptor expressed in pancreatic beta-cells activates the calcium and cyclic AMP signaling systems and stimulates insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Nakagawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+](c and cAMP ([cAMP](c were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca(2+](c. The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca(2+](c response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca(2+](c was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a G(q inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP](c, which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in beta-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca(2+ and cAMP-dependent mechanisms.

  12. Caffeine May Reduce Perceived Sweet Taste in Humans, Supporting Evidence That Adenosine Receptors Modulate Taste.

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    Choo, Ezen; Picket, Benjamin; Dando, Robin

    2017-09-01

    Multiple recent reports have detailed the presence of adenosine receptors in sweet sensitive taste cells of mice. These receptors are activated by endogenous adenosine in the plasma to enhance sweet signals within the taste bud, before reporting to the primary afferent. As we commonly consume caffeine, a powerful antagonist for such receptors, in our daily lives, an intriguing question we sought to answer was whether the caffeine we habitually consume in coffee can inhibit the perception of sweet taste in humans. 107 panelists were randomly assigned to 2 groups, sampling decaffeinated coffee supplemented with either 200 mg of caffeine, about the level found in a strong cup of coffee, or an equally bitter concentration of quinine. Participants subsequently performed sensory testing, with the session repeated in the alternative condition in a second session on a separate day. Panelists rated both the sweetened coffee itself and subsequent sucrose solutions as less sweet in the caffeine condition, despite the treatment having no effect on bitter, sour, salty, or umami perception. Panelists were also unable to discern whether they had consumed the caffeinated or noncaffeinated coffee, with ratings of alertness increased equally, but no significant improvement in reaction times, highlighting coffee's powerful placebo effect. This work validates earlier observations in rodents in a human population. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds.

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    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-11-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  14. Sweet Taste and Nutrient Value Subdivide Rewarding Dopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Huetteroth, Wolf; Perisse, Emmanuel; Lin, Suewei; Klappenbach, Mart?n; Burke, Christopher; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons provide reward learning signals in mammals and insects. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that water-reinforcing dopaminergic neurons are different to those for nutritious sugars. Here, we tested whether the sweet taste and nutrient properties of sugar reinforcement further subdivide the fly reward system. We found that dopaminergic neurons expressing the OAMB octopamine receptor specifically convey the short-term reinforcing effects of sweet taste. These dopamin...

  15. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds.

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    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-02-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-01-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds

  17. Sweet and bitter taste perception of women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However......Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between......, the liking of the least sweet apple + berry juice was significantly higher, and the optimal preferred sugar content was significantly lower in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women. With regards to self-report, pregnant women who reported higher sensitivity in sweet or bitter taste did not have...

  18. Taste Receptor Signaling-- From Tongues to Lungs

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    Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are the transducing endorgans of gustation. Each taste bud comprises 50–100 elongated cells, which extend from the basal lamina to the surface of the tongue, where their apical microvilli encounter taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Salts and acids utilize apically located ion channels for transduction, while bitter, sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli utilize G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and second messenger signaling mechanisms. This review will focus on GPCR signaling mechanisms. Two classes of taste GPCRs have been identified, the T1Rs for sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli, and the T2Rs for bitter stimuli. These low affinity GPCRs all couple to the same downstream signaling effectors that include Gβγ activation of PLCβ2, IP3-mediated release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, and Ca2+-dependent activation of the monovalent selective cation channel, TrpM5. These events lead to membrane depolarization, action potentials, and release of ATP as a transmitter to activate gustatory afferents. The Gα subunit, α-gustducin, activates a phosphodiesterase to decrease intracellular cAMP levels, although the precise targets of cAMP have not been identified. With the molecular identification of the taste GPCRs, it has become clear that taste signaling is not limited to taste buds, but occurs in many cell types of the airways. These include solitary chemosensory cells, ciliated epithelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Bitter receptors are most abundantly expressed in the airways, where they respond to irritating chemicals and promote protective airway reflexes, utilizing the same downstream signaling effectors as taste cells. PMID:21481196

  19. Longitudinal analysis of calorie restriction on rat taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste modulators.

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    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Cong, Wei-Na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste-related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), α-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and α-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste-related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR.

  20. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

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    Michael S Sinclair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT, acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR.Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM. OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II nor Presynaptic (Type III cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene.We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent sensory output. Such modulation would complement central pathways of

  1. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael S; Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Yoshida, Masahide; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2010-08-05

    The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT), acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout) overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin) solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR. Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I) taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM). OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II) nor Presynaptic (Type III) cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene. We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I) taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I) taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent sensory output. Such modulation would complement central pathways of appetite

  2. Lipid-Lowering Pharmaceutical Clofibrate Inhibits Human Sweet Taste

    OpenAIRE

    Kochem, Matthew; Breslin, Paul A.S.

    2016-01-01

    T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to dete...

  3. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

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    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  4. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  5. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Shinji; Baquero, Arian; Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  6. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-04

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 μM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 μM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express the adenosine receptor, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (type III) and Glial-like (type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase. Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste.

  7. Altered insula response to sweet taste processing after recovery from anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberndorfer, Tyson A; Frank, Guido K W; Simmons, Alan N; Wagner, Angela; McCurdy, Danyale; Fudge, Julie L; Yang, Tony T; Paulus, Martin P; Kaye, Walter H

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that altered function of higher-order appetitive neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in anorexia nervosa and overeating in bulimia nervosa. This study used sweet tastes to interrogate gustatory neurocircuitry involving the anterior insula and related regions that modulate sensory-interoceptive-reward signals in response to palatable foods. Participants who had recovered from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were studied to avoid confounding effects of altered nutritional state. Functional MRI measured brain response to repeated tastes of sucrose and sucralose to disentangle neural processing of caloric and noncaloric sweet tastes. Whole-brain functional analysis was constrained to anatomical regions of interest. Relative to matched comparison women (N=14), women recovered from anorexia nervosa (N=14) had significantly diminished and women recovered from bulimia nervosa (N=14) had significantly elevated hemodynamic response to tastes of sucrose in the right anterior insula. Anterior insula response to sucrose compared with sucralose was exaggerated in the recovered group (lower in women recovered from anorexia nervosa and higher in women recovered from bulimia nervosa). The anterior insula integrates sensory reward aspects of taste in the service of nutritional homeostasis. One possibility is that restricted eating and weight loss occur in anorexia nervosa because of a failure to accurately recognize hunger signals, whereas overeating in bulimia nervosa could represent an exaggerated perception of hunger signals. This response may reflect the altered calibration of signals related to sweet taste and the caloric content of food and may offer a pathway to novel and more effective treatments.

  8. Expression of Galpha14 in sweet-transducing taste cells of the posterior tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Soochong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Type II"/Receptor cells express G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs for sweet, umami (T1Rs and mGluRs or bitter (T2Rs, as well as the proteins for downstream signalling cascades. Transduction downstream of T1Rs and T2Rs relies on G-protein and PLCβ2-mediated release of stored Ca2+. Whereas Gαgus (gustducin couples to the T2R (bitter receptors, which Gα-subunit couples to the sweet (T1R2 + T1R3 receptor is presently not known. We utilized RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and single-cell gene expression profiling to examine the expression of the Gαq family (q, 11, 14 in mouse taste buds. Results By RT-PCR, Gα14 is expressed strongly and in a taste selective manner in posterior (vallate and foliate, but not anterior (fungiform and palate taste fields. Gαq and Gα11, although detectable, are not expressed in a taste-selective fashion. Further, expression of Gα14 mRNA is limited to Type II/Receptor cells in taste buds. Immunocytochemistry on vallate papillae using a broad Gαq family antiserum reveals specific staining only in Type II taste cells (i.e. those expressing TrpM5 and PLCβ2. This staining persists in Gαq knockout mice and immunostaining with a Gα11-specific antiserum shows no immunoreactivity in taste buds. Taken together, these data show that Gα14 is the dominant Gαq family member detected. Immunoreactivity for Gα14 strongly correlates with expression of T1R3, the taste receptor subunit present in taste cells responsive to either umami or sweet. Single cell gene expression profiling confirms a tight correlation between the expression of Gα14 and both T1R2 and T1R3, the receptor combination that forms sweet taste receptors. Conclusion Gα14 is co-expressed with the sweet taste receptor in posterior tongue, although not in anterior tongue. Thus, sweet taste transduction may rely on different downstream transduction elements in posterior and anterior taste fields.

  9. Taste bud leptin: sweet dampened at initiation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Susan P; Frank, Marion E

    2015-05-01

    The intriguing observation that leptin decreases sweet-evoked peripheral gustatory responses has aroused much interest (Kawai K, Sugimoto K, Nakashima K, Miura H, Ninomiya Y. 2000. Leptin as a modulator of sweet taste sensitivities in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(20):11044-11049.) due to its implied importance in controlling appetite. The effects of this anorexic hormone, however, appear more conditional than originally believed. In this issue of Chemical Senses, a careful study by Glendinning and colleagues, find no effects of leptin on sweet-evoked chorda tympani responses, whereas an equally careful study by Meredith and colleagues, find decreased release of ATP and increased release of 5-HT from taste buds in response to sweet stimuli. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Lipid-Lowering Pharmaceutical Clofibrate Inhibits Human Sweet Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochem, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception in humans and is, therefore, a T1R2-T1R3 antagonist in vivo. Fourteen participants rated the sweetness intensity of 4 sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, Na cyclamate, acesulfame K) across a broad range of concentrations. Each sweetener was prepared in solution neat and in mixture with either clofibric acid or lactisole. Clofibric acid inhibited sweetness of every sweetener. Consistent with competitive binding, inhibition by clofibric acid was diminished with increasing sweetener concentration. This study provides in vivo evidence that the lipid-lowering drug clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception and is, therefore, a T1R carbohydrate receptor inhibitor. Our results are consistent with previous in vitro findings. Given that T1R2-T1R3 may in part regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, future studies should investigate the metabolic effects of T1R inhibition. PMID:27742692

  11. Calcium Signaling in Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. PMID:25450977

  12. The Role of Cholecystokinin in Peripheral Taste Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Yoshida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is a gut hormone released from enteroendocrine cells. CCK functions as an anorexigenic factor by acting on CCK receptors expressed on the vagal afferent nerve and hypothalamus with a synergistic interaction between leptin. In the gut, tastants such as amino acids and bitter compounds stimulate CCK release from enteroendocrine cells via activation of taste transduction pathways. CCK is also expressed in taste buds, suggesting potential roles of CCK in taste signaling in the peripheral taste organ. In the present study, we focused on the function of CCK in the initial responses to taste stimulation. CCK was coexpressed with type II taste cell markers such as Gα-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2, and transient receptor potential channel M5. Furthermore, a small subset (~30% of CCK-expressing taste cells expressed a sweet/umami taste receptor component, taste receptor type 1 member 3, in taste buds. Because type II taste cells are sweet, umami or bitter taste cells, the majority of CCK-expressing taste cells may be bitter taste cells. CCK-A and -B receptors were expressed in both taste cells and gustatory neurons. CCK receptor knockout mice showed reduced neural responses to bitter compounds compared with wild-type mice. Consistently, intravenous injection of CCK-Ar antagonist lorglumide selectively suppressed gustatory nerve responses to bitter compounds. Intravenous injection of CCK-8 transiently increased gustatory nerve activities in a dose-dependent manner whereas administration of CCK-8 did not affect activities of bitter-sensitive taste cells. Collectively, CCK may be a functionally important neurotransmitter or neuromodulator to activate bitter nerve fibers in peripheral taste tissues.

  13. Oxytocin decreases sweet taste sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael S; Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Abouyared, Marianne; St John, Steven J; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2015-03-15

    Oxytocin (OXT) suppresses food intake and lack of OXT leads to overconsumption of sucrose. Taste bud cells were recently discovered to express OXT-receptor. In the present study we tested whether administering OXT to wild-type mice affects their licking behavior for tastants in a paradigm designed to be sensitive to taste perception. We injected C57BL/6J mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10mg/kg OXT and assayed their brief-access lick responses, motivated by water deprivation, to NaCl (300mM), citric acid (20mM), quinine (0.3mM), saccharin (10mM), and a mix of MSG and IMP (100mM and 0.5mM respectively). OXT had no effect on licking for NaCl, citric acid, or quinine. A possible effect of OXT on saccharin and MSG+IMP was difficult to interpret due to unexpectedly low lick rates to water (the vehicle for all taste solutions), likely caused by the use of a high OXT dose that suppressed licking and other behaviors. A subsequent experiment focused on another preferred tastant, sucrose, and employed a much lower OXT dose (0.1mg/kg). This modification, based on our measurements of plasma OXT following i.p. injection, permitted us to elevate plasma [OXT] sufficiently to preferentially activate taste bud cells. OXT at this low dose significantly reduced licking responses to 0.3M sucrose, and overall shifted the sucrose concentration - behavioral response curves rightward (mean EC50saline=0.362M vs. EC50OXT=0.466M). Males did not differ from females under any condition in this study. We propose that circulating oxytocin is another factor that modulates taste-based behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sweet taste receptor gene variation and aspartame taste in primates and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G; Beauchamp, Gary K; Reed, Danielle R; Thai, Chloe; Floriano, Wely B

    2011-06-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche.

  15. Characterization of the Binding Site of Aspartame in the Human Sweet Taste Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, Emeline L; Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Mezei, Mihaly; Hecht, Elizabeth; Quijada, Jeniffer; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman; Max, Marianna

    2015-10-01

    The sweet taste receptor, a heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor comprised of T1R2 and T1R3, binds sugars, small molecule sweeteners, and sweet proteins to multiple binding sites. The dipeptide sweetener, aspartame binds in the Venus Flytrap Module (VFTM) of T1R2. We developed homology models of the open and closed forms of human T1R2 and human T1R3 VFTMs and their dimers and then docked aspartame into the closed form of T1R2's VFTM. To test and refine the predictions of our model, we mutated various T1R2 VFTM residues, assayed activity of the mutants and identified 11 critical residues (S40, Y103, D142, S144, S165, S168, Y215, D278, E302, D307, and R383) in and proximal to the binding pocket of the sweet taste receptor that are important for ligand recognition and activity of aspartame. Furthermore, we propose that binding is dependent on 2 water molecules situated in the ligand pocket that bridge 2 carbonyl groups of aspartame to residues D142 and L279. These results shed light on the activation mechanism and how signal transmission arising from the extracellular domain of the T1R2 monomer of the sweet receptor leads to the perception of sweet taste. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Modulation of taste sensitivity by GLP-1 signaling in taste buds.

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    Martin, Bronwen; Dotson, Cedrick D; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Ji, Sunggoan; Drucker, Daniel J; Maudsley, Stuart; Munger, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Modulation of sensory function can help animals adjust to a changing external and internal environment. Even so, mechanisms for modulating taste sensitivity are poorly understood. Using immunohistochemical, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, we found that the peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor (GLP-1R) are expressed in mammalian taste buds. Furthermore, we found that GLP-1 signaling plays an important role in the modulation of taste sensitivity: GLP-1R knockout mice exhibit a dramatic reduction in sweet taste sensitivity as well as an enhanced sensitivity to umami-tasting stimuli. Together, these findings suggest a novel paracrine mechanism for the hormonal modulation of taste function in mammals.

  17. Taste perception and implicit attitude toward sweet related to body mass index and soft drink supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Donaldson, Lucy F; Markland, David A; Loveday, Helina; Jackson, Matthew J; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2011-08-01

    These studies examined the differences in sweet taste perception and implicit attitude toward sweet between normal-weight and overweight/obese adults; and tested the effects of soft drink consumption on sweet taste, explicit preference and implicit attitude toward sweet in normal-weight subjects. In study 1, normal-weight (n = 22) and overweight/obese (n = 11) adults were assessed for sweet taste intensity and pleasantness. Implicit attitude toward sweet was assessed by implicit association test (IAT). In study 2, normal-weight, lightly active adults (n = 12) underwent one month soft drink supplementation (≈760 ml/day). This increased their daily carbohydrate intake by 2.1 ± 0.2g/kg body weight. Sweet taste perception, explicit preference and implicit attitudes to sweet were assessed. In both studies salty taste was also assessed as a contrasting perception. Overweight/obese subjects perceived sweet and salty tastes as less intense (-23% and -19%, respectively) and reported higher IAT scores for sweet than normal-weight controls (2.1-fold). The supplementation changed sweet intensity/pleasantness ratings and it increased explicit preference (2.3-fold) for sweet in a subgroup of initial sucrose-dislikers. In conclusion, overweight/obese individuals are more implicitly attracted to sweet. One month of soft drink supplementation changed sweet taste perception of normal-weight subjects. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y Q; Lacy, Kathleen E; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S J

    2016-04-23

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants' (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23-0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  19. The role of sweet and savoury taste in food intake and food preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Griffioen-Roose, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim The sensory attributes of food play a key role in the selection and termination of meals and their rewarding properties. The majority of our foods are either sweet or savoury tasting. In addition, within our food range, savoury-tasting foods contain in general higher levels of protein. The effect of specific taste modalities on human food intake, however, requires further clarification. The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of sweet and savoury taste ...

  20. Sweet taste exposure and the subsequent acceptance and preference for sweet taste in the diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appleton, Km; Tuorila, H.; Bertenshaw, Ej; Graaf, De C.; Mela, Dj

    2018-01-01

    Background There are consistent, evidence-based global public health recommendations to reduce intakes of free sugars. However, the corresponding evidence for recommending reduced exposure to sweetness is less clear. Objective Our aim was to identify and review the published evidence investigating

  1. Drosophila fatty acid taste signals through the PLC pathway in sugar-sensing neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    Full Text Available Taste is the primary sensory system for detecting food quality and palatability. Drosophila detects five distinct taste modalities that include sweet, bitter, salt, water, and the taste of carbonation. Of these, sweet-sensing neurons appear to have utility for the detection of nutritionally rich food while bitter-sensing neurons signal toxicity and confer repulsion. Growing evidence in mammals suggests that taste for fatty acids (FAs signals the presence of dietary lipids and promotes feeding. While flies appear to be attracted to fatty acids, the neural basis for fatty acid detection and attraction are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a range of FAs are detected by the fly gustatory system and elicit a robust feeding response. Flies lacking olfactory organs respond robustly to FAs, confirming that FA attraction is mediated through the gustatory system. Furthermore, flies detect FAs independent of pH, suggesting the molecular basis for FA taste is not due to acidity. We show that low and medium concentrations of FAs serve as an appetitive signal and they are detected exclusively through the same subset of neurons that sense appetitive sweet substances, including most sugars. In mammals, taste perception of sweet and bitter substances is dependent on phospholipase C (PLC signaling in specialized taste buds. We find that flies mutant for norpA, a Drosophila ortholog of PLC, fail to respond to FAs. Intriguingly, norpA mutants respond normally to other tastants, including sucrose and yeast. The defect of norpA mutants can be rescued by selectively restoring norpA expression in sweet-sensing neurons, corroborating that FAs signal through sweet-sensing neurons, and suggesting PLC signaling in the gustatory system is specifically involved in FA taste. Taken together, these findings reveal that PLC function in Drosophila sweet-sensing neurons is a conserved molecular signaling pathway that confers attraction to fatty acids.

  2. Sweet Taste Perception is Associated with Body Mass Index at the Phenotypic and Genotypic Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Ong, Jue-Sheng; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; MacGregor, Stuart; Gharahkhani, Puya; Martin, Nicholas G; Rentería, Miguel E

    2016-10-01

    Investigations on the relationship between sweet taste perception and body mass index (BMI) have been inconclusive. Here, we report a longitudinal analysis using a genetically informative sample of 1,576 adolescent Australian twins to explore the relationship between BMI and sweet taste. First, we estimated the phenotypic correlations between perception scores for four different sweet compounds (glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame) and BMI. Then, we computed the association between adolescent taste perception and BMI in early adulthood (reported 9 years later). Finally, we used twin modeling and polygenic risk prediction analysis to investigate the genetic overlap between BMI and sweet taste perception. Our findings revealed that BMI in early adulthood was significantly associated with each of the sweet perception scores, with the strongest correlation observed in aspartame with r = 0.09 (p = .007). However, only limited evidence of association was observed between sweet taste perception and BMI that was measured at the same time (in adolescence), with the strongest evidence of association observed for glucose with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.06 (p = .029) and for aspartame with r = 0.06 (p = .035). We found a significant (p sweet taste perception in adolescence can be a potential indicator of BMI in early adulthood. This association is further supported by evidence of genetic overlap between the traits, suggesting that some BMI genes may be acting through biological pathways of taste perception.

  3. Sweet taste liking is associated with subjective response to amphetamine in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Lyon, Nicholas; Hedeker, Donald; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-11-01

    Preference for sweet taste rewards has been linked to the propensity for drug use in both animals and humans. Here, we tested the association between sweet taste liking and sensitivity to amphetamine reward in healthy adults. We hypothesized that sweet likers would report greater euphoria and stimulation following D-amphetamine (20 mg) compared to sweet dislikers. Men (n = 36) and women (n = 34) completed a sweet taste test in which they rated their liking of various concentrations of sucrose and filtered water (0.05, 0.10, 0.21, 0.42, and 0.83 M). Participants who preferred the highest concentration were classified as "sweet likers." All others were classified as "sweet dislikers." They then completed four sessions in which they received D-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo in alternating order, providing self-report measures of euphoria and stimulation on the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) at regular intervals. We conducted linear mixed effects models to examine relationships between sweet liking and drug-induced euphoria and stimulation. Sweet likers reported significantly greater amphetamine-induced euphoria than did sweet dislikers among women. By contrast, sweet liking was not associated with amphetamine response in men. No associations with stimulation were observed. The association between sweet preference and amphetamine response in women is consistent with animal studies linking sweet taste preference and drug reward and also fits with observations that individuals who use drugs show a preference for sweet tastes. Whether the sex difference is related to circulating hormones, or other variables, remains to be determined.

  4. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y. Q. Low

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8 sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01. When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01. Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  5. Potential arms race in the coevolution of primates and angiosperms: brazzein sweet proteins and gorilla taste receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Elaine E; Veilleux, Carrie C; Saltonstall, Kristin; Caccone, Adalgisa; Mundy, Nicholas I; Bradley, Brenda J

    2016-09-01

    We explored whether variation in the sweet taste receptor protein T1R3 in primates could contribute to differences in sweet taste repertoire among species, potentially reflecting coevolution with local plants. Specifically, we examined which primates are likely to be sweet "tasters" of brazzein, a protein found in the fruit of the African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana that tastes intensely sweet to humans, but provides little energy. Sweet proteins like brazzein are thought to mimic the taste of sugars to entice seed dispersers. We examined the evolution of T1R3 and assessed whether primates are likely "deceived" by such biochemical mimicry. Using published and new sequence data for TAS1R3, we characterized 57 primates and other mammals at the two amino acid sites necessary to taste brazzein to determine which species are tasters. We further used dN/dS-based methods to look for statistical evidence of accelerated evolution in this protein across primate lineages. The taster genotype is shared across most catarrhines, suggesting that most African primates can be "tricked" into eating and dispersing P. brazzeana's seeds for little caloric gain. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), however, exhibit derived mutations at the two brazzein-critical positions, and although fruit is a substantial portion of the western gorilla diet, they have not been observed to eat P. brazzeana. Our analyses of protein evolution found no signature of positive selection on TAS1R3 along the gorilla lineage. We propose that the gorilla-specific mutations at the TAS1R3 locus encoding T1R3 could be a counter-adaptation to the false sweet signal of brazzein. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) has a sweet tooth: behavioral and molecular responses to compounds that taste sweet to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peihua; Josue-Almqvist, Jesusa; Jin, Xuelin; Li, Xia; Brand, Joseph G; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3) we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals that consume

  7. Understanding the mechanism of sweet taste: synthesis of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarajan, S.; Kellogg, M.S.; DuBois, G.E. (NutraSweet Company, Mt. Prospect, IL (United States)); Williams, D.S. (Amersham International plc, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Cardiff Labs.); Gresk, C.J.; Markos, C.S. (Searle Research and Development, Skokie, IL (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Syntheses of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acid sweetener and a tritiated photoaffinity labeling reagent via the catalytic hydrogenation of the dibromo intermediates are described. These labeled compounds were required for the investigation of sweet taste mechanism. (author).

  8. Understanding the mechanism of sweet taste: synthesis of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, S.; Kellogg, M.S.; DuBois, G.E.; Williams, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Syntheses of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acid sweetener and a tritiated photoaffinity labeling reagent via the catalytic hydrogenation of the dibromo intermediates are described. These labeled compounds were required for the investigation of sweet taste mechanism. (author)

  9. Sweet taste exposure and the subsequent acceptance and preference for sweet taste in the diet: systematic review of the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, K M; Tuorila, H; Bertenshaw, E J; de Graaf, C; Mela, D J

    2018-03-01

    There are consistent, evidence-based global public health recommendations to reduce intakes of free sugars. However, the corresponding evidence for recommending reduced exposure to sweetness is less clear. Our aim was to identify and review the published evidence investigating the impact of dietary exposure to sweet-tasting foods or beverages on the subsequent generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweet foods and beverages in the diet. Systematic searches were conducted to identify all studies testing relations of variation in exposure to sweetness through foods and beverages with subsequent variation in the generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweetened foods or beverages, in humans aged >6 mo. Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria, comprising 7 population cohort studies involving 2320 children and 14 controlled trials involving 1113 individuals. These studies were heterogeneous in study design, population, exposure, and outcomes measured, and few were explicitly designed to address our research question. The findings from these were inconsistent. We found equivocal evidence from population cohort studies. The evidence from controlled studies suggests that a higher sweet taste exposure tends to lead to reduced preferences for sweetness in the shorter term, but very limited effects were found in the longer term. A small and heterogeneous body of research currently has considered the impact of varying exposure to sweet taste on subsequent generalized sweet taste preferences, and this evidence is equivocal regarding the presence and possible direction of a relation. Future work should focus on adequately powered studies with well-characterized exposures of sufficient duration. This review was registered with PROSPERO as CRD42016051840, 24 November 2016.

  10. Sweet taste disorder and vascular complications in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Imai, Kenjiro; Kanda, Sayaka; Kakei, Masafumi; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-10-15

    It remains unknown whether taste disorders can be a risk factor for micro- and macro-vascular diseases in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. A cross-sectional study in a nationally representative samples of 848 and 849 US adults (aged ≥40years) with diabetes or prediabetes who had sweet and salt taste disorders, respectively, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. Among the study population, 5.7% had sweet taste disorder and 8.6% had salt taste disorder. These data correspond to approximately 1.5 million and 1.8 million individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance aged 40years or older in the US population, respectively. In the adjusted model, sweet taste disorder was significantly associated with complication of ischemic heart disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-5.81; P=0.04). Moreover, sweet taste disorder in patients with diabetes was significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy (adjusted OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.09-7.69; P=0.03) and diabetic nephropathy (adjusted OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.07-9.36; P=0.03). Meanwhile, salt taste disorder was not significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, ischemic heart disease, or stroke. Total sugar intake was significantly higher in patients with sweet taste disorder than in those without it, whereas total daily intake of carbohydrate did not differ significantly. No significant association was observed between salt taste disorder and daily intake of sodium after multivariate analysis. Sweet taste disorder in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance was associated with increased sugar intake and vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of sweet and savoury taste in food intake and food preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim

    The sensory attributes of food play a key role in the selection and termination of meals and their rewarding properties. The majority of our foods are either sweet or savoury tasting. In addition, within our food range, savoury-tasting foods contain in

  12. Ric-8A, a Gα protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor potentiates taste receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Fenech

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Taste receptors for sweet, bitter and umami tastants are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. While much effort has been devoted to understanding G-protein-receptor interactions and identifying the components of the signalling cascade downstream of these receptors, at the level of the G-protein the modulation of receptor signal transduction remains relatively unexplored. In this regard a taste-specific regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS, RGS21, has recently been identified. To study whether guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs are involved in the transduction of the signal downstream of the taste GPCRs we investigated the expression of Ric-8A and Ric-8B in mouse taste cells and their interaction with G-protein subunits found in taste buds. Mammalian Ric-8 proteins were initially identified as potent GEFs for a range of Gα subunits and Ric-8B has recently been shown to amplify olfactory signal transduction. We find that both Ric-8A and Ric-8B are expressed in a large portion of taste bud cells and that most of these cells contain IP3R-3 a marker for sweet, umami and bitter taste receptor cells. Ric-8A interacts with Gα-gustducin and Gαi2 through which it amplifies the signal transduction of hTas2R16, a receptor for bitter compounds. Overall, these findings are consistent with a role for Ric-8 in mammalian taste signal transduction.

  13. Sweet taste and nutrient value subdivide rewarding dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huetteroth, Wolf; Perisse, Emmanuel; Lin, Suewei; Klappenbach, Martín; Burke, Christopher; Waddell, Scott

    2015-03-16

    Dopaminergic neurons provide reward learning signals in mammals and insects [1-4]. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that water-reinforcing dopaminergic neurons are different to those for nutritious sugars [5]. Here, we tested whether the sweet taste and nutrient properties of sugar reinforcement further subdivide the fly reward system. We found that dopaminergic neurons expressing the OAMB octopamine receptor [6] specifically convey the short-term reinforcing effects of sweet taste [4]. These dopaminergic neurons project to the β'2 and γ4 regions of the mushroom body lobes. In contrast, nutrient-dependent long-term memory requires different dopaminergic neurons that project to the γ5b regions, and it can be artificially reinforced by those projecting to the β lobe and adjacent α1 region. Surprisingly, whereas artificial implantation and expression of short-term memory occur in satiated flies, formation and expression of artificial long-term memory require flies to be hungry. These studies suggest that short-term and long-term sugar memories have different physiological constraints. They also demonstrate further functional heterogeneity within the rewarding dopaminergic neuron population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthetic Study on the Relationship Between Structure and Sweet Taste Properties of Steviol Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Dubois

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure activity relationship between the C16-C17 methylene double bond on the aglycone of steviol glycosides and the corresponding impact on their sweet taste has been reported here for the first time. It has been observed that converting stevioside and rebaudioside A to their corresponding ketones by switching the doubly bonded methylene on C-17 for a ketone group actually removes the sweet taste properties of these molecules completely. Regenerating the original molecules tends to restore the sweet taste of both the steviol glycosides. Thus this C16-C17 methylene double bond in rebaudioside A and stevioside can be regarded as a pharmacophore essential for the sweetness property of these molecules.

  15. Sweet taste preferences before and after an intensive medical weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, K; Rothberg, A E; Arcori, L; Kaur, M; Fowler, C E; Herman, W H

    2016-06-01

    Medical weight loss could change sweet taste threshold and preferences. The decrease in sweet taste preferences may, in turn, help in the maintenance of weight loss. This study examined the association between sweet taste preferences at baseline and weight change during a medical weight management programme and the impact of diet-induced weight loss on sweet taste preferences. Adult patients with body mass index ≥32 kg m -2 were recruited from a medical weight management clinic. Sweet taste preference was assessed using a forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method before and after a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Twenty participants were included in the analysis: mean age was 53.1 (standard deviation [SD]: 11.4) years, and 14 were female. The mean body mass index was 41.4 (SD: 7.5) kg m -2 . The median preferred sucrose concentration before VLCD was 0.45 M. Following VLCD, mean change in weight was -13.3 (SD: 6.6) kg, and percentage weight change was -11.3% (SD: 5.9%). Based on mixed models with and without adjustment for demographic factors, diabetes status and smoking history, preferred sucrose concentration at baseline did not predict change in longer-term body weight. The change of preferred sucrose concentration following 12 weeks of VLCD was not significant ( P -value 0.95). Change in weight during and after VLCD was not associated with sweet taste preferences at baseline. After diet-induced weight loss, sweet taste preferences did not change.

  16. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Gupta, Nili; Case, R Maynard; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2009-09-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of "equisweet" (Study A) or "equibitter" (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH(2)O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH(2)O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [(13)C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P solution (P > 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions.

  17. Sweet taste receptor serves to activate glucose- and leptin-responsive neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and participates in glucose responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kohno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC: glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanism underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood. The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of taste type 1 receptor 2 (T1R2 and taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3 and senses sweet tastes. T1R2 and T1R3 receptors are distributed in multiple organs including the tongue, pancreas, adipose tissue, and hypothalamus. However, the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC remains to be clarified. To examine the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i in isolated single ARC neurons were measured using Fura-2 fluorescent imaging. An artificial sweetener, sucralose at 10-5 M-10-2 M dose dependently increased [Ca2+]i in 12-16% of ARC neurons. The sucralose-induced [Ca2+]i increase was suppressed by a sweet taste receptor inhibitor, gurmarin. The sucralose-induced [Ca2+]i increase was inhibited under an extracellular Ca2+-free condition and in the presence of an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nitrendipine. Sucralose-responding neurons were activated by high-concentration of glucose. This response to glucose was markedly suppressed by gurmarin. More than half of sucralose-responding neurons were activated by leptin but not ghrelin. Percentage of proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurons among sucralose-responding neurons and sweet taste receptor expressing neurons were low, suggesting that majority of sucralose-responding neurons are non-POMC neurons. These data suggest that sweet taste receptor-mediated cellular

  18. Sweet Taste Receptor Serves to Activate Glucose- and Leptin-Responsive Neurons in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus and Participates in Glucose Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Daisuke; Koike, Miho; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Kojima, Itaru; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC): glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood. The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of taste type 1 receptor 2 (T1R2) and taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3) and senses sweet tastes. T1R2 and T1R3 are distributed in multiple organs including the tongue, pancreas, adipose tissue, and hypothalamus. However, the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC remains to be clarified. To examine the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC, cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in isolated single ARC neurons were measured using Fura-2 fluorescent imaging. An artificial sweetener, sucralose at 10 -5 -10 -2 M dose dependently increased [Ca 2+ ] i in 12-16% of ARC neurons. The sucralose-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increase was suppressed by a sweet taste receptor inhibitor, gurmarin. The sucralose-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increase was inhibited under an extracellular Ca 2+ -free condition and in the presence of an L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker, nitrendipine. Sucralose-responding neurons were activated by high-concentration of glucose. This response to glucose was markedly suppressed by gurmarin. More than half of sucralose-responding neurons were activated by leptin but not ghrelin. Percentages of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons among sucralose-responding neurons and sweet taste receptor expressing neurons were low, suggesting that majority of sucralose-responding neurons are non-POMC neurons. These data suggest that sweet taste receptor-mediated cellular activation

  19. Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Taste Signaling and Modifying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste conveys crucial information about the quality and nutritional value of foods before it is ingested. Taste signaling begins with taste cells via taste receptors in oral cavity. Activation of these receptors drives the transduction systems in taste receptor cells. Then particular transmitters are released from the taste cells and activate corresponding afferent gustatory nerve fibers. Recent studies have revealed that taste sensitivities are defined by distinct taste receptors and modulated by endogenous humoral factors in a specific group of taste cells. Such peripheral taste generations and modifications would directly influence intake of nutritive substances. This review will highlight current understanding of molecular mechanisms for taste reception, signal transduction in taste bud cells, transmission between taste cells and nerves, regeneration from taste stem cells, and modification by humoral factors at peripheral taste organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Influence of Sweet Taste Perception on Dietary Intake in Relation to Dental Caries and BMI in Saudi Arabian Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Ashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sweet taste perception on dietary habits in Saudi schoolchildren. In addition, the relationship between dietary habits and both caries and BMI was studied. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study comprising 225 schoolchildren aged 13–15 years from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The consumption frequency of certain food items was analysed from a beverage and snack questionnaire and a three-day estimated dietary record was obtained. The sweet taste perception level was determined as sweet taste threshold (TT and sweet taste preference (TP. Children were grouped into low, medium, and high, according to their sweet taste perception level. ICDAS and DMFS indices were used for caries registration and anthropometric measurements using BMI were collected. Results. Sweet taste perception was found to be negatively correlated to the number of main meals and positively correlated to both snack and sweet intake occasions. Statistically significant differences were found between the TT and TP groups with regard to the number of main meals and sweet intake (p≤0.01. No significant correlation between the dietary variables and caries or BMI was found. Conclusions. The dietary habits and sweet intake were found to be influenced by the sweet taste perception level, while the relation between the dietary habits and the caries and BMI was found insignificant.

  1. Crystal structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin II at 1.27 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ohta, Keisuke; Tani, Fumito; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → X-ray crystallographic structure of sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin II, was determined at a resolution of 1.27 A. → The overall structure of thaumatin II is similar to that of thaumatin I, but a slight shift of the Cα atom of G96 in thaumatin II was observed. → The side chain of two critical residues, 67 and 82, for sweetness was modeled in two alternative conformations. → The flexibility and fluctuation of side chains at 67 and 82 seems to be suitable for interaction of thaumatin molecules with sweet receptors. -- Abstract: Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits a sweet taste sensation at 50 nM. Here the X-ray crystallographic structure of one of its variants, thaumatin II, was determined at a resolution of 1.27 A. Overall structure of thaumatin II is similar to thaumatin I, but a slight shift of the Cα atom of G96 in thaumatin II was observed. Furthermore, the side chain of residue 67 in thaumatin II is highly disordered. Since residue 67 is one of two residues critical to the sweetness of thaumatin, the present results suggested that the critical positive charges at positions 67 and 82 are disordered and the flexibility and fluctuation of these side chains would be suitable for interaction of thaumatin molecules with sweet receptors.

  2. Crystal structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin II at 1.27 A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Tetsuya, E-mail: t2masuda@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ohta, Keisuke; Tani, Fumito [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Mikami, Bunzo [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kitabatake, Naofumi [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} X-ray crystallographic structure of sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin II, was determined at a resolution of 1.27 A. {yields} The overall structure of thaumatin II is similar to that of thaumatin I, but a slight shift of the C{alpha} atom of G96 in thaumatin II was observed. {yields} The side chain of two critical residues, 67 and 82, for sweetness was modeled in two alternative conformations. {yields} The flexibility and fluctuation of side chains at 67 and 82 seems to be suitable for interaction of thaumatin molecules with sweet receptors. -- Abstract: Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits a sweet taste sensation at 50 nM. Here the X-ray crystallographic structure of one of its variants, thaumatin II, was determined at a resolution of 1.27 A. Overall structure of thaumatin II is similar to thaumatin I, but a slight shift of the C{alpha} atom of G96 in thaumatin II was observed. Furthermore, the side chain of residue 67 in thaumatin II is highly disordered. Since residue 67 is one of two residues critical to the sweetness of thaumatin, the present results suggested that the critical positive charges at positions 67 and 82 are disordered and the flexibility and fluctuation of these side chains would be suitable for interaction of thaumatin molecules with sweet receptors.

  3. Evidence supporting oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste sensitivity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y Q Low

    Full Text Available Compared to simple sugars, complex carbohydrates have been assumed invisible to taste. However, two recent studies proposed that there may be a perceivable taste quality elicited by complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste. There is precedent with behavioural studies demonstrating that rats are very attracted to complex carbohydrates, and that complex carbohydrates are preferred to simple sugars at low concentrations. This suggests that rats may have independent taste sensors for simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. The aim of this paper is to investigate oral sensitivities of two different classes of complex carbohydrates (a soluble digestible and a soluble non-digestible complex carbohydrate, and to compare these to other caloric and non-nutritive sweeteners in addition to the prototypical tastes using two commonly used psychophysical measures. There were strong correlations between the detection thresholds and mean intensity ratings for complex carbohydrates (maltodextrin, oligofructose (r = 0.94, P 0.05. However, moderate correlations were observed between perceived intensities of complex carbohydrates and sweeteners (r = 0.48-0.61, P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that complex carbohydrates can be sensed in the oral cavity over a range of concentrations independent of sweet taste sensitivity at low concentrations, but with partial overlap with sweet taste intensity at higher concentrations.

  4. Oxaliplatin Alters Expression of T1R2 Receptor and Sensitivity to Sweet Taste in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Akihiro; Nishida, Kentaro; Yamanaka, Yuri; Miyata, Ai; Ikukawa, Akiko; Yabu, Miharu; Miyamoto, Karin; Bansho, Saho; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    As one of the adverse effects of oxaliplatin, a key agent in colon cancer chemotherapy, a taste disorder is a severe issue in a clinical situation because it decreases the quality of life of patients. However, there is little information on the mechanism underlying the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder. Here, we examined the molecular and behavioral characteristics of the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder in rats. Oxaliplatin (4-16 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats intraperitoneally for 2 d. Expression levels of mRNA and protein of taste receptors in circumvallate papillae (CP) were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Taste sensitivity was assessed by their behavioral change using a brief-access test. Morphological change of the taste buds in CP was evaluated by hematoxyline-eosin (HE) staining, and the number of taste cells in taste buds was counted by immunohistochemical analysis. Among taste receptors, the expression levels of mRNA and protein of T1R2, a sweet taste receptor subunit, were increased transiently in CP of oxaliplatin-administered rats on day 7. In a brief-access test, the lick ratio was decreased in oxaliplatin-administered rats on day 7 and the alteration was recovered to the control level on day 14. There was no detectable alteration in the morphology of taste buds, number of taste cells or plasma zinc level in oxaliplatin-administered rats. These results suggest that decreased sensitivity to sweet taste in oxaliplatin-administered rats is due, at least in part, to increased expression of T1R2, while these alterations are reversible.

  5. Do People Eat the Pain Away? The Effects of Acute Physical Pain on Subsequent Consumption of Sweet-Tasting Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbor, Kathleen E; Lench, Heather C; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R

    2016-01-01

    Sweet tasting foods have been found to have an analgesic effect. Therefore people might consume more sweet-tasting food when they feel pain. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to a pain or non-pain condition and their consumption of cheesecake was measured. Participants ate more cheesecake (a sweet-tasting food) following a painful experience than a non-painful one. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to a painful experience or a resource depleting experience (i.e., squeezing a handgrip) and then were asked to taste test two foods, one sweet and one not sweet. Participants ate more sweet-tasting food following a painful experience than a non-painful or a resource-depleting experience. These differences were not present for consumption of non-sweet food. Further, habitual self-control predicted consumption of sweet-tasting food when in pain, with those lower in self-control particularly likely to eat more. Results suggest that people do eat more sweet-tasting food when they feel pain, particularly if they are not in the habit of controlling their impulses. These findings have implications for health given rising rates of obesity and pain-related diagnoses.

  6. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, Maude Wheeler; Toda, Y.; Nakagita, T.; O'Connell, Mary J.; Klasing, Kirk C.; Misaka, T.; Edwards, Scott V.; Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sens...

  7. Humans Can Taste Glucose Oligomers Independent of the hT1R2/hT1R3 Sweet Taste Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Penner, Michael H; Lim, Juyun

    2016-08-23

    It is widely accepted that humans can taste mono- and disaccharides as sweet substances, but they cannot taste longer chain oligo- and polysaccharides. From the evolutionary standpoint, the ability to taste starch or its oligomeric hydrolysis products would be highly adaptive, given their nutritional value. Here, we report that humans can taste glucose oligomer preparations (average degree of polymerization 7 and 14) without any other sensorial cues. The same human subjects could not taste the corresponding glucose polymer preparation (average degree of polymerization 44). When the sweet taste receptor was blocked by lactisole, a known sweet inhibitor, subjects could not detect sweet substances (glucose, maltose, and sucralose), but they could still detect the glucose oligomers. This suggests that glucose oligomer detection is independent of the hT1R2/hT1R3 sweet taste receptor. Human subjects described the taste of glucose oligomers as "starchy," while they describe sugars as "sweet." The dose-response function of glucose oligomer was also found to be indistinguishable from that of glucose on a molar basis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca has a sweet tooth: behavioral and molecular responses to compounds that taste sweet to humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Jiang

    Full Text Available A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca. We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3 we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals

  9. Sweet taste in apple: the role of sorbitol, individual sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Charles, Mathilde; Endrizzi, Isabella; Laura Corollaro, Maria; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2017-03-01

    Sweetness is one of the main drivers of consumer preference, and thus is given high priority in apple breeding programmes. Due to the complexity of sweetness evaluation, soluble solid content (SSC) is commonly used as an estimation of this trait. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that SSC and sweet taste are poorly correlated. Though individual sugar content may vary greatly between and within apple cultivars, no previous study has tried to investigate the relationship between the amount of individual sugars, or ratios of these, and apple sweetness. In this work, we quantified the major sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose) and sorbitol and explored their influence on perceived sweetness in apple; we also related this to malic acid content, SSC and volatile compounds. Our data confirmed that the correlation between sweetness and SSC is weak. We found that sorbitol content correlates (similarly to SSC) with perceived sweetness better than any other single sugar or total sugar content. The single sugars show no differentiable importance in determining apple sweetness. Our predictive model based on partial least squares regression shows that after sorbitol and SSC, the most important contribution to apple sweetness is provided by several volatile compounds, mainly esters and farnesene.

  10. Fruit and snack consumption related to sweet, sour and salty taste preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Reinders, M.J.; Hiller, S.; Guardia, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – To better understand fruit consumption and its determinants this paper aims to explore the relationship between the consumption of different types of fruit and other snacks and consumer taste preferences for sweet, salty and sour is explored. Design/methodology/approach – Respondents

  11. High-resolution structure of the recombinant sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ohta, Keisuke; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2011-01-01

    The structure of a recombinant form of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I was determined at 1.1 Å resolution and refined to an R work of 9.1% and an R free of 11.7%. Comparisons with plant thaumatin revealed the electron density of recombinant thaumatin I to be significantly improved, especially around Asn46 and Ser63. Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting plant protein, elicits a sweet taste at a concentration of 50 nM. The crystal structure of a recombinant form of thaumatin I produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris has been determined to a resolution of 1.1 Å. The model was refined with anisotropic B parameters and riding H atoms. A comparison of the diffraction data and refinement statistics for recombinant thaumatin I with those for plant thaumatin I revealed no significant differences in the diffraction data. The R values for recombinant thaumatin I and plant thaumatin I (F o > 4σ) were 9.11% and 9.91%, respectively, indicating the final model to be of good quality. Notably, the electron-density maps around Asn46 and Ser63, which differ between thaumatin variants, were significantly improved. Furthermore, a number of H atoms became visible in an OMIT map and could be assigned. The high-quality structure of recombinant thaumatin with H atoms should provide details about sweetness determinants in thaumatin and provide valuable insights into the mechanism of its interaction with taste receptors

  12. Desire for Sweet Taste Unchanged After Eating: Evidence of a Dessert Mentality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, Kate; Smeele, Rebecca; Van Loon, Fiona; Yuan, Jannie; Haszard, Jillian Joy; Drewer, Amanda; Venn, Bernard Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Added sugars provide calories and desirability to foods and beverages. Our aim was to test whether desire for a sweet taste would be better maintained than a desire for other tastes for 3 hours after a test meal. Eighty-three young adults ate 2 slices of bread on 2 separate occasions after which they were asked to rate their desire for savory, sweet, fatty, or salty tastes and to specify the number of servings of white rice, pizza, cheese and crackers, sweet biscuits, and pasta they could consume. Desirability was assessed using 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS), with 0 mm representing no desire and 100 mm great desire. When participants provided a quantitative assessment of the servings of foods that they wanted to eat following the bread meal, desire decreased on average for all foods measured, χ 2 (3) = 2.63, p = 0.452. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) change in VAS taste desirability 30 minutes after eating declined for salty (14.5 mm [10.5, 18.6]), fatty (11.2 mm [7.1, 15.2]), and savory (24.1 mm [19.7, 28.5]) tastes (p foods and beverages. Targeting familial and cultural practices that discourage the consumption of added sugar foods might be useful to combat desire-driven food intake.

  13. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Maude W.; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; O'Connell, Mary J.; Klasing, Kirk C.; Misaka, Takumi; Edwards, Scott V.; Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sense sugars. Receptor expression studies revealed that the ancestral umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) was repurposed in hummingbirds to function as a carbohydrate receptor. Furthermore, the molecular recognition properties of T1R1-T1R3 guided taste behavior in captive and wild hummingbirds. We propose that changing taste receptor function enabled hummingbirds to perceive and use nectar, facilitating the massive radiation of hummingbird species. PMID:25146290

  14. Sensory biology. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Maude W; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; O'Connell, Mary J; Klasing, Kirk C; Misaka, Takumi; Edwards, Scott V; Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-08-22

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sense sugars. Receptor expression studies revealed that the ancestral umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) was repurposed in hummingbirds to function as a carbohydrate receptor. Furthermore, the molecular recognition properties of T1R1-T1R3 guided taste behavior in captive and wild hummingbirds. We propose that changing taste receptor function enabled hummingbirds to perceive and use nectar, facilitating the massive radiation of hummingbird species. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. The binding site for neohesperidin dihydrochalcone at the human sweet taste receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochwil Nicole A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sweet taste perception among species depend on structural variations of the sweet taste receptor. The commercially used isovanillyl sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone activates the human but not the rat sweet receptor TAS1R2+TAS1R3. Analysis of interspecies combinations and chimeras of rat and human TAS1R2+TAS1R3 suggested that the heptahelical domain of human TAS1R3 is crucial for the activation of the sweet receptor by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Results By mutational analysis combined with functional studies and molecular modeling we identified a set of different amino acid residues within the heptahelical domain of human TAS1R3 that forms the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone binding pocket. Sixteen amino acid residues in the transmembrane domains 2 to 7 and one in the extracellular loop 2 of hTAS1R3 influenced the receptor's response to neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Some of these seventeen residues are also part of the binding sites for the sweetener cyclamate or the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. In line with this observation, lactisole inhibited activation of the sweet receptor by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and cyclamate competitively, whereas receptor activation by aspartame, a sweetener known to bind to the N-terminal domain of TAS1R2, was allosterically inhibited. Seven of the amino acid positions crucial for activation of hTAS1R2+hTAS1R3 by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone are thought to play a role in the binding of allosteric modulators of other class C GPCRs, further supporting our model of the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone pharmacophore. Conclusion From our data we conclude that we identified the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone binding site at the human sweet taste receptor, which overlaps with those for the sweetener cyclamate and the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. This readily delivers a molecular explanation of our finding that lactisole is a competitive inhibitor of the receptor

  16. A novel regulatory function of sweet taste-sensing receptor in adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Masubuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet taste receptor is expressed not only in taste buds but also in nongustatory organs such as enteroendocrine cells and pancreatic beta-cells, and may play more extensive physiological roles in energy metabolism. Here we examined the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in 3T3-L1 cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In undifferentiated preadipocytes, both T1R2 and T1R3 were expressed very weakly, whereas the expression of T1R3 but not T1R2 was markedly up-regulated upon induction of differentiation (by 83.0 and 3.8-fold, respectively at Day 6. The α subunits of Gs (Gαs and G14 (Gα14 but not gustducin were expressed throughout the differentiation process. The addition of sucralose or saccharin during the first 48 hours of differentiation considerably reduced the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα at Day 2, the expression of aP2 at Day 4 and triglyceride accumulation at Day 6. These anti-adipogenic effects were attenuated by short hairpin RNA-mediated gene-silencing of T1R3. In addition, overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of Gαs but not YM-254890, an inhibitor of Gα14, impeded the effects of sweeteners, suggesting a possible coupling of Gs with the putative sweet taste-sensing receptor. In agreement, sucralose and saccharin increased the cyclic AMP concentration in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and also in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing T1R3. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic effects of sweeteners were mimicked by Gs activation with cholera toxin but not by adenylate cyclase activation with forskolin, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Gαs had the opposite effects. CONCLUSIONS: 3T3-L1 cells express a functional sweet taste-sensing receptor presumably as a T1R3 homomer, which mediates the anti-adipogenic signal by a Gs-dependent but cAMP-independent mechanism.

  17. Activation of the sweet taste receptor, T1R3, by the artificial sweetener sucralose regulates the pulmonary endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Elizabeth O; Vang, Alexander; Braza, Julie; Shil, Aparna; Chichger, Havovi

    2018-01-01

    A hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is pulmonary vascular permeability. In these settings, loss of barrier integrity is mediated by cell-contact disassembly and actin remodeling. Studies into molecular mechanisms responsible for improving microvascular barrier function are therefore vital in the development of therapeutic targets for reducing vascular permeability in ARDS. The sweet taste receptor T1R3 is a G protein-coupled receptor, activated following exposure to sweet molecules, to trigger a gustducin-dependent signal cascade. In recent years, extraoral locations for T1R3 have been identified; however, no studies have focused on T1R3 within the vasculature. We hypothesize that activation of T1R3, in the pulmonary vasculature, plays a role in regulating endothelial barrier function in settings of ARDS. Our study demonstrated expression of T1R3 within the pulmonary vasculature, with a drop in expression levels following exposure to barrier-disruptive agents. Exposure of lung microvascular endothelial cells to the intensely sweet molecule sucralose attenuated LPS- and thrombin-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. Likewise, sucralose exposure attenuated bacteria-induced lung edema formation in vivo. Inhibition of sweet taste signaling, through zinc sulfate, T1R3, or G-protein siRNA, blunted the protective effects of sucralose on the endothelium. Sucralose significantly reduced LPS-induced increased expression or phosphorylation of the key signaling molecules Src, p21-activated kinase (PAK), myosin light chain-2 (MLC2), heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), and p110α phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p110αPI3K). Activation of T1R3 by sucralose protects the pulmonary endothelium from edemagenic agent-induced barrier disruption, potentially through abrogation of Src/PAK/p110αPI3K-mediated cell-contact disassembly and Src/MLC2/HSP27-mediated actin remodeling. Identification of sweet taste sensing in the pulmonary vasculature may represent a novel

  18. Effect of Heavy Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages on the Perception of Sweet and Salty Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camile S; Dias, Vaneria R; Almeida, Juliane A Regis; Brazil, Jamile M; Santos, Ramon A; Milagres, Maria P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the threshold index of sweet and salty tastes in alcoholics undergoing treatment. Taste threshold was assessed using type 3-Alternative Forced Choice in a control group (92 non-alcoholic volunteers) and a test group (92 alcoholics in therapy). The test group completed a structured questionnaire on lifestyle and habits. Significant difference were found between the threshold rates found in the test (3.78) and control groups (1.39). In the salty stimulus, no significant difference was noted in the threshold detection between the control (0.17) and test groups (0.30). A significant correlation was observed between the index Pearson's threshold to sweet taste in the test group and their reported alcohol consumption. The test group reported characteristics such as loss of appetite (93%), weight loss during consumption (62%) and weight gain after quitting drinking (72%). That the alcoholic group reported less sensitivity to sweet taste suggests that drinking habits may influence choice of foods, with a greater preference for foods with higher sucrose concentration. This contribute to poor health, because excess consumption of sugar raises risk for several diseases. No conclusive results were found for the salty stimulus. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Sweet taste preference in binge-eating disorder: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Erica L; Breithaupt, Lauren; Watson, Hunna J; Peat, Christine M; Baker, Jessica H; Bulik, Cynthia M; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals with high liking for sweets are at increased risk for binge eating, which has been minimally investigated in individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED). Forty-one adults (85% female, 83% white) with binge eating concerns completed a sweet taste test and measures of eating disorder behaviors and food cravings. A subset of participants with BED completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; N=21) and a 24-hour dietary recall (N=26). Regression models were used to compare highest sweet preferers (HSP [N=18]) to other sweet preferers (OSP [N=23]) and were used to assess associations between sweet taste preference and outcome variables. Effect sizes (ηp 2 ) for differences between HSP and OSP ranged from small (≤0.01) to large (≥0.24); group differences were statistically nonsignificant except for 24-hour caloric intake (ηp 2 =0.16, p=0.04), protein intake (ηp 2 =0.16, p=0.04), and insulin sensitivity index (ηp 2 =0.24, p=0.04), which were higher in HSP, and postprandial insulin, which was smaller in HSP (ηp 2 =0.27, p=0.03). Continuous analyses replicated postprandial insulin response. Compared with OSP, HSP reported numerically higher binge-eating frequency (ηp 2 =0.04), over-eating frequency (ηp 2 =0.06), and carbohydrate intake (ηp 2 =0.14), and they exhibited numerically smaller postprandial glucose AUC (ηp 2 =0.16). Sweet taste preference may have implications for glucose regulation, binge-eating frequency, and nutrient intake in BED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sweet love: The effects of sweet taste experience on romantic perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, D.N.; Tan, K.; Arriaga, X.B.; Chan, K.Q.

    2015-01-01

    Terms of endearment such as sweetie, honey, and sugar are commonly used in the context of describing romantic partners. This article explores how a relatively subtle manipulation, namely taste sensations, might influence romantic perceptions of a nonestablished relationship. Consistent with

  1. Taste buds: cells, signals and synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2017-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed a consolidation and refinement of the extraordinary progress made in taste research. This Review describes recent advances in our understanding of taste receptors, taste buds, and the connections between taste buds and sensory afferent fibres. The article discusses new findings regarding the cellular mechanisms for detecting tastes, new data on the transmitters involved in taste processing and new studies that address longstanding arguments about taste coding.

  2. Rewiring the taste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojoon; Macpherson, Lindsey J; Parada, Camilo A; Zuker, Charles S; Ryba, Nicholas J P

    2017-08-17

    In mammals, taste buds typically contain 50-100 tightly packed taste-receptor cells (TRCs), representing all five basic qualities: sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami. Notably, mature taste cells have life spans of only 5-20 days and, consequently, are constantly replenished by differentiation of taste stem cells. Given the importance of establishing and maintaining appropriate connectivity between TRCs and their partner ganglion neurons (that is, ensuring that a labelled line from sweet TRCs connects to sweet neurons, bitter TRCs to bitter neurons, sour to sour, and so on), we examined how new connections are specified to retain fidelity of signal transmission. Here we show that bitter and sweet TRCs provide instructive signals to bitter and sweet target neurons via different guidance molecules (SEMA3A and SEMA7A). We demonstrate that targeted expression of SEMA3A or SEMA7A in different classes of TRCs produces peripheral taste systems with miswired sweet or bitter cells. Indeed, we engineered mice with bitter neurons that now responded to sweet tastants, sweet neurons that responded to bitter or sweet neurons responding to sour stimuli. Together, these results uncover the basic logic of the wiring of the taste system at the periphery, and illustrate how a labelled-line sensory circuit preserves signalling integrity despite rapid and stochastic turnover of receptor cells.

  3. Selecting odorant compounds to enhance sweet flavor perception by gas chromatography/olfactometry-associated taste (GC/O-AT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Carmen; Beno, Noelle; Guichard, Elisabeth; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2018-08-15

    Gas chromatography/olfactometry-associated taste (GC/O-AT) analysis combined with mass spectrometry allowed identification of odorant compounds associated with taste attributes (sweet, salty, bitter and sour) in a multi-fruit juice. Nine compounds were selected for their odor-associated sweetness enhancement in a multi-fruit juice odor context using Olfactoscan and for their odor-induced sweet taste enhancement in sucrose solution and sugar-reduced fruit juice through sensory tests. Sweetness of the fruit juice odor was significantly enhanced by methyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and linalool; sweet perception was significantly enhanced in 7% sucrose solution by ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, furaneol and γ-decalactone, and in 32% sugar-reduced fruit juice by ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. GC/O-AT analysis is a novel, efficient approach to select odorants associated with a given taste. The further screening of taste-associated odorants by Olfactoscan helps to identify the most efficient odorants to enhance a target taste perception and may be used to find new ways to modulate taste perception in foods and beverages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Gaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF and posterior circumvallate (CV taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells.

  5. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Liu, Fei; Millar, Sarah E; Barlow, Linda A

    2015-05-01

    Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF) and posterior circumvallate (CV) taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells.

  6. Sweet Taste Perception and Dental Caries in 13- to 15-Year-Olds: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashi, H; Lara-Capi, C; Campus, G; Klingberg, G; Lingström, P

    2017-01-01

    Dietary habits and, in particular, the intake frequency of sucrose are of major importance for the development of dental caries. The perception of sweet taste is believed to have an influence on sucrose intake and therefore affects the predisposition to dental caries. The aim was to study the caries experience and sweet taste perception and to further analyze the possible relationship between the 2 tested variables in 13- to 15-year-old children from 3 different geographical areas. A cross-sectional survey comprising 669 children (220 Italian, 224 Mexican, and 225 Saudi Arabian) was conducted. The children were examined in their school setting. A sweet taste perception level was determined by the sweet taste threshold (TT) and sweet taste preference (TP). The sweet test was performed with sucrose solutions varying in concentration from 1.63 to 821.52 g/L. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and DMFS indices were used to diagnose caries. The highest mean value for TT was found for Italian children followed by Saudi and Mexican. Saudi schoolchildren showed the highest mean values for TP and DMFS, followed by Italian and Mexican. A statistically significant difference for TP, TT, DMFS, and initial caries was found between the 3 countries. A weak yet positive correlation was found between taste perception (TT and TP) versus DMFS and manifest caries in all 3 countries (r = 0.137-0.313). The findings of the present study showed a variation in sweet taste perception between the 3 countries, which may influence the caries outcome of the children in the individual countries. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Reduced dietary intake of simple sugars alters perceived sweet taste intensity but not perceived pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Nattress, Laura; Flammer, Linda J; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who adhere to reduced-sodium diets come to prefer less salt over time, but it is unclear whether sweet taste perception is modulated by reduced sugar intake. The objective was to determine how a substantial reduction in dietary intake of simple sugars affects sweetness intensity and pleasantness of sweet foods and beverages. Healthy men and women aged 21-54 y participated for 5 mo. After the baseline month, 2 subject groups were matched for demographic characteristics, body mass index, and intake of simple sugars. One group (n = 16; 13 of whom completed key experimental manipulations) was randomly assigned to receive a low-sugar diet during the subsequent 3 mo, with instructions to replace 40% of calories from simple sugars with fats, proteins, and complex carbohydrates. The other (control) group (n = 17; 16 of whom completed the study) did not change their sugar intake. During the final month, both groups chose any diet they wished. Each month subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of vanilla puddings and raspberry beverages that varied in sucrose concentration. ANOVA showed no systematic differences between groups in rated sweetness during the baseline or first diet month. During the second diet month, the low-sugar group rated low-sucrose pudding samples as more intense than did the control group (significant group-by-concentration interaction, P = 0.002). During the third diet month, the low-sugar subjects rated both low and high concentrations in puddings as ∼40% sweeter than did the control group (significant effect of group, P = 0.01). A weaker effect on rated sweetness was obtained for the beverages. Rated pleasantness was not affected for either of the stimuli. This experiment provides empirical evidence that changes in consumption of simple sugars influence perceived sweet taste intensity. More work is needed to determine whether sugar intake ultimately shifts preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was

  8. Inflammation activates the interferon signaling pathways in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-10-03

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-gamma receptor IFNGR1, are coexpressed with the taste cell-type markers neuronal cell adhesion molecule and alpha-gustducin, suggesting that both the taste receptor cells and synapse-forming cells in the taste bud can be stimulated by IFN. Incubation of taste bud-containing lingual epithelia with recombinant IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma triggered the IFN-mediated signaling cascades, resulting in the phosphorylation of the downstream STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1) transcription factor. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid into mice, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively, altered gene expression patterns in taste bud cells. Furthermore, the systemic administration of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma significantly increased the number of taste bud cells undergoing programmed cell death. These findings suggest that bacterial and viral infection-induced IFNs can act directly on taste bud cells, affecting their cellular function in taste transduction, and that IFN-induced apoptosis in taste buds may cause abnormal cell turnover and skew the representation of different taste bud cell types, leading to the development of taste disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence that inflammation can affect taste buds through cytokine signaling pathways.

  9. Inflammation Activates the Interferon Signaling Pathways in Taste Bud Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-01-01

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-γ rece...

  10. Body mass is positively associated with neural response to sweet taste, but not alcohol, among drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Casey K; YorkWilliams, Sophie L; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E

    2017-07-28

    Obesity is a large and growing public health concern, presenting enormous economic and health costs to individuals and society. A burgeoning literature demonstrates that overweight and obese individuals display different neural processing of rewarding stimuli, including caloric substances, as compared to healthy weight individuals. However, much extant research on the neurobiology of obesity has focused on addiction models, without highlighting potentially separable neural underpinnings of caloric intake versus substance use. The present research explores these differences by examining neural response to alcoholic beverages and a sweet non-alcoholic beverage, among a sample of individuals with varying weight status and patterns of alcohol use and misuse. Participants received tastes of a sweet beverage (litchi juice) and alcoholic beverages during fMRI scanning. When controlling for alcohol use, elevated weight status was associated with increased activation in response to sweet taste in regions including the cingulate cortex, hippocampus, precuneus, and fusiform gyrus. However, weight status was not associated with neural response to alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Influence of Pregnancy on Sweet Taste Perception and Plaque Acidogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbul, H; Ashi, H; Aljahdali, E; Campus, G; Lingström, P

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Women undergo different physiological and oral changes during pregnancy and this may increase the risk of dental caries and other oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in biofilm acidogenicity and correlate them to sweet taste perception in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods Three groups of Saudi women participated in this cross-sectional study: (1) women in early pregnancy (n = 40/mean age 29.6 years/DMFT 10.7), (2) women in late pregnancy (n = 40/29.5 years/DMFT 10.8) and (3) non-pregnant women (n = 41/27.7 years/DMFT 12.3). Changes in plaque pH were determined by using colour-coded indicator strips before and after a 1-min rinse with a 10% sucrose solution. A taste perception test determining sweet preference and threshold levels was also performed. Results A significant difference regarding plaque pH was seen between the early, late and non-pregnant women when calculated as the area under the curve (p pregnant women may undergo taste changes and experience lower plaque pH, which may result in an increased risk of dental caries.

  12. The Influence of Pregnancy on Sweet Taste Perception and Plaque Acidogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sonbul, H.; Ashi, H.; Aljahdali, E.; Campus, G.; Lingstr?m, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Women undergo different physiological and oral changes during pregnancy and this may increase the risk of dental caries and other oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in biofilm acidogenicity and correlate them to sweet taste perception in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods Three groups of Saudi women participated in this cross-sectional study: (1) women in early pregnancy (n?=?40/mean age 29.6?years/DMFT 10.7), (2) women in late pregnancy (n...

  13. Sweet and bitter taste of ethanol in C57BL/6J and DBA2/J mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizard, David A

    2007-01-01

    Studies of inbred strains of rats and mice have suggested a positive association between strain variations in sweet taste and ethanol intake. However, strain associations by themselves are insufficient to support a functional link between taste and ethanol intake. We used conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to explore the sweet and bitter taste of ethanol and ability to detect sucrose, quinine and ethanol in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mouse strains that are frequently used in alcohol research. The present study showed that C57BL/6J mice generalized taste aversions from sucrose and quinine solutions to 10% ethanol and, reciprocally, aversions to 10% ethanol generalized to each of these solutions presented separately. Only conditioned aversions to quinine generalized to ethanol in the DBA/2J strain but an aversion conditioned to ethanol did not generalize reciprocally to quinine. Thus, considering these two gustatory qualities, 10% ethanol tastes both sweet and bitter to B6 mice but only bitter to D2. Both strains were able to generalize taste aversions across different concentrations of the same compound. B6 were able to detect lower concentrations of quinine than D2 but both strains were able to detect sucrose and (in contrast to previous findings) ethanol at similar concentrations. The strain-dependent gustatory profiles for ethanol may make an important contribution to the understanding of the undoubtedly complex mechanisms influencing high ethanol preference of B6 and pronounced ethanol avoidance of D2 mice.

  14. Perception of sweet taste is important for voluntary alcohol consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y A; Walker, D; Martinez, M; Levine, M; Damak, S; Margolskee, R F

    2008-02-01

    To directly evaluate the association between taste perception and alcohol intake, we used three different mutant mice, each lacking a gene expressed in taste buds and critical to taste transduction: alpha-gustducin (Gnat3), Tas1r3 or Trpm5. Null mutant mice lacking any of these three genes showed lower preference score for alcohol and consumed less alcohol in a two-bottle choice test, as compared with wild-type littermates. These null mice also showed lower preference score for saccharin solutions than did wild-type littermates. In contrast, avoidance of quinine solutions was less in Gnat3 or Trpm5 knockout mice than in wild-type mice, whereas Tas1r3 null mice were not different from wild type in their response to quinine solutions. There were no differences in null vs. wild-type mice in their consumption of sodium chloride solutions. To determine the cause for reduction of ethanol intake, we studied other ethanol-induced behaviors known to be related to alcohol consumption. There were no differences between null and wild-type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, severity of acute ethanol withdrawal or conditioned place preference for ethanol. Weaker conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to alcohol in null mice may have been caused by weaker rewarding value of the conditioned stimulus (saccharin). When saccharin was replaced by sodium chloride, no differences in CTA to alcohol between knockout and wild-type mice were seen. Thus, deletion of any one of three different genes involved in detection of sweet taste leads to a substantial reduction of alcohol intake without any changes in pharmacological actions of ethanol.

  15. Polymorphisms in sweet taste genes (TAS1R2 and GLUT2), sweet liking, and dental caries prevalence in an adult Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, Antonietta; Bevilacqua, Lorenzo; Pirastu, Nicola; Situlin, Roberta; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Gasparini, Paolo; Navarra, Chiara Ottavia

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sweet taste genes and dental caries prevalence in a large sample of adults. In addition, the association between sweet liking and sugar intake with dental caries was investigated. Caries was measured by the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index in 647 Caucasian subjects (285 males and 362 females, aged 18-65 years), coming from six villages in northeastern Italy. Sweet liking was assessed using a 9-point scale, and the mean of the liking given by each individual to specific sweet food and beverages was used to create a sweet liking score. Simple sugar consumption was estimated by a dietary history interview, considering both added sugars and sugar present naturally in foods. Our study confirmed that polymorphisms in TAS1R2 and GLUT2 genes are related to DMFT index. In particular, GG homozygous individuals for rs3935570 in TAS1R2 gene (p value = 0.0117) and GG homozygous individuals for rs1499821 in GLUT2 gene (p value = 0.0273) showed higher DMFT levels compared to both heterozygous and homozygous for the alternative allele. Furthermore, while the relationship sugar intake-DMFT did not achieve statistical significance (p value = 0.075), a significant association was identified between sweet liking and DMFT (p value = 0.004), independent of other variables. Our study showed that sweet taste genetic factors contribute to caries prevalence and highlighted the role of sweet liking as a predictor of caries risk. Therefore, these results may open new perspectives for individual risk identification and implementation of target preventive strategies, such as identifying high-risk patients before caries development.

  16. Zizyphin modulates calcium signalling in human taste bud cells and fat taste perception in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Babar; Berrichi, Meryem; Bennamar, Chahid; Tordjmann, Thierry; Djeziri, Fatima Z; Hichami, Aziz; Leemput, Julia; Belarbi, Meriem; Ozdener, Hakan; Khan, Naim A

    2017-10-01

    Zizyphin, isolated from Zizyphus sps. leaf extracts, has been shown to modulate sugar taste perception, and the palatability of a sweet solution is increased by the addition of fatty acids. We, therefore, studied whether zizyphin also modulates fat taste perception. Zizyphin was purified from edible fruit of Zizyphus lotus L. Zizyphin-induced increases in [Ca 2+ ]i in human taste bud cells (hTBC). Zizyphin shared the endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ pool and also recruited, in part, Ca 2+ from extracellular environment via the opening of store-operated Ca 2+ channels. Zizyphin exerted additive actions on linoleic acid (LA)-induced increases in [Ca 2+ ]i in these cells, indicating that zizyphin does not exert its action via fatty acid receptors. However, zizyphin seemed to exert, at least in part, its action via bile acid receptor Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 in hTBC. In behavioural tests, mice exhibited preference for both LA and zizyphin. Interestingly, zizyphin increased the preference for a solution containing-LA. This study is the first evidence of the modulation of fat taste perception by zizyphin at the cellular level in hTBC. Our study might be helpful for considering the synthesis of zizyphin analogues as 'taste modifiers' with a potential in the management of obesity and lipid-mediated disorders. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. Sweet Taste Receptor Activation in the Gut Is of Limited Importance for Glucose-Stimulated GLP-1 and GIP Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltiel, Monika Yosifova; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Glucose stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). It is debated whether the sweet taste receptor (STR) triggers this secretion. We investigated the role of STR activation for glucose-stimulated incretin...

  18. Physiological responses to taste signals of functional food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masataka

    2018-02-01

    The functions of food have three categories: nutrition, palatability, and bioregulation. As the onset of lifestyle-related diseases has increased, many people have shown interest in functional foods that are beneficial to bioregulation. We believe that functional foods should be highly palatable for increased acceptance from consumers. In order to design functional foods with a high palatability, we have investigated about the palatability, especially in relation to the taste of food. In this review, we discuss (1) the identification of taste receptors that respond to functional food components; (2) an analysis of the peripheral taste transduction system; and (3) the investigation of the relationship between physiological functions and taste signals.

  19. Immunocytochemical evidence for co-expression of Type III IP3 receptor with signaling components of bitter taste transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnamon Sue C

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli into electrical signals that lead to the sense of taste. An important second messenger in taste transduction is IP3, which is involved in both bitter and sweet transduction pathways. Several components of the bitter transduction pathway have been identified, including the T2R/TRB taste receptors, phospholipase C β2, and the G protein subunits α-gustducin, β3, and γ13. However, the identity of the IP3 receptor subtype in this pathway is not known. In the present study we used immunocytochemistry on rodent taste tissue to identify the IP3 receptors expressed in taste cells and to examine taste bud expression patterns for IP3R3. Results Antibodies against Type I, II, and III IP3 receptors were tested on sections of rat and mouse circumvallate papillae. Robust cytoplasmic labeling for the Type III IP3 receptor (IP3R3 was found in a large subset of taste cells in both species. In contrast, little or no immunoreactivity was seen with antibodies against the Type I or Type II IP3 receptors. To investigate the potential role of IP3R3 in bitter taste transduction, we used double-label immunocytochemistry to determine whether IP3R3 is expressed in the same subset of cells expressing other bitter signaling components. IP3R3 immunoreactive taste cells were also immunoreactive for PLCβ2 and γ13. Alpha-gustducin immunoreactivity was present in a subset of IP3R3, PLCβ2, and γ13 positive cells. Conclusions IP3R3 is the dominant form of the IP3 receptor expressed in taste cells and our data suggest it plays an important role in bitter taste transduction.

  20. Caffeine taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

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    Anthi A Apostolopoulou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal and ventral organ. However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative coreceptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s. This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviours.

  1. TRPM5, a taste-signaling transient receptor potential ion-channel, is a ubiquitous signaling component in chemosensory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of TRP channels have been identified as key players in the sensation of smell, temperature, mechanical forces and taste. TRPM5 is known to be abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells where it participates in sweet, amino acid and bitter perception. A role of TRPM5 in other sensory systems, however, has not been studied so far. Results Here, we systematically investigated the expression of TRPM5 in rat and mouse tissues. Apart from taste buds, where we found TRPM5 to be predominantly localized on the basolateral surface of taste receptor cells, TRPM5 immunoreactivity was seen in other chemosensory organs – the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. Most strikingly, we found solitary TRPM5-enriched epithelial cells in all parts of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Based on their tissue distribution, the low cell density, morphological features and co-immunostaining with different epithelial markers, we identified these cells as brush cells (also known as tuft, fibrillovesicular, multivesicular or caveolated cells. In terms of morphological characteristics, brush cells resemble taste receptor cells, while their origin and biological role are still under intensive debate. Conclusion We consider TRPM5 to be an intrinsic signaling component of mammalian chemosensory organs, and provide evidence for brush cells being an important cellular correlate in the periphery.

  2. Polycose Taste Pre-Exposure Fails to Influence Behavioral and Neural Indices of Taste Novelty

    OpenAIRE

    Barot, Sabiha K.; Bernstein, Ilene L.

    2005-01-01

    Taste novelty can strongly modulate the speed and efficacy of taste aversion learning. Novel sweet tastes enhance c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the central amygdala and insular cortex. The present studies examined whether this neural correlate of novelty extends to different taste types by measuring FLI signals after exposure to novel and familiar polysaccharide (Polycose®) and salt (NaCl) tastes. Novel Polycose not only failed to elevate FLI expression in central amygdala and insular ...

  3. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

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    Caroline Ayres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r=0.864, P=0.001, without correlation when the solution given is water (r=0.314, P=0.455. In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals.

  4. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary inductive signal for taste placode formation, followed by taste papilla morphogenesis and taste bud differentiation, but the degree to which these later elements were direct or indirect consequences of β-catenin signaling was not explored. Here, we define discrete spatiotemporal functions of β-catenin in fungiform taste bud development. Specifically, we show that early epithelial activation of β-catenin, before taste placodes form, diverts lingual epithelial cells from a taste bud fate. By contrast, β-catenin activation a day later within Shh+ placodes, expands taste bud precursors directly, but enlarges papillae indirectly. Further, placodal activation of β-catenin drives precocious differentiation of Type I glial-like taste cells, but not other taste cell types. Later activation of β-catenin within Shh+ precursors during papilla morphogenesis also expands taste bud precursors and accelerates Type I cell differentiation, but papilla size is no longer enhanced. Finally, although Shh regulates taste placode patterning, we find that it is dispensable for the accelerated Type I cell differentiation induced by β-catenin. PMID:26525674

  5. Salivary leptin and TAS1R2/TAS1R3 polymorphisms are related to sweet taste sensitivity and carbohydrate intake from a buffet meal in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Keast, Russell S J; Roura, Eugeni

    2017-11-01

    The influence of sweet taste sensitivity on food intake is not well understood. We investigated the involvement of salivary leptin and SNP of the sweet taste receptor genes (TAS1R2/TAS1R3) on sweet taste sensitivity, sensory-specific satiety (SSS) and macronutrient intake in healthy human adults. In all, nineteen high sweet sensitivity (HS) and eleven low sweet sensitivity (LS) subjects were classified based on the sweetness perception of one solution (9 mm sucrose) forced-choice triangle test. All participants completed a randomised crossover design experiment where they consumed one of three iso-energetic soup preloads differing in primary taste quality (sweet, non-sweet taste-control or no-taste energy-control). A period of 1 h after the preload, participants were offered a buffet meal consisting of foods varying in taste (sweet or non-sweet) and fat content. Subjective measures included hunger/fullness and SSS for sweetness. Saliva and buccal cells were collected to measure leptin level and to study the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 specific SNP, respectively. Salivary leptin concentrations were significantly higher in LS than HS participants (P<0·05). In addition, HS showed stronger sweet SSS compared with LH participants (P<0·05), and consumed less carbohydrate (% energy) and more non-sweet foods than LS (P<0·01 and P<0·05, respectively). Alleles from each TAS1R2 locus (GG compared with AA alleles of rs12033832, and CT/CC compared with TT alleles of rs35874116) were related to higher consumption of carbohydrates (% energy) and higher amount of sweet foods, respectively (P<0·05). In contrast, no associations were found for the TAS1R3 alleles. These results contribute to understand the links between taste sensitivity, macronutrient appetite and food consumption.

  6. Tongue and Taste Organ Biology and Function: Homeostasis Maintained by Hedgehog Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, Charlotte M; Kumari, Archana

    2017-02-10

    The tongue is an elaborate complex of heterogeneous tissues with taste organs of diverse embryonic origins. The lingual taste organs are papillae, composed of an epithelium that includes specialized taste buds, the basal lamina, and a lamina propria core with matrix molecules, fibroblasts, nerves, and vessels. Because taste organs are dynamic in cell biology and sensory function, homeostasis requires tight regulation in specific compartments or niches. Recently, the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has emerged as an essential regulator that maintains lingual taste papillae, taste bud and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurophysiological function. Activating or suppressing Hh signaling, with genetic models or pharmacological agents used in cancer treatments, disrupts taste papilla and taste bud integrity and can eliminate responses from taste nerves to chemical stimuli but not to touch or temperature. Understanding Hh regulation of taste organ homeostasis contributes knowledge about the basic biology underlying taste disruptions in patients treated with Hh pathway inhibitors.

  7. Maintenance of Taste Organs Is Strictly Dependent on Epithelial Hedgehog/GLI Signaling.

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    Alexandre N Ermilov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For homeostasis, lingual taste papilla organs require regulation of epithelial cell survival and renewal, with sustained innervation and stromal interactions. To investigate a role for Hedgehog/GLI signaling in adult taste organs we used a panel of conditional mouse models to manipulate GLI activity within epithelial cells of the fungiform and circumvallate papillae. Hedgehog signaling suppression rapidly led to taste bud loss, papilla disruption, and decreased proliferation in domains of papilla epithelium that contribute to taste cells. Hedgehog responding cells were eliminated from the epithelium but retained in the papilla stromal core. Despite papilla disruption and loss of taste buds that are a major source of Hedgehog ligand, innervation to taste papillae was maintained, and not misdirected, even after prolonged GLI blockade. Further, vimentin-positive fibroblasts remained in the papilla core. However, retained innervation and stromal cells were not sufficient to maintain taste bud cells in the context of compromised epithelial Hedgehog signaling. Importantly taste organ disruption after GLI blockade was reversible in papillae that retained some taste bud cell remnants where reactivation of Hedgehog signaling led to regeneration of papilla epithelium and taste buds. Therefore, taste bud progenitors were either retained during epithelial GLI blockade or readily repopulated during recovery, and were poised to regenerate taste buds once Hedgehog signaling was restored, with innervation and papilla connective tissue elements in place. Our data argue that Hedgehog signaling is essential for adult tongue tissue maintenance and that taste papilla epithelial cells represent the key targets for physiologic Hedgehog-dependent regulation of taste organ homeostasis. Because disruption of GLI transcriptional activity in taste papilla epithelium is sufficient to drive taste organ loss, similar to pharmacologic Hedgehog pathway inhibition, the findings

  8. Maintenance of Taste Organs Is Strictly Dependent on Epithelial Hedgehog/GLI Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Alexandre N; Kumari, Archana; Li, Libo; Joiner, Ariell M; Grachtchouk, Marina A; Allen, Benjamin L; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    For homeostasis, lingual taste papilla organs require regulation of epithelial cell survival and renewal, with sustained innervation and stromal interactions. To investigate a role for Hedgehog/GLI signaling in adult taste organs we used a panel of conditional mouse models to manipulate GLI activity within epithelial cells of the fungiform and circumvallate papillae. Hedgehog signaling suppression rapidly led to taste bud loss, papilla disruption, and decreased proliferation in domains of papilla epithelium that contribute to taste cells. Hedgehog responding cells were eliminated from the epithelium but retained in the papilla stromal core. Despite papilla disruption and loss of taste buds that are a major source of Hedgehog ligand, innervation to taste papillae was maintained, and not misdirected, even after prolonged GLI blockade. Further, vimentin-positive fibroblasts remained in the papilla core. However, retained innervation and stromal cells were not sufficient to maintain taste bud cells in the context of compromised epithelial Hedgehog signaling. Importantly taste organ disruption after GLI blockade was reversible in papillae that retained some taste bud cell remnants where reactivation of Hedgehog signaling led to regeneration of papilla epithelium and taste buds. Therefore, taste bud progenitors were either retained during epithelial GLI blockade or readily repopulated during recovery, and were poised to regenerate taste buds once Hedgehog signaling was restored, with innervation and papilla connective tissue elements in place. Our data argue that Hedgehog signaling is essential for adult tongue tissue maintenance and that taste papilla epithelial cells represent the key targets for physiologic Hedgehog-dependent regulation of taste organ homeostasis. Because disruption of GLI transcriptional activity in taste papilla epithelium is sufficient to drive taste organ loss, similar to pharmacologic Hedgehog pathway inhibition, the findings suggest that taste

  9. Breadth of Tuning and Taste Coding in Mammalian Taste Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Tomchik, Seth M.; Berg, Stephanie; Kim, Joung Woul; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    A longstanding question in taste research concerns taste coding and, in particular, how broadly are individual taste bud cells tuned to taste qualities (sweet, bitter, umami, salty, and sour). Taste bud cells express G-protein-coupled receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami tastes but not in combination. However, responses to multiple taste qualities have been recorded in individual taste cells. We and others have shown previously there are two classes of taste bud cells directly involved in gu...

  10. Sweet taste of saccharin induces weight gain without increasing caloric intake, not related to insulin-resistance in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Melo Batista, Bruna Aparecida; Neves, Alice Magagnin; de Matos Feijó, Fernanda; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Marques Ribeiro, Maria Flávia; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that saccharin can induce weight gain when compared with sucrose in Wistar rats despite similar total caloric intake. We now question whether it could be due to the sweet taste of saccharin per se. We also aimed to address if this weight gain is associated with insulin-resistance and to increases in gut peptides such as leptin and PYY in the fasting state. In a 14 week experiment, 16 male Wistar rats received either saccharin-sweetened yogurt or non-sweetened yogurt daily in addition to chow and water ad lib. We measured daily food intake and weight gain weekly. At the end of the experiment, we evaluated fasting leptin, glucose, insulin, PYY and determined insulin resistance through HOMA-IR. Cumulative weight gain and food intake were evaluated through linear mixed models. Results showed that saccharin induced greater weight gain when compared with non-sweetened control (p = 0.027) despite a similar total caloric intake. There were no differences in HOMA-IR, fasting leptin or PYY levels between groups. We conclude that saccharin sweet taste can induce mild weight gain in Wistar rats without increasing total caloric intake. This weight gain was not related with insulin-resistance nor changes in fasting leptin or PYY in Wistar rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The ghrelin signalling system is involved in the consumption of sweets.

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    Sara Landgren

    Full Text Available The gastric-derived orexigenic peptide ghrelin affects brain circuits involved in energy balance as well as in reward. Indeed, ghrelin activates an important reward circuit involved in natural- as well as drug-induced reward, the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link. It has been hypothesized that there is a common reward mechanism for alcohol and sweet substances in both animals and humans. Alcohol dependent individuals have higher craving for sweets than do healthy controls and the hedonic response to sweet taste may, at least in part, depend on genetic factors. Rat selectively bred for high sucrose intake have higher alcohol consumption than non-sucrose preferring rats and vice versa. In the present study a group of alcohol-consuming individuals selected from a population cohort was investigated for genetic variants of the ghrelin signalling system in relation to both their alcohol and sucrose consumption. Moreover, the effects of GHS-R1A antagonism on voluntary sucrose-intake and operant self-administration, as well as saccharin intake were investigated in preclinical studies using rodents. The effects of peripheral grelin administration on sucrose intake were also examined. Here we found associations with the ghrelin gene haplotypes and increased sucrose consumption, and a trend for the same association was seen in the high alcohol consumers. The preclinical data show that a GHS-R1A antagonist reduces the intake and self-administration of sucrose in rats as well as saccharin intake in mice. Further, ghrelin increases the intake of sucrose in rats. Collectively, our data provide a clear indication that the GHS-R1A antagonists reduces and ghrelin increases the intake of rewarding substances and hence, the central ghrelin signalling system provides a novel target for the development of drug strategies to treat addictive behaviours.

  12. Distinct human and mouse membrane trafficking systems for sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system.

  13. PERCEPTION OF SWEET TASTE IS IMPORTANT FOR VOLUNTARY ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Blednov, Y.A.; Walker, D.; Martinez, M.; Levine, M.; Damak, S.; Margolskee, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    To directly evaluate the association between taste perception and alcohol intake, we used three different mutant mice, each lacking a gene expressed in taste buds and critical to taste transduction: α-gustducin (Gnat3), Tas1r3 or Trpm5. Null mutant mice lacking any of these three genes showed lower preference score for alcohol and consumed less alcohol in a two-bottle choice test, as compared with wild-type littermates. These null mice also showed lower preference score for saccharin solution...

  14. Effects of Sleeve Gastrectomy vs. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Eating Behavior and Sweet Taste Perception in Subjects with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Nance

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB has greater effects on taste perception and eating behavior than comparable weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy (SG. We evaluated the following outcomes in 31 subjects both before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 23 or SG (n = 8: (1 sweet, savory, and salty taste sensitivity; (2 the most preferred concentrations of sucrose and monosodium glutamate; (3 sweetness palatability, by using validated sensory testing techniques; and (4 eating behavior, by using the Food Craving Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. We found that neither RYGB nor SG affected sweetness or saltiness sensitivity. However, weight loss induced by either RYGB or SG caused the same decrease in: (1 frequency of cravings for foods; (2 influence of emotions and external food cues on eating behavior; and (3 shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (all p-values ≤ 0.01. Therefore, when matched on weight loss, SG and RYGB cause the same beneficial effects on key factors involved in the regulation of eating behavior and hedonic component of taste perception.

  15. Changes in taste sensation of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy, as well as levels of malondialdehyde serum in radiographers

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    Agniz Nur Aulia

    2016-06-01

    on the effects of radiation on cancer patients show that radiation can cause an increase in bitterness and metal taste [in cancer patients] leading to discomfort in the oral cavity. In body, free radicals then can cause lipid peroxidation process. Lipid peroxidation is an oxidative destruction of polyunsaturated fatty acid producing malondialdehyde (MDA. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effects of radiation on changes in the taste sensation of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy as well as the levels of MDA serum in radiographers. Method: This study was an observational laboratory research using post- test control design. Samples were selected using simple random sampling technique. The samples were seven radiographers who have been working for five years in the laboratory and radiographic units in Surabaya. Result: Based on the results of statistical tests, it showed that there were no differences in the sensitivity of all tastes between the groups tested. Moreover, the results also depicted considerable value for the sour taste was 0.550, the saltiness was 0.775, the sweetness was 0.294, the bitter taste was 0.065, the umami taste was 0.705, and the spicy taste was 0.319 (p>0.05. However, the dramatic increase was higlighted in levels of MDA serum with a significant value of 0.065 (p>0.005. Conclusion. There were no changes in the sensitivity of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy tastes, but there was a significant increased in level of MDA serum in the radiographers compared to the control group.

  16. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A

    2015-12-15

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary inductive signal for taste placode formation, followed by taste papilla morphogenesis and taste bud differentiation, but the degree to which these later elements were direct or indirect consequences of β-catenin signaling was not explored. Here, we define discrete spatiotemporal functions of β-catenin in fungiform taste bud development. Specifically, we show that early epithelial activation of β-catenin, before taste placodes form, diverts lingual epithelial cells from a taste bud fate. By contrast, β-catenin activation a day later within Shh(+) placodes, expands taste bud precursors directly, but enlarges papillae indirectly. Further, placodal activation of β-catenin drives precocious differentiation of Type I glial-like taste cells, but not other taste cell types. Later activation of β-catenin within Shh(+) precursors during papilla morphogenesis also expands taste bud precursors and accelerates Type I cell differentiation, but papilla size is no longer enhanced. Finally, although Shh regulates taste placode patterning, we find that it is dispensable for the accelerated Type I cell differentiation induced by β-catenin. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Incidental learning and memory for food varied in sweet taste in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laureati, M.; Pagliarini, E.; Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    This experiment investigated incidental learning and memory in children (age 7–10 years) for three different foods (fruit juice, fruit purée and biscuit), varied in sweetness. Children (N = 286) were exposed to three target foods and 24 h later their incidental learning was tested for one of the

  18. Polycose taste pre-exposure fails to influence behavioral and neural indices of taste novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barot, Sabiha K; Bernstein, Ilene L

    2005-12-01

    Taste novelty can strongly modulate the speed and efficacy of taste aversion learning. Novel sweet tastes enhance c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the central amygdala and insular cortex. The present studies examined whether this neural correlate of novelty extends to different taste types by measuring FLI signals after exposure to novel and familiar polysaccharide (Polycose) and salt (NaCl) tastes. Novel Polycose not only failed to elevate FLI expression in central amygdala and insular cortex, but also failed to induce stronger taste aversion learning than familiar Polycose. Novel NaCl, on the other hand, showed patterns of FLI activation and aversion learning similar to that of novel sweet tastes. Possible reasons for the resistance of Polycose to typical pre-exposure effects are discussed. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggu Cai

    Full Text Available Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2 and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3. Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species.

  20. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenggu; Jiang, Hua; Li, Lei; Liu, Tianming; Song, Xuejie; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2) and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3). Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species.

  1. FGF21 Mediates Endocrine Control of Simple Sugar Intake and Sweet Taste Preference by the Liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; BonDurant, Lucas D; Peltekian, Lila

    2016-01-01

    The liver is an important integrator of nutrient metabolism, yet no liver-derived factors regulating nutrient preference or carbohydrate appetite have been identified. Here we show that the liver regulates carbohydrate intake through production of the hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21......), which markedly suppresses consumption of simple sugars, but not complex carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids. Genetic loss of FGF21 in mice increases sucrose consumption, whereas acute administration or overexpression of FGF21 suppresses the intake of both sugar and non-caloric sweeteners. FGF21 does...... not affect chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet tastants, instead reducing sweet-seeking behavior and meal size via neurons in the hypothalamus. This liver-to-brain hormonal axis likely represents a negative feedback loop as hepatic FGF21 production is elevated by sucrose ingestion. We conclude...

  2. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-12-02

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT(3A) promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT(3A) mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μM 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μM ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μM m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515984-12$15.00/0.

  3. Taste bud cells of adult mice are responsive to Wnt/β-catenin signaling: implications for the renewal of mature taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Barlow, Linda A

    2011-04-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling initiates taste papilla development in mouse embryos, however, its involvement in taste cell turnover in adult mice has not been explored. Here we used the BATGAL reporter mouse model, which carries an engineered allele in which the LacZ gene is expressed in the presence of activated β-catenin, to determine the responsiveness of adult taste bud cells to canonical Wnt signaling. Double immunostaining with markers of differentiated taste cells revealed that a subset of Type I, II, and III taste cells express β-galactosidase. Using in situ hybridization, we showed that β-catenin activates the transcription of the LacZ gene mainly in intragemmal basal cells that are immature taste cells, identified by their expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Finally, we showed that β-catenin activity is significantly reduced in taste buds of 25-week-old mice compared with 10-week-old animals. Our data suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling may influence taste cell turnover by regulating cell differentiation. Reduced canonical Wnt signaling in older mice could explain in part the loss of taste sensitivity with aging, implicating a possible deficiency in the rate of taste cell renewal. More investigations are now necessary to understand if and how Wnt signaling regulates adult taste cell turnover. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Taste bud cells of adult mice are responsive to Wnt/β-catenin signaling: implications for the renewal of mature taste cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Barlow, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling initiates taste papilla development in mouse embryos, however, its involvement in taste cell turnover in adult mice has not been explored. Here we used the BATGAL reporter mouse model, which carries an engineered allele in which the LacZ gene is expressed in the presence of activated β-catenin, to determine the responsiveness of adult taste bud cells to canonical Wnt signaling. Double immunostaining with markers of differentiated taste cells revealed that a subset of type I, II and III taste cells express β-galactosidase. Using in situ hybridization, we showed that β-catenin activates the transcription of the LacZ gene mainly in intragemmal basal cells that are immature taste cells, identified by their expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Finally, we showed that β-catenin activity is significantly reduced in taste buds of 25 week-old mice compared to 10 week-old animals. Our data suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling may influence taste cell turnover by regulating cell differentiation. Reduced canonical Wnt signaling in older mice could explain in part the loss of taste sensitivity with aging, implicating a possible deficiency in the rate of taste cell renewal. More investigations are now necessary to understand if and how Wnt signaling regulates adult taste cell turnover. PMID:21328519

  5. Variation in the Sweet Taste Receptor Gene and Dietary Intake in a Swedish Middle-Aged Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Habberstad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe preference for sweet taste is partially genetically determined. The major allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs12033832 in the sweet taste receptor (TAS1R2 has previously been associated with lower sugar sensitivity and higher sugar intake among overweight individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dietary intake and the TAS1R2 genotype in lean and overweight individuals in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC cohort using dietary intake data with a high validity.MethodsIn total, 3,602 participants (46–68 years old from the MDC cohort who underwent baseline examinations between 1991 and 1994, who were non-smokers without diabetes, and for whom information regarding TAS1R2 rs7534618 (a proxy for rs12033832 was available were included in this study. After excluding individuals with potentially misreported and unstable food habits, 2,204 individuals were retained. A modified dietary history method, including a 7-day food diary of prepared meals, which was specifically designed for the MDC study was used.ResultsOnly modest associations were observed between dietary intake and the TAS1R2 genotype. We observed slightly stronger associations after excluding individuals with potentially misreported and unstable food habits. Among the participants with a BMI ≥25, the major (T allele carriers consumed more carbohydrates [TT = 45.2 percentage of energy intake (E%; TG = 45.2E%; GG = 43.7E%; p = 0.01] and less fat (p = 0.03, but these participants did not consume more sucrose than the G-allele carriers. No association was observed between the genotype and dietary intake among the participants with a BMI <25.ConclusionAlthough the higher carbohydrate intake among the major allele carriers was consistent with that reported in a previous study, the magnitudes of the associations were substantially smaller. Because we observed no association with sucrose, this

  6. Low-sodium meat products: retaining salty taste for sweet health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Banerjee, Rituparna

    2012-01-01

    There is a positive correlation between excessive intake of sodium and incidence of hypertension. As diet is the main source of sodium, awareness among people regarding its possible role upon health has driven demand for various low sodium foods including meat products. Meat products contribute a significant amount of dietary sodium, thus maligning their own image. However, this is not an easy task as common salt affects taste and flavor, functional attributes, stability, and food safety of meat products. The various properties such as taste and flavor, binding, as well as microbiological characteristics should be given due care while developing low salt meat products and accordingly different approaches have been proposed for processing of such products. Potassium chloride has been mostly used to replace sodium; however, a number of other salts, flavor enhancers, bitter blockers and water, as well as fat binders have also been attempted either alone or in different combinations. A number of low sodium meat products have been developed but their economy and consumer acceptability are the major concerns needing proper attention. In future it is anticipated that these challenges would be overcome to provide well acceptable and cost-effective healthier meat products to the consumers.

  7. Localization of phosphatidylinositol signaling components in rat taste cells: Role in bitter taste transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, P.M.; Verma, A.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in taste transduction we have visualized, in rat tongue, ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticular accumulation of 45 Ca 2+ , inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding sites, and phosphatidylinositol turnover monitored by autoradiography of [ 3 H]cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol formed from [ 3 H]cytidine. Accumulated 45 Ca 2+ , inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, and phosphatidylinositol turnover are selectively localized to apical areas of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, which are associated with bitter taste. Further evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in bitter taste is our observation of a rapid, selective increase in mass levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate elicited by low concentrations of denatonium, a potently bitter tastant

  8. Atomic structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I at pH 8.0 reveals the large disulfide-rich region in domain II to be sensitive to a pH change.

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ohta, Keisuke; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2012-01-01

    Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting plant protein, elicits a sweet taste at 50 nM. Although the sweetness remains when thaumatin is heated at 80 °C for 4h under acid conditions, it rapidly declines when heating at a pH above 6.5. To clarify the structural difference at high pH, the atomic structure of a recombinant thaumatin I at pH 8.0 was determined at a resolution of 1.0Å. Comparison to the crystal structure of thaumatin at pH 7.3 and 7.0 revealed the root-mean square deviation value of ...

  9. Participation of the peripheral taste system in aging-dependent changes in taste sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masataka; Kurokawa, Azusa; Kohta, Rie; Misaka, Takumi

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that aging modifies taste sensitivity. However, the factors affecting the changes in taste sensitivity remain unclear. To investigate the cause of the age-related changes in taste sensitivity, we compared the peripheral taste detection systems in young and old mice. First, we examined whether taste sensitivity varied according to age using behavioral assays. We confirmed that the taste sensitivities to salty and bitter tastes decreased with aging. In other assays, the gustatory nerve responses to salty and sweet tastes increased significantly with aging, while those to bitter taste did not change. Thus, the profile of the gustatory nerve responses was inconsistent with the profile of the behavioral responses. Next, we evaluated the expressions of taste-related molecules in the taste buds. Although no apparent differences in the expressions of representative taste receptors were observed between the two age groups, the mRNA expressions of signaling effectors were slightly, but significantly, decreased in old mice. No significant differences in the turnover rates of taste bud cells were observed between the two age groups. Thus, we did not observe any large decreases in the expressions of taste-related molecules and turnover rates of taste bud cells with aging. Based on these findings, we conclude that changes in taste sensitivity with aging were not caused by aging-related degradation of peripheral taste organs. Meanwhile, the concentrations of several serum components that modify taste responses changed with age. Thus, taste signal-modifying factors such as serum components may have a contributing role in aging-related changes in taste sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple Shh signaling centers participate in fungiform papilla and taste bud formation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong Xiang; Ermilov, Alexandre; Grachtchouk, Marina; Li, Libo; Gumucio, Deborah L; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charalotte M

    2013-10-01

    The adult fungiform taste papilla is a complex of specialized cell types residing in the stratified squamous tongue epithelium. This unique sensory organ includes taste buds, papilla epithelium and lateral walls that extend into underlying connective tissue to surround a core of lamina propria cells. Fungiform papillae must contain long-lived, sustaining or stem cells and short-lived, maintaining or transit amplifying cells that support the papilla and specialized taste buds. Shh signaling has established roles in supporting fungiform induction, development and patterning. However, for a full understanding of how Shh transduced signals act in tongue, papilla and taste bud formation and maintenance, it is necessary to know where and when the Shh ligand and pathway components are positioned. We used immunostaining, in situ hybridization and mouse reporter strains for Shh, Ptch1, Gli1 and Gli2-expression and proliferation markers to identify cells that participate in hedgehog signaling. Whereas there is a progressive restriction in location of Shh ligand-expressing cells, from placode and apical papilla cells to taste bud cells only, a surrounding population of Ptch1 and Gli1 responding cells is maintained in signaling centers throughout papilla and taste bud development and differentiation. The Shh signaling targets are in regions of active cell proliferation. Using genetic-inducible lineage tracing for Gli1-expression, we found that Shh-responding cells contribute not only to maintenance of filiform and fungiform papillae, but also to taste buds. A requirement for normal Shh signaling in fungiform papilla, taste bud and filiform papilla maintenance was shown by Gli2 constitutive activation. We identified proliferation niches where Shh signaling is active and suggest that epithelial and mesenchymal compartments harbor potential stem and/or progenitor cell zones. In all, we report a set of hedgehog signaling centers that regulate development and maintenance of taste

  11. Nasal chemosensory cells use bitter taste signaling to detect irritants and bacterial signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Gulbransen, Brian D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Clapp, Tod R; Herman, Jake P; Sibhatu, Hiruy M; Churchill, Mair E A; Silver, Wayne L; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2010-02-16

    The upper respiratory tract is continually assaulted with harmful dusts and xenobiotics carried on the incoming airstream. Detection of such irritants by the trigeminal nerve evokes protective reflexes, including sneezing, apnea, and local neurogenic inflammation of the mucosa. Although free intra-epithelial nerve endings can detect certain lipophilic irritants (e.g., mints, ammonia), the epithelium also houses a population of trigeminally innervated solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) that express T2R bitter taste receptors along with their downstream signaling components. These SCCs have been postulated to enhance the chemoresponsive capabilities of the trigeminal irritant-detection system. Here we show that transduction by the intranasal solitary chemosensory cells is necessary to evoke trigeminally mediated reflex reactions to some irritants including acyl-homoserine lactone bacterial quorum-sensing molecules, which activate the downstream signaling effectors associated with bitter taste transduction. Isolated nasal chemosensory cells respond to the classic bitter ligand denatonium as well as to the bacterial signals by increasing intracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, these same substances evoke changes in respiration indicative of trigeminal activation. Genetic ablation of either G alpha-gustducin or TrpM5, essential elements of the T2R transduction cascade, eliminates the trigeminal response. Because acyl-homoserine lactones serve as quorum-sensing molecules for gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, detection of these substances by airway chemoreceptors offers a means by which the airway epithelium may trigger an epithelial inflammatory response before the bacteria reach population densities capable of forming destructive biofilms.

  12. Taste enhancement in food gels: Effect of fracture properties on oral breakdown, bolus formation and sweetness intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Velde, van de F.; Bult, J.H.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Stieger, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of fracture strain and fracture stress on oral breakdown, bolus formation and sweetness intensity of semi-solid food gels containing sucrose heterogeneously distributed in layers. The sweetness intensity of gels was mainly affected by the total surface area of gel

  13. T1R3 homomeric sweet taste receptor regulates adipogenesis through Gαs-mediated microtubules disassembly and Rho activation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Masubuchi

    Full Text Available We previously reported that 3T3-L1 cells express a functional sweet taste receptor possibly as a T1R3 homomer that is coupled to Gs and negatively regulates adipogenesis by a Gαs-mediated but cAMP-independent mechanism. Here, we show that stimulation of this receptor with sucralose or saccharin induced disassembly of the microtubules in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which was attenuated by overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of Gαs (Gαs-G226A. In contrast, overexpression of the constitutively active mutant of Gαs (Gαs-Q227L as well as treatment with cholera toxin or isoproterenol but not with forskolin caused disassembly of the microtubules. Sweetener-induced microtubule disassembly was accompanied by activation of RhoA and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK. This was attenuated with by knockdown of GEF-H1, a microtubule-localized guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPase. Furthermore, overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of RhoA (RhoA-T19N blocked sweetener-induced dephosphorylation of Akt and repression of PPARγ and C/EBPα in the early phase of adipogenic differentiation. These results suggest that the T1R3 homomeric sweet taste receptor negatively regulates adipogenesis through Gαs-mediated microtubule disassembly and consequent activation of the Rho/ROCK pathway.

  14. Effects of social sustainability signals on neural valuation signals and taste-experience of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eEnax

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Value-based decision making occurs when individuals choose between different alternatives and place a value on each alternative and its attributes. Marketing actions frequently manipulate product attributes, by adding e.g., health claims on the packaging. A previous imaging study found that an emblem for organic products increased willingness to pay (WTP and activity in the ventral striatum (VS. The current study investigated neural and behavioral processes underlying the influence of Fair Trade (FT labeling on food valuation and choice. Sustainability is an important product attribute for many consumers, with FT signals being one way to highlight ethically sustainable production. Forty participants valuated products in combination with an FT emblem or no emblem and stated their WTP in a bidding task while in an MRI scanner. After that, participants tasted – objectively identical – chocolates, presented either as FT or as conventionally produced. In the fMRI task, WTP was significantly higher for FT products. FT labeling increased activity in regions important for reward-processing and salience, that is, in the VS, anterior and posterior cingulate, as well as superior frontal gyrus. Subjective value, that is, WTP was correlated with activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC. We find that the anterior cingulate, VS and superior frontal gyrus exhibit task-related increases in functional connectivity to the vmPFC when an FT product was evaluated, suggesting a network which alters valuation processes. We also found a significant taste-placebo effect, with higher experienced taste pleasantness and intensity for FT labeled chocolates. Our results reveal a possible neural mechanism underlying valuation processes of certified food products. The results are important in light of understanding current marketing trends as well as designing future interventions that aim at positively influencing food choice.

  15. A large increase of sour taste receptor cells in Skn-1-deficient mice does not alter the number of their sour taste signal-transmitting gustatory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Naohiro; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2017-05-01

    The connections between taste receptor cells (TRCs) and innervating gustatory neurons are formed in a mutually dependent manner during development. To investigate whether a change in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds influences the number of innervating gustatory neurons, we analyzed the proportion of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals in adult Skn-1a -/- mice in which the number of sour TRCs is greatly increased. We generated polycystic kidney disease 1 like 3-wheat germ agglutinin (pkd1l3-WGA)/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice by crossing Skn-1a -/- mice and pkd1l3-WGA transgenic mice, in which neural pathways of sour taste signals can be visualized. The number of WGA-positive cells in the circumvallate papillae is 3-fold higher in taste buds of pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice relative to pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ mice. Intriguingly, the ratio of WGA-positive neurons to P2X 2 -expressing gustatory neurons in nodose/petrosal ganglia was similar between pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice. In conclusion, an alteration in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds does not influence the number of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Na; Lu, Min; Echeverri, Fernando; Laita, Bianca; Kalabat, Dalia; Williams, Mark E; Hevezi, Peter; Zlotnik, Albert; Moyer, Bryan D

    2009-03-12

    Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  17. A subset of sweet-sensing neurons identified by IR56d are necessary and sufficient for fatty acid taste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Tauber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs, one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding. Previously, we showed that a broad population of sugar-sensing taste neurons expressing Gustatory Receptor 64f (Gr64f is required for reflexive feeding responses to both FAs and sugars. Here, we report a genetic silencing screen to identify specific populations of taste neurons that mediate fatty acid (FA taste. We find neurons identified by expression of Ionotropic Receptor 56d (IR56d are necessary and sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Functional imaging reveals that IR56d-expressing neurons are responsive to short- and medium-chain FAs. Silencing IR56d neurons selectively abolishes FA taste, and their activation is sufficient to drive feeding responses. Analysis of co-expression with Gr64f identifies two subpopulations of IR56d-expressing neurons. While physiological imaging reveals that both populations are responsive to FAs, IR56d/Gr64f neurons are activated by medium-chain FAs and are sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Moreover, flies can discriminate between sugar and FAs in an aversive taste memory assay, indicating that FA taste is a unique modality in Drosophila. Taken together, these findings localize FA taste within the Drosophila gustatory center and provide an opportunity to investigate discrimination between different categories of appetitive tastants.

  18. A subset of sweet-sensing neurons identified by IR56d are necessary and sufficient for fatty acid taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, John M; Brown, Elizabeth B; Li, Yuanyuan; Yurgel, Maria E; Masek, Pavel; Keene, Alex C

    2017-11-01

    Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding. Previously, we showed that a broad population of sugar-sensing taste neurons expressing Gustatory Receptor 64f (Gr64f) is required for reflexive feeding responses to both FAs and sugars. Here, we report a genetic silencing screen to identify specific populations of taste neurons that mediate fatty acid (FA) taste. We find neurons identified by expression of Ionotropic Receptor 56d (IR56d) are necessary and sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Functional imaging reveals that IR56d-expressing neurons are responsive to short- and medium-chain FAs. Silencing IR56d neurons selectively abolishes FA taste, and their activation is sufficient to drive feeding responses. Analysis of co-expression with Gr64f identifies two subpopulations of IR56d-expressing neurons. While physiological imaging reveals that both populations are responsive to FAs, IR56d/Gr64f neurons are activated by medium-chain FAs and are sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Moreover, flies can discriminate between sugar and FAs in an aversive taste memory assay, indicating that FA taste is a unique modality in Drosophila. Taken together, these findings localize FA taste within the Drosophila gustatory center and provide an opportunity to investigate discrimination between different categories of appetitive tastants.

  19. FGF signaling regulates the number of posterior taste papillae by controlling progenitor field size.

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    Camille I Petersen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is fundamental to our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Sensory taste buds are housed in papillae that develop from epithelial placodes. Three distinct types of gustatory papillae reside on the rodent tongue: small fungiform papillae are found in the anterior tongue, whereas the posterior tongue contains the larger foliate papillae and a single midline circumvallate papilla (CVP. Despite the great variation in the number of CVPs in mammals, its importance in taste function, and its status as the largest of the taste papillae, very little is known about the development of this structure. Here, we report that a balance between Sprouty (Spry genes and Fgf10, which respectively antagonize and activate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signaling, regulates the number of CVPs. Deletion of Spry2 alone resulted in duplication of the CVP as a result of an increase in the size of the placode progenitor field, and Spry1(-/-;Spry2(-/- embryos had multiple CVPs, demonstrating the redundancy of Sprouty genes in regulating the progenitor field size. By contrast, deletion of Fgf10 led to absence of the CVP, identifying FGF10 as the first inductive, mesenchyme-derived factor for taste papillae. Our results provide the first demonstration of the role of epithelial-mesenchymal FGF signaling in taste papilla development, indicate that regulation of the progenitor field size by FGF signaling is a critical determinant of papilla number, and suggest that the great variation in CVP number among mammalian species may be linked to levels of signaling by the FGF pathway.

  20. Stevia Glycosides : Chemical and Enzymatic Modifications of Their Carbohydrate Moieties to Improve the Sweet-Tasting Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwig, Gerrit J; Te Poele, Evelien M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2016-01-01

    Stevia glycosides, extracted from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, display an amazing high degree of sweetness. As processed plant products, they are considered as excellent bio-alternatives for sucrose and artificial sweeteners. Being noncaloric and having beneficial properties

  1. Modern 'junk food' and minimally-processed 'natural food' cafeteria diets alter the response to sweet taste but do not impair flavor-nutrient learning in rats.

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    Palframan, Kristen M; Myers, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Animals learn to prefer and increase consumption of flavors paired with postingestive nutrient sensing. Analogous effects have been difficult to observe in human studies. One possibility is experience with the modern, processed diet impairs learning. Food processing manipulates flavor, texture, sweetness, and nutrition, obscuring ordinary correspondences between sensory cues and postingestive consequences. Over time, a diet of these processed 'junk' foods may impair flavor-nutrient learning. This 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis was tested by providing rats long-term exposure to cafeteria diets of unusual breadth (2 or 3 foods per day, 96 different foods over 3 months, plus ad libitum chow). One group was fed processed foods (PF) with added sugars/fats and manipulated flavors, to mimic the sensory-nutrient properties of the modern processed diet. Another group was fed only 'natural' foods (NF) meaning minimally-processed foods without manipulated flavors or added sugars/fats (e.g., fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains) ostensibly preserving the ordinary correspondence between flavors and nutrition. A CON group was fed chow only. In subsequent tests of flavor-nutrient learning, PF and NF rats consistently acquired strong preferences for novel nutrient-paired flavors and PF rats exhibited enhanced learned acceptance, contradicting the 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis. An unexpected finding was PF and NF diets both caused lasting reduction in ad lib sweet solution intake. Groups did not differ in reinforcing value of sugar in a progressive ratio task. In lick microstructure analysis the NF group paradoxically showed increased sucrose palatability relative to PF and CON, suggesting the diets have different effects on sweet taste evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fgf signaling controls pharyngeal taste bud formation through miR-200 and Delta-Notch activity.

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    Kapsimali, Marika; Kaushik, Anna-Lila; Gibon, Guillaume; Dirian, Lara; Ernest, Sylvain; Rosa, Frederic M

    2011-08-01

    Taste buds, the taste sensory organs, are conserved in vertebrates and composed of distinct cell types, including taste receptor, basal/presynaptic and support cells. Here, we characterize zebrafish taste bud development and show that compromised Fgf signaling in the larva results in taste bud reduction and disorganization. We determine that Fgf activity is required within pharyngeal endoderm for formation of Calb2b(+) cells and reveal miR-200 and Delta-Notch signaling as key factors in this process. miR-200 knock down shows that miR-200 activity is required for taste bud formation and in particular for Calb2b(+) cell formation. Compromised delta activity in mib(-/-) dramatically reduces the number of Calb2b(+) cells and increases the number of 5HT(+) cells. Conversely, larvae with increased Notch activity and ascl1a(-/-) mutants are devoid of 5HT(+) cells, but have maintained and increased Calb2b(+) cells, respectively. These results show that Delta-Notch signaling is required for intact taste bud organ formation. Consistent with this, Notch activity restores Calb2b(+) cell formation in pharyngeal endoderm with compromised Fgf signaling, but fails to restore the formation of these cells after miR-200 knock down. Altogether, this study provides genetic evidence that supports a novel model where Fgf regulates Delta-Notch signaling, and subsequently miR-200 activity, in order to promote taste bud cell type differentiation.

  3. Sixth taste – starch taste?

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    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  4. Impact of obesity on taste receptor expression in extra-oral tissues : emphasis on hypothalamus and brainstem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera, Moro Chao D.; Argmann, C.; Eijk, van M.; Boot, R.G.; Ottenhoff, R.; Roomen, van C.; Foppen, E.; Siljee, J.E.; Unmehopa, U.A.; Kalsbeek, A.; Aerts, J.M.F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet perception promotes food intake, whereas that of bitterness is inhibitory. Surprisingly, the expression of sweet G protein-coupled taste receptor (GPCTR) subunits (T1R2 and T1R3) and bitter GPCTRs (T2R116, T2R118, T2R138 and T2R104), as well as the α-subunits of the associated signalling

  5. Impact of obesity on taste receptor expression in extra-oral tissues: emphasis on hypothalamus and brainstem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera Moro Chao, D.; Argmann, C.; van Eijk, M.; Boot, R. G.; Ottenhoff, R.; van Roomen, C.; Foppen, E.; Siljee, J. E.; Unmehopa, U. A.; Kalsbeek, A.; Aerts, J. M. F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet perception promotes food intake, whereas that of bitterness is inhibitory. Surprisingly, the expression of sweet G protein-coupled taste receptor (GPCTR) subunits (T1R2 and T1R3) and bitter GPCTRs (T2R116, T2R118, T2R138 and T2R104), as well as the alpha-subunits of the associated signalling

  6. Taste information derived from T1R-expressing taste cells in mice.

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    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    The taste system of animals is used to detect valuable nutrients and harmful compounds in foods. In humans and mice, sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami tastes are considered the five basic taste qualities. Sweet and umami tastes are mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, belonging to the T1R (taste receptor type 1) family. This family consists of three members (T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3). They function as sweet or umami taste receptors by forming heterodimeric complexes, T1R1+T1R3 (umami) or T1R2+T1R3 (sweet). Receptors for each of the basic tastes are thought to be expressed exclusively in taste bud cells. Sweet (T1R2+T1R3-expressing) taste cells were thought to be segregated from umami (T1R1+T1R3-expressing) taste cells in taste buds. However, recent studies have revealed that a significant portion of taste cells in mice expressed all T1R subunits and responded to both sweet and umami compounds. This suggests that sweet and umami taste cells may not be segregated. Mice are able to discriminate between sweet and umami tastes, and both tastes contribute to behavioural preferences for sweet or umami compounds. There is growing evidence that T1R3 is also involved in behavioural avoidance of calcium tastes in mice, which implies that there may be a further population of T1R-expressing taste cells that mediate aversion to calcium taste. Therefore the simple view of detection and segregation of sweet and umami tastes by T1R-expressing taste cells, in mice, is now open to re-examination. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  7. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development

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    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary induct...

  8. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development.

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    Barlow, Linda A

    2015-11-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Sarco/Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA contribute to GPCR-mediated taste perception.

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    Naoko Iguchi

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is important for providing animals with valuable information about the qualities of food, such as nutritional or harmful nature. Mammals, including humans, can recognize at least five primary taste qualities: sweet, umami (savory, bitter, sour, and salty. Recent studies have identified molecules and mechanisms underlying the initial steps of tastant-triggered molecular events in taste bud cells, particularly the requirement of increased cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](c for normal taste signal transduction and transmission. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms controlling the removal of elevated [Ca(2+](c from the cytosol of taste receptor cells (TRCs and how the disruption of these mechanisms affects taste perception. To investigate the molecular mechanism of Ca(2+ clearance in TRCs, we sought the molecules involved in [Ca(2+](c regulation using a single-taste-cell transcriptome approach. We found that Serca3, a member of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA family that sequesters cytosolic Ca(2+ into endoplasmic reticulum, is exclusively expressed in sweet/umami/bitter TRCs, which rely on intracellular Ca(2+ release for signaling. Serca3-knockout (KO mice displayed significantly increased aversive behavioral responses and greater gustatory nerve responses to bitter taste substances but not to sweet or umami taste substances. Further studies showed that Serca2 was mainly expressed in the T1R3-expressing sweet and umami TRCs, suggesting that the loss of function of Serca3 was possibly compensated by Serca2 in these TRCs in the mutant mice. Our data demonstrate that the SERCA family members play an important role in the Ca(2+ clearance in TRCs and that mutation of these proteins may alter bitter and perhaps sweet and umami taste perception.

  10. Discrimination of taste qualities among mouse fungiform taste bud cells.

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    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Miyauchi, Aya; Yasuo, Toshiaki; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Murata, Yoshihiro; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Ueno, Hiroshi; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2009-09-15

    Multiple lines of evidence from molecular studies indicate that individual taste qualities are encoded by distinct taste receptor cells. In contrast, many physiological studies have found that a significant proportion of taste cells respond to multiple taste qualities. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy and to identify taste cells that underlie each taste quality, we investigated taste responses of individual mouse fungiform taste cells that express gustducin or GAD67, markers for specific types of taste cells. Type II taste cells respond to sweet, bitter or umami tastants, express taste receptors, gustducin and other transduction components. Type III cells possess putative sour taste receptors, and have well elaborated conventional synapses. Consistent with these findings we found that gustducin-expressing Type II taste cells responded best to sweet (25/49), bitter (20/49) or umami (4/49) stimuli, while all GAD67 (Type III) taste cells examined (44/44) responded to sour stimuli and a portion of them showed multiple taste sensitivities, suggesting discrimination of each taste quality among taste bud cells. These results were largely consistent with those previously reported with circumvallate papillae taste cells. Bitter-best taste cells responded to multiple bitter compounds such as quinine, denatonium and cyclohexamide. Three sour compounds, HCl, acetic acid and citric acid, elicited responses in sour-best taste cells. These results suggest that taste cells may be capable of recognizing multiple taste compounds that elicit similar taste sensation. We did not find any NaCl-best cells among the gustducin and GAD67 taste cells, raising the possibility that salt sensitive taste cells comprise a different population.

  11. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells.

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    Margaret R Starostik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple excitatory neurotransmitters have been identified in the mammalian taste transduction, with few studies focused on inhibitory neurotransmitters. Since the synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is expressed in a subset of mouse taste cells, we hypothesized that other components of the GABA signaling pathway are likely expressed in this system. GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A and GABA(C or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analysis, we investigated the expression of different GABA signaling molecules in the mouse taste system. Taste receptor cells (TRCs in the circumvallate papillae express multiple subunits of the GABA(A and GABA(B receptors as well as multiple GATs. Immunocytochemical analyses examined the distribution of the GABA machinery in the circumvallate papillae. Both GABA(A-and GABA(B- immunoreactivity were detected in the peripheral taste receptor cells. We also used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP in either the Type II taste cells, which can respond to bitter, sweet or umami taste stimuli, or in the Type III GAD67 expressing taste cells. Thus, we were able to identify that GABAergic receptors are expressed in some Type II and Type III taste cells. Mouse GAT4 labeling was concentrated in the cells surrounding the taste buds with a few positively labeled TRCs at the margins of the taste buds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of GABAergic receptors localized on Type II and Type III taste cells suggests that GABA is likely modulating evoked taste responses in the mouse taste bud.

  12. Taste buds as peripheral chemosensory processors.

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    Roper, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are peripheral chemosensory organs situated in the oral cavity. Each taste bud consists of a community of 50-100 cells that interact synaptically during gustatory stimulation. At least three distinct cell types are found in mammalian taste buds - Type I cells, Receptor (Type II) cells, and Presynaptic (Type III) cells. Type I cells appear to be glial-like cells. Receptor cells express G protein-coupled taste receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami compounds. Presynaptic cells transduce acid stimuli (sour taste). Cells that sense salt (NaCl) taste have not yet been confidently identified in terms of these cell types. During gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells secrete synaptic, autocrine, and paracrine transmitters. These transmitters include ATP, acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and GABA. Glutamate is an efferent transmitter that stimulates Presynaptic cells to release 5-HT. This chapter discusses these transmitters, which cells release them, the postsynaptic targets for the transmitters, and how cell-cell communication shapes taste bud signaling via these transmitters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ca2+ signaling in taste bud cells and spontaneous preference for fat: unresolved roles of CD36 and GPR120.

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    Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Selvakumar, Subramaniam; Sadou, Hassimi; Besnard, Philippe; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Recent compelling evidences from rodent and human studies raise the possibility for an additional sixth taste modality devoted to oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids. Understanding the mechanisms underlying oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. A number of studies have suggested that lingual CD36, a glycoprotein, highly expressed by circumvallate papillae of the tongue, is implicated in the perception of dietary fat taste. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important signaling molecules for many aspects of cellular functions. It has been shown that these receptors, particularly GPR120, are also involved in lipid taste perception. We have shown that dietary long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), in CD36-positive taste bud cells (TBC), induce increases in free intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations, [Ca(2+)]i, by recruiting Ca(2+) from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pool via inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production, followed by Ca(2+) influx via opening of store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) channels. GPR120 is also coupled to increases in [Ca(2+)]i by dietary fatty acids. We observed that stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a sensor of Ca(2+) depletion in the ER, mediated fatty acid-induced Ca(2+) signaling and spontaneous preference for fat in the mouse. In this review article, we discuss the recent advances and unresolved roles of CD36 and GPR120 in lipid taste signaling in taste bud cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Defects in the peripheral taste structure and function in the MRL/lpr mouse model of autoimmune disease.

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    Agnes Kim

    Full Text Available While our understanding of the molecular and cellular aspects of taste reception and signaling continues to improve, the aberrations in these processes that lead to taste dysfunction remain largely unexplored. Abnormalities in taste can develop in a variety of diseases, including infections and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we used a mouse model of autoimmune disease to investigate the underlying mechanisms of taste disorders. MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr/J (MRL/lpr mice develop a systemic autoimmunity with phenotypic similarities to human systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. Our results show that the taste tissues of MRL/lpr mice exhibit characteristics of inflammation, including infiltration of T lymphocytes and elevated levels of some inflammatory cytokines. Histological studies reveal that the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice are smaller than those of wild-type congenic control (MRL/+/+ mice. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU pulse-chase experiments show that fewer BrdU-labeled cells enter the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice, suggesting an inhibition of taste cell renewal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses show that mRNA levels of several type II taste cell markers are lower in MRL/lpr mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirm a significant reduction in the number of gustducin-positive taste receptor cells in the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, MRL/lpr mice exhibit reduced gustatory nerve responses to the bitter compound quinine and the sweet compound saccharin and reduced behavioral responses to bitter, sweet, and umami taste substances compared with controls. In contrast, their responses to salty and sour compounds are comparable to those of control mice in both nerve recording and behavioral experiments. Together, our results suggest that type II taste receptor cells, which are essential for bitter, sweet, and umami taste reception and signaling, are selectively affected in MRL/lpr mice, a model for autoimmune disease with chronic

  15. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Hillary B.; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as “flavor.” It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  16. Intrauterine growth restriction modifies the hedonic response to sweet taste in newborn pups - Role of the accumbal μ-opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano, D P; Dalle Molle, R; Alves, M B; Luft, C; Desai, M; Ross, M G; Silveira, P P

    2016-05-13

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with increased preference for palatable foods. The hedonic response to sweet taste, modulated by the nucleus accumbens μ-opioid-receptors, may be involved. We investigated hedonic responses and receptor levels in IUGR and Control animals. From pregnancy day 10, Sprague-Dawley dams received either an ad libitum (Control), or a 50% food restricted (FR) diet. At birth, pups were cross-fostered, and nursed by Adlib fed dams. The hedonic response was evaluated at 1 day after birth and at 90 days of life, by giving sucrose solution or water and analyzing the hedonic facial responses (within 60s). Control pups exposed either to water or sucrose resolved their hedonic responses after 16 and 18s, respectively, while FR hedonic responses to sucrose persisted over 20s. FR pups had deceased phospho-μ-opioid-receptor (p=0.009) and reduced phosphor:total mu opioid receptor ratio compared to controls pups (p=0.003). In adults, there was an interaction between group and solution at the end of the evaluation (p=0.044): Control decreased the response after sucrose solution, FR did not change over time. There were no differences in phosphorylation of μ-opioid-receptor in adults. These results demonstrate IUGR newborn rats exhibit alterations in hedonic response accompanied by a decrease in μ-opioid-receptor phosphorylation, though these alterations do not persist at 3 months of age. Opioid system alterations in early life may contribute to the development of preference for highly palatable foods and contribute to rapid weight gain and obesity in IUGR offspring. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sweet Taste Receptor TAS1R2 Polymorphism (Val191Val Is Associated with a Higher Carbohydrate Intake and Hypertriglyceridemia among the Population of West Mexico

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    Omar Ramos-Lopez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some high-carbohydrate diets may lead to obesity and multiple metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia (HTG. This lipid abnormality is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The sweet taste receptor TAS1R2 polymorphism (Ile191Val has been reported to be associated with carbohydrate intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the TAS1R2 gene polymorphism with carbohydrate intake and HTG among the population of West Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, 441 unrelated subjects were analyzed for TAS1R2 genotypes (Ile/Ile, Ile/Val and Val/Val by an allelic discrimination assay. Biochemical tests and a three-day food record were assessed. The Val/Val genotype carriers had a higher intake of total carbohydrates, fiber and servings of cereals and vegetables than the other genotype carriers. The Val/Val genotype conferred a higher risk for HTG than the Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (OR = 3.26, 95%CI 1.35–7.86, p = 0.006 and OR = 2.61, 95%CI 1.12–6.07, p = 0.02, respectively. Furthermore, the Val/Val genotype was associated with approximately 30% higher triglycerides compared with Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (β = 44.09, 95%CI 9.94–78.25, p = 0.01 and β = 45.7, 95%CI 10.85–80.54, p = 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, the Val/Val genotype of TAS1R2 was associated with a higher carbohydrate intake and HTG.

  18. Synaptic communication and signal processing among sensory cells in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-08-15

    Taste buds (sensory structures embedded in oral epithelium) show a remarkable diversity of transmitters synthesized and secreted locally. The known transmitters accumulate in a cell type selective manner, with 5-HT and noradrenaline being limited to presynaptic cells, GABA being synthesized in both presynaptic and glial-like cells, and acetylcholine and ATP used for signalling by receptor cells. Each of these transmitters participates in local negative or positive feedback circuits that target particular cell types. Overall, the role of ATP is the best elucidated. ATP serves as a principal afferent transmitter, and also is the key trigger for autocrine positive feedback and paracrine circuits that result in potentiation (via adenosine) or inhibition (via GABA or 5-HT). While many of the cellular receptors and mechanisms for these circuits are known, their impact on sensory detection and perception remains to be elaborated in most instances. This brief review examines what is known, and some of the open questions and controversies surrounding the transmitters and circuits of the taste periphery. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  19. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells

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    Williams Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. Results We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. Conclusion SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  20. A conditioned aversion study of sucrose and SC45647 taste in TRPM5 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F; Delay, Eugene R

    2012-06-01

    Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances.

  1. Processing umami and other tastes in mammalian taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-07-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potential to shape the final signal output that taste buds transmit to the brain. The following paragraphs summarize current thinking about how taste signals generally, and umami taste in particular, are processed in taste buds.

  2. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Visser; R. van Weissenbruch; A. Vissink; A. van Nieuw Amerongen; F.K.L. Spijkervet; Dr. Harriët Jager-Wittenaar

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it

  3. Expression analysis of taste signal transduction molecules in the fungiform and circumvallate papillae of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Ishimaru

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of the mammalian gustatory system have been examined in many studies using rodents as model organisms. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression of molecules involved in taste signal transduction in the fungiform papillae (FuP and circumvallate papillae (CvP of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, using in situ hybridization. TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS2Rs, and PKD1L3 were exclusively expressed in different subsets of taste receptor cells (TRCs in the FuP and CvP. This finding suggests that TRCs sensing different basic taste modalities are mutually segregated in macaque taste buds. Individual TAS2Rs exhibited a variety of expression patterns in terms of the apparent level of expression and the number of TRCs expressing these genes, as in the case of human TAS2Rs. GNAT3, but not GNA14, was expressed in TRCs of FuP, whereas GNA14 was expressed in a small population of TRCs of CvP, which were distinct from GNAT3- or TAS1R2-positive TRCs. These results demonstrate similarities and differences between primates and rodents in the expression profiles of genes involved in taste signal transduction.

  4. Taste sensor; Mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    This paper introduces a taste sensor having a lipid/polymer membrane to work as a receptor of taste substances. The paper describes the following matters: this sensor uses a hollow polyvinyl chloride rod filled with KCl aqueous solution, and placed with silver and silver chloride wires, whose cross section is affixed with a lipid/polymer membrane as a lipid membrane electrode to identify taste from seven or eight kinds of response patterns of electric potential output from the lipid/polymer membrane; measurements of different substances presenting acidic taste, salty taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and flavor by using this sensor identified clearly each taste (similar response is shown to a similar taste even if the substances are different); different responses are indicated on different brands of beers; from the result of measuring a great variety of mineral waters, a possibility was suggested that this taste sensor could be used for water quality monitoring sensors; and application of this taste sensor may be expected as a maturation control sensor for Japanese sake (wine) and miso (bean paste) manufacturing. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Identification of new binding partners of the chemosensory signalling protein Gγ13 expressed in taste and olfactory sensory cells.

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    Zhenhui eLiu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tastant detection in the oral cavity involves selective receptors localized at the apical extremity of a subset of specialized taste bud cells called taste receptor cells (TRCs. The identification of the genes coding for the taste receptors involved in this process have greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying detection. However, how these receptors signal in TRCs, and whether the components of the signaling cascades interact with each other or are organized in complexes is mostly unexplored. Here we report on the identification of three new binding partners for the mouse G protein gamma 13 subunit (Gγ13, a component of the bitter taste receptors signalling cascade. For two of these Gγ13 associated proteins, namely GOPC and MPDZ, we describe the expression in taste bud cells for the first time. Furthermore, we demonstrate by means of a yeast two-hybrid interaction assay that the C terminal PDZ binding motif of Gγ13 interacts with selected PDZ domains in these proteins. In the case of the PDZ domain-containing protein zona occludens-1 (ZO-1, a major component of the tight junction defining the boundary between the apical and baso-lateral region of TRCs, we identified the first PDZ domain as the site of strong interaction with Gγ13. This association was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments in HEK 293 cells. In addition, we present immunohistological data supporting partial co-localization of GOPC, MPDZ or ZO-1 and Gγ13 in taste buds cells. Finally, we extend this observation to olfactory sensory neurons, another type of chemosensory cells known to express both ZO-1 and Gγ13. Taken together our results implicate these new interaction partners in the sub-cellular distribution of Gγ13 in olfactory and gustatory primary sensory cells.

  6. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

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    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  7. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Attention-dependent modulation of cortical taste circuits revealed by Granger causality with signal-dependent noise.

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    Qiang Luo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We show, for the first time, that in cortical areas, for example the insular, orbitofrontal, and lateral prefrontal cortex, there is signal-dependent noise in the fMRI blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD time series, with the variance of the noise increasing approximately linearly with the square of the signal. Classical Granger causal models are based on autoregressive models with time invariant covariance structure, and thus do not take this signal-dependent noise into account. To address this limitation, here we describe a Granger causal model with signal-dependent noise, and a novel, likelihood ratio test for causal inferences. We apply this approach to the data from an fMRI study to investigate the source of the top-down attentional control of taste intensity and taste pleasantness processing. The Granger causality with signal-dependent noise analysis reveals effects not identified by classical Granger causal analysis. In particular, there is a top-down effect from the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex to the insular taste cortex during attention to intensity but not to pleasantness, and there is a top-down effect from the anterior and posterior lateral prefrontal cortex to the orbitofrontal cortex during attention to pleasantness but not to intensity. In addition, there is stronger forward effective connectivity from the insular taste cortex to the orbitofrontal cortex during attention to pleasantness than during attention to intensity. These findings indicate the importance of explicitly modeling signal-dependent noise in functional neuroimaging, and reveal some of the processes involved in a biased activation theory of selective attention.

  9. Sweet Preference Associated with the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia Among Middle-Aged Women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonjin; Lee, Soojin; Kim, Yangha

    2018-04-05

    Sweet preference has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sweet taste preference on the risk of dyslipidemia in Korean middle-aged women. The study selected 3,609 middle-aged women from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and classified them into two groups on the basis of whether or not they preferred sweet taste. Dietary intake was analyzed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum lipid profiles and anthropometric variables were measured. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste had significantly higher intakes of sugar products and sweet drink than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed higher carbohydrate and fat intake and less fiber intake than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in subjects who preferred the sweet taste than those who did not prefer. Furthermore, subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.22; 95% CI (1.01-1.45)) and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia (OR 1.33; 95% CI (1.11-1.60)) than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Our results suggested that preference for sweet taste may increase the consumption of sugar products and sweet drinks, which is partially linked to the risk of hypercholesterolemia and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in Korean middle-aged women.

  10. Effect of irradiation on sweet corn preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie

    2002-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray was used to irradiate newly-harvested sweet corn and the results showed that the effects of irradiation on soluble solids, sucrose, starch and total sugar were not significant. The viscosity of starch decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. The preservation duration of irradiated sweet corn was 7 days longer than that of CK, and the sweet, smell, taste of sweet corn had no abnormal change

  11. Exploring taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and the relationships between sex, oral health status, and eating habits with taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Oral examinations, sweet and salt whole-mouth taste tests, and a questionnaire about eating habits were conducted on 234 senior high school students. Factors affecting taste hyposensitivity were investigated using a multivariate analysis. Sweet-taste hyposensitivity was observed in 7.3% of the students, and salt-taste hyposensitivity in 22.2%. Approximately 3% of the students had both sweet- and salt-taste hyposensitivity, and 22.6% had either sweet- or salt-taste hyposensitivity. In total, 26% had a taste hyposensitivity. There were significant relationships between the intake of instant noodles with sweet-taste hyposensitivity, and the intake of vegetables or isotonic drinks with salt-taste hyposensitivity. There was a significant association between eating habits and taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Taste tests would be a helpful adjunct for students to recognize variations in taste sensitivity, and a questionnaire about their eating habits might provide an effective self-review of their eating habits, and therefore, provide motivation to change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Proceedings of the 2015 A.S.P.E.N. Research Workshop - Taste Signaling: Impact on Food Selection, Intake, and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Alan C.; le Roux, Carel W; Munger, Steven D.; Travers, Susan P.; Sclafani, Anthony; Mennella, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes research findings from six experts in the field of taste and feeding that were presented at the 2015 ASPEN Research Workshop. The theme was focused on the interaction of taste signals with those of a postingestive origin and how this contributes to regulation of food intake through both physiological and learning processes. Gastric bypass results in exceptional loss of fat mass, increases in circulating levels of key gut peptides, some of which are also expressed along with their cognate receptors in taste buds. Changes in taste preference and food selection in both bariatric surgery patients and rodent models have been reported. Accordingly, the effects of this surgery on taste-related behavior were examined. The conservation of receptor and peptide signaling mechanisms in gustatory and extraoral tissues was discussed in the context of taste responsiveness and the regulation of metabolism. New findings detailing the features of neural circuits between the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), receiving visceral input from the vagus nerve, and the rostral NST, receiving taste input, were discussed, as was how early life experience with taste stimuli and learned associations between flavor and postoral consequences of nutrients can exert potent and long-lasting effects on feeding PMID:26598504

  13. Taste dysfunction in irradiated patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Wen-Kai; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Komiyama, Sohtaro

    2002-01-01

    Taste disorders caused by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are common. This prospective study of 40 patients with head and neck cancer assessed changes in taste sensations during radiation therapy. The relationship between the time course and the degree of taste disorder was studied. The taste recognition threshold and supra-threshold taste intensity performance for the four basic tastes were measured using the whole-mouth taste method before, during, and after radiation therapy. Bitter taste was affected most. An increase in threshold for sweet taste depended upon whether the tip of tongue was included within the radiation field. The slope of the taste intensity performance did not change during or after radiotherapy. The pattern of salivary dysfunction was different from that of taste dysfunction. The main cause of taste disorders during radiation support the hypothesis that taste dysfunction is due to damage to the taste buds in the radiation field. (author)

  14. Taste dysfunction in irradiated patients with head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wen-Kai; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Komiyama, Sohtaro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Inokuchi, Akira [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Taste disorders caused by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are common. This prospective study of 40 patients with head and neck cancer assessed changes in taste sensations during radiation therapy. The relationship between the time course and the degree of taste disorder was studied. The taste recognition threshold and supra-threshold taste intensity performance for the four basic tastes were measured using the whole-mouth taste method before, during, and after radiation therapy. Bitter taste was affected most. An increase in threshold for sweet taste depended upon whether the tip of tongue was included within the radiation field. The slope of the taste intensity performance did not change during or after radiotherapy. The pattern of salivary dysfunction was different from that of taste dysfunction. The main cause of taste disorders during radiation support the hypothesis that taste dysfunction is due to damage to the taste buds in the radiation field. (author)

  15. Atomic structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I at pH 8.0 reveals the large disulfide-rich region in domain II to be sensitive to a pH change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Tetsuya, E-mail: t2masuda@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ohta, Keisuke [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Mikami, Bunzo [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kitabatake, Naofumi [Department of Foods and Human Nutrition, Notre Dame Seishin University, Okayama 700-8516 (Japan); Tani, Fumito [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of a recombinant thaumatin at pH 8.0 determined at a resolution of 1.0 A. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substantial fluctuations of a loop in domain II was found in the structure at pH 8.0. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B-factors for Lys137, Lys163, and Lys187 were significantly affected by pH change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in mobility might play an important role in the heat-induced aggregation. -- Abstract: Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting plant protein, elicits a sweet taste at 50 nM. Although the sweetness remains when thaumatin is heated at 80 Degree-Sign C for 4 h under acid conditions, it rapidly declines when heating at a pH above 6.5. To clarify the structural difference at high pH, the atomic structure of a recombinant thaumatin I at pH 8.0 was determined at a resolution of 1.0 A. Comparison to the crystal structure of thaumatin at pH 7.3 and 7.0 revealed the root-mean square deviation value of a C{alpha} atom to be substantially greater in the large disulfide-rich region of domain II, especially residues 154-164, suggesting that a loop region in domain II to be affected by solvent conditions. Furthermore, B-factors of Lys137, Lys163, and Lys187 were significantly affected by pH change, suggesting that a striking increase in the mobility of these lysine residues, which could facilitate a reaction with a free sulfhydryl residue produced via the {beta}-elimination of disulfide bonds by heating at a pH above 7.0. The increase in mobility of lysine residues as well as a loop region in domain II might play an important role in the heat-induced aggregation of thaumatin above pH 7.0.

  16. Age-Related Changes in Gustatory, Homeostatic, Reward, and Memory Processing of Sweet Taste in the Metabolic Syndrome: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Aaron; Green, Erin; Haase, Lori; Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Age affects the human taste system at peripheral and central levels. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors (e.g., abdominal obesity and hypertension) that co-occur, increase with age, and heighten risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cognitive decline. Little is known about how age, metabolic syndrome, and hunger state interact to influence how the brain processes information about taste. We investigated brain activation during the hedonic evaluation of a pleasant, nutritive stimulus (sucrose) within regions critical for taste, homeostatic energy regulation, and reward, as a function of the interactions among age, metabolic syndrome, and hunger condition. We scanned young and elderly adults, half with risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome twice: Once fasted overnight and once after a preload. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data indicated significant effects of age as well as interactive effects with metabolic syndrome and hunger condition. Age-related differences in activation were dependent on the hunger state in regions critical for homoeostatic energy regulation and basic as well as higher order sensory processing and integration. The effects of age and metabolic syndrome on activation in the insula, orbital frontal cortex, caudate, and the hypothalamus may have particularly important implications for taste processing, energy regulation, and dietary choices.

  17. FGF signaling refines Wnt gradients to regulate the patterning of taste papillae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Michaela; Hakkinen, T.J.; Procházka, Jan; Špoutil, František; Jheon, A.H.; Ahn, Y.; Krumlauf, R.; Jernvall, J.; Klein, O. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 12 (2017), s. 2212-2221 ISSN 0950-1991 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015040 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : FGF * Wnt * Tongue * Taste papilla Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 5.843, year: 2016

  18. Age-related changes in mouse taste bud morphology, hormone expression, and taste responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Kyong; Cong, Wei-na; Cai, Huan; Kim, Wook; Maudsley, Stuart; Egan, Josephine M; Martin, Bronwen

    2012-04-01

    Normal aging is a complex process that affects every organ system in the body, including the taste system. Thus, we investigated the effects of the normal aging process on taste bud morphology, function, and taste responsivity in male mice at 2, 10, and 18 months of age. The 18-month-old animals demonstrated a significant reduction in taste bud size and number of taste cells per bud compared with the 2- and 10-month-old animals. The 18-month-old animals exhibited a significant reduction of protein gene product 9.5 and sonic hedgehog immunoreactivity (taste cell markers). The number of taste cells expressing the sweet taste receptor subunit, T1R3, and the sweet taste modulating hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1, were reduced in the 18-month-old mice. Concordant with taste cell alterations, the 18-month-old animals demonstrated reduced sweet taste responsivity compared with the younger animals and the other major taste modalities (salty, sour, and bitter) remained intact.

  19. A comparison of English and Japanese taste languages: taste descriptive methodology, codability and the umami taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, M; Ishii, R

    1986-05-01

    Everyday taste descriptions for a range of stimuli were obtained from selected groups of American and Japanese subjects, using a variety of stimuli, stimulus presentation procedures and response conditions. In English there was a tendency to use a quadrapartite classification system: 'sweet', 'sour', 'salty' and 'bitter'. The Japanese had a different strategy, adding a fifth label: 'Ajinomoto', referring to the taste of monosodium glutamate. This label was generally replaced by umami--the scientific term--by Japanese who were workers or trained tasters involved with glutamate manufacture. Cultural differences in taste language have consequences for taste psychophysicists who impose a quadrapartite restriction on allowable taste descriptions. Stimulus presentation by filter-paper or aqueous solution elicited the same response trends. Language codability was only an indicator of degree of taste mixedness/singularity if used statistically with samples of sufficient size; it had little value as an indicator for individual subjects.

  20. Changed preference for sweet taste in adulthood induced by perinatal exposure to bisphenol A-A probable link to overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin; Tan, Luei; Himi, Toshiyuki; Sadamatsu, Miyuki; Tsutsumi, Shunsuke; Akaike, Masashi; Kato, Nobumasa

    2011-01-01

    The preference of obesity has risen dramatically worldwide over the past decades. Some latest reports showed significant increase of obesity in men compared to women. Implication of environmental endocrine disruptors has been focused more and more. Numerous studies in vitro and vivo implied metabolic actions of bisphenol A (BPA), however much less consideration is given to the possibility of BPA exposure-induced change in gender-specific behaviors which result in obesity and overweight. To examine whether perinatal exposure to BPA at relative dose to environmental levels can influence sweet preference of male and female rats and consequently lead to alteration in bodyweight. Rats perinatally exposed to BPA at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were tested sweet preference for 0.25%, 0.5% saccharin and 15% sucrose by two-bottle choice (water vs. saccharin/sucrose). The food intake, liquid consumption and bodyweight of each rat were monitored daily. At the end of the test, the fat percentage and tail blood pressure were measured. Significant sex difference of preference for 0.25% and 0.5% saccharin was shown in control and all BPA-treated groups (p researches concerning the mechanism are required, the results of the present study are particularly important with regards to the more significant increasing prevalence of obesity in men and the environmental endocrine disruptors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 taste bud-associated genes. Bioinformatics analyses identified hundreds of genes predicted to encode multi-transmembrane domain proteins with no previous association with taste function. A first step in elucidating the roles these gene products play in gustation is to identify the specific taste cell types in which they are expressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using double label in situ hybridization analyses, we identified seven new genes expressed in specific taste cell types, including sweet, bitter, and umami cells (TRPM5-positive, sour cells (PKD2L1-positive, as well as other taste cell populations. Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44, a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains with no homology to GPCRs, is expressed in a TRPM5-negative and PKD2L1-negative population that is enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds and may represent developmentally immature taste cells. Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, a component of a novel calcium channel, along with family members CALHM2 and CALHM3; multiple C2 domains; transmembrane 1 (MCTP1, a calcium-binding transmembrane protein; and anoctamin 7 (ANO7, a member of the recently identified calcium-gated chloride channel family, are all expressed in TRPM5 cells. These proteins may modulate and effect calcium signalling stemming from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B (SV2B, a regulator of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, is expressed in PKD2L1 cells, suggesting that this taste cell population transmits tastant information to gustatory afferent nerve fibers via exocytic neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of genes encoding multi-transmembrane domain proteins

  2. Purple sweet potato color attenuates domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits by promoting estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Recent findings suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration. Purple sweet potato color, a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, has beneficial health and biological effects. Recent studies have also shown that anthocyanins have estrogenic activity and can enhance estrogen receptor-α expression. In this study, we evaluated the effect of purple sweet potato color on cognitive deficits induced by hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction in domoic acid-treated mice and explored the potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Our results showed that the oral administration of purple sweet potato color to domoic acid-treated mice significantly improved their behavioral performance in a step-through passive avoidance task and a Morris water maze task. These improvements were mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling and by decreases in the expression of p47phox and gp91phox. Decreases in reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation were also observed, along with a blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Furthermore, purple sweet potato color significantly suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis, which prevented neuron loss and restored the expression of memory-related proteins. However, knockdown of estrogen receptor-α using short hairpin RNA only partially blocked the neuroprotective effects of purple sweet potato color in the hippocampus of mice cotreated with purple sweet potato color and domoic acid, indicating that purple sweet potato color acts through multiple pathways. These results suggest that purple sweet potato color could be a possible candidate for the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic and other brain disorders. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Strain differences in the neural, behavioral, and molecular correlates of sweet and salty taste in naive, ethanol- and sucrose-exposed P and NP rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jamison; Williams, Ashley; Phan, Tam-Hao T; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Melone, Pamela; Ren, Zuojun; Zhou, Huiping; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S; Katsumata, Tadayoshi; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2011-11-01

    Strain differences between naive, sucrose- and ethanol-exposed alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats were investigated in their consumption of ethanol, sucrose, and NaCl; chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet and salty stimuli; and gene expression in the anterior tongue of T1R3 and TRPV1/TRPV1t. Preference for 5% ethanol and 10% sucrose, CT responses to sweet stimuli, and T1R3 expression were greater in naive P rats than NP rats. The enhancement of the CT response to 0.5 M sucrose in the presence of varying ethanol concentrations (0.5-40%) in naive P rats was higher and shifted to lower ethanol concentrations than NP rats. Chronic ingestion of 5% sucrose or 5% ethanol decreased T1R3 mRNA in NP and P rats. Naive P rats also demonstrated bigger CT responses to NaCl+benzamil and greater TRPV1/TRPV1t expression. TRPV1t agonists produced biphasic effects on NaCl+benzamil CT responses, enhancing the response at low concentrations and inhibiting it at high concentrations. The concentration of a TRPV1/TRPV1t agonist (Maillard reacted peptides conjugated with galacturonic acid) that produced a maximum enhancement in the NaCl+benzamil CT response induced a decrease in NaCl intake and preference in P rats. In naive P rats and NP rats exposed to 5% ethanol in a no-choice paradigm, the biphasic TRPV1t agonist vs. NaCl+benzamil CT response profiles were higher and shifted to lower agonist concentrations than in naive NP rats. TRPV1/TRPV1t mRNA expression increased in NP rats but not in P rats exposed to 5% ethanol in a no-choice paradigm. We conclude that P and NP rats differ in T1R3 and TRPV1/TRPV1t expression and neural and behavioral responses to sweet and salty stimuli and to chronic sucrose and ethanol exposure.

  4. The insular taste cortex contributes to odor quality coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Veldhuizen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite distinct peripheral and central pathways, stimulation of both the olfactory and the gustatory systems may give rise to the sensation of sweetness. Whether there is a common central mechanism producing sweet quality sensations or two discrete mechanisms associated independently with gustatory and olfactory stimuli is currently unknown. Here we used fMRI to determine whether odor sweetness is represented in the piriform olfactory cortex, which is thought to code odor quality, or in the insular taste cortex, which is thought to code taste quality. Fifteen participants sampled two concentrations of a pure sweet taste (sucrose, two sweet food odors (chocolate and strawberry, and two sweet floral odors (lilac and rose. Replicating prior work we found that olfactory stimulation activated the piriform, orbitofrontal and insular cortices. Of these regions, only the insula also responded to sweet taste. More importantly, the magnitude of the response to the food odors, but not to the non-food odors, in this region of insula was positively correlated with odor sweetness rating. These findings demonstrate that insular taste cortex contributes to odor quality coding by representing the taste-like aspects of food odors. Since the effect was specific to the food odors, and only food odors are experienced with taste, we suggest this common central mechanism develops as a function of experiencing flavors.

  5. Amiloride-sensitive channels in type I fungiform taste cells in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clapp Tod R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste buds are the sensory organs of taste perception. Three types of taste cells have been described. Type I cells have voltage-gated outward currents, but lack voltage-gated inward currents. These cells have been presumed to play only a support role in the taste bud. Type II cells have voltage-gated Na+ and K+ current, and the receptors and transduction machinery for bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Type III cells have voltage-gated Na+, K+, and Ca2+ currents, and make prominent synapses with afferent nerve fibers. Na+ salt transduction in part involves amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs. In rodents, these channels are located in taste cells of fungiform papillae on the anterior part of the tongue innervated by the chorda tympani nerve. However, the taste cell type that expresses ENaCs is not known. This study used whole cell recordings of single fungiform taste cells of transgenic mice expressing GFP in Type II taste cells to identify the taste cells responding to amiloride. We also used immunocytochemistry to further define and compare cell types in fungiform and circumvallate taste buds of these mice. Results Taste cell types were identified by their response to depolarizing voltage steps and their presence or absence of GFP fluorescence. TRPM5-GFP taste cells expressed large voltage-gated Na+ and K+ currents, but lacked voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, as expected from previous studies. Approximately half of the unlabeled cells had similar membrane properties, suggesting they comprise a separate population of Type II cells. The other half expressed voltage-gated outward currents only, typical of Type I cells. A single taste cell had voltage-gated Ca2+ current characteristic of Type III cells. Responses to amiloride occurred only in cells that lacked voltage-gated inward currents. Immunocytochemistry showed that fungiform taste buds have significantly fewer Type II cells expressing PLC signalling

  6. Taste Disturbance After Palatopharyngeal Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ren Hsiao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste disorder is a rare complication of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, and may have a significant impact on quality of life. Herein, we report a case of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a 51- year-old man who experienced taste disturbance after palatopharyngeal surgery using electrocautery for developing a uvulopalatal flap. Gustatory function test using three-drop-method with solutions of highest concentration was implemented to assess the deficiency of four basic tastes. The results showed deficit of sweet taste associated with phantom of bitter taste. The patient reported constant spontaneous bitter taste and dysgeusia in sweet taste with poor quality of life at the 2-year follow-up. We suggest that patients are informed of the potential for taste impairment from palatopharyngeal surgery, as well as reducing the use of electrocautery in developing uvulopalatal flap to reduce damage to taste function.

  7. The neuronal and molecular basis of quinine-dependent bitter taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Mazija, Lorena; Wüst, Alexander; Thum, Andreas S.

    2014-01-01

    The sensation of bitter substances can alert an animal that a specific type of food is harmful and should not be consumed. However, not all bitter compounds are equally toxic and some may even be beneficial in certain contexts. Thus, taste systems in general may have a broader range of functions than just in alerting the animal. In this study we investigate bitter sensing and processing in Drosophila larvae using quinine, a substance perceived by humans as bitter. We show that behavioral choice, feeding, survival, and associative olfactory learning are all directly affected by quinine. On the cellular level, we show that 12 gustatory sensory receptor neurons that express both GR66a and GR33a are required for quinine-dependent choice and feeding behavior. Interestingly, these neurons are not necessary for quinine-dependent survival or associative learning. On the molecular receptor gene level, the GR33a receptor, but not GR66a, is required for quinine-dependent choice behavior. A screen for gustatory sensory receptor neurons that trigger quinine-dependent choice behavior revealed that a single GR97a receptor gene expressing neuron located in the peripheral terminal sense organ is partially necessary and sufficient. For the first time, we show that the elementary chemosensory system of the Drosophila larva can serve as a simple model to understand the neuronal basis of taste information processing on the single cell level with respect to different behavioral outputs. PMID:24478653

  8. Processing Umami and Other Tastes in Mammalian Taste Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, Stephen D.; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potentia...

  9. "What's Your Taste in Music?" A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Soundscapes in Evoking Specific Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian Janice; Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2015-12-01

    We report on the results of two online experiments designed to compare different soundtracks that had been composed (by various researchers and sound designers) in order to evoke/match different basic tastes. In Experiment 1, 100 participants listened to samples from 24 soundtracks and chose the taste (sweet, sour, salty, or bitter) that best matched each sample. Overall, the sweet soundtracks most effectively evoked the taste intended by the composer (participants chose sweet 56.9% of the time for the sweet soundtracks), whereas the bitter soundtracks were the least effective (participants chose bitter 31.4% of the time for the bitter soundtracks), compared with chance (choosing any specific taste 25% of the time). In Experiment 2, 50 participants rated their emotional responses (in terms of pleasantness and arousal) to the same 24 soundtrack samples and also to imaginary sweet/sour/salty/bitter-tasting foods. Associations between soundtracks and tastes were partly mediated by pleasantness for the sweet and bitter tastes and partly by arousal for the sour tastes. These results demonstrate how emotion mediation may be an additional mechanism behind sound-taste correspondences.

  10. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...... of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs...

  11. Enteroendocrine cells: a site of 'taste' in gastrointestinal chemosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternini, Catia; Anselmi, Laura; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2008-02-01

    This review discusses the role of enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract as chemoreceptors that sense lumen contents and induce changes in gastrointestinal function and food intake through the release of signaling substances acting on a variety of targets locally or at a distance. Recent evidence supports the concept that chemosensing in the gut involves G protein-coupled receptors and effectors that are known to mediate gustatory signals in the oral cavity. These include sweet-taste and bitter-taste receptors, and their associated G proteins, which are expressed in the gastrointestinal mucosa, including selected populations of enteroendocrine cells. In addition, taste receptor agonists elicit a secretory response in enteroendocrine cells in vitro and in animals in vivo, and induce neuronal activation. Taste-signaling molecules expressed in the gastrointestinal mucosa might participate in the functional detection of nutrients and harmful substances in the lumen and prepare the gut to absorb them or initiate a protective response. They might also participate in the control of food intake through the activation of gut-brain neural pathways. These findings provide a new dimension to unraveling the regulatory circuits initiated by luminal contents of the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. The Gustatory Signaling Pathway and Bitter Taste Receptors Affect the Development of Obesity and Adipocyte Metabolism in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Avau

    Full Text Available Intestinal chemosensory signaling pathways involving the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, and bitter taste receptors (TAS2R have been implicated in gut hormone release. Alterations in gut hormone profiles may contribute to the success of bariatric surgery. This study investigated the involvement of the gustatory signaling pathway in the development of diet-induced obesity and the therapeutic potential of targeting TAS2Rs to induce body weight loss. α-gustducin-deficient (α-gust-/- mice became less obese than wild type (WT mice when fed a high-fat diet (HFD. White adipose tissue (WAT mass was lower in α-gust-/- mice due to increased heat production as a result of increases in brown adipose tissue (BAT thermogenic activity, involving increased protein expression of uncoupling protein 1. Intra-gastric treatment of obese WT and α-gust-/- mice with the bitter agonists denatonium benzoate (DB or quinine (Q during 4 weeks resulted in an α-gustducin-dependent decrease in body weight gain associated with a decrease in food intake (DB, but not involving major changes in gut peptide release. Both WAT and 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes express TAS2Rs. Treatment of pre-adipocytes with DB or Q decreased differentiation into mature adipocytes. In conclusion, interfering with the gustatory signaling pathway protects against the development of HFD-induced obesity presumably through promoting BAT activity. Intra-gastric bitter treatment inhibits weight gain, possibly by directly affecting adipocyte metabolism.

  13. [Functional properties of taste bud cells. Mechanisms of afferent neurotransmission in Type II taste receptor cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, R A

    2013-01-01

    Taste Bud cells are heterogeneous in their morphology and functionality. These cells are responsible for sensing a wide variety of substances and for associating detected compounds with a different taste: bitter, sweet, salty, sour and umami. Today we know that each of the five basic tastes corresponds to distinct cell populations organized into three basic morpho-functional cell types. In addition, some receptor cells of the taste bud demonstrate glia-related functions. In this article we expand on some properties of these three morphological receptor cell types. Main focus is devoted to the Type II cells and unusual mechanism for afferent neurotransmission in these cells. Taste cells of the Type II consist of three populations detecting bitter, sweet and umami tastes, and, thus, evoke a serious scientific interest.

  14. Similar taste-nutrient relationships in commonly consumed Dutch and Malaysian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Pey Sze; van Langeveld, Astrid W B; Pol, Korrie; Siebelink, Els; de Graaf, Cees; Yan, See Wan; Mars, Monica

    2018-06-01

    Three recent studies showed that taste intensity signals nutrient content. However, current data reflects only the food patterns in Western societies. No study has yet been performed in Asian culture. The Malaysian cuisine represents a mixture of Malay, Chinese and Indian foods. This study aimed to investigate the associations between taste intensity and nutrient content in commonly consumed Dutch (NL) and Malaysian (MY) foods. Perceived intensities of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fat sensation were assessed for 469 Dutch and 423 Malaysian commonly consumed foods representing about 83% and 88% of an individual's average daily energy intake in each respective country. We used a trained Dutch (n = 15) and Malaysian panel (n = 20) with quantitative sensory Spectrum™ 100-point rating scales and reference solutions, R1 (13-point), R2 (33-point) and R3 (67-point). Dutch and Malaysian foods had relatively low mean sourness and bitterness (sweetness, saltiness and fat sensation (between R1 and R2). Mean umami taste intensity of Malaysian foods (15-point) was higher than that of Dutch foods (8-point). Positive associations were found between sweetness and mono- and disaccharides (R 2  = 0.67 (NL), 0.38 (MY)), between umami and protein (R 2  = 0.29 (NL), 0.26 (MY)), between saltiness and sodium (R 2  = 0.48 (NL), 0.27 (MY)), and between fat sensation and fat content (R 2  = 0.56 (NL), 0.17(MY)) in Dutch and Malaysian foods (all, p < 0.001). The associations between taste intensity and nutrient content are not different between different countries, except for fat sensation-fat content. The two dimensional basic taste-nutrient space, representing the variance and associations between tastes and nutrients, is similar between Dutch and Malaysian commonly consumed foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of Retronasal Odors by Taste

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Barry G.; Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste (“sweet,” “sour,” “salty,” and “bitter”) and odor (“ot...

  16. Taste of Fat: A Sixth Taste Modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Philippe; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Khan, Naim A

    2016-01-01

    An attraction for palatable foods rich in lipids is shared by rodents and humans. Over the last decade, the mechanisms responsible for this specific eating behavior have been actively studied, and compelling evidence implicates a taste component in the orosensory detection of dietary lipids [i.e., long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)], in addition to textural, olfactory, and postingestive cues. The interactions between LCFA and specific receptors in taste bud cells (TBC) elicit physiological changes that affect both food intake and digestive functions. After a short overview of the gustatory pathway, this review brings together the key findings consistent with the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. The main steps leading to this new paradigm (i.e., chemoreception of LCFA in TBC, cell signaling cascade, transfer of lipid signals throughout the gustatory nervous pathway, and their physiological consequences) will be critically analyzed. The limitations to this concept will also be discussed in the light of our current knowledge of the sense of taste. Finally, we will analyze the recent literature on obesity-related dysfunctions in the orosensory detection of lipids ("fatty" taste?), in relation to the overconsumption of fat-rich foods and the associated health risks. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Enhancement of retronasal odors by taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2012-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste ("sweet," "sour," "salty," and "bitter") and odor ("other") intensity for aqueous samples of 3 tastants (sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid) and 3 odorants (vanillin, citral, and furaneol), both alone and in taste-odor mixtures. The results showed that sucrose, but not the other taste stimuli, significantly increased the perceived intensity of all 3 odors. Enhancement of tastes by odors was inconsistent and generally weaker than enhancement of odors by sucrose. A second experiment used a flavored beverage and a custard dessert to test whether the findings from the first experiment would hold for the perception of actual foods. Adding sucrose significantly enhanced the intensity of "cherry" and "vanilla" flavors, whereas adding vanillin did not significantly enhance the intensity of sweetness. It is proposed that enhancement of retronasal odors by a sweet stimulus results from an adaptive sensory mechanism that serves to increase the salience of the flavor of nutritive foods. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  19. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Finger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells.

  20. Kokumi Substances, Enhancers of Basic Tastes, Induce Responses in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Expressing Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Yasuda, Reiko; Kuroda, Motonaka; Eto, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a receptor for kokumi substances, which enhance the intensities of salty, sweet and umami tastes. Furthermore, we found that several γ-glutamyl peptides, which are CaSR agonists, are kokumi substances. In this study, we elucidated the receptor cells for kokumi substances, and their physiological properties. For this purpose, we used Calcium Green-1 loaded mouse taste cells in lingual tissue slices and confocal microscopy. Kokumi substances, applied focally around taste pores, induced an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a subset of taste cells. These responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the CaSR inhibitor, NPS2143. However, the kokumi substance-induced responses did not require extracellular Ca2+. CaSR-expressing taste cells are a different subset of cells from the T1R3-expressing umami or sweet taste receptor cells. These observations indicate that CaSR-expressing taste cells are the primary detectors of kokumi substances, and that they are an independent population from the influenced basic taste receptor cells, at least in the case of sweet and umami. PMID:22511946

  1. Nutrient tasting and signaling mechanisms in the gut V. Mechanisms of immunologic sensation of intestinal contents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Immune perception of intestinal contents reflects a functional dualism with systemic hyporesponsiveness to dietary antigens and resident microflora (oral tolerance) and active immune responses to mucosal pathogens. This facilitates optimal absorption of dietary nutrients while conserving immunologic resources for episodic pathogenic challenge. Discrimination between dangerous and harmless antigens within the enteric lumen requires continual sampling of the microenvironment by multiple potential pathways, innate and adaptive recognition mechanisms, bidirectional lymphoepithelial signaling, and rigorous control of effector responses. Errors in these processes disrupt mucosal homeostasis and are associated with food hypersensitivity and mucosal inflammation. Mechanisms of mucosal immune perception and handling of dietary proteins and other antigens have several practical and theoretical implications including vaccine design, therapy of systemic autoimmunity, and alteration of enteric flora with probiotics.

  2. Understanding taste dysfunction in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2012-04-01

    Taste dysfunction is a significant but underestimated issue for patients with cancer. Impaired taste results in changes in diet and appetite, early satiety, and impaired social interactions. Nurses can play a key role in educating patients and families on the pathophysiology of taste dysfunction by suggesting interventions to treat the consequences of taste dysfunction, when available, and offering psychosocial support as patients cope with this often devastating consequence of treatment. Taste recognition helps humans identify the nutritional quality of food and signals the digestive tract to begin secreting enzymes. Spoiled or tainted foods typically are recognized by their bad taste. Along with the other sensory systems, taste is crucial for helping patients treated for cancer feel normal. This article will review the anatomy and physiology of taste; define the different types of taste dysfunction, including the underlying pathophysiologic basis related to cancer treatment; and discuss potential nursing interventions to manage the consequences of taste dysfunction.

  3. Sweet Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  4. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  5. “What’s Your Taste in Music?” A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Soundscapes in Evoking Specific Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian (Janice Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the results of two online experiments designed to compare different soundtracks that had been composed (by various researchers and sound designers in order to evoke/match different basic tastes. In Experiment 1, 100 participants listened to samples from 24 soundtracks and chose the taste (sweet, sour, salty, or bitter that best matched each sample. Overall, the sweet soundtracks most effectively evoked the taste intended by the composer (participants chose sweet 56.9% of the time for the sweet soundtracks, whereas the bitter soundtracks were the least effective (participants chose bitter 31.4% of the time for the bitter soundtracks, compared with chance (choosing any specific taste 25% of the time. In Experiment 2, 50 participants rated their emotional responses (in terms of pleasantness and arousal to the same 24 soundtrack samples and also to imaginary sweet/sour/salty/bitter-tasting foods. Associations between soundtracks and tastes were partly mediated by pleasantness for the sweet and bitter tastes and partly by arousal for the sour tastes. These results demonstrate how emotion mediation may be an additional mechanism behind sound-taste correspondences.

  6. “What’s Your Taste in Music?” A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Soundscapes in Evoking Specific Tastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T.; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We report on the results of two online experiments designed to compare different soundtracks that had been composed (by various researchers and sound designers) in order to evoke/match different basic tastes. In Experiment 1, 100 participants listened to samples from 24 soundtracks and chose the taste (sweet, sour, salty, or bitter) that best matched each sample. Overall, the sweet soundtracks most effectively evoked the taste intended by the composer (participants chose sweet 56.9% of the time for the sweet soundtracks), whereas the bitter soundtracks were the least effective (participants chose bitter 31.4% of the time for the bitter soundtracks), compared with chance (choosing any specific taste 25% of the time). In Experiment 2, 50 participants rated their emotional responses (in terms of pleasantness and arousal) to the same 24 soundtrack samples and also to imaginary sweet/sour/salty/bitter-tasting foods. Associations between soundtracks and tastes were partly mediated by pleasantness for the sweet and bitter tastes and partly by arousal for the sour tastes. These results demonstrate how emotion mediation may be an additional mechanism behind sound-taste correspondences. PMID:27551365

  7. BitterSweetForest: A random forest based binary classifier to predict bitterness and sweetness of chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Preissner, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Taste of a chemical compounds present in food stimulates us to take in nutrients and avoid poisons. However, the perception of taste greatly depends on the genetic as well as evolutionary perspectives. The aim of this work was the development and validation of a machine learning model based on molecular fingerprints to discriminate between sweet and bitter taste of molecules. BitterSweetForest is the first open access model based on KNIME workflow that provides platform for prediction of bitter and sweet taste of chemical compounds using molecular fingerprints and Random Forest based classifier. The constructed model yielded an accuracy of 95% and an AUC of 0.98 in cross-validation. In independent test set, BitterSweetForest achieved an accuracy of 96 % and an AUC of 0.98 for bitter and sweet taste prediction. The constructed model was further applied to predict the bitter and sweet taste of natural compounds, approved drugs as well as on an acute toxicity compound data set. BitterSweetForest suggests 70% of the natural product space, as bitter and 10 % of the natural product space as sweet with confidence score of 0.60 and above. 77 % of the approved drug set was predicted as bitter and 2% as sweet with a confidence scores of 0.75 and above. Similarly, 75% of the total compounds from acute oral toxicity class were predicted only as bitter with a minimum confidence score of 0.75, revealing toxic compounds are mostly bitter. Furthermore, we applied a Bayesian based feature analysis method to discriminate the most occurring chemical features between sweet and bitter compounds from the feature space of a circular fingerprint.

  8. Leptin's effect on taste bud calcium responses and transmitter secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Tricia L; Corcoran, Alan; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone released by adipose tissue, acts on the hypothalamus to control cravings and appetite. Leptin also acts to decrease taste responses to sweet substances, though there is little detailed information regarding where leptin acts in the taste transduction cascade. The present study examined the effects of leptin on sweet-evoked responses and neuro transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Our results indicate that leptin moderately decreased sweet-evoked calcium mobilization in isolated mouse taste buds. We also employed Chinese hamster ovary biosensor cells to examine taste transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Leptin reduced ATP and increased serotonin release in response to sweet stimulation. However, leptin has no effect on bitter-evoked transmitter release, further showing that the action of leptin is sweet specific. Our results support those of previous studies, which state that leptin acts on taste tissue via the leptin receptor, most likely on Type II (Receptor) cells, but also possibly on Type III (Presynaptic) cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. On the Emerging Role of the Taste Receptor Type 1 (T1R Family of Nutrient-Sensors in the Musculoskeletal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Kokabu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The special sense of taste guides and guards food intake and is essential for body maintenance. Salty and sour tastes are sensed via ion channels or gated ion channels while G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs of the taste receptor type 1 (T1R family sense sweet and umami tastes and GPCRs of the taste receptor type 2 (T2R family sense bitter tastes. T1R and T2R receptors share similar downstream signaling pathways that result in the stimulation of phospholipase-C-β2. The T1R family includes three members that form heterodimeric complexes to recognize either amino acids or sweet molecules such as glucose. Although these functions were originally described in gustatory tissue, T1R family members are expressed in numerous non-gustatory tissues and are now viewed as nutrient sensors that play important roles in monitoring global glucose and amino acid status. Here, we highlight emerging evidence detailing the function of T1R family members in the musculoskeletal system and review these findings in the context of the musculoskeletal diseases sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which are major public health problems among the elderly that affect locomotion, activities of daily living, and quality of life. These studies raise the possibility that T1R family member function may be modulated for therapeutic benefit.

  10. Habitual Tastes and Embedded Taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    The interest of this paper is to position taste within the framework of time. This might seem peculiar given that taste, in its physical sense, is referred to as an ephemeral experience taking place in the mouth. Taste, however, is more than that. It is the transient experience that infiltrates...... may be bridged by story-telling or other ways of handing over historically embedded practices, but this leaves a more fundamental question unanswered. Namely, that given that all remembrance has individual recollection as the point of departure, then how does individual recollection of tastes...

  11. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Gaillard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds.

  12. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Bowles, Spencer G; Salcedo, Ernesto; Xu, Mingang; Millar, Sarah E; Barlow, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds.

  13. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Millar, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds. PMID:28846687

  14. Glucose transporters are expressed in taste receptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Flavia; Benati, Donatella; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    In the intestine, changes of sugar concentration generated in the lumen during digestion induce adaptive responses of glucose transporters in the epithelium. A close matching between the intestinal expression of glucose transporters and the composition and amount of the diet has been provided by several experiments. Functional evidence has demonstrated that the regulation of glucose transporters into enterocytes is induced by the sensing of sugar of the enteroendocrine cells through activation of sweet taste receptors (T1R2 and T1R3) and their associated elements of G-protein-linked signaling pathways (e.g. α-gustducin, phospholipase C β type 2 and transient receptor potential channel M5), which are signaling molecules also involved in the perception of sweet substances in the taste receptor cells (TRCs) of the tongue. Considering this phenotypical similarity between the intestinal cells and TRCs, we evaluated whether the TRCs themselves possess proteins of the glucose transport mechanism. Therefore, we investigated the expression of the typical intestinal glucose transporters (i.e. GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1) in rat circumvallate papillae, using immunohistochemistry, double-labeling immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 are expressed in TRCs; their immunoreactivity was also observed in cells that displayed staining for α-gustducin and T1R3 receptor. The immunoelectron microscopic results confirmed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 were predominantly expressed in cells with ultrastructural characteristics of chemoreceptor cells. The presence of glucose transporters in TRCs adds a further link between chemosensory information and cellular responses to sweet stimuli that may have important roles in glucose homeostasis, contributing to a better understanding of the pathways implicated in glucose metabolism. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011

  15. The semantic basis of taste-shape associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velasco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research shows that people systematically match tastes with shapes. Here, we assess the extent to which matched taste and shape stimuli share a common semantic space and whether semantically congruent versus incongruent taste/shape associations can influence the speed with which people respond to both shapes and taste words. In Experiment 1, semantic differentiation was used to assess the semantic space of both taste words and shapes. The results suggest a common semantic space containing two principal components (seemingly, intensity and hedonics and two principal clusters, one including round shapes and the taste word “sweet,” and the other including angular shapes and the taste words “salty,” “sour,” and “bitter.” The former cluster appears more positively-valenced whilst less potent than the latter. In Experiment 2, two speeded classification tasks assessed whether congruent versus incongruent mappings of stimuli and responses (e.g., sweet with round versus sweet with angular would influence the speed of participants’ responding, to both shapes and taste words. The results revealed an overall effect of congruence with congruent trials yielding faster responses than their incongruent counterparts. These results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting a close relation (or crossmodal correspondence between tastes and shape curvature that may derive from common semantic coding, perhaps along the intensity and hedonic dimensions.

  16. Primacy and Recency Effects for Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Thomas A.; Katz, Jeffrey S.

    2018-01-01

    Historically, much of what we know about human memory has been discovered in experiments using visual and verbal stimuli. In two experiments, participants demonstrated reliably high recognition for nonverbal liquids. In Experiment 1, participants showed high accuracy for recognizing tastes (bitter, salty, sour, sweet) over a 30-s delay in a…

  17. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  18. Acid stimulation (sour taste elicits GABA and serotonin release from mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Several transmitter candidates including serotonin (5-HT, ATP, and norepinephrine (NE have been identified in taste buds. Recently, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA as well as the associated synthetic enzymes and receptors have also been identified in taste cells. GABA reduces taste-evoked ATP secretion from Receptor cells and is considered to be an inhibitory transmitter in taste buds. However, to date, the identity of GABAergic taste cells and the specific stimulus for GABA release are not well understood. In the present study, we used genetically-engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells stably co-expressing GABA(B receptors and Gαqo5 proteins to measure GABA release from isolated taste buds. We recorded robust responses from GABA biosensors when they were positioned against taste buds isolated from mouse circumvallate papillae and the buds were depolarized with KCl or a stimulated with an acid (sour taste. In contrast, a mixture of sweet and bitter taste stimuli did not trigger GABA release. KCl- or acid-evoked GABA secretion from taste buds was Ca(2+-dependent; removing Ca(2+ from the bathing medium eliminated GABA secretion. Finally, we isolated individual taste cells to identify the origin of GABA secretion. GABA was released only from Presynaptic (Type III cells and not from Receptor (Type II cells. Previously, we reported that 5-HT released from Presynaptic cells inhibits taste-evoked ATP secretion. Combined with the recent findings that GABA depresses taste-evoked ATP secretion, the present results indicate that GABA and 5-HT are inhibitory transmitters in mouse taste buds and both likely play an important role in modulating taste responses.

  19. De Gustibus: time scale of loss and recovery of tastes caused by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Annelies; Huygh, Ingrid; Weltens, Caroline; Vandevelde, Guy; Delaere, Pierre; Evers, Georges; Bogaert, Walter van den

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the prevalence and distress of taste loss at different intervals after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: In four different groups of head and neck cancer patients (73 patients in total), taste loss and distress due to taste loss were evaluated by taste acuity tests and taste questionnaires. Group 1 (n=17) was analyzed prior to RT. Groups 2 (n=17), 3 (n=17) and 4 (n=22) were at 2, 6 and 12-24 months after treatment, respectively. A cross-sectional analysis was performed between these four groups. Results: Prior to initiation of RT (group 1), partial taste loss was observed in 35, 18 and 6% of patients for bitter, salt and sweet, respectively. At 2 months after RT (group 2), taste loss (partial or total) was seen in 88, 82, 76 and 53% for bitter, salt, sweet and sour, respectively. At 6 months (group 3), partial taste loss was seen in 71, 65, 41 and 41% (bitter, salt, sweet, sour) and after 1-2 years (group 4) in 41, 50, 27 and 27% (bitter, salt, sweet, sour). Distress caused by taste loss was most frequent in group 2 (82%). Conclusions: In this study, loss of taste after RT was found to be most pronounced after 2 months. Bitter and salt qualities were most impaired. Gradual recovery was seen during the first year after treatment. Partial taste loss still persisted 1-2 years after treatment and was responsible for slight to moderate discomfort

  20. Sweet Marjoram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Roja

    2016-01-01

    Origanum majorana L. commonly known as sweet marjoram has been used for variety of diseases in traditional and folklore medicines, including gastrointestinal, ocular, nasopharyngeal, respiratory, cardiac, rheumatologic, and neurological disorders. Essential oil containing monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes as well as phenolic compounds are chemical constituents isolated and detected in O majorana. Wide range of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, anti-platelet, gastroprotective, antibacterial and antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiatherosclerosis, anti-inflammatory, antimetastatic, antitumor, antiulcer, and anticholinesterase inhibitory activities have been reported from this plant in modern medicine. This article summarizes comprehensive information concerning traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of sweet marjoram. PMID:27231340

  1. A Physiologic Role for Serotonergic Transmission in Adult Rat Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the

  2. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Jaber

    Full Text Available Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic. However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers

  3. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the

  4. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopade, Prashant D.; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E.; Simpson, Jeffrey; Fry, John C.; Yurttas, Nese; Biermann, Kari L.; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Myerson, Allan S.

    2015-12-01

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described.

  5. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopade, Prashant D.; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E.; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Myerson, Allan S.; Simpson, Jeffrey; Fry, John C.; Biermann, Kari L.; Yurttas, Nese

    2015-01-01

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described

  6. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopade, Prashant D.; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E.; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Myerson, Allan S., E-mail: myerson@mit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 66-568, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Simpson, Jeffrey [Department of Chemistry Instrumentation Facility, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 18-0090, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Fry, John C.; Biermann, Kari L. [Connect Consulting, 6 Hollands Field, Horsham RH123HQ (United Kingdom); Yurttas, Nese [Cargill, Inc., Global Food Technology, 2301 Crosby Road, Wayzata, Minnesota 55391 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described.

  7. Smell and Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gustatory (taste nerve) cells are clustered in the taste buds of the mouth and throat. They react to ... that can be seen on the tongue contain taste buds. These surface cells send taste information to nearby ...

  8. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  9. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  10. Hedgehog pathway blockade with the cancer drug LDE225 disrupts taste organs and taste sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Allen, Benjamin L; Bradley, Robert M; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2015-02-01

    Taste sensation on the anterior tongue requires chorda tympani nerve function and connections with continuously renewing taste receptor cells. However, it is unclear which signaling pathways regulate the receptor cells to maintain chorda tympani sensation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling controls cell proliferation and differentiation in numerous tissues and is active in taste papillae and taste buds. In contrast, uncontrolled HH signaling drives tumorigenesis, including the common skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. Systemic HH pathway inhibitors (HPIs) lead to basal cell carcinoma regression, but these drugs cause severe taste disturbances. We tested the hypothesis that taste disruption by HPIs reflects a direct requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste organs and gustatory sensation. In mice treated with the HPI LDE225 up to 28 days, HH-responding cells were lost in fungiform papilla epithelium, and papillae acquired a conical apex. Taste buds were either absent or severely reduced in size in more than 90% of aberrant papillae. Taste bud remnants expressed the taste cell marker keratin 8, and papillae retained expression of nerve markers, neurofilament and P2X3. Chorda tympani nerve responses to taste stimuli were markedly reduced or absent in LDE225-treated mice. Responses to touch were retained, however, whereas cold responses were retained after 16 days of treatment but lost after 28 days. These data identify a critical, modality-specific requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste papillae, taste buds and neurophysiological taste function, supporting the proposition that taste disturbances in HPI-treated patients are an on-target response to HH pathway blockade in taste organs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. What do love and jealousy taste like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Qin; Tong, Eddie M W; Tan, Deborah H; Koh, Alethea H Q

    2013-12-01

    Metaphorical expressions linking love and jealousy to sweet, sour, and bitter tastes are common in normal language use and suggest that these emotions may influence perceptual taste judgments. Hence, we investigated whether the phenomenological experiences of love and jealousy are embodied in the taste sensations of sweetness, sourness, and bitterness. Studies 1A and 1B validated that these metaphors are widely endorsed. In three subsequent studies, participants induced to feel love rated a variety of tastants (sweet-sour candy, bitter-sweet chocolates, and distilled water) as sweeter than those who were induced to feel jealous, neutral, or happy. However, those induced to feel jealous did not differ from those induced to feel happy or neutral on bitter and sour ratings. These findings imply that emotions can influence basic perceptual judgments, but metaphors that refer to the body do not necessarily influence perceptual judgments the way they imply. We further suggest that future research in metaphoric social cognition and metaphor theory may benefit from investigating how such metaphors could have originated.

  12. ERK1/2 activation in human taste bud cells regulates fatty acid signaling and gustatory perception of fat in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Saito, Katsuyoshi; Malik, Bilal; Maquart, Guillaume; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Marambaud, Philippe; Aribi, Mourad; Tordoff, Michael G; Besnard, Philippe; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem. An in-depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of oro-sensory detection of dietary lipids may help fight it. Humans and rodents can detect fatty acids via lipido-receptors, such as CD36 and GPR120. We studied the implication of the MAPK pathways, in particular, ERK1/2, in the gustatory detection of fatty acids. Linoleic acid, a dietary fatty acid, induced via CD36 the phosphorylation of MEK1/2-ERK1/2-ETS-like transcription factor-1 cascade, which requires Fyn-Src kinase and lipid rafts in human taste bud cells (TBCs). ERK1/2 cascade was activated by Ca 2+ signaling via opening of the calcium-homeostasis modulator-1 (CALHM1) channel. Furthermore, fatty acid-evoked Ca 2+ signaling and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were decreased in both human TBCs after small interfering RNA knockdown of CALHM1 channel and in TBCs from Calhm1 -/- mice. Targeted knockdown of ERK1/2 by small interfering RNA or PD0325901 (MEK1/2 inhibitor) in the tongue and genetic ablation of Erk1 or Calhm1 genes impaired preference for dietary fat in mice. Lingual inhibition of ERK1/2 in healthy volunteers also decreased orogustatory sensitivity for linoleic acid. Our data demonstrate that ERK1/2-MAPK cascade is regulated by the opening of CALHM1 Ca 2+ channel in TBCs to modulate orogustatory detection of dietary lipids in mice and humans.-Subramaniam, S., Ozdener, M. H., Abdoul-Azize, S., Saito, K., Malik, B., Maquart, G., Hashimoto, T., Marambaud, P., Aribi, M., Tordoff, M. G., Besnard, P., Khan, N. A. ERK1/2 activation in human taste bud cells regulates fatty acid signaling and gustatory perception of fat in mice and humans. © FASEB.

  13. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  14. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the molecular details of taste buds in the oral cavity are diverse across species and even among individuals. In mammals, several types of gustatory papillae reside on the tongue in highly ordered arrangements, and the patterning and distribution of the mature papillae depend on coordinated molecular events in embryogenesis. In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions, including the potential influence of the maternal diet and maternal health on the sense of taste in utero. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New Thermal Taste Actuation Technology for Future Multisensory Virtual Reality and Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayaka, Kasun; Johari, Nurafiqah; Hariri, Surina; Camelia, Hanis; Bielawski, Kevin Stanley; Cheok, Adrian David

    2018-04-01

    Today's virtual reality (VR) applications such as gaming, multisensory entertainment, remote dining, and online shopping are mainly based on audio, visual, and touch interactions between humans and virtual worlds. Integrating the sense of taste into VR is difficult since humans are dependent on chemical-based taste delivery systems. This paper presents the 'Thermal Taste Machine', a new digital taste actuation technology that can effectively produce and modify thermal taste sensations on the tongue. It modifies the temperature of the surface of the tongue within a short period of time (from 25°C to 40 °C while heating, and from 25°C to 10 °C while cooling). We tested this device on human subjects and described the experience of thermal taste using 20 known (taste and non-taste) sensations. Our results suggested that rapidly heating the tongue produces sweetness, fatty/oiliness, electric taste, warmness, and reduces the sensibility for metallic taste. Similarly, cooling the tongue produced mint taste, pleasantness, and coldness. By conducting another user study on the perceived sweetness of sucrose solutions after the thermal stimulation, we found that heating the tongue significantly enhances the intensity of sweetness for both thermal tasters and non-thermal tasters. Also, we found that faster temperature rises on the tongue produce more intense sweet sensations for thermal tasters. This technology will be useful in two ways: First, it can produce taste sensations without using chemicals for the individuals who are sensitive to thermal taste. Second, the temperature rise of the device can be used as a way to enhance the intensity of sweetness. We believe that this technology can be used to digitally produce and enhance taste sensations in future virtual reality applications. The key novelties of this paper are as follows: 1. Development of a thermal taste actuation technology for stimulating the human taste receptors, 2. Characterization of the thermal taste

  16. Association between Salivary Leptin Levels and Taste Perception in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI affects such relationship. Sweet and bitter taste sensitivity was assessed for 121 children aged 9-10 years and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for leptin quantification, using ELISA technique. Children females with lower sweet taste sensitivity presented higher salivary leptin levels, but this is only in the normal weight ones. For bitter taste, association between salivary leptin and caffeine threshold detection was observed only in preobese boys, with higher levels of salivary hormone in low sensitive individuals. This study is the first presenting evidences of a relationship between salivary leptin levels and taste perception, which is sex and BMI dependent. The mode of action of salivary leptin at taste receptor level should be elucidated in future studies.

  17. Préférence et sensibilité aux aliments apportant les goûts gras, sucré, salé et amer et état pondéral [Preference and sensitivity to food providing fatty, sweet, salty and bitter tastes, and weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouassila ALLAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Résumé Introduction. Le goût est une modalité sensorielle chimique qui permet d'apprécier les saveurs d'une substance ingérée. Il joue un rôle essentiel dans la sélection des aliments. Objectif. Déterminer le niveau de sensibilité gustative aux goûts gras, sucré, salé et amer, à travers les préférences alimentaires et étudier le lien possible avec l’état pondéral. Matériel et méthodes. L’étude a porté sur 210 jeunes adultes (F/H, 157/53 âgés de 18 à 30 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques concernent le poids et la taille. Le questionnaire utilisé a permis l'évaluation des préférences alimentaires en relation avec différentes saveurs. Le niveau de sensibilité est estimé à partir des scores moyens de préférence attribués à chaque groupe d’aliments apportant le goût étudié. L’analyse statistique est réalisée avec le logiciel StatView. Résultats. Notre population compte 45,7% de sujets en surpoids dont 20% d’obèses. Le pourcentage du surpoids est plus élevé chez les femmes que chez les hommes (p=0,04. Une relation significative est trouvée entre la préférence au gras rajouté et l’état pondéral des adultes (p=0,0003. Aucune différence significative n’est trouvée entre le niveau de préférence ou de sensibilité pour les aliments sucrés, salés ou amers et l’état pondéral des adultes. Conclusion. Les adultes en surpoids présentent le niveau de préférence le plus faible et sont les moins sensibles par rapport au gras rajouté, ce qui peut influencer l’état pondéral par une consommation excessive d’aliments riches en gras. [ Abstract Introduction. Taste is a chemical sensory modality allowing to appreciate the flavors of an ingested substance. It plays an essential role in food choice. Objective. To define the level of taste sensitivity to fatty, sweet, salty and bitter tastes through food preferences and to study the possible link with weight status. Material and

  18. Discrete innervation of murine taste buds by peripheral taste neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal N; Whitehead, Mark C

    2006-08-09

    The peripheral taste system likely maintains a specific relationship between ganglion cells that signal a particular taste quality and taste bud cells responsive to that quality. We have explored a measure of the receptoneural relationship in the mouse. By injecting single fungiform taste buds with lipophilic retrograde neuroanatomical markers, the number of labeled geniculate ganglion cells innervating single buds on the tongue were identified. We found that three to five ganglion cells innervate a single bud. Injecting neighboring buds with different color markers showed that the buds are primarily innervated by separate populations of geniculate cells (i.e., multiply labeled ganglion cells are rare). In other words, each taste bud is innervated by a population of neurons that only connects with that bud. Palate bud injections revealed a similar, relatively exclusive receptoneural relationship. Injecting buds in different regions of the tongue did not reveal a topographic representation of buds in the geniculate ganglion, despite a stereotyped patterned arrangement of fungiform buds as rows and columns on the tongue. However, ganglion cells innervating the tongue and palate were differentially concentrated in lateral and rostral regions of the ganglion, respectively. The principal finding that small groups of ganglion cells send sensory fibers that converge selectively on a single bud is a new-found measure of specific matching between the two principal cellular elements of the mouse peripheral taste system. Repetition of the experiments in the hamster showed a more divergent innervation of buds in this species. The results indicate that whatever taste quality is signaled by a murine geniculate ganglion neuron, that signal reflects the activity of cells in a single taste bud.

  19. Molecular mechanisms for sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Kusakabe, Yuko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Seiji; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2014-09-12

    Gymnemic acids are triterpene glycosides that selectively suppress taste responses to various sweet substances in humans but not in mice. This sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids is diminished by rinsing the tongue with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids and the interaction between gymnemic acids versus sweet taste receptor and/or γ-CD. To investigate whether gymnemic acids directly interact with human (h) sweet receptor hT1R2 + hT1R3, we used the sweet receptor T1R2 + T1R3 assay in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Similar to previous studies in humans and mice, gymnemic acids (100 μg/ml) inhibited the [Ca(2+)]i responses to sweet compounds in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing hT1R2 + hT1R3 but not in those expressing the mouse (m) sweet receptor mT1R2 + mT1R3. The effect of gymnemic acids rapidly disappeared after rinsing the HEK293 cells with γ-CD. Using mixed species pairings of human and mouse sweet receptor subunits and chimeras, we determined that the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 was mainly required for the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids. Directed mutagenesis in the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 revealed that the interaction site for gymnemic acids shared the amino acid residues that determined the sensitivity to another sweet antagonist, lactisole. Glucuronic acid, which is the common structure of gymnemic acids, also reduced sensitivity to sweet compounds. In our models, gymnemic acids were predicted to dock to a binding pocket within the transmembrane domain of hT1R3. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. The Effect of Alcohol on the Nature of Lexical Representations in Different Taste Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Baskini; Hariklia Proios

    2016-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption may be involved in cognitive feedback mechanisms (Hofmann & Friese, 2008), participants execute verbal fluency test (VFT) better (Cerhan et al., 1998) and there is positive association between sweet taste and excessive alcohol intake (Lange, Kampov-Polevoy, & Garbutt, 2010). We investigate the immediate pharmacological consequences of moderate to light alcohol consumption in verbal fluency and categorical sorting within the different taste domains (i.e. sweet, sal...

  1. Radiation-induced changes in taste acuity in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.; Henkin, R.I.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in taste acuity were measured in 27 patients with various forms of cancer who received radiation to the head and neck region. In 9 of these patients (group I), measurements of taste acuity were made more than 1 year after completion of radiation therapy. In the other 18 patients (group II), taste measurements were made before, during, and approximately 1 month after radiation therapy. Taste acuity was measured for four taste qualities (salt, sweet, sour, and bitter) by a forced choice-three stimulus drop technique which measured detection and recognition thresholds and by a forced scaling technique which measured taste intensity responsiveness. In group II patients, impaired acuity, as indicated by elevated detection and recognition thresholds, was observed approximately 3 weeks after initiation of radiotherapy. The bitter and salt qualities showed the earliest and greatest impairment and the sweet quality the least. Taste intensity responsiveness also was impaired in group II patients. As for thresholds, scaling impairment was most severe for bitter and salt taste qualities. Scaling impairment occurred before changes in either detection or recognition thresholds. Detection and recognition thresholds determined in group I patients also showed salt and bitter qualities were affected more severely than either sweet or sour qualities. Zinc administration to group I patients in an uncontrolled study suggested that zinc therapy may be useful in ameliorating taste impairment in some patients. These results suggest that taste loss may be a factor in the anorexia and weight loss that is observed commonly in patients who have undergone radiation treatment. Correction of this abnormality may be useful in aiding the nutritional status of these patients

  2. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  4. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-03

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  5. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  6. SuperSweet--a resource on natural and artificial sweetening agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jessica; Preissner, Saskia; Dunkel, Mathias; Worth, Catherine L; Eckert, Andreas; Preissner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A vast number of sweet tasting molecules are known, encompassing small compounds, carbohydrates, d-amino acids and large proteins. Carbohydrates play a particularly big role in human diet. The replacement of sugars in food with artificial sweeteners is common and is a general approach to prevent cavities, obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Knowledge about the molecular basis of taste may reveal new strategies to overcome diet-induced diseases. In this context, the design of safe, low-calorie sweeteners is particularly important. Here, we provide a comprehensive collection of carbohydrates, artificial sweeteners and other sweet tasting agents like proteins and peptides. Additionally, structural information and properties such as number of calories, therapeutic annotations and a sweetness-index are stored in SuperSweet. Currently, the database consists of more than 8000 sweet molecules. Moreover, the database provides a modeled 3D structure of the sweet taste receptor and binding poses of the small sweet molecules. These binding poses provide hints for the design of new sweeteners. A user-friendly graphical interface allows similarity searching, visualization of docked sweeteners into the receptor etc. A sweetener classification tree and browsing features allow quick requests to be made to the database. The database is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/sweet/.

  7. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  8. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  9. The neuropeptides CCK and NPY and the changing view of cell-to-cell communication in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herness, Scott; Zhao, Fang-Li

    2009-07-14

    The evolving view of the taste bud increasingly suggests that it operates as a complex signal processing unit. A number of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides and their corresponding receptors are now known to be expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells in the mammalian bud. These expression patterns set up hard-wired cell-to-cell communication pathways whose exact physiological roles still remain obscure. As occurs in other cellular systems, it is likely that neuropeptides are co-expressed with neurotransmitters and function as neuromodulators. Several neuropeptides have been identified in taste receptor cells including cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Of these, CCK and NPY are the best studied. These two peptides are co-expressed in the same presynaptic cells; however, their postsynaptic actions are both divergent and antagonistic. CCK and its receptor, the CCK-1 subtype, are expressed in the same subset of taste receptor cells and the autocrine activation of these cells produces a number of excitatory physiological actions. Further, most of these cells are responsive to bitter stimuli. On the other hand, NPY and its receptor, the NPY-1 subtype, are expressed in different cells. NPY, acting in a paracrine fashion on NPY-1 receptors, results in inhibitory actions on the cell. Preliminary evidence suggests the NPY-1 receptor expressing cell co-expresses T1R3, a member of the T1R family of G-protein coupled receptors thought to be important in detection of sweet and umami stimuli. Thus the neuropeptide expressing cells co-express CCK, NPY, and CCK-1 receptor. Neuropeptides released from these cells during bitter stimulation may work in concert to both modulate the excitation of bitter-sensitive taste receptor cells while concurrently inhibiting sweet-sensitive cells. This modulatory process is similar to the phenomenon of lateral inhibition that occurs in other sensory systems.

  10. Visualized attribute analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor using electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Hu, Xianqiao [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tian, Shiyi; Deng, Shaoping [College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Zhu, Zhiwei, E-mail: 615834652@qq.com [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2016-05-05

    This paper deals with a novel visualized attributive analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor attributes (softness, stickiness, sweetness and aroma) employing a multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue. Data preprocessing methods including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) were provided. An attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the interactive response in which each attribute responded by specific electrodes and frequencies. The model was trained using signal data from electronic tongue and attribute scores from artificial evaluation. The correlation coefficients for all attributes were over 0.9, resulting in good predictive ability of attributive analysis model preprocessed by FFT. This approach extracted more effective information about linear relationship between electronic tongue and taste flavor attribute. Results indicated that this approach can accurately quantify taste flavor attributes, and can be an efficient tool for data processing in a voltammetric electronic tongue system. - Graphical abstract: Schematic process for visualized attributive analysis approach using multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue for determination of rice taste flavor attribute. (a) sample; (b) sensors in electronic tongue; (c) excitation voltage program and response current signal from MLAPS; (d) similarity data matrix by data preprocessing and similarity extraction; (e) feature data matrix of attribute; (f) attribute characterization graph; (g) attribute scores predicted by the model. - Highlights: • Multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue was used. • A visualized attributive analysis approach was created as an efficient tool for data processing. • Rice taste flavor attribute was determined and predicted. • The attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the

  11. Gli3 is a negative regulator of Tas1r3-expressing taste cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotaki, Masafumi; Redding, Kevin; Jiang, Peihua

    2018-01-01

    Mouse taste receptor cells survive from 3–24 days, necessitating their regeneration throughout adulthood. In anterior tongue, sonic hedgehog (SHH), released by a subpopulation of basal taste cells, regulates transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3 in stem cells to control taste cell regeneration. Using single-cell RNA-Seq we found that Gli3 is highly expressed in Tas1r3-expressing taste receptor cells and Lgr5+ taste stem cells in posterior tongue. By PCR and immunohistochemistry we found that Gli3 was expressed in taste buds in all taste fields. Conditional knockout mice lacking Gli3 in the posterior tongue (Gli3CKO) had larger taste buds containing more taste cells than did control wild-type (Gli3WT) mice. In comparison to wild-type mice, Gli3CKO mice had more Lgr5+ and Tas1r3+ cells, but fewer type III cells. Similar changes were observed ex vivo in Gli3CKO taste organoids cultured from Lgr5+ taste stem cells. Further, the expression of several taste marker and Gli3 target genes was altered in Gli3CKO mice and/or organoids. Mirroring these changes, Gli3CKO mice had increased lick responses to sweet and umami stimuli, decreased lick responses to bitter and sour taste stimuli, and increased glossopharyngeal taste nerve responses to sweet and bitter compounds. Our results indicate that Gli3 is a suppressor of stem cell proliferation that affects the number and function of mature taste cells, especially Tas1r3+ cells, in adult posterior tongue. Our findings shed light on the role of the Shh pathway in adult taste cell regeneration and may help devise strategies for treating taste distortions from chemotherapy and aging. PMID:29415007

  12. The Insula and Taste Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis Yiannakas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is a key component of the sensory machinery, enabling the evaluation of both the safety as well as forming associations regarding the nutritional value of ingestible substances. Indicative of the salience of the modality, taste conditioning can be achieved in rodents upon a single pairing of a tastant with a chemical stimulus inducing malaise. This robust associative learning paradigm has been heavily linked with activity within the insular cortex (IC, among other regions, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. A number of studies have demonstrated taste memory formation to be dependent on protein synthesis at the IC and to correlate with the induction of signaling cascades involved in synaptic plasticity. Taste learning has been shown to require the differential involvement of dopaminergic GABAergic, glutamatergic, muscarinic neurotransmission across an extended taste learning circuit. The subsequent activation of downstream protein kinases (ERK, CaMKII, transcription factors (CREB, Elk-1 and immediate early genes (c-fos, Arc, has been implicated in the regulation of the different phases of taste learning. This review discusses the relevant neurotransmission, molecular signaling pathways and genetic markers involved in novel and aversive taste learning, with a particular focus on the IC. Imaging and other studies in humans have implicated the IC in the pathophysiology of a number of cognitive disorders. We conclude that the IC participates in circuit-wide computations that modulate the interception and encoding of sensory information, as well as the formation of subjective internal representations that control the expression of motivated behaviors.

  13. Sweet Dream Liquid Chinese Medicine Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficit in a Rat Model of Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation through the ERK/CREB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xinyun; Wang, Chunhua; Wang, Xiuhua; Han, Fang; Lv, Changjun; Zhang, Xiuli

    2016-05-01

    Sweet dream oral liquid (SDOL), a traditional Chinese herbal compound contains 17 traditional Chinese medicines. It has various pharmacological effects, such as improving brain dysfunction and increasing sleeping quality. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of SDOL-impaired hippocampus learning and memory-induced paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in rats. Sixty Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Before PSD, SDOL treatment group rats were intragastrically administered SDOL for 25 days at dose of 2.1, 4.2, and 8.4 mL/kg body weight per day. Normal control group, large platform control group, and PSD groups were treated with normal saline instead of SDOL. After 25 days treatment, PSD and SDOL groups were deprived of paradoxical sleep for 72 h. Then two behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory ability using the open field test and Morris water maze test. Expression of the c-fos, c-jun, cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/ERK kinase (MEK), and p-CREB, p-ERK, and p-MEK in the hippocampus were also assayed by western blot. In this study, PSD decreased the levels of p-CREB, p-ERK, p-MEK, c-fos, and c-jun. However, SDOL treatment increased expressions of these proteins. Our results showed that SDOL improved 72-h PSD-induced cognitive impairment. These affects may be mediated by increasing the contents of c-fos, c-jun, and p-CREB/ERK signaling.

  14. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Reduces Taste-Evoked ATP Secretion from Mouse Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony Y; Wu, Sandy Y

    2015-09-16

    Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that peripheral afferent nerve fibers innervating taste buds contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which may be as an efferent transmitter released from peripheral axon terminals. In this report, we determined the targets of CGRP within taste buds and studied what effect CGRP exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura-2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings showed that a subset of Presynaptic (Type III) taste cells (53%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, Receptor (Type II) taste cells rarely (4%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP. Using pharmacological tools, the actions of CGRP were probed and elucidated by the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). We demonstrated that this effect of CGRP was dependent on phospholipase C activation and was prevented by the inhibitor U73122. Moreover, applying CGRP caused taste buds to secrete serotonin (5-HT), a Presynaptic (Type III) cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor (Type II) cell transmitter. Further, our previous studies showed that 5-HT released from Presynaptic (Type III) cells provides negative paracrine feedback onto Receptor (Type II) cells by activating 5-HT1A receptors, and reducing ATP secretion. Our data showed that CGRP-evoked 5-HT release reduced taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for CGRP as an inhibitory transmitter that shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling during processing gustatory information in taste buds. The taste sensation is initiated with a highly complex set of interactions between a variety of cells located within the taste buds before signal propagation to the brain. Afferent signals from the oral cavity are carried to the brain in chemosensory fibers that contribute to chemesthesis, the general chemical sensitivity of the mucus

  15. Oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and calcium signaling in taste bud cells are altered in nutritionally obesity-prone Psammomys obesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Atek-Mebarki, Feriel; Bitam, Arezki; Sadou, Hassimi; Koceïr, Elhadj Ahmed; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC), isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA), a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations, [Ca(2+)]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca(2+)]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca(2+)]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca(2+) signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus.

  16. Oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and calcium signaling in taste bud cells are altered in nutritionally obesity-prone Psammomys obesus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Abdoul-Azize

    Full Text Available Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC, isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA, a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca(2+ concentrations, [Ca(2+]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca(2+]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca(2+ (SOC channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca(2+]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca(2+ from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca(2+ signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus.

  17. Peptide regulators of peripheral taste function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Geraedts, Maartje C P; Munger, Steven D

    2013-03-01

    The peripheral sensory organ of the gustatory system, the taste bud, contains a heterogeneous collection of sensory cells. These taste cells can differ in the stimuli to which they respond and the receptors and other signaling molecules they employ to transduce and encode those stimuli. This molecular diversity extends to the expression of a varied repertoire of bioactive peptides that appear to play important functional roles in signaling taste information between the taste cells and afferent sensory nerves and/or in processing sensory signals within the taste bud itself. Here, we review studies that examine the expression of bioactive peptides in the taste bud and the impact of those peptides on taste functions. Many of these peptides produced in taste buds are known to affect appetite, satiety or metabolism through their actions in the brain, pancreas and other organs, suggesting a functional link between the gustatory system and the neural and endocrine systems that regulate feeding and nutrient utilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a Sweetness Sensor for Aspartame, a Positively Charged High-Potency Sweetener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Yasuura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

  19. Development of a sweetness sensor for aspartame, a positively charged high-potency sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuura, Masato; Tahara, Yusuke; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-23

    Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

  20. Effects of visual priming on taste-odor interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available Little is known about the influence of visual characteristics other than colour on flavor perception, and the complex interactions between more than two sensory modalities. This study focused on the effects of recognizability of visual (texture information on flavor perception of odorized sweet beverages. Participants rated the perceived sweetness of odorized sucrose solutions in the presence or absence of either a congruent or incongruent visual context. Odors were qualitatively reminiscent of sweet foods (strawberry and caramel or not (savoury. Visual context was either an image of the same sweet foods (figurative context or a visual texture derived from this product (non-figurative context. Textures were created using a texture synthesis method that preserved perceived food qualities while removing object information. Odor-taste combinations were rated sweeter within a figurative than a non-figurative context. This behaviour was exhibited for all odor-taste combinations, even in trials without images, indicating sustained priming by figurative visual context. A non-figurative context showed a transient sweetening effect. Sweetness was generally enhanced most by the strawberry odor. We conclude that the degree of recognizability of visual information (figurative versus non-figurative, influences flavor perception differently. Our results suggest that this visual context priming is mediated by separate sustained and transient processes that are differently evoked by figurative and non-figurative visual contexts. These components operate independent of the congruency of the image-odor-taste combinations.

  1. Role of the ectonucleotidase NTPDase2 in taste bud function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Anderson, Catherine B; Parnes, Jason; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Robson, Simon C; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2013-09-03

    Taste buds are unusual in requiring ATP as a transmitter to activate sensory nerve fibers. In response to taste stimuli, taste cells release ATP, activating purinergic receptors containing the P2X2 and P2X3 subunits on taste nerves. In turn, the released ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP by a plasma membrane nucleoside triphosphate previously identified as nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-2 (NTPDase2). In this paper we investigate the role of this ectonucleotidase in the function of taste buds by examining gene-targeted Entpd2-null mice globally lacking NTPDase2. RT-PCR confirmed the absence of NTPDase2, and ATPase enzyme histochemistry reveals no reaction product in taste buds of knockout mice, suggesting that NTPDase2 is the dominant form in taste buds. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that in knockout mice all cell types are present in taste buds, even those cells normally expressing NTPDase2. In addition, the overall number and size of taste buds are normal in Entpd2-null mice. Luciferin/luciferase assays of circumvallate tissue of knockout mice detected elevated levels of extracellular ATP. Electrophysiological recordings from two taste nerves, the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal, revealed depressed responses to all taste stimuli in Entpd2-null mice. Responses were more depressed in the glossopharyngeal nerve than in the chorda tympani nerve and involved all taste qualities; responses in the chorda tympani were more depressed to sweet and umami stimuli than to other qualities. We suggest that the excessive levels of extracellular ATP in the Entpd2-knockout animals desensitize the P2X receptors associated with nerve fibers, thereby depressing taste responses.

  2. Use of gamma radiation as a form of preservation of sweet potatoes. [Final technical] quarterly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This document covers: harvest and conditioning following harvest, harvest-curing-storage-irradiation schemes, irradiation, control sweet potatoes, analyses, enzymes results, and procedures for taste evaluation, storage rot, weevil

  3. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Ravi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated.

  4. Bittersweet Findings: Round Cups Fail to Induce Sweeter Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casparus J. A. Machiels

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of literature demonstrates that consumers associate visual information with specific gustatory elements. This phenomenon is better known as cross-modal correspondence. A specific correspondence that has received attention of late is the one between round forms and sweet taste. Research indicates that roundness (as opposed to angularity is consistently associated with an increased sweetness perception. Focusing on two different cup forms (round versus angular, two studies tested this association for a butter milk drink and a mate-based soft drink. Results, however, were not able to corroborate the frequently suggested correspondence effect, but a correspondence was found between the angular cup and a more bitter taste for the soft drink. These results are discussed in light of previous findings matching sweetness with roundness and bitterness with angularity, hopefully aiding researchers in this field in conducting future experiments.

  5. Late taste disorders in bone marrow transplantation: clinical evaluation with taste solutions in autologous and allogeneic bone marrow recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinone, M G; Rizzoni, D; Ferremi, P; Rossi, G; Izzi, T; Brusotti, C

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the type and the significance of taste disorders in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. In a retrospective study the taste threshold of a cohort of 15 allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients, 4-51 months after transplantation (mean: 30.6 +/- 15.8), was compared to the taste threshold of 8 autologous bone marrow recipients, 4-48 months after transplantation (mean: 24.12 +/- 12.18), and to the taste threshold of a group of 20 consecutive normal subjects. Allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients showed a significant hypogeusia for salt (Pearson's chi square p = 0.0002; Yates' correction p = 0.0007) and sour (Pearson's chi square p = 0.001; Yates' correction p = 0.008). No significant variations were observed for sweet and bitter. Autologous bone marrow recipients did not show any significant variation of taste acuity for sweet, salt or sour; a constant reduction of the taste threshold for bitter was observed, but the values were not significantly different from normal (Pearson's chi square p = 0.47; Yates' correction p = 0.83). So, late and selective taste disorders are observed in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. Since the severity of the disorders is not strictly related to the severity of chronic oral G.V.H.D., taste analysis could discover the slightest, clinically undetectable cases of chronic oral G.V.H.D. The mechanism of immune aggression on the sensorial taste cells is poorly understood. Further trials are needed to define variations of taste acuity not only after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, but also in systemic immune diseases.

  6. The taste of KCl - What a difference a sugar makes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abu, Natalie; Harries, Daniel; Voet, Hillary; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-07-30

    Dramatic increase in NaCl consumption lead to sodium intake beyond health guidelines. KCl substitution helps reduce sodium intake but results in a bitter-metallic off-taste. Two disaccharides, trehalose and sucrose, were tested in order to untangle the chemical (increase in effective concentration of KCl due to sugar addition) from the sensory effects. The bitter-metallic taste of KCl was reduced by these sugars, while saltiness was enhanced or unaltered. The perceived sweetness of sugar, regardless of its type and concentration, was an important factor in KCl taste modulation. Though KCl was previously shown to increase the chemical activity of trehalose but not of sucrose, we found that it suppressed the perceived sweetness of both sugars. Therefore, sensory integration was the dominant factor in the tested KCl-sugar combinations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns of sweetness preference in red wine according to consumer characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena-Esteves, Maria Madalena; Mota, Mariana; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The preference for sweet taste in red wine was examined according to consumer categories of age, gender, drinking experience and personality type (Big-5 personality-test). A total of 114 subjects revealed their preferences for sweetness after tasting dry red wine spiked with equal concentrations of glucose and fructose at 2g/L, 4g/L, 8g/L, 16g/L and 32g/L, following an ascending forced choice paired comparison method (2-AFC). The overall preference for sweetness was shown within the range of 4.8 to 21.9g/L, with maximal liking at 8g/L. Three patterns of response to sweetness were observed (sweet dislikers, sweet likers and indifferent to sweet) according to the different categories of consumers. Differences (p>0.05) were not found in sweetness preference among the categories up to 16g/L sugar except for the trait extraversion at 8g/L, where low extraverts showed a higher proportion of responses preferring the sweeter sample. Most significant differences were found only under the highest tasted concentration (32g/L). Females and novices preferred sweeter samples (pconsumers, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Food Science of Dashi and Umami Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    Umami is a basic tastes, along with sweet, salty, bitter and sour, which is imparted by glutamate, one of the free amino acids in foods. Since its discovery of umami by a Japanese scientist in 1908, umami is now perceived globally a basic taste. Recent collaboration among chefs and researchers on traditional soup stocks showed a difference in taste profiles of Japanese soup stock 'dashi' and Western style soup stock. The free amino acids profile's in dashi and soup stock showed how Japanese have traditionally adopted a simple umami taste. The exchange of knowledge on cooking methods and diverse types of umami rich foods in different countries displays the blending of the culinary arts, food science and technology for healthy and tasty solutions. Since Japanese cuisine 'WASHOKU' was listed in the 'Intangible Heritage of UNESCO' in 2013, many people in the world now have great interest in Japanese cuisine. One of the unique characteristics of this cuisine is that 'dashi' is an indispensable material for cooking a variety of Japanese dishes. Many chefs from Europe, US and South America have come to Japan to learn Japanese cuisine in the last 10 years, and umami has become recognized as a common taste worldwide. Researchers and culinary professionals have begun to pay attention to the traditional seasonings and condiments rich in glutamate available throughout the world.

  9. Gustatory stimuli representing different perceptual qualities elicit distinct patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Munger, Steven D

    2013-04-24

    Taste stimuli that evoke different perceptual qualities (e.g., sweet, umami, bitter, sour, salty) are detected by dedicated subpopulations of taste bud cells that use distinct combinations of sensory receptors and transduction molecules. Here, we report that taste stimuli also elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds that are correlated with those perceptual qualities. We measured tastant-dependent secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) from circumvallate papillae of Tas1r3(+/+), Tas1r3(+/-) and Tas1r3 (-/-) mice. Isolated tongue epithelia were mounted in modified Ussing chambers, permitting apical stimulation of taste buds; secreted peptides were collected from the basal side and measured by specific ELISAs. Appetitive stimuli (sweet: glucose, sucralose; umami: monosodium glutamate; polysaccharide: Polycose) elicited GLP-1 and NPY secretion and inhibited basal glucagon secretion. Sweet and umami stimuli were ineffective in Tas1r3(-/-) mice, indicating an obligatory role for the T1R3 subunit common to the sweet and umami taste receptors. Polycose responses were unaffected by T1R3 deletion, consistent with the presence of a distinct polysaccharide taste receptor. The effects of sweet stimuli on peptide secretion also required the closing of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, as the KATP channel activator diazoxide inhibited the effects of glucose and sucralose on both GLP-1 and glucagon release. Both sour citric acid and salty NaCl increased NPY secretion but had no effects on GLP-1 or glucagon. Bitter denatonium showed no effects on these peptides. Together, these results suggest that taste stimuli of different perceptual qualities elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

  10. Calcium Homeostasis Modulator 1-Like Currents in Rat Fungiform Taste Cells Expressing Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigiani, Albertino

    2017-05-01

    Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels. In heterologous expression systems, these channels mediate outwardly rectifying membrane currents with distinct biophysical and pharmacological properties. I therefore tested whether also salt-detecting taste cells were endowed with these currents. To this aim, I applied the patch-clamp techniques to single cells in isolated taste buds from rat fungiform papillae. Salt-detecting cells were functionally identified by exploiting the effect of amiloride, which induces a current response by shutting down ENaCs. I looked for the presence of outwardly rectifying currents by using appropriate voltage-clamp protocols and specific pharmacological tools. I found that indeed salt-detecting cells possessed these currents with properties consistent with the presence, at least in part, of CALHM1 channels. Unexpectedly, CALHM1-like currents in taste cells were potentiated by known blockers of pannexin, suggesting a possible inhibitory action of this protein on CALMH1. These findings indicate that communication between salt-detecting cells and nerve endings might involve ATP release by CALMH1 channels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Accuracy of self-report in detecting taste dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soter, Ana; Kim, John; Jackman, Alexis; Tourbier, Isabelle; Kaul, Arti; Doty, Richard L

    2008-04-01

    To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of responses to the following questionnaire statements in detecting taste loss: "I can detect salt in chips, pretzels, or salted nuts," "I can detect sourness in vinegar, pickles, or lemon," "I can detect sweetness in soda, cookies, or ice cream," and "I can detect bitterness, in coffee, beer, or tonic water." Responses to an additional item, "I can detect chocolate in cocoa, cake or candy," was examined to determine whether patients clearly differentiate between taste loss and flavor loss secondary to olfactory dysfunction. A total of 469 patients (207 men, mean age = 54 years, standard deviation = 15 years; and 262 women, mean age = 54 years, standard deviation = 14 years) were administered a questionnaire containing these questions with the response categories of "easily," "somewhat," and "not at all," followed by a comprehensive taste and smell test battery. The questionnaire items poorly detected bona fide taste problems. However, they were sensitive in detecting persons without such problems (i.e., they exhibited low positive but high negative predictive value). Dysfunction categories of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) were not meaningfully related to subjects' responses to the questionnaire statements. Both sex and age influenced performance on most of the taste tests, with older persons performing more poorly than younger ones and women typically outperforming men. Although it is commonly assumed that straight-forward questions concerning taste may be useful in detecting taste disorders, this study suggests this is not the case. However, patients who specifically report having no problems with taste perception usually do not exhibit taste dysfunction. The difficulty in detecting true taste problems by focused questionnaire items likely reflects a combination of factors. These include the relatively low prevalence of taste deficits in the

  12. Radiogenic damage to the sense of taste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Freywald, G.

    1975-01-01

    In order to determine radiogenic impairment of taste and the natural laws it obeys, gustometric investigations were carried out on 11 patients under radiation treatment. From the investigations it could be seen that the first measurable impairment is present after about 2,000 rad and the climax of the sensory radiation injury occurs after 4,000 rad. The individual taste qualities are damaged in the sequence bitter, sweet, salty and sour. Then the taste surprisingly improves somewhat although irradiation continues. Our observation that the interval between sensation threshold and recognition threshold during radiotherapy grows indicating an apparently stronger damage to the recognition threshold and only later goes back to the standard, is also new and has so far no explanation. It was seen in all posttherapeutical taste tests that the taste function was only fully normalized with a few patients, while in most cases a more or less large function defect remained. This result contradicts the general opinion that there is a complete restitution at the latest 3 months after terminating the irradiation. The present result is fully confirmed by the post-investigation of 55 patients whose irradiation went back up to 13 years. A significant, remaining reduction of the average taste function can also be found here. As the extent of the remaining taste impairment is measurable but very small, it is hardly ever noticed by the patients. Similar to in the course investigations, one could see here, too, that the sensation thresholds on the long run are less damaged than the recognition thresholds. (orig./MG) [de

  13. The Miracle Fruit: An Undergraduate Laboratory Exercise in Taste Sensation and Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, Olga; Campolattaro, Matthew M

    2016-01-01

    "Miracle Fruit" is a taste-altering berry that causes sour foods to be perceived as sweet. The present paper describes a laboratory exercise that uses Miracle Fruit to educate students about the sensation and perception of taste. This laboratory exercise reinforces course material pertaining to the function of sweet taste receptors covered in a Sensation and Perception course at Christopher Newport University. Here we provide a step-by-step explanation of the methodology, and an example of data collected and analyzed by one group of students who participated in this laboratory exercise. The origins of the Miracle Fruit, the structure and the physiological function of miraculin (the glycoprotein responsible for the taste-modifying effect found in the pulp of the Miracle Fruit) were discussed before the laboratory exercise. Students then sampled foods known to target different types of tastes (i.e., sweet, sour, bitter and salty) and rated their perception of taste intensity for each food item. Next, students each consumed Miracle Fruit berries, then resampled each original food item and again recorded their perception of taste intensity ratings for these foods. The data confirmed that the sour food items were perceived sweeter after the Miracle Fruit was consumed. The students also completed a written assignment to assess what they learned about the origins, structure, and physiological function of Miracle Fruit. This hands-on laboratory exercise received positive feedback from students. The exercise can be used by other neuroscience educators to teach concepts related to the sensory system of taste.

  14. Changes in taste preference after colorectal surgery: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchman, Sophie; Hiotis, Perryhan; Pengelly, Steven; Hughes, Georgina; Halford, Jason; Christiansen, Paul; Lewis, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Nutrition is a key component of surgical enhanced recovery programmes. However, alterations in food preferences are often reported as reasons for patients not eating in the early postoperative period. We hypothesised that taste preferences are altered in the early postoperative period and this dysgeusia affects patients' food choices during this critical time. This is a longitudinal study looking at taste preferences of patients recovering from surgery. Patients undergoing colonic resections were recruited. Using visual analogue scales participants completed a questionnaire, taste tests and preference scoring of food images for the 6 groups of taste (bitter, salty, savoury, sour, spicy and sweet) preoperatively and on postoperative days 1-3. Patients were also offered snacks postoperatively, which represented foods from the six groups and consumption was measured. Differences from baseline were assessed using the Friedman's and Wilcoxon tests. 31 patients were studied. In the immediate postoperative period participants reported deterioration in their sense of taste (p ≤ 0.001), increased nausea (p palatability for salty taste increased (p = 0.001) following surgery. The highest rated images were for savoury food with only the ratings for salty food increasing after surgery (p foods in the postoperative period. Bitter, sour and spicy foods were the least frequently consumed. This is the first study to investigate postsurgical patients' food preferences. A consistent change in all the individual tastes with the exception of salty in the postoperative period was observed. The most desirable tastes were for savoury and sweet, reflecting patients' preoperative preferences. An improved understanding of taste may improve the resumption of eating after colonic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between the number of fungiform papillae on the tip of the tongue and sensory taste perception in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Hannah; Ahrens, Wohlfgang; Buchecker, Kirsten; Russo, Paola; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Background : To measure sensory taste perception in children with an accurate and reproducible method is challenging and objective measurement methods are scarce. Objective : Aim was to characterize sensory taste perception, by measuring the number of fungiform papillae (FP) and to investigate whether the number of FP is associated with sensitivity for bitter taste and with taste preferences for sweet, salty, fatty or umami in children between 8 and 11 years of age. Design : Number of FP was measured with a digital camera in 83 children in a German subsample of the IDEFICS study. Among those 56 children performed a taste threshold test for bitter and taste preference tests for sweet, salty, fatty and umami. The association between the number of FP and sensory taste perception was analysed. Results : There is a tendency towards a lower number of FP in children with a higher fat preference (30 vs. 25 papillae, p=0.06). Results show no association between the number of FP and neither the bitter taste thresholds nor taste preferences for sweet, salty and umami. Conclusion : Bitter taste threshold might be independent of the number of FP, while the perception of fat was associated with the number of FP.

  16. Factors affecting quality and health promoting compounds during growth and postharvest life of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia, Sofia; Schouten, Rob; Silva, Ana P.; Gonçalves, Berta

    2017-01-01

    Sweet cherries are attractive fruits due to their taste, color, nutritional value, and beneficial health effects. Sweet cherry is a highly perishable fruit and all quality attributes and the level of health promoting compounds are affected by growth conditions, picking, packing, transport, and

  17. Research progress of the bitter taste receptor genes in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Luo, Rui-Jian

    2018-02-20

    Among the five basic tastes (umami, sweet, bitter, salty and sour), the perception of bitterness is believed to protect animals from digesting toxic and harmful substances, thus it is vital for animal survival. The taste of bitterness is triggered by the interaction between bitter substances and bitter taste receptors, which are encoded by Tas2rs. The gene numbers vary largely across species to meet different demands. So far, several ligands of bitter receptors have been identified in primates. They also discovered that the selective pressure of certain bitter taste receptor genes vary across taxa, genes or even different functional regions of the gene. In this review, we summarize the research progress of bitter taste receptor genes in primates by introducing the functional diversity of bitter receptors, the specific interaction between bitter taste receptors and ligands, the relationship between the evolutionary pattern of bitter taste receptors and diets, and the adaptive evolution of bitter taste receptor genes. We aim to provide a reference for further research on bitter receptor genes in primates.

  18. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-07-01

    There are two general approaches to reducing dietary sodium. First, there is considerable interest in developing salt substitutes and salt enhancers. Potassium chloride is widely used (usually in combination with NaCl as a substitute but it is not ideal since many find it has an unpleasant off-taste. There is considerable academic and industry research to identify new substitutes but to date there are none for salty as there are for sweet taste. A second approach to lowering sodium intake on a population-wide level in the United States, where more than 80% of the average person’s salt intake comes from food purchased and not from being added during cooking or at the table, is for food manufacturers and restaurants to gradually reduce the amount of salt in prepared foods. Experimental studies have demonstrated that if one reduces salt intake preferences for salt are similarly reduced. Based on this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended that the Food and Drug Administration require gradual reduction by food manufacturers and large restaurant chains (IOM. The FDA has not acted on this recommendation. Conclusion. As illustrated by the difficulties in reducing salt in spite of the health benefits (a similar set of arguments for reducing excess consumption of carbohydrate sugars could be made, the sense of taste is a powerful driver of food intake. A deeper understanding of this important but neglected sensory system is required if we are to adequately address critical health problems in modern society that are often driven by excess consumption of tasty nutrients.

  19. Expression of synaptogyrin-1 in T1R2-expressing type II taste cells and type III taste cells of rat circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Takeshi; Toyono, Takashi; Seta, Yuji; Kitou, Ayae; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyoshima, Kuniaki

    2013-09-01

    Synaptogyrins are conserved components of the exocytic apparatus and function as regulators of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. The synaptogyrin family comprises three isoforms: two neuronal (synaptogyrin-1 and -3) and one ubiquitous (synaptogyrin-2) form. Although the expression patterns of the exocytic proteins synaptotagmin-1, SNAP-25, synaptobrevin-2 and synaptophysin have been elucidated in taste buds, the function and expression pattern of synaptogyrin-1 in rat gustatory tissues have not been determined. Therefore, we examined the expression patterns of synaptogyrin-1 and several cell-specific markers of type II and III cells in rat gustatory tissues. Reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction assays and immunoblot analysis revealed the expression of synaptogyrin-1 mRNA and its protein in circumvallate papillae. In fungiform, foliate and circumvallate papillae, the antibody against synaptogyrin-1 immunolabeled a subset of taste bud cells and intra- and subgemmal nerve processes. Double-labeling experiments revealed the expression of synaptogyrin-1 in most taste cells immunoreactive for aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and the neural cell adhesion molecule. A subset of synaptogyrin-1-immunoreactive taste cells also expressed phospholipase Cβ2, gustducin, or sweet taste receptor (T1R2). In addition, most synaptogyrin-1-immunoreactive taste cells expressed synaptobrevin-2. These results suggest that synaptogyrin-1 plays a regulatory role in transmission at the synapses of type III cells and is involved in exocytic function with synaptobrevin-2 in a subset of type II cells in rat taste buds.

  20. Interleukin-10 is produced by a specific subset of taste receptor cells and critical for maintaining structural integrity of mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Chai, Jinghua; Zhou, Minliang; Simon, Nirvine; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-02-12

    Although inflammatory responses are a critical component in defense against pathogens, too much inflammation is harmful. Mechanisms have evolved to regulate inflammation, including modulation by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Previously we have shown that taste buds express various molecules involved in innate immune responses, including the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here, using a reporter mouse strain, we show that taste cells also express the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Remarkably, IL-10 is produced by only a specific subset of taste cells, which are different from the TNF-producing cells in mouse circumvallate and foliate taste buds: IL-10 expression was found exclusively in the G-protein gustducin-expressing bitter receptor cells, while TNF was found in sweet and umami receptor cells as reported previously. In contrast, IL-10R1, the ligand-binding subunit of the IL-10 receptor, is predominantly expressed by TNF-producing cells, suggesting a novel cellular hierarchy for regulating TNF production and effects in taste buds. In response to inflammatory challenges, taste cells can increase IL-10 expression both in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest that taste buds use separate populations of taste receptor cells that coincide with sweet/umami and bitter taste reception to modulate local inflammatory responses, a phenomenon that has not been previously reported. Furthermore, IL-10 deficiency in mice leads to significant reductions in the number and size of taste buds, as well as in the number of taste receptor cells per taste bud, suggesting that IL-10 plays critical roles in maintaining structural integrity of the peripheral gustatory system.

  1. Taste disorders: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For maintenance of the health of an individual, taste sensation is very important. It is an important sensation that serves to assess the nutritious content of food, support oral intake, and prevent ingestion of potentially toxic substances. Disturbances in the perception of taste can lead to loss of appetite, causing malnutrition and thus distressing both the physical and psychological well-being of the patient. Oral physicians are often the first clinicians who hear complaints about alteration in taste from the patients. In spite of the effect of taste changes on health, literature on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and precise treatment of taste disorders are less. Taste changes may lead patients to seek inappropriate dental treatments. Proper diagnosis of the etiology is the foremost step in the treatment of taste disorders. Thus, it is important that dental clinicians to be familiar with the various causes and proper management of taste changes. In this article, we have reviewed related articles focusing on taste disorders and their management, to provide a quick sketch for the clinicians. A detailed search was performed to identify the systematic reviews and research articles on taste disorders, using PUBMED and Cochrane. All the authors independently extracted data for analysis and review. Ultimately, 26 articles underwent a full text review. In conclusion, the research to date certainly offers us valid management strategies for taste disorders. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success are needed for further intervention.

  2. Discriminating the stimulus elements during human odor-taste learning: a successful analytic stance does not eliminate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J; Mahmut, Mehmet K

    2011-10-01

    Odor "sweetness" may arise from experiencing odors and tastes together, resulting in a flavor memory that is later reaccessed by the odor. Forming a flavor memory may be impaired if the taste and odor elements are apparent during exposure, suggesting that configural processing may underpin learning. Using a new procedure, participants made actual flavor discriminations for one odor-taste pair (e.g., Taste A vs. Odor X-Taste A) and mock discriminations for another (e.g., Odor Y-Taste B vs. Odor Y-Taste B). Participants, who were successful at detecting the actual flavor discriminations, demonstrated equal amounts of learning for both odor-taste pairings. These results suggest that although a capacity to discriminate flavor into its elements may be necessary to support learning, whether participants experience a configural or elemental flavor representation may not.

  3. Taste sensing FET (TSFET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K.; Yasuda, R.; Ezaki, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujiyoshi, T. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-20

    Taste can be quantified using a multichannel taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes. Its sensitivity and stability are superior to those of humans. A present study is concerned with the first step of miniaturization and integration of the taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes using FET. As a result, it was found that gate-source voltage of the taste sensing FET showed the same behaviors as the conventional taste sensor utilizing the membrane-potential change due to five kinds of taste substances. Discrimination of foodstuffs was very easy. A thin lipid membrane formed using LB technique was also tried. These results will open doors to fabrication of a miniaturized, integrated taste sensing system. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  4. How Does Food Taste in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa? A Protocol for a Quasi-Experimental, Cross-Sectional Design to Investigate Taste Aversion or Increased Hedonic Valence of Food in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garcia-Burgos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite on-going efforts to better understand dysregulated eating, the olfactory-gustatory deficits and food preferences in eating disorders (ED, and the mechanisms underlying the perception of and responses to food properties in anorexia nervosa (AN and bulimia nervosa (BN remain largely unknown; both during the course of the illness and compared to healthy populations. It is, therefore, necessary to systematically investigate the gustatory perception and hedonics of taste in patients with AN and BN. To this end, we will examine whether aversions to the taste of high-calorie food is related to the suppression of energy intake in restricting-type AN, and whether an increased hedonic valence of sweet, caloric-dense foods may be part of the mechanisms triggering binge-eating episodes in BN. In addition, the role of cognitions influencing these mechanisms will be examined.Method: In study 1, four mixtures of sweet-fat stimuli will be presented in a sensory two-alternative forced-choice test involving signal detection analysis. In study 2, a full-scale taste reactivity test will be carried out, including psychophysiological and behavioral measures to assess subtle and covert hedonic changes. We will compare the responses of currently-ill AN and BN patients to those who have recovered from AN and BN, and also to those of healthy normal-weight and underweight individuals without any eating disorder pathology.Discussion: If taste response profiles are differentially linked to ED types, then future studies should investigate whether taste responsiveness represents a useful diagnostic measure in the prevention, assessment and treatment of EDs. The expected results on cognitive mechanisms in the top-down processes of food hedonics will complement current models and contribute to the refinement of interventions to change cognitive aspects of taste aversions, to establish functional food preferences and to better manage food cravings associated

  5. How Does Food Taste in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa? A Protocol for a Quasi-Experimental, Cross-Sectional Design to Investigate Taste Aversion or Increased Hedonic Valence of Food in Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Burgos, David; Maglieri, Sabine; Vögele, Claus; Munsch, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite on-going efforts to better understand dysregulated eating, the olfactory-gustatory deficits and food preferences in eating disorders (ED), and the mechanisms underlying the perception of and responses to food properties in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) remain largely unknown; both during the course of the illness and compared to healthy populations. It is, therefore, necessary to systematically investigate the gustatory perception and hedonics of taste in patients with AN and BN. To this end, we will examine whether aversions to the taste of high-calorie food is related to the suppression of energy intake in restricting-type AN, and whether an increased hedonic valence of sweet, caloric-dense foods may be part of the mechanisms triggering binge-eating episodes in BN. In addition, the role of cognitions influencing these mechanisms will be examined. Method: In study 1, four mixtures of sweet-fat stimuli will be presented in a sensory two-alternative forced-choice test involving signal detection analysis. In study 2, a full-scale taste reactivity test will be carried out, including psychophysiological and behavioral measures to assess subtle and covert hedonic changes. We will compare the responses of currently-ill AN and BN patients to those who have recovered from AN and BN, and also to those of healthy normal-weight and underweight individuals without any eating disorder pathology. Discussion: If taste response profiles are differentially linked to ED types, then future studies should investigate whether taste responsiveness represents a useful diagnostic measure in the prevention, assessment and treatment of EDs. The expected results on cognitive mechanisms in the top-down processes of food hedonics will complement current models and contribute to the refinement of interventions to change cognitive aspects of taste aversions, to establish functional food preferences and to better manage food cravings associated with binge

  6. How Does Food Taste in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa? A Protocol for a Quasi-Experimental, Cross-Sectional Design to Investigate Taste Aversion or Increased Hedonic Valence of Food in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Burgos, David; Maglieri, Sabine; Vögele, Claus; Munsch, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite on-going efforts to better understand dysregulated eating, the olfactory-gustatory deficits and food preferences in eating disorders (ED), and the mechanisms underlying the perception of and responses to food properties in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) remain largely unknown; both during the course of the illness and compared to healthy populations. It is, therefore, necessary to systematically investigate the gustatory perception and hedonics of taste in patients with AN and BN. To this end, we will examine whether aversions to the taste of high-calorie food is related to the suppression of energy intake in restricting-type AN, and whether an increased hedonic valence of sweet, caloric-dense foods may be part of the mechanisms triggering binge-eating episodes in BN. In addition, the role of cognitions influencing these mechanisms will be examined. Method: In study 1, four mixtures of sweet-fat stimuli will be presented in a sensory two-alternative forced-choice test involving signal detection analysis. In study 2, a full-scale taste reactivity test will be carried out, including psychophysiological and behavioral measures to assess subtle and covert hedonic changes. We will compare the responses of currently-ill AN and BN patients to those who have recovered from AN and BN, and also to those of healthy normal-weight and underweight individuals without any eating disorder pathology. Discussion: If taste response profiles are differentially linked to ED types, then future studies should investigate whether taste responsiveness represents a useful diagnostic measure in the prevention, assessment and treatment of EDs. The expected results on cognitive mechanisms in the top-down processes of food hedonics will complement current models and contribute to the refinement of interventions to change cognitive aspects of taste aversions, to establish functional food preferences and to better manage food cravings associated with binge

  7. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltsum, U., E-mail: um-mik@yahoo.co.id [Physics Education Department, IKIP PGRI Semarang (Indonesia); Triyana, K., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id; Siswanta, D., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  8. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.

    2014-01-01

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  9. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.

    2014-09-01

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Results Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-α and IFN-γ immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds

  11. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Zachary J; Kim, Agnes; Huang, Liquan; Brand, Joseph; Wang, Hong

    2010-06-10

    The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and interleukin (IL)-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds, the niche for taste progenitor

  12. Tasting with Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we eat and drink something, we experience the sense of taste. We attribute the sense of taste to gustation without doubt, but it is not true. The olfaction is the most important component of the flavor. On the other hand, the gustation (basic tastes is affected strongly by the olfaction; when participants tasted solutions containing odors without any tastants, they reported there were some tastes. Odors of the foods and beverages show interaction with (potentiate and/or inhibit basic tastes, and determined the flavor of them. Here, some experiments exploring about the role of the vision in the sense of taste are shown: The color of sushi distorted (enhanced or eliminated the perception of fishy, the color of the packages of chocolate distorted the perception of taste, the color of syrup determined the participants' ability of identification of the flavor, and so on. These results show the vision is an important component of the sense of taste. These visual effects on taste are supposed to be mediated by the olfaction. It is because there are many studies showing the vision affects the olfaction, but studies showing the vision affects gustation are very little and inconsistent with each other.

  13. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. A crossmodal role for audition in taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kimberly S; Dando, Robin

    2015-06-01

    Our sense of taste can be influenced by our other senses, with several groups having explored the effects of olfactory, visual, or tactile stimulation on what we perceive as taste. Research into multisensory, or crossmodal perception has rarely linked our sense of taste with that of audition. In our study, 48 participants in a crossover experiment sampled multiple concentrations of solutions of 5 prototypic tastants, during conditions with or without broad spectrum auditory stimulation, simulating that of airline cabin noise. Airline cabins are an unusual environment, in which food is consumed routinely under extreme noise conditions, often over 85 dB, and in which the perceived quality of food is often criticized. Participants rated the intensity of solutions representing varying concentrations of the 5 basic tastes on the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. No difference in intensity ratings was evident between the control and sound condition for salty, sour, or bitter tastes. Likewise, panelists did not perform differently during sound conditions when rating tactile, visual, or auditory stimulation, or in reaction time tests. Interestingly, sweet taste intensity was rated progressively lower, whereas the perception of umami taste was augmented during the experimental sound condition, to a progressively greater degree with increasing concentration. We postulate that this effect arises from mechanostimulation of the chorda tympani nerve, which transits directly across the tympanic membrane of the middle ear. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. CD36- and GPR120-mediated Ca²⁺ signaling in human taste bud cells mediates differential responses to fatty acids and is altered in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Sundaresan, Sinju; Sery, Omar; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Besnard, Philippe; Abumrad, Nada A; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2014-04-01

    It is important to increase our understanding of gustatory detection of dietary fat and its contribution to fat preference. We studied the roles of the fat taste receptors CD36 and GPR120 and their interactions via Ca(2+) signaling in fungiform taste bud cells (TBC). We measured Ca(2+) signaling in human TBC, transfected with small interfering RNAs against messenger RNAs encoding CD36 and GPR120 (or control small interfering RNAs). We also studied Ca(2+) signaling in TBC from CD36(-/-) mice and from wild-type lean and obese mice. Additional studies were conducted with mouse enteroendocrine cell line STC-1 that express GPR120 and stably transfected with human CD36. We measured release of serotonin and glucagon-like peptide-1 from human and mice TBC in response to CD36 and GPR120 activation. High concentrations of linoleic acid induced Ca(2+) signaling via CD36 and GPR120 in human and mice TBC, as well as in STC-1 cells, and low concentrations induced Ca(2+) signaling via only CD36. Incubation of human and mice fungiform TBC with lineoleic acid down-regulated CD36 and up-regulated GPR120 in membrane lipid rafts. Obese mice had decreased spontaneous preference for fat. Fungiform TBC from obese mice had reduced Ca(2+) and serotonin responses, but increased release of glucagon-like peptide-1, along with reduced levels of CD36 and increased levels of GPR120 in lipid rafts. CD36 and GPR120 have nonoverlapping roles in TBC signaling during orogustatory perception of dietary lipids; these are differentially regulated by obesity. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. When music is salty: The crossmodal associations between sound and taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetta, Rachel; Loui, Psyche

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate associations between complex auditory and complex taste stimuli. A novel piece of music was composed and recorded in four different styles of musical articulation to reflect the four basic tastes groups (sweet, sour, salty, bitter). In Experiment 1, participants performed above chance at pairing the music clips with corresponding taste words. Experiment 2 uses multidimensional scaling to interpret how participants categorize these musical stimuli, and to show that auditory categories can be organized in a similar manner as taste categories. Experiment 3 introduces four different flavors of custom-made chocolate ganache and shows that participants can match music clips with the corresponding taste stimuli with above-chance accuracy. Experiment 4 demonstrates the partial role of pleasantness in crossmodal mappings between sound and taste. The present findings confirm that individuals are able to make crossmodal associations between complex auditory and gustatory stimuli, and that valence may mediate multisensory integration in the general population.

  17. Molecular and cellular organization of taste neurons in adult Drosophila pharynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chieh (David); Dahanukar, Anupama

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The Drosophila pharyngeal taste organs are poorly characterized despite their location at important sites for monitoring food quality. Functional analysis of pharyngeal neurons has been hindered by the paucity of molecular tools to manipulate them, as well as their relative inaccessibility for neurophysiological investigations. Here, we generate receptor-to-neuron maps of all three pharyngeal taste organs by performing a comprehensive chemoreceptor-GAL4/LexA expression analysis. The organization of pharyngeal neurons reveals similarities and distinctions in receptor repertoires and neuronal groupings compared to external taste neurons. We validate the mapping results by pinpointing a single pharyngeal neuron required for feeding avoidance of L-canavanine. Inducible activation of pharyngeal taste neurons reveals functional differences between external and internal taste neurons and functional subdivision within pharyngeal sweet neurons. Our results provide road maps of pharyngeal taste organs in an insect model system for probing the role of these understudied neurons in controlling feeding behaviors. PMID:29212040

  18. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hernandulcin: an intensely sweet compound discovered by review of ancient literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compadre, C M; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D; Kamath, S K

    1985-01-25

    Ancient Mexican botanical literature was systematically searched for new plant sources of intensely sweet substances. Lippia dulcis Trev., a sweet plant, emerged as a candidate for fractionation studies, and hernandulcin, a sesquiterpene, was isolated and judged by a human taste panel as more than 1000 times sweeter than sucrose. The structure of the sesquiterpene was determined spectroscopically and confirmed by chemical synthesis. Hernandulcin was nontoxic when administered orally to mice, and it did not induce bacterial mutation.

  20. Pseudogenization of a sweet-receptor gene accounts for cats' indifference toward sugar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transduction of sweet perception might account for the indifference to sweet-tasting foods by cats. We characterized the sweet-receptor genes of domestic cats as well as those of other members of the Felidae family of obligate carnivores, tiger and cheetah. Because the mammalian sweet-taste receptor is formed by the dimerization of two proteins (T1R2 and T1R3; gene symbols Tas1r2 and Tas1r3, we identified and sequenced both genes in the cat by screening a feline genomic BAC library and by performing PCR with degenerate primers on cat genomic DNA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR of taste tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The cat Tas1r3 gene shows high sequence similarity with functional Tas1r3 genes of other species. Message from Tas1r3 was detected by RT-PCR of taste tissue. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that Tas1r3 is expressed, as expected, in taste buds. However, the cat Tas1r2 gene shows a 247-base pair microdeletion in exon 3 and stop codons in exons 4 and 6. There was no evidence of detectable mRNA from cat Tas1r2 by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, and no evidence of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Tas1r2 in tiger and cheetah and in six healthy adult domestic cats all show the similar deletion and stop codons. We conclude that cat Tas1r3 is an apparently functional and expressed receptor but that cat Tas1r2 is an unexpressed pseudogene. A functional sweet-taste receptor heteromer

  1. Pseudogenization of a Sweet-Receptor Gene Accounts for Cats' Indifference toward Sugar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transduction of sweet perception might account for the indifference to sweet-tasting foods by cats. We characterized the sweet-receptor genes of domestic cats as well as those of other members of the Felidae family of obligate carnivores, tiger and cheetah. Because the mammalian sweet-taste receptor is formed by the dimerization of two proteins (T1R2 and T1R3; gene symbols Tas1r2 and Tas1r3, we identified and sequenced both genes in the cat by screening a feline genomic BAC library and by performing PCR with degenerate primers on cat genomic DNA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR of taste tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The cat Tas1r3 gene shows high sequence similarity with functional Tas1r3 genes of other species. Message from Tas1r3 was detected by RT-PCR of taste tissue. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that Tas1r3 is expressed, as expected, in taste buds. However, the cat Tas1r2 gene shows a 247-base pair microdeletion in exon 3 and stop codons in exons 4 and 6. There was no evidence of detectable mRNA from cat Tas1r2 by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, and no evidence of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Tas1r2 in tiger and cheetah and in six healthy adult domestic cats all show the similar deletion and stop codons. We conclude that cat Tas1r3 is an apparently functional and expressed receptor but that cat Tas1r2 is an unexpressed pseudogene. A functional sweet-taste receptor heteromer

  2. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-07-01

    Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word 'melon' and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe.

  3. Taste in holon paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available in this research the authors tried to investigate and generalize theoretic and applied studies of aesthetic taste, as well as, opportunities of its productivity distribution in terms of socio-cultural, person-professional and psychological levels. The article deals with traditional outlooks upon the origin of taste and its relationship with art and its current situation of taste functioning in terms of increasing globalization, virtualization and informatization of modern society.

  4. Glutamate: Tastant and Neuromodulator in Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2016-07-01

    In taste buds, glutamate plays a double role as a gustatory stimulus and neuromodulator. The detection of glutamate as a tastant involves several G protein-coupled receptors, including the heterodimer taste receptor type 1, member 1 and 3 as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Both receptor types participate in the detection of glutamate as shown with knockout animals and selective antagonists. At the basal part of taste buds, ionotropic glutamate receptors [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA] are expressed and participate in the modulation of the taste signal before its transmission to the brain. Evidence suggests that glutamate has an efferent function on taste cells and modulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and ATP. This short article reviews the recent developments in the field with regard to glutamate receptors involved in both functions as well as the influence of glutamate on the taste signal. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Video: Taste - no waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Anette; Mortensen, Birthe Kofoed; Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total......, approximately 120 children aged 10-12 years participated. In one workshop, children experimented with making juice to explore the basic tastes and worked with the pulp as an example of how to reduce food waste. In another workshop, the children prepared and tasted roasted insects as an example of a future novel...

  6. Abstract: Taste - no waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth; Kamuk, Anette; Hoffmeyer, Agnete

    of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total......, approximately 120 children aged 10-12 years participated. In one workshop, children experimented with making juice to explore the basic tastes and worked with the pulp as an example of how to reduce food waste. In another workshop, the children prepared and tasted roasted insects as an example of a future novel...

  7. T1r3 taste receptor involvement in gustatory neural responses to ethanol and oral ethanol preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Susan M; Norman, Meghan B; Lemon, Christian H

    2010-05-01

    Elevated alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced preference for sweet substances across species and may be mediated by oral alcohol-induced activation of neurobiological substrates for sweet taste. Here, we directly examined the contribution of the T1r3 receptor protein, important for sweet taste detection in mammals, to ethanol intake and preference and the neural processing of ethanol taste by measuring behavioral and central neurophysiological responses to oral alcohol in T1r3 receptor-deficient mice and their C57BL/6J background strain. T1r3 knockout and wild-type mice were tested in behavioral preference assays for long-term voluntary intake of a broad concentration range of ethanol, sucrose, and quinine. For neurophysiological experiments, separate groups of mice of each genotype were anesthetized, and taste responses to ethanol and stimuli of different taste qualities were electrophysiologically recorded from gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Mice lacking the T1r3 receptor were behaviorally indifferent to alcohol (i.e., ∼50% preference values) at concentrations typically preferred by wild-type mice (5-15%). Central neural taste responses to ethanol in T1r3-deficient mice were significantly lower compared with C57BL/6J controls, a strain for which oral ethanol stimulation produced a concentration-dependent activation of sweet-responsive NTS gustatory neurons. An attenuated difference in ethanol preference between knockouts and controls at concentrations >15% indicated that other sensory and/or postingestive effects of ethanol compete with sweet taste input at high concentrations. As expected, T1r3 knockouts exhibited strongly suppressed behavioral and neural taste responses to sweeteners but did not differ from wild-type mice in responses to prototypic salt, acid, or bitter stimuli. These data implicate the T1r3 receptor in the sensory detection and transduction of ethanol taste.

  8. Taste intensities of ten vegetables commonly consumed in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stokkom, V L; Teo, P S; Mars, M; de Graaf, C; van Kooten, O; Stieger, M

    2016-09-01

    Bitterness has been suggested to be the main reason for the limited palatability of several vegetables. Vegetable acceptance has been associated with preparation method. However, the taste intensity of a variety of vegetables prepared by different methods has not been studied yet. The objective of this study is to assess the intensity of the five basic tastes and fattiness of ten vegetables commonly consumed in the Netherlands prepared by different methods using the modified Spectrum method. Intensities of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fattiness were assessed for ten vegetables (cauliflower, broccoli, leek, carrot, onion, red bell pepper, French beans, tomato, cucumber and iceberg lettuce) by a panel (n=9) trained in a modified Spectrum method. Each vegetable was assessed prepared by different methods (raw, cooked, mashed and as a cold pressed juice). Spectrum based reference solutions were available with fixed reference points at 13.3mm (R1), 33.3mm (R2) and 66.7mm (R3) for each taste modality on a 100mm line scale. For saltiness, R1 and R3 differed (16.7mm and 56.7mm). Mean intensities of all taste modalities and fattiness for all vegetables were mostly below R1 (13.3mm). Significant differences (p<0.05) within vegetables between preparation methods were found. Sweetness was the most intensive taste, followed by sourness, bitterness, fattiness, umami and saltiness. In conclusion, all ten vegetables prepared by different methods showed low mean intensities of all taste modalities and fattiness. Preparation method affected taste and fattiness intensity and the effect differed by vegetable type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of dopamine D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens during taste-aversive learning and memory extinction after long-term sugar consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, María Isabel; Rangel-Hernández, José Alejandro; Vera-Rivera, Gabriela; García-Medina, Nadia Edith; Soto-Alonso, Gerardo; Rodríguez-García, Gabriela; Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis

    2017-09-17

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is a forebrain region that may significantly contribute to the integration of taste and visceral signals during food consumption. Changes in dopamine release in the NAcc have been observed during consumption of a sweet taste and during compulsive consumption of dietary sugars, suggesting that NAcc dopaminergic transmission is strongly correlated with taste familiarity and the hedonic value content. NAcc core and shell nuclei are differentially involved during and after sugar exposure and, particularly, previous evidence suggests that dopamine D2 receptors could be related with the strength of the latent inhibition (LI) of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which depends on the length of the taste stimulus pre-exposure. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate, after long-term exposure to sugar, the function of dopaminergic D2 receptors in the NAcc core during taste memory retrieval preference test, and during CTA. Adult rats were exposed during 14days to 10% sugar solution as a single liquid ad libitum. NAcc core bilateral injections of D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol (1μg/μL), were made before third preference test and CTA acquisition. We found that sugar was similarly preferred after 3 acute presentations or 14days of continued sugar consumption and that haloperidol did not disrupt this appetitive memory retrieval. Nevertheless, D2 receptors antagonism differentially affects aversive memory formation after acute or long-term sugar consumption. These results demonstrate that NAcc dopamine D2 receptors have a differential function during CTA depending on the degree of sugar familiarity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Molecular logic of alcohol and taste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko; Arai, Soichi

    2006-10-01

    Ethanol, a main constituent of every alcohol beverage, has long been calling our attention to its gustatory effect. Recent molecular dynamics studies have suggested that ethanol as well as other tastants in foods, when taken in the oral cavity, gives rise to a taste signal which is expressed via reception at taste cells in the taste bud, intracellular signal transduction in collaboration with G proteins and effecters, and signal transmission to synapsed taste neurons, and/or simultaneous reception at and signal transduction in somatosensory neurons. The taste of ethanol and its acceptability are then recognized and judged at the higher center, with generation of various physiological phenomena in the body. We have tried to make an all-inclusive DNA microarray analysis, demonstrating that when a rat tongue is stimulated with a drop of aqueous ethanol in vivo, several particular genes are specifically up- or down-regulated in trigeminal ganglions. These initial gene expression changes at peripheral neurocytes might in whole or in part trigger some of the ethanol-associated gustatory and bodily response. The importance of defining a related molecular logic is emphasized to understand academic and industrial significances of this unique food constituent, ethanol.

  11. Appetitive and consummatory ingestive behavior : Role of taste, dopamine and NPY

    OpenAIRE

    Sederholm, Fredrik

    2001-01-01

    The present thesis has examined the role of taste, dopamine and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the regulation of the two phases of ingestive behavior: appetitive (approaching and handling of food) and consummatory ingestive behavior (chewing and swallowing). Behavioral studies were performed in male and female rats. THE ROLE OF TASTE: Background. A sweet stimulus loses its pleasantness to humans preloaded with glucose, but not if the subjects are food deprived. Thus, physiologi...

  12. The Role of Taste in Cephalic Phase of Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dušková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a short gustatory signal of a sweet solution was tested on 15 young male volunteers. The experiment consisted of mouth rinsing with either a sucrose or aspartate solution or pure water as a placebo. Blood was then taken in short intervals of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. Blood glucose, C-peptide, insulin and cortisol were determined. While C-peptide and glucose were unaffected, a short-term increase in insulin was observed after the sucrose, but not after the aspartate or placebo. The increase in insulin was significant, though it amounted to only 0.5 mIU/l and lasted approx. 15 min reaching then the starting value. The decline of cortisol level within 20 min of the experiment was approx. 40 nmol/l, although it was also observed after aspartate or placebo mouth rinsing and was probably caused by stress factors or anticipation. In conclusion, the contribution of taste to the cephalic phase of insulin secretion is small yet significant, and mouth rinsing with 5% sucrose causes an insulin increase of just under 1 IU/l, which returns to starting level within 15 min.

  13. Modulation of taste responsiveness by the satiation hormone peptide YY

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sala, Michael S.; Hurtado, Maria D.; Brown, Alicia R.; Bohórquez, Diego V.; Liddle, Rodger A.; Herzog, Herbert; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Dotson, Cedrick D.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the peripheral taste system may be modulated in the context of an animal's metabolic state. One purported mechanism for this phenomenon is that circulating gastrointestinal peptides modulate the functioning of the peripheral gustatory system. Recent evidence suggests endocrine signaling in the oral cavity can influence food intake (FI) and satiety. We hypothesized that these hormones may be affecting FI by influencing taste perception. We used immunohistochemistry along with genetic knockout models and the specific reconstitution of peptide YY (PYY) in saliva using gene therapy protocols to identify a role for PYY signaling in taste. We show that PYY is expressed in subsets of taste cells in murine taste buds. We also show, using brief-access testing with PYY knockouts, that PYY signaling modulates responsiveness to bitter-tasting stimuli, as well as to lipid emulsions. We show that salivary PYY augmentation, via viral vector therapy, rescues behavioral responsiveness to a lipid emulsion but not to bitter stimuli and that this response is likely mediated via activation of Y2 receptors localized apically in taste cells. Our findings suggest distinct functions for PYY produced locally in taste cells vs. that circulating systemically.—La Sala, M. S., Hurtado, M. D., Brown, A. R., Bohórquez, D. V., Liddle, R. A., Herzog, H., Zolotukhin, S., Dotson, C. D. Modulation of taste responsiveness by the satiation hormone peptide YY. PMID:24043261

  14. Norepinephrine is coreleased with serotonin in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-12-03

    ATP and serotonin (5-HT) are neurotransmitters secreted from taste bud receptor (type II) and presynaptic (type III) cells, respectively. Norepinephrine (NE) has also been proposed to be a neurotransmitter or paracrine hormone in taste buds. Yet, to date, the specific stimulus for NE release in taste buds is not well understood, and the identity of the taste cells that secrete NE is not known. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with alpha(1A) adrenoceptors and loaded with fura-2 ("biosensors") to detect NE secreted from isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells. Biosensors responded to low concentrations of NE (>or=10 nm) with a reliable fura-2 signal. NE biosensors did not respond to stimulation with KCl or taste compounds. However, we recorded robust responses from NE biosensors when they were positioned against mouse circumvallate taste buds and the taste buds were stimulated with KCl (50 mm) or a mixture of taste compounds (cycloheximide, 10 microm; saccharin, 2 mm; denatonium, 1 mm; SC45647, 100 microm). NE biosensor responses evoked by stimulating taste buds were reversibly blocked by prazosin, an alpha(1A) receptor antagonist. Together, these findings indicate that taste bud cells secrete NE when they are stimulated. We isolated individual taste bud cells to identify the origin of NE release. NE was secreted only from presynaptic (type III) taste cells and not receptor (type II) cells. Stimulus-evoked NE release depended on Ca(2+) in the bathing medium. Using dual biosensors (sensitive to 5-HT and NE), we found all presynaptic cells secrete 5-HT and 33% corelease NE with 5-HT.

  15. Diabetes and dementia; the bitter taste of a sweet disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exalto, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with an roughly doubled risk of dementia. Although this association is well established, it is less clear which factors account for this increased risk. Moreover, it is unknown which individuals are at increased risk, what are vulnerable periods in life, and what

  16. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJpma, I; Renken, R J; Ter Horst, G J; Reyners, A K L

    2015-02-01

    Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic taste in chemotherapy treated cancer patients. Literature search for metallic taste and chemotherapy was performed in PubMed up to September 2014, resulting in 184 articles of which 13 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria: English publications addressing metallic taste in cancer patients treated with FDA-approved chemotherapy. An additional search in Google Scholar, in related articles of both search engines, and subsequent in the reference lists, resulted in 13 additional articles included in this review. Cancer patient forums were visited to explore management strategies. Prevalence of metallic taste ranged from 9.7% to 78% among patients with various cancers, chemotherapy treatments, and treatment phases. No studies have been performed to investigate the influence of metallic taste on dietary intake, body weight, and quality of life. Several management strategies can be recommended for cancer patients: using plastic utensils, eating cold or frozen foods, adding strong herbs, spices, sweetener or acid to foods, eating sweet and sour foods, using 'miracle fruit' supplements, and rinsing with chelating agents. Although metallic taste is a frequent side effect of chemotherapy and a much discussed topic on cancer patient forums, literature regarding metallic taste among chemotherapy treated cancer patients is scarce. More awareness for this side effect can improve the support for these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Olfaction, taste, and cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rouby, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    .... The book is conveniently divided into sections, including linguistic representations, emotion, memory, neural bases, and individual variation. Leading experts have written chapters on many facets of taste and smell, including odor memory, cortical representations, psychophysics and functional imaging studies, genetic variation in taste, and ...

  18. What Are Taste Buds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español What Are Taste Buds? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Are Taste Buds? ...

  19. Central mechanisms of taste: Cognition, emotion and taste-elicited behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamamoto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Taste is unique among sensory systems in its innate association with mechanisms of reward and aversion in addition to its recognition of quality, e.g., sucrose is sweet and preferable, and quinine is bitter and aversive. Taste information is sent to the reward system and feeding center via the prefrontal cortices such as the mediodorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices in rodents and the orbitofrontal cortex in primates. The amygdala, which receives taste inputs, also influences reward and feeding. In terms of neuroactive substances, palatability is closely related to benzodiazepine derivatives and β-endorphin, both of which facilitate consumption of food and fluid. The reward system contains the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum and finally sends information to the lateral hypothalamic area, the feeding center. The dopaminergic system originating from the ventral tegmental area mediates the motivation to consume palatable food. The actual ingestive behavior is promoted by the orexigenic neuropeptides from the hypothalamus. Even palatable food can become aversive and avoided as a consequence of a postingestional unpleasant experience such as malaise. The neural mechanisms of this conditioned taste aversion will also be elucidated.

  20. Inventory Modelling for a Manufacturer of Sweets : An Evaluation of an Adjusted Compund Renewal Approach for B-Items With A Relative Short Production Lead Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, R.M.J.; Luijten, M.L.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we are especially interested how to optimize the production/inventory control for a manufacturer of sweets, under the following circumstances: short production lead times in combination with an intermittent demand pattern for the so-called B-taste items. As for A-taste items a compound

  1. Alteration in salivary properties and taste perception in OSMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Dyasanoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR, pH and taste perception among oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF and apparently healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects (45 OSMF + 45 controls were enrolled in the study for estimating and analogizing the SFR, pH, and taste perception executing modified Schirmer, pH, and taste strips. The SFR, pH, and taste perception were evaluated and compared between 14 Stage I and 31 Stage II OSMF subjects. The entered data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. Results: A statistically significant decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd min and hypogeusia to salty (62.2%, and dysgeusia to sour taste (40% when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd min was noted. Statistical significance (P < 0.05% inferring hyposalivation in Stage II OSMF (24.1 mm at 3rd min juxtaposing with Stage I OSMF (31.4 mm at 3rd min. Statistically significant hypogeusia to salty (n = 23 and sweet (n = 16 and dysgeusia (n = 14 to sour among Stage II OSMF when differentiated with Stage I OSMF. The mean pH among the OSMF and control groups demonstrated no statistical significance. Conclusion: The findings from the study demonstrated marked decrease of SFR and taste perception to salty and sour among Stage II OSMF when compared to Stage I OSMF subjects.

  2. A composition algorithm based on crossmodal taste-music correspondences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eMesz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While there is broad consensus about the structural similarities between language and music, comparably less attention has been devoted to semantic correspondences between these two ubiquitous manifestations of human culture. We have investigated the relations between music and a narrow and bounded domain of semantics: the words and concepts referring to taste sensations. In a recent work, we found that taste words were consistently mapped to musical parameters. Bitter is associated with low-pitched and continuous music (legato, salty is characterized by silences between notes (staccato, sour is high pitched, dissonant and fast and sweet is consonant, slow and soft (Mesz2011. Here we extended these ideas, in a synergistic dialog between music and science, investigating whether music can be algorithmically generated from taste-words. We developed and implemented an algorithm that exploits a large corpus of classic and popular songs. New musical pieces were produced by choosing fragments from the corpus and modifying them to minimize their distance to the region in musical space that characterizes each taste. In order to test the capability of the produced music to elicit significant associations with the different tastes, musical pieces were produced and judged by a group of non musicians. Results showed that participants could decode well above chance the taste-word of the composition. We also discuss how our findings can be expressed in a performance bridging music and cognitive science.

  3. Whole transcriptome profiling of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sunil K; Lewandowski, Brian C; Qin, Yumei; Kotha, Ramana; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Margolskee, Robert F

    2017-08-08

    Analysis of single-cell RNA-Seq data can provide insights into the specific functions of individual cell types that compose complex tissues. Here, we examined gene expression in two distinct subpopulations of mouse taste cells: Tas1r3-expressing type II cells and physiologically identified type III cells. Our RNA-Seq libraries met high quality control standards and accurately captured differential expression of marker genes for type II (e.g. the Tas1r genes, Plcb2, Trpm5) and type III (e.g. Pkd2l1, Ncam, Snap25) taste cells. Bioinformatics analysis showed that genes regulating responses to stimuli were up-regulated in type II cells, while pathways related to neuronal function were up-regulated in type III cells. We also identified highly expressed genes and pathways associated with chemotaxis and axon guidance, providing new insights into the mechanisms underlying integration of new taste cells into the taste bud. We validated our results by immunohistochemically confirming expression of selected genes encoding synaptic (Cplx2 and Pclo) and semaphorin signalling pathway (Crmp2, PlexinB1, Fes and Sema4a) components. The approach described here could provide a comprehensive map of gene expression for all taste cell subpopulations and will be particularly relevant for cell types in taste buds and other tissues that can be identified only by physiological methods.

  4. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-07-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p sweet lupin bulgurs were found as 18.8% and 21.3%, respectively. Generally sweet lupin seeds/bulgurs showed rich essential amino acids composition than that of bitter seeds/bulgurs. Linoleic and linolenic acid content of the lupin was negatively affected by bulgur process. Bitter lupin bulgur received lower scores in terms of taste, odor and overall acceptability than sweet lupin bulgur in sensory evaluation. Sweet lupin bulgur can be used as new legume-based product with high nutritional and sensorial properties.

  5. Spectroscopic and E-tongue evaluation of medicinal plants: A taste of how rasa can be studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundar, Rama; Ghatak, Somenath

    The use of medicinal plants in Ayurveda is based on rasa, generally taken to represent taste as a sensory perception. This chemosensory parameter plays an important role in Ayurvedic pharmacology. The aim is to explore the use of structuro-functional information deduced from analytical techniques for the rasa-based classification of medicinal plants in Ayurveda. Methods of differential sensing and spectroscopic metabolomics have been used in select medicinal plants from three different taste categories (sweet, pungent and multiple taste): Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera and Glycyrrhiza glabra from sweet category; Piper longum, Cuminum cyminum and Capsicum annum from pungent group; Emblica officinalis with five tastes. While Electronic tongue was used for evaluation of the sensorial property of taste, the chemical properties were studied with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). In terms of taste and phytochemical profiles, all samples were unique but with similarities within each group. While the sensor response in E-tongue showed similarities within the sweet and pungent categories, NMR spectra in the aromatic region showed close similarities between the plants in the sweet category. The sensory, phytochemical and phytoelemental profiles of E. officinalis (with five rasa) in particular, were unique. A combination of sensorial and chemical descriptors is a promising approach for a comprehensive evaluation and fingerprinting of the Ayurvedic pharmacological parameter rasa. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of different sweet preloads on incretin hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongzhi; Zhao, Beiyi R; Bound, Michelle J; Checklin, Helen L; Bellon, Max; Little, Tanya J; Young, Richard L; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2012-01-01

    Macronutrient "preloads" can stimulate glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), slow gastric emptying, and reduce postprandial glycemic excursions. After sweet preloads, these effects may be signaled by sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1), sweet taste receptors, or both. We determined the effects of 4 sweet preloads on GIP and GLP-1 release, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia. Ten healthy subjects were studied on 4 separate occasions each. A preload drink containing 40 g glucose, 40 g tagatose/isomalt mixture (TIM), 40 g 3-O-methylglucose (3OMG; a nonmetabolized substrate of SGLT1), or 60 mg sucralose was consumed 15 min before a (13)C-octanoic acid-labeled mashed potato meal. Blood glucose, plasma total GLP-1 and GIP, serum insulin, and gastric emptying were determined. Both glucose and 3OMG stimulated GLP-1 and GIP release in advance of the meal (each P < 0.05), whereas TIM and sucralose did not. The overall postprandial GLP-1 response was greater after glucose, 3OMG, and TIM than after sucralose (P < 0.05), albeit later after TIM than the other preloads. The blood glucose and insulin responses in the first 30 min after the meal were greatest after glucose (each P < 0.05). Gastric emptying was slower after both 3OMG and TIM than after sucralose (each P < 0.05). In healthy humans, SGLT1 substrates stimulate GLP-1 and GIP and slow gastric emptying, regardless of whether they are metabolized, whereas the artificial sweetener sucralose does not. Poorly absorbed sweet tastants (TIM), which probably expose a greater length of gut to nutrients, result in delayed GLP-1 secretion but not in delayed GIP release. These observations have the potential to optimize the use of preloads for glycemic control. This trial was registered at www.actr.org.au as ACTRN12611000775910.

  7. Drugs and taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondeau, D.B.; Jolicoeur, F.B.; Merkel, A.D.; Wayner, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The literature on the effects of drugs on the acquisition and the magnitude of taste aversion is reviewed and discussed. Then, the results of a series of experiments on the effects of phenobarbital and related drugs on taste aversion are reported. A standard taste aversion model was used in all experiments; test drugs were injected prior to drinking in a one bottle situation on the first test day following the taste aversion treatment. Phenobarbital in doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/kg significantly attenuated taste aversion induced by lithium chloride (LiCl) and x-radiation, the maximal effect occurred with the 60 mg/kg dose. The attenuating effect was found to be dependent upon the magnitude of the aversion to the sapid solution. Phenobarbital completely abolished aversion produced by 0.375 mEq LiCl while the attenuation effect decreased linearly with higher doses of LiCl. Results also indicate that phenobarbital's attenuating effect cannot be solely attributed to its dipsogenic characteristic or to its state dependent learning effect. Attenuation of LiCl aversion to a saccharin solution was also observed following single doses of amobarbital, 30 mg/kg, pentobarbital, 15 mg/kg, and chloropromazine, 0.75 mg/kg. Taste aversion was not affected by other doses of those drugs or by hexobarbital, barbital, and chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital's attenuating effect on taste aversion is discussed in relation to other known behavioral and neurophysiological effects of the drug

  8. What is taste and how do we teach taste?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    students to learn about taste. This section presents a systematic division of taste into its four main dimensions: The dimension of good taste, the dimension of healthy taste, the dimension of perceived taste, and the dimension of moral taste. The second section comprises taste as an instrument of teaching....... Here, the intention is to use ‘taste’ as a means to teach home economics and food education. This section answers the question of how to teach in a way that enables the students to develop knowledge and skills in relation to the four dimensions of taste. In this section four knowledge types...... and argument forms are presented, each related to one of the four taste dimensions, because they provide a basis for structuring an appropriate curriculum of taste. The final aim is to enable students to make well-reasoned food decisions with ‘taste’ as the compass of judgment....

  9. Substance P as a putative efferent transmitter mediates GABAergic inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony Y; Wu, Sandy Y

    2018-04-01

    Capsaicin-mediated modulation of taste nerve responses is thought to be produced indirectly by the actions of neuropeptides, for example, CGRP and substance P (SP), on taste cells implying they play a role in taste sensitivity. During the processing of gustatory information in taste buds, CGRP shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signalling. The underlying assumption has been that SP exerts its effects on taste transmitter secretion in taste buds of mice. To test this assumption, we investigated the net effect of SP on taste-evoked ATP secretion from mouse taste buds, using functional calcium imaging with CHO cells expressing high-affinity transmitter receptors as cellular biosensors. Our results showed that SP elicited PLC activation-dependent intracellular Ca 2+ transients in taste cells via neurokinin 1 receptors, most likely on glutamate-aspartate transporter-expressing Type I cells. Furthermore, SP caused Type I cells to secrete GABA. Combined with the recent findings that GABA depresses taste-evoked ATP secretion, the current results indicate that SP elicited secretion of GABA, which provided negative feedback onto Type II (receptor) cells to reduce taste-evoked ATP secretion. These findings are consistent with a role for SP as an inhibitory transmitter that shapes the peripheral taste signals, via GABAergic signalling, during the processing of gustatory information in taste buds. Notably, the results suggest that SP is intimately associated with GABA in mammalian taste signal processing and demonstrate an unanticipated route for sensory information flow within the taste bud. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. TGF-beta3 is expressed in taste buds and inhibits proliferation of primary cultured taste epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Kawai, Takayuki; Kamakura, Takashi; Ookura, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas), expressed in various tissues, play important roles in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through their effects on cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell death, and cell motility. However, expression of TGF-beta signaling components and their biological effect on taste epithelia has not been elucidated. We performed expression analysis of TGF-beta signaling components in taste epithelia and found that the TGF-beta3 mRNA was specifically expressed in taste buds. Type II TGF-betas receptor (TbetaR-II) mRNA was specifically expressed in the tongue epithelia including the taste epithelia. To elucidate the biological function of TGF-beta3 in taste epithelia, we performed proliferation assay with primary cultured taste epithelial cells. In the presence of TGF-beta3, percentage of BrdU-labeled cells decreased significantly, suggesting that the TGF-beta3 inhibited the proliferation of cultured taste epithelial cells through inhibiting cell-cycle entry into S phase. By quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, we found that the TGF-beta3 resulted in an increased level of expression of p15Ink4b and p21Cip1, suggesting that the TGF-beta3 inhibited the taste epithelial cell proliferation through inhibiting G1cyclin-Cdk complexes. Taken together, these results suggested that the TGF-beta3 may regulate taste epithelial cell homeostasis through controlling cell proliferation.

  11. Taste, terroir, and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinder RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKWine drinkers have long acknowledged the link between taste and terroir, the often unmistakable connection between the flavor of a wine and the particular patch of ground in which the vines were grown. But the science behind the connection, indeed the whole concept of taste and terroir, has long been disputed. New technological developments in both "neuroenology" – how the brain creates the taste of wine1 – and in wine chemistry2 have offered more insight into the science.

  12. Differences in Taste Perception and Spicy Preference: A Thai-Japanese Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachootham, Dunyaporn; Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Promkam, Chadamas; Chotechuang, Nattida; Sasano, Takashi; Shoji, Noriaki

    2017-12-25

    Taste perception is influenced by several factors. However, the relation between taste perception and food culture is unclear. This study compared taste thresholds between populations with different food culture, i.e. Thai and Japanese. A matched case-control study was conducted in 168 adults (84 for each; aged between 50 and 90 years). The age, sex, systemic disease, medication, smoking, xerostomia, and oral hygiene of both groups were not different. Recognition thresholds (RTs) of sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami were measured using filter paper disc (FPD). Detection taste thresholds were measured using electrogustometry. Spicy preference was measured by calibrated questionnaires. Higher RTs of all tastes and higher detection taste thresholds were found in Thai as compared to those of Japanese (P differences between 2 countries. The average thresholds for sweet, salty, sour, and bitter in Thai and Japanese were 4 and 2, respectively. The average threshold for umami in Thai and Japanese was 5 and 3, respectively. Moreover, Thai population had stronger preference for spicy food (P culture on taste perception. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice characterized by sensory evaluation, chromatography analysis, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Jie; Tian, Huaixiang

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice, four types of bayberry juice sourced from different origins and varieties were analysed using sensory evaluation, chromatography, spectroscopy analysis and an electronic tongue (E-tongue). Nine organic acids and three sugars were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Total polyphenols were measured by spectrophotometry. The overall taste profile was collected using the E-tongue. The four types of bayberry juice differed in the sensory attributes of sour, sweet, bitter, and astringent. The E-tongue responses combined with discriminant analysis were able to characterise the taste profiles of the juices. The relationships between the taste compounds and the sensory panel scores established by partial least squares showed that total polyphenols, quininic acid, maleic acid, fructose, citric acid, lactic acid, succinic acid and sucrose made significant contributions to the taste characteristics of the Chinese bayberry juice.

  14. Expression and secretion of TNF-α in mouse taste buds: a novel function of a specific subset of type II taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Zhao, Hang; Chai, Jinghua; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Taste buds are chemosensory structures widely distributed on the surface of the oral cavity and larynx. Taste cells, exposed to the oral environment, face great challenges in defense against potential pathogens. While immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, are rarely found in taste buds, high levels of expression of some immune-response-associated molecules are observed in taste buds. Yet, the cellular origins of these immune molecules such as cytokines in taste buds remain to be determined. Here, we show that a specific subset of taste cells selectively expresses high levels of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Based on immuno-colocalization experiments using taste-cell-type markers, the TNF-α-producing cells are predominantly type II taste cells expressing the taste receptor T1R3. These cells can rapidly increase TNF-α production and secretion upon inflammatory challenges, both in vivo and in vitro. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-α expression in taste cells was completely eliminated in TLR2(-/-)/TLR4(-/-) double-gene-knockout mice, which confirms that the induction of TNF-α in taste buds by LPS is mediated through TLR signaling pathways. The taste-cell-produced TNF-α may contribute to local immune surveillance, as well as regulate taste sensation under normal and pathological conditions.

  15. Taste didactic reflection theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    and gastrophysicists), and social sciences (anthropologists) as well as educators (preschool, elementary, secondary and vocational schools, colleges and universities) and chefs. Through interdisciplinary research collaboration and communication we attempt to span the perceived chasm separating food-sensory science......, high schools and vocational educations. By integrating research, taste, learning, didactics and communication, our projects focus on three main areas: sensory sciences and didactics; gastrophysics and the integration of scientific disciplines; and innovation and honing of culinary skills. While we...... teach pupils, students and the broader public in educational institutions and festivals about and through taste, we also study their use of taste, taste preferences, and learning processes by gathering empirical data for anthropological, sensory and pedagogical research. At the conference, we wish...

  16. Smelling and Tasting Underwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atema, Jelle

    1980-01-01

    Discusses differences between smell and taste, comparing these senses in organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Describes the chemical environment underwater and in air, differences in chemoreceptors to receive stimuli, and the organs, brain, and behavior involved in chemoreception. (CS)

  17. Taste as feeling

    OpenAIRE

    Highmore, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This article is premised on two presumptions. The first is, I think, uncontroversial, the second less so. The first presumption is that today, serious discussions about taste usually start out by rehearsing Pierre Bourdieu’s contribution to our understanding of how taste preferences operate in society. This, then, is merely to recognize that when Bourdieu first published books such as The Love of Art (1969, written with Alain Darbel) and Distinctions: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Tas...

  18. Quantitation of sweet steviol glycosides by means of a HILIC-MS/MS-SIDA approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Caroline; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-11-27

    Meeting the rising consumer demand for natural food ingredients, steviol glycosides, the sweet principle of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Bertoni), have recently been approved as food additives in the European Union. As regulatory constraints require sensitive methods to analyze the sweet-tasting steviol glycosides in foods and beverages, a HILIC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the accurate and reliable quantitation of the major steviol glycosides stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, steviolbioside, rubusoside, and dulcoside A by using the corresponding deuterated 16,17-dihydrosteviol glycosides as suitable internal standards. This quantitation not only enables the analysis of the individual steviol glycosides in foods and beverages but also can support the optimization of breeding and postharvest downstream processing of Stevia plants to produce preferentially sweet and least bitter tasting Stevia extracts.

  19. The taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect: An event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X; Dupuis-Roy, N; Yang, X L; Qiu, J F; Zhang, Q L

    2014-03-28

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore, for the first time, the electrophysiological correlates of the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Eighteen healthy participants were presented with a taste stimulus and a food image, and asked to categorize the image as "sweet" or "sour" by pressing the relevant button as quickly as possible. Accurate categorization of the image was faster when it was presented with a congruent taste stimulus (e.g., sour taste/image of lemon) than with an incongruent one (e.g., sour taste/image of ice cream). ERP analyses revealed a negative difference component (ND430-620) between 430 and 620ms in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop interference. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (incongruent minus congruent) indicated that two generators localized in the prefrontal cortex and the parahippocampal gyrus contributed to this taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. This result suggests that the prefrontal cortex is associated with the process of conflict control in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Also, we speculate that the parahippocampal gyrus is associated with the process of discordant information in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perception of basic tastes and threshold sensitivity during testing of selected judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zajác

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false SK JA X-NONE The sense of taste is one of the most important human senses. Alteration in taste perception can greately interfere to our lives, because it influences our dietary habits and consequently general human health. Many physiological and external factors can cause the loss of taste perception. These factors include for example certain diseases, the side effect of the use of certain medicaments, head trauma, gender, dietary habbits, smoking, role of saliva, age, stress and many more. In this paper we are discussing perception of basic tastes and treshold sensitivity during testing of selected groupe of 500 sensory judges. A resolution taste test and sensitivity treshold test were performed using basic tastes (sour, bitter, salty, sweet, umami, astringent, metallic. We have found that the perception of basic tastes decreese with human age. Smoking leads to significant errors in the determination of basic tastes. Different mistakes occures in different age categories. This study suggests further researches, investigating various factors influencing taste perception.  doi:10.5219/259

  1. Taste perception: Risk factor or protection for dependents during drug use cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosane Paz Arruda Teo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in appetite and, consequently, in body weight, evidenced in the majority of addicts under treatment, may be related to taste, since heavy drug use can lead to changes in taste buds. This study aimed to investigate the association between taste perception and nutritional status of drug addicts under treatment. The study was conducted in two therapeutic communities in the municipality of Chapecó, Santa Catarina state, with 39 male addicts over 18 years old. Primary data on weight and height were collected for assessment of nutritional status, and a taste acuity test was applied; also, secondary data were collected on age, length of stay, types of drugs used, and age of drug use onset, from the addicts’ records. It was possible to observe that 56.5% of dependents were at nutritional risk for being overweight. Taste acuity significantly differed for the basic tastes evaluated (p= 0.014, being higher for salty (94.9%, followed by sweet (89.7%, acid (79.5%, and bitter (38, 5% tastes, but it was not associated with the study variables. We conclude that the drug use cessation can have a similar effect to that of caloric deprivation on the taste acuity of dependents, interfering on excessive weight gain. However, it is suggested that the improvement of taste perception be oriented in the therapeutic setting, so that it becomes, in these conditions, a protection factor for dependents, strengthening them to overcome their condition of vulnerability.

  2. GABA, its receptors, and GABAergic inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Huang, Yijen A; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2011-04-13

    Taste buds consist of at least three principal cell types that have different functions in processing gustatory signals: glial-like (type I) cells, receptor (type II) cells, and presynaptic (type III) cells. Using a combination of Ca2+ imaging, single-cell reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunostaining, we show that GABA is an inhibitory transmitter in mouse taste buds, acting on GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors to suppress transmitter (ATP) secretion from receptor cells during taste stimulation. Specifically, receptor cells express GABA(A) receptor subunits β2, δ, and π, as well as GABA(B) receptors. In contrast, presynaptic cells express the GABA(A) β3 subunit and only occasionally GABA(B) receptors. In keeping with the distinct expression pattern of GABA receptors in presynaptic cells, we detected no GABAergic suppression of transmitter release from presynaptic cells. We suggest that GABA may serve function(s) in taste buds in addition to synaptic inhibition. Finally, we also defined the source of GABA in taste buds: GABA is synthesized by GAD65 in type I taste cells as well as by GAD67 in presynaptic (type III) taste cells and is stored in both those two cell types. We conclude that GABA is an inhibitory transmitter released during taste stimulation and possibly also during growth and differentiation of taste buds.

  3. Influence of taste disorders on dietary behaviors in cancer patients under chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laviano Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the relationship between energy and nutrient consumption with chemosensory changes in cancer patients under chemotherapy. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study, enrolling 60 subjects. Cases were defined as patients with cancer diagnosis after their second chemotherapy cycle (n = 30, and controls were subjects without cancer (n = 30. Subjective changes of taste during treatment were assessed. Food consumption habits were obtained with a food frequency questionnaire validated for Mexican population. Five different concentrations of three basic flavors --sweet (sucrose, bitter (urea, and a novel basic taste, umami (sodium glutamate-- were used to measure detection thresholds and recognition thresholds (RT. We determine differences between energy and nutrient consumption in cases and controls and their association with taste DT and RT. Results No demographic differences were found between groups. Cases showed higher sweet DT (6.4 vs. 4.4 μmol/ml; p = 0.03 and a higher bitter RT (100 vs. 95 μmol/ml; p = 0.04 than controls. Cases with sweet DT above the median showed significant lower daily energy (2,043 vs.1,586 kcal; p = 0.02, proteins (81.4 vs. 54 g/day; p = 0.01, carbohydrates (246 vs.192 g/day; p = 0.05, and zinc consumption (19 vs.11 mg/day; p = 0.01 compared to cases without sweet DT alteration. Cases with sweet DT and RT above median were associated with lower completion of energy requirements and consequent weight loss. There was no association between flavors DT or RT and nutrient ingestion in the control group. Conclusion Changes of sweet DT and bitter RT in cancer patients under chemotherapy treatment were associated with lower energy and nutrient ingestion. Taste detection and recognition thresholds disorders could be important factors in malnutrition development on patients with cancer under chemotherapy treatment.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in primate taste buds reveals links to diverse processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hevezi

    Full Text Available Efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying taste sensation (gustation have largely focused on rodents. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in primate taste buds. Our findings reveal unique new insights into the biology of taste buds. We generated a taste bud gene expression database using laser capture microdissection (LCM procured fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds from primates. We also used LCM to collect the top and bottom portions of CV taste buds. Affymetrix genome wide arrays were used to analyze gene expression in all samples. Known taste receptors are preferentially expressed in the top portion of taste buds. Genes associated with the cell cycle and stem cells are preferentially expressed in the bottom portion of taste buds, suggesting that precursor cells are located there. Several chemokines including CXCL14 and CXCL8 are among the highest expressed genes in taste buds, indicating that immune system related processes are active in taste buds. Several genes expressed specifically in endocrine glands including growth hormone releasing hormone and its receptor are also strongly expressed in taste buds, suggesting a link between metabolism and taste. Cell type-specific expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in cell fate, including KIT, reveals the taste bud as an active site of cell regeneration, differentiation, and development. IKBKAP, a gene mutated in familial dysautonomia, a disease that results in loss of taste buds, is expressed in taste cells that communicate with afferent nerve fibers via synaptic transmission. This database highlights the power of LCM coupled with transcriptional profiling to dissect the molecular composition of normal tissues, represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of primate taste buds to date, and provides a foundation for further studies in diverse aspects of taste biology.

  5. Effects of radiotherapy on the sense of taste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeyama, Masayoshi; Suzaki, Harumi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-07-01

    The adverse effects of radiotherapy for cancer in the head and neck region include impairment of the sense of taste and smell and dry mouth. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of such radiotherapy on the sense of taste, in view of its influence on the quality of life of patients with malignant tumors of the head and neck following treatment. In 18 patients with malignant tumors of the head and neck (mean age, 59.9 years) the sense of taste was tested using the filter-paper disc method, serially before and after radiotherapy with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays, in order to analyze the changes in gustatory threshold after radiotherapy. The patients were also observed for subjective symptoms, including dry mouth and impairment of the sense of taste, and changes in the lingual surface over the course of radiotherapy. No increase in the gustatory threshold or subjective impairment of the sense of taste was noted after radiotherapy when the field of irradiation did not include the tongue (4 cases of laryngeal cancer). When the field of irradiation included a part of the tongue (3 cases of maxillary cancer, 3 cases of hypopharyngeal cancer, 1 case of epipharyngeal cancer) or the entire tongue (2 cases of lingual cancer, 2 cases of cancer of the floor of the mouth, 3 cases of mesopharyngeal cancer), dry mouth was noted after irradiation at 7.2-39.6 Gy, and the gustatory threshold increased after irradiation at 12-40 Gy. Subjective impairment of the sense of taste was also reported after irradiation at 10-25.2 Gy, which was restored to normal within 2-3 months after the end of radiotherapy. In relation to the quality of taste, the gustatory threshold for sweet tastes increased the slowest, and was restored rapidly. In contrast, the gustatory threshold for sour tastes increased most rapidly, and was restored slowly. The relationship between the serum zinc level and the increase in gustatory threshold was unclear. There was a tendency for the lingual surface to

  6. Effects of radiotherapy on the sense of taste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeyama, Masayoshi; Suzaki, Harumi

    2001-01-01

    The adverse effects of radiotherapy for cancer in the head and neck region include impairment of the sense of taste and smell and dry mouth. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of such radiotherapy on the sense of taste, in view of its influence on the quality of life of patients with malignant tumors of the head and neck following treatment. In 18 patients with malignant tumors of the head and neck (mean age, 59.9 years) the sense of taste was tested using the filter-paper disc method, serially before and after radiotherapy with 60 Co γ rays, in order to analyze the changes in gustatory threshold after radiotherapy. The patients were also observed for subjective symptoms, including dry mouth and impairment of the sense of taste, and changes in the lingual surface over the course of radiotherapy. No increase in the gustatory threshold or subjective impairment of the sense of taste was noted after radiotherapy when the field of irradiation did not include the tongue (4 cases of laryngeal cancer). When the field of irradiation included a part of the tongue (3 cases of maxillary cancer, 3 cases of hypopharyngeal cancer, 1 case of epipharyngeal cancer) or the entire tongue (2 cases of lingual cancer, 2 cases of cancer of the floor of the mouth, 3 cases of mesopharyngeal cancer), dry mouth was noted after irradiation at 7.2-39.6 Gy, and the gustatory threshold increased after irradiation at 12-40 Gy. Subjective impairment of the sense of taste was also reported after irradiation at 10-25.2 Gy, which was restored to normal within 2-3 months after the end of radiotherapy. In relation to the quality of taste, the gustatory threshold for sweet tastes increased the slowest, and was restored rapidly. In contrast, the gustatory threshold for sour tastes increased most rapidly, and was restored slowly. The relationship between the serum zinc level and the increase in gustatory threshold was unclear. There was a tendency for the lingual surface to become dry

  7. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-10-15

    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 μg/L) and acetoin (122 μg/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human taste receptor for the discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Ahn, Sae Ryun; Kim, Daesan; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Un-Kyung; Simons, Christopher T; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2014-10-28

    The sense of taste helps humans to obtain information and form a picture of the world by recognizing chemicals in their environments. Over the past decade, large advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms of taste detection and mimicking its capability using artificial sensor devices. However, the detection capability of previous artificial taste sensors has been far inferior to that of animal tongues, in terms of its sensitivity and selectivity. Herein, we developed a bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human sweet taste receptors for the detection and discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance, where single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors were functionalized with nanovesicles containing human sweet taste receptors and used to detect the binding of sweeteners to the taste receptors. The receptors are heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) composed of human taste receptor type 1 member 2 (hTAS1R2) and human taste receptor type 1 member 3 (hTAS1R3), which have multiple binding sites and allow a human tongue-like broad selectivity for the detection of sweeteners. This nanovesicle-based bioelectronic tongue can be a powerful tool for the detection of sweeteners as an alternative to labor-intensive and time-consuming cell-based assays and the sensory evaluation panels used in the food and beverage industry. Furthermore, this study also allows the artificial sensor to exam the functional activity of dimeric GPCRs.

  9. Ghrelin is produced in taste cells and ghrelin receptor null mice show reduced taste responsivity to salty (NaCl and sour (citric acid tastants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kyong Shin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences, food intake and energy balance. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved.Using immunohistochemical analyses, we show that ghrelin, a hormone classically considered to be an appetite-regulating hormone, is present within the taste buds of the tongue. Prepro-ghrelin, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3, ghrelin, its cognate receptor (GHSR, and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT , the enzyme that activates ghrelin are expressed in Type I, II, III and IV taste cells of mouse taste buds. In addition, ghrelin and GHSR co-localize in the same taste cells, suggesting that ghrelin works in an autocrine manner in taste cells. To determine a role for ghrelin in modifying taste perception, we performed taste behavioral tests using GHSR null mice. GHSR null mice exhibited significantly reduced taste responsivity to sour (citric acid and salty (sodium chloride tastants.These findings suggest that ghrelin plays a local modulatory role in determining taste bud signaling and function and could be a novel mechanism for the modulation of salty and sour taste responsivity.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative differences between taste buds of the rat and mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Huazhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous electrophysiological, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical studies on rodent taste buds have been carried out on rat taste buds. In recent years, however, the mouse has become the species of choice for molecular and other studies on sensory transduction in taste buds. Do rat and mouse taste buds have the same cell types, sensory transduction markers and synaptic proteins? In the present study we have used antisera directed against PLCβ2, α-gustducin, serotonin (5-HT, PGP 9.5 and synaptobrevin-2 to determine the percentages of taste cells expressing these markers in taste buds in both rodent species. We also determined the numbers of taste cells in the taste buds as well as taste bud volume. Results There are significant differences (p 3 is smaller than a rat taste bud (64,200 μm3. The numerical density of taste cells in mouse circumvallate taste buds (2.1 cells/1000 μm3 is significantly higher than that in the rat (1.2 cells/1000 μm3. Conclusion These results suggest that rats and mice differ significantly in the percentages of taste cells expressing signaling molecules. We speculate that these observed dissimilarities may reflect differences in their gustatory processing.

  11. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoang; Woods, Andy T; van den Bosch, Jasper J F; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colors, 15 shapes, and 2 textures) and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami). A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed color patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colors/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the color white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colors, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in the present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences.

  12. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoang; Woods, Andy T.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colors, 15 shapes, and 2 textures) and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami). A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed color patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colors/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the color white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colors, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in the present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences. PMID:25538643

  13. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoang eWan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colours, 15 shapes, and 2 textures and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami. A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed colour patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colours/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the colour white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colours, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences.

  14. Taste isn't just for taste buds anymore

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Thomas E.; Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2011-01-01

    Taste is a discriminative sense involving specialized receptor cells of the oral cavity (taste buds) and at least two distinct families of G protein-coupled receptor molecules that detect nutritionally important substances or potential toxins. Yet the receptor mechanisms that drive taste also are utilized by numerous systems throughout the body. How and why these so-called taste receptors are used to regulate digestion and respiration is now a matter of intense study. In this article we provi...

  15. Tasting in mundane practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an ethnographic investigation into practices of tasting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in various Western Europe settings in which people sensually engaged with food and drinks, the chapters show how tasting is done by research subjects in sensory science laboratories; guests...... response to a food object, leading on to a multi-sensory experience of its qualities, that do not just emerge from the food but are co-shaped by the context and that give rise to sensorial knowledge. By investigating specificities, articulating alternatives, showing construction processes, and typecasting...... particular practices, the chapters unpack each of these assumptions. What emerges is an alternative, composite understanding of tasting as variously done in varied mundane practices....

  16. A Molecular and Cellular Context-Dependent Role for Ir76b in Detection of Amino Acid Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Ganguly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid taste is expected to be a universal property among animals. Although sweet, bitter, salt, and water tastes have been well characterized in insects, the mechanisms underlying amino acid taste remain elusive. From a Drosophila RNAi screen, we identify an ionotropic receptor, Ir76b, as necessary for yeast preference. Using calcium imaging, we identify Ir76b+ amino acid taste neurons in legs, overlapping partially with sweet neurons but not those that sense other tastants. Ir76b mutants have reduced responses to amino acids, which are rescued by transgenic expression of Ir76b and a mosquito ortholog AgIr76b. Co-expression of Ir20a with Ir76b is sufficient for conferring amino acid responses in sweet-taste neurons. Notably, Ir20a also serves to block salt response of Ir76b. Our study establishes the role of a highly conserved receptor in amino acid taste and suggests a mechanism for mutually exclusive roles of Ir76b in salt- and amino-acid-sensing neurons.

  17. Mixing methods, tasting fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna; Mol, Annemarie; Satalkar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnographic experiment. Four finger eating experts and three novices sat down for a hot meal and ate with their hands. Drawing on the technique of playing with the familiar and the strange, our aim was not to explain our responses, but to articulate them. As we seek...... words to do so, we are compelled to stretch the verb "to taste." Tasting, or so our ethnographic experiment suggests, need not be understood as an activity confined to the tongue. Instead, if given a chance, it may viscously spread out to the fingers and come to include appreciative reactions otherwise...

  18. Is wine savory? Umami taste in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, Inês; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Umami is an important taste element in natural products like wine. The umami taste has distinctive properties that differentiate it from other tastes, including a taste-enhancing synergism between two umami compounds, L-glutamate and 5’-ribonulceotides, and a prolonged aftertaste. In human taste cells, taste buds transduce the chemicals that elicit the umami tastes into membrane depolarization, which triggers release of transmitter to activate gustatory afferent nerve fibers. Umami taste stim...

  19. Molecular and Cellular Organization of Taste Neurons in Adult Drosophila Pharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chieh David Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The Drosophila pharyngeal taste organs are poorly characterized despite their location at important sites for monitoring food quality. Functional analysis of pharyngeal neurons has been hindered by the paucity of molecular tools to manipulate them, as well as their relative inaccessibility for neurophysiological investigations. Here, we generate receptor-to-neuron maps of all three pharyngeal taste organs by performing a comprehensive chemoreceptor-GAL4/LexA expression analysis. The organization of pharyngeal neurons reveals similarities and distinctions in receptor repertoires and neuronal groupings compared to external taste neurons. We validate the mapping results by pinpointing a single pharyngeal neuron required for feeding avoidance of L-canavanine. Inducible activation of pharyngeal taste neurons reveals functional differences between external and internal taste neurons and functional subdivision within pharyngeal sweet neurons. Our results provide roadmaps of pharyngeal taste organs in an insect model system for probing the role of these understudied neurons in controlling feeding behaviors. : Chen and Dahanukar carry out a large-scale, systematic analysis to understand the molecular organization of pharyngeal taste neurons. Taking advantage of the molecular genetic toolkit that arises from this map, they use genetic dissection strategies to probe the functional roles of selected pharyngeal neurons in food choice. Keywords: Drosophila, taste, pharynx, chemosensory receptors, gustatory receptors, ionotropic receptors, feeding

  20. Altered learning, memory, and social behavior in type 1 taste receptor subunit 3 knock-out mice are associated with neuronal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bronwen; Wang, Rui; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Wu, Wells W; Ni, Bin; Becker, Kevin G; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Etienne, Harmonie; van Gastel, Jaana; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Janssens, Jonathan; Maudsley, Stuart

    2017-07-07

    The type 1 taste receptor member 3 (T1R3) is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in sweet-taste perception. Besides the tongue, the T1R3 receptor is highly expressed in brain areas implicated in cognition, including the hippocampus and cortex. As cognitive decline is often preceded by significant metabolic or endocrinological dysfunctions regulated by the sweet-taste perception system, we hypothesized that a disruption of the sweet-taste perception in the brain could have a key role in the development of cognitive dysfunction. To assess the importance of the sweet-taste receptors in the brain, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of cortical and hippocampal tissues isolated from T1R3 knock-out (T1R3KO) mice. The effect of an impaired sweet-taste perception system on cognition functions were examined by analyzing synaptic integrity and performing animal behavior on T1R3KO mice. Although T1R3KO mice did not present a metabolically disrupted phenotype, bioinformatic interpretation of the high-dimensionality data indicated a strong neurodegenerative signature associated with significant alterations in pathways involved in neuritogenesis, dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis. Furthermore, a significantly reduced dendritic spine density was observed in T1R3KO mice together with alterations in learning and memory functions as well as sociability deficits. Taken together our data suggest that the sweet-taste receptor system plays an important neurotrophic role in the extralingual central nervous tissue that underpins synaptic function, memory acquisition, and social behavior. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Sonic hedgehog-expressing basal cells are general post-mitotic precursors of functional taste receptor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hirohito; Scott, Jennifer K.; Harada, Shuitsu; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taste buds contain ~60 elongate cells and several basal cells. Elongate cells comprise three functional taste cell types: I - glial cells, II - bitter/sweet/umami receptor cells, and III - sour detectors. Although taste cells are continuously renewed, lineage relationships among cell types are ill-defined. Basal cells have been proposed as taste bud stem cells, a subset of which express Sonic hedgehog (Shh). However, Shh+ basal cells turnover rapidly suggesting that Shh+ cells are precursors of some or all taste cell types. Results To fate map Shh-expressing cells, mice carrying ShhCreERT2 and a high (CAG-CAT-EGFP) or low (R26RLacZ) efficiency reporter allele were given tamoxifen to activate Cre in Shh+ cells. Using R26RLacZ, lineage-labeled cells occur singly within buds, supporting a post-mitotic state for Shh+ cells. Using either reporter, we show that Shh+ cells differentiate into all three taste cell types, in proportions reflecting cell type ratios in taste buds (I > II > III). Conclusions Shh+ cells are not stem cells, but are post-mitotic, immediate precursors of taste cells. Shh+ cells differentiate into each of the three taste cell types, and the choice of a specific taste cell fate is regulated to maintain the proper ratio within buds. PMID:24590958

  2. Positive Charges on the Surface of Thaumatin Are Crucial for the Multi-Point Interaction with the Sweet Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Kigo, Satomi; Mitsumoto, Mayuko; Ohta, Keisuke; Suzuki, Mamoru; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2018-01-01

    Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits sweet taste with a threshold of only 50 nM. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that the complex model between the T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor and thaumatin depends critically on the complementarity of electrostatic potentials. In order to further validate this model, we focused on three lysine residues (Lys78, Lys106, and Lys137), which were expected to be part of the interaction sites. Three thaumatin mutants (K78A, K106A, and K137A) were prepared and their threshold values of sweetness were examined. The results showed that the sweetness of K106A was reduced by about three times and those of K78A and K137A were reduced by about five times when compared to wild-type thaumatin. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants were also determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses at atomic resolutions. The overall structures of mutant proteins were similar to that of wild-type but the electrostatic potentials around the mutated sites became more negative. Since the three lysine residues are located in 20-40 Å apart each other on the surface of thaumatin molecule, these results suggest the positive charges on the surface of thaumatin play a crucial role in the interaction with the sweet receptor, and are consistent with a large surface is required for interaction with the sweet receptor, as proposed by the multipoint interaction model named wedge model.

  3. Tasting the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in sociology of art indicates an increasing heterogeneity and openness in cultural taste and consumption. This tendency also appears to be sanctified by developments in the arts and aesthetic theory of the last decades. Compared to former more exclusive and elitist cultures of tas...

  4. The taste looks good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Young, T.; Schrauwers, A.

    2005-01-01

    For over two decades, fruit and other agricultural products have been sorted using the 'electronic eye'. The eye selects purely by such external properties as colour, and cannot judge taste. Dr Gerrit Polder, an electrical engineer at Wageningen University, carried out his doctorate research at

  5. Identification and modulation of the key amino acid residue responsible for the pH sensitivity of neoculin, a taste-modifying protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichiro Nakajima

    Full Text Available Neoculin occurring in the tropical fruit of Curculigo latifolia is currently the only protein that possesses both a sweet taste and a taste-modifying activity of converting sourness into sweetness. Structurally, this protein is a heterodimer consisting of a neoculin acidic subunit (NAS and a neoculin basic subunit (NBS. Recently, we found that a neoculin variant in which all five histidine residues are replaced with alanine elicits intense sweetness at both neutral and acidic pH but has no taste-modifying activity. To identify the critical histidine residue(s responsible for this activity, we produced a series of His-to-Ala neoculin variants and evaluated their sweetness levels using cell-based calcium imaging and a human sensory test. Our results suggest that NBS His11 functions as a primary pH sensor for neoculin to elicit taste modification. Neoculin variants with substitutions other than His-to-Ala were further analyzed to clarify the role of the NBS position 11 in the taste-modifying activity. We found that the aromatic character of the amino acid side chain is necessary to elicit the pH-dependent sweetness. Interestingly, since the His-to-Tyr variant is a novel taste-modifying protein with alternative pH sensitivity, the position 11 in NBS can be critical to modulate the pH-dependent activity of neoculin. These findings are important for understanding the pH-sensitive functional changes in proteinaceous ligands in general and the interaction of taste receptor-taste substance in particular.

  6. Learning through the taste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (if illness ensues or a conditioned taste preference (if satiety. This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime.

  7. Altered processing of rewarding and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Monteleone, Palmiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Prinster, Anna; Volpe, Umberto; Cantone, Elena; Pellegrino, Francesca; Canna, Antonietta; Milano, Walter; Aiello, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Maj, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have displayed a dysregulation in the way in which the brain processes pleasant taste stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). However, exactly how the brain processes disgusting basic taste stimuli has never been investigated, even though disgust plays a role in food intake modulation and AN and BN patients exhibit high disgust sensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the activation of brain areas following the administration of pleasant and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic AN and BN patients compared to healthy subjects. Twenty underweight AN women, 20 symptomatic BN women and 20 healthy women underwent fMRI while tasting 0.292 M sucrose solution (sweet taste), 0.5 mM quinine hydrochloride solution (bitter taste) and water as a reference taste. In symptomatic AN and BN patients the pleasant sweet stimulus induced a higher activation in several brain areas than that induced by the aversive bitter taste. The opposite occurred in healthy controls. Moreover, compared to healthy controls, AN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left anterior cingulate cortex, while BN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left insula. These results show an altered processing of rewarding and aversive taste stimuli in ED patients, which may be relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of AN and BN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Arecoline Alters Taste Bud Cell Morphology, Reduces Body Weight, and Induces Behavioral Preference Changes in Gustatory Discrimination in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei-Hau; Chau, Yat-Pang; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Kung, Hsiu-Ni

    2016-01-01

    Arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, is involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases. Mammalian taste buds are the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. The effects of arecoline on taste bud morphology are poorly understood. Arecoline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) into C57BL/6 mice twice daily for 1-4 weeks. After arecoline treatment, the vallate papillae were processed for electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry analysis of taste receptor proteins (T1R2, T1R3, T1R1, and T2R) and taste associated proteins (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and SNAP25). Body weight, food intake and water consumption were recorded. A 2-bottle preference test was also performed. The results demonstrated that 1) arecoline treatment didn't change the number and size of the taste buds or taste bud cells, 2) electron microscopy revealed the change of organelles and the accumulation of autophagosomes in type II cells, 3) immunohistochemistry demonstrated a decrease of taste receptor T1R2- and T1R3-expressing cells, 4) the body weight and food intake were markedly reduced, and 5) the sweet preference behavior was reduced. We concluded that the long-term injection of arecoline alters the morphology of type II taste bud cells, retards the growth of mice, and affects discrimination competencies for sweet tastants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Tachykinins stimulate a subset of mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Grant

    Full Text Available The tachykinins substance P (SP and neurokinin A (NKA are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1. These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca(2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca(2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca(2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca(2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca(2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca(2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods.

  10. Dietary customs and food availability shape the preferences for basic tastes: A cross-cultural study among Polish, Tsimane' and Hadza societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Pellegrino, Robert; Butovskaya, Marina; Marczak, Michalina; Niemczyk, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    Biological significance of food components suggests that preferences for basic tastes should be similar across cultures. On the other hand, cultural factors play an important role in diet and can consequently influence individual preference for food. To date, very few studies have compared basic tastes preferences among populations of very diverse environmental and cultural conditions, and research rather did not involve traditional populations for whom the biological significance of different food components might be the most pronounced. Hence, our study focused on basic taste preferences in three populations, covering a broad difference in diet due to environmental and cultural conditions, market availability, dietary habits and food acquirement: 1) a modern society (Poles, n = 200), 2) forager-horticulturalists from Amazon/Bolivia (Tsimane', n = 138), and 3) hunter-gatherers from Tanzania (Hadza, n = 85). The preferences for basic tastes were measured with sprays containing supra-threshold levels of sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami taste solutions. We observed several interesting differences between participating societies. We found that Tsimane' and Polish participants liked the sweet taste more than other tastes, while Hadza participants liked salty and sour tastes more than the remaining tastes. Further, Polish people found bitter taste particularly aversive, which was not observed in the traditional societies. Interestingly, no cross-cultural differences were observed for relative liking of umami taste - it was rated closely to neutral by members of all participating societies. Additionally, Hadza showed a pattern to like basic tastes that are more common to their current diet than societies with access to different food sources. These findings demonstrate the impact of diet and market availability on preference for basic tastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Insulin-Like Growth Factors Are Expressed in the Taste System, but Do Not Maintain Adult Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Bradley T.; Tang, Tao; Krimm, Robin F.

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors regulate cell growth and differentiation in many tissues. In the taste system, as yet unknown growth factors are produced by neurons to maintain taste buds. A number of growth factor receptors are expressed at greater levels in taste buds than in the surrounding epithelium and may be receptors for candidate factors involved in taste bud maintenance. We determined that the ligands of eight of these receptors were expressed in the E14.5 geniculate ganglion and that four of these ligands were expressed in the adult geniculate ganglion. Of these, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) were expressed in the ganglion and their receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R), were expressed at the highest levels in taste buds. To determine whether IGF1R regulates taste bud number or structure, we conditionally eliminated IGF1R from the lingual epithelium of mice using the keratin 14 (K14) promoter (K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox). While K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice had significantly fewer taste buds at P30 compared with control mice (Igf1rlox/lox), this difference was not observed by P80. IGF1R removal did not affect taste bud size or cell number, and the number of phospholipase C β2- (PLCβ2) and carbonic anhydrase 4- (Car4) positive taste receptor cells did not differ between genotypes. Taste buds at the back of the tongue fungiform taste field were larger and contained more cells than those at the tongue tip, and these differences were diminished in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. The epithelium was thicker at the back versus the tip of the tongue, and this difference was also attenuated in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. We conclude that, although IGFs are expressed at high levels in the taste system, they likely play little or no role in maintaining adult taste bud structure. IGFs have a potential role in establishing the initial number of taste buds, and there may be limits on epithelial thickness in the absence of IGF1R signaling. PMID:26901525

  12. Insulin-Like Growth Factors Are Expressed in the Taste System, but Do Not Maintain Adult Taste Buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T Biggs

    Full Text Available Growth factors regulate cell growth and differentiation in many tissues. In the taste system, as yet unknown growth factors are produced by neurons to maintain taste buds. A number of growth factor receptors are expressed at greater levels in taste buds than in the surrounding epithelium and may be receptors for candidate factors involved in taste bud maintenance. We determined that the ligands of eight of these receptors were expressed in the E14.5 geniculate ganglion and that four of these ligands were expressed in the adult geniculate ganglion. Of these, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2 were expressed in the ganglion and their receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R, were expressed at the highest levels in taste buds. To determine whether IGF1R regulates taste bud number or structure, we conditionally eliminated IGF1R from the lingual epithelium of mice using the keratin 14 (K14 promoter (K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox. While K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice had significantly fewer taste buds at P30 compared with control mice (Igf1rlox/lox, this difference was not observed by P80. IGF1R removal did not affect taste bud size or cell number, and the number of phospholipase C β2- (PLCβ2 and carbonic anhydrase 4- (Car4 positive taste receptor cells did not differ between genotypes. Taste buds at the back of the tongue fungiform taste field were larger and contained more cells than those at the tongue tip, and these differences were diminished in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. The epithelium was thicker at the back versus the tip of the tongue, and this difference was also attenuated in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. We conclude that, although IGFs are expressed at high levels in the taste system, they likely play little or no role in maintaining adult taste bud structure. IGFs have a potential role in establishing the initial number of taste buds, and there may be limits on epithelial thickness in the absence of IGF1R signaling.

  13. Insulin-Like Growth Factors Are Expressed in the Taste System, but Do Not Maintain Adult Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Bradley T; Tang, Tao; Krimm, Robin F

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors regulate cell growth and differentiation in many tissues. In the taste system, as yet unknown growth factors are produced by neurons to maintain taste buds. A number of growth factor receptors are expressed at greater levels in taste buds than in the surrounding epithelium and may be receptors for candidate factors involved in taste bud maintenance. We determined that the ligands of eight of these receptors were expressed in the E14.5 geniculate ganglion and that four of these ligands were expressed in the adult geniculate ganglion. Of these, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) were expressed in the ganglion and their receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R), were expressed at the highest levels in taste buds. To determine whether IGF1R regulates taste bud number or structure, we conditionally eliminated IGF1R from the lingual epithelium of mice using the keratin 14 (K14) promoter (K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox). While K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice had significantly fewer taste buds at P30 compared with control mice (Igf1rlox/lox), this difference was not observed by P80. IGF1R removal did not affect taste bud size or cell number, and the number of phospholipase C β2- (PLCβ2) and carbonic anhydrase 4- (Car4) positive taste receptor cells did not differ between genotypes. Taste buds at the back of the tongue fungiform taste field were larger and contained more cells than those at the tongue tip, and these differences were diminished in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. The epithelium was thicker at the back versus the tip of the tongue, and this difference was also attenuated in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. We conclude that, although IGFs are expressed at high levels in the taste system, they likely play little or no role in maintaining adult taste bud structure. IGFs have a potential role in establishing the initial number of taste buds, and there may be limits on epithelial thickness in the absence of IGF1R signaling.

  14. (Re)tasting places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    What does geographical origin mean? It is an expression that associates food and wine with a specific place, an association embedded in the concept ‘terroir’ that refers to the complex interaction between a physical environment and local craftsmanship. It is a claim protected through labelling......-schemes and a claim that adds value to the place-related foods. However, viewing the connection between food and place as a question of proving a relationship or as a matter of protecting commercial claims does not seem to provide a satisfactory account for the status of geographically designated foods as being...... particularly attractive Central to the interest of this paper is to approach an understanding of geographical origin as a point of reference for taste. In terms of being sensory experience, taste is subjective. It is difficult to describe verbally and yet at the same time it is a trigger of the memory of past...

  15. Savoring Sweet: Sugars in Infant and Toddler Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robert D

    2017-01-01

    During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. A child's first relationship with sweet taste begins even before birth and continues to evolve throughout complementary feeding. The sweetness of breastmilk encourages consumption and soothes the neonate. Conversely, inappropriate introduction of non-milk solids and beverages that are sweet at 0-4 months of age raises the newborn's risk for later obesity and may discourage the acceptance of other bitter or sour foods. Although cereals, fruits, 100% fruit juices, and some grains have naturally occurring sugars that impart sweet flavor notes, there is no clear role for added sugars between 6 and 12 months of age. Yet, 60% of infants are introduced to foods and beverages containing added sugars, threatening diet quality. Pairing foods with naturally occurring sugars, such as fruits, with foods that tend to be resisted initially, such as vegetables, can mask bitterness and promote acceptance. Utilizing the infants' extraordinary capacity for sensory-motor exploration is another strategy to expose them repeatedly to challenging tastes and flavors. The transitional year, as breast milk and infant formula are withdrawn, is a time when nutritional needs are high and diet quality often precarious. Rapid growth, along with brain and cognitive development, demand high-quality nutrition. Snacks are necessary both for energy and valuable nutrients. However, the selection of snack foods often exposes toddlers to items that offer concentrated energy with low nutrient value. Recent trends suggest a rapid fall in added sugars among infants and toddlers. Parenting practices that use small amounts of sugars to promote nutrient

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of hernandulcin, peroxylippidulcine A, lippidulcines A, B and C and taste evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco G. Rigamonti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The first stereoselective synthesis of lippidulcines A, B and C has been accomplished starting from (+-hernandulcin, which has been prepared on a multigram scale. The previously assigned absolute configurations have been confirmed. The key steps of this synthesis are based on a modified version of the Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement, and on a highly regioselective and stereoselective ketone reduction with the MeCBS reagent. The taste evaluations indicate that none of these sesquiterpenes are sweet, instead the lippidulcine A is a cooling agent with a mint after taste.

  17. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p . 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p . 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy

  18. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p = 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p = 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy

  19. Highly Sensitive Multi-Channel IDC Sensor Array for Low Concentration Taste Detection

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    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we designed and developed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC-based taste sensor array to detect different taste substances. The designed taste sensing array has four IDC sensing elements. The four IDC taste sensing elements of the array are fabricated by incorporating four different types of lipids into the polymer, dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP and tetrahydrofuran (THF to make the respective dielectric materials that are individually placed onto an interdigitated electrode (IDE via spin coating. When the dielectric material of an IDC sensing element comes into contact with a taste substance, its dielectric properties change with the capacitance of the IDC sensing element; this, in turn, changes the voltage across the IDC, as well as the output voltage of each channel of the system. In order to assess the effectiveness of the sensing system, four taste substances, namely sourness (HCl, saltiness (NaCl, sweetness (glucose and bitterness (quinine-HCl, were tested. The IDC taste sensor array had rapid response and recovery times of about 12.9 s and 13.39 s, respectively, with highly stable response properties. The response property of the proposed IDC taste sensor array was linear, and its correlation coefficient R2 was about 0.9958 over the dynamic range of the taste sensor array as the taste substance concentration was varied from 1 μM to 1 M. The proposed IDC taste sensor array has several other advantages, such as real-time monitoring capabilities, high sensitivity 45.78 mV/decade, good reproducibility with a standard deviation of about 0.029 and compactness, and the circuitry is based on readily available and inexpensive electronic components. The proposed IDC taste sensor array was compared with the potentiometric taste sensor with respect to sensitivity, dynamic range width, linearity and response time. We found that the proposed IDC sensor array has better performance. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA was applied

  20. Sweet Solutions to Reduce Procedural Pain in Neonates: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Denise; Larocque, Catherine; Bueno, Mariana; Stokes, Yehudis; Turner, Lucy; Hutton, Brian; Stevens, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Abundant evidence of sweet taste analgesia in neonates exists, yet placebo-controlled trials continue to be conducted. To review all trials evaluating sweet solutions for analgesia in neonates and to conduct cumulative meta-analyses (CMAs) on behavioral pain outcomes. (1) Data from 2 systematic reviews of sweet solutions for newborns; (2) searches ending 2015 of CINAHL, Medline, Embase, and psychINFO. Two authors screened studies for inclusion, conducted risk-of-bias ratings, and extracted behavioral outcome data for CMAs. CMA was performed using random effects meta-analysis. One hundred and sixty-eight studies were included; 148 (88%) included placebo/no-treatment arms. CMA for crying time included 29 trials (1175 infants). From the fifth trial in 2002, there was a statistically significant reduction in mean cry time for sweet solutions compared with placebo (-27 seconds, 95% confidence interval [CI] -51 to -4). By the final trial, CMA was -23 seconds in favor of sweet solutions (95% CI -29 to -18). CMA for pain scores included 50 trials (3341 infants). Results were in favor of sweet solutions from the second trial (0.5, 95% CI -1 to -0.1). Final results showed a standardized mean difference of -0.9 (95% CI -1.1 to -0.7). We were unable to use or obtain data from many studies to include in the CMA. Evidence of sweet taste analgesia in neonates has existed since the first published trials, yet placebo/no-treatment, controlled trials have continued to be conducted. Future neonatal pain studies need to select more ethically responsible control groups. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes and phylogenetic analysis of bitter taste receptor genes in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As nontraditional model organisms with extreme physiological and morphological phenotypes, snakes are believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste sensation is essential to distinguish the nutritious and poisonous food resources and the genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes is largely scarce. To explore the genetic basis of the bitter taste of snakes and characterize the evolution of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs in reptiles, we identified Tas2r genes in 19 genomes (species corresponding to three orders of non-avian reptiles. Our results indicated contractions of Tas2r gene repertoires in snakes, however dramatic gene expansions have occurred in lizards. Phylogenetic analysis of the Tas2rs with NJ and BI methods revealed that Tas2r genes of snake species formed two clades, whereas in lizards the Tas2r genes clustered into two monophyletic clades and four large clades. Evolutionary changes (birth and death of intact Tas2r genes in reptiles were determined by reconciliation analysis. Additionally, the taste signaling pathway calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (Calhm1 gene of snakes was putatively functional, suggesting that snakes still possess bitter taste sensation. Furthermore, Phylogenetically Independent Contrasts (PIC analyses reviewed a significant correlation between the number of Tas2r genes and the amount of potential toxins in reptilian diets, suggesting that insectivores such as some lizards may require more Tas2rs genes than omnivorous and carnivorous reptiles.

  2. TRPs in Taste and Chemesthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in taste buds, nerve fibers, and keratinocytes in the oronasal cavity. These channels play integral roles in transducing chemical stimuli, giving rise to sensations of taste, irritation, warmth, coolness, and pungency. Specifically, TRPM5 acts downstream of taste receptors in the taste transduction pathway. TRPM5 channels convert taste-evoked intracellular Ca2+ release into membrane depolarization to trigger taste transmitter secretion. PKD2L1 is expressed in acid-sensitive (sour) taste bud cells but is unlikely to be the transducer for sour taste. TRPV1 is a receptor for pungent chemical stimuli such as capsaicin and for several irritants (chemesthesis). It is controversial whether TRPV1 is present in the taste buds and plays a direct role in taste. Instead, TRPV1 is expressed in non-gustatory sensory afferent fibers and in keratinocytes of the oronasal cavity. In many sensory fibers and epithelial cells lining the oronasal cavity, TRPA1 is also co-expressed with TRPV1. As with TRPV1, TRPA1 transduces a wide variety of irritants and, in combination with TRPV1, assures that there is a broad response to noxious chemical stimuli. Other TRP channels, including TRPM8, TRPV3, and TRPV4, play less prominent roles in chemesthesis and no known role in taste, per se. The pungency of foods and beverages is likely highly influenced by the temperature at which they are consumed, their acidity, and, for beverages, their carbonation. All these factors modulate the activity of TRP channels in taste buds and in the oronasal mucosa. PMID:24961971

  3. Evolutionary origins of taste buds: phylogenetic analysis of purinergic neurotransmission in epithelial chemosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kirino, Masato; Parnes, Jason; Hansen, Anne; Kiyohara, Sadao; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are gustatory endorgans which use an uncommon purinergic signalling system to transmit information to afferent gustatory nerve fibres. In mammals, ATP is a crucial neurotransmitter released by the taste cells to activate the afferent nerve fibres. Taste buds in mammals display a characteristic, highly specific ecto-ATPase (NTPDase2) activity, suggesting a role in inactivation of the neurotransmitter. The purpose of this study was to test whether the presence of markers of purinergi...

  4. Alterations in taste distinguishing in patients irradiated for malignant tumours of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimo, J.; Parkanyiova, V.; Polcikova, E.

    1976-01-01

    In 20 patients treated with percutaneous gamma radiotherapy for carcinomas of the head or the neck, alterations were studied in taste following radiation doses of 1,000; 2,000; 3,000; 4,000; 5,000; and 6,000 rads. It was found that with increasing radiation doses the patients lost the ability of distinguishing sweet, salty, sour and bitter qualities, in that order. (L.O.)

  5. Evolutionary origins of taste buds: phylogenetic analysis of purinergic neurotransmission in epithelial chemosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Masato; Parnes, Jason; Hansen, Anne; Kiyohara, Sadao; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are gustatory endorgans which use an uncommon purinergic signalling system to transmit information to afferent gustatory nerve fibres. In mammals, ATP is a crucial neurotransmitter released by the taste cells to activate the afferent nerve fibres. Taste buds in mammals display a characteristic, highly specific ecto-ATPase (NTPDase2) activity, suggesting a role in inactivation of the neurotransmitter. The purpose of this study was to test whether the presence of markers of purinergic signalling characterize taste buds in anamniote vertebrates and to test whether similar purinergic systems are employed by other exteroceptive chemosensory systems. The species examined include several teleosts, elasmobranchs, lampreys and hagfish, the last of which lacks vertebrate-type taste buds. For comparison, Schreiner organs of hagfish and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) of teleosts, both of which are epidermal chemosensory end organs, were also examined because they might be evolutionarily related to taste buds. Ecto-ATPase activity was evident in elongate cells in all fish taste buds, including teleosts, elasmobranchs and lampreys. Neither SCCs nor Schreiner organs show specific ecto-ATPase activity, suggesting that purinergic signalling is not crucial in those systems as it is for taste buds. These findings suggest that the taste system did not originate from SCCs but arose independently in early vertebrates. PMID:23466675

  6. Evolutionary origins of taste buds: phylogenetic analysis of purinergic neurotransmission in epithelial chemosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Masato; Parnes, Jason; Hansen, Anne; Kiyohara, Sadao; Finger, Thomas E

    2013-03-06

    Taste buds are gustatory endorgans which use an uncommon purinergic signalling system to transmit information to afferent gustatory nerve fibres. In mammals, ATP is a crucial neurotransmitter released by the taste cells to activate the afferent nerve fibres. Taste buds in mammals display a characteristic, highly specific ecto-ATPase (NTPDase2) activity, suggesting a role in inactivation of the neurotransmitter. The purpose of this study was to test whether the presence of markers of purinergic signalling characterize taste buds in anamniote vertebrates and to test whether similar purinergic systems are employed by other exteroceptive chemosensory systems. The species examined include several teleosts, elasmobranchs, lampreys and hagfish, the last of which lacks vertebrate-type taste buds. For comparison, Schreiner organs of hagfish and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) of teleosts, both of which are epidermal chemosensory end organs, were also examined because they might be evolutionarily related to taste buds. Ecto-ATPase activity was evident in elongate cells in all fish taste buds, including teleosts, elasmobranchs and lampreys. Neither SCCs nor Schreiner organs show specific ecto-ATPase activity, suggesting that purinergic signalling is not crucial in those systems as it is for taste buds. These findings suggest that the taste system did not originate from SCCs but arose independently in early vertebrates.

  7. The effect of imiquimod on taste bud calcium transients and transmitter secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony Y; Wu, Sandy Y

    2016-11-01

    Imiquimod is an immunomodulator approved for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma and has adverse side effects, including taste disturbances. Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within taste buds, has the potential to shape the final signals that taste buds transmit to the brain. Here, we tested the underlying assumption that imiquimod modifies taste transmitter secretion in taste buds of mice. Taste buds were isolated from C57BL/6J mice. The effects of imiquimod on transmitter release in taste buds were measured using calcium imaging with cellular biosensors, and examining the net effect of imiquimod on taste-evoked ATP secretion from mouse taste buds. Up to 72% of presynaptic (Type III) taste cells responded to 100 μM imiquimod with an increase in intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations. These Ca 2 + responses were inhibited by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2 + -ATPase, and by U73122, a PLC inhibitor, suggesting that the Ca 2 + mobilization elicited by imiquimod was dependent on release from internal Ca 2 + stores. Moreover, combining studies of Ca 2 + imaging with cellular biosensors showed that imiquimod evoked secretion of 5-HT, which then provided negative feedback onto receptor (Type II) cells to reduce taste-evoked ATP secretion. Our results provide evidence that there is a subset of taste cells equipped with a range of intracellular mechanisms that respond to imiquimod. The findings are also consistent with a role of imiquimod as an immune response modifier, which shapes peripheral taste responses via 5-HT signalling. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie H Larsson

    Full Text Available The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5 is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  9. The Effect of Alcohol on the Nature of Lexical Representations in Different Taste Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Baskini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Moderate alcohol consumption may be involved in cognitive feedback mechanisms (Hofmann & Friese, 2008, participants execute verbal fluency test (VFT better (Cerhan et al., 1998 and there is positive association between sweet taste and excessive alcohol intake (Lange, Kampov-Polevoy, & Garbutt, 2010. We investigate the immediate pharmacological consequences of moderate to light alcohol consumption in verbal fluency and categorical sorting within the different taste domains (i.e. sweet, salty, sour and bitter. Our hypothesis is that subjects under the influence of light to moderate alcohol will produce more items in the sweet domain. 53 healthy adults had moderate alcohol consumption and were compared in two semantic tasks to 53 adults, who did not drink alcohol. Mann-Whitney U tests showed that the total number of clusters, switches, and repetitions were equal between the two groups in all taste domains (p-values: .211, .401, and .684 respectively. The number of responses in the alcohol group generated more disinhibiting intrusive words during the VFTs as compared to the control group (p-value: <.001. VFTs and the order of taste preference in the card-sorting task showed positive correlation and agreement. Light to moderate alcohol did not affect verbal fluency. However, participants under the influence of alcohol generated significantly more errors in the VFTs that were emotionally laden. This corroborates with research that certain emotions are innervated with taste domains. This leaves open question about the effects of alcohol on decision making in eating and executive functions as they relate to lexical representations.

  10. The taste of desserts' packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeeke, C J; Peters, M E

    1991-10-01

    This article reports an experiment on expressing the behavioural meaning of designed objects. Can a designer express the taste of a desert in the form of its packaging and can consumers match these forms when tasting the desserts? Analysis of responses of 12 adults indicates positive answers to these questions.

  11. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  12. Effects of irradiation on physicochemical and sensory qualities of fermented shoot tip of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Li; Liu Chunquan; Li Dajing; Song Jiangfeng; Jiang Ning; Liu Chunju; Wu Haihong; Zhu Danyu

    2011-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on sensory quality, physicochemical and functional prosperities of fermented shoot tips of sweet potatoes were studied. The results showed that total content of free amino acids in fermented shoot tips of sweet potato were not influenced at 4 kGy irradiation, but increased at 6 kGy. Total content of organic acids in shoot tips were not influenced by 2 ∼ 6 kGy of irradiation. The total viable cells of the tips was reduced from 7.35 to 4.67 log CFU/g at 2 kGy irradiation, and no growth of total viable cells was observed at 4 and 6 kGy irradiated fermented shoot tips. It is recommended that 4 kGy was the endurance irradiation dose for fermented shoot tips of sweet potato to ensure the maximum retention of taste quality and health-relevant functionality. (authors)

  13. DEVELOPING A SENSE OF TASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimali, Marika; Barlow, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Taste buds are found in a distributed array on the tongue surface, and are innervated by cranial nerves that convey taste information to the brain. For nearly a century, taste buds were thought to be induced by nerves late in embryonic development. However, this view has shifted dramatically. A host of studies now indicate that taste bud development is initiated and proceeds via processes that are nerve-independent, occur long before birth, and governed by cellular and molecular mechanisms intrinsic to the developing tongue. Here we review the state of our understanding of the molecular and cellular regulation of taste bud development, incorporating important new data obtained through the use of two powerful genetic systems, mouse and zebrafish. PMID:23182899

  14. Limited taste discrimination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Scott, Kristin

    2010-08-17

    In the gustatory systems of mammals and flies, different populations of sensory cells recognize different taste modalities, such that there are cells that respond selectively to sugars and others to bitter compounds. This organization readily allows animals to distinguish compounds of different modalities but may limit the ability to distinguish compounds within one taste modality. Here, we developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate directly the tastes that a fly distinguishes. These studies reveal that flies do not discriminate among different sugars, or among different bitter compounds, based on chemical identity. Instead, flies show a limited ability to distinguish compounds within a modality based on intensity or palatability. Taste associative learning, similar to olfactory learning, requires the mushroom bodies, suggesting fundamental similarities in brain mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Overall, these studies provide insight into the discriminative capacity of the Drosophila gustatory system and the modulation of taste behavior.

  15. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. As bitter as a trombone: synesthetic correspondences in nonsynesthetes between tastes/flavors and musical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisinel, Anne-Sylvie; Spence, Charles

    2010-10-01

    In parallel to studies of various cases of synesthesia, many cross-modal correspondences have also been documented in nonsynesthetes. Among these correspondences, implicit associations between taste and pitch have been reported recently (Crisinel & Spence, 2009, 2010). Here, we replicate and extend these findings through explicit matching of sounds of varying pitch to a range of tastes/flavors. In addition, participants in the experiment reported here also chose the type of musical instrument most appropriate for each taste/flavor. The association of sweet and sour tastes to high-pitched notes was confirmed. By contrast, umami and bitter tastes were preferentially matched to low-pitched notes. Flavors did not display such strong pitch associations. The choice of musical instrument seems to have been driven primarily by a matching of the hedonic value and familiarity of the two types of stimuli. Our results raise important questions about our representation of tastes and flavors and could also lead to applications in the marketing of food products.

  17. Characterization of stem/progenitor cell cycle using murine circumvallate papilla taste bud organoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Eitaro; Mahe, Maxime M; Schumacher, Michael A; Matthis, Andrea L; Feng, Rui; Ren, Wenwen; Noah, Taeko K; Matsu-ura, Toru; Moore, Sean R; Hong, Christian I; Zavros, Yana; Herness, Scott; Shroyer, Noah F; Iwatsuki, Ken; Jiang, Peihua; Helmrath, Michael A; Montrose, Marshall H

    2015-11-24

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing (Lgr5(+)) cells have been identified as stem/progenitor cells in the circumvallate papillae, and single cultured Lgr5(+) cells give rise to taste cells. Here we use circumvallate papilla tissue to establish a three-dimensional culture system (taste bud organoids) that develops phenotypic characteristics similar to native tissue, including a multilayered epithelium containing stem/progenitor in the outer layers and taste cells in the inner layers. Furthermore, characterization of the cell cycle of the taste bud progenitor niche reveals striking dynamics of taste bud development and regeneration. Using this taste bud organoid culture system and FUCCI2 transgenic mice, we identify the stem/progenitor cells have at least 5 distinct cell cycle populations by tracking within 24-hour synchronized oscillations of proliferation. Additionally, we demonstrate that stem/progenitor cells have motility to form taste bud organoids. Taste bud organoids provides a system for elucidating mechanisms of taste signaling, disease modeling, and taste tissue regeneration.

  18. Expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1 in mammalian taste bud cells and the effect of its null-mutation on taste preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Iguchi, Naoko; Rong, Qi; Zhou, Minliang; Ogunkorode, Martina; Inoue, Masashi; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Margolskee, Robert F; Pfeifer, Karl; Huang, Liquan

    2009-01-20

    Vertebrate taste buds undergo continual cell turnover. To understand how the gustatory progenitor cells in the stratified lingual epithelium migrate and differentiate into different types of mature taste cells, we sought to identify genes that were selectively expressed in taste cells at different maturation stages. Here we report the expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1 in mammalian taste buds of mouse, rat, and human. Immunohistochemistry and nuclear staining showed that nearly all rodent and human taste cells express this channel. Double immunostaining with antibodies against type II and III taste cell markers validated the presence of KCNQ1 in these two types of cells. Co-localization studies with cytokeratin 14 indicated that KCNQ1 is also expressed in type IV basal precursor cells. Null mutation of the kcnq1 gene in mouse, however, did not alter the gross structure of taste buds or the expression of taste signaling molecules. Behavioral assays showed that the mutant mice display reduced preference to some umami substances, but not to any other taste compounds tested. Gustatory nerve recordings, however, were unable to detect any significant change in the integrated nerve responses of the mutant mice to umami stimuli. These results suggest that although it is expressed in nearly all taste bud cells, the function of KCNQ1 is not required for gross taste bud development or peripheral taste transduction pathways, and the reduced preference of kcnq1-null mice in the behavioral assays may be attributable to the deficiency in the central nervous system or other organs.

  19. Ethanol, saccharin, and quinine: early ontogeny of taste responsiveness and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrey P; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E

    2008-02-01

    Rat pups demonstrate high levels of immediate acceptance of ethanol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Given that the taste of ethanol is most likely perceived by infant rats as a combination of sweet and bitter, high intake of ethanol early in ontogeny may be associated with age-related enhanced responsiveness to the sweet component of ethanol taste, as well as with ontogenetic decreases in sensitivity to its bitter component. Therefore, the present study compared responsiveness to ethanol and solutions with bitter (quinine) and sweet (saccharin) taste in terms of intake and palatability across the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Characteristic patterns of responsiveness to 10% (v/v) ethanol, 0.1% saccharin, 0.2% quinine, and water in terms of taste reactivity and fluid intake were assessed in rat pups tested on postnatal day (P) 4, 9, or 12 using a new technique of on-line monitoring of fluid flow through a two-channel intraoral cannula. Taste reactivity included analysis of ingestive and aversive responses following six intraoral infusions of the test fluids. This taste reactivity probe was followed by the intake test, in which animals were allowed to voluntarily ingest fluids from an intraoral cannula. Pups of all ages showed more appetitive responses to saccharin and ethanol than to water or quinine. No age-related differences were apparent in taste responsiveness to saccharin and ethanol. However, the age-related pattern of ethanol intake drastically differed from that of saccharin. Intake of saccharin increased from P4 to P9 and decreased substantially by P12, whereas intake of ethanol gradually increased from P4 to P12. Intake of ethanol was significantly lower than intake of saccharin on P9, whereas P12 pups took in more ethanol than saccharin. The findings of the present study indicate ontogenetic dissociations between taste reactivity to ethanol and saccharin and intake of these solutions, and suggest that high acceptance of ethanol early in

  20. Immunocytochemical analysis of P2X2 in rat circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruibiao; Montoya, Alana; Bond, Amanda; Walton, Jenna; Kinnamon, John C

    2012-05-23

    Our laboratory has shown that classical synapses and synaptic proteins are associated with Type III cells. Yet it is generally accepted that Type II cells transduce bitter, sweet and umami stimuli. No classical synapses, however, have been found associated with Type II cells. Recent studies indicate that the ionotropic purinergic receptors P2X2/P2X3 are present in rodent taste buds. Taste nerve processes express the ionotropic purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3). P2X2/P2X3(Dbl-/-) mice are not responsive to sweet, umami and bitter stimuli, and it has been proposed that ATP acts as a neurotransmitter in taste buds. The goal of the present study is to learn more about the nature of purinergic contacts in rat circumvallate taste buds by examining immunoreactivity to antisera directed against the purinergic receptor P2X2. P2X2-like immunoreactivity is present in intragemmal nerve processes in rat circumvallate taste buds. Intense immunoreactivity can also be seen in the subgemmal nerve plexuses located below the basal lamina. The P2X2 immunoreactive nerve processes also display syntaxin-1-LIR. The immunoreactive nerves are in close contact with the IP(3)R3-LIR Type II cells and syntaxin-1-LIR and/or 5-HT-LIR Type III cells. Taste cell synapses are observed only from Type III taste cells onto P2X2-LIR nerve processes. Unusually large, "atypical" mitochondria in the Type II taste cells are found only at close appositions with P2X2-LIR nerve processes. P2X2 immunogold particles are concentrated at the membranes of nerve processes at close appositions with taste cells. Based on our immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopical studies we believe that both perigemmal and most all intragemmal nerve processes display P2X2-LIR. Moreover, colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy indicates that P2X2-LIR in nerve processes is concentrated at sites of close apposition with Type II cells. This supports the hypothesis that ATP may be a key neurotransmitter in taste transduction

  1. Immunocytochemical analysis of P2X2 in rat circumvallate taste buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ruibiao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our laboratory has shown that classical synapses and synaptic proteins are associated with Type III cells. Yet it is generally accepted that Type II cells transduce bitter, sweet and umami stimuli. No classical synapses, however, have been found associated with Type II cells. Recent studies indicate that the ionotropic purinergic receptors P2X2/P2X3 are present in rodent taste buds. Taste nerve processes express the ionotropic purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3. P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are not responsive to sweet, umami and bitter stimuli, and it has been proposed that ATP acts as a neurotransmitter in taste buds. The goal of the present study is to learn more about the nature of purinergic contacts in rat circumvallate taste buds by examining immunoreactivity to antisera directed against the purinergic receptor P2X2. Results P2X2-like immunoreactivity is present in intragemmal nerve processes in rat circumvallate taste buds. Intense immunoreactivity can also be seen in the subgemmal nerve plexuses located below the basal lamina. The P2X2 immunoreactive nerve processes also display syntaxin-1-LIR. The immunoreactive nerves are in close contact with the IP3R3-LIR Type II cells and syntaxin-1-LIR and/or 5-HT-LIR Type III cells. Taste cell synapses are observed only from Type III taste cells onto P2X2-LIR nerve processes. Unusually large, “atypical” mitochondria in the Type II taste cells are found only at close appositions with P2X2-LIR nerve processes. P2X2 immunogold particles are concentrated at the membranes of nerve processes at close appositions with taste cells. Conclusions Based on our immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopical studies we believe that both perigemmal and most all intragemmal nerve processes display P2X2-LIR. Moreover, colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy indicates that P2X2-LIR in nerve processes is concentrated at sites of close apposition with Type II cells. This supports the hypothesis

  2. Network model of chemical-sensing system inspired by mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Katsumi; Igarashi, Jun; Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Nakada, Kazuki; Miki, Tsutomu; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2011-07-01

    Taste buds endure extreme changes in temperature, pH, osmolarity, so on. Even though taste bud cells are replaced in a short span, they contribute to consistent taste reception. Each taste bud consists of about 50 cells whose networks are assumed to process taste information, at least preliminarily. In this article, we describe a neural network model inspired by the taste bud cells of mice. It consists of two layers. In the first layer, the chemical stimulus is transduced into an irregular spike train. The synchronization of the output impulses is induced by the irregular spike train at the second layer. These results show that the intensity of the chemical stimulus is encoded as the degree of the synchronization of output impulses. The present algorithms for signal processing result in a robust chemical-sensing system.

  3. A taste of cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be toa rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a 'taste' of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school web site: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/. (author)

  4. A Taste of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, L.

    2013-06-27

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.

  5. Perception of taste in HIV-positive individuals in treatment antiretroviral: results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Indiara Welter; da Silva, Ruann Oswaldo Carvalho; Chaiben, Cassiano Lima; Fernandes, Ângela; Naval Machado, Maria Ângela; de Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of taste in HIV-infected patients. One hundred males and females (11 to 60 years old) were divided into two groups (50 patients infected by HIV and 50 controls) and evaluated for gustatory function. The results revealed that the mean score in the evaluation of taste was significantly lower in individuals with HIV when compared to controls for both sides of the tongue (p < 0.05). Patients with HIV infection had difficulty recognizing the bitter taste, followed by salty and sweet. When each side of the tongue was evaluated separately and compared, the Wilcoxon test showed that there was no significant difference on the tongue of individuals with HIV. The prevalence of hypogeusia was 20% in individuals with this disease. Individuals with HIV infection may have a deficit in taste that can affect your general and oral health. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The taste cell-related diffuse chemosensory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarbati, A; Osculati, F

    2005-03-01

    Elements expressing the molecular mechanisms of gustatory transduction have been described in several organs in the digestive and respiratory apparatuses. These taste cell-related elements are isolated cells, which are not grouped in buds, and they have been interpreted as chemoreceptors. Their presence in epithelia of endodermal origin suggests the existence of a diffuse chemosensory system (DCS) sharing common signaling mechanisms with the "classic" taste organs. The elements of this taste cell-related DCS display a site-related morphologic polymorphism, and in the past they have been indicated with various names (e.g., brush, tuft, caveolated, fibrillo-vesicular or solitary chemosensory cells). It may be that the taste cell-related DCS is like an iceberg: the taste buds are probably only the most visible portion, with most of the iceberg more caudally located in the form of solitary chemosensory cells or chemosensory clusters. Comparative anatomical studies in lower vertebrates suggest that this 'submerged' portion may represent the most phylogenetically ancient component of the system, which is probably involved in defensive or digestive mechanisms. In the taste buds, the presence of several cell subtypes and of a wide range of molecular mechanisms permits precise food analysis. The larger, 'submerged' portion of the iceberg is composed of a polymorphic population of isolated elements or cell clusters in which the molecular cascade of cell signaling needs to be explored in detail. The little data we have strongly suggests a close relationship with taste cells. Morphological and biochemical considerations suggest that the DCS is a potential new drug target. Modulation of the respiratory and digestive apparatuses through substances, which act on the molecular receptors of this chemoreceptive system, could be a new frontier in drug discovery.

  7. Insights on consciousness from taste memory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Milagros

    2016-01-01

    Taste research in rodents supports the relevance of memory in order to determine the content of consciousness by modifying both taste perception and later action. Associated with this issue is the fact that taste and visual modalities share anatomical circuits traditionally related to conscious memory. This challenges the view of taste memory as a type of non-declarative unconscious memory.

  8. Sweet Spot Size in Virtual Sound Reproduction: A Temporal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    The influence of head misalignments on the performance of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers is often evaluated in the frequency domain. The changes in magnitude give us an idea of how much of the crosstalk is leaked into the direct signal and therefore a sweet spot performance can......-correlation we estimate the interaural time delay and define a sweet spot. The analysis is based on measurements carried out on 21 different loudspeaker configurations, including two- and four-channels arrangements. Results show that closely spaced loudspeakers are more robust to lateral displacements than wider...... span angles. Additionally, the sweet spot as a function of head rotations increases systematically when the loudspeakers are placed at elevated positions....

  9. Optical fiber taste sensors using potential sensitive dye coatings. Makuden'i kanjusei shikisomaku wo mochiita hikari fiber mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, S.; Yamaguchi, A. (Toyama National College of Maritime Technology, Toyama (Japan))

    1992-12-20

    The present paper proposes a new taste recognition system using optical response patterns from multi-channel optical fiber sensors having potential sensitive dye coatings. It was found that the sensors give large changes in optical absorption spectra of the dyes when they are immersed in various taste solutions. Consequently, it was shown that the sensors can be used as a taste sensor. Six dyes, which give large changes in dye absorption, were selected from twenty dyes and used for six-channel optical fiber taste sensors array. The absorption spectra change data were processed by multiple discriminant analysis and neural networks using back-propagation algorithm. From the analytical results, it was demonstrated that salty (NaCl), bitter (quinidine), sweet (sucrose), sour (HCl), and umami (sodium glutamate) substances can be recognized from each other by using the optical taste sensor system. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Endogenous opioids encode relative taste preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Sharif A; Norsted, Ebba; Lee, Lillian S; Lang, Penelope D; Lee, Brian S; Woolley, Joshua D; Fields, Howard L

    2006-08-01

    Endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the neural control of food intake. Opioid signaling is thought to regulate palatability, the reward value of a food item as determined by orosensory cues such as taste and texture. The reward value of a food reflects not only these sensory properties but also the relative value of competing food choices. In the present experiment, we used a consummatory contrast paradigm to manipulate the relative value of a sucrose solution for two groups of rats. Systemic injection of the nonspecific opioid antagonist naltrexone suppressed sucrose intake; for both groups, however, this suppression was selective, occurring only for the relatively more valuable sucrose solution. Our results indicate that endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the encoding of relative reward value.

  11. Disorders of Smell and Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > CONDITIONS > Disorders of Smell & Taste Adult ... permanent smell loss. Patients who have had this type of loss describe immediate burning sensation when using ...

  12. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    Objective: To explore how home economics was taught in Denmark before the recent Danish school reform, which also revised the objectives and content of home economics, naming it Food Knowledge (Madkundskab) Methods: Participant observation was done in home economic lessons in two case schools...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  13. Taste bud cells and nerves

    OpenAIRE

    武田,正子/内田,暢彦/鈴木,裕子; タケダ,マサコ/ウチダ,ノブヒコ/スズキ,ユウコ; TAKEDA,Masako/UCHIDA,Nobuhiko/SUZUKI,Yuko

    2002-01-01

    Sectioning of glossopharyngeal nerves which innervate the taste buds in the circumvallate papillae caused apoptosis of taste buds, the numbers decreasing and the taste buds disappearing after 11 days. This indicates that gustatory nerves may release a trophic substance that induces and maintains taste buds. Taste bud cells contain neurotrophins, NCAM, NSE, PGP9.5, and NeuroD which are specific markers of neurons. The BDNF and GDNF of neurotrophins, and Trk B and GFRαl of their receptors were ...

  14. Personal Variation in Preference for Sweetness: Effects of Age and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowski, Nuala; Mennella, Julie A

    2017-10-01

    Use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs), which provide sweet taste with few to no calories, has increased, but data on whether children's hedonic responses to NNSs differ from nutritive sugars or from adults' hedonic responses are limited. Most preferred levels of sucrose and the NNS sucralose were determined via a forced-choice tracking procedure in 48 children, 7-14 years (mean = 10 years), and 34 adults. Each participant also rated the liking of these taste stimuli, as well as varying concentrations of aspartame on 3- and 5-point facial hedonic scales. Anthropometric measures were obtained, and motives for palatable food intake were assessed with the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS, adults) and Kids PEMS. While use of the 3-point scale showed no age-related differences in liking of sweeteners, the 5-point scale showed that more children than adults liked higher concentrations of sucrose, sucralose, and aspartame, and the tracking procedure showed that children most preferred higher concentrations of sucrose and sucralose than adults. Regardless of age, sweet preference did not differ between obese and nonobese participants and showed no association with motives for eating palatable foods. Children's body mass index z-scores were positively associated with social and conformity motive scores for eating palatable foods. Research should move beyond measures of variation in sweet taste hedonics to include identifying motives, and the physiological and psychological consequences of eating sweets, to shed light on what children are more vulnerable to develop unfavorable eating habits, increasing risk for obesity, and other diseases.

  15. Quantitative analysis of taste bud cell numbers in fungiform and soft palate taste buds of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2011-01-07

    Mammalian taste bud cells (TBCs) consist of several cell types equipped with different taste receptor molecules, and hence the ratio of cell types in a taste bud constitutes the taste responses of the taste bud. Here we show that the population of immunohistochemically identified cell types per taste bud is proportional to the number of total TBCs in the taste bud or the area of the taste bud in fungiform papillae, and that the proportions differ among cell types. This result is applicable to soft palate taste buds. However, the density of almost all cell types, the population of cell types divided by the area of the respective taste buds, is significantly higher in soft palates. These results suggest that the turnover of TBCs is regulated to keep the ratio of each cell type constant, and that taste responsiveness is different between fungiform and soft palate taste buds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin-1 Is a Reliable Taste Bud Marker for In Situ Hybridization Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Joto; Okada, Shinji; Kishi, Mikiya; Misaka, Takumi

    2016-03-01

    Taste signals are received by taste buds. To better understand the taste reception system, expression patterns of taste-related molecules are determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses at the histological level. Nevertheless, even though ISH is essential for determining mRNA expression, few taste bud markers can be applied together with ISH. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) appears to be a reliable murine taste bud marker based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses. However, there is no evidence as to whether UEA-1 can be used for ISH. Thus, the present study evaluated UEA-1 using various histochemical methods, especially ISH. When lectin staining was performed after ISH procedures, UEA-1 clearly labeled taste cellular membranes and distinctly indicated boundaries between taste buds and the surrounding epithelial cells. Additionally, UEA-1 was determined as a taste bud marker not only when used in single-colored ISH but also when employed with double-labeled ISH or during simultaneous detection using IHC and ISH methods. These results suggest that UEA-1 is a useful marker when conducting analyses based on ISH methods. To clarify UEA-1 staining details, multi-fluorescent IHC (together with UEA-1 staining) was examined, resulting in more than 99% of cells being labeled by UEA-1 and overlapping with KCNQ1-expressing cells. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  17. Positive Charges on the Surface of Thaumatin Are Crucial for the Multi-Point Interaction with the Sweet Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Masuda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits sweet taste with a threshold of only 50 nM. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that the complex model between the T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor and thaumatin depends critically on the complementarity of electrostatic potentials. In order to further validate this model, we focused on three lysine residues (Lys78, Lys106, and Lys137, which were expected to be part of the interaction sites. Three thaumatin mutants (K78A, K106A, and K137A were prepared and their threshold values of sweetness were examined. The results showed that the sweetness of K106A was reduced by about three times and those of K78A and K137A were reduced by about five times when compared to wild-type thaumatin. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants were also determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses at atomic resolutions. The overall structures of mutant proteins were similar to that of wild-type but the electrostatic potentials around the mutated sites became more negative. Since the three lysine residues are located in 20–40 Å apart each other on the surface of thaumatin molecule, these results suggest the positive charges on the surface of thaumatin play a crucial role in the interaction with the sweet receptor, and are consistent with a large surface is required for interaction with the sweet receptor, as proposed by the multipoint interaction model named wedge model.

  18. Yields of ZP sweet maize hybrids in dependence on sowing densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet maize differs from maize of standard grain quality by many important traits that affect the ear appearance, and especially by traits controlling taste. The ear appearance trait encompasses the kernel row number, configuration, row pattern (direction and arrangement, seed set, kernel width and depth, ear shape and size. The quality of immature kernels is controlled by genes by which sweet maize differs from common maize. In order to obtain high-ranking and high-quality yields, it is necessary to provide the most suitable cropping practices for sweet maize hybrids developed at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje. The adequate sowing density is one of more important elements of correct cropping practices. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of four sowing densities in four ZP sweet maize hybrids of different FAO maturity groups on ear qualitative traits and yields obtained on chernozem type of soil in Zemun Polje. The observed traits of sweet maize (ear length, kernel row number, number of kernels per row, yield and shelling percentage significantly varied over years. The higher sowing density was the higher yield of sweet maize was, hence the highest ear yield of 9.67 t ha-1 , on the average for all four hybrids, was recorded at the highest sowing density of 70,000 plants ha-1. The highest yield was detected in the hybrid ZP 424su. The highest shelling percentage (67.81% was found in the hybrid ZP 521su at the sowing density of 60,000 plants ha-1. Generally, it can be stated that sweet maize hybrids of a shorter growing season (FAO 400 could be cultivated up to 70,000 plants ha-1, while those of a longer growing season (FAO 500 could be grown up to 60,000 plants ha-1. In such a way, the most favorable parameters of yields and the highest yields can be obtained.

  19. The effect of imiquimod on taste bud calcium transients and transmitter secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sandy Y

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Imiquimod is an immunomodulator approved for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma and has adverse side effects, including taste disturbances. Paracrine transmission, representing cell–cell communication within taste buds, has the potential to shape the final signals that taste buds transmit to the brain. Here, we tested the underlying assumption that imiquimod modifies taste transmitter secretion in taste buds of mice. Experimental Approach Taste buds were isolated from C57BL/6J mice. The effects of imiquimod on transmitter release in taste buds were measured using calcium imaging with cellular biosensors, and examining the net effect of imiquimod on taste‐evoked ATP secretion from mouse taste buds. Key Results Up to 72% of presynaptic (Type III) taste cells responded to 100 μM imiquimod with an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. These Ca2 + responses were inhibited by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2 +‐ATPase, and by U73122, a PLC inhibitor, suggesting that the Ca2 + mobilization elicited by imiquimod was dependent on release from internal Ca2 + stores. Moreover, combining studies of Ca2 + imaging with cellular biosensors showed that imiquimod evoked secretion of 5‐HT, which then provided negative feedback onto receptor (Type II) cells to reduce taste‐evoked ATP secretion. Conclusion and Implications Our results provide evidence that there is a subset of taste cells equipped with a range of intracellular mechanisms that respond to imiquimod. The findings are also consistent with a role of imiquimod as an immune response modifier, which shapes peripheral taste responses via 5‐HT signalling. PMID:27464850

  20. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  1. Utilization of Baked-Smashed Sweet Potato and Vegetables on Patisserie Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, A.; Subekti, S.; Sudewi, S.; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2018-02-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  2. Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ohishi

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder is one of the critical issues in cancer therapy. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a key agent in multiple myeloma therapy, but it induces a taste disorder. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessation of its administration. Keywords: Taste disorder, Bortezomib, Sour taste, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect

  3. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  4. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground–Background Color Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined. PMID:27708752

  5. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground-Background Color Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined.

  6. The role of taste in alcohol preference, consumption and risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Margaret; Pickering, Gary J

    2017-10-05

    Alcohol consumption is widespread, and high levels of use are associated with increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. Thus, understanding the factors that influence alcohol intake is important for disease prevention and management. Additionally, elucidating the factors that associate with alcohol preference and intake in non-clinical populations allows for product development and optimisation opportunities for the alcoholic beverage industry. The literature on how taste (orosensation) influences alcohol behavior is critically appraised in this review. Ethanol, the compound common to all alcoholic beverages, is generally aversive as it primarily elicits bitterness and irritation when ingested. Individuals who experience orosensations (both taste and chemesthetic) more intensely tend to report lower liking and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Additionally, a preference for sweetness is likely associated with a paternal history of alcohol use disorders. However, conflicting findings in the literature are common and may be partially attributable to differences in the methods used to access orosensory responsiveness and taste phenotypes. We conclude that while taste is a key driver in alcohol preference, intake and use disorder, no single taste-related factor can adequately predict alcohol behaviour. Areas for further research and suggestions for improved methodological and analytical approaches are highlighted.

  7. Effect of ionizing radiation on the taste function of patients submitted to head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Amaro Ilidio Vespasiano; Galante, Celio

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the taste function in patients submitted to radiotherapy in the head and neck region. Materials and methods: twenty patients diagnosed with head and neck tumors and undergoing treatment in the Division of Radiotherapy at Santa Casa de Misericordia de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, were selected. For their taste function testing, four solutions were manipulated with salt (NaCl), sugar (sucrose), citric acid (for acidity), and urea (for bitterness), at three different (low, medium and high) concentrations. Weekly tests were performed during the first three weeks of radiotherapy, with random administration of the solutions (three drops each) respecting the order of their concentration levels (low, medium and high). After the application of each solution, the patient reported which flavor he/she tasted. Results: a statistically significant difference was observed in the loss of taste function as the results in the 1st and 4th weeks of treatment were compared, with salty solution at the three concentration levels, with the sweet solution at low and medium concentrations, and with the sour and bitter solutions, only at low concentration. Conclusion: ionizing radiation alters the taste function of patients submitted to head and neck radiotherapy. (author)

  8. Effect of ionizing radiation on the taste function of patients submitted to head and neck radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Amaro Ilidio Vespasiano [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Galante, Celio [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Div. de Radioterapia; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo, E-mail: manzi@pucminas.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the taste function in patients submitted to radiotherapy in the head and neck region. Materials and methods: twenty patients diagnosed with head and neck tumors and undergoing treatment in the Division of Radiotherapy at Santa Casa de Misericordia de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, were selected. For their taste function testing, four solutions were manipulated with salt (NaCl), sugar (sucrose), citric acid (for acidity), and urea (for bitterness), at three different (low, medium and high) concentrations. Weekly tests were performed during the first three weeks of radiotherapy, with random administration of the solutions (three drops each) respecting the order of their concentration levels (low, medium and high). After the application of each solution, the patient reported which flavor he/she tasted. Results: a statistically significant difference was observed in the loss of taste function as the results in the 1st and 4th weeks of treatment were compared, with salty solution at the three concentration levels, with the sweet solution at low and medium concentrations, and with the sour and bitter solutions, only at low concentration. Conclusion: ionizing radiation alters the taste function of patients submitted to head and neck radiotherapy. (author)

  9. Influence of brewing conditions on taste components in Fuding white tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Li, Yulin; Lv, Yangjun; Jiang, Yulan; Pan, Junxian; Duan, Yuwei; Zhu, Yuejin; Zhang, Shikang

    2017-07-01

    White tea has received increasing attention of late as a result of its sweet taste and health benefits. During the brewing of white tea, many factors may affect the nutritional and sensory quality of the resulting infusions. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of various infusion conditions on the taste components of Fuding white tea, including infusion time, ratio of tea and water, number of brewing steps, and temperature. Brewing conditions had a strong effect on the taste compound profile and sensory characteristics. The catechin, caffeine, theanine and free amino acid contents generally increased with increasing infusion time and temperature. Conditions comprising an infusion time of 7 min, a brewing temperature of 100 °C, a tea and water ratio of 1:30 or 1:40, and a second brewing step, respectively, were shown to obtain the highest contents of most compounds. Regarding tea sensory evaluation, conditions comprising an infusion time of 3 min, a brewing temperature of 100 °C, a tea and water ratio of 1:50, and a first brewing step, resulted in the highest sensory score for comprehensive behavior of color, aroma and taste. The results of the present study reveal differences in the contents of various taste compounds, including catechins, caffeine, theanine and free amino acids, with respect to different brewing conditions, and sensory scores also varied with brewing conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing units of biological olfactory or taste systems at the tissue level, cellular level, or molecular level. Specifically, at the cellular level, there are mainly two categories of cells have been employed for the development of biomimetic chemical sensors, which are natural cells and bioengineered cells, respectively. Natural cells are directly isolated from biological olfactory and taste systems, which are convenient to achieve. However, natural cells often suffer from the undefined sensing properties and limited amount of identical cells. On the other hand, bioengineered cells have shown decisive advantages to be applied in the development of biomimetic chemical sensors due to the powerful biotechnology for the reconstruction of the cell sensing properties. Here, we briefly summarized the most recent advances of biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells. The development challenges and future trends are discussed as well.

  11. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  12. Perception of bitterness, sweetness and liking of different genotypes of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M; Gawthrop, F; Michelmore, R W; Wagstaff, C; Methven, L

    2016-04-15

    Lettuce is an important leafy vegetable, consumed across the world, containing bitter sesquiterpenoid lactone (SL) compounds that may negatively affect consumer acceptance and consumption. We assessed liking of samples with differing absolute abundance and different ratios of bitter:sweet compounds by analysing recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from an interspecific lettuce mapping population derived from a cross between a wild (L. serriola acc. UC96US23) and domesticated lettuce (L. sativa, cv. Salinas). We found that the ratio of bitter:sweet compounds was a key determinant of bitterness perception and liking. We were able to demonstrate that SLs, such as 8-deoxylactucin-15-sulphate, contribute most strongly to bitterness perception, whilst 15-p-hydroxylphenylacetyllactucin-8-sulphate does not contribute to bitter taste. Glucose was the sugar most highly correlated with sweetness perception. There is a genetic basis to the biochemical composition of lettuce. This information will be useful in lettuce breeding programmes in order to produce leaves with more favourable taste profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cucurbitane Glycosides Derived from Mogroside IIE: Structure-Taste Relationships, Antioxidant Activity, and Acute Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mogroside IIE is a bitter triterpenoid saponin which is the main component of unripe Luo Han Guo fruit and a precursor of the commercially available sweetener mogroside V. In this study, we developed an enzymatic glycosyl transfer method, by which bitter mogroside IIE could be converted into a sweet triterpenoid saponin mixture. The reactant concentration, temperature, pH and buffer system were studied. New saponins with the α-glucose group were isolated from the resulting mixtures, and the structures of three components of the extract were determined. The structure-taste relationships of these derivatives were also studied together with those of the natural mogrosides. The number and stereoconfiguration of glucose groups present in the mogroside molecules were found to be the main factor to determine the sweet or bitter taste of a compound. The antioxidant and food safety properties were initially evaluated by their radical scavenging ability and via 7 day mice survival tests, respectively. The results showed that the sweet triterpenoid saponin mixture has the same favorable physiological and safety characteristics as the natural mogrosides.

  14. Taste and chemical characteristics of low molecular weight fractions from tofuyo - Japanese fermented soybean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Kinjo, Ayano; Yasuda, Shin; Kuba-Miyara, Megumi; Tachibana, Shinjiro; Yasuda, Masaaki

    2018-06-30

    Tofuyo, a Japanese traditional food, is a fermented soybean curd manufactured in Okinawa region. Due to its original cheese-like flavor, the current study was designed to evaluate the sensory and chemical characteristics of three stepwise ultrafiltration fractions, using 10,000, 3000 and 500 Da membranes and further chromatographic fractions from tofuyo. The results showed that umami, sweet and salty were the characteristic tastes of all fractions, with umami intensity evaluated for the fraction with MW less than 500 Da (F-500) as the most prominent among the three fractions. Subsequent Sephadex G-25 SF fractions and RP-HPLC fractions were subjected to sensory and chemical analyses. The tastiest fraction contained sodium chloride, sugars, organic acids, umami and sweet free amino acids, at concentrations above their thresholds. The abundant presence of umami and sweet free amino acids with certain concentrations of sodium chloride and glucose might provide the typical savory taste of tofuyo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Siew Ling; Salleh, Nurhazwani; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Forde, Ciaran G

    2018-01-31

    Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury) may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet ("Cheng Teng") or a savoury (broth) preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal) or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal) in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m²). There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments ( p = 0.012), with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214). Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality ( p < 0.001). Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control.

  16. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet (“Cheng Teng” or a savoury (broth preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m2. There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments (p = 0.012, with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214. Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality (p < 0.001. Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control.

  17. Evaluation of participants' perception and taste thresholds with a zirconia palatal plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takeshi; Takano, Tomofumi; Tasaka, Akinori; Ueda, Takayuki; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2016-10-01

    Zirconia and cobalt-chromium can withstand a similar degree of loading. Therefore, using a zirconia base for removable dentures could allow the thickness of the palatal area to be reduced similarly to metal base dentures. We hypothesized that zirconia palatal plate for removable dentures provides a high level of participants' perception without influencing taste thresholds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the participants' perception and taste thresholds of zirconia palatal plate. Palatal plates fabricated using acrylic resin, zirconia, and cobalt-chromium alloy were inserted into healthy individuals. Taste thresholds were investigated using the whole-mouth gustatory test, and participants' perception was evaluated using the 100-mm visual analog scale to assess the ease of pronunciation, ease of swallowing, sensation of temperature, metallic taste, sensation of foreign body, subjective sensory about weight, adhesiveness of chewing gum, and general satisfaction. For the taste thresholds, no significant differences were noted in sweet, salty, sour, bitter, or umami tastes among participants wearing no plate, or the resin, zirconia, and metal plates. Speech was easier and foreign body sensation was lower with the zirconia plate than with the resin plate. Evaluation of the adhesiveness of chewing gum showed that chewing gum does not readily adhere to the zirconia plate in comparison with the metal plate. The comprehensive participants' perception of the zirconia plate was evaluated as being superior to the resin plate. A zirconia palatal plate provides a high level of participants' perception without influencing taste thresholds. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of taste receptors in Solitary Chemosensory Cells of rodent airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbarbati Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical irritation of airway mucosa elicits a variety of reflex responses such as coughing, apnea, and laryngeal closure. Inhaled irritants can activate either chemosensitive free nerve endings, laryngeal taste buds or solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs. The SCC population lies in the nasal respiratory epithelium, vomeronasal organ, and larynx, as well as deeper in the airway. The objective of this study is to map the distribution of SCCs within the airways and to determine the elements of the chemosensory transduction cascade expressed in these SCCs. Methods We utilized a combination of immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques (rtPCR and in situ hybridization on rats and transgenic mice where the Tas1R3 or TRPM5 promoter drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP. Results Epithelial SCCs specialized for chemoreception are distributed throughout much of the respiratory tree of rodents. These cells express elements of the taste transduction cascade, including Tas1R and Tas2R receptor molecules, α-gustducin, PLCβ2 and TrpM5. The Tas2R bitter taste receptors are present throughout the entire respiratory tract. In contrast, the Tas1R sweet/umami taste receptors are expressed by numerous SCCs in the nasal cavity, but decrease in prevalence in the trachea, and are absent in the lower airways. Conclusions Elements of the taste transduction cascade including taste receptors are expressed by SCCs distributed throughout the airways. In the nasal cavity, SCCs, expressing Tas1R and Tas2R taste receptors, mediate detection of irritants and foreign substances which trigger trigeminally-mediated protective airway reflexes. Lower in the respiratory tract, similar chemosensory cells are not related to the trigeminal nerve but may still trigger local epithelial responses to irritants. In total, SCCs should be considered chemoreceptor cells that help in preventing damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled irritants and

  19. Expression of taste receptors in solitary chemosensory cells of rodent airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Sbarbati, Andrea; Finger, Thomas E

    2011-01-13

    Chemical irritation of airway mucosa elicits a variety of reflex responses such as coughing, apnea, and laryngeal closure. Inhaled irritants can activate either chemosensitive free nerve endings, laryngeal taste buds or solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs). The SCC population lies in the nasal respiratory epithelium, vomeronasal organ, and larynx, as well as deeper in the airway. The objective of this study is to map the distribution of SCCs within the airways and to determine the elements of the chemosensory transduction cascade expressed in these SCCs. We utilized a combination of immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques (rtPCR and in situ hybridization) on rats and transgenic mice where the Tas1R3 or TRPM5 promoter drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Epithelial SCCs specialized for chemoreception are distributed throughout much of the respiratory tree of rodents. These cells express elements of the taste transduction cascade, including Tas1R and Tas2R receptor molecules, α-gustducin, PLCβ2 and TrpM5. The Tas2R bitter taste receptors are present throughout the entire respiratory tract. In contrast, the Tas1R sweet/umami taste receptors are expressed by numerous SCCs in the nasal cavity, but decrease in prevalence in the trachea, and are absent in the lower airways. Elements of the taste transduction cascade including taste receptors are expressed by SCCs distributed throughout the airways. In the nasal cavity, SCCs, expressing Tas1R and Tas2R taste receptors, mediate detection of irritants and foreign substances which trigger trigeminally-mediated protective airway reflexes. Lower in the respiratory tract, similar chemosensory cells are not related to the trigeminal nerve but may still trigger local epithelial responses to irritants. In total, SCCs should be considered chemoreceptor cells that help in preventing damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled irritants and pathogens.

  20. Influence of yeast macromolecules on sweetness in dry wines: role of the saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Hsp12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Axel; Marullo, Philippe; Moine, Virginie; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2011-03-09

    Yeast autolysis during lees contact influences the organoleptic properties of wines especially by increasing their sweet taste. Although observed by winemakers, this phenomenon is poorly explained in enology. Moreover, the compounds responsible for sweetness in wine remain unidentified. This work provides new insights in this way by combining sensorial, biochemical and genetic approaches. First, we verified by sensory analysis that yeast autolysis in red wine has a significant effect on sweetness. Moderate additions of ethanol or glycerol did not have the same effect. Second, a sapid fraction was isolated from lees extracts by successive ultrafiltrations and HPLC purifications. Using nano-LC-MS/MS, peptides released by the yeast heat shock protein Hsp12p were distinctly identified in this sample. Third, we confirmed the sweet contribution of this protein by sensorial comparison of red wines incubated with two kinds of yeast strains: a wild-type strain containing the native Hsp12p and a deletion mutant strain that lacks the Hsp12p protein (Δ°HSP12 strain). Red wines incubated with wild-type strain showed a significantly higher sweetness than control wines incubated with Δ°HSP12 strains. These results demonstrated the contribution of protein Hsp12p in the sweet perception consecutive to yeast autolysis in wine.

  1. Sweetness and other sensory properties of model fruit drinks: Does viscosity have an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenstein, Cai V S; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild; Fischer, Markus

    2015-03-15

    The impact of thickening agents and viscosity levels on sensory perception was studied in model fruit drinks. Four formulations were prepared that varied in the sweetener blend (erythritol, maltitol and/or steviol glycosides). Locust bean gum and its blends with either xanthan or carrageenan were used to adjust viscosity levels (20, 40, and 70 mPa s). The ranges of viscosity and sweetness level were selected to represent a typical concentration range in commercially available beverages. An increase in viscosity resulted in significant increases in pulpiness, sliminess and perceived viscosity (P-values ≤ 0.001), which were not dependent on sweeteners or hydrocolloid type. Taste perception remained largely unchanged irrespective of the hydrocolloid used. The impact of viscosity on sweetness and taste perception was much smaller in the concentrations used than has been generally reported. The effect of the type of hydrocolloid on the perception of taste attributes was greater than that of viscosity. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. "Smooth operator": Music modulates the perceived creaminess, sweetness, and bitterness of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Wang, Qian Janice; van Ee, Raymond; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    There has been a recent growth of interest in determining whether sound (specifically music and soundscapes) can enhance not only the basic taste attributes associated with food and beverage items (such as sweetness, bitterness, sourness, etc.), but also other important components of the tasting experience, such as, for instance, crunchiness, creaminess, and/or carbonation. In the present study, participants evaluated the perceived creaminess of chocolate. Two contrasting soundtracks were produced with such texture-correspondences in mind, and validated by means of a pre-test. The participants tasted the same chocolate twice (without knowing that the chocolates were identical), each time listening to one of the soundtracks. The 'creamy' soundtrack enhanced the perceived creaminess and sweetness of the chocolates, as compared to the ratings given while listening to the 'rough' soundtrack. Moreover, while the participants preferred the creamy soundtrack, this difference did not appear to affect their overall enjoyment of the chocolates. Interestingly, and in contrast with previous similar studies, these results demonstrate that in certain cases, sounds can have a perceptual effect on gustatory food attributes without necessarily altering the hedonic experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-02-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  4. Mixing Tamiflu with Sweet Liquids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    If your doctor prescribes Tamiflu® capsules for your child and your child cannot swallow them, this podcast describes how to mix the contents of the capsules with a sweet thick liquid so they can be given that way.

  5. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederacke, Ingmar; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Stice, Steve; Schwabe, Robert F.; Mistretta, Charlotte M.; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC). Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5) and young postnatal (P1-10) mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT) to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1) P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP) to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2) Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3) Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III) of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC. PMID:26741369

  6. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Boggs

    Full Text Available Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC. Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5 and young postnatal (P1-10 mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1 P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2 Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3 Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC.

  7. Contribution