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Sample records for sweet potato beverage

  1. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  2. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  3. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  5. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  6. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  7. The Current Incidence of Viral Disease in Korean Sweet Potatoes and Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Sweet Potato Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV and sweet potato virus C (SPVC were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV, Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1 in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  8. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  9. Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...

  10. Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Yamaguchi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Among the available transformation methods reported on sweet potato, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is more successful and desirable. Stem explants have shown to be ideal for the transformation of sweet potato because of their ready availability as explants, the simple transformation process, and high-frequency-regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Under the two-step kanamycin-hygromycin selection method and using the appropriate explants type (stem explants), the efficiency of transformation can be considerably improved in cv. Beniazuma. The high efficiency in the transformation of stem explants suggests that the transformation protocol described in this chapter warrants testing for routine stable transformation of diverse varieties of sweet potato.

  11. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content in sweet potato roots and potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kawashima, K.

    1982-01-01

    The sucrose content in both potato tubers and sweet potato roots was considerably increased by gamma-irradiation. The maximum increase was achieved by an irradiation dose of 3 to 4 kGy for potatoes and 0.8 to 2 kGy for sweet potatoes. Cooling treatment (15°C, 2 weeks) for sweet potato roots also enhanced the sucrose content (almost 2 times) but was not additive to the irradiation treatment; the maximum sucrose content in irradiated sweet potato roots was in the range of 7 to 12% irrespective of the cooling treatment, depending on the variety of sweet potatoes. Irradiation made the sucrose content in the roots 2 to 4 times higher

  12. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  13. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be...

  14. Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Taizo

    2007-01-01

    Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)

  15. Determinants of Sweet Potato Value Addition among Smallholder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sweet potato harvested significantly increased farmers' decision to add value by 0.494 ... (2004), bulkiness and perishability affect post- ..... credit makes it possible for farmers to purchase .... Promotion of the Sweet Potato for the Food Industry.

  16. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    Sweet potato varieties with dark orange flesh have more beta carotene than those with light colored flesh and their increased cultivation is being encouraged in Africa where Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem. Sweet potato fries are a common preparation in most African homes. Its leaves are a common side ...

  17. Effect of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage on health-related biomarkers and safety parameters in Caucasian subjects with elevated levels of blood pressure and liver function biomarkers: a 4-week, open-label, non-comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Tomoyuki; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Watanabe, Osamu; Goto, Kazuhisa; Boelsma, Esther; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu; Suda, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    An open-label study with one treatment arm was conducted to investigate changes in health-related biomarkers (blood pressure and liver enzyme activity) and the safety of 4 weeks of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage in Caucasian subjects. Twenty healthy adults, 18-70 years of age, with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2), elevated blood pressure and elevated levels of liver function biomarkers consumed two cartons of purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage (125 ml, including 117 mg anthocyanin per carton) daily for 4 weeks. Hematology, serum clinical profile, dipstick urinalysis and blood pressure were determined before consumption, at 2 and 4 weeks of consumption and after a 2-week washout period. A trend was found toward lowering systolic blood pressure during the treatment period (p=0.0590). No significant changes were found in diastolic blood pressure throughout the study period. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower after 4 weeks of consumption compared with before consumption (p=0.0125) and was significantly higher after the 2-week washout period compared with after consumption (p=0.0496). The serum alanine aminotransferase level significantly increased over time, but aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase levels stayed within the normal range of reference values. Safety parameters of the blood and urine showed no clinically relevant changes. The consumption of a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage for 4 weeks resulted in no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of the blood and urine and showed a trend toward lowering systolic blood pressure.

  18. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico may be moved interstate to Atlantic Coast ports north of and including Baltimore, MD, under...

  19. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Amanda C; Sehn, Georgia A R; Rebellato, Ana Paula; Coutinho, Janclei P; Godoy, Helena T; Chang, Yoon K; Steel, Caroline J; Clerici, Maria Teresa P S

    2018-01-01

    Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey's test (p<0.05) was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers' health and for the agricultural business.

  20. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA C. NOGUEIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey’s test (p<0.05 was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers’ health and for the agricultural business.

  1. ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) fed processed sweet potato ( Ipomea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...

  2. The sweet potato IbMYB1 gene as a potential visible marker for sweet potato intragenic vector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cha Young; Ahn, Young Ock; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Catanach, Andrew S; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Conner, Anthony J; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2010-07-01

    MYB transcription factors play important roles in transcriptional regulation of many secondary metabolites including anthocyanins. We cloned the R2R3-MYB type IbMYB1 complementary DNAs from the purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cv Sinzami) and investigated the expression patterns of IbMYB1 gene with IbMYB1a and IbMYB1b splice variants in leaf and root tissues of various sweet potato cultivars by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The transcripts of IbMYB1 were predominantly expressed in the purple-fleshed storage roots and they were also detectable in the leaf tissues accumulating anthocyanin pigments. In addition, transcript levels of IbMYB1 gene were up-regulated by treatment with methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid in leaf and root tissues of cv. White Star. To set up the intragenic vector system in sweet potato, we first evaluated the utilization of the IbMYB1 gene as a visible selectable marker. The IbMYB1a was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves under the control of a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, a root-specific and sucrose-inducible sporamin promoter, and an oxidative stress-inducible sweet potato anionic peroxidase2 promoter. We also showed that overexpression of IbMYB1a induced massive anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves and up-regulated the transcript levels of the structural genes in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the expression of IbMYB1a led to production of cyanidin as a major core molecule of anthocyanidins in tobacco leaves. These results suggest that the IbMYB1 gene can be applicable to a visible marker for sweet potato transformation with intragenic vectors, as well as the production of anthocyanin as important nutritive value in other plant species.

  3. Synthetic Hexaploids Derived from Wild Species Related to Sweet Potato

    OpenAIRE

    SHIOTANI, Itaru; KAWASE, Tsuneo; 塩谷, 格; 川瀬, 恒男

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of germplasm of the wild species in sweet-potato breeding has been conducted for the last three decades. Such attempts brought some remarkable achievments in improving root yield, starch content and resistance to the nematodes of sweet potato. Some wild plants in polyploid series may have many genes potentially important for further improvement of the agronomic traits. However, the genomic relationship between the wild relatives and hexaploid sweet potato (2n=6x=90) has been u...

  4. Functional and pasting properties of cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and sweet potato starch mixtures at different ratios were investigated. Starches from four different cassava genotypes ('Adehye', AFS048, 'Bankye Botan' and OFF146) and one local sweet potato were used for the study. The swelling volume and swelling power of ...

  5. Effects of incorporating nonmodified sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flour on wheat pasta functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Lee, Youngseung; Obeidat, Hayat

    2017-12-28

    The effects of substituting wheat flour using fractions of blanched or nonblanched sweet potato flour on produced pasta functional characteristics were investigated. The use of sweet potato flour to replace fractions of wheat flour, regardless of blanching treatment, resulted in significant (p pasta water uptake and solid leaching out and freeze-thaw stability of produced pasta. For instance, treatment containing 40% of nonblanched sweet potato flour and held at 55C resulted in 27% point increase in WHC compared to the control. Sweet potato flour was also contributed to the decrease in treatments pasting viscosities and in cooked pasta hardness. Cooked pasta hardness was significantly (p pasta made using fractions of sweet potato were equivalent to or sometimes superior to that of the control sample. Results indicated the possible enhancement of pasta nutritional quality including firmness, cooking loss, and water uptake without impairing consumer acceptability. The use of sweet potato flour in pasta would enhance the nutritional and physicochemical properties of developed pasta and pasta products. Furthermore, since sweet potato is not cultivated most of the year; sweet potato flour pasta would be better utilized in food processing and is expected to enhance sweet potato consumption year around. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Viscoelastic properties of sweet potato complementary porridges as influenced by endogenous amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabubuya, Agnes; Namutebi, Agnes; Byaruhanga, Yusuf; Schuller, Reidar B; Narvhus, Judith; Wicklund, Trude

    2017-11-01

    Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) roots contain amylolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze starch thus having the potential to affect the viscosity of sweet potato porridges provided the appropriate working conditions for the enzymes are attained. In this study, the effect of sweet potato variety, postharvest handling conditions, freshly harvested and room/ambient stored roots (3 weeks), and slurry solids content on the viscoelastic properties of complementary porridges prepared using amylase enzyme activation technique were investigated. Five temperatures (55°C, 65°C, 70°C, 75°C, and 80°C) were used to activate sweet potato amylases and the optimum temperature was found to be 75°C. Stored sweet potato roots had higher soluble solids (⁰Brix) content in the pastes compared to fresh roots. In all samples, activation of amylases at 75°C caused changes in the viscoelastic parameters: phase angle (tan δ) and complex viscosity (η * ). Postharvest handling conditions and slurry solids content significantly affected the viscoelastic properties of the porridges with flours from stored roots yielding viscous (liquid-like) porridges and fresh roots producing elastic (solid-like) porridges. Increase in slurry solids content caused reduction in the phase angle values and increase in the viscosity of the sweet potato porridges. The viscosity of the porridges decreased with storage of sweet potato roots. These results provide a possibility for exploiting sweet potato endogenous amylases in the preparation of complementary porridges with both drinkable viscosities and appropriate energy and nutrient densities for children with varying energy needs.

  7. Fast Foods, Sweets and Beverage Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Takruri, Hamed; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Heath, Dennis D

    2018-01-27

    Background: The effects of consuming fast foods, sweets and beverages on the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) are unclear. The aim of this case-control study was to assess possible associations between the consumption of different fast foods, sweets and beverages and CRC risk in a Jordanian population. Methods: Two hundred and twenty diagnosed CRC cases and 281 controls were enrolled. Diet history was obtained using a validated quantitative questionnaire. Results: Consumption of some types of fast food, and particularly falafel, was associated with an increased risk of developing CRC. Elevated risk was found for potato and corn chips with an AOR of 4.36 (95%CI: 1.24-15.28) for daily consumption and 3.33 (95%CI: 1.00-11.11) for ≥5 servings/week. Consuming 1-2 or >5 servings per week of fried potatoes or 2-3 servings per week of chicken in sandwiches also increased the risk while exposure to fresh tomato juice and hot pepper sauce on a monthly basis appeared to exert a protective effect. Conclusions: Consumption of fried fast food items was significantly linked with an increased risk of developing CRC in Jordan. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. Bio-deterioration of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The biodeterioration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was investigated at Port. Harcourt, south southern Nigeria. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer,. Botryodiplodia theobroma and Penicillium sp. were found to be associated with deteriorating sweet potato tubers and used for ...

  9. Profitability of sweet potato production in derived savannah zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined profitability of sweet potato production in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling technique; analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques. The result revealed that ...

  10. Reconciling Conflicting Phylogenies in the Origin of Sweet Potato and Dispersal to Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rodríguez, Pablo; Carruthers, Tom; Wood, John R I; Williams, Bethany R M; Weitemier, Kevin; Kronmiller, Brent; Ellis, David; Anglin, Noelle L; Longway, Lucas; Harris, Stephen A; Rausher, Mark D; Kelly, Steven; Liston, Aaron; Scotland, Robert W

    2018-04-23

    The sweet potato is one of the world's most widely consumed crops, yet its evolutionary history is poorly understood. In this paper, we present a comprehensive phylogenetic study of all species closely related to the sweet potato and address several questions pertaining to the sweet potato that remained unanswered. Our research combined genome skimming and target DNA capture to sequence whole chloroplasts and 605 single-copy nuclear regions from 199 specimens representing the sweet potato and all of its crop wild relatives (CWRs). We present strongly supported nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies demonstrating that the sweet potato had an autopolyploid origin and that Ipomoea trifida is its closest relative, confirming that no other extant species were involved in its origin. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and chloroplast genomes shows conflicting topologies regarding the monophyly of the sweet potato. The process of chloroplast capture explains these conflicting patterns, showing that I. trifida had a dual role in the origin of the sweet potato, first as its progenitor and second as the species with which the sweet potato introgressed so one of its lineages could capture an I. trifida chloroplast. In addition, we provide evidence that the sweet potato was present in Polynesia in pre-human times. This, together with several other examples of long-distance dispersal in Ipomoea, negates the need to invoke ancient human-mediated transport as an explanation for its presence in Polynesia. These results have important implications for understanding the origin and evolution of a major global food crop and question the existence of pre-Columbian contacts between Polynesia and the American continent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biogas utilization for drying sweet potato chips by using infrared dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharti, Rahayuningtyas, Ari; Susanti, Novita Dwi; Sitompul, Rislima Febriani

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to utilize biogas, that produced from organic waste, as fuel for infrared dryers. The digester was dome type, which made from fiberglass, 5.5 m3 capacities, gas container made from soft PVC, 5.6 m3 capacities. The infrared dryer was household scale which have dimension 2000 mm x 2000 mm x 2000 mm, it is consist of 2 racks, which have size 1500 mm x 500 mm x 1400 mm, and consist of 44 baking pans (600 mm X 400 mm x 30 mm), the dryer has 36 kg of capacity. The parameters observed include ambient temperature, temperature inside the digester, pH value, biogas production, drying room temperature, moisture content of sweet potato and biogas consumption for drying. Infrared dryer is used to dry the sweet potato slices thickness of 2 mm with total amount 12 kg, at room temperature dryer ± 60 °C. The results showed that the average biogas production was 1.335 m3 per day, at a temperature of 26 - 35 °C and the neutral pH value was 6.99 - 7.7. 12 kg of sweet potato sliced dried for 4 hours, the initial moisture content of 79.68 % decreased to 8.98 %, the consumption of biogas used 4,952 m3. The final result of drying process of sweet potato slices of 3.5 kg, there was a shrinkage of 70.83 %. Characterization of sweet potato slices is 3 % protein, 0,6 % fat, 94 % carbohydrate and 2 % ash. These sweet potato can be used as flour for cookies and cake raw materials, the use of sweet potato flour can reach 50 - 100 %.

  12. Agronomic performance of locally adapted sweet potato (Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    ELISA established that field plants had a higher virus titre compared to the tissue culture regenerated plants. Key words: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), tissue culture, ..... Commercial Vegetable Production Guides (CVPG) (2003). Sweet.

  13. Resource Use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Offa and Oyun local government areas of Kwara State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from one hundred sweet potato farmers who were selected from the two local government areas during the 2003/2004 farming season. The data was ...

  14. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  15. Cancer-preventive Properties of an Anthocyanin-enriched Sweet Potato in the APCMIN Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Khalid; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Philpott, Martin; Karunasinghe, Nishi

    2017-09-01

    Anthocyanin-rich foods and preparations have been reported to reduce the risk of life-style related diseases, including cancer. The SL222 sweet potato, a purple-fleshed cultivar developed in New Zealand, accumulates high levels of anthocyanins in its storage root. We examined the chemopreventative properties of the SL222 sweet potato in the C57BL/6J-APC MIN/+ (APC MIN ) mouse, a genetic model of colorectal cancer. APC MIN and C57BL/6J wild-type mice (n=160) were divided into four feeding groups consuming diets containing 10% SL222 sweet potato flesh, 10% SL222 sweet potato skin, or 0.12% ARE (Anthocyanin rich-extract prepared from SL222 sweet potato at a concentration equivalent to the flesh-supplemented diet) or a control diet (AIN-76A) for 18 weeks. At 120 days of age, the mice were anaesthetised, and blood samples were collected before the mice were sacrificed. The intestines were used for adenoma enumeration. The SL222 sweet potato-supplemented diets reduced the adenoma number in the APC MIN mice. These data have significant implications for the use of this sweet potato variant in protection against colorectal cancer.

  16. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  17. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were

  18. Genetic dissimilarity among sweet potato genotypes using morphological and molecular descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Knoblauch Viega de Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic dissimilarity among sweet potato genotypes using morphological and molecular descriptors. The experiment was conducted in the Olericulture Sector at Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM and evaluated 60 sweet potato genotypes. For morphological characterization, 24 descriptors were used. For molecular characterization, 11 microsatellite primers specific for sweet potatoes were used, obtaining 210 polymorphic bands. Morphological and molecular diversity was obtained by dissimilarity matrices based on the coefficient of simple matching and the Jaccard index for morphological and molecular data, respectively. From these matrices, dendrograms were built. There is a large amount of genetic variability among sweet potato genotypes of the germplasm bank at UFVJM based on morphological and molecular characterizations. There was no duplicate suspicion or strong association between morphological and molecular analyses. Divergent accessions have been identified by molecular and morphological analyses, which can be used as parents in breeding programmes to produce progenies with high genetic variability.

  19. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) attenuates diet-induced aortic stiffening independent of changes in body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Tyler; Ouyang, An; Berrones, Adam J; Campbell, Marilyn S; Du, Bing; Fleenor, Bradley S

    2017-08-01

    We hypothesized a sweet potato intervention would prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced aortic stiffness, which would be associated with decreased arterial oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial uncoupling. Young (8-week old) C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low fat (LF; 10% fat), HF (60% fat), low-fat sweet potato (LFSP; 10% fat containing 260.3 μg/kcal sweet potato), or high-fat sweet potato diet (HFSP; 60% fat containing 260.3 μg/kcal sweet potato) for 16 weeks. Compared with LF and LFSP, HF- and HFSP-fed mice had increased body mass and percent fat mass with lower percent lean mass (all, P Sweet potato intervention did not influence body composition (all, P > 0.05). Arterial stiffness, assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity and ex vivo mechanical testing of the elastin region elastic modulus (EEM) was greater in HF compared with LF and HFSP animals (all, P sweet potato attenuates diet-induced aortic stiffness independent of body mass and composition, which is associated with a normalization of arterial oxidative stress possibly due to mitochondrial uncoupling.

  20. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. growing in conditions of southern Slovak republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Šlosár

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. belongs to very important crops from aspect of its world production. It is grown in large areas in Asia, on the contrary, sweet potato production in Europe presents minimal part of its total world rate. The sweet potato is less-known crop, grown only on small area in home gardens in Slovak Republic. Tubers of sweet potato are characterized by anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties due to the presence of valuable health-promoting components, such as carotenoids or vitamin C. The main objective of study was testing of sweet potato growing in conditions of southern Slovak Republic with focus on quantity and quality of its yield. The field trial was realised on land of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2015. Within trial, effect of cultivar and mulching on the selected quantitative (average tuber weight; yield per plant; yield in t.ha-1 and qualitative (total carotenoids; vitamin C parameters were tested. One certified cultivar of sweet potato 'Beauregard' was used as a comparative cultivar. Other two cultivars were marked according to the market place at which were purchased and sequentially used for seedling preparation. Tubers of first un-known cultivar were purchased in the Serbian market (marked as 'Serbian'. Tubers of next sweet potato cultivar were purchased on the market in Zagreb (marked as 'Zagrebian'. Outplating of sweet potato seedlings were realised on the 19th May 2015. The sweet potato was grown by hillock system. Each cultivar was planted in two variants (rows: non-mulching (bare soil and mulching by black non-woven textile. All variants were divided to three replications with 6 plants. Difference between rows was 1.20 m and seedlings were planted in distance of 0.30 m in row. The harvested tubers were classified in two size classes: >150 g (marketable yield and <150 g (non-marketable yield. Total carotenoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. The

  1. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  2. Value-added probiotic development by high-solid fermentation of sweet potato with Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carmen; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda K; Njiti, Victor; Xia, Qun; Chukwuma, Franklin

    2017-05-01

    Controlled fermentation of Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) var. Beauregard by yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii (MAY 796) to enhance the nutritional value of sweet potato was investigated. An average 8.00 × 10 10 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g of viable cells were obtained over 5-day high-solid fermentation. Yeast cell viability did not change significantly over time at 4°C whereas the number of viable yeast cells reduced significantly at room temperature (25°C), which was approximately 40% in 12 months. Overall, the controlled fermentation of sweet potato by MAY 796 enhanced protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, amino acid, and fatty acid levels. Development of value-added sweet potato has a great potential in animal feed and human nutrition. S. boulardii - fermented sweet potato has great potential as probiotic-enriched animal feed and/or functional food for human nutrition.

  3. Improving properties of sweet potato composite flour: Influence of lactic fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Neti; Nurdjanah, Siti; Setyani, Sri; Novianti, Dini

    2017-06-01

    The use of locally grown crops such as sweet potato as raw material for composite flour is considered advantageous as it reduces the importation of wheat flour. However the use of native sweetpotato flour has drawback properties when applied in the food. This study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour through six methods of lactic fermentation (spontaneous, pickle brine, Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides, a mixed of Lb plantarum and Lc mesentereoides, and mixed of Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides and yeast) to increase its properties in composite flour. Composite flours were obtained after fermentation of sweet potato slices for 48h in the proportion of 50% sweet potatoes flour and 50% wheat flour. pH, moisture content, swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that the composite fermented flours had better properties than those of non fermented flour. Fermentation increased swelling power, moisture content, meanwhile, solubility, and pH, deacresed. Amylose leaching, however, was not significantly affected by the fermentation process.

  4. The potential contribution of bread buns fortified with beta-carotene-rich sweet potato in Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jan W; van Jaarsveld, Paul J

    2008-06-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato is an efficacious source of vitamin A. Substituting wheat flour with orange-fleshed sweet potato in processed products could reduce foreign exchange outlays, create new markets for producers, and result in increased vitamin A consumption among consumers provided there is adequate retention of beta-carotene during processing. To explore whether substituting 38% of wheat flour (by weight) in bread buns ("golden bread") with boiled and mashed orange-fleshed sweet potato from fresh roots or rehydrated chips would produce economically viable beta-carotene-rich products acceptable to Mozambican rural consumers. Modified local recipes maximized sweet potato content within the limits of consumer acceptability. Sensitivity analysis determined parameters underlying economic viability. Two samples each of buns from five varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato were analyzed for beta-carotene content. Processed products with at least 15 microg/g product of trans-beta-carotene were considered good sources of vitamin A. Golden bread made from fresh roots of medium-intensity orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties met the good source criterion, but bread from lighter-intensity sweet potato varieties did not. Bread from rehydrated dried chips was not economically viable. Consumers strongly preferred golden bread over pure wheat flour bread because of its heavier texture and attractive appearance. The ratio of the price of wheat flour to that of raw sweet potato root varied from 3.1 to 3.5 among the bakers, whose increase in profit margins ranged from 54% to 92%. Golden bread is a good source of beta-carotene and is economically viable when the price ratio of wheat flour to raw orange-fleshed sweet potato root is at least 1.5. Widespread adoption during sweet potato harvesting periods is feasible; year-round availability requires storage.

  5. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

  6. Production of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) juice having high anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyanti, G.; Siswaningsih, W.; Febrianti, A.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to retrieve procedure of production of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) juice with the best total anthocyanin and antioxidant activity. Purple sweet potato was processed into purple sweet potato juice through a process of heating with temperature variations of 700C, 800C, and 900C and various duration of heating, which are 5 mins, 10 mins, and 15 mins. The total anthocyanin was determined by using pH differential method. The antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl) method. Total anthocyanin of purple sweet potato juice declined in the range between 215.08 mg/L - 101.86 mg/L. The antioxidant activity of purple sweet potato juice declined in the range between 90.63% - 67.79%. Antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin purple sweet potato juice decreases with increasing temperature and duration of heating. The best characteristics found in purple sweet potato juice were made with warming temperatures of 800C. The product with the highest antioxidant activity, total anthocyanins, and good durability was prepared at 800C heating temperature for 5 mins.

  7. Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato roots and leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiden, H.N.; Ercanli-Huffman, F.G.

    1986-01-01

    Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato (SP) roots and leaves were determined, by extrinsic labeling technique, in rats fed control and zinc deficient diets. Weanling male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (60-75g) were divided into 4 groups, and fed laboratory chow, a control diet (ad libitum and pair fed) and a zinc deficient diet, for 4 weeks. Each group then was divided into at least 2 sub groups, containing 6 rats, which were intubated with one of 3 tubing solutions extrinsically labeled with 65 Zn; baked sweet potato roots (BSPR), raw sweet potato leaves (RSPL) and cooked sweet potato leaves (CSPL). Five hours after intubation the rats were sacrificed, blood, liver, testes, spleen, heart, brain, thymus and lungs were removed. Feces, urine, and GI tract contents were collected and their 65 Zn activity was determined in a gamma counter. In all treatment groups zinc bioavailability from BSPR, RSPL or CSPL were not significantly different. Zinc deficient rats absorbed significantly more (P 65 Zn (86-90% of the dose), regardless of type of tubing solution than the pairfed or control animals (35-58% of the dose). The highest retention of 65 Zn was found in the liver (12-20% of absorbed dose), GI tract (6-17% of absorbed dose), kidney (2-8% of absorbed dose), and blood (1-5% of absorbed dose). The lowest retention was found in the brain, heart, thymus and testes. (< 1% of absorbed dose)

  8. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Roullier

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., Convolvulaceae counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

  9. Virus Incidence of Sweet Potato in Korea from 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaedeok; Yang, Jung Wook; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Chung, Mi-Nam; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Kyeong-Bo; Nam, Sang Sik; Kim, Chang-Seok; Lee, Gwan-Seok; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2017-10-01

    A nationwide survey was performed to investigate the current incidence of viral diseases in Korean sweet potatoes for germplasm and growing fields from 2011 to 2014. A total of 83.8% of the germplasm in Korea was infected with viruses in 2011. Commercial cultivars that were used to supply growing fields were infected at a rate of 62.1% in 2012. Among surveyed viruses, the incidence of five Potyvirus species that infect sweet potato decreased between 2012 and 2013, and then increased again in 2014. Representatively, the incidence of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) was 87.0% in 2012, 20.7% in 2013 and then increased to 35.3% in 2014. Unlike RNA viruses, DNA viruses were shown to decrease continuously. The incidence of Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) was 5.5% in 2003, 59.5% in 2011, and 47.4% in 2012. It then decreased continuously year by year to 33.2% in 2013, and then 25.6% in 2014. While the infection rate of each virus species showed a tendency to decline, the virus infection status was more variable in 2013 and 2014. Nevertheless, the high rate of single infections and mixed infection combinations were more variable than the survey results from 2012. As shown in the results from 2013, the most prevalent virus infection was a single infection at 27.6%, with the highest rate of infection belonging to sweet potato symptomless virus-1 (SPSMV-1) (12.9%). Compared to 2013, infection combinations were more varied in 2014, with a total of 122 kinds of mixed infection.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Five Potyviruses Infecting Korean Sweet Potatoes Based on Analyses of Complete Genome Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas L. are grown extensively, in tropical and temperate regions, and are important food crops worldwide. In Korea, potyviruses, including Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, Sweet potato virus C (SPVC, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV, have been detected in sweet potato fields at a high (~95% incidence. In the present work, complete genome sequences of 18 isolates, representing the five potyviruses mentioned above, were compared with previously reported genome sequences. The complete genomes consisted of 10,081 to 10,830 nucleotides, excluding the poly-A tails. Their genomic organizations were typical of the Potyvirus genus, including one target open reading frame coding for a putative polyprotein. Based on phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons, the Korean SPFMV isolates belonged to the strains RC and O with >98% nucleotide sequence identity. Korean SPVC isolates had 99% identity to the Japanese isolate SPVC-Bungo and 70% identity to the SPFMV isolates. The Korean SPVG isolates showed 99% identity to the three previously reported SPVG isolates. Korean SPV2 isolates had 97% identity to the SPV2 GWB-2 isolate from the USA. Korean SPLV isolates had a relatively low (88% nucleotide sequence identity with the Taiwanese SPLV-TW isolates, and they were phylogenetically distantly related to SPFMV isolates. Recombination analysis revealed that possible recombination events occurred in the P1, HC-Pro and NIa-NIb regions of SPFMV and SPLV isolates and these regions were identified as hotspots for recombination in the sweet potato potyviruses.

  11. Physico-chemical properties of gluten-free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20 and 40%, of sweet potato flour. The apparent viscosity of the pancake batter increased with increased sweet potato flour replacement. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such as, har...

  12. Influence of 60Co γ irradiation pre-treatment on characteristics of hot air drying sweet potato slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ning; Liu Chunquan; Li Dajing; Liu Xia; Yan Qimei

    2012-01-01

    The influences of irradiation, hot air temperature and thicknesses of the slices on the characters of dehydration and surface temperature of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated sweet potato were investigated. Meanwhile, microscopic observation and determination of water activity of irradiated sweet potato were conducted. The results show that the drying rate and the surface temperature rose with the increasing of irradiation dose. When the dry basis moisture content was 150%, the drying rate of the samples were 1.92, 1.97, 2.05, 2.28, 3.12% /min while the irradiation dose were 0, 2, 5, 8, 10 kGy, and the surface temperature were 48.5 ℃, 46.3℃, 44.5 ℃, 42.2 ℃, 41.5 ℃, respectively. With higher air temperature and thinner of the sweet potato slices, the dehydration of the irradiated sweet potato slices were faster. The drying speed of sweet potato slices at 85 ℃ was 170 min faster than that of 65 ℃. The drying speed of 7 mm sweet potato slices was 228 min faster than that of 3 mm sample. The cell wall and the vacuole of the sweet potato slices were broken after irradiation, and its water activity increased with the increase is radiation dose. The water activity of the irradiated samples were 0.92, 0.945, 0.958, 0.969, 0.979 with the irradiation doses of 0, 2, 5, 8, 10 kGy, respectively. The hot air drying rate, surface temperature and water activity of sweet potato are significantly impacted by irradiation. The conclusion provides a theoretical foundation for further processing technology of combined radiation and hot air drying sweet potato. (authors)

  13. Effect of starch isolation method on properties of sweet potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SURENDRA BABU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolation method of starch with different agents influences starch properties, which provide attention for studying the most appropriate method for isolation of starch. In the present study sweet potato starch was isolated by Sodium metabisulphate (M1, Sodium chloride (M2, and Distilled water (M3 methods and these were assessed for functional, chemical, pasting and structural properties. M3 yielded the greatest recovery of starch (10.20%. Isolation methods significantly changed swelling power and pasting properties but starches exhibited similar chemical properties. Sweet potato starches possessed C-type diffraction pattern. Small size granules of 2.90 μm were noticed in SEM of M3 starch. A high degree positive correlation was found between ash, amylose, and total starch content. The study concluded that isolation methods brought changes in yield, pasting and structural properties of sweet potato starch.

  14. The improvement of functional food in yogurt enriched with purple sweet potato (Ipomea batatas var. Ayamurasaki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Afiati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available he research was conducted to examine the use of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas var. Ayamurasaki to improve functional food of yogurt. This experiment has 2 factors of treatments. The first factor (i was concentration of skim milk, i.e. 0%, 3% and 6%; the second factor (ii was concentration of purple sweet potato, i.e. 0%, 2% and 4% of purple sweet potato. The parameters observed were viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, pH, moisture content, protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash and crude fiber and organoleptic. The results showed that there was no interaction between the concentration of skim-milk and the purple sweet potato on total LAB, moisture content and crude fiber. However, the interaction occurred on the levels of fat, protein, carbohydrate and ash. The organoleptic test results that yogurt enriched by 2% purple sweet potato without addition of skim was more preferable by panelist with a value of 3.65.

  15. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. as dentin hypersensitivity desensitization gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariza Hanum Mayvita Iskandar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentin hypersensitivity is a short sharp sense of pain in the teeth when exposed to excitatory stimulus. A total of 74% of world population experiencing dentin hypersensitivity. Home treatment topical desensitization is rarely found in Indonesia. The use of dentrifice is less practical because it must be done with regular brushing. Indonesia has abundant natural resources, one of which is purple sweet potato. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. has highest potasium ions compared to other foodstuffs. Potassium ions can be a solution of dentin hypersensitivity by temporary blocking the suffix pulp nerve impulses. Purpose: The research objective was to determine the effectiveness of the 10% purple sweet potato extract gel of the dental pain threshold score. Method: An experimental study carried out by dental pain threshold score measurements using vitality tester into the teeth with gum recession. Samples included 32 respondents with a single blind and pre-post test control group design. They were divided into treatment group and negative control group. Paired T-test and Wilcoxon were used as data analysis. Result: The results showed dental pain threshold score increasing either in treatment group and negative control, although not as significant as in the treatment group. Conclusion: 10% purple sweet potato extract gel containing potassium ions is able to reduce the pain of dentin hypersensitivity.

  16. Polyphenols and phenolic acids in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Musilová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is one of the most important food crops in the world. They are rich in polyphenols, proteins, vitamins, minerals and some functional microcomponents. Polyphenols are bioactive compounds, which can protect the human body from the oxidative stress which may cause many diseases including cancer, aging and cardiovascular problems.The polyphenol content is two to three times higher than in some common vegetables. Total polyphenols (determined spectrophotometrically and phenolic acids (i.e. caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and isomers - using high performance liquid chromatography contents were determined in three varieties of sweet potatoes (O´Henry - white, Beauregard-orange and 414-purple. Phenolic compounds contents were determined in raw peeled roots, jackets of raw roots and water steamed sweet potato roots. For all analysis lyophilised samples were used. Total polyphenol content ranged from 1161 (O´Henry, flesh-raw to 13998 (414, peel-raw mg.kg-1 dry matter, caffeic acid content from the non-detected values (414, flesh-raw to 320.7 (Beauregard, peel-raw mg.kg-1 dry matter and 3-caffeoylquinic acid content from 57.57 (O´Henry, flesh-raw to 2392 (414, peel-raw mg.kg-1 dry matter. Statistically significant differences (p ≤0.05 existed between varieties, morphological parts of the root, or raw and heat-treated sweet potato in phenolic compounds contents.

  17. Examining the impact of climate change and variability on sweet potatoes in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ddumba, S. D.; Andresen, J.; Moore, N. J.; Olson, J.; Snapp, S.; Winkler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to food security for the rapidly increasing population of East Africa. Rainfall is becoming more variable and temperatures are rising, consequently leading to increased occurrence of droughts and floods, and, changes in the timing and length of growing seasons. These changes have serious implications on crop production with the greatest impact likely to be on C4 crops such as cereals compared to C3 crops such as root tubers. Sweet potatoes is one the four most important food crops in East Africa owing to its high nutrition and calorie content, and, high tolerance to heat and drought, but little is known about how the crop will be affected by climate change. This study identifies the major climatic constraints to sweet potato production and examines the impact of projected future climates on sweet potato production in East Africa during the next 10 to 30 years. A process-based Sweet POTato COMputer Simulation (SPOTCOMS) model is used to assess four sweet potato cultivars; Naspot 1, Naspot 10, Naspot 11 and SPK 004-Ejumula. This is work in progress but preliminary results from the crop modeling experiments and the strength and weakness of the crop model will be presented.

  18. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    and variety, suggesting that the orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties responded similarly to nutrient ... fleshed ones, can help alleviate vitamin A deficiency .... LSD (0.05) for variety (V) mean. = 14.8 .... Information System, Working Paper #2.

  19. Field Evaluation Of Four Sweet Potato Cultivars For Yield And Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four sweet potato cultivars (TIS 87/0087, TIS 8441, TIS 2532 OP. 1. 13 and Ex Igbariam) were evaluated for yield and damage of C. puncticollis during the period June to October in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Plants were ...

  20. ( amala ) made from sweet potato flour ( elubo )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Describing the sensory characteristics of new or modified products is an integral part of food quality control. Sweet potato amala as an important end product could serve as an avenue for utilization of the crop, however, sensory attributes that will influence and ensure consumer acceptability need to be determined.

  1. Comparative analysis of phytochemicals and nutrient availability in two contrasting cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Mishra, Divya; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2015-04-15

    Sweet potato ranks as the world's seventh most important food crop, and has major contribution to energy and phytochemical source of nutrition. To unravel the molecular basis for differential nutrient availability, and to exploit the natural genetic variation(s) of sweet potato, a series of physiochemical and proteomics experiment was conducted using two contrasting cultivars, an orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and a white-fleshed sweet potato (WFSP). Phytochemical screening revealed high percentage of carbohydrate, reducing sugar and phenolics in WFSP, whereas OFSP showed increased levels of total protein, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids. The rate of starch and cellulose degradation was found to be less in OFSP during storage, indicating tight regulation of gene(s) responsible for starch-degradation. Comparative proteomics displayed a cultivar-dependent expression of proteins along with evolutionarily conserved proteins. These results suggest that cultivar-specific expression of proteins and/or their interacting partners might play a crucial role for nutrient acquisition in sweet potato. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaka Odenigbo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is a very rich source of starch. There is increased interest in starch digestibility and the prevention and management of metabolic diseases.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of starch fractions and predicted glycemic index of different cultivars of sweet potato. Material and Method: French fries produced from five cultivars of sweet potato (‘Ginseng Red’, ‘Beauregard’, ‘White Travis’, ‘Georgia Jet clone #2010’ and ‘Georgia Jet’ were used. The level of total starch (TS, resistant starch (RS, digestible starch (DS, and starch digestion index starch digestion index in the samples were evaluated. In vitro starch hydrolysis at 30, 90, and 120 min were determined enzymatically for calculation of rapidly digestible starch (RDS, predicted glycemic index (pGI and slowly digestible starch (SDS respectively. Results: The RS content in all samples had an inversely significant correlation with pGI (-0.52; P<0.05 while RDS had positive and significant influence on both pGI (r=0.55; P<0.05 and SDI (r= 0.94; P<0.01. ‘White Travis’ and ‘Ginseng Red’ had higher levels of beneficial starch fractions (RS and SDS with low pGI and starch digestion Index (SDI, despite their higher TS content. Generally, all the cultivars had products with low to moderate GI values. Conclusion: The glycemic index of these food products highlights the health promoting characteristics of sweet potato cultivars.

  3. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  4. Utilization of Baked-Smashed Sweet Potato and Vegetables on Patisserie Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, A.; Subekti, S.; Sudewi, S.; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2018-02-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  5. Diversity analysis of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... for genetic diversity assessment on sweet potato germplasm (Jarret et al., 1992; ..... method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) algorithm of. DARwin5.0.158 ..... McKnight Foundation for the additional support. REFERENCES.

  6. Evaluation of the Weevil-damaged Sweet Potato as Substrate for Microbial Protein Obtaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Antonio Montes-de-Oca-Olivares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of microbial protein from agricultural and agroindustrial wastes is an important way to supply the demand of this essential nutritional principle. Sweet potato (Ipomea batata tubercles damaged by weevil (Cylas formicarius are considered a waste due to their unpleasant flavor. This research deal in the characterization of sweet potato damaged by weevil, as an alternative substratefor the culture of the fodder yeast Candida utilis. It was found that the damaged tubercle had a similar composition that the healthy one, concerning dry matter, total reducing sugars, nitrogen and minerals; the high content of reducing sugars (30-40 % dry weight recommends the use of this waste as a substrate for single cell protein production. Several fungal strains were assayed to enzymatic degradation of sweet potato polysaccharides; from these ones, Aspergillus oryzae H/28-1 and Neurospora sp. were the more actives to release reducing sugars to the culture medium, being the last one the more prominent. Theyeast Candida utilis showed a satisfactory growth in media formulated in basis to weevil-damaged sweet potato, reaching reducing sugar consumptions over 80 % and biomass yields of 37-58 %; addition of urea as nitrogen source improved both parameters of the growth. The fermentation’s end-product acquired a pleasant flavor, which suggests a better palatability.

  7. Agronomic performance of locally adapted sweet potato ( Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tissue culture techniques have opened a new frontier in agricultural science by addressing food security and agricultural production issues. A study was conducted to compare growth and yield characteristics between the tissue culture regenerated and conventionally propagated sweet potato cultivars. Five locally adapted ...

  8. Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler finisher birds. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... Feed and water were supplied ad libitum to the experimental birds, while ...

  9. Agronomic assessment of some sweet potato varieties for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute sub-station, Otobi, in 2006 and 2007 to assess the suitability of improved sweet potato varieties for intercropping with pigeonpea and also to determine the planting pattern and the productivity of the intercropping system. Intercropping ...

  10. Historical collections reveal patterns of diffusion of sweet potato in Oceania obscured by modern plant movements and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, Caroline; Benoit, Laure; McKey, Doyle B; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-02-05

    The history of sweet potato in the Pacific has long been an enigma. Archaeological, linguistic, and ethnobotanical data suggest that prehistoric human-mediated dispersal events contributed to the distribution in Oceania of this American domesticate. According to the "tripartite hypothesis," sweet potato was introduced into Oceania from South America in pre-Columbian times and was then later newly introduced, and diffused widely across the Pacific, by Europeans via two historically documented routes from Mexico and the Caribbean. Although sweet potato is the most convincing example of putative pre-Columbian connections between human occupants of Polynesia and South America, the search for genetic evidence of pre-Columbian dispersal of sweet potato into Oceania has been inconclusive. Our study attempts to fill this gap. Using complementary sets of markers (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) and both modern and herbarium samples, we test the tripartite hypothesis. Our results provide strong support for prehistoric transfer(s) of sweet potato from South America (Peru-Ecuador region) into Polynesia. Our results also document a temporal shift in the pattern of distribution of genetic variation in sweet potato in Oceania. Later reintroductions, accompanied by recombination between distinct sweet potato gene pools, have reshuffled the crop's initial genetic base, obscuring primary patterns of diffusion and, at the same time, giving rise to an impressive number of local variants. Moreover, our study shows that phenotypes, names, and neutral genes do not necessarily share completely parallel evolutionary histories. Multidisciplinary approaches, thus, appear necessary for accurate reconstruction of the intertwined histories of plants and humans.

  11. Improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses in transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas expressing spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Fan

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait

  12. Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas Modulates Radiation-induced Oxidative damage in Liver and kidney of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, M. M.; Farag, M. F. S.; Osman, N. N.

    2010-01-01

    Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas, one of the major vegetable crops consumed worldwide, is rich in phytochemicals, which displayed antioxidant activities. This work aims at assessing the radio-protective properties of sweet potato tubers on liver and kidney tissues. Male albino rats were whole body exposed to 0.5 Gy day after day for a period of 20 days. Animal received orally prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers (100 mg kg/body weight), one week before irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure. The results demonstrated that irradiation of rats induced a significant increase in lipid peroxides level measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concomitant with a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidney tissues. Administration of a freshly prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers to rats, one week pre-irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure has significantly of ameliorated the oxidative stress in both tissues. The significant amelioration in oxidative stress was substantiated by improvement of liver and kidney enzymes Treatment of rats with sweet potato has significantly reduced the increase in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile manifested by a significant increase in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were improved in sweet potato-treated irradiated rats compared to those only irradiated. According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that sweet potato through its antioxidant activities could protect cellular membrane from radiation induced oxidative damage in animals and preserve the

  13. Preparation of resistant sweet potato starch by steam explosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resistant sweet potato starch was identified by Fourier transform infrared ... can potentially be used in food or medicine for diabetic patients. ... were suspended in water (1:3.5, w/v), and ..... No conflict of interest associated with this work.

  14. Associations between the home environment and children's sweet beverage consumption at 2-year follow-up: the 'Be active, eat right' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grieken, A; Renders, C M; van de Gaar, V M; Hirasing, R A; Raat, H

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluates the association between home environmental characteristics and sweet beverage consumption (i.e. beverages that contain sugar) of 7-year-old children. The population for analysis consisted of n = 2047 parents and their children from the population-based 'Be active, eat right' study. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, parental beliefs, parenting practices and child's sweet beverage consumption were obtained by parental report with questionnaires. We performed linear and multinomial regression analyses evaluating associations between characteristics at age 5 years and (i) consumption at 7 years and (ii) consumption patterns between age 5 and 7 years with reference category 'low consumption'. Based on the report from their parents, 5-year-old children drank on average 3.0 (SD:1.4) sweet beverage per day. Children consumed less sweet beverages at age 7 years (beta -0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.24 to -0.09) when there were less sweet beverages available at home. The multinomial regression model showed that children with parents who discouraged sweet beverage consumption were more likely to decrease their sweet beverage consumption over the study period (odds ratio: 1.24, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.43). Moreover, when there were less sweet beverages available at home, children were less likely to increase their consumption or have a high consumption over the study period (odds ratio: 0.70, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.83 and 0.61, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.70, respectively). The results showed that characteristics of the home environment are associated with the consumption of sweet beverages among children. Specifically, the availability of sweet beverages at home is associated with the child's sweet beverage consumption. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  15. Transformation of heat shock protein gene (HspB-C) of helicobacter pylori into sweet potato varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jie; Yan Wenzhao; Zhou Yu; Zhang Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    Sweet potato which is one of the most important crops in the world has many advantages as a new bioreactor. Helicobacter pylori, as a kind of cancer-causing factor by the World Health Organization, has a strong immunogenicity, and its monoclonal antibody has bactericidal activity, which has the possibility as the vaccine components. In this research, we have constructed the plant expression vector with heat shock protein gene (HspB-C) of Helicobacter pylori. This vector was transformed by agrobactrium tumefaciens EHA105 into four sweet potato varieties. After callus-induction and re-differentiation, we got the transgenic plants from sweet potato variety of Nancy holl. (authors)

  16. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  17. Physiological responses of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. plants due to different copper concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Copstein Cuchiara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At low concentrations, Cu is considered as an essential micronutrient for plants and as a constituent and activator of several enzymes. However, when in excess, Cu can negatively affect plant growth and metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate physiological responses of sweet potato plants at different Cu concentrations by measuring morphological parameters, antioxidant metabolism, stomatal characteristics, and mineral profile. For this purpose, sweet potato plants were grown hydroponically in complete nutrient solution for six days. Then, the plants were transferred to solutions containing different Cu concentrations, 0.041 (control, 0.082, and 0.164 mM, and maintained for nine days. The main effect of increased Cu concentration was observed in the roots. The sweet potato plants grown in 0.082 mM Cu solution showed increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and no changes in growth parameters. However, at a concentration of 0.164 mM, Cu was transported from the roots to the shoots. This concentration altered morpho-anatomical characteristics and activated the antioxidant system because of the stress generated by excess Cu. On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that the sweet potato plants were able to tolerate Cu toxicity until 0.082 mM.

  18. PENGARUH ISOTERM SORPSI AIR TERHADAP STABILITAS BERAS UBI [Effect of Moisture Sorption Isotherm to Stability of “Sweet Potato Rice”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widowati1*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available “Sweet Potato Rice” stability as a dry food product was determined by water activity (aw and equilibrium moisture content (Me. This relationship is known as moisture sorption isotherm. This research were aimed 1 to study moisture sorption isotherm of “Sweet Potato Rice” from sweet potato flour (Cangkuang variety and native/heat moisture treatment (HMT starch which was stored at the range of aw:0.06 - 0.96 and 28oC; 2 to determine an appropriate model for describing product moisture sorption isotherm and 3 to predict “Sweet Potato Rice” shelf of life. Experimental design used was a random complete design with two factor, namely: 1 sweet potato starch: native and HMT, and 2 packaging material: polyethylene (PE and polypropylene (PP.The result showed that the moisture sorption isotherm profiles were sigmoid. Smith equation was the best model which described moisture sorption isotherm with R2= 0,991-0,993 for adsorption and R2= 0,964-0,971 for desorption. Shelf life test showed that “Sweet Potato Rice” from Cangkuang flour and modified starch had longer shelf life (5.67 months when packed in PP bag and 2.3 months when packed in PE bag; while shelf life artificial sweet potato made from Cangkuang flour and native starch was 4.24 months when packed in PP bag and 1.72 months when packed in PE bag.

  19. Alcohol or feed product from rotten sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T

    1956-06-25

    Rotten sweet potatoes were mixed with the same weight of a pressed cake of fermented alcohol mash, and the mixture was cooked and fermented with amylo stock mash under semisolid conditions for five days. The fermented mash was steam-distilled to recover ethanol, and a solid residue was dried to give a nutrient feed product.

  20. Genome characterization and genetic diversity of sweet potato symptomless virus 1: a mastrevirus with an unusual nonanucleotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete genomic sequences of nine isolates of sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), a virus of genus Mastrevirus in the family Geminiviridae, was determined to be 2,559-2,602 nucleotides from sweet potato accessions from different countries. These isolates shared genomic sequence identities o...

  1. The In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Inhibition of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species of Sweet Potato Leaf Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongnan Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant activity and inhibition of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS of the total and individual phenolic compounds from Yuzi No. 7 sweet potato leaves were investigated in this study. Sweet potato leaf polyphenols possessed significantly higher antioxidant activity than ascorbic acid, tea polyphenols, and grape seed polyphenols. Among the individual phenolic compounds, caffeic acid showed the highest antioxidant activity, followed by monocaffeoylquinic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acids, while 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid showed the lowest value. Sweet potato leaf polyphenols could significantly decrease the level of intracellular ROS in a dose-dependent manner. The order of the inhibiting effect of individual phenolic compounds on the intracellular ROS level was not in accordance with that of antioxidant activity, suggesting that there was no direct relationship between antioxidant activity and intracellular ROS-inhibiting effect. Sweet potato leaves could be a good source of biologically active polyphenols with multiple applications in the development of foods, health products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.

  2. The In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Inhibition of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species of Sweet Potato Leaf Polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongnan; Mu, Bona; Song, Zhen; Ma, Zhimin

    2018-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant activity and inhibition of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) of the total and individual phenolic compounds from Yuzi No. 7 sweet potato leaves were investigated in this study. Sweet potato leaf polyphenols possessed significantly higher antioxidant activity than ascorbic acid, tea polyphenols, and grape seed polyphenols. Among the individual phenolic compounds, caffeic acid showed the highest antioxidant activity, followed by monocaffeoylquinic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acids, while 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid showed the lowest value. Sweet potato leaf polyphenols could significantly decrease the level of intracellular ROS in a dose-dependent manner. The order of the inhibiting effect of individual phenolic compounds on the intracellular ROS level was not in accordance with that of antioxidant activity, suggesting that there was no direct relationship between antioxidant activity and intracellular ROS-inhibiting effect. Sweet potato leaves could be a good source of biologically active polyphenols with multiple applications in the development of foods, health products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. PMID:29643978

  3. A comparative metabolomics study of flavonoids in sweet potato with different flesh colors (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimin; Li, Rensai; Ren, Lei; Gao, Xiali; Zhang, Yungang; Ma, Zhimin; Ma, Daifu; Luo, Yonghai

    2018-09-15

    To study the diversity and cultivar-specific of phytochemicals in sweet potato, Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze the metabolic profiles of five sweet potato cultivars exhibiting different flesh colors: purple, yellow/orange, and white. A total of 213 metabolites, including 29 flavonoids and 27 phenolic acids, were characterized. The flavonoid profiles of the five different cultivars were distinguished using PCA, the results suggested the flesh color accounted for the observed metabolic differences. In addition to anthocyanins, quinic acids and ferulic acids were the prominent phenolic acids, O-hexoside of quercetin, chrysoeriol were the prominent flavonoids in sweet potato tubers, and they were all higher in the OFSP and PFSP than WFSP. The main differential metabolic pathways between the OFSP, PFSP and the WFSP included those relating to phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. This study provides new insights into the differences in metabolite profiles among sweet potatoes with different flesh colors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of modified cassava starch on the rheological and quality properties of a dairy beverage prepared with sweet whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Catalina IMBACHÍ-NARVÁEZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of sweet whey and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA-modified cassava starch on the quality and rheological properties of fermented dairy beverages was evaluated. Sweet whey (45-65% and OSA-modified cassava starch (0.8-1.2% were added to determine an optimal fermented dairy beverage with the highest viscosity and the lowest syneresis possible. The optimal fermented dairy beverage corresponded to the addition of 40.9% sweet whey and 1.13% OSA-modified cassava starch with respect to the milk and sweet whey mixture. Moreover, the rheological and quality properties of the optimal fermented dairy beverage were compared to a commercial beverage (control during 22 days of storage. No significant differences were found in soluble solids, acidity, pH and consistency index during the time evaluated, while the syneresis of both products showed an increase during storage. OSA-modified cassava starch can be used as a stabiliser in sweet whey fermented dairy beverages because it helps improve its quality properties.

  5. PROP taster status, food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among 6-year-old ethnically diverse children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jansen, Pauline W; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2017-04-01

    A healthy diet is important for optimal growth and development in children. Food preferences are a main determinant of children's intake. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status (taste sensitivity to PROP) with children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among ethnically diverse children. We analysed data from 5585 6-year-old children enrolled in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PROP taster status was evaluated using a suprathreshold screening solution. Food preferences of the children were assessed by a two-stage protocol using photographs of eight food items (candy, chocolate, mayonnaise, whipped cream, soup, potato chips, carrot and bread), yielding both hedonic ratings (1-3) and rank order scores (1-8). Univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed, using tasters as the reference group. Non-tasters had a slightly higher preference for carrots (β: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.13, -0.02 and β: -0.15; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 for hedonic ratings and rank order scores, respectively) and bread (hedonic ratings; β: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.01) compared with tasters. No differences were found in children's preference for sweet, fat or salty food items. Furthermore, there were no associations of PROP taster status with the consumption of high-calorie snacks ≥ 2 times/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91,1.24) or sweet beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.92,1.23). Other factors relating to the family food environment may be more important for young children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages than their innate taste sensitivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Genetic Diversity of Local and Introduced Sweet Potato [Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore conducted to estimate the genetic diversity of 114 Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] accessions obtained from Nigeria, Asia, Latin America and Local collections along with two improved varieties. Accessions were planted in 2012/13 cropping season at Haramaya University, eastern Ethiopia ...

  7. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, Convolvulaceae) extract (IBE) in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its anti-oxidant properties. Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

  8. Impact of heat-moisture and annealing treatments on physicochemical properties and digestibility of starches from different colored sweet potato varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Phan Thanh Bao; Ngoc, Luu Bui Bao; Hoa, Phan Ngoc; Tien, Nguyen Ngoc Thanh; Hung, Pham Van

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the change in physicochemical properties and digestibility of starches isolated from colored sweet potato varieties under heat-moisture treatment (HMT) or annealing treatment (ANN). The results showed that morphology and X-ray diffraction patterns of the sweet potato starches remained unchanged after the HMT or ANN. The HMT significantly reduced peak viscosity, breakdown and setback and significantly increased pasting temperature, trough and final viscosities of the sweet potato starches. The swelling powers and solubility of the heat-moisture treated starches were significantly lower than those of the native or annealed starches. The decreased rapid digestible starch and the increased slowly digestible and resistant starch contents of the sweet potato starches after HMT or ANN as compared to those of the native starches were observed. The resistant starch (RS) contents of the heat-moisture treated sweet potato starches were in a range of 30.6-39.3%, significantly higher than those of the annealed starches (28.8-32.0%). The strong impact of the HMT on physicochemical properties and RS formation of the sweet potato starches compared to the ANN might be due to the high stability of the occurred interactions between starch molecules and amylopectin chains during treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of gamma radiation on the ultrastructure of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.

    1986-12-01

    Radiation is being used to increase the storage life of fresh foods. Various doses of gamma radiation were administered to Jewel cultivar sweet potatoes and the effects were monitored by direct observation and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Potatoes were divided into two groups: those irradiated immediately after harvest (doses = 0 kGy - 0.4 KGy) and those irradiated one week after harvest (doses = 0 kGy - 0.4 kGy). Potatoes were examined and viewed each month for 7 months. Gross observations included weight, color and texture of the sweet potatoes. Those potatoes irradiated immediately after harvest spoiled faster than those irradiated one week after harvest. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated several cellular modifications accompanying spoilage. Cell collapse was greatest at the higher radiation doses during the periods of 1 to 5 months post-irradiation. The shape and size of starch granules varied with storage time and radiation levels. The mitochondria, cell walls and plasma membranes appeared normal as seen by transmission electron microscopy until 6 months post-irradiation for potatoes irradiated both immediately after harvest and one week after harvest. Thereafter, degradative changes were observed

  10. Influence of planting and harvesting dates on sweet potato yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    Two experiments were conducted to study the influence of harvesting date on three sweet potato ... determining whole top yields above ground level. .... plant storage organ (which in this case is the root) prior to harvesting and processing for.

  11. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of local yellow and orange sweet potatoes genotypes in Sumatera Utara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmayati; Bakti, D.

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of this research was to identify and create database about the diversity of local yellow and orange sweet potatoes accessions in Sumatera Utara, have diversity accession local sweet potatoes genotype in Sumatera Utara selection for classifying populations get high production and good fruit quality. The experiment was conducted in areas of production centers of sweet potatoes in the exploration survey methods in 2 districts in Sumatera Utara, which is in the Kabupaten Simalungun and Dairi. The study was conducted on June to July 2017. Observations were made based on the identification and characterization Description List of International Board for Plant Genetic Resources standard and purposive random sampling technique. The result of this research indicate there 15 genotype of sweet potato yellow and orange in KabupatenSimalungun consistedof KecamatanPurba (G3, G4 and G7), Silimakuta (G5, G6 and G14), and Pamatang Silimahuta (G15) in Kabupaten Dairi consists of Kecamatan Parbuluan (G1, G2, G8 and G9), Sidikalang (G10 and G13), Sumbul (G11), and Sitinjo (G12) with nearest relationship is G13 and G15 with a coefficient similarity 23.908 and farthest relationship is G2 and G7 with a coefficient similarity 140.029.

  12. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Ma, Haile

    2016-08-01

    Sweet potato is a highly nutritious tuber crop that is rich in β-carotene. Osmotic dehydration is a pretreatment method for drying of fruit and vegetables. Recently, ultrasound technology has been applied in food processing because of its numerous advantages which include time saving, little damage to the quality of the food. Thus, there is need to investigate and optimise the process parameters [frequency (20-50 kHz), time (10-30 min) and sucrose concentration (20-60% w/v)] for ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration of sweet potato using response surface methodology. The optimised values obtained were frequency of 33.93 kHz, time of 30 min and sucrose concentration of 35.69% (w/v) to give predicted values of 21.62, 4.40 and 17.23% for water loss, solid gain and weight reduction, respectively. The water loss and weight reduction increased when the ultrasound frequency increased from 20 to 35 kHz and then decreased as the frequency increased from 35 to 50 kHz. The results from this work show that low ultrasound frequency favours the osmotic dehydration of sweet potato and also reduces the use of raw material (sucrose) needed for the osmotic dehydration of sweet potato. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of different home-cooking methods on textural and nutritional properties of sweet potato genotypes grown in temperate climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletto, Carlo; Vianello, Fabio; Sambo, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The European Union (EU) market for sweet potato is small but is growing considerably and and has increased by 100% over the last 5 years. The cultivation of sweet potato in temperate climate conditions has not considered extensively and could be a new opportunity for the EU market. Healthy and qualitative traits of different sweet potato cultivars grown in temperate climate conditions were evaluated in accordance with four cooking methods. Traditional cultivars showed high hardness and adhesiveness values. The highest concentrations of sugars (especially maltose) and phenolic acids (caffeic and chlorogenic) were found in samples treated by boiling and steaming. High antioxidant activity was found in fried potatoes. Qualitative traits of sweet potatoes treated by microwaves did not report any significant variation compared to the control. Traditional and new sweet potato cultivars can be cultivated in temperate climate conditions and show interesting qualitative properties, especially as a result of the presence of antioxidant compounds. Concerning global quality, colored varieties expressed a better profile than traditional Italian ones and they are suitable for the European market, giving new opportunities for consumers and producers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Comparsion of maximum viscosity and viscometric method for identification of irradiated sweet potato starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Sang Duk; Yang, Jae Seung

    2000-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare viscosity and maximum viscosity methods for the detection of irradiated sweet potato starch. The viscosity of all samples decreased by increasing stirring speeds and irradiation doses. This trend was similar for maximum viscosity. Regression coefficients and expressions of viscosity and maximum viscosity with increasing irradiation dose were 0.9823 (y=335.02e -0. 3 366x ) at 120 rpm and 0.9939 (y =-42.544x+730.26). This trend in viscosity was similar for all stirring speeds. Parameter A, B and C values showed a dose dependent relation and were a better parameter for detecting irradiation treatment than maximum viscosity and the viscosity value it self. These results suggest that the detection of irradiated sweet potato starch is possible by both the viscometric and maximum visosity method. Therefore, the authors think that the maximum viscosity method can be proposed as one of the new methods to detect the irradiation treatment for sweet potato starch

  15. Sweepoviruses cause disease in sweet potato and related Ipomoea spp.: fulfilling Koch's postulates for a divergent group in the genus begomovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenado, Helena P; Orílio, Anelise F; Márquez-Martín, Belén; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae), known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV), Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV) and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV). Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06) of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato) and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, 'Beauregard' and 'Promesa', were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus.

  16. Sweepoviruses cause disease in sweet potato and related Ipomoea spp.: fulfilling Koch's postulates for a divergent group in the genus begomovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena P Trenado

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae, known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV, Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV. Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06 of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, 'Beauregard' and 'Promesa', were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus.

  17. Molecular characterization of two isolates of sweet potato leaf curl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... related to that of sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) from United States with nucleotide sequence identity of ... species including Ipomoea indica, are grown orna- mentally all .... and AC4 were closely related to that of SPLCV-.

  18. Impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transportation is an essential aspect of agricultural production. However, in many parts of Nigeria, bad transport system is still a problem of rural farmers. Therefore, this study seeks to examine the impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato production in Kwara State. The sampling techniques involved the ...

  19. Biochemical response of sweet potato to bemul-wax coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn) tuber is a very nutritious but highly perishable crop that is subject to high wastages due to non-availability of appropriate storage techniques. This work assessed the effectiveness of treating the tubers with calcium chloride dip (CCD), bemul-wax (B-wax) and their combinations ...

  20. Purple sweet potato color attenuates domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits by promoting estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Recent findings suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration. Purple sweet potato color, a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, has beneficial health and biological effects. Recent studies have also shown that anthocyanins have estrogenic activity and can enhance estrogen receptor-α expression. In this study, we evaluated the effect of purple sweet potato color on cognitive deficits induced by hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction in domoic acid-treated mice and explored the potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Our results showed that the oral administration of purple sweet potato color to domoic acid-treated mice significantly improved their behavioral performance in a step-through passive avoidance task and a Morris water maze task. These improvements were mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling and by decreases in the expression of p47phox and gp91phox. Decreases in reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation were also observed, along with a blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Furthermore, purple sweet potato color significantly suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis, which prevented neuron loss and restored the expression of memory-related proteins. However, knockdown of estrogen receptor-α using short hairpin RNA only partially blocked the neuroprotective effects of purple sweet potato color in the hippocampus of mice cotreated with purple sweet potato color and domoic acid, indicating that purple sweet potato color acts through multiple pathways. These results suggest that purple sweet potato color could be a possible candidate for the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic and other brain disorders. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhiza Symbiosis Induces a Major Transcriptional Reprogramming of the Potato SWEET Sugar Transporter Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manck-Götzenberger, Jasmin; Requena, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Biotrophic microbes feeding on plants must obtain carbon from their hosts without killing the cells. The symbiotic Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonizing plant roots do so by inducing major transcriptional changes in the host that ultimately also reprogram the whole carbon partitioning of the plant. AM fungi obtain carbohydrates from the root cortex apoplast, in particular from the periarbuscular space that surrounds arbuscules. However, the mechanisms by which cortical cells export sugars into the apoplast for fungal nutrition are unknown. Recently a novel type of sugar transporter, the SWEET, able to perform not only uptake but also efflux from cells was identified. Plant SWEETs have been shown to be involved in the feeding of pathogenic microbes and are, therefore, good candidates to play a similar role in symbiotic associations. Here we have carried out the first phylogenetic and expression analyses of the potato SWEET family and investigated its role during mycorrhiza symbiosis. The potato genome contains 35 SWEETs that cluster into the same four clades defined in Arabidopsis. Colonization of potato roots by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis imposes major transcriptional rewiring of the SWEET family involving, only in roots, changes in 22 of the 35 members. None of the SWEETs showed mycorrhiza-exclusive induction and most of the 12 induced genes belong to the putative hexose transporters of clade I and II, while only two are putative sucrose transporters from clade III. In contrast, most of the repressed transcripts (10) corresponded to clade III SWEETs. Promoter-reporter assays for three of the induced genes, each from one cluster, showed re-localization of expression to arbuscule-containing cells, supporting a role for SWEETs in the supply of sugars at biotrophic interfaces. The complex transcriptional regulation of SWEETs in roots in response to AM fungal colonization supports a model in which symplastic sucrose in cortical cells could be cleaved

  2. Genetic Fingerprinting of Sweet Potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important staple crop and many varieties have been released into farmers' fields in Nigeria, but no reliable means in tracking their identity, thus causing multiple naming of these varieties among farmers. The objective of the study is to establish objectively and reliable means of identifying released, local ...

  3. 74 agronomic assessment of some sweet potato varieties for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-05-02

    May 2, 2009 ... All intercropping combinations of sweet potato varieties and .... of a and b. Values of LER greater than 1 are ...... switching from low value crop production to a ... and/or pursuing off-farm employment. .... reflected in higher yield and greater per hectare ...... potentials qualified it for inclusion among the 17 ...

  4. Towards the development of sweet potato-based couscous for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato processing and consumption patterns are very limited in Benin. The present study aimed to suggest a new utilization of the crop as food. Roots from a white flesh variety were processed into flour and later into couscous. This couscous was steam-cooked following the same procedure as a wheat-based ...

  5. Genetic Fingerprinting of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    at a space of 1m x 1m in a randomized complete block design in two replications. High genetic diversity was observed among the sweet potato genotypes examined. The morphological data revealed three distinctive clusters. In cluster I, purple vine, green petiole and light pink storage root colour were the dominant traits.

  6. Genetic diversity of sweet potatoes collection from Northeastern Brazil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam has its origin in Tropical America. In Sergipe State (Brazil), its production is very important, and to explore its potential in local agriculture in the State, the Embrapa Coastal Tableland created a collection with 52 accessions located in Umbaúba City. Some accessions were from ...

  7. Effects of irradiation on physicochemical and sensory qualities of fermented shoot tip of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Li; Liu Chunquan; Li Dajing; Song Jiangfeng; Jiang Ning; Liu Chunju; Wu Haihong; Zhu Danyu

    2011-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on sensory quality, physicochemical and functional prosperities of fermented shoot tips of sweet potatoes were studied. The results showed that total content of free amino acids in fermented shoot tips of sweet potato were not influenced at 4 kGy irradiation, but increased at 6 kGy. Total content of organic acids in shoot tips were not influenced by 2 ∼ 6 kGy of irradiation. The total viable cells of the tips was reduced from 7.35 to 4.67 log CFU/g at 2 kGy irradiation, and no growth of total viable cells was observed at 4 and 6 kGy irradiated fermented shoot tips. It is recommended that 4 kGy was the endurance irradiation dose for fermented shoot tips of sweet potato to ensure the maximum retention of taste quality and health-relevant functionality. (authors)

  8. Development of a pilot system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silayo, Valerian C K.; Lu, John Y.; Aglan, Heshmat A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Sweet potato has been chosen as one of NASA's crops to support human beings in future space missions. One of the possible uses is to make syrup that can be used as a general sweetener. In this work a simple engineering system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup was studied on a laboratory scale. The system comprises the following main units: a blender, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), centrifugal and vacuum filters, deionization column and vacuum evaporator. The system was tested by carrying out conversion processes from fresh sweet potato roots. The roots were pealed, sliced, homogenized, heated and hydrolyzed by diastase of malt and Dextrozyme C (Novo Nordisk BioChem, North America, Inc.) enzymes in the CSTR. After hydrolysis the slurry was filtered, de-ionized and concentrated to get glucose syrup. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the quality of the conversion. The main factor was the level of reducing sugars except for the deionization where ash content and color were the main factors. Through careful control of the system units, good heating performance in the CSTR was obtained and the hydrolysis process attained sufficient conversion. The filtration process that incorporated the centrifuge was faster than when it was by-passed to the vacuum filter but losses in sugars were higher. Deionization removed more than 90% of the ash and reduced pigmentation, with probable insignificant losses in sugars during the deionization process. Recovery levels when the centrifuge was used and when it was by-passed could reach about 65% and 78%, respectively. These correspond to reducing sugar concentration of 259 and 310 mg/ml in 150-ml syrups from 300 g of sweet potatoes in each process. However, from concentration trials, syrups with volumes of 100 and 70 ml with the respective dextrose equivalence of 281 and 213 mg/ml were obtained. The syrups obtained were brownish in color and the process that employed centrifugal filtration

  9. Genetic Fingerprinting of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Sweet potato is an important staple crop and many varieties have been released into farmers' fields in Nigeria, ..... Tib 4 is distinct and did not form cluster while ... V. P HP P P W. Tis 2154. 5. DG DG V V. V. 1 NL. V. NP NP P P W. Tib 11. 6. P. P.

  10. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TUBERS FROM ORGANIC SWEET POTATO ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMILA DE OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine instead at determining chemical composition, nutritional aspects and morphological characteristic of tubers from sweet potato roots (Ipomoea batatas L. of cultivars Rosinha de Verdan, Capivara and orange-fleshed produced under the organic system. The chemical composition of flours from sweet potato (SP roots was different among cultivars. The starch content for SP cultivar ranged from 26-33 % (d. b., and the orange-fleshed roots presented 3182 μg of β-carotene/100 g. The flour yield ob-tained for SPF processing was higher in Rosinha de Verdan (25.40%, and the starch content of roots ranged from 12.48-27.63 % (d.b.. The processing condition modified the starch granular characteristics of the flours and reduced 31% the carotene content and vitamin A value of the orange-fleshed flour. The orange-fleshed flour presented higher levels of carbohydrate, starch and total energy value (TEV than others white fleshed flour. The consumption of serving size of orange-fleshed roots and flour provided higher provitamin A require-ments for children.

  11. Simulation of transient heat transfer during cooling and heating of whole sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) roots under forced-air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korese, Joseph Kudadam; Sturm, Barbara; Román, Franz; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat transfer of whole sweet potato roots under forced-air cooling and heating is investigated. • Experiments were carried out in a cooling and heating chamber. • The cooling and heating rate and time was clearly depended on air velocity and roots size. • Simulated and experimental data on cooling and heating times were compared for validation. • Simulation results quantitatively agreed with experimental results. - Abstract: In this work, we investigated how different air velocity and temperature affect the cooling and heating rate and time of individual sweet potato roots. Additionally, we modified and applied a simulation model which is based on the fundamental solution of the transient equations for estimating the cooling and heating time at the centre of sweet potato roots. The model was adapted to receive input parameters such as thermo-physical properties of whole sweet potato roots as well as the surrounding air properties, and was verified with experimental transient temperature data. The experimental results showed that the temperature at the centre and the under skin of sweet potato roots is almost homogeneous during forced convection cooling and heating. The cooling and heating time was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by high air velocity and sweet potato root size. The simulation results quantitatively agreed with the experimental transient data. This research, thus provides a reliable experimental and theoretical basis for understanding the temperature variations as well as estimating the cooling and heating times in individual sweet potato roots under forced convection cooling and heating. The result from this study could be applied to design and optimize forced-air treatment equipments with improved energy efficiency as well as ensuring safety and the maintenance of sweet potato roots quality.

  12. Possibilities of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] value chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FAOUZIATH

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... Key words: Benin, sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, nutritional composition, orange flesh cultivar, value chain. INTRODUCTION ... largely consumed after processing into garri, traditional flour, lafun, and improved flour. ..... foods give them a role in human health and they can serve as substrates for the ...

  13. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Dominque, Brunson; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Rangari, Vijay; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were meas...

  14. impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    Also, the size of the farm, cost of transportation, quantity of sweet potato ... does, do the benefits “trickle down” to the poorest members of the community. As a .... the fact that the men were actually the farm owners and heads of households and are ..... will encourage farmers to work harder in the rural areas for increased ...

  15. Modelling the mid-infrared drying of sweet potato: kinetics, mass and heat transfer parameters, and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwude, Daniel I.; Hashim, Norhashila; Abdan, Khalina; Janius, Rimfiel; Chen, Guangnan

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the drying kinetics, mass and heat transfer characteristics of sweet potato slices (0.4-0.6 cm thickness) during drying based on mid-infrared experimental set-up (intensity of 1100-1400 W/m2). Thin layer drying models were used to evaluate the drying kinetics of sweet potato slices. Two analytical models (Fick's diffusion model, and Dincer and Dost model) were used to study the mass transfer behaviour of sweet potato slices with and without shrinkage during mid-infrared drying. The heat transfer flux between the emitter and sweet potato slices was also investigated. Results demonstrated that an increase in infrared intensity from 1100 W/m2 to 1400 W/m2 resulted in increased in average radiation heat flux by 3.4 times and a 15% reduction in the overall drying time. The two-term exponential model was found to be the best in predicting the drying kinetics of sweet potato slices during mid-infrared drying. The specific heat consumption varied from 0.91-4.82 kWh/kg. The effective moisture diffusivity with and without shrinkage using the Fick's diffusion model varied from 2.632 × 10-9 to 1.596 × 10-8 m2/s, and 1.24 × 10-8 to 2.4 × 10-8 m2/s using Dincer and Dost model, respectively. The obtained values of mass transfer coefficient, Biot number and activation energy varied from 5.99 × 10-6 to 1.17 × 10-5 m/s, 0.53 to 2.62, and 12.83 kJ/mol to 34.64 kJ/mol, respectively. The values obtained for Biot number implied the existence of simultaneous internal and external resistances. The findings further explained that mid-infrared intensity of 1100 W/m2 did not significantly affect the quality of sweet potato during drying, demonstrating a great potential of applying low intensity mid-infrared radiation in the drying of agricultural crops.

  16. Genetic improvement of sweet potato through somatic embyrogenesis and in vitro induction of mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnino, A; Thinh, N T; Santangelo, E; Mini, P [Centro Ricerche Energia, ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Mutation breeding is a promising option for the genetic improvement of sweet potato. Callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration was investigated in twenty-two sweet potato varieties of different origin. Plant regeneration was found to depend on the genotype and composition of the induction medium. The regeneration through somatic embryogenesis induced morphological and physiological changes among the regenerated plants. The irradiation with 30 to 50 Gy of meristems before culture on induction medium inhibited somatic embryogenesis. A number of accessions were evaluated in field trials and showed wide differences in yield. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs.

  17. Genetic improvement of sweet potato through somatic embyrogenesis and in vitro induction of mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnino, A.; Thinh, N.T.; Santangelo, E.; Mini, P.

    1997-01-01

    Mutation breeding is a promising option for the genetic improvement of sweet potato. Callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration was investigated in twenty-two sweet potato varieties of different origin. Plant regeneration was found to depend on the genotype and composition of the induction medium. The regeneration through somatic embryogenesis induced morphological and physiological changes among the regenerated plants. The irradiation with 30 to 50 Gy of meristems before culture on induction medium inhibited somatic embryogenesis. A number of accessions were evaluated in field trials and showed wide differences in yield. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs

  18. Mycoflora of sun-dried sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) slices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... The composition of the fungal species which will be es- tablished on exposed ... fungi associated with sun-dried sweet potato slices with a view to highlighting ..... Valero A, Sanchis V, Ramos AJ, Marin S (2007). Studies on the.

  19. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  20. PENGUJIAN SIFAT PREBIOTIK DAN SINBIOTIK PRODUK OLAHAN UBI JALAR SECARA IN VIVO [In Vivo Evaluation of Prebiotic and Synbiotic Properties of Processed Sweet Potato Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Nuraida1,2

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to investigate the prebiotic and synbiotic properties of sweet potato products (combined with L. casei subsp Rhamnosus for probiotic in increasing the number of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB and suppressing the number of E. coli and the occurrence of Salmonella in vivo. Some previous study showed that sweet potato is a potent source of prebiotic. The sweet potato products evaluated were sweet potato flakes (SPF and sweet potato ice cream mix. The in vivo assay used male rat strain Sprague-Dawley. Total microbes, LAB, E. coli and Salmonella in fecal were analyzed before, during and after feeding period. Feeding with SPF as prebiotic, L. casei subsp Rhamnosus as probiotic, and combination of both as synbiotic for ten days were able to increase the number of LAB (0.4-1.1 log CFU/g and suppress the number of E. coli in rat feces (1.5-1.7 log CFU/g. All of the treatment did not affect the occurrence of Salmonella in rat feces. The treatment of sweet potato ice cream mix as prebiotics and the combination of sweet potato ice cream mix and L. casei subsp. Rhamnosus as synbiotic for ten days did not effect the number of LAB and E. coli in rat feces.

  1. Sweet potato weevil (Cylas formicarius) incidence in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, K.S.; Hartemink, A.E.; Eganae, J.F.; Walo, C.; Poloma, S.

    2001-01-01

    Sweet potato is the main staple crop in PNG and this paper presents a study from the humid lowlands of the Morobe Province. Three experiments were carried out at two locations (Hobu and Unitech) to evaluate the effect of inorganic fertiliser inputs and fallow vegetation on the incidence of sweet

  2. Effect of combined gamma-irradiation and storage on biochemical changes in sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajlouni, S.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    Sucrose of uncured Red Jewel sweet potato increased from 3.8% to 10.7% after a combined treatment of a 300 Krad dose ( 60 Co) and 4 days storage at 24 0 C post-irradiation (PI). Starch decreased from 16.8% to 6.1% after 16 days following a 500 Krad treatment. Phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase and sucrose phosphate synthase enzyme specific activities increase 2.4-, 1.8- and 1.3-fold, respectively, after 3 days PI following 200 Krad exposures compared to nonirradiated roots. The beta-Amylase, phosphoglucose isomerase and sucrose synthase specific activities increased 1.2-fold. Sucrose synthesis in the irradiated sweet potato was attributed to beta-amylase, phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase and sucrose synthase

  3. Effects of Moringa oleifera LAM, Leguminous Plants and NPK Fertilizer Comparatively on Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato in Alley Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IN Abdullahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The research work conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Abuja was aimed at assessing the effect of Moringa oleifera, selected leguminous plants and inorganic fertilizer on the performance of orange fleshed sweet potato in Alley Cropping System. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD using five treatments with three replications was applied. Data collected include: percentage survival of sweet potato, length per vine (cm, number of leaves per vine, leaf area of sweet potato, weed dry matter (g/m2, yield of sweet potato roots. Highest number of leaves (28 per plant was recorded in the control plot while the plots with NPK fertilizer had the highest length per vine (94.55cm though not significantly (p>0.05 different from others. Higher percent survival (88% of sweet potato was recorded from control plots. Stands grown in Arachis hypogeae plots produced the highest leaf area (0.202m2 while plots in which NPK fertilizer was applied experienced highest weed dry matter (4.083g/m2 although highest root yield (1.2t/ha was recorded from the plots with NPK fertilizer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11061 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 24-35

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Critical Function of Sucrose Metabolism Related-Enzymes in Starch Accumulation in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The starch properties of the storage root (SR affect the quality of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.. Although numerous studies have analyzed the accumulation and properties of starch in sweet potato SRs, the transcriptomic variation associated with starch properties in SR has not been quantified. In this study, we measured the starch and sugar contents and analyzed the transcriptome profiles of SRs harvested from sweet potatoes with high, medium, and extremely low starch contents, at five developmental stages [65, 80, 95, 110, and 125 days after transplanting (DAP]. We found that differences in both water content and starch accumulation in the dry matter affect the starch content of SRs in different sweet potato genotypes. Based on transcriptome sequencing data, we assembled 112336 unigenes, and identified several differentially expressed genes (DEGs involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, and revealed the transcriptional regulatory network controlling starch and sucrose metabolism in sweet potato SRs. Correlation analysis between expression patterns and starch and sugar contents suggested that the sugar–starch conversion steps catalyzed by sucrose synthase (SuSy and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase may be essential for starch accumulation in the dry matter of SRs, and IbβFRUCT2, a vacuolar acid invertase, might also be a key regulator of starch content in the SRs. Our results provide valuable resources for future investigations aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanisms determining the starch properties of sweet potato SRs.

  5. Combined Application of Biofertilizers and Inorganic Nutrients Improves Sweet Potato Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhongo, Ruth W.; Tumuhairwe, John B.; Ebanyat, Peter; AbdelGadir, AbdelAziz H.; Thuita, Moses; Masso, Cargele

    2017-01-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] yields currently stand at 4.5 t ha−1 on smallholder farms in Uganda, despite the attainable yield (45–48 t ha−1) of NASPOT 11 cultivar comparable to the potential yield (45 t ha−1) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). On-farm field experiments were conducted for two seasons in the Mt Elgon High Farmlands and Lake Victoria Crescent agro-ecological zones in Uganda to determine the potential of biofertilizers, specifically arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to increase sweet potato yields (NASPOT 11 cultivar). Two kinds of biofertilizers were compared to different rates of phosphorus (P) fertilizer when applied with or without nitrogen (N) and potassium (K). The sweet potato response to treatments was variable across sites (soil types) and seasons, and significant tuber yield increase (p biofertilizer and NPK treatments during the short-rain season in the Ferralsol. Tuber yields ranged from 12.8 to 20.1 t ha−1 in the Rhodic Nitisol (sandy-clay) compared to 7.6 to 14.9 t ha−1 in the Ferralsol (sandy-loam) during the same season. Root colonization was greater in the short-rain season compared to the long-rain season. Biofertilizers combined with N and K realized higher biomass and tuber yield than biofertilizers alone during the short-rain season indicating the need for starter nutrients for hyphal growth and root colonization of AMF. In this study, N0.25PK (34.6 t ha−1) and N0.5PK (32.9 t ha−1) resulted in the highest yield during the long and the short-rain season, respectively, but there was still a yield gap of 11.9 and 13.6 t ha−1 for the cultivar. Therefore, a combination of 90 kg N ha−1 and 100 kg K ha−1 with either 15 or 30 kg P ha−1 can increase sweet potato yield from 4.5 to >30 t ha−1. The results also show that to realize significance of AMF in nutrient depleted soils, starter nutrients should be included. PMID:28348569

  6. Influence of Proportion and Size of Sugarcane Bagasse Fiber on the Properties of Sweet Potato Starch Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Tirado, J. P.; Tapia-Blácido, Delia R.; Siche, Raúl

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work was the proportion and size of cane bagasse fiber in the physical (density and thickness), mechanical (flexural strength and tensile at break) and thermal (TG and DTG) properties of trays made from sweet potato starch. A fiber size of 75-45 µm and a 2.5% ratio allowed to obtain trays with low thicknesses and densities, but with more compact structures that improved the mechanical properties of trays made from sweet potato starch alone. In addition, higher thermal stability and lower decomposition rate are shown for trays with fiber size 75-45 µm and ratios of 2.5% and 5%. These results show that the smaller fiber size improves the properties of the sweet potato starch trays and that these trays can be used to replace the expanded polymer (EPS) for use in dry foods.

  7. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis K; Hardacre, Allan; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Weber, Janet L; Brough, Louise; Coad, Jane

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa is high in spite of vitamin A supplementation programmes among children in most countries. Plant-based complementary foods remain the key source of nutrients in addition to breast milk for infants in lower income countries. Cereal-legume blends are superior in protein and energy densities compared with maize, millet or sorghum-only porridge. However, unfortified cereal-legume and cereal-only porridges are low in vitamin A. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food, rich in vitamin A, has been developed to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa. A composite flour containing sweet potato, soybean, soybean oil and fishmeal was processed as complementary food by oven toasting (denoted oven-toasted ComFa). The oven-toasted ComFa and enriched Weanimix (processed from dehulled maize, dehulled soybean, groundnut and fishmeal) were assessed for suitability as complementary food based on the nutrient composition using specifications in the Codex Standard (CS) as a reference. The sweet potato-based formulation and enriched Weanimix met the energy, protein, fructose and fat specifications but barely met the amino acid score as indicated in the CS. However, only the oven-toasted ComFa met the calcium and almost half the vitamin A levels as specified in the CS. Oven-toasted ComFa was slightly lower in energy, protein and fat by a difference not greater than 4.0% but was higher by more than 100% in fructose and vitamin A levels. Therefore, the sweet potato-based complementary food is likely to support vitamin A supplementation initiatives in low-income countries better than the cereal-based formulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Effect of channel size on sweet potato storage root enlargement in the Tuskegee University hydroponic nutrient film system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Martinez, Edwin; Bonsi, C. K.; Mortley, Desmond G.; Hill, Walter A.; Ogbuehi, Cyriacus R.; Loretan, Phil A.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of the sweet potato as a food source for future long term manned space missions is being evaluated for NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Sweet potatoes have been successfully grown in a specially designed Tuskegee University nutrient film technique (TU NFT) system. This hydroponic system yielded storage roots as high as 1790 g/plant fresh weight. In order to determine the effect of channel size on the yield of sweet potatoes, the width and depth of the growing channels were varied in two separate experiments. Widths were studied using the rectangular TU NFT channels with widths of 15 cm (6 in), 30 cm (12 in) and 45 cm (18 in). Channel depths of 5 cm (2 in), 10 cm (4 in), and 15 cm (6 in) were studied using a standard NASA fan shaped Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) channel. A comparison of preliminary results indicated that, except for storage root number, the growth and yield of sweet potatoes were not affected by channel width. Storage root yield was affected by channel depth although storage root number and foliage growth were not. Both experiments are being repeated.

  9. Possibilities of sweet potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] value chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is one of the most important food security promoted root crops in the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Unfortunately, the crop is still neglected and underutilized in Benin Republic. To establish baseline data for its better utilization for upgrading its value chain, 10 selected local varieties (01 cream, ...

  10. Assessment of the productivity of sweet potato varieties grown on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agronomic effectiveness and economic viability of soil amendment with prunings of agro-forestry tree species in sweet potato production on a highly weathered soil of South Eastern Nigeria were assessed in a field study conducted in 2010 and 2011 at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, ...

  11. Effects of feeding sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) leaves on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-five (45) weaner rabbits were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments (T) to evaluate the effects of graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves (SPL) and pelletized concentrate feed (PCF) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits. The treatments were: T1 (0% SPL; 100% PCF); T2 (25% ...

  12. Reaction of sweet pepper to the potato virus y (PVYm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echer Márcia de Moraes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sweet pepper cultivars showing susceptibility to the Potato virus Y (PVY are being replaced by resistant hybrids with higher commercial value. Despite of much information about resistance source reaction and their inheritance, there is no knowledge about the genetic background of commercial resistant hybrids. Reaction of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrids to the Potato virus Y (PVYm such as Acuario, Magali R, Nathalie and their respective generations F2 and F3 as well as hybrids Amanda, Corteso W208, CPC-6272, Dagmar, Elisa, Magali, Margarita, Monteiro, Quantum, Vivo W205 was evaluated. Reaction to PVYm was evaluated as resistant or susceptible. Magali R and Nathalie hybrid did not show any mosaic symptoms. Magali R and Nathalie hybrids resistance is due to a single dominant gene indicating resistant versus susceptible parental lines crossing pedigree. Amanda, Acuario, Corteso W208, Dagmar, Elisa, Margarita, Monteiro, Quantum and Vivo W205, considered resistant to PVY, were highly susceptibility to PVY strain m. Hybrids, claimed as resistant to the Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV, were also resistant to PVYm.

  13. Effect of combined gamma-irradiation and storage on biochemical changes in sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajlouni, S.; Handy, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Sucrose of uncured red jewel sweet potato increased from 3.8% to 10.7% after a combined treatment of a 300 Krad dose and 4 days storage at 24 C o post-irradiation (PI). Starch decreased from 16.8% to 6.1% after 16 days following a 500 Krad treatment. Phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase and sucrose phosphate synthase enzyme specific activities increased 2.4-, 1.8- and 1.3-fold, respectively, after 3 days PI following 200 Krad exposures compared to nonirradiated roots. The beta-Amylase, phospho glucose isomerase and sucrose synthase specific activities increased 1.2-fold. Sucrose synthesis in the irradiated sweet potato was attributed to beta-amylase, phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, phospho glucose isomerase and sucrose synthase. (author). 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Screening for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.)) viruses and their elimination using thermotheraphy-meristem tip culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkorful, E.

    2012-11-01

    Despite its high potential for food security, production of sweet potato is constrained by viruses which reduce yield by 90%. It is therefore essential to screen for, identify and eliminate these viruses in elite clones before dissemination to farmers. In this study, visual symptomatology and PCR-based techniques were used to identify sweet potato viruses. Visual symptomatology revealed virus associated symptoms ranging from vein clearing, interveinal chlorosis, chlorotic spots, upward curling on leaf edges, leaf narrowing and distortion, purpling, blistering, reduction of the leaf blades and general leaf yellowing in all 22 accessions grown on the field. Disease Incidence (DI) significantly (p≤0.05) varied between accessions with US003 having the lowest (20%) while ten accessions had 90% DI at the end of the study. Index of symptom severity of all plants (ISSap) ranged from 1.08±0.09 to 3.67 ±0.11 with VOTCR003 having the lowest suggesting that it is a moderately susceptible accession while VOTCR002 had the highest suggesting that it is susceptible to viral diseases. Contrarily, index of symptom severity of diseased plants (ISSdp) ranged from 2.00±0.25 to 3.75±0.32. The accession VOTCR002 had the highest ISSdp. Visual symptomatology showed that VOTCR002 had the highest DI, ISSap and ISSdp suggesting that it is highly susceptible to viral diseases. Ten severely infected accessions were tested for Sweet Potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet Potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet Potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) using PCR and RT-PCR techniques. RT-PCR did not amplify any of the virus genomes due to prolonged storage enzymes, In contrast, PCR detected SPLCV in 30% of the accessions. Plants infected with SPLCV were grown in the chamber at 35 degrees celsius for 4 weeks followed by meristem top culture. The regenerants were indexed after ten weeks for SPLCV. Fifty two percent (52.385 od the regenerants were

  15. Integrated nutrient management research with sweet potato in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes a series of field experiments that investigated the effects of organic and inorganic nutrients on sweet potato tuber yield in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea. In the first experiment, plots were planted with Piper aduncum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica, which

  16. Overexpression of the IbMYB1 gene in an orange-fleshed sweet potato cultivar produces a dual-pigmented transgenic sweet potato with improved antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sun Ha; Jeong, Yu Jeong; Kim, Cha Young; Lee, Joon Seol; Bae, Ji-Yeong; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-04-01

    The R2R3-type protein IbMYB1 is a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the storage roots of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam]. Previously, we demonstrated that IbMYB1 expression stimulated anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves and Arabidopsis. Here, we generated dual-pigmented transgenic sweet potato plants that accumulated high levels of both anthocyanins and carotenoids in a single sweet potato storage root. An orange-fleshed cultivar with high carotenoid levels was transformed with the IbMYB1 gene under the control of either the storage root-specific sporamin 1 (SPO1) promoter or the oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase anionic 2 (SWPA2) promoter. The SPO1-MYB transgenic lines exhibited higher anthocyanin levels in storage roots than empty vector control (EV) or SWPA2-MYB plants, but carotenoid content was unchanged. SWPA2-MYB transgenic lines exhibited higher levels of both anthocyanin and carotenoids than EV plants. Analysis of hydrolyzed anthocyanin extracts indicated that cyanidin and peonidin predominated in both overexpression lines. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that IbMYB1 expression in both IbMYB1 transgenic lines strongly induced the upregulation of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, whereas the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes varied between transgenic lines. Increased anthocyanin levels in transgenic plants also promoted the elevation of proanthocyanidin and total phenolic levels in fresh storage roots. Consequently, all IbMYB1 transgenic plants displayed much higher antioxidant activities than EV plants. In field cultivations, storage root yields varied between the transgenic lines. Taken together, our results indicate that overexpression of IbMYB1 is a highly promising strategy for the generation of transgenic plants with enhanced antioxidant capacity. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Effects of sodium metabisulphite and citric acid on the shelf life of fresh cut sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgroppo, S. C.; Vergara, L. E.; Tenev, M. D.

    2010-07-01

    Minimally processed vegetables are products susceptible to chemical and biological changes, thus becoming highly perishable. During sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) processing, some deteriorative reactions occur affecting quality, mainly change of color. The purpose of this research is to avoid or minimize this deterioration, so the effects of application of chemical agents to fresh cut and refrigerated stored sweet potatoes were studied, evaluating the occurrence of major organoleptic, physicochemical and nutritional changes and assessing the sensory acceptability. Tests were done with sweet potato variety Colorada Correntina, which were treated with sodium metabisulphite/citric acid (pH = 2.91), arranged in polystyrene trays film, coated with PVC, and stored at 5 degree centigrade and 10 degree centigrade. Variations on the titratable acidity, pH, total sugars and ascorbic acid were registered and the surface color was evaluated through digital image analysis. The final product acceptability was determined through sensory evaluation and microbiological counts carried out at the beginning and at the end of the assays. During storage, there were slight changes in physicochemical characteristics such as absorbic acid and sugar content and in surface color as well. The microbial counts were lower than the fixed levels established by the Spanish legislature. The sensory attributes were rated as acceptable by consumers. Finally it is possible to assert that sweet potato Colorada Correntina minimally processed and treated with sodium metabisulphite 2%/citric acid can be preserved, packaged and stored at 5 degree centigrade for 14 days. (Author) 34 refs.

  18. Molecular characterization of two isolates of sweet potato leaf curl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison analysis showed that DNA-A sequence of JS1 isolate was closely related to that of sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) from United States with nucleotide sequence identity of 97.0% and DNA-A of Y338 showed highest sequence identity at 97.8% with an isolate of SPLCV from China. Phylogenetic analysis ...

  19. Characterization and hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cultivar Eshu No. 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato extract (APSPE was demonstrated. Sixty mice were randomly divided into six groups: control group [without carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or APSPE]; model group (with CCl4 only; positive control group (50 mg/kg body weight silymarin; low-dose group (100 mg/kg body weight APSPE; medium-dose group (200 mg/kg body weight APSPE; and high-dose group (400 mg/kg body weight APSPE. After 10 days intragastric administration of the respective supplements, the mice in all groups except control were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (0.15% in arachis oil, 10 mL/kg body weight, intravenous. Twelve hours after CCl4 injection, the mice were measured in terms of liver index, levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum, as well as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde in liver homogenate. Additionally, the livers of mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and sectioned for observation. Nineteen purple sweet potato anthocyanins were identified from the purple sweet potato cultivar Eshu No. 8 and analyzed by liquid chromatography– electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Peonidin 3-coumaryl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside was first identified in purple sweet potato. The results showed that anthocyanins in Eshu No. 8 had good hepatoprotective activity.

  20. In Vitro Conservation of Sweet Potato Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the in vitro conservation of sweet potato genotypes using the slow growth technique. The first experiment was conducted in a 4×5×2 factorial scheme, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137, five concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg·L−1, and two temperatures (18 and 25°C. The second experiment was conducted in a 4×3×3 factorial scheme at 18°C, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137, three variations of MS salts (50, 75, and 100%, and three concentrations of sucrose (10, 20, and 30 g·L−1. Every three months, we evaluated the survival (%, shoot height, and shoot viability. In vitro conservation of the sweet potato genotypes IPB-052 and IPB-007 was obtained over three and six months, respectively, using MS medium plus 2.0 mg·L−1 of ABA at either 18 or 25°C. Genotypes IPB-072 and IPB-137 can be kept for three and six months, respectively, in MS medium without ABA at 18°C. It is possible to store IPB-052 and IPB-072 for six months and IPB-007 and IPB-137 for nine months using 30 g·L−1 of sucrose and 50% MS salts.

  1. Effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor content of orange-fleshed sweet potato for production of amala in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Abbas Bazata; Fuchs, Richard; Nicolaides, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the work was to study the effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange-fleshed sweet potato amala. The most common sweet potato in Nigeria is white or yellow fleshed, which is very low in provitamin A. However, efforts are underway to promote orange-fleshed sweet potato to improve provitamin A intake. This paper describes how orange-fleshed sweet potato slices were traditionally processed into amala, which is increasingly consumed in Nigeria. The study revealed that both the cold and hot fermentation methods resulted in increased vitamin A levels and lower vitamin C levels in orange-fleshed sweet potato. Further processing to make amala resulted in a fall in both vitamin A and C content. The study found an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity following the cold-water fermentation and a decrease following the hot-water fermentation compared to raw orange-fleshed sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitor activity in amala produced using both the cold and hot methods was below detectable levels. The results indicate that amala produced from traditionally fermented orange-fleshed sweet potato could be a good source of vitamins A and C for the rural poor and that the processing removes any potential negative effects of trypsin inhibitors. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effects of drying on caffeoylquinic acid derivative content and antioxidant capacity of sweet potato leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toong Long Jeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight, with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g, compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern.

  3. Embryogenesis in sweet potato, Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnino, A.; Mini, P.

    1997-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) ranks sixth among the cultivated crops of the world. In fact, it represents a major staple food in many tropical countries. Recently this crop has been proposed as a source of starch for industrial utilization. Somatic embryogenesis could prove useful as an alternative to traditional propagation by cuttings, which is labour intensive and can transmit diseases. Somatic embryos are reported to originate from single cells, so that, if regenerated from mutagenized tissues, should give rise to solid mutants. 2 refs

  4. Embryogenesis in sweet potato, Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnino, A; Mini, P [ENEA - Technological Innovation Dept., Sector of Biotechnology and Agriculture, Trisaia Research Center, Policoro (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) ranks sixth among the cultivated crops of the world. In fact, it represents a major staple food in many tropical countries. Recently this crop has been proposed as a source of starch for industrial utilization. Somatic embryogenesis could prove useful as an alternative to traditional propagation by cuttings, which is labour intensive and can transmit diseases. Somatic embryos are reported to originate from single cells, so that, if regenerated from mutagenized tissues, should give rise to solid mutants. 2 refs.

  5. Effect of intercropping varieties of sweet potato and okra in an ultisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike in 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons to access the productivity of three sweet potato cultivars intercropped with three okra cultivars. Intercropping generally increased okra plant height while intercropping ...

  6. Physicochemical properties of gluten-free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20 and 40%, of sweet potato flour. Textural properties of the cooked pancakes, such as hardness and chewiness generally increased with time after cooking, whereas they decreased with increased sw...

  7. Effects of drying on caffeoylquinic acid derivative content and antioxidant capacity of sweet potato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Toong Long; Lai, Chia Chi; Liao, Ting Chen; Lin, Su Yue; Sung, Jih Min

    2015-12-01

    Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C) on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight), with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves) containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g) and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g), compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Development and identification of SSR markers associated with starch properties and β-carotene content in the storage root of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1,824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1,476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1,278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato.

  9. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato.

  10. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA TEPUNG UBI JALAR (Ipomoea batatas VARIETAS SUKUH DENGAN VARIASI PROSES PENEPUNGAN [Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Sukuh Variety Sweet Potatoes (Ipomea batatas Flours Made with Various Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifena Honestin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato has considerable potencies to support food diversification program based on flour and starch product. Various processing methods in the flour processing show great effect on alteration of the physicochemical properties of sweet potato flour. This research investigated the effects of different flour processing methods on the physicochemical properties of sweet potato flour. The results showed that processing method had a significant effect on water content, bulk density, colour (L, a, b, microscopic properties of starch granule, water absorption index, water soluble index and pasting properties of the sweet potato flour.

  11. Avaliação de acessos de batata-doce para resistência à broca-da-raiz, crisomelídeos e elaterídeos Screening of sweet potato accessions for resistance to the West Indian sweet potato weevil, chrysomelids and elaterids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Humberto França

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados para resistência a danos causados por insetos nas folhas e raízes, no campo, 366 acessos do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de batata-doce da Embrapa Hortaliças. Os insetos de interesse foram Diabrotica spp., Conoderus sp., Epitrix sp., e a broca-da-raiz da batata-doce, Euscepes postfasciatus. Considerando o estrato raízes, aproximadamente 21% dos acessos avaliados mostraram-se resistentes a crisomelídeos e elaterídeos, tendo sido identificados pelo menos sete clones melhores que a referência padrão de resistência àqueles insetos, a cultivar Brazlândia Roxa. Sete acessos, entre esses o CNPH 005, CNPH 026 e CNPH 258 mostraram-se bastante homogêneos e consistentes em três avaliações. Esses mesmos clones, além dos clones CNPH 088, CNPH 295, CNPH 314 e CNPH 318 mostraram-se entre os mais resistentes à broca-da-raiz, porque tiveram 7% ou menos das suas raízes tuberosas danificadas por Euscepes postfasciatus enquanto as cultivares Brazlândia Branca e Princesa obtiveram, respectivamente, 23,3% e 53,3% de danos. Outros nove acessos foram classificados como mais suscetíveis que essas cultivares. A aplicação desses resultados no manejo integrado de pragas em batata-doce é discutido.Three hundred sixty six sweet potato plant accessions of the Sweet potato Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Hortali��as (Brazil were evaluated in the field for resistance to the Wireworm-Diabrotica-Systena (WDS pest complex: Diabrotica spp., Conoderus sp., Epitrix sp., and West Indian sweet potato weevil, Euscepes postfaciatus. About 21% of all plant accessions showed high resistance to chrysomelids and elaterids. Seven clones, among them CNPH 005, CNPH 026 and CNPH 258 were more resistant than the standard resistant commercial cultivar Brazlândia Roxa. These sweet potato accessions and CNPH 088, CNPH 295, CNPH 314 and CNPH 318, were the most promising sources of resistance against the West Indian sweet potato weevil because they had 7% or less

  12. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominque, Brunson; Gichuhi, Peter N; Rangari, Vijay; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6 ± 0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups' peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth.

  13. Suppression of the invasive plant mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha) by local crop sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) by means of higher growth rate and competition for soil nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Clements, David Roy; Jin, Guimei; Chen, Aidong; Zhang, Fudou; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-01-28

    There are a variety of ways of increasing crop diversity to increase agricultural sustainability and in turn having a positive influence on nearby natural ecosystems. Competitive crops may provide potent management tools against invasive plants. To elucidate the competitive mechanisms between a sweet potato crop (Ipomoea batatas) and an invasive plant, mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha), field experiments were carried out in Longchuan County of Yunnan Province, Southwest China, utilizing a de Wit replacement series. The trial incorporated seven ratios of sweet potato and mile-a-minute plants in 25 m(2) plots. In monoculture, the total biomass, biomass of adventitious root, leafstalk length, and leaf area of sweet potato were all higher than those of mile-a-minute, and in mixed culture the plant height, branch, leaf, stem node, adventitious root, flowering and biomass of mile-a-minute were suppressed significantly (P competition was less than interspecific competition. The competitive balance index of sweet potato demonstrated a higher competitive ability than mile-a-minute. Except pH, other soil nutrient contents of initial soil (CK) were significantly higher than those of seven treatments. The concentrations of soil organic matter, total N, total K, available N, available P, available K, exchange Ca, exchange Mg, available Mn, and available B were significantly greater (P competition of sweet potato in the mixture. Evidently sweet potato has a competitive advantage in terms of plant growth characteristics and greater absorption of soil nutrients. Thus, planting sweet potato is a promising technique for reducing infestations of mile-a-minute, providing weed management benefits and economic returns from harvest of sweet potatoes. This study also shows the potential value of replacement control methods which may apply to other crop-weed systems or invaded natural ecosystems.

  14. Effect of intercropping varieties of sweet potato and okra in an ultisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... 2Department of Agronomy, College of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michael ... Land equivalent ratio was higher with intercropping TAE 38 okra and TIS ... to the use of low yield crop cultivars, resulting in low yield ... The top soil (0 - 20 cm) texture of .... sweet potato conserved soil moisture and reduced weed.

  15. Effect of citric acid concentration and hydrolysis time on physicochemical properties of sweet potato starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra Babu, Ayenampudi; Parimalavalli, Ramanathan; Rudra, Shalini Gaur

    2015-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of citric acid treated sweet potato starches were investigated in the present study. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed using citric acid with different concentrations (1 and 5%) and time periods (1 and 11 h) at 45 °C and was denoted as citric acid treated starch (CTS1 to CTS4) based on their experimental conditions. The recovery yield of acid treated starches was above 85%. The CTS4 sample displayed the highest amylose (around 31%) and water holding capacity its melting temperature was 47.66 °C. The digestibility rate was slightly increased for 78.58% for the CTS3 and CTS4. The gel strength of acid modified starches ranged from 0.27 kg to 1.11 kg. RVA results of acid thinned starches confirmed a low viscosity profile. CTS3 starch illustrated lower enthalpy compared to all other modified starches. All starch samples exhibited a shear-thinning behavior. SEM analysis revealed that the extent of visible degradation was increased at higher hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The CTS3 satisfied the criteria required for starch to act as a fat mimetic. Overall results conveyed that the citric acid treatment of sweet potato starch with 5% acid concentration and 11h period was an ideal condition for the preparation of a fat replacer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunson Dominque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world’s high fructose syrup (HFS. There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6±0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P<0.05 mineral content when compared to commercial ginger and pancake syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups’ peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth.

  17. Combining chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites to investigate origin and dispersal of New World sweet potato landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, C; Rossel, G; Tay, D; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2011-10-01

    We analysed a representative collection of New World sweet potato landraces (329 accessions from Mexico to Peru) with both chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers. Both kinds of markers supported the existence of two geographically restricted genepools, corresponding to accessions from the north-western part of South America and accessions from the Caribbean and Central America region. Our conservative cpSSRs markers revealed that the divergence between the two haplotype groups is associated with numerous mutation events concerning various markers, supporting the idea that this divergence may be ancient, predating domestication. For both kinds of markers, we found no significant difference in diversity between the two genepools and detected region-specific alleles in both groups. Previous studies have favoured the hypothesis of a single domestication of this crop. Our analysis suggests at least two independent domestications, in Central/Caribbean America and in the north-western part of South America. Sweet potato was then dispersed from these centres throughout tropical America. Comparison of nuclear and chloroplast data suggests that exchanges of clones and sexual reproduction were both important processes in landrace diversification in this clonally propagated crop. Our analysis provides useful tools for rationalizing the conservation and use of sweet potato germplasm collections. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The Effect of Utilization of Sweet Potato Flour as Energy Source of Broiler Feed at Finisher Period to Carcass Weight, Chest Weight, Thigh Weight and Abdominal Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonok Supartini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current research is was to know the effect of feeding sweet potato flour as a source of energy to carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, and abdominal fat.The material of the research were 80 finisher male broiler with initial weight of 963.37 ± 31.23 g. Completely Randomized Design (CRD used for research method which consisted of 4 treatment, namely feeding without sweet potato flour (P0, with concentration of sweet potato flour of 10% (P1, 20% (P2 and 30% (P3.The parameter of research were carcass weight, chest weight,thigh weight and abdominal fat. The results showed that the gift effect of sweet potato flour to carcass weight were P0 1199.4%; P1 1138.98%; P2 1076.6; P3 1038.2; chest weight of P0 358.08; P1 366.6; P2 337.8; and P3 323.4%; thigh weight of P0 479.8; P1 472.94; P2 468.4; and P3 442; and abdominal fat of P0 33.2; P1 35.6; P2 25.4; P3 27.8. It could be concluded that the concentration of 10% sweet potato flour from total feeding gave the best treatment.   Keywords : sweet potato flour, carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, abdominal fat

  19. Melatonin-Stimulated Triacylglycerol Breakdown and Energy Turnover under Salinity Stress Contributes to the Maintenance of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Activity and K+/Na+ Homeostasis in Sweet Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yicheng; Wang, Aimin; Li, Xiang; Kou, Meng; Wang, Wenjun; Chen, Xianyang; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Mingku; Ma, Daifu; Li, Zongyun; Sun, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Melatonin (MT) is a multifunctional molecule in animals and plants and is involved in defense against salinity stress in various plant species. In this study, MT pretreatment was simultaneously applied to the roots and leaves of sweet potato seedlings [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], which is an important food and industry crop worldwide, followed by treatment of 150 mM NaCl. The roles of MT in mediating K + /Na + homeostasis and lipid metabolism in salinized sweet potato were investigated. Exogenous MT enhanced the resistance to NaCl and improved K + /Na + homeostasis in sweet potato seedlings as indicated by the low reduced K + content in tissues and low accumulation of Na + content in the shoot. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that exogenous MT significantly suppressed NaCl-induced K + efflux in sweet potato roots and mesophyll tissues. Further experiments showed that MT enhanced the plasma membrane (PM) H + -ATPase activity and intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level in the roots and leaves of salinized sweet potato. Lipidomic profiling revealed that exogenous MT completely prevented salt-induced triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in the leaves. In addition, MT upregulated the expression of genes related to TAG breakdown, fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation, and energy turnover. Chemical inhibition of the β-oxidation pathway led to drastic accumulation of lipid droplets in the vegetative tissues of NaCl-stressed sweet potato and simultaneously disrupted the MT-stimulated energy state, PM H + -ATPase activity, and K + /Na + homeostasis. Results revealed that exogenous MT stimulated TAG breakdown, FA β-oxidation, and energy turnover under salinity conditions, thereby contributing to the maintenance of PM H + -ATPase activity and K + /Na + homeostasis in sweet potato.

  20. [Manaca, sweet potato and yam: possible substitutes of wheat in foods for two ethnic population in Venezuelan Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, Elba; Teixeira, Patricia; Otero, Mariana; Guerra, Marisa; Hidalgo, Glida

    2006-03-01

    In this study, flours from manaca or acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart), sweet potato (Ipomea batatas), and yam (Dioscorea spp.), species grown in the Venezuelan Amazon, were obtained. The proximal composition, water activity (a(w)), Fe, Ca, Zn, Mg, Cu, Na and K content were determined for the flours of manaca, sweet potato and yam. These flours were used as ingredients of products for the inhabitants of the indigenous populations of the Venezuelan Amazon (Piaroa and Hiwi). Two types of products that traditionally contain wheat flour in their formulation (ingredient they know by transculturation) were formulated; an attempt to substitute it totally or partially by the manaca, sweet potato and/or yam flours was made. For the selection of the products to be formulated, the preferences and eating habits of the indigenous communities and ease and simplicity of the preparations to be developed, were considered. The two products formulated were cookies and "small cakes". To decide on the formulation(s) of the final product(s), sensorial evaluations were made in the laboratory and in the indigenous communities Piaroa and Hiwi. High fat content (16%), dietetic fiber (59.7%) and iron (25 mg / 100 g) in manaca or acai flour were remarkable. Two types of cookies and two of "small cakes" were equally accepted by the indigenous communities. Cookies supply a high iron amount (about 24%). The feasibility of substituting the wheat flour by manaca, sweet potato and yam flour in products accepted by two ethnic populations of the Venezuelan Amazon was demonstrated.

  1. The effect of 'Liang-Feng-Su' on increasing production of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yitong; Wang Zhifen

    1991-01-01

    Treating sweet potato seedling with 33 x 10 -6 'Liang-Feng-Su', by means of phosphorus-32 and carbon-14 tracing technique showed that the use of 'Liang-Feng-Su' not only increased the root vigor and net photosynthetic efficiency of leaves, but also promoted the transport of photosynthate to root tubers which results in economic benefit

  2. Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults: results from EPIC-InterAct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Norat, T.; Wark, P.A.; Vergnaud, A.C.; Schulze, M.B.; Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; The InterAct Consortium, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown, largely in American populations, to increase type 2 diabetes incidence. We aimed to evaluate the association of consumption of sweet beverages (juices and nectars, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and artificially sweetened soft

  3. Is the begomovirus, sweet potato leaf curl virus, really seed transmitted in sweetpotato?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato is one of the major root crops in the world and is also widely grown in the southern United States. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) is a begomovirus posing a serious threat to sweetpotato production worldwide and is primarily transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) or through veget...

  4. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis of yield contributing characters in sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.D.; Rabbani, M.G.; Mollah, M.L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of 30 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) genotypes for yield contributing characters and tuber yield per plant revealed high phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation (PCV and GCV, respectively) for number of tubers per plant, average tuber weight and tuber yield per plant. The heritability and genetic advance were higher for tuber yield per plant, average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant. These three characters also reflected high heritability as well as high genetic advance. As high positive significant correlation, as well as positive direct effect of average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant on tuber yield per plant were found, these characters should be given prime importance for selecting high yielding sweet potato genotypes. (author)

  5. Melatonin-Stimulated Triacylglycerol Breakdown and Energy Turnover under Salinity Stress Contributes to the Maintenance of Plasma Membrane H+–ATPase Activity and K+/Na+ Homeostasis in Sweet Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (MT is a multifunctional molecule in animals and plants and is involved in defense against salinity stress in various plant species. In this study, MT pretreatment was simultaneously applied to the roots and leaves of sweet potato seedlings [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.], which is an important food and industry crop worldwide, followed by treatment of 150 mM NaCl. The roles of MT in mediating K+/Na+ homeostasis and lipid metabolism in salinized sweet potato were investigated. Exogenous MT enhanced the resistance to NaCl and improved K+/Na+ homeostasis in sweet potato seedlings as indicated by the low reduced K+ content in tissues and low accumulation of Na+ content in the shoot. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that exogenous MT significantly suppressed NaCl-induced K+ efflux in sweet potato roots and mesophyll tissues. Further experiments showed that MT enhanced the plasma membrane (PM H+–ATPase activity and intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP level in the roots and leaves of salinized sweet potato. Lipidomic profiling revealed that exogenous MT completely prevented salt-induced triacylglycerol (TAG accumulation in the leaves. In addition, MT upregulated the expression of genes related to TAG breakdown, fatty acid (FA β-oxidation, and energy turnover. Chemical inhibition of the β-oxidation pathway led to drastic accumulation of lipid droplets in the vegetative tissues of NaCl-stressed sweet potato and simultaneously disrupted the MT-stimulated energy state, PM H+–ATPase activity, and K+/Na+ homeostasis. Results revealed that exogenous MT stimulated TAG breakdown, FA β-oxidation, and energy turnover under salinity conditions, thereby contributing to the maintenance of PM H+–ATPase activity and K+/Na+ homeostasis in sweet potato.

  6. Rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.]) varieties using HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebot, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    When a raw sweet potato root is analysed, only sucrose, glucose and fructose are present but during cooking, starch is hydrolysed into maltose giving the sweet flavour to cooked roots. This study aimed at developing an HPTLC protocol for the rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in four commercial varieties and to compare them to 243 hybrids grouped by flesh colour (white, orange, purple). In commercial varieties, mean maltose content varied from 10.26 to 15.60% and total sugars from 17.83 to 27.77% on fresh weight basis. Hybrids showed significant variation in maltose content within each group, with means ranging from 7.65% for white-fleshed, to 8.53% in orange- and 11.98% in purple-fleshed. Total mean sugars content was 20.24, 22.11 and 26.84% respectively for white, orange and purple flesh hybrids. No significant correlations were detected between individual sugars but maltose and total sugars content were highly correlated. Compared to the best commercial variety ( Baby ), 25 hybrids (10.3%) presented a higher maltose content and 40 (16.5%) showed a higher total sugars content. HPTLC was observed as an attractive, cost efficient, high-throughput technique for quantitating maltose and total sugars in sweet potatoes. Perspectives for improving sweet potato quality for consumers' requirements are also discussed.

  7. Carotenoids and β-carotene in orange fleshed sweet potato: A possible solution to vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sheikh Nazrul; Nusrat, Tania; Begum, Parveen; Ahsan, Monira

    2016-05-15

    The present study, in line with a plant-food-based approach to address vitamin A deficiency, reports the analysis of total carotenoids, and trans- and cis-β-carotenes, in different varieties of raw and boiled orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP). Carotenoids were isolated using acetone-petroleum ether extraction followed by spectrophotometric determination. trans- and cis-β-Carotenes were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC method using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile:methanol:2-propanol in the ratio of 85:15:33 with 0.01% ammonium acetate. Intra-varietal difference in carotenoids as well as trans- and cis-β-carotenes were noted in both the raw and boiled potatoes. Carotenoid content was found to be higher in the raw potatoes compared to the boiled samples from the same variety. Amongst the OFSP varieties, Kamalasundari (BARI SP-2) was found to contain the most carotenoids in both the raw and boiled samples. β-Carotene was significantly higher in the Kamalsundari and BARI SP-5 varieties. trans-β-Carotene was found to be the major carotenoid in all of the raw potatoes, but boiling was associated with an increase in cis-β-carotene and a decrease in the trans isomer. Kamalsundari and BARI SP-5 orange-fleshed sweet potatoes have the potential to be used as food-based supplements to reduce vitamin A deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perceval S. Bahado-Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years. The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3, while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3 and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2 had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. Digestion performance and microbial community in full-scale methane fermentation of stillage from sweet potato-shochu production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Tang, Yueqin; Urakami, Toyoshi; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Sweet potato shochu is a traditional Japanese spirit produced mainly in the South Kyushu area in Japan. The amount of stillage reaches approximately 8 x 10(5) tons per year. Wastewater mainly containing stillage from the production of sweet potato-shochu was treated thermophilically in a full-scale treatment plant using fixed-bed reactors (8 reactors x 283 m3). Following the addition of Ni2+ and Co2+, the reactors have been stably operated for six years at a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 14 kg/(m3 x day). Analysis of coenzyme content and microbial communities indicated that similar microbial communities were present in the liquid phase and on the fiber carriers installed in reactors. Bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes as well as Bacteroidetes were dominant bacteria, and Methanosarcina thermophila as well as Methanothermobacter crinale were dominant methanogens in the reactors. This study reveals that stillage from sweet potato-shochu production can be treated effectively in a full-scale fixed-bed reactor under thermophilic conditions with the help of Ni2+ and Co2+. The high diversity of bacterial community and the coexistence of both aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens contributed to the excellent fermentation performance.

  10. Effect of baking and steaming on physicochemical and thermal properties of sweet potato puree preserved by freezing and freeze-drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Svrakačić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatments could be one of the hurdles in applications of sweet potato purees for food different products formulation. Sweet potato purees (SPP were prepared from raw, baked and steamed roots and they were preserved by freezing and freeze-drying. The effects of baking and steaming on thermal properties (melting temperature-Tm, melting transition energy - ΔH, and glass transition temperatures - Tg of sweet potato (cultivar Beauregard, were measured by means of a Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The SPP made from baked roots had higher total and soluble solids (20.32 and 18.95%, respectively than SPP made from raw and steamed roots. It can be also noticed that starch content was reduced by steaming and baking which reflected on amount of total and reducing sugars. The increase of reducing sugars level in baked SPP for 3.78% and steamed for 0.86% SPP was the result of yielding the maltose. The chemical changes of SPP also influenced the thermal behavior such that SPP prepared from baked sweet potato roots had the lowest initial freezing point (-2.80 °C followed by SPP prepared from steamed (-2.63 °C and raw (-0.71 °C roots. The highest energy for melting (transition was needed for SPP prepared from raw potato roots followed by steamed and baked roots, -103.79, -103.63, and -102.90 J/g, respectively. The glass transition in freeze-dried SPP prepared from raw roots was not detected. However, in the freeze-dried SPP prepared from baked and steamed roots the glass transition was detected in the range of 39 and 42 °C but with no significant difference (p > 0.05.

  11. Effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown hydroponically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuehi, Cyriacus R.; Loretan, Phil A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Biswas, P. K.; Mortley, Desmond G.

    1989-01-01

    Sweet potato shoot tips have been shown to be a nutritious green vegetable. A study was conducted to determine the effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown in the greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The nutrient solution consisted of a modified half Hoagland solution. Biweekly shoot tip harvests, beginning 42 days after planting, provided substantial amounts of vegetable greens and did not affect the fresh and dry foliage weights or the storage root number and fresh and dry storage root weights at final harvest. The rates of anion and cation uptake were not affected by tip harvests.

  12. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  13. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-09-14

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  14. Use of slow-release fertilizer on the production of sweet potatoes plantlets in tray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Beraldo Rós

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of plantlets in containers generally requires the use of fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of sweet potato in styrofoam trays using slow-release fertilizer. The experiment was carried out, under a screen-protected nursery, in a factorial scheme 5x5, with five doses of slow-release fertilizer NPK 19-06-10 (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 g per 25 kg de substrate and five times of plantlets permanence in tray (14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days after planting the cuttings. The number and dry matter of roots and leaves were evaluated. The number of roots was not influenced by fertilizer addition. In general, there is not damage to plantlets growth until the highest dose used. Therefore, the fertilizer addition increases the sweet potato plants growth and the dose of 200 g per 25 kg of substrate is responsible for the best results.

  15. Use of gamma radiation as a form of preservation of sweet potatoes. [Final technical] quarterly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This document covers: harvest and conditioning following harvest, harvest-curing-storage-irradiation schemes, irradiation, control sweet potatoes, analyses, enzymes results, and procedures for taste evaluation, storage rot, weevil

  16. Advanced propagation systems for biomass species: a model system based on sweet potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantliffe, D.J. (Florida Univ., Gainseville, FL (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    A method for somatic embryo production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) has been developed. The first step of somatic embryogenesis was to obtain embryogenic callus from 0.2 mm apical domes with 1-2 leaf primordia on medium containing 10 M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Selective proliferation of embryogenic callus has been obtained on solid media containing 10 [mu]M 2,4-D and 1 [mu]M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and in liquid media containing 5 [mu]M 2,4-D. The fraction of suspension cultures larger than 710 [mu]M was commonly used to produce embryos. Cultures were recultured every 2 weeks in liquid media and every 6 weeks on agar media. The formation of embryos was triggered by transferring embryogenic calli or cell aggregates from nutrient media containing 2,4-D to fresh media without 2,4-D. Late torpedo and cotyledonary stage embryos had the highest potential for plant formation. The automated production of synthetic seed in combination with fluid drilling technology could render economically feasible the production of sweet potato for biomass. (author)

  17. The broadly insecticidal Photorhabdus luminescens toxin complex a (Tca): Activity against the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Michael B.; Domek, John M.; Gelman, Dale B.; Hu, Jing S.

    2005-01-01

    Toxin complex a (Tca), a high molecular weight insecticidal protein complex produced by the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens, has been found to be orally toxic to both the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B. The 48 hour LC50 for Tca against neonate L. decemlineata was found to be 2.7 ppm, and the growth of 2nd instar L. decemlineata exposed to Tca for 72 hours was almost entirely inhibited at concentrat...

  18. The potential of computer vision, optical backscattering parameters and artificial neural network modelling in monitoring the shrinkage of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwude, Daniel I; Hashim, Norhashila; Abdan, Khalina; Janius, Rimfiel; Chen, Guangnan

    2018-03-01

    Drying is a method used to preserve agricultural crops. During the drying of products with high moisture content, structural changes in shape, volume, area, density and porosity occur. These changes could affect the final quality of dried product and also the effective design of drying equipment. Therefore, this study investigated a novel approach in monitoring and predicting the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. Drying experiments were conducted at temperatures of 50-70 °C and samples thicknesses of 2-6 mm. The volume and surface area obtained from camera vision, and the perimeter and illuminated area from backscattered optical images were analysed and used to evaluate the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. The relationship between dimensionless moisture content and shrinkage of sweet potato in terms of volume, surface area, perimeter and illuminated area was found to be linearly correlated. The results also demonstrated that the shrinkage of sweet potato based on computer vision and backscattered optical parameters is affected by the product thickness, drying temperature and drying time. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network with input layer containing three cells, two hidden layers (18 neurons), and five cells for output layer, was used to develop a model that can monitor, control and predict the shrinkage parameters and moisture content of sweet potato slices under different drying conditions. The developed ANN model satisfactorily predicted the shrinkage and dimensionless moisture content of sweet potato with correlation coefficient greater than 0.95. Combined computer vision, laser light backscattering imaging and artificial neural network can be used as a non-destructive, rapid and easily adaptable technique for in-line monitoring, predicting and controlling the shrinkage and moisture changes of food and agricultural crops during drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effects of elevated CO2 on growth of the industrial sweet potato cultivar CX-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rising concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is known to directly affect plants, increasing growth, yield, and resource use efficiency. Further, it has been shown that sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) represent a potential as a source of bioethanol production, particularly industrial...

  20. Digital gene expression analysis based on integrated de novo transcriptome assembly of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Tao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.] ranks among the top six most important food crops in the world. It is widely grown throughout the world with high and stable yield, strong adaptability, rich nutrient content, and multiple uses. However, little is known about the molecular biology of this important non-model organism due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to get a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and better understanding of gene expression patterns in different tissues and at various developmental stages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end (PE RNA-Sequencing was performed, and generated 48.7 million of 75 bp PE reads. These reads were de novo assembled into 128,052 transcripts (≥ 100 bp, which correspond to 41.1 million base pairs, by using a combined assembly strategy. Transcripts were annotated by Blast2GO and 51,763 transcripts got BLASTX hits, in which 39,677 transcripts have GO terms and 14,117 have ECs that are associated with 147 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, transcriptome differences of seven tissues were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE tag profiling and numerous differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were identified. Moreover, the expression characteristics of genes involved in viral genomes, starch metabolism and potential stress tolerance and insect resistance were also identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combined de novo transcriptome assembly strategy can be applied to other organisms whose reference genomes are not available. The data provided here represent the most comprehensive and integrated genomic resources for cloning and identifying genes of interest in sweet potato. Characterization of sweet potato transcriptome provides an effective tool for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular processes including development of leaves and storage roots

  1. Crop yield and light/energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: Laboratory Biosphere experiments with wheat and sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Dempster, W F; Silverstone, S; Alling, A; Allen, J P; van Thillo, M

    2005-01-01

    Two crop growth experiments in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, were conducted from 2003 to 2004 with candidate space life support crops. Apogee wheat (Utah State University variety) was grown, planted at two densities, 400 and 800 seeds m-2. The lighting regime for the wheat crop was 16 h of light-8 h dark at a total light intensity of around 840 micromoles m-2 s-1 and 48.4 mol m-2 d-1 over 84 days. Average biomass was 1395 g m-2, 16.0 g m-2 d-1 and average seed production was 689 g m-2 and 7.9 g m-2 d-1. The less densely planted side was more productive than the denser planting, with 1634 g m-2 and 18.8 g m-2 d-1 of biomass vs. 1156 g m-2 and 13.3 g m-2 d-1; and a seed harvest of 812.3 g m-2 and 9.3 g m-2 d-1 vs. 566.5 g m-2 and 6.5 g m-2 d-1. Harvest index was 0.49 for the wheat crop. The experiment with sweet potato used TU-82-155 a compact variety developed at Tuskegee University. Light during the sweet potato experiment, on a 18 h on/6 h dark cycle, totaled 5568 total moles of light per square meter in 126 days for the sweet potatoes, or an average of 44.2 mol m-2 d-1. Temperature regime was 28 +/- 3 degrees C day/22 +/- 4 degrees C night. Sweet potato tuber yield was 39.7 kg wet weight, or an average of 7.4 kg m-2, and 7.7 kg dry weight of tubers since dry weight was about 18.6% wet weight. Average per day production was 58.7 g m-2 d-1 wet weight and 11.3 g m-2 d-1. For the wheat, average light efficiency was 0.34 g biomass per mole, and 0.17 g seed per mole. The best area of wheat had an efficiency of light utilization of 0.51 g biomass per mole and 0.22 g seed per mole. For the sweet potato crop, light efficiency per tuber wet weight was 1.33 g mol-1 and 0.34 g dry weight of tuber per mole of light. The best area of tuber production had 1.77 g mol-1 wet weight and 0.34 g mol-1 of light dry weight. The Laboratory Biosphere experiment's light efficiency was somewhat higher than the USU field results but somewhat below

  2. On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2013-06-01

    New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change.

  3. Enhanced salt stress tolerance in transgenic potato plants expressing IbMYB1, a sweet potato transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Jie; Kim, Myoung-Duck; Deng, Xi-Ping; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Chen, Wei

    2013-12-01

    IbMYB1, a transcription factor (TF) for R2R3-type MYB TFs, is a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis during storage of sweet potatoes. Anthocyanins provide important antioxidants of nutritional value to humans, and also protect plants from oxidative stress. This study aimed to increase transgenic potatoes' (Solanum tuberosum cv. LongShu No.3) tolerance to environmental stress and enhance their nutritional value. Transgenic potato plants expressing IbMYB1 genes under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter (referred to as SM plants) were successfully generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Two representative transgenic SM5 and SM12 lines were evaluated for enhanced tolerance to salinity, UV-B rays, and drought conditions. Following treatment of 100 mM NaCl, seedlings of SM5 and SM12 lines showed less root damage and more shoot growth than control lines expressing only an empty vector. Transgenic potato plants in pots treated with 400 mM NaCl showed high amounts of secondary metabolites, including phenols, anthocyanins, and flavonoids, compared with control plants. After treatment of 400 mM NaCl, transgenic potato plants also showed high DDPH radical scavenging activity and high PS II photochemical efficiency compared with the control line. Furthermore, following treatment of NaCl, UV-B, and drought stress, the expression levels of IbMYB1 and several structural genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis such as CHS, DFR, and ANS in transgenic plants were found to be correlated with plant phenotype. The results suggest that enhanced IbMYB1 expression affects secondary metabolism, which leads to improved tolerance ability in transgenic potatoes.

  4. Somatic embryogenesis in Malaysian cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    OpenAIRE

    De Silva, Angela Ee

    2017-01-01

    Three Malaysian sweet potato cultivars, namely Ipomoea batatas (L.) cv. Gendut, Jalomas and Telong, were investigated for their abilities to produce somatic embryos. Shoot meristems were used as the starting materials and cultured on Murashige and Skoog basal media (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) in the presence of auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). Auxin 2,4,5-T at 5 µM was most effective for the initiation of primary embryogenic formati...

  5. Regeneration of three sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.)) accessions via meristem, Nodal and callus induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addae-Frimpomaah, F.

    2012-11-01

    In vitro regeneration of three sweet potato accessions UE007, UK-BNARI and SA-BNARI using meristem, nodal cuttings or callus induction was studied. Meristematic explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium supplemented with low concentration of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin resulted in callus with or without shoot development which delayed shoot emergence. The degree of callus development increased as the concentration of the cytokinin in the culture medium increased. Although, callus development was comparatively lower on kinetin amended medium than BAP amended medium, Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1BAP had the highest shoot induction (80%). For further differentiation of callus or shoots into distinct stem and leaves, the culture were transferred into fresh MS medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1 mg/1 NAA and 0.1 mg/1 Gibberellic acid (GA 3 . To overcome the delay in shoot initiation using meristem culture, nodal cuttings of sweet potato were used as explants and cultured on MS medium amended with 0.3 - 0.9mg/1 BAP. All explants cultured on 0.3 or 0.6mg/1 BAP developed shoots. Furthermore, liquid MS medium amended with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1mg/I NAA, and 0.1mg/1 GA 3 also enhanced early shoot development from nodal cutting explants compared to solid culture. Post flask acclimatisation of meristem or nodal cutting-derived plantlets showed that meristem derived plantlets were better acclimatised than nodal cutting plants due to vigorous root development leading to higher percentage survival in pots and subsequent tuber production. Callusogenesis was achieved when leaf lobe explants were cultured on CLC/ Ipomoea medium supplemented with 1.0 - 4.0mg/1 2,4-D with 4.0mg/1 2,4-D being the optimal concentration. However, the calli were non-embryogenic and therefore could not produce embryos when transferred to 0.1mg/1 BAP amended medium but rather produced either single or multiple shoots. The highest percentage shoot (83

  6. Structure and characterization of a cDNA clone for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from cut-injured roots of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yamanoto, Naoki; Ohashi, Yuko; Kano-Murakami, Yuriko; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA clone for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) induced in wounded sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) root was obtained by immunoscreening a cDNA library. The protein produced in Escherichia coli cells containing the plasmid pPAL02 was indistinguishable from sweet potato PAL as judged by Ouchterlony double diffusion assays. The M r of its subunit was 77,000. The cells converted [ 14 C]-L-phenylalanine into [ 14 C]-t-cinnamic acid and PAL activity was detected in the homogenate of the cells. The activity was dependent on the presence of the pPAL02 plasmid DNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA contained a 2,121-base pair (bp) open-reading frame capable of coding for a polypeptide with 707 amino acids (M r 77,137), a 22-bp 5'-noncoding region and a 207-bp 3'-noncoding region. The results suggest that the insert DNA fully encoded the amino acid sequence for sweet potato PAL that is induced by wounding. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that of a PAL cDNA fragment from Phaseolus vulgaris revealed 78.9% homology. The sequence from amino acid residues 258 to 494 was highly conserved, showing 90.7% homology

  7. Exploring the yield gap of orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties on smallholder farmers' fields in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van D.; Franke, A.C.

    2018-01-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) can contribute to combating vitamin A deficiency and establishing more resilient cropping systems in sub-Saharan Africa. There is limited understanding of the factors that affect yield and quality of OFSP on smallholder farmers' fields. This study aimed to assess

  8. Determination of alcohols, ethers and organic acids in irradiated sweet potato wine by capillary gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yingcai; Yuan Bihuai; Xu Peishu; Wang Xiuying

    1986-01-01

    Alcohols, ethers and organic acids in irradiated sweet potato wine have been determined with capillary GC. The results show that the contents of some components have changed after irradiation, but no new species are formed. The G values of the changed components have been calculated

  9. Isaria poprawskii sp. nov. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitacae), a new entomopathogenic fungus from Texas affecting sweet potato whitefly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaria poprawskii is described as a new entomopathogenic species similar to Isaria javanica (=Paecilomyces javanicus). It was discovered ont he sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (LRGV), USA. Morphological and DNA examinations indicated the dist...

  10. Construction of a genetic map using EST-SSR markers and QTL analysis of major agronomic characters in hexaploid sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Chung, Il Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2017-01-01

    The Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, is difficult to study in genetics and genomics because it is a hexaploid. The sweet potato study not have been performed domestically or internationally. In this study was performed to construct genetic map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 245 EST-SSR markers were developed, and the map was constructed by using 210 of those markers. The total map length was 1508.1 cM, and the mean distance between markers was 7.2 cM. Fifteen characteristics were investigated for QTLs analysis. According to those, the Four QTLs were identified, and The LOD score was 3.0. Further studies need to develop molecular markers in terms of EST-SSR markers for doing to be capable of efficient breeding. The genetic map created here using EST-SSR markers will facilitate planned breeding of sweet potato cultivars with various desirable traits.

  11. Consumption and correlates of sweet foods, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks among primary school children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Ali Saad R

    2017-10-01

    To assess the consumption of sweets, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks along with their correlates among primary school children.  Methods: A total of 725 children (7-12 years old) were randomly recruited from 10 elementary schools from Al-Baha city, Saudi Arabia in 2013, using a multi-stage stratified sampling technique and pre-tested validated questionnaire.  Results: Approximately 26.1% of children reported consuming sweets on daily basis, and 63.4% consumed sweets occasionally during the week. Approximately 56.3%children were reportedly drinking carbonated beverages weekly and 17.1% in daily basis. Weekly consumption of energy drinks was reported in 21.9% and daily consumption in 4.3% of the children. Daily sweets consumption was positively associated with children age (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5-9.5, p=0.035), consuming carbonated beverages (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 2.2-5.2, p less than 0.001), energy drinks (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.4, p=0.029), eating high fat food (OR= 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1 - 2.4, p=0.023), and inversely with children body mass index (BMI) (OR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-0.9, p less than 0.001). Consuming carbonated beverages on regular basis was positively associated with consuming energy drinks (OR=9.0, 95% CI: 4.0-21.0, p less than 0.001).  Conclusion: Unhealthy dietary choices were found to be prevalent at early age. Comprehensive intervention programs should be established to prevent unhealthy dietary choices and promote healthier dietary behaviors. Qualitative studies are needed for better understanding of children's dietary behaviors.

  12. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN UBI JALAR UNGU TERHADAP SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK ES KRIM SUSU KAMBING PERANAKAN ETAWA [The Influence of Purple Sweet Potato Increment og Organoleptic Characteristic of Goat Milk Ice Cream of Etawa Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is perishable foodstuffs and has  low shelf life. One way to preserve it is process goat milk into ice cream. This is usefulforreducingthe damagenutritiongoat milk. Purple sweet potatoes which contain some anthosianin can be added to inprove the texture. However, the amount of purple sweet potato  added will affect the texture and body of icecream.  Therfore this research is needed. This research was purposed to find concentration of purple sweet potato that will produce the best ice cream especially on organoleptic characteristic. The experiment was arranged in  Latin Square design in single factor that consist of 5 levels  concentrations of purple sweet potato paste. There were 0% (reference, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% (b/b with 5 replications. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance . furtehre tested using the HSD Test in 5% level of signiificance. The The results showed that addition of  30%  sweet potato paste produced the best quality of goat milk ice cream of Etawa . The score of aroma was 3,5 (not specific goat milk, the taste’s score was 3,47 (sweet, color’s score was 2,8 (rather purple, texture’s score was 3,5 (soft, and the overall  of acceptance was 3,203 (rather like. This ice cream contained water, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber, and total carbohidrate as amuch as 66,98%, protein was 5,5%, 11,86%, 1,34%, 0,3% and 14,2%. Keyword : goat milk, ice cream, purple sweet potato

  13. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN UBI JALAR UNGU TERHADAP SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK ES KRIM SUSU KAMBING PERANAKAN ETAWA [The Influence of Purple Sweet Potato Increment og Organoleptic Characteristic of Goat Milk Ice Cream of Etawa Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is perishable foodstuffs and has  low shelf life. One way to preserve it is process goat milk into ice cream. This is usefulforreducingthe damagenutritiongoat milk. Purple sweet potatoes which contain some anthosianin can be added to inprove the texture. However, the amount of purple sweet potato  added will affect the texture and body of icecream.  Therfore this research is needed. This research was purposed to find concentration of purple sweet potato that will produce the best ice cream especially on organoleptic characteristic. The experiment was arranged in  Latin Square design in single factor that consist of 5 levels  concentrations of purple sweet potato paste. There were 0% (reference, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% (b/b with 5 replications. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance . further tested using the HSD Test in 5% level of signiificance. The The results showed that addition of  30%  sweet potato paste produced the best quality of goat milk ice cream of Etawa . The score of aroma was 3,5 (not specific goat milk, the taste’s score was 3,47 (sweet, color’s score was 2,8 (rather purple, texture’s score was 3,5 (soft, and the overall  of acceptance was 3,203 (rather like. This ice cream contained water, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber, and total carbohidrate as amuch as 66,98%, protein was 5,5%, 11,86%, 1,34%, 0,3% and 14,2%. Keywords : goat milk, ice cream, purple sweet potato

  14. An analytical pipeline to compare and characterise the anthocyanin antioxidant activities of purple sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijie; Deng, Liqing; Chen, Jinwu; Zhou, Siyu; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yufan; Yang, Chunxian; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min

    2016-03-01

    Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is rich in anthocyanin pigments, which are valuable constituents of the human diet. Techniques to identify and quantify anthocyanins and their antioxidant potential are desirable for cultivar selection and breeding. In this study, we performed a quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis of 30 purple sweet potato (PSP) cultivars, using various assays to measure reducing power radical-scavenging activities, and linoleic acid autoxidation inhibition activity. Grey relational analysis (GRA) was applied to establish relationships between the antioxidant activities and the chemical fingerprints, in order to identify key bioactive compounds. The results indicated that four peonidin-based anthocyanins and three cyanidin-based anthocyanins make significant contributions to antioxidant activity. We conclude that the analytical pipeline described here represents an effective method to evaluate the antioxidant potential of, and the contributing compounds present in, PSP cultivars. This approach may be used to guide future breeding strategies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). T...

  16. Catalase activity is modulated by calcium and calmodulin in detached mature leaves of sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiyanti, Mufidah; Chen, Hsien-Jung

    2014-01-15

    Catalase (CAT) functions as one of the key enzymes in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and affects the H2O2 homeostasis in plants. In sweet potato, a major catalase isoform was detected, and total catalase activity showed the highest level in mature leaves (L3) compared to immature (L1) and completely yellow, senescent leaves (L5). The major catalase isoform as well as total enzymatic activity were strongly suppressed by ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). This inhibition could be specifically and significantly mitigated in mature L3 leaves by exogenous CaCl2, but not MgCl2 or CoCl2. EGTA also inhibited the activity of the catalase isoform in vitro. Furthermore, chlorpromazine (CPZ), a calmodulin (CAM) inhibitor, drastically suppressed the major catalase isoform as well as total enzymatic activity, and this suppression was alleviated by exogenous sweet potato calmodulin (SPCAM) fusion protein in L3 leaves. CPZ also inhibited the activity of the catalase isoform in vitro. Protein blot hybridization showed that both anti-catalase SPCAT1 and anti-calmodulin SPCAM antibodies detect a band at the same position, which corresponds to the activity of the major catalase isoform from unboiled, but not boiled crude protein extract of L3 leaves. An inverse correlation between the major catalase isoform/total enzymatic activity and the H2O2 level was also observed. These data suggest that sweet potato CAT activity is modulated by CaCl2 and SPCAM, and plays an important role in H2O2 homeostasis in mature leaves. Association of SPCAM with the major CAT isoform is required and regulates the in-gel CAT activity band. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient embryogenic suspension culturing and rapid transformation of a range of elite genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Bi, Hui-Ping; Fan, Wei-Juan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was developed using embryogenic suspension cell cultures of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) cultivars, including Ayamurasaki, Sushu2, Sushu9, Sushu11, Wanshu1, Xushu18 and Xushu22. Embryogenic suspension cultures were established in LCP medium using embryogenic calli induced from apical or axillary buds on an induction medium containing 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Suspension cultures were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with the hpt gene as a selectable marker and an intron-interrupted uidA gene as a visible marker. Several key steps of the sweet potato transformation system have been investigated and optimized, including the appropriate antibiotics and their concentrations for suppressing Agrobacterium growth and the optimal doses of hygromycin for transformant selection. A total of 485 putative transgenic plant lines were produced from the transformed calli via somatic embryogenesis and germination to plants under 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin and 200 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. PCR, GUS and Southern blot analyses of the regenerated plants showed that 92.35% of them were transgenic. The number of T-DNA insertions varied from one to three in most transgenic plant lines. Plants showed 100% survival when 308 transgenics were transferred to soil in the greenhouse and then to the field. Most of them were morphologically normal, with the production of storage roots after 3 months of cultivation in the greenhouse or fields. The development of such a robust transformation method suitable to a range of sweet potato genotypes not only provides a routine tool for genetic improvement via transgenesis but also allows us to conduct a functional verification of endogenous genes in sweet potato. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP. PMID:25049698

  19. Copigmentation Of Anthocyanin Extract of Purple Sweet Potatoes (Ipomea Batatas L.) Using Ferulic Acid And Tannic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, I.; Wijaya, H.; Hasanah, F.; Heryani, S.

    2018-02-01

    Copigmentation is one of the methods to improve the color stability and intensity of anthocyanin extract. This study aimed to do the copigmentation of the anthocyanin extract of purple sweet potato using ferulic acid and tannic acid. The anthocyanin extraction was conducted with distilled water at pH 7 and pH 2 while the copigmentation was conducted by varying the concentration of ferulic acid and tannic acid. The results showed that best anthocyanin extraction method of the purple sweet potato was using distilled water at pH 2. The yield of freeze dried anthocyanin on the extraction with distilled water at pH 2 was 1710 ppm, while the yield when using distilled water at pH 7 was 888 ppm. Ferulic acid and tannic acid can be used for the copigmentation of anthocyanin extract of purple sweet potato by observing the maximum wavelength shift (bathochromic effect, Δλmax) and increase of color intensity (hyperchromic effect, ΔAmax). The bathochromic effect of ferulic acid began to occur at a concentration of 0.01M, while the hypochromic effect on tannic acid occurred at a concentration of 0.005M and remained up to a concentration of 0.02M. The best copigmentation concentration of ferulic acid was 0.015M, while tannic acid was 0.02M. The use of tannic acid 0.02M is recommended compared to ferulic acid 0.015M because with the same bathocromic effect (Δλmaks = 3,9) results hyperchromic effect (ΔA = 0,258) higher by tannic acid.

  20. Effect of extrusion-cooking in total carotenoids content in cream and orange flesh sweet potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José de O Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas is a food crop that supplies energy, minerals and vitamins C and B. Some cultivars are very rich in carotenoids (pro-vitamin A. In this study were evaluated and compared the total carotenoids content of two cultivars and the losses on the dehydrated extruded sweet potato flour. Samples from organic and conventional crops were analyzed, in the form of fresh and dehydrated extruded samples. Total carotenoids content of the fresh product, expressed on wet basis, was of 437 µg 100 g-1 for the cream cultivar and 10,12 µg 100 g-1 for the orange cultivar. After dehydration, losses of total carotenoids were of 41% and 38%, respectively. The fresh orange cultivar presented high total carotenoids content in comparison to the cream cultivar. The extruded orange sweet potato flour showed the lowest losses in total carotenoids. Therefore, the processed flour of orange sweet potato could be used to obtain pre-gelatinized extruded flour with high total carotenoids content.A batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas é um alimento fonte rico em energia, minerais, vitaminas C e B. Algumas cultivares são ricas em pró-vitamina A. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar e comparar o conteúdo de carotenóides totais em duas cultivares de batata-doce e determinar suas perdas na obtenção da farinha desidratada e processada por extrusão. Foram analisadas amostras de sistema de cultivo orgânico e convencional, tanto as frescas como as extrusadas desidratadas. O conteúdo de carotenóides totais do produto fresco, expressos em base úmida, foi de 437 µg 100 g-1 para a cultivar creme e de 10,120 µg 100g-1 para a cultivar alaranjada. Após o processo de desidratação das amostras, as perdas de carotenóides totais foram de 41% para a batata-doce creme e 38% para a alaranjada, respectivamente. Os resultados indicaram alto conteúdo de carotenóides totais para a cultivar alaranjada fresca, quando comparado com a cultivar creme. A amostra de

  1. Effect of shade on photosynthetic pigments in the tropical root crops: yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, M.; Onwueme, I.C.

    1998-01-01

    Plants of yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato were raised under shade or in full sunlight and the effect of shade on leaf chlorophyll and carotenoids was examined to determine and compare the relative shade tolerance and adaptability of the var ious species. All five species of root crops adapted to shade. The chlorophyll concentration was higher, while the chlorophyll a:b ratio, carotenoids per unit chlorophyll and the weight per unit area of leaf were lower in the shade than in the sun in yam, tannia, taro, cassava and sweet potato. All species had larger leaves and more chlorophyll per leaf in the shade. The extent of the changes, however, differed between species. The aroids (taro and tannia) appeared to be shade-tolerant species as their chlorophyll a:b ratios changed less than those of the other species in the shade, suggesting that their light-harvesting systems may be normally adapted to shade conditions. Taro and tannia also adapted to shade by a greater proportional increase in leaf size, a smaller reduction in leaf weight per unit area and a greater proportional increase in chlorophyll and carotenoids per leaf than the other species. Yam compensated for shade by having a large proportional increase in leaf size and appeared to be moderately tolerant of shade. Sweet potato and cassava appeared to be the least tolerant of shade of the major tropical root crops. (author)

  2. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  3. Distribution of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups within granules of modified sweet potato starches as determined after chemical peeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin, Z.; Buwalda, P.; Gruppen, H.

    2015-01-01

    The distributions of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups within granules of cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starches were investigated. Chemical surface peeling of starch granules was performed after sieving of native and modified starches into large-size (diameter = 20 µm) and

  4. Functional characterization of Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase in anthocyanin biosynthesis of purple sweet potato underlies the direct evidence of anthocyanins function against abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Fan, Weijuan; Li, Hong; Yang, Jun; Huang, Jirong; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) is a key enzyme in the catalysis of the stereospecific reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanidins in anthocyanin biosynthesis. In the purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cv. Ayamurasaki, expression of the IbDFR gene was strongly associated with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves, stems and roots. Overexpression of the IbDFR in Arabidopsis tt3 mutants fully complemented the pigmentation phenotype of the seed coat, cotyledon and hypocotyl. Downregulation of IbDFR expression in transgenic sweet potato (DFRi) using an RNAi approach dramatically reduced anthocyanin accumulation in young leaves, stems and storage roots. In contrast, the increase of flavonols quercetin-3-O-hexose-hexoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside in the leaves and roots of DFRi plants is significant. Therefore, the metabolic pathway channeled greater flavonol influx in the DFRi plants when their anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation were decreased. These plants also displayed reduced antioxidant capacity compared to the wild type. After 24 h of cold treatment and 2 h recovery, the wild-type plants were almost fully restored to the initial phenotype compared to the slower recovery of DFRi plants, in which the levels of electrolyte leakage and hydrogen peroxide accumulation were dramatically increased. These results provide direct evidence of anthocyanins function in the protection against oxidative stress in the sweet potato. The molecular characterization of the IbDFR gene in the sweet potato not only confirms its important roles in flavonoid metabolism but also supports the protective function of anthocyanins of enhanced scavenging of reactive oxygen radicals in plants under stressful conditions.

  5. Functional characterization of Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase in anthocyanin biosynthesis of purple sweet potato underlies the direct evidence of anthocyanins function against abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Wang

    Full Text Available Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR is a key enzyme in the catalysis of the stereospecific reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanidins in anthocyanin biosynthesis. In the purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. cv. Ayamurasaki, expression of the IbDFR gene was strongly associated with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves, stems and roots. Overexpression of the IbDFR in Arabidopsis tt3 mutants fully complemented the pigmentation phenotype of the seed coat, cotyledon and hypocotyl. Downregulation of IbDFR expression in transgenic sweet potato (DFRi using an RNAi approach dramatically reduced anthocyanin accumulation in young leaves, stems and storage roots. In contrast, the increase of flavonols quercetin-3-O-hexose-hexoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside in the leaves and roots of DFRi plants is significant. Therefore, the metabolic pathway channeled greater flavonol influx in the DFRi plants when their anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation were decreased. These plants also displayed reduced antioxidant capacity compared to the wild type. After 24 h of cold treatment and 2 h recovery, the wild-type plants were almost fully restored to the initial phenotype compared to the slower recovery of DFRi plants, in which the levels of electrolyte leakage and hydrogen peroxide accumulation were dramatically increased. These results provide direct evidence of anthocyanins function in the protection against oxidative stress in the sweet potato. The molecular characterization of the IbDFR gene in the sweet potato not only confirms its important roles in flavonoid metabolism but also supports the protective function of anthocyanins of enhanced scavenging of reactive oxygen radicals in plants under stressful conditions.

  6. The Role of Partnership in Value Chain of Sweet Potato in Regency of West Java (Case Study of PT Galih Estetika Indonesia Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Farichatul Aeni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The partnership between the farmers and PT Galih Estetika Indonesia as the exporter company in the field of sweet potato processing is expected to support the development of sweet potato agribusiness in Kuningan Regency and become one of the solutions for farmers’ problems. Termination of partnership contracts undertaken by the farmers will have an impact on the implementation of partnerships, company operations as well as the value chain. This study aims to analyze the pattern of partnership, degree of partnership, value chain structure, value chain governance, farmers’ income (partner and non-partner and margin. The method of data processing and data analysis used the descriptive analysis qualitative and quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that the pattern of partnership that is formed is a centralized pattern with the degree value of partnership of 716 (madya pattern. The structure of the value chain by mapping the actors and their activities result in relationships and coordination between the parties. Farmers with companies belong to the modular type in VCG. Economic benefits indicate that net income of partner farmers is Rp22,157,828/Ha, while non-partner farmers obtain Rp12,306,789/Ha and the smallest margin is obtained by the coordinator. The analysis shows that farmers' incomes are larger, but partnership planning has not been ideal. Therefore, the roles of farmers, companies and related agencies are required in the running of the ideal sweet potato partnership program.Keywords: sweet potato partnership, partnership pattern, value chain, value chain governance, revenue

  7. The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: An example of a naturally transgenic food crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Tina; Quispe, Dora; Zhai, Hong; Jarret, Robert; Ghislain, Marc; Liu, Qingchang; Gheysen, Godelieve; Kreuze, Jan F

    2015-05-05

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are plant pathogenic bacteria capable of transferring DNA fragments [transfer DNA (T-DNA)] bearing functional genes into the host plant genome. This naturally occurring mechanism has been adapted by plant biotechnologists to develop genetically modified crops that today are grown on more than 10% of the world's arable land, although their use can result in considerable controversy. While assembling small interfering RNAs, or siRNAs, of sweet potato plants for metagenomic analysis, sequences homologous to T-DNA sequences from Agrobacterium spp. were discovered. Simple and quantitative PCR, Southern blotting, genome walking, and bacterial artificial chromosome library screening and sequencing unambiguously demonstrated that two different T-DNA regions (IbT-DNA1 and IbT-DNA2) are present in the cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) genome and that these foreign genes are expressed at detectable levels in different tissues of the sweet potato plant. IbT-DNA1 was found to contain four open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to the tryptophan-2-monooxygenase (iaaM), indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH), C-protein (C-prot), and agrocinopine synthase (Acs) genes of Agrobacterium spp. IbT-DNA1 was detected in all 291 cultigens examined, but not in close wild relatives. IbT-DNA2 contained at least five ORFs with significant homology to the ORF14, ORF17n, rooting locus (Rol)B/RolC, ORF13, and ORF18/ORF17n genes of A. rhizogenes. IbT-DNA2 was detected in 45 of 217 genotypes that included both cultivated and wild species. Our finding, that sweet potato is naturally transgenic while being a widely and traditionally consumed food crop, could affect the current consumer distrust of the safety of transgenic food crops.

  8. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from purple sweet potato using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Guan, Qingyan; Guo, Ying; He, Jingren; Liu, Gang; Li, Shuyi; Barba, Francisco J.; Jaffrin, Michel Y.

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize experimental conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of valuable components (anthocyanins and phenolics) from purple sweet potatoes using water as a solvent. The Box-Behnken design was used for optimizing extraction responses of anthocyanin extraction yield, phenolic extraction yield, and specific energy consumption. Conditions to obtain maximal anthocyanin extraction yield, maximal phenolic extraction yield, and minimal specific energy consumption were different; an overall desirability function was used to search for overall optimal conditions: extraction temperature of 68ºC, ultrasonic treatment time of 52 min, and a liquid/solid ratio of 20. The optimized anthocyanin extraction yield, phenolic extraction yield, and specific energy consumption were 4.91 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight, 3.24 mg g-1 fresh weight, and 2.07 kWh g-1, respectively, with a desirability of 0.99. This study indicates that ultrasound-assisted extraction should contribute to a green process for valorization of purple sweet potatoes.

  9. Effect of sprouting on anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, color intensity and color attributes in purple sweet potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudiono, K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potatoes stored in a humid state will generally sprout, leading to them being deemed inedible by customers. During the sprouting process enzyme activities increase and as such it was assumed that there had been changes in the nutrition and secondary metabolism compounds, e.g. anthocyanins. The purpose of this research was to investigate the changes occurred in the characteristics of anthocyanins during the purple sweet potatoes’ sprouting. One-factor Randomized Block Design was used in the research design, i.e. the sprouting time in 6 stages: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity is 51.61±2.11%, the highest color intensity is 0.72±0.72, and the lowest hue angle value or the lowest h is 30.75±0.93o, occurring in the 4th week of sprouting. While the highest total anthocyanin is 222.07±2.65 mg/kg wet weight, and the highest red color value or a* is 12.80±0.49, occurring in the 3rd week of sprouting. The major components that compose purple sweet potatoes are Cyanidin-3-0-glucoside ([M-X]+ = m/z 286.50 to 287.50 and [M]+ = m/z 449 and Peonidin -3,5-0-diglucoside ([M-X]+ = m/z 462.50 to 463.50 and [M]+ = m/z 625.

  10. H+ -pyrophosphatase IbVP1 promotes efficient iron use in sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijuan; Wang, Hongxia; Wu, Yinliang; Yang, Nan; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies limiting crop production globally, especially in arid regions because of decreased availability of iron in alkaline soils. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] grows well in arid regions and is tolerant to Fe deficiency. Here, we report that the transcription of type I H + -pyrophosphatase (H + -PPase) gene IbVP1 in sweet potato plants was strongly induced by Fe deficiency and auxin in hydroponics, improving Fe acquisition via increased rhizosphere acidification and auxin regulation. When overexpressed, transgenic plants show higher pyrophosphate hydrolysis and plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity compared with the wild type, leading to increased rhizosphere acidification. The IbVP1-overexpressing plants showed better growth, including enlarged root systems, under Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient conditions. Increased ferric precipitation and ferric chelate reductase activity in the roots of transgenic lines indicate improved iron uptake, which is also confirmed by increased Fe content and up-regulation of Fe uptake genes, e.g. FRO2, IRT1 and FIT. Carbohydrate metabolism is significantly affected in the transgenic lines, showing increased sugar and starch content associated with the increased expression of AGPase and SUT1 genes and the decrease in β-amylase gene expression. Improved antioxidant capacities were also detected in the transgenic plants, which showed reduced H 2 O 2 accumulation associated with up-regulated ROS-scavenging activity. Therefore, H + -PPase plays a key role in the response to Fe deficiency by sweet potato and effectively improves the Fe acquisition by overexpressing IbVP1 in crops cultivated in micronutrient-deficient soils. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sweet-beverage consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Wark, Petra A; Romaguera, Dora; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Michaud, Dominique; Molina-Montes, Esther; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Rylander, Charlotta; Parr, Christine L; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Duell, Eric J; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Tim; Stepien, Magdalena; Freisling, Heinz; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-09-01

    The consumption of sweet beverages has been associated with greater risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which may be involved in the development of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that sweet beverages may increase pancreatic cancer risk as well. We examined the association between sweet-beverage consumption (including total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drink and juice and nectar consumption) and pancreatic cancer risk. The study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 477,199 participants (70.2% women) with a mean age of 51 y at baseline were included, and 865 exocrine pancreatic cancers were diagnosed after a median follow-up of 11.60 y (IQR: 10.10-12.60 y). Sweet-beverage consumption was assessed with the use of validated dietary questionnaires at baseline. HRs and 95% CIs were obtained with the use of multivariable Cox regression models that were stratified by age, sex, and center and adjusted for educational level, physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Associations with total soft-drink consumption were adjusted for juice and nectar consumption and vice versa. Total soft-drink consumption (HR per 100 g/d: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.07), sugar-sweetened soft-drink consumption (HR per 100 g/d: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.08), and artificially sweetened soft-drink consumption (HR per 100 g/d: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10) were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Juice and nectar consumption was inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk (HR per 100 g/d: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.99); this association remained statistically significant after adjustment for body size, type 2 diabetes, and energy intake. Soft-drink consumption does not seem to be associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Juice and nectar consumption might be associated with a modest decreased pancreatic cancer risk. Additional studies with specific information on juice and

  12. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  13. [Electricity generation from sweet potato fuel ethanol wastewater using microbial fuel cell technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Yi; Sun, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Liang; Xiao, Yao; Zhao, Hai

    2010-10-01

    Air cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) were investigated for electricity production from sweet potato fuel ethanol wastewater containing 5000 mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Maximum power density of 334.1 mW/m2, coulombic efficiency (CE) of 10.1% and COD removal efficiency of 92.2% were approached. The effect of phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and COD concentration on the performance of MFC was further examined. The addition of PBS from 50 mmol/L to 200 mmol/L increased the maximum power density and CE by 33.4% and 26.0%, respectively. However, the COD removal efficiency was not relative to PBS concentration in the wastewater. When the COD increased from 625 mg/L to 10 000 mg/L, the maximum value of COD removal efficiency and the maximum power density were gained at the wastewater strength of 5 000 mg/L. But the CE ranged from 28.9% to 10.3% with a decreasing trend. These results demonstrate that sweet potato fuel ethanol wastewater can be used for electricity generation in MFC while at the same time achieving wastewater treatment. The increasing of PBS concentration can improve the power generation of MFC. The maximum power density of MFC increases with the rise of COD concentration, but the electricity generation will decrease for the acidification of high wastewater concentration.

  14. Development and Examination of Sweet Potato Flour Fortified with Indigenous Underutilized Seasonal Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Teye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing nutrient-rich vegetable flour using locally under-utilized food crops in Africa would improve rural house-hold nutrition. This study seeks to develop nutrient-dense vegetable flour from different proportions of Sweet potato (Sp 40–100%, Avocado pear (Avo 10–40%, and Turkey berry (Tor 10–40%, using completely randomized design (CRD with 14 treatment combinations and three replications. The proximate composition, mineral composition, and functional properties were investigated on the composite flour. The results showed significant differences in all the parameters analyzed for the various composite flours. As the amount of Avo and Tor was added to the Sp, the proximate composition was enhanced except for the percentage carbohydrate, which decreased from 83.92 to 54.59 g/100 g. The mineral composition was also improved by the incorporation of Avo and Tor. Favourable functional properties were also obtained. The optimal composite flour was made up of 40% Sp, 35% Avo, and 25% Tor. The functional properties of the composite flours were better than the control (Sweet potato flour. Fortifying Sp flour with Avo and Tor is feasible and could be an easy and affordable means to improve rural nutrition, as it requires simple logistics for the ordinary rural household to produce the composite of the desired choice.

  15. A Root-Preferential DFR-Like Gene Encoding Dihydrokaempferol Reductase Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis of Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Xiang, Min; Fan, Yufang; Yang, Chunxian; Zeng, Lingjiang; Zhang, Qitang; Chen, Min; Liao, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato is good for health due to rich anthocyanins in tubers. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is well understood in up-ground organs of plants, the knowledge on anthocyanin biosynthesis in underground tubers is limited. In the present study, we isolated and functionally characterized a root-preferential gene encoding dihydrokaempferol reductase ( IbDHKR ) from purple-fleshed sweet potato. IbDHKR showed highly similarity with the reported dihydroflavonol reductases in other plant species at the sequence levels and the NADPH-binding motif and the substrate-binding domain were also found in IbDHKR. The tissue profile showed that IbDHKR was expressed in all the tested organs, but with much higher level in tuber roots. The expression level of IbDHKR was consistent with the anthocyanin content in sweet potato organs, suggesting that tuber roots were the main organs to synthesize anthocyanins. The recombinant 44 kD IbDHKR was purified and fed by three different dihydroflavonol substrates including dihydrokaempferol (DHK), dihydroquerctin, and dihydromyrecetin. The substrate feeding assay indicated that only DHK could be accepted as substrate by IbDHKR, which was reduced to leucopelargonidin confirmed by LC-MS. Finally, IbDHKR was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco. The IbDHKR-overexpression tobacco corolla was more highly pigmented and contained higher level of anthocyanins than the wild-type tobacco corolla. In summary, IbDHKR was a root-preferential gene involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and its encoding protein, specifically catalyzing DHK reduction to yield leucopelargonidin, was a candidate gene for engineering anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

  16. WATER EXTRACT OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO TUBERS REDUCES BLOOD PRESSURE 0F HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED BY NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE JAWI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Compliance of hypertensive patients to take medication is one of many determinant factors to achieve successful treatment. Side effects and the expensive price of drugs are the causes of the incompliance of patients taking the medication. Utilization of herbal medicine is a new hope to resolve the issue. Purple sweet potato tuber is a plant part that expected has beneficial effect in lowering blood pressure because it contains anthocyanins which are antioxidants and can preserve endothelial function. To prove these hypothesis, a study was conducted with randomized control group pre and post-test design. The  study was done on 20 adult male Wistar rats that were divided into two groups of 10 rats.  Both groups of rats were made hypertensive by administering high doses of NaCl. Control group of rats given only NaCl alone for 14 days. Treatment group were given NaCl and water extract of purple sweet potato tuber with a dose of 4 cc per day for 14 days. Before treatment and during treatment, blood pressure were taken everyday with special sphygmomanometer. The results indicate a significant difference in blood pressure between the control group with treatment (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group, it was observed that there was a significant decrease in blood pressure compared to the control group (P=0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of purple sweet potato tuber water extract may lower high blood pressure of rats induced by NaCl.

  17. Use Of Ultra Violet Light (UV-C) To Reduce Possible Microbial Potential In Cold Storage Rooms Loaded With Sweet Potatoes For Exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, Sh.M.; El-Neshawy, S.M.; Aly, A.Z.; Abdel Kader, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation with Ultraviolet-c (UV-C) light (254 nm) was applied on sweet potatoes (cv. Abees) as well as the major recovered organisms that are accounted as contaminants in either the internal atmosphere or on sweet potato tuber roots loaded in cold storage room set at 17 degree C and 65-70% RH for 3 months. The captured types of microorganisms from either the internal atmosphere of cold storage room or surfaces of sweet potato tuber roots were fungi, yeast and bacteria with the greatest percentage of fungi that recorded 90% and 70%, respectively. The major individuals of recovered fungi were Penicillium spp., Alternaria alternata, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus spp., Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium sp. in descending order of their existence percentages. Upon exposure, the internal atmosphere to UV-C light for one, two and three hours inside cold storage room, a significant reduction of the total number of different types of organisms was obtained with the greatest effect for the three hour-exposure time. Exposure of sweet potatoes to UV-C light at three exposure times (1, 2 and 3 hr) and stored in cold rooms for one month caused a reduction of rot percentages upon natural infection conditions with a full reduction (0 %) when irradiated for 3 hr at the same conditions. Rot percentages were decreased as the exposure time increased. Fruit characteristics in terms of tuber root firmness, shrinking and blemishing of irradiated tuber roots were remarkably maintained than which of the non irradiated ones. UV-C light caused a significant increase in phenol contents in tuber root tissue, while a reverse effect in sugar content was detected; such effects were correlated increasingly or decreasingly with the increase of exposure time. The activity of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase or poly phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzymes in irradiated tuber root tissues were significantly enhanced as the exposure time increased

  18. Metabolism of deoxynivalenol, a trichothecene mycotoxin, in sweet potato root tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, M. [Kagawa Univ., Miki (Japan); Yoshizawa, T.

    1990-12-15

    Sweet potato root tissues were used as an experimental model system for metabolism of trichothecenes in plants. {sup 14}C-Labeledeoxynivalenol was rapidly metabolized in the root tissues, most of the administered deoxynivalenol having disappeared by day 2. The half-life of the toxin in the root tissues was estimated to be less than 5hr. By reverse-phase HPLC and TLC, it was demonstrated that the toxin was converted to at least three metabolites in the root tissues. The relationships between the parent toxin and the three metabolites are discussed on the basis of the time course of the metabolic transformation of the toxin in the root tissues. (author)

  19. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  20. Are sweet snacks more sensitive to price increases than sugar-sweetened beverages: analysis of British food purchase data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Quirmbach, Diana; Jebb, Susan A

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is now advocated, and implemented, in many countries as a measure to reduce the purchase and consumption of sugar to tackle obesity. To date, there has been little consideration of the potential impact that such a measure could have if extended to other sweet foods, such as confectionery, cakes and biscuits that contribute more sugar to the diet than SSBs. The objective of this study is to compare changes in the demand for sweet snacks and SSBs arising from potential price increases. Setting Secondary data on household itemised purchases of all foods and beverages from 2012 to 2013. Participants Representative sample of 32 249 households in Great Britain. Primary and secondary outcome measures Change in food and beverage purchases due to changes in their own price and the price of other foods or beverages measured as price elasticity of demand for the full sample and by income groups. Results Chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits have similar price sensitivity as SSBs, across all income groups. Unlike the case of SSBs, price increases in these categories are also likely to prompt reductions in the purchase of other sweet snacks and SSBs, which magnify the overall impact. The effects of price increases are greatest in the low-income group. Conclusions Policies that lead to increases in the price of chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits may lead to additional and greater health gains than similar increases in the price of SSBs through direct reductions in the purchases of these foods and possible positive multiplier effects that reduce demand for other products. Although some uncertainty remains, the associations found in this analysis are sufficiently robust to suggest that policies—and research—concerning the use of fiscal measures should consider a broader range of products than is currently the case. PMID:29700100

  1. Sweet potato yields and nutrient dynamics after short-term fallows in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Shifting cultivation is common in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea but little is known about the effect of different fallows on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) yield and nutrient flows and pools in these systems. An experiment was conducted in which two woody fallow species (Piper aduncum and

  2. Sustaining Milk Production by use Sorghum Silage and Sweet Potato and Sweet Potato Vines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, J.O

    2002-01-01

    Dairy sector in Kenya is an important source of rural employment and farm income besides provision of milk consumed in the urban centres. Dairy cattle nutrition and sustenance of production through out the year are constraints to production. Feeding during dry season is a major problem and can be alleviated through cultivation of high yielding fodder crops and feed conservation. The current work evaluated the nutritive value of sorghum silage (SS) and sweet potato vines (SPV) as feeds for dairy production in the dry highlands. On-station work involved performance trial of dairy cattle fed on varying proportions of SS and SPV while on farm work involved demonstration and popularization of sorghum and SPV utilization technology. The dry matter (DM), crude protein, (CP) neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents for SS ranged from 267.3-350.7, 50.0-70.6, 60.8 and 55.0-67.3 g kg - 1 respectively. The corresponding values for SPV were 129.5-190.4, 83.4-179.1, 300.9-383.5 and 61.5-68.0 g kg - 1. Daily milk yield ranged from 3.44 l d - 1 when SS alone was fed to 15 l d - 1 when combination of SS and SPV was fed to dairy cows. Most farmers rationed sorghum and fed as green chop besides SS especially during the dry season. Improvement and sustenance of milk production was observed on-farm, showing that sorghum and SPV utilization technology has generated great potential of enhancing dairy production

  3. Isozyme modifications and plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante Alves, J M; Sihachakr, D; Allot, M; Tizroutine, S; Mussio, I; Servaes, A; Ducreux, G

    1994-05-01

    The potential of somatic embryogenesis was evaluated for 10 cultivars of sweet potato through extensive embryogenic response and isozyme analysis. Embryogenic callus was induced by incubating lateral buds on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for 6-8 weeks. The frequency of embryogenic response was low, and varied with genotypes, ranging from 0 to 17%. Embryo to plantlet formation could be enhanced by the use of the combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with kinetin, both used at 0.01 μM. Embryogenic callus with its potential of plantlet formation has constantly been maintained for over two years. However, after several subcultures, 0.5 to 12% of embryogenic callus reverted irreversibly into friable fast-growing non-embryogenic callus whose ability to regenerate shoots was then definitively lost. The isozymes of esterase, peroxidase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and acid phosphatase investigated in this study were found appropriate to distinguish compact embryogenic from friable non-embryogenic callus in sweet potato. In fact, the callus reversion was associated with a loss of bands or a decline in isozyme activity. On the contrary, very small changes in isozyme activity or no specific changes at all were observed during the differentiation of embryogenic callus into globular embryos.

  4. Effects of Lactic Acid Fermentation on the Retention of Β-Carotene Content in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard O. Oloo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the effects of lactic fermentation on the levels of β-carotene in selected  orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP varieties from Kenya.  Furthermore,it sought to demonstrate fermentation as a potential process for making new products from sweet potato with enhanced nutraceutical attributes. The varieties (Zapallo, Nyathiodiewo and SPK004/06 were fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 at 25 ± 2°C for 48 h and kept for 28 days to make lacto-pickles. During fermentation both analytical [pH, titratable acidity (TA, lactic acid (LA, starch, total sugar, reducing sugar (g/kg roots, texture (N/m2, β-carotene (mg/kg roots] and sensory (texture, taste, flavour and after taste attributes of sweet potato lacto-juice were evaluated. Process conditions were optimized by varying brine levels, with fermentation time. A UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to identify and quantify β-carotene. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in analytical attributes between the fermented and unfermented samples (pH, LA, TA and β-carotene concentration of lacto-pickles, prepared from the potato roots, were assessed. The study reported a final composition of 156.49mg/kg, 0.53mg/kg, 0.3N/m2, 1.3g/kg, 5.86g/kg, 0.5g/kg and 5.86g/kg for β-carotene, Ascorbic acid, texture; Starch, total sugars, LA and TA respectively, and a pH of 3.27. The fermented products were subjected to flavour profiling by a panel. The product sensory scores were 1.5 to 2.5 on a 5 point hedonic scale, ranging from dislike slightly to like much. The products with brine levels at 4 and 6% were most preferred. The retention of β-carotene was 93.97%. This demonstrated lactic acid fermentation as a better method for processing OFSP as the main nutritional attributes are retained. The final product was resistant to spoilage microorganisms after 28 days of fermentation. Further preservation could be obtained by addition of sodium metabisulphite. In conclusion, Lactic

  5. Wound healing activity of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Sonkamble

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. from the family Convolvulaceae is the world’s sixth largest food crop. The tubers of Ipomoea batatas commonly known as sweet potato are consumed as a vegetable globally. The tubers contain high levels of polyphenols such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids and vitamins A, B and C, which impart a potent antioxidant activity that can translate well to show wound healing effects. To check their effects on wound healing, the peels and peel bandage were tested on various injury models in rats in the present study.Methods: The methanolic extracts of the peels and peel bandage of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato were screened for wound healing by excision and incision wound models on Wistar rats. Three types of gel formulations were prepared, viz., gel containing 3.0% (w/w peel extract, gel containing 6.0% (w/w peel extract and gel containing 10% (w/w peel extract. Betadine (5% w/w povidone iodine cream was used as a reference standard. In the incision wound model, Tensile strength of the skin was measured. Epithelization time, wound contraction, hydroxyproline content of the scab, and ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde content of the plasma were determined in the excision wound model.Results: In the incision wound model, high tensile strength of the wounded skin was observed in animals treated with the peel extract gels and the peel bandage when compared with wounded control animals. The increase in tensile strength indicates the promotion of collagen fibers and that the disrupted wound surfaces are being firmly knit by collagen. In the excision wound model, significant wound closure was observed on the 4th day in rats treated with all three gel formulations when compared with the wounded control rats. A significant increase inFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 10:403-415hydroxyproline and ascorbic acid content in the gel-treated animals and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde content in the

  6. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) and their color modulation by the addition of phenolic acids and food-grade phenolic plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Claudia C; Nemetz, Nicole; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2017-11-15

    Anthocyanin profiles and contents of three purple sweet potato provenances were investigated by HPLC-DAD-MS n . In contrast to widely uniform profiles, the contents of total (558-2477mg/100gDM) and individual anthocyanins varied widely. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative effects of intermolecular co-pigmentation were studied by adding chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids, and food-grade phenolic apple and rosemary extracts at various dosages to a diluted purple sweet potato concentrate at pH 0.9, 2.6, 3.6, and 4.6. Addition of co-pigments generally increased pK H estimate -values of anthocyanins from 3.28 (without co-pigments) to up to 4.71, thus substantially broadening the pH range wherein colored forms prevail. The most pronounced hyperchromic shift by up to +50.5% at the absorption maximum was observed at pH 4.6. Simply by blending the co-pigments with purple sweet potato anthocyanins at pH-values ranging from 2.6 to 4.6, purplish-blue, light pink, magenta, brick-red, and intense red hues were accessible as expressed by CIE-L ∗ a ∗ b ∗ color values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The relative reinforcing value of sweet versus savory snack foods after consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Shanon L; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sugar-sweetened (SSB) and non-nutritive sweetened (NSB) beverages on the regulation of appetite, energy intake and body weight regulation remain controversial. Using a behavioral choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a SSB or NSB on appetite and the reinforcing value of sweet relative to salty/savory snack foods. In a randomized crossover study, 21 healthy weight adults consumed 360 ml of SSB (sucrose; 31 g) or NSB (sucralose; 4 g) with a standardized meal. Hedonic ratings for the sweet and salty/savory snack foods used for the reinforcement task were assessed prior to the start of the study. Satiety and the desire to eat foods with a specific taste profile were assessed before and every 30 min post-meal for 4 h. The relative reinforcing value of the snack foods was assessed using a computer-based choice task (operant responding with concurrent schedules of reinforcement) 4 h post-meal. Hedonic ratings did not differ between the most highly liked sweet and salty/savory snack foods. Beverage type did not influence measures of satiety or the desire to eat foods with a specific taste. However, sweet snacks were more (p snack foods after consuming a NSB than after a SSB. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that NSB can increase the motivation to gain access to sweet snacks relative to salty/savory snack foods later in the day. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The influence of family functioning on the consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages among 1- to 12-y-old children in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Dau, Atemthi; Cyril, Sheila; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2014-09-01

    Family functioning, which reflects how well family members communicate and interact with each other, is associated with childhood overweight and obesity, but its association with children's eating behaviors remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between family functioning and unhealthy food and beverage consumption among children ages 1 to 12 y old. As part of the Victorian Child Health and Wellbeing study, a random sample of 4602 caregivers of children completed an interview during a single telephone interview in 2006. Caregivers reported on their child's consumption of three types of unhealthy foods and beverages, and responses were recoded into weekly consumption of potato crisps and chips, monthly consumption of takeaway foods, and daily consumption of sweet beverages. Family functioning included general functioning (α = 0.89) and parental psychological distress (α = 0.78). Consumption of potato crisps and chips occurred, on average, twice a week, while takeaway foods were consumed an average of three times per month. Consistently and controlling for other covariates, male caregivers had children who consumed takeaway foods more frequently and who drank more daily cups of sweet beverages. Caregiver education and living in a single-parent household were consistently associated with poorer eating habits. In all models, general family functioning and parental psychological distress were associated with poorer eating habits. In addition to traditional methods for improving diet, family-based interventions need to target more general aspects of the family's and caregiver's functioning to improve dietary intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandi, J; Glatz, P; Forder, R; Komolong, B; Chousalkar, K

    2018-02-01

    Cereal grains such as maize and wheat are used extensively in feed formulations for poultry as the primary source of carbohydrates. High cost of these grains in many developing countries necessitates the evaluation of other ingredients that are grown locally. Sweet potato is one such crop. The study was conducted as a proof of concept experiment to test the hypothesis that in the presence and absence of enzyme, sweet potato roots when included in diets of broiler chickens may affect the total metabolisable energy content of the diets which may exert certain influences on dry matter digestibility of these diets as well as impacting on production and certain gut parameters. A total of 120 chicks were raised on a commercial starter feed from day 0 to 19. On day 22, the birds were individually weighed and allocated to 96 single bird metabolism cages to conduct a 7-day classical apparent metabolisable energy (AME) assay. The test diets contained 0% and 25% sweet potato flour (SPF) with and without enzyme supplementation (Rovabio Excel AP T-flex) and replicated 24 times. AME of the control diet with and without enzyme was 14.05 and 13.91 MJ/kg whilst the AME of the SPF diets with and without enzymes were 13.45 and 13.43 MJ/kg respectively. AME of SPF was 12.08 MJ/kg. Birds fed the SPF had significantly reduced end weights (p = .002) and weight gains (p < .001) leading to significantly higher intake (p = .004) and FCRs (p < .001) in birds. These effects in growth parameters highlight the need to balance dietary protein and total amino acids when using SPF in broiler diets and may not be a negative effect of SPF per say as AME and dry matter digestibility of SPF diets were comparable to the control diet. The level of sucrase activity in the jejunum was significantly (p < .001) lower due to enzyme inclusion. Use of SPF in the current study did not negatively influence the activities of the brush border enzymes maltase and sucrase, gut morphology in the jejunum

  10. Effect of Hydroxypropylation on Functional Properties of Different Cultivars of Sweet Potato Starch in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraji Senanayake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starches obtained from different cultivars of sweet potatoes commonly consumed in Sri Lanka, were chemically modified with hydroxypropyl substitution, to analyze the changes in the physicochemical properties. Significant changes (P<0.05 in the crude digestibility level, thermal properties, and the water separation (syneresis of starch gels (7.0% db during cold and frozen storage were observed due to the modification. Hydroxypropylation increased the gel stability, water solubility, digestibility, and storage stability of the native starches in the cold storage to a significant level. Lowered gelatinization and retrogradation enthalpies as well as gelatinization temperature were observed for derivatized starches compared to the native starch. Low levels of pasting stability with increased levels of breakdown and reduced cold paste viscosity were observed in the hydroxypropylated starch samples except for the Malaysian cultivar (S5. Chemically modified starch gels stored under cold storage did not show a syneresis for two weeks in the cycle and the frozen storage showed much improved stability in the starch gels within the four-week cycle. Chemical modification of sweet potato starch with hydroxyl propyl substitution can enhance the functional characteristics of the native starch which will improve its potential application in the food industry.

  11. Sweet Potato Value Chain Analysis Reveals Opportunities for Increased Income and Food Security in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issah Sugri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato has gained prominence due to its ability to adapt to wide production ecologies and yield response to minimal external inputs. Orange-fleshed cultivars in particular have immense potential to improve household income and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the sweet potato value chain (SPVC is not well-developed in many producing countries. The study was conducted in two regions to characterize the production operations as well as identify opportunities to propel the SPVC in Northern Ghana. Data were collected using mixed methods including structured questionnaires via face-to-face interviews. Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT was conducted at multistakeholder platforms with different actors. Gross margin profit and benefit-cost ratios were determined by using six cost variables. Overall, the industry was largely a fresh produce market, targeting food vendors, processors, and direct selling to wholesalers, retailers, and household consumers. The SWOT analysis revealed wide-ranging opportunities including favourable production ecologies, processing options, and insatiable local and international markets. The institutional actors need to network the primary actors to synergistically operate with a collective profit motive. The most prioritized production constraints such as access to seed, cost of chemical fertilizer, short shelf-life, field pests and diseases, and declining soil fertility should be addressed.

  12. Ex ante assessment of dual-purpose sweet potato in the crop-livestock system of western Kenya: a minimum-data approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Antle, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed crop¿livestock systems have a crucial role to play in meeting the agricultural production challenges of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Sweet potato is seen as a potential remedial crop for these farmers because of its high productivity and low input requirements, while its

  13. Are sweet snacks more sensitive to price increases than sugar-sweetened beverages: analysis of British food purchase data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Cornelsen, Laura; Quirmbach, Diana; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2018-04-26

    Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is now advocated, and implemented, in many countries as a measure to reduce the purchase and consumption of sugar to tackle obesity. To date, there has been little consideration of the potential impact that such a measure could have if extended to other sweet foods, such as confectionery, cakes and biscuits that contribute more sugar to the diet than SSBs. The objective of this study is to compare changes in the demand for sweet snacks and SSBs arising from potential price increases. Secondary data on household itemised purchases of all foods and beverages from 2012 to 2013. Representative sample of 32 249 households in Great Britain. Change in food and beverage purchases due to changes in their own price and the price of other foods or beverages measured as price elasticity of demand for the full sample and by income groups. Chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits have similar price sensitivity as SSBs, across all income groups. Unlike the case of SSBs, price increases in these categories are also likely to prompt reductions in the purchase of other sweet snacks and SSBs, which magnify the overall impact. The effects of price increases are greatest in the low-income group. Policies that lead to increases in the price of chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits may lead to additional and greater health gains than similar increases in the price of SSBs through direct reductions in the purchases of these foods and possible positive multiplier effects that reduce demand for other products. Although some uncertainty remains, the associations found in this analysis are sufficiently robust to suggest that policies-and research-concerning the use of fiscal measures should consider a broader range of products than is currently the case. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  14. New line selected from irradiated cuttings of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shuyun; Wu Chongguang; Li Weiji; Feng Qihuan

    1992-01-01

    Some clonal lines of resistance to black rot were obtained from M 1 V 3 of Xu-18 variety. Through some regional tests, provincial yield trial and production test, the mutant line Nong-Da 601 (12-11-8) as spring sweet potato showed a better yield than the control, the dry matter content of Nong-Da 601 was also better than that of control, further more, the resistance to black rot of mutant selected in M 1 V 3 could be passed onto their progeny. The analysis of esterase isozyme showed zymogram variation between Nong-Da 601 and Xu-18. From the observation of the root tip cells, the chromosome bridge appeared obviously after irradiation, but the frequency of chromosome aberration in M 1 V 6 was decreased almost to the level of control (Xu-18). It seems that the changes of disease resistance from susceptible to resistant by irradiation was not due to chromosome aberration but due to gene mutation

  15. Characterisation and performance evaluation of twenty accessions of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) in the coastal savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossah, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the genetic diversity, using morphological and protein markers, as well as incidence of viral diseases among 20 accessions of sweet potato. Morphological analysis was carried out using 47 traits while protein analysis was performed with sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Sample plants collected from the field were tested for viruses using nitrocellulose membrane enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (NCM-ELISA) and PCR for a DNA virus (Sweet potato Leaf curl virus). Scions from symptomatic plants were grafted onto Ipomoea setosa, a nearly universal indicator plant for sweet potato viruses, and leaves were tested using NCM-ELISA. From the cluster analysis, the accessions were grouped into two clusters at a genetic similarity index of 61.6%. The accessions ER001 and HMA2 were shown to be possible duplicates. Accession US 020 recorded the highest total root yield and harvest index of 56.32 t/ha and 57.11% respectively. Similarly, two pairs of accession SA/BNARI and UE 007 as well as HMA I and US 029 were identified as duplicates based on their protein banding patterns. While, three entries, LOCAL I, US 004 and UK/BNARI were also identified as a single entity based on their banding patterns for leaf and tuber proteins. Symptoms observed in the field varied from vein clearing, chlorosis, leaf reduction to stunting and the highest index of symptom severity for only diseased plants (ISSdp) was 3.63 recorded for US 029. The highest disease incidence (100%) was recorded at 11 WAP and 12 WAP. NCM-ELISA test detected eight viruses out of ten, with SA/BNARI exhibiting all the eight viruses. Mixed infections ranged from duplet to octaplet. The indicator plant I. setosa grafted with scions from sweet potato showed clear symptoms similar to those observed on the field. PCR test using SPG3/SPG4 primers detected SPLCV in the UK/BNARI accessions. Based on the morphological characters as well as response to virus infection, two

  16. Estimation of the adult male population of sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) at its low-density period on Kikai Island in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Hatono, T.; Izumi, S.; Nishihara, S.; Kimura, K.; Torigoe, H.; Tanaka, T.; Miyaji, K.; Hara, Y.; Ueda, A.; Shigei, F.

    2008-01-01

    The sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) is a major insect pest of the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. We estimated the entire adult male population of C. formicarius at its low-density period on Kikai Island, Kagoshima Pref., Japan. The population of adult males at the high-density period in September was about 5 times larger than that at its low-density period in May, both of which were estimated by Yamamura's method. Using this calculation in combination with an estimate of the maximal population size (4 x 10E6) by Sugimoto et al. in 1994, the total number of male weevils at their low-density period can be assumed to be less than 8 x 10E5

  17. The studies on the preparation of instant noodles from wheat flour supplementing withs weet potato flour

    OpenAIRE

    Taneya, M.L.J.; Biswas, M.M.H.; Shams-Ud-Din, M.

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on the effect of composite flours consisting of wheat and sweet potato flour on the physicochemical and sensory properties of instant noodles. Sweet potato flour was incorporated into wheat flour at flour replacement levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. The levels of sweet potato flours increased in the formulations of instant noodle that increased ash, starch, crude fiber and total carbohydrate contents but decreased level of protein. The instant noodles with 20% sweet potato flour...

  18. A large-scale intervention to introduce orange sweet potato in rural Mozambique increases vitamin A intakes among children and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Christine; Loechl, Cornelia; de Brauw, Alan; Eozenou, Patrick; Gilligan, Daniel; Moursi, Mourad; Munhaua, Bernardino; van Jaarsveld, Paul; Carriquiry, Alicia; Meenakshi, J V

    2012-07-14

    β-Carotene-rich orange sweet potato (OSP) has been shown to improve vitamin A status of infants and young children in controlled efficacy trials and in a small-scale effectiveness study with intensive exposure to project inputs. However, the potential of this important food crop to reduce the risk of vitamin A deficiency in deficient populations will depend on the ability to distribute OSP vines and promote its household production and consumption on a large scale. In rural Mozambique, we conducted a randomised, controlled effectiveness study of a large-scale intervention to promote household-level OSP production and consumption using integrated agricultural, demand creation/behaviour change and marketing components. The following two intervention models were compared: a low-intensity (1 year) and a high-intensity (nearly 3 years) training model. The primary nutrition outcomes were OSP and vitamin A intakes by children 6-35 months and 3-5·5 years of age, and women. The intervention resulted in significant net increases in OSP intakes (model 1: 46, 48 and 97 g/d) and vitamin A intakes (model 1: 263, 254 and 492 μg retinol activity equivalents/d) among the younger children, older children and women, respectively. OSP accounted for 47-60 % of all sweet potato consumed and, among reference children, provided 80 % of total vitamin A intakes. A similar magnitude of impact was observed for both models, suggesting that group-level trainings in nutrition and agriculture could be limited to the first project year without compromising impact. Introduction of OSP to rural, sweet potato-producing communities in Mozambique is an effective way to improve vitamin A intakes.

  19. In vitro technique for selection of radiation induced mutants of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro culture and irradiation techniques were used for obtaining mutants in sweet potato, lpomoea batatas. Callus was initiated from stem explants cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 1 mg NAA, 2 mg IAA, and 0.01 mg BA per litre. Calli were irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays, and cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 2 mg IAA and 2 mg kinetin per litre. Variants for morphological changes in leaf and tuber skin and flesh color were found among the M 1 V 2 plants, derived from irradiated calli. A promising clone, 91-C3-15, with improved tuber shape and deep red skin was selected from the 776 M 1 V 2 population. (author)

  20. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Malavi, Derick Nyabera; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Abong’, George Ooko

    2018-01-01

    Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were use...

  1. Effect of pullulanase debranching and storage temperatures on structural characteristics and digestibility of sweet potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayenampudi Surendra Babu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of autoclaving (120 °C/30 min, debranching (2% pullulanase/1 h and storage at 4 °C (DS4 or 32 °C (DS32 or 60 °C (DS60 for 24 h on starch fractions, functional, pasting, thermal and structural properties of sweet potato starch was investigated. Results showed that DS4 sample displayed the lower functional properties than other modified starches. Debranching showed a significant increase in the apparent amylose content of native starch from 18.56% to 25%. A higher yield of RS (28.76% was observed in debranched starch stored at 4 °C (DS4 due to the higher degree of retrogradation. All debranched starches showed a substantial decrease in pasting profile and higher gelatinization temperatures than in native starch. B + V X-ray diffraction pattern was observed in debranched starches with increased crystallinity value. The scanning electron micrographs of debranched starches showed rough plate-like surfaces with irregularly shaped structures were observed due to debranching and retrogradation during storage. The study concludes that a combination of autoclaving, debranching and subsequent storage at 4 °C is best technique to produce a higher amount of resistant starch in the sweet potato starch. Keywords: Pullulanase, Functional properties, Resistant starch, RVA, XRD, SEM

  2. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in tissue cultures of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Poir.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J R; Cantliffe, D J

    1984-06-01

    Leaf, shoot-tip, stem, and root explants of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Poir.) gave rise to two kinds of callus on nutrient agar medium containing 0.5 to 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. One callus, bright- to pale-yellow, was compact and organized, while the other was dull-yellow and friable. The former callus gave rise to numerous globular and heart-shaped embryoids. When transferred onto hormone-free medium, the embryoids readily developed into a torpedo-shape before germination. The plantlets were transplanted to soil where they flowered and formed storage roots at maturity.

  3. Orange‐fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) composite bread as a significant source of dietary vitamin A

    OpenAIRE

    Awuni, Victoria; Alhassan, Martha Wunnam; Amagloh, Francis Kweku

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Refining food recipes with orange‐fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has the potential to improve dietary intake of vitamin A. The objectives of this study were to utilize OFSP in the development of two composite bread types and to assess their contribution to dietary intake of vitamin A using the dietary reference intake of lactating mothers. Two composite OFSP–wheat flour bread recipes—vita butter bread and vita tea bread—were developed by incorporating 46% OFSP puree in existing 100% whe...

  4. Influência da adição da fécula de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L. sobre a viscosidade do permeado de soro de queijo Influence of sweet potato starch at permeate whey viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Leite Pinto de Andrade

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A viscosidade é um parâmetro importante na aceitabilidade de bebidas lácteas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal fornecer dados relativos ao comportamento da viscosidade uma base de permeado de soro de queijo adicionada de fécula de batata-doce, dados que poderão ser utilizados na elaboração de uma nova bebida láctea. A fécula de batata-doce utilizada apresentou um grau de gelatinização de 72,64%, umidade média de 7,88% e a seguinte composição centesimal média em base seca: 82,59% de amido, 9,33% de fibras dietéticas totais, 4,90% de proteínas, 2,08% de cinzas e 1,11% de lipídios. O permeado de soro foi adicionado a três diferentes concentrações de fécula e submetido a diferentes tratamentos térmicos. A viscosidade mais adequada, em função dos dados obtidos junto aos produtos comerciais, estaria no intervalo de 45mPa.s a 70mPa.s. Assim sendo, a porcentagem de 6% de fécula de batata-doce e um tratamento térmico de 90ºC por cerca de 5 minutos mostrou-se ser o mais adequado. O fluido obtido apresentou um comportamento pseudoplástico.Viscosity is an important parameter of milky drinks acceptability. This work supply data of the viscosity properties of permeate whey plus sweet potato starch basis; these data will may be used at development of a new milky beverage. The used sweet potato starch presented 72.64% of gelatinization, 7.88% of humidity and the following dry composition: 82.59% starch, 9.33% total dietary fibres, 4.90% proteins, 2.08% ashes and 1.10% lipids. The permeate whey had mixed at three different percentages of potato starch and had submitted at various thermal treatments. The most appropriate viscosity, in accord of commercial products, it would be in the interval of 45mPa.s to 70mPa.s. Therefore, the percentage of 6% of sweet potato starch and a thermal treatment of 90ºC for about 5 minutes it was shown to be the most appropriate. The fluid presented a pseudoplastic properties.

  5. Sweet and salty. An assessment of the snacks and beverages sold in vending machines on US post-secondary institution campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Johnson, Michelle; Quick, Virginia M; Walsh, Jennifer; Greene, Geoffrey W; Hoerr, Sharon; Colby, Sarah M; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Phillips, Beatrice W; Kidd, Tandalayo; Horacek, Tanya M

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the nutritional quality of snacks and beverages sold in vending machines. The contents of snack and beverage vending machines in 78 buildings on 11 US post-secondary education campuses were surveyed. Of the 2607 snack machine slots surveyed, the most common snacks vended were salty snacks (e.g., chips, pretzels) and sweets (i.e., candy and candy bars). The 1650 beverage machine slots assessed contained twice as many sugar-sweetened beverages as non-calorie-containing beverages. Only two institutions sold both milk and 100% juice in vending machines. The portion of snacks and beverages sold averaged more than 200 cal. Neither snacks nor beverages were nutrient dense. The majority of snacks were low in fiber and high in calories and fat and almost half were high in sugar. Most beverages were high in calories and sugar. This study's findings suggest that vending machines provide limited healthful choices. Findings from benchmark assessments of components of the food environment, like the vending options reported here, can provide valuable input to campus administrators, health services, food service, and students who want to establish campus policies to promote healthful eating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sweet taste exposure and the subsequent acceptance and preference for sweet taste in the diet: systematic review of the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, K M; Tuorila, H; Bertenshaw, E J; de Graaf, C; Mela, D J

    2018-03-01

    There are consistent, evidence-based global public health recommendations to reduce intakes of free sugars. However, the corresponding evidence for recommending reduced exposure to sweetness is less clear. Our aim was to identify and review the published evidence investigating the impact of dietary exposure to sweet-tasting foods or beverages on the subsequent generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweet foods and beverages in the diet. Systematic searches were conducted to identify all studies testing relations of variation in exposure to sweetness through foods and beverages with subsequent variation in the generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweetened foods or beverages, in humans aged >6 mo. Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria, comprising 7 population cohort studies involving 2320 children and 14 controlled trials involving 1113 individuals. These studies were heterogeneous in study design, population, exposure, and outcomes measured, and few were explicitly designed to address our research question. The findings from these were inconsistent. We found equivocal evidence from population cohort studies. The evidence from controlled studies suggests that a higher sweet taste exposure tends to lead to reduced preferences for sweetness in the shorter term, but very limited effects were found in the longer term. A small and heterogeneous body of research currently has considered the impact of varying exposure to sweet taste on subsequent generalized sweet taste preferences, and this evidence is equivocal regarding the presence and possible direction of a relation. Future work should focus on adequately powered studies with well-characterized exposures of sufficient duration. This review was registered with PROSPERO as CRD42016051840, 24 November 2016.

  7. Effect of dry-heating with pectin on gelatinization properties of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of dry-heating with pectin at different dry heating temperatures, heating times and pH on the gelatinization properties of sweet potato starch. Methods: The gelatinization properties of sweet potato starch - pectin blend were analyzed using a rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA), differential scanning ...

  8. Physical Characteristics of White Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), Rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Tapioca (Manihot esculenta) Flours - Based Seasoning Composite Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfani, NNA; Ishartani, D.; Anam, C.; Praseptiangga, D.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of seasoning composite flour that made from white sweet potato, rice, and tapioca flours, and determined the best formula of seasoning composite flour. A completely randomized design (CRD) with formula as the single factor was used. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA method and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance 5% if there was a significant difference. The best formula of seasoning composite flour was 30% tapioca flour, 30% rice flour, and 40% white sweet potato flour. The physical characteristics of the best formula were 5.689 ml/g of swelling power, 2.681 g/g of water absorption capacity, 0.887 ml/g of oil absorption capacity, and 22.03% cooking loss. Physical characteristics of the best seasoning composite flour were significantly different from the commercial seasoning flour and showed a better cooking loss, oil absorption capacity, and swelling power than commercial seasoning flour.

  9. Establishment of sweet potato stem cuttings as influenced by size, depth of planting, water stress, hormones and herbicide residues for two genotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, H.T.; Ekanayake, I.J.

    1991-01-01

    A set of short-term experiments on the establishment of sweet potato stem cuttings was conducted under greenhouse conditions and terminated at about 30 days after transplanting. The following recommendations can be made. When drought stressed, a stem length of 30 cm (versus 15, 20 and 25 cm) with

  10. Ultrasound treated potato peel and sweet lime pomace based biopolymer film development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Purba Prasad; Das, Pulak; Badwaik, Laxmikant S

    2017-05-01

    Treatment and management of food processing waste is a major challenge for food industry. Potato processing industry generates tremendous amount of peel and consider it as zero valued waste. Again, pomace generated after juice extraction from sweet lime pulp is considered as waste and not properly utilized. Whereas these waste could be utilized for the development of biodegradable packaging film to overcome environmental issues. Composite films were prepared with varying proportion of potato peel powder (PP) and sweet lime pomace (SLP) in the ratio of 0:1(A), 0.5:1(B), 1:1(C), 1:0.5(D), 1:0(E) with an ultrasound treatment of 45min, and 0:1(F), 0.5:1(G), 1:1(H), 1:0.5(I), 1:0(J) with an ultrasound treatment of 60min. Ultrasound was applied for 45 and 60min to film forming solutions to break down biopolymer particles small enough to form a film. All the films were analyzed for their barrier and mechanical properties. It was observed that increasing ultrasound treatment times gives better result in film properties and less PP content also gives better film properties, from these observations film G prepared with 0.5:1 (PP:SLP) showed better characteristics among all other films. Water vapor permeability, moisture absorption, water solubility, breakage strength and elongation capacity of G film were reported as 7.25×10 -9 g/Pahm, 12.88±0.348%, 38.92±0.702%, 242.01±3.074g and 7.61±0.824mm respectively. However, thermal decomposition for film G took place above 200°C. The film forming solution of selected G film, added with clove essential oil (1.5%) as an antimicrobial agent was wrapped on bread and stored it for 5days. The film was successful in lowering the weight loss, reducing the hardness and inhibition of surface microbial load from bread sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gamma-ray effect on sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Ciofu, R.; Stroia, L.; Ghering, A.; Ferdes, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the results on modification occurred in biochemical properties of sweet potato (Ipomea batatus L.) after gamma irradiation. Two varieties, named Victoria Ianb (a white variety) and Portocaliu (a red variety), were selected and acclimatized for the agrometeorological conditions of Romania. The samples consist of roots from both usual and experimental crops. They were irradiated in batch, one week after harvesting, with a ICPR Co-60 gamma-ray source by approx. 370 TBq, dose range 100-500 Gy, dose rate 100±5 Gy/hour, dose uniformity ±5%, temperature 10 o C, 80±5% relative humidity (rh). The irradiation doses received were checked using the Fricke ferrous sulphate dosimeter procedure. The roots were kept two months at relative darkness, 6-11 o C, 60-75% rh and analyzed from time to time (initial, 5, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days). The following parameters are analyzed by conventional methods: total and reducing sugars (in De equivalent, %, on dry weight basis), starch content and the activities of sugar metabolizing enzymes. The red variety had a better behaviour towards irradiation that the white one. The sugar contents (both total and reducing), as well as starch, varied more in the white variety. The sugar metabolizing enzyme activities were influenced by both irradiation and storage conditions. Their activities were maximal at 200 and 300 Gy, and decreased significantly at higher doses. The activities also decreased in time, their variations being higher at lower doses (100 and 200 Gy). The results showed no significant influence of gamma irradiation on storage life. The modifications induced in sugar contents and enzyme activities had maximal effects at 200-300 Gy. (author)

  12. Use of gamma radiation as a form of preservation of sweet potatoes: Phase 2: Final report for period January 1, 1986-December 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolbert, M.E.M.; Loretan, P.A.

    1987-04-01

    Effects of gamma radiation and storage time on storage roots of 'Georgia Jet' and 'Jewel' sweet potatoes and on the sweetpotato weevil Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) were studied. The storage roots were irradiated: immediately after harvest and before curing immediately after curing, or after curing plus three months of storage. Storage was at 14 to 16 0 C with 85 to 90% relative humidity. Sweet potatoes were examined at different stages of storage over nine months for sprouting, storage rot development, flesh color, texture, moisture, carbohydrates, starch granules - cell ultrastructure, ascorbic acid, enzyme activity, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, protein and organoleptic properties. It was found that sweet potatoes should never be irradiated prior to curing since increased rotting results. No significant difference was found in storage rot development between control and irradiated after curing at doses up to 0.20 kGy. Nutritive components were in most cases not significantly affected by radiation at the four doses studies. Nutritive qualities of moisture, texture, starch, ascorbic acid, sugar, color and enzymes all changed to one extent or another with increased storage time. Irradiation speeds up the process of cell wall collapse and accumulation of cytoplasmic debris, but this also occurs later in the control. Isoelectric focusing results demonstrate that radiation effects on proteins are very small up to a dose of 0.20 kGy. HPLC results indicated that irradiation of the roots caused accumulation of new proteins while impairing the formation of others. Fecundity of the sweetpotato weevil was reduced at 15 0 C compared to 28 0 C

  13. Growth, Yield, and Nutritional Responses of Chamber-Grown Sweet Potato to Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels Expected Across the Next 200 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeck, B. C.; Jahren, H.; Deenik, J. L.; Crow, S. E.; Schubert, B.; Stewart, M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on crops will be critical to assuring that sufficient food is available to the world's growing population. Previous work has shown that slightly elevated CO2 levels (CO2 = 550-700 ppm) increase the economic yield of most crops by ~33%, on average. The majority of these studies have focused on rice, wheat, and soybean; however, climate change is expected to have greatest impact on regions of the world that rely heavily on root crops, such as sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Sweet potato is cultivated in more than 100 developing countries; it is ranked seventh in world crop statistics and can produce more edible energy per hectare and per day than wheat, rice or cassava. In order to quantify the effect that rising CO2 levels will have on sweet potato, we grew a total of 64 sweet potato plants to maturity in large controlled growth chambers at ambient, 760, 1,140, and 1,520-ppm CO2 levels. At planting, initial measurements (of mass, length, and number of nodes) for each plant were recorded. Throughout the duration of the experiment (90 days) measurements (of stem length, and number of leaves) were recorded every 7 to 14 days. To ensure optimum growing conditions moisture content was monitored using soil tensiometers; temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentrations were recorded every ten minutes. Half the plants were supplemented with an inorganic fertilizer and the other half with an organic fertilizer to test the effect of nutrient availability on biomass production under elevated CO2 levels. After 3 months of growth, we measured fresh and dry biomass of all above- and below-ground tissues. Results showed a substantial increase in both above- and below-ground biomass at elevated levels of CO2. For the organic treatment, a 43% increase in aboveground dry biomass at the highest CO2 concentration (1520ppm) was found; the inorganic treatment showed a 31% increase. The

  14. Effect of phosphorus sources on phosphorus and nitrogen utilization by three sweet potato cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanez, A.; Zapata, F.; Kumarasinghe, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria using three sweet potato cultivars, TIS 2, TIS 3053 and TIS 1487. The three sweet potato cultivars were grown at two levels of phosphorus (0 kg P/kg soil and 60 kg P/kg soil). The fertilizer treatments consisted of two sources of phosphorus, Gafza rock Phosphate and triple super phosphate with 14.19 and 19.76% total phosphorus, respectively. 15 N labelled urea was used to study the nitrogen recovery in tubers from the applied nitrogen fertilizer. The results from these preliminary studies indicate that there is considerable genotypic variation among cultivars in the efficiency with which phosphorus and nitrogen are taken up and used to produce biomass. Their response to different sources of phosphorus are also variable. TIS-2 and TIS-1487 have a greater ability to absorb phosphorus from Gafza rock phosphate and produce higher tube yields indicating their greater potential for using alternative sources of natural phosphate fertilizers more effectively. Gafza rock phosphate also increased accumulation of nitrogen in TIS-1487, a characteristic which will place this cultivar at an advantage when growing in soils low in nitrogen. On an overall basis taking into account tuber yield, phosphorus use efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency, TIS-2 may be considered the better candidate for introduction into soils poor in resources particularly phosphorus. This study was conducted with a limited number of cultivars due to limitation in the availability of germplasma. In spite of this, the differences in their abilities for phosphorus and nitrogen uptake and use are clearly visible which justifies large scale screening experiments using a broader germplasm base, in the future. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Effect of phosphorus sources on phosphorus and nitrogen utilization by three sweet potato cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanez, A; Zapata, F [FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Lab., Seibersdorf (Austria). Soils Science Unit; Kumarasinghe, K S [Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section

    1996-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria using three sweet potato cultivars, TIS 2, TIS 3053 and TIS 1487. The three sweet potato cultivars were grown at two levels of phosphorus (0 kg P/kg soil and 60 kg P/kg soil). The fertilizer treatments consisted of two sources of phosphorus, Gafza rock Phosphate and triple super phosphate with 14.19 and 19.76% total phosphorus, respectively. {sup 15}N labelled urea was used to study the nitrogen recovery in tubers from the applied nitrogen fertilizer. The results from these preliminary studies indicate that there is considerable genotypic variation among cultivars in the efficiency with which phosphorus and nitrogen are taken up and used to produce biomass. Their response to different sources of phosphorus are also variable. TIS-2 and TIS-1487 have a greater ability to absorb phosphorus from Gafza rock phosphate and produce higher tube yields indicating their greater potential for using alternative sources of natural phosphate fertilizers more effectively. Gafza rock phosphate also increased accumulation of nitrogen in TIS-1487, a characteristic which will place this cultivar at an advantage when growing in soils low in nitrogen. On an overall basis taking into account tuber yield, phosphorus use efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency, TIS-2 may be considered the better candidate for introduction into soils poor in resources particularly phosphorus. This study was conducted with a limited number of cultivars due to limitation in the availability of germplasma. In spite of this, the differences in their abilities for phosphorus and nitrogen uptake and use are clearly visible which justifies large scale screening experiments using a broader germplasm base, in the future. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Structure of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) diversity in West Africa covaries with a climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glato, Kodjo; Aidam, Atsou; Kane, Ndjido Ardo; Bassirou, Diallo; Couderc, Marie; Zekraoui, Leila; Scarcelli, Nora; Barnaud, Adeline; Vigouroux, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Sub-Saharan agriculture has been identified as vulnerable to ongoing climate change. Adaptation of agriculture has been suggested as a way to maintain productivity. Better knowledge of intra-specific diversity of varieties is prerequisites for the successful management of such adaptation. Among crops, root and tubers play important roles in food security and economic growth for the most vulnerable populations in Africa. Here, we focus on the sweet potato. The Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was domesticated in Central and South America and was later introduced into Africa and is now cultivated throughout tropical Africa. We evaluated its diversity in West Africa by sampling a region extending from the coastal area of Togo to the northern Sahelian region of Senegal that represents a range of climatic conditions. Using 12 microsatellite markers, we evaluated 132 varieties along this gradient. Phenotypic data from field trials conducted in three seasons was also obtained. Genetic diversity in West Africa was found to be 18% lower than in America. Genetic diversity in West Africa is structured into five groups, with some groups found in very specific climatic areas, e.g. under a tropical humid climate, or under a Sahelian climate. We also observed genetic groups that occur in a wider range of climates. The genetic groups were also associated with morphological differentiation, mainly the shape of the leaves and the color of the stem or root. This particular structure of diversity along a climatic gradient with association to phenotypic variability can be used for conservation strategies. If such structure is proved to be associated with specific climatic adaptation, it will also allow developing strategies to adapt agriculture to ongoing climate variation in West Africa.

  17. Conversion of sweet potato waste to solid fuel via hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinfei; Ma, Xiaoqian; Peng, Xiaowei; Lin, Yousheng; Yao, Zhongliang

    2018-02-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of sweet potato waste was performed to investigate the effect of process parameters including reaction temperature (180-300 °C) and residence time (0-120 min) on the characteristics of hydrochars. The results showed that the increase of reaction temperature and residence time both decreased the yield of hydrochars. With the increase of reaction temperature and residence time, the carbon content of hydrochars increased, while the hydrogen and oxygen contents decreased. The lower H/C and O/C ratios indicated that dehydration and decarboxylation reactions occurred during HTC. The occurrence of aromatization reaction was found in FTIR spectra. Thus, the fixed carbon content, higher heating value, and energy density of hydrochars increased. SEM analysis indicated that HTC developed rough surface with crack on the hydrochars. The thermogravimetric experiments displayed the increase trend in combustion ignition temperature, burnout temperature and activation energy as reaction temperature and time increase, which showed better combustion characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MicroR828 regulates lignin and H2O2 accumulation in sweet potato on wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Shane; Lin, Chih-Ching; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Chen, Yu-Chi; Jeng, Shih-Tong

    2012-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by directing mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play multiple roles in the growth, development and stress responses in plants. However, little is known of the wounding-responsive miRNAs and their regulation. Here, we investigated the expression patterns of microR828 (miR828) on wounding in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv Tainung 57). The expression of miR828 was only detected in leaves, and was induced by wounding rather than by ethylene, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methyl jasmonate or nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was necessary for miR828 accumulation in leaves on wounding. Two miR828 target candidates, named IbMYB and IbTLD, were obtained by cDNA cloning, and their mRNA cleavage caused by miR828 was confirmed by cleavage site mapping, agro-infiltration and transgenics studies. The reduction in IbMYB and IbTLD expression coincided with the induction of miR828, demonstrating that IbMYB and IbTLD might be miR828 targets. Furthermore, transgenic sweet potato overexpressing miR828 precursor affected lignin and H2O2 contents. These results showed that cGMP could regulate wounding-responsive miR828, which repressed the expression of IbMYB and IbTLD. Subsequently, lignin and H2O2 were accumulated to participate in defense mechanisms. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Nitrogen and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF effect on two commercial sweet potato clones on an inseptisol soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Espinosa Cuéllar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam], is the fifth most important food crop in developing countries due to its outstanding nutritional and culinary characteristics and it is also considered one of the two most important food crops along with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. The response of various crops to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is well known. The research was conducted at the The Research Institute of Tropical Root and Tuber Crops (INIVIT on an inseptisol soil. The objective was to compare the effect of five nitrogen doses in the presence or absence of an effective AMF strain oin two sweet potato clones ‘INIVIT B2-2005’ and ‘CEMSA 78-354’. Yield, colonization rate and amount of spores were evaluated. Treatments inoculated with effective strains obtained higher yields of 35 to 37 t.ha-1 with a dose of 60 kg N ha-1; and chemical fertilizer nitrogen was reduced by 37.5 % in the form of N. A yield of 30 to35 t.ha-1 was obtained with a dose of 90 kg ha-1 of N and no AMF application. In all cases the best colonization values and spore numbers in 50 g soil coincide with optimal fertilization doses for the treatment inoculated efficiently. Colonization values were in the range of 71 to 76 % and 628-659 spores for the nitrogen dose of 60 kg ha-1.

  20. Orange-fleshed sweet potato-based infant food is a better source of dietary vitamin A than a maize-legume blend as complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Coad, Jane

    2014-03-01

    White maize, which is widely used for complementary feeding and is seldom fortified at the household level, may be associated with the high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among infants in low-income countries. The nutrient composition of complementary foods based on orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and cream-fleshed sweet potato (CFSP), maize-soybean-groundnut (Weanimix), and a proprietary wheat-based infant cereal (Nestlé Cerelac) were assessed using the Codex Standard (CODEX STAN 074-1981, Rev. 1-2006) specification as a reference. Additionally, the costs of OFSP complementary food, CFSP complementary food, and Weanimix production at the household level were estimated. Phytate and polyphenols, which limit the bioavailability of micronutrients, were assessed. Energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients listed as essential composition in the Codex Standard were determined and expressed as energy or nutrient density. All the formulations met the stipulated energy and nutrient densities as specified in the Codex Standard. The beta-carotene content of OFSP complementary food exceeded the vitamin A specification (60 to 180 microg retinol activity equivalents/100 kcal). All the formulations except Weanimix contained measurable amounts of ascorbic acid (> or = 32.0 mg/100 g). The level of phytate in Weanimix was highest, about twice that of OFSP complementary food. The sweet potato-based foods contained about twice as much total polyphenols as the cereal-based products. The estimated production cost of OFSP complementary food was slightly higher (1.5 times) than that of Weanimix. OFSP complementary food is a good source of beta-carotene and would therefore contribute to the vitamin A requirements of infants. Both OFSP complementary food and Weanimix may inhibit iron absorption because of their high levels of polyphenols and phytate, respectively, compared with those of Nestlé Cerelac.

  1. Structure of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas diversity in West Africa covaries with a climatic gradient.

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    Kodjo Glato

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan agriculture has been identified as vulnerable to ongoing climate change. Adaptation of agriculture has been suggested as a way to maintain productivity. Better knowledge of intra-specific diversity of varieties is prerequisites for the successful management of such adaptation. Among crops, root and tubers play important roles in food security and economic growth for the most vulnerable populations in Africa. Here, we focus on the sweet potato. The Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas was domesticated in Central and South America and was later introduced into Africa and is now cultivated throughout tropical Africa. We evaluated its diversity in West Africa by sampling a region extending from the coastal area of Togo to the northern Sahelian region of Senegal that represents a range of climatic conditions. Using 12 microsatellite markers, we evaluated 132 varieties along this gradient. Phenotypic data from field trials conducted in three seasons was also obtained. Genetic diversity in West Africa was found to be 18% lower than in America. Genetic diversity in West Africa is structured into five groups, with some groups found in very specific climatic areas, e.g. under a tropical humid climate, or under a Sahelian climate. We also observed genetic groups that occur in a wider range of climates. The genetic groups were also associated with morphological differentiation, mainly the shape of the leaves and the color of the stem or root. This particular structure of diversity along a climatic gradient with association to phenotypic variability can be used for conservation strategies. If such structure is proved to be associated with specific climatic adaptation, it will also allow developing strategies to adapt agriculture to ongoing climate variation in West Africa.

  2. Molecular characterization of the sweet potato peroxidase SWPA4 promoter which responds to abiotic stresses and pathogen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Cha Young; Park, Soo-Young; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2009-04-01

    Previously, the swpa4 peroxidase gene has been shown to be inducible by a variety of abiotic stresses and pathogenic infections in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). To elucidate its regulatory mechanism at the transcriptional level under various stress conditions, we isolated and characterized the promoter region (2374 bp) of swpa4 (referred to as SWPA4). We performed a transient expression assay in tobacco protoplasts with deletions from the 5'-end of SWPA4 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The -1408 and -374 bp deletions relative to the transcription start site (+1) showed 8 and 4.5 times higher GUS expression than the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, respectively. In addition, transgenic tobacco plants expressing GUS under the control of -2374, -1408 or -374 bp region of SWPA4 promoter were generated and studied in various tissues under abiotic stresses and pathogen infection. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that nuclear proteins from sweet potato cultured cells specifically interacted with 60-bp fragment (-178/-118) in -374 bp promoter region. In silico analysis indicated that four kinds of cis-acting regulatory sequences, reactive oxygen species-related element activator protein 1 (AP1), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha element, ethylene-responsive element (ERE) and heat-shock element, are present in the -60 bp region (-178/-118), suggesting that the -60 bp region might be associated with stress inducibility of the SWPA4 promoter.

  3. Antioxidant and prebiotic activity of five peonidin-based anthocyanins extracted from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hanju; Zhang, Pingping; Zhu, Yongsheng; Lou, Qiuyan; He, Shudong

    2018-03-22

    Twelve kinds of anthocyanins from the Chinese purple sweet potato cultivar (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were extracted and identified using LC-MS/MS, which had a high content of peonidin-based anthocyanins. Five peonidin-based anthocyanin monomers (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5) were isolated by preparative liquid chromatography with structural analyses using an Impact II Q-TOF MS/MS. Then, the functional properties of the anthocyanin monomers, such as the antioxidant activities, proliferative effects on probiotics, and their inhibition on harmful bacteria in vitro, were investigated. The peonidin-based components in purple sweet potato anthocyanins (PSPAs) showed good properties regarding scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and superoxide anions, and had good potential in reducing the total power activity and Fe 2+ chelating ability. While the order of the antioxidant abilities was as follows: P4 > P5 > P3 > P2 > P1 > PSPAs. Microbial cultivations showed that P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 and PSPAs could induce the proliferation of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and they inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium, suggesting the anthocyanins might have prebiotic-like activity through the modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Our results indicate that peonidin-based anthocyanins could be further utilized in health foods and pharmaceutical developments.

  4. The influences of purple sweet potato anthocyanin on the growth characteristics of human retinal pigment epithelial cells

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    Min Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthocyanins have been proven to be beneficial to the eyes. However, information is scarce about the effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, L. anthocyanin (PSPA, a class of anthocyanins derived from purple sweet potato roots, on visual health. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether PSPA could have influences on the growth characteristics (cellular morphology, survival, and proliferation of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells, which perform essential functions for the visual process. Methods: The RPE cell line D407 was used in the present study. The cytotoxicity of PSPA was assessed by MTT assay. Then, cellular morphology, viability, cell cycle, Ki67expression, and PI3K/MAPK activation of RPE cells treated with PSPA were determined. Results: PSPA exhibited dose-dependent promotion of RPE cell proliferation at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1,000 µg/ml. RPE cells treated with PSPA demonstrated a predominantly polygonal morphology in a mosaic arrangement, and colony-like cells displayed numerous short apical microvilli and typical ultrastructure. PSPA treatment also resulted in a better platform growing status, statistically higher viability, an increase in the S-phase, and more Ki67+ cells. However, neither pAkt nor pERK were detected in either group. Conclusions: We found that PSPA maintained high cell viability, boosted DNA synthesis, and preserved a high percentage of continuously cycling cells to promote cell survival and division without changing cell morphology. This paper lays the foundation for further research about the damage-protective activities of PSPA on RPE cells or human vision.

  5. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumbu, K.; Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  6. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumbu, K. [Department of Chemistry, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  7. Effect of 60Co γ-irradiation on saccharification of uncooked sweet potato material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Tingchun; Xiong Xingyao; Yi Jinqiong; Wang Keqin; Su Xiaojun; Zou Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Using the starch and powder of sweet potato of Xiangshu 86 and Xiangshu 541 as materials, the effect of 60 Co γ-irradiation on the structure of starch particle and the efficiency of saccharification were studied. The result showed that some reticulate flaws appeared in the surface of irradiated starch particles, and the reticulate flaws were increased with the increase of irradiation dose. The content of reducing sugar and total soluble sugar in both starch and the powder were obviously increased along with the increase of irradiation dose ranged from 50 to 1200 kGy. The saccharification efficiency of Xiangshu 86 and Xiangshu 541 was obviously difference at the dose lower than 500 kGy, and then the efficiency showed the similar trends at higher dose irradiation, the saccharification rate reached the highest value after the treatment of 1200 kGy irradiation. (authors)

  8. Estabilidade de farinha de batata-doce biofortificada Stability of biofortified sweet potato flour

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    Rosa Maria Vercelino Alves

    2012-03-01

    -doce biofortificada.Sweet potato flour, when made from roots with high β-carotene contents, is a source of pro-vitamin A, presenting beneficial effects for human health. Thus aiming at contributing to the supply of vitamin A in the diet of more needy populations, EMBRAPA has selected and improved some crops via biofortification, such as the sweet potato, and developed products with the biofortified raw material. Complementing these developments, the purpose of this study was to correlate the effect of the type of package and packaging system on the product, in the preservation of the carotenoids in the biofortified sweet potato flour. The flour was packed with and without vacuum in packs with different oxygen, water vapour and light barriers (PET/Al/LDPE, PETmet/LDPE, LDPE/PA/LDPE and LDPE and stored at 25 °C/75%RH with and without exposure to light. Losses of 50% of the total carotenoids and β-carotene occurred in the flour packed in PETmet/LDPE and LDPE without vacuum after 50 days of storage, due to the residual oxygen in the headspace and the high oxygen transmission rate in the case of LDPE, where the internal atmosphere showed the composition of air throughout the study. Losses of 50% carotenoids occurred after 90 days with and without exposure to light in the flour packed in LDPE/PA/LDPE with vacuum, indicating that in the presence of light, the carotenoid oxidation reaction is restricted to flour in contact with the surface of the package. Under vacuum and packed in PETmet/LDPE, the carotenoid contents of the flour reduced slightly, but were preserved for up to 360 days of storage when packed in PET/Al/LDPE. The results indicate that the key factors to preserve carotenoids in biofortified sweet potato flour are the reduction of the oxygen level in the headspace of the package by the application of vacuum, together with the use of packaging materials with an oxygen barrier as good as that of PET with a metalized barrier.

  9. Effect of pretreatment on purple-fleshed sweet potato flour for cake making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutasoit, M. S.; Julianti, E.; Lubis, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The purple-fleshed sweet-potato (PFSP) flour was produced by varying pretreatment of washed chips: dipping in 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) citric acid solution for 30 min, dipping in 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) citric acid solution for 30 min and followed by steam blanching for 5 min. The pretreatment effect on cake quality was investigated. The results showed that PFSP flour produced from pretreatment with dipping in 0.5% citric acid for 30 min followed by steam blanching for 5 min had higher lightness (L*) value and lower browning index, higher hedonic value of color and aroma and baking expansion. The specific volume of cake from pretreated flour, untreated flour and wheat flour were 44.87, 43.83, and 50.43cm3/g, respectively. The sensory evaluation of cake indicated that cake from pretreated PFSP flour was acceptable compare to those of cake from wheat flour.

  10. Changes in body weight, blood pressure and selected metabolic biomarkers with an energy-restricted diet including twice daily sweet snacks and once daily sugar-free beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M.; Piehowski, Kathryn E.; Metzgar, Catherine J.; Miller, Debra L.; Preston, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The type of sweet snack incorporated into an energy-restricted diet (ERD) may produce differential effects on metabolic improvements associated with body weight (BW) loss. This study compared effects of incorporating either twice daily energy-controlled dark chocolate snacks plus once daily sugar-free cocoa beverage (DC) to non-chocolate snacks plus sugar-free non-cocoa beverage (NC) into an ERD on BW loss and metabolic outcomes. MATERIALS/METHODS In an 18-week randomize...

  11. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  12. Australian print news media coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic drinks sends mixed health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to analyse the contribution of Australian print news coverage to the public profile of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages. News media portrayal of health contributes to individuals' decision-making. The focus on sugar-sweetened beverages reflects their contribution to excessive energy intake. One year's coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages by major Australian newspapers was analysed using content and frame analysis. Research questions addressed which sweet drinks are most prominently covered, what makes sweet drinks newsworthy and how are the health aspects of sweet drinks framed? Fruit juice was the most widely covered sweet drink, closely followed by carbonated, sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Overall coverage was positively oriented towards sweet drinks, with fruit juice primarily portrayed as having health benefits. Some coverage mentioned risks of sweet drinks, such as obesity, tooth decay, metabolic syndrome and heart attack. Sweet drinks often enjoy positive coverage, with their health benefits and harms central to their ability to attract journalists' attention. However, the mix of coverage may be contributing to consumer confusion about whether it is safe and/or healthy to consume sweet non-alcoholic drinks. Framing of sweet drinks as healthy may undermine efforts to encourage individuals to avoid excess consumption of energy-dense drinks which offer few or minimal health benefits. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality

    OpenAIRE

    Beckford, R. C.; Bartlett, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analys...

  14. PENGARUH DAUN UBI JALAR UNGU TERHADAP KADAR SUPEROKSID DISMUTASE TIKUS YANG DIPAPAR ASAP ROKOK (EFFECT OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO LEAVES ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE LEVEL ON RATS EXPOSED TO CIGARETTE SMOKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inggita Kusumastuty

    2014-12-01

    Superoxide Dismutase (SOD is an enzymatic antioxidant that protects cells from oxidative stress by catalyzing dismutase from superoxide into O2 and H2O2. The purple sweet potato leave (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam is a kind of vegetable plant that contains  high polyphenol which is about 1805 mgGAE on 100-gram edible portions. This research was aimed to determine the effect of purple sweet potato leaves powder in SOD levels that had been given to an animal model with cigarette smoke exposure. 6-8 week- male Rattus novergicus-wistar’s strain was used in this experiment that weighed about 140-250 gram and the entire rats were in healthy condition and were never exposed to another treatment before. Firstly, the rats were prepared in one week which was then divided into 5 treatment groups, a group that had not been exposed to cigarette smoke (P0, cigarette smoke exposed (P1, and exposed to cigarette smoke with the addition PSPL flour treatment in varying doses: 0.07g (P2, 0.14g (P3, and 0.28g (P4 for 30 days. After that, SOD levels were measured with spectrophotometry method. The result shows that there was obviously a significant difference between the treatment groups (ANOVA, p=0.000. In short, it was found that the given PSPL dosages resulted in higher SOD’s level. Keywords :, purple sweet potato leaves, Superoxide Dismutase level, cigarette smoking

  15. Effects of dietary sweet potato leaf meal on the growth, non-specific immune responses, total phenols and antioxidant capacity in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmann, Rebecca T; Islam, Shahidul; Phillips, Harold; Adam, Zelalem; Everette, Jace

    2013-04-01

    Traditional energy sources in catfish diets have become costly, and economical alternatives are needed. Sweet potato leaves are underutilised agricultural by-products that provide energy and substantial amounts of phenols, which affect animal and human health. There is little information on the effects of these compounds on catfish, or the capacity of catfish to accumulate dietary phenols. Catfish enriched with phenols have marketing potential as functional foods. This study investigated the effects of diets with sweet potato leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performance, health and total phenolic compounds in catfish. SPLM was substituted for wheat middlings in three diets fed to groups of juvenile catfish for 10 weeks. Weight gain, feed conversion, survival, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity were similar among diets. Haematocrit was lower in fish fed diets with SPLM, but within the normal range. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity in the whole body were similar among treatments. SPLM was an effective energy source for catfish up to the maximum level tested (230 g kg(-1) diet). SPLM did not enhance total phenols in catfish, but there were no apparent antinutritional effects of the meal on catfish growth, health or survival. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Study of antidiarrheal and hematology profile of laboratory rat fed with yogurt containing local probiotic and purple sweet potato extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, A. I. N.; Handayani, C. B.; Hartati, S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of local probiotic in yogurt with purple sweet potato extract supplementation on the hematological parameters of albino rats (Spraque dawley). The study was conducted using a Completely Randomized Design with 30 rats divided into 6 groups. In group K-, rats were fed with distilled water from day 1 to 21. In group YTP, Rats were fed with yogurt without probiotics from day 1 to 21. YDP group was rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 21. In group YTP+E, rats were fed with yogurt without probiotic from day 1 to 7, interspersed with exposure to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) on day 8 to 14. In group YDP+E, rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 7, interspersed by EPEC on day 8 to 24. In group K +, rats were fed with water from day 1 to 7, then fed with EPEC on day 8 to 14, after which water was given back on day 15 to 21. The result showed that probiotic yogurt treatment with supplement of purple sweet potato extract had a significant effect (P<0,05) on feces water content, number of erythrocyte, leucocyte, and hemoglobin. The treatment of YDP had water content in feces 48.422% and the number of erythrocyte, leucocytes, and hemoglobin were 8.578 106/μl, 14.152 106/μl and 13.98 g/dL respectively.

  17. Effect of genotype, gelling agent, and auxin on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abidine Triqui, Zine; Guédira, Abdelkarim; Chlyah, Averil; Chlyah, Hassane; Souvannavong, Vongthip; Haïcour, Robert; Sihachakr, Darasinh

    2008-03-01

    Lateral buds of six cultivars of sweet potato were induced to form embryogenic callus in a culture medium solidified with two types of gelling agents, Agar or Gelrite, and supplemented with various concentrations of auxins, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and Picloram. Of the six cultivars screened, only three gave an embryogenic response. Best results with an average of 3.53% embryogenic response were obtained with the medium solidified with Agar, while in Gelrite only 0.45% of lateral buds gave rise to embryogenic callus. The interaction between the genotype and auxins was highly significant; particularly the optimal response was obtained with cv. Zho and 865 yielding 10.7 and 14.7% somatic embryogenesis, respectively, in the medium containing 2,4,5-T or Picloram. The plant conversion was dramatically improved by subculture of the embryogenic callus on the medium with the combination of 1 microM 2,4-D and 1 microM Kinetin or 5 microM ABA alone before transfer of mature embryos onto hormone-free medium. The embryogenic callus of sweet potato and its sustained ability to further regenerate plants have regularly been maintained for several years by frequent subculture in 5 microM 2,4,5-T or the combination of 10 microM 2,4-D and 1 microM BAP or kinetin. The embryo-derived plants seemed apparently genetically stable and similar to the hexaploid parental plants, based on morphological analysis and their ploidy level determined by using flow cytometry.

  18. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on starch in sweet popato roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoroki, S.

    1994-01-01

    Starch contents, as well as the size and molecular weight, in sweet potato roots decreased during steerage at 30 degrees C after gamma-ray irradiation, accompanying the increase of sucrose content. No change in the starch and sucrose contents was observed in unirradiated specimens. By microscopy damaged starch granules were observed only in gamma-ray irradiated root. The results suggested that starch was converted into sucrose unirradiated sweet potato roots by the enzymes responsible for starch-sugar interconversion of which the activities were enhanced by gamma-ray irradiation

  19. Topdressing fertilization with nitrogen and potassium levels in sweet-potatoAdubação de cobertura na batata-doce com doses combinadas de nitrogênio e potássio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Balanced fertilizations with N and K often increase the performance of crops, however, when there is absence of one of these nutrients in poor soils, can reduce crop response to fertilization with the other. The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity of sweet-potato, the amount of sweetpotato without quality, and leaf nutrients analysis, of sweet-potato crop fertilized with N and K. The trial was conducted in farming for commercial production, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, during February-June 2007, in a dystrophic Ultisol of medium texture. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, with four replications, on factorial 4 x 4: levels of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 (urea source combined with levels of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg K2O ha-1 (KCl source, applied to 39 days after planting of the crop. The sweet-potato is responsive to topdressing application with nitrogen and potassium, however, the greatest increases in productivity occur when doses of N and K are combined. Fertilization with N and K not increase the amount of sweet-potato without quality marketing. The highest increase in productivity of sweet-potato is reached with topdressing combined with 100 kg N ha-1 plus 120 kg K2O ha-1. A adubação balanceada de N e K frequentemente aumenta o desempenho das lavouras, contudo, a falta de um desses nutrientes em solos deficientes pode levar a decréscimos na resposta ao outro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de batata-doce comercializável, a quantidade de raízes tuberosas para descarte e a diagnose foliar de lavoura de batata-doce adubada com N e K. O experimento foi realizado em lavoura comercial, em Presidente Prudente-SP, de fevereiro a junho de 2007, em um Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com 0, 30, 60 e 120 kg ha-1 de N (uréia, em

  20. Caffeoylquinic Acids Generated In Vitro in a High-Anthocyanin-Accumulating Sweet potato Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Konczak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of phenolic compounds has been monitored in a suspension culture of anthocyanin-accumulating sweet potato cell line grown under the conditions of modified Murashige and Skoog high-anthocyanin production medium (APM over a period of 24 days. Tissue samples extracted with 15% acetic acid were analysed using HPLC at a detection wavelength of 326 nm. Among others, the following derivatives of caffeoylquinic acids were detected: 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid. Their total amount reached a maximum of 110 mg/gFW between the 4th and the 15th day of culture growth on APM. The major compound of the phenolic mixture was 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid with maximum accumulation level of 80 mg/100 gFW. The potential effects of targeted phenolic compounds on the nutraceutical qualities of in vitro produced anthocyanin-rich extracts are discussed.

  1. Boron fertilization on sweet potato: effect of sources, rates and application formAdubação com boro em batata-doce: efeito das fontes, doses e modos de aplicação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Creste

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B fertilization can result in high yield and better sweet potato storage roots quality. However, there is few works about this subject. The objective was to evaluate the yield of sweet potato crops in response to B sources, rates and application form. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks, in factorial outline ((2x2x2+1, with three replications, which resulted of the combination of sources of B (boric acid and borax, application form (via soil and via foliar and doses of B (1 and 2 kg ha-1 and a control treatment (without B. There was no interaction between the factors studied for the commercial yield of sweet potato. No significant differences was found between B sources and application form, but they showed higher yield than the control treatment. Additionally, sweet potato yield increade with application of 2 kg ha-1 of B.A adubação boratada pode proporcionar aumentos na produtividade e na qualidade das raízes tuberosas de batata-doce, no entanto poucos trabalhos contemplam esse assunto. Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade da cultura da batata-doce em resposta a fontes, doses e modos de aplicação de B. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial ((2x2x2+1, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em cobertura, sendo resultados da combinação de fontes de B (ácido bórico e bórax, formas de aplicação (via solo e via foliar e doses de B (1 e 2 kg ha-1 mais uma testemunha. Não houve interação entre os fatores estudados sobre a produtividade comercial de batata-doce. As formas de aplicação, via solo e via foliar bem como as fontes ácido bórico e bórax não apresentaram diferenças entre si, mas proporcionaram produtividades superiores ao tratamento sem B. A produtividade de batata-doce foi favorecida com a aplicação de 2 kg ha-1 de B.

  2. Comparison of Temporal Profiles among Sucrose, Sucralose, and Acesulfame Potassium after Swallowing Sweetened Coffee Beverages and Sweetened Water Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Gotow

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-nutritive sweeteners have been used as substitutes for nutritive sweeteners with the goal of preventing obesity and dental caries. The main factor responsible for the difference in taste between beverages containing a nutritive sweetener and those containing a non-nutritive sweetener is the temporal profile of sensory attributes. In this study, untrained panelists performed a time–intensity evaluation of sweetness, using one coffee beverage containing a nutritive sweetener (sucrose and two coffee beverages containing non-nutritive sweeteners (sucralose or acesulfame potassium (acesulfame K. They evaluated continuously perceived intensity of sweetness for 150 s after swallowing each coffee beverage. We did not detect a significant difference in temporal profiles among the three coffee beverages. To investigate why the temporal profiles of the three coffee beverages followed similar traces, all untrained participants who had participated in the coffee beverage session also performed a time–intensity evaluation of sweetness using three water solutions (sucrose-sweetened, sucralose-sweetened, and acesulfame K–sweetened deionized water. We observed a significant difference in temporal profiles among the three water solutions. These results indicate that differences in the temporal profiles of coffee beverages might be masked by factors other than the sweetness of the sweetener.

  3. Sweet Little Gabonese Palm Wine: A Neglected Alcohol | Mavioga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: During the last ten years, consumption of palm wine, a popular traditional alcoholic beverage, seriously increases in Gabon. This sweet beverage seems to be the main alcohol and the most drunken in low socioeconomic population. OBJECTIVE: To have an idea of it composition and toxicity, 21 samples of ...

  4. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5% blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100% while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100% and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10% aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%, and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5% was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling.

  5. Fermented probiotic beverages based on acid whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skryplonek, Katarzyna; Jasińska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health benefits claimed for probiotic bacteria. The aim of the study was to define quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all samples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortified with buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufficient to provide health benefits to consumers.

  6. Manufacture of a beverage from cheese whey using a "tea fungus" fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloso-Morales, Genette; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2003-01-01

    Kombucha is a sour beverage reported to have potential health effects prepared from the fermentation of black tea and sugar with a "tea fungus", a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Although black tea is the preferred substrate for Kombucha fermentation, other beverages have also been tested as substrates with fair results. Cheese whey is a by-product with a good amount of fermentable lactose that has been used before in the production of beverages, so the objective of this study was to test three types of whey (fresh sweet, fresh acid and reconstituted sweet) in the elaboration of a fermented beverage using a kombucha culture as inoculum. The isolation and identification of bacteria and yeasts from the fermented tea and wheys was done along with the study of the rates of change in sugar consumption, acid production and pH decrease. Several species of acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter aceti subsp. aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans subsp. industrius, subsp. oxydans and Gluconoacetobacter xylinus) were isolated from the different kombuchas along with the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Brettanomyces bruxelensis. The main metabolic products in the fermented wheys included ethanol, lactic and acetic acids. A good growth was obtained in both sweet wheys in which a pH of 3.3 and a total acid content (mainly lactic and acetic acids) of 0.07 mol/l was reached after 96 h. The sweet whey fermented beverages contained a relatively low lactose concentration (< 12 g/l). The final ethanol content was low (5 g/l) in all the fermented wheys. The whey products were strongly sour and salty non sparkling beverages.

  7. Body mass is positively associated with neural response to sweet taste, but not alcohol, among drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Casey K; YorkWilliams, Sophie L; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E

    2017-07-28

    Obesity is a large and growing public health concern, presenting enormous economic and health costs to individuals and society. A burgeoning literature demonstrates that overweight and obese individuals display different neural processing of rewarding stimuli, including caloric substances, as compared to healthy weight individuals. However, much extant research on the neurobiology of obesity has focused on addiction models, without highlighting potentially separable neural underpinnings of caloric intake versus substance use. The present research explores these differences by examining neural response to alcoholic beverages and a sweet non-alcoholic beverage, among a sample of individuals with varying weight status and patterns of alcohol use and misuse. Participants received tastes of a sweet beverage (litchi juice) and alcoholic beverages during fMRI scanning. When controlling for alcohol use, elevated weight status was associated with increased activation in response to sweet taste in regions including the cingulate cortex, hippocampus, precuneus, and fusiform gyrus. However, weight status was not associated with neural response to alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Induction and use of artificial mutants in sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumine, Shokichi

    1984-01-01

    X-ray, ethylene imine, 32 P and 60 Co were used as mutagen for sweet potato mutation breeding and visible variations were observed for all mutagen. In the case of 60 Co irradiation, mutation rate of skin color is 0.5-1.3% based on cutting. Direction and variation of dry matter and tuber yield of mutants which were induced by 32 P and/or 60 Co irradiation showed more deteriorative variation than progressive variation but some induced mutant lines show same or superior characters than original line. In the case of 32 P irradiation to tuber, obstruction is not so much up to dese of 10,000 μci per tuber but treatment of 330 μci per cutting approximate to LD 50 . By tuber treatment with 60 Co gamma rays, suppression of sprouting occurred in dose of 30kR. Tendency to increase a variation was not observed at higher doses. 50-200 μci per cutting or 300-500 μci per tuber in 32 P treatment and 15 kR in 60 Co gamma-irradiation for tuber seemed to be optimum dosages. Hybrid seed of mutant selected for dry matter content was compared with that of original line and it was concluded that the variation of selected line was genetic. Mutant induced by 32 P and 60 Co treatment was used as a parental material and progeny of the cross was selected for practical characters. As a result, a line of higher starch yield with high resistance to pest and disease was selected and this line was used as parental material of further breeding. (author)

  9. Flight time and flight age in the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius)(Coleoptera: Brentidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T.; Moriya, S.

    1996-01-01

    We examined daily flight patterns and the correlation between adult age and flight in Cylas formicarius in the laboratory at 25 ± 1 ℃ under a 14L10D photoregime by a simple method of counting the number of adults flying out of a cup. The flight activity of males peaked just after the onset of darkness and gradually decreased toward the onset of light. Only a small proportion of them flew during the photophase. More than 90% of male adults flow at least once within 2 weeks after exodus from the sweet potato tuber. The proportion of males flying per day increased to a maximum 1 week after the exodus, and about 10% of them flow even 30 days after the exodus. On the other hand, flight activity of females was low and the proportion of females flying at least once was about 25%. Females flow from 7 to 24 days after the exodus

  10. Bioconversion of wastewater from sweet potato starch production to Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Xiao, Runlin; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-02-28

    Wastewater from the sweet potato starch industry is a large source of nutrient-rich substrates. We assessed whether this wastewater could be used to produce Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for foliar application to tea trees. Using the central composite design methods we experientially determined that the optimal culture conditions for P. polymyxa were pH, 6.5; temperature, 29.0 °C; and incubation time, 16 h. Under these conditions, a maximum biomass of 9.7 × 10(9) cfu/mL was achieved. We then conducted a yearlong field investigation to determine the effect of P. polymyxa biofertilizer on the growth of tea plants (Camellia sinensis). Tea yield, quantity of water extract, and tea polyphenol levels were significantly higher after foliar application of the biofertilizer compared to that in the controls by an average of 16.7%, 6.3%, and 10.4%, respectively. This approach appears to be technically feasible for organic tea production, and is an environmentally friendly way to utilize wastewater.

  11. Microbial growth and sensory quality of dried potato slices irradiated by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to secure the microbial safety of dried purple sweet potato. After purple sweet potato slices had been dehydrated with 20% (w/w) maltodextrin solution, the samples were irradiated at doses 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and then stored at 20 o C for 60 days. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria and of yeast and molds significantly decreased with increase in irradiation dosage. Specifically, microbial load was reduced by about three log cycles at 6 kGy compared to those of the control. Based on the color measurement of the potato slices, electron beam irradiation treatment did not affect the color quality. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect overall sensory scores during storage. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful for improving microbial safety without impairing the quality of the potato slices during storage.

  12. Development of an efficient plant regeneration protocol for sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UKZN

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... explants produced highly recalcitrant callus that did not regenerate into ... Key words: Tissue culture, regeneration, sweet potato, genetic transformation. .... sterilized in 5% (v/v) sodium hypochlorite solution for 20 min and.

  13. Design and development of an Integrated Slasher (Pulverizer) for Sweet Potato Harvester: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakahy, Amer N N; Ahmad, D; Akhir, M D; Ishak, A; Sulaiman, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study information on the development of combined sweet potato harvester is presented. The study focuses on the design, manufacture and choice of the best slasher for cutting and fragmentation of stems and leaves (vegetative portion) for the crop to facilitate the process of harvesting and extraction of tubers. A survey on various types and forms of cutters (mowers) and knives normally used for cutting vines and leaves was conducted and concluded that the vertical type and flail type mowers are the most effective in removing of the vegetative growth. In addition there is a need to design an integrated harvester, which combines both the cutting and digging in a single pass in order to reduce the time taken for harvesting, the fuel consumption and the number of machines used since this will give some economical advantages. In addition to the design requirements, it is recommended that number of tests should be conducted to select the suitable speed for the tractor, the velocity for cutters and the length of knives for both sides of the ridges to avoid damage to the tubers.

  14. Evaluation of processed sweet potato-crayfish – soya bean and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained with diet 3 (sweat potato bambara groundnut mixture) and diet 5 (sweat potato soya bean mixture) compared favourably with the reference diet (Nutrend) in all the parameters examined except for corn starch (diet 7), which recorded lowest values although it contained higher carbohydrate and energy ...

  15. Reduced dietary intake of simple sugars alters perceived sweet taste intensity but not perceived pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Nattress, Laura; Flammer, Linda J; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who adhere to reduced-sodium diets come to prefer less salt over time, but it is unclear whether sweet taste perception is modulated by reduced sugar intake. The objective was to determine how a substantial reduction in dietary intake of simple sugars affects sweetness intensity and pleasantness of sweet foods and beverages. Healthy men and women aged 21-54 y participated for 5 mo. After the baseline month, 2 subject groups were matched for demographic characteristics, body mass index, and intake of simple sugars. One group (n = 16; 13 of whom completed key experimental manipulations) was randomly assigned to receive a low-sugar diet during the subsequent 3 mo, with instructions to replace 40% of calories from simple sugars with fats, proteins, and complex carbohydrates. The other (control) group (n = 17; 16 of whom completed the study) did not change their sugar intake. During the final month, both groups chose any diet they wished. Each month subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of vanilla puddings and raspberry beverages that varied in sucrose concentration. ANOVA showed no systematic differences between groups in rated sweetness during the baseline or first diet month. During the second diet month, the low-sugar group rated low-sucrose pudding samples as more intense than did the control group (significant group-by-concentration interaction, P = 0.002). During the third diet month, the low-sugar subjects rated both low and high concentrations in puddings as ∼40% sweeter than did the control group (significant effect of group, P = 0.01). A weaker effect on rated sweetness was obtained for the beverages. Rated pleasantness was not affected for either of the stimuli. This experiment provides empirical evidence that changes in consumption of simple sugars influence perceived sweet taste intensity. More work is needed to determine whether sugar intake ultimately shifts preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was

  16. Studies on mutation breeding in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukimura, H.; Kouyama, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Different genotypes were subjected to gamma rays and EMS to examine the effects on tuber skin colour mutation. Different mutation rates were obtained according to the genotypes. The gamma irradiation induced larger sector size of skin colour mutation than EMS. Gamma rays had an effect on inducing flowering in MV 1 which is utilized in cross breeding. Mutagenic treatment by gamma rays and EMS on the hybrid true seed which segregates in a Mendelian ratio for pigmentation in leaf, stem and tuber and for shape of leaf gave some bias to their segregation ratios. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on quantitative characters, such as dry matter content and total sugar content in tubers, were also investigated in hybrid populations. The treatments enlarged genetic variations on both the characters, being more effective on total sugar content. Clonal progenies derived from mutagenic treatment by gamma rays and EI were investigated for their quantitative MV 4 -MV 6 characters (tuber yield, dry matter content and total sugar content) in MV 4 -MV 6 . Heritabilities in a broad sense and phenotypic variances were estimated from the measurements on derivative strains obtained by random selection from mutagenic treatment plots. Artificial selection was effective only for tuber yield. Mutant clones with short stem length decreased their tuber yield and vice versa. A few mutant clones were found to excel the originals in dry matter content and total sugar content. Some aspects of mutation breeding in sweet potato are also discussed

  17. The effect of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal on growth performances and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Aberra; Alemu, Temesgen; Banerjee, Sandip; Berihun, Kefyalew

    2016-06-30

    This study was designed to assess the effects of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performances and carcass components of broiler chickens. The experiment was a completely randomized design consisting of five dietary treatments replicated four times with ten chicks each. The control diet (treatment 1, T1) contained roasted soybean seed as the major protein source without SPLM and treatment diets containing SPLM at the levels of 30 g/kg (treatment 2, T2), 60 g/kg (treatment 3, T3), 90 g/kg (treatment 4, T4) and 120 g/kg (treatment 5, T5) by partially substituting the roasted soybean seed in the control diet. The results indicated that the body weight gain in chickens reared in T1 was (pchickens reared in T1 was (pchickens fed on T1 was (pChickens fed with T2 diet had numerically higher values of slaughter, dressed carcass and breast than those reared in T4 and T5 diets. It can be concluded that the partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato leaf might be economically feasible feeding strategy of broiler chickens in smallholder poultry farm settings.

  18. Composition and color stability of anthocyanin-based extract from purple sweet potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-li He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurple sweet potato (PSP can provide products with attractive color besides nutritious benefits in food processing. So, the compositions and color stability of an aqueous anthocyanin-based PSP extract were investigated in order to promote its wide use in food industry. PSP anthocyanins were extracted with water, and nine individual anthocyanins (48.72 ug mL–1 in total, 24.36 mg/100 g fresh PSP in yield were found by HPLC analysis. The PSP extract also contained 17.11 mg mL–1 of protein, 0.44 mg mL–1 of dietary fiber, 2.82 mg mL–1 of reducing sugars, 4.02 ug mL–1 of Se, 54.21 ug mL–1 of Ca and 60.83 ug mL–1 of Mg. Changes in color and stability of the PSP extract, as affected by pH, heat, light and extraction process, were further evaluated. Results indicated that PSP anthocyanins had good stability at pH 2.0-6.0, while the color of PSP extract kept stable during 30 days of storage at 20 °C in dark. Both UV and fluorescent exposure weakened the color stability of PSP extract and UV showed a more drastic effect in comparison. A steaming pretreatment of fresh PSP is beneficial to the color stability.

  19. microbiological quality of re-packaged sweets sold in metropolitan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    retailers of food products, which include sweets, have been implicated ... their microbiological fitness for human consumption. MATERIALS ... wholesome beverage was used to serve as a control. This was ... behaviour of the bacterial isolates.

  20. PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG KOMPOSIT UBI JALAR PUTIH (Ipomea batatas L. KECAMBAH KEDELAI (Glycine max Merr DAN KECAMBAH KACANG HIJAU (Virginia radiata L SEBAGAI SUBSTITUEN PARSIAL TERIGU DALAM PRODUK PANGAN ALTERNATIF BISKUIT KAYA ENERGI PROTEIN [Utilization of Composite Flour from White Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L, Germinated Soybeans (Glycine max Merr., and Germinated Mung Beans (Virginia radiata L as Wheat Flour Partial Substituent of Alternative Food, High Energy-Protein Biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry H Sunandar2

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An emergency food based biscuit product was formulated by utilizing composite flour from white sweet potatoes, germinated soybeans, and germinated mung beans. This product was designed to meet high protein and energy wich contain protein as minimum as 12% and 50% carbohydrate. Sweet potatoes, germinated soybeans, and germinated mung beans flour were obtained by using drum dryer. The flour characteristics determination showed that there were positive corelation between bulk density and wettability, and had negative corelation with stack angle. The bulk density number of sweet potatoes, germinated soybeans, and germinated mung beans flour were 0.56, 0.38, 0.45 g/m; compact density 0.63, 0.54, and 0.56 g/ml; whiteness degree 49.77, 29.82 and 34.41%; stack angle 30.56, 41.77 and 31.16 degree; wettability 1.104, 345, 20 second; and dispersibility 1.98, 1.06 and 0.70%. Wheat flour could be substituted by sweet potatoes flour as much as 80%. The range utilization of germinated soybeans and germinated mung beans flour were 12-28 % which combined with 25-44% sweet potatoes flour. The nutritional composition of high energy and protein biscuit were within average range of protein 12.34%, fat 24.56%, carbohydrate 60.65 %, and also total dietary fiber 15.01%. The result of organoleptic test showed that high energy and protein biscuit was accepted by consument, so that its very potential to ben as alternative food.

  1. Rheology of Potato flour Mixes and Wheat to Make Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón-Vera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate the rheological properties of flour mixes Ipomoea batata and Triticum vulgare for the preparation of bread dough, was the goal of this research for it a completely randomized design, as treatments sweet potato flour was used varieties are used: Toquecita, Guayaco Purple, Purple Ecuador, Brazil and Ina Purple in a 30/70 ratio (sweet potato flour / wheat flour respectively. The rheological variables: water absorption, development time, weakening of the dough stability, water absorption index (C1, mixing rate (C2, gluten strength index (C3, gel viscosity (C4, resistance index amylase (C5 and starch retro gradation index (C6 were evaluated with Mixolab equipment. The results showed that the variety Purple Brazil showed better characteristics of flours recommended premixes for the baking process in response to these indices

  2. Quantitation of sweet steviol glycosides by means of a HILIC-MS/MS-SIDA approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Caroline; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-11-27

    Meeting the rising consumer demand for natural food ingredients, steviol glycosides, the sweet principle of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Bertoni), have recently been approved as food additives in the European Union. As regulatory constraints require sensitive methods to analyze the sweet-tasting steviol glycosides in foods and beverages, a HILIC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the accurate and reliable quantitation of the major steviol glycosides stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, steviolbioside, rubusoside, and dulcoside A by using the corresponding deuterated 16,17-dihydrosteviol glycosides as suitable internal standards. This quantitation not only enables the analysis of the individual steviol glycosides in foods and beverages but also can support the optimization of breeding and postharvest downstream processing of Stevia plants to produce preferentially sweet and least bitter tasting Stevia extracts.

  3. Whey based beverages - new generation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Whey is a by product in the process of cheese production. Composition and characteristics of whey are depending on the production technology, the end product and the quality of used milk. Liquid whey consists of approximately 93% water and contains almost 50% of total solids present in the milk of which lactose is main constituent. Lactose is the main constituent of whey while proteins represent less than 1% of total solids. Minerals and vitamins are present in fewer amounts also. Production of whey based beverages started in 1970's and until today a wide range of different whey based beverages has been developed. They can be produced from native sweet or acid whey, from deproteinised whey, from native whey which was diluted with water, from whey powder or by whey fermentation. Non alcoholic whey beverages include wide range of products obtained by mixing native sweet, diluted or acid whey with different additives like tropical fruits (but also other fruits like apples, pears, strawberries or cranberries, crops and their products (mainly bran, isolates of vegetable proteins, CO2, chocolate, cocoa, vanilla extracts and other aromatizing agents. Special attention is being paid to production of fermented whey beverages with probiotic bacteria where the most important step is the choice of suitable culture of bacteria in order to produce functional beverage with high nutritional value and acceptable sensory characteristics. Non alcoholic whey beverages also include dietetic beverages, drinks with hydrolyzed lactose, milk like drinks and powder drinks. Whey is a very good raw material for production of alcoholic beverages due to the fact that the main constituent of the solid content is lactose (about 70%. Alcoholic whey beverages include drinks with small amount of alcohol (up to 1,5%, whey beer and whey wine. Whey beverages are suitable for wide range of consumers – from children to the elderly ones. They have very high nutritional value and good

  4. Water-Deficit Tolerance in Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.] by Foliar Application of Paclobutrazol: Role of Soluble Sugar and Free Proline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suravoot Yooyongwech

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to elevate water deficit tolerance by improving soluble sugar and free proline accumulation, photosynthetic pigment stabilization, photosynthetic abilities, growth performance and storage root yield in sweet potato cv. ‘Tainung 57’ using a foliar application of paclobutrazol (PBZ. The experiment followed a Completely Randomized Block Design with four concentrations of PBZ: 0 (control, 17, 34, and 51 μM before exposure to 47.5% (well irrigation, 32.3% (mild water deficit or 17.5% (severe water deficit soil water content. A sweet potato cultivar, ‘Japanese Yellow’, with water deficit tolerance attributes was the positive check in this study. Total soluble sugar content (sucrose, glucose, and fructose increased by 3.96-folds in ‘Tainung 57’ plants treated with 34 μM PBZ grown under 32.3% soil water content (SWC compared to the untreated plants, adjusting osmotic potential in the leaves and controlling stomatal closure (represented by stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. In addition, under the same treatment, free proline content (2.15 μmol g-1 FW increased by 3.84-folds when exposed to 17.5% SWC. PBZ had an improved effect on leaf size, vine length, photosynthetic pigment stability, chlorophyll fluorescence, and net photosynthetic rate; hence, delaying wilting symptoms and maintaining storage root yield (26.93 g plant-1 at the harvesting stage. A positive relationship between photon yield of PSII (ΦPSII and net photosynthetic rate was demonstrated (r2 = 0.73. The study concludes that soluble sugar and free proline enrichment in PBZ-pretreated plants may play a critical role as major osmoprotectant to control leaf osmotic potential and stomatal closure when plants were subjected to low soil water content, therefore, maintaining the physiological and morphological characters as well as storage root yield.

  5. Water-Deficit Tolerance in Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] by Foliar Application of Paclobutrazol: Role of Soluble Sugar and Free Proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooyongwech, Suravoot; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Tisarum, Rujira; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Cha-Um, Suriyan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elevate water deficit tolerance by improving soluble sugar and free proline accumulation, photosynthetic pigment stabilization, photosynthetic abilities, growth performance and storage root yield in sweet potato cv. 'Tainung 57' using a foliar application of paclobutrazol (PBZ). The experiment followed a Completely Randomized Block Design with four concentrations of PBZ: 0 (control), 17, 34, and 51 μM before exposure to 47.5% (well irrigation), 32.3% (mild water deficit) or 17.5% (severe water deficit) soil water content. A sweet potato cultivar, 'Japanese Yellow', with water deficit tolerance attributes was the positive check in this study. Total soluble sugar content (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) increased by 3.96-folds in 'Tainung 57' plants treated with 34 μM PBZ grown under 32.3% soil water content (SWC) compared to the untreated plants, adjusting osmotic potential in the leaves and controlling stomatal closure (represented by stomatal conductance and transpiration rate). In addition, under the same treatment, free proline content (2.15 μmol g -1 FW) increased by 3.84-folds when exposed to 17.5% SWC. PBZ had an improved effect on leaf size, vine length, photosynthetic pigment stability, chlorophyll fluorescence, and net photosynthetic rate; hence, delaying wilting symptoms and maintaining storage root yield (26.93 g plant -1 ) at the harvesting stage. A positive relationship between photon yield of PSII (Φ PSII ) and net photosynthetic rate was demonstrated ( r 2 = 0.73). The study concludes that soluble sugar and free proline enrichment in PBZ-pretreated plants may play a critical role as major osmoprotectant to control leaf osmotic potential and stomatal closure when plants were subjected to low soil water content, therefore, maintaining the physiological and morphological characters as well as storage root yield.

  6. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of full cream milk powder on the characteristics of sweet potato puree instant cream soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyoto, Marleen; Djali, Mohamad; Dwiastuti, Intan Btari

    2018-02-01

    A ready to use food such as instant cream soup become the most suitable choice for those who prefer being practical and also can be applied in any emergency situation such as areas affected by disaster. The adding of milk powder as the main ingredient in cream soup creates a complex bounding of fat and starch which complicates the rehydration process and affects other physical appearance. This research was aimed to find the proper concentration of full cream milk powder concentration to obtain the best characteristics of instant cream soup of dried sweet potato puree. The method used in this research was randomized block design with 6 treatments (12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, 22.5% and 25%, with an addition of full cream milk powder) and twice repetition. Instant cream soup with 20% of full cream milk powder concentration gave the best physical and chemical characteristics. The physical and chemical characteristic shows that it has 6% water content, 95.47% rehydration value, 18% protein, 20.7% fat, 1080.25 cP viscosity and 30.5% rendement.

  8. Avaliação da produção de batata-doce em função de níveis de adubação orgânica = Evaluation of sweet potato yield in function of organic fertilization levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Felinto dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o efeito da adubação orgânica na produçãototal de batata-doce, por meio de um experimento realizado no período de julho a novembro de 2007, na Estação Experimental de Lagoa Seca, PB, Brasil. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 t ha-1 de cama-de-aviário, em quatro repetições. A parcela foi composta por quatro leiras de 3,6 m de comprimento, espaçados de 0,80 m entre leiras e de 0,30 m entre plantas, sendo colhidas as duas fileiras centrais. As variáveis estudadas foram: produção total, raízes de tamanho graúdas e miúdas de batata-doce. A produção de raízes graúdas, miúdas e total por planta (14,20; 3,84 e 18,03 t ha-1 de batata-doce responderam de forma linear e positiva às doses crescentes de cama-de-aviário. Aadubação com cama-de-aviário aumentou a produção de raízes graúdas, miúdas e total de batata-doce.The present study evaluated the effect of organic fertilization inthe total production of sweet potato. The experiment was performed in the period between July and November 2007, at the Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, Paraíba, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 t ha-1, in four replications. The plot consisted of four 3.6 m long ridges, spaced of 0.80 m between ridges and 0.30 m between plants; the two central ridges were harvested. The variables studied were: total yield, large and small sweet potato roots. The production of large and small roots, total yield per plant (14.20, 3.84 and 18.03 t ha-1of sweet potato, responded positively in a linear fashion to increasing doses of poultry litter. The fertilization with poultry litter increased the yield of large, small and total roots of sweet potato.

  9. Does 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induce flowering in sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most sweet potato cultivars grown in Zimbabwe are poor in agronomic and quality traits and require improvement through breeding. However, most cultivars rarely flower yet the flowers are crucial in genetic improvements. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ...

  10. Assessment of somaclonal variation for salinity tolerance in sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation is the source for plant breeding. Somaclonal variation is genetic variation induced during tissue culture and also during ordinary growth in vivo, and occurs rather, often in sweet potato. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degree of somaclonal variation in regeneration via somatic ...

  11. Effect of heat–moisture treatment on digestibility of different cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Different heat–moisture levels were applied to native starches from different cultivars of sweet potatoes available in Sri Lanka (Wariyapola red, Wariyapola white, Pallepola variety, Malaysian variety and CARI 273) to study the digestibility level. Samples were treated with 20, 25, and 30% moisture at 85°C and 120°C for 6 h and in vitro starch digestibility was tested with porcine pancreatin enzyme. A range of 19.3–23.5% digestibility was shown by the native starches with no significant difference (P digestibility level of the hydrothermally modified starches and the moisture content showed a positive impact on the digestibility. Heat–moisture treatment at 85°C brought an overall increase in digestibility and temperature beyond 85°C had a negative impact. No significant difference (P digestibility was observed with 20% and 25% moisture at 85°C and increased level were seen at 85°C and 30% moisture. PMID:25473497

  12. Effect of Processing Methods on Nutrient Contents of Six Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in rural communities and was often given low priority. Currently ... (p≤0.05) differences between varieties in protein, fat, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, total carotenoids, calcium, iron ... maturity (about 5 months, average maturity rate for ... 630-12) (method. 968.08). ..... processing sweet potato by either boiling, roasting or.

  13. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) composite bread as a significant source of dietary vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuni, Victoria; Alhassan, Martha Wunnam; Amagloh, Francis Kweku

    2018-01-01

    Refining food recipes with orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has the potential to improve dietary intake of vitamin A. The objectives of this study were to utilize OFSP in the development of two composite bread types and to assess their contribution to dietary intake of vitamin A using the dietary reference intake of lactating mothers. Two composite OFSP-wheat flour bread recipes-vita butter bread and vita tea bread-were developed by incorporating 46% OFSP puree in existing 100% wheat flour bread recipes consumed by Ghanaians. A paired-preference test was used to profile the appearance, aroma, sweetness, and overall degree of liking of the vita butter bread and vita tea bread and their respective 100% wheat flour bread types. Weighed bread intake by lactating mothers ( n  =   50) was used to estimate the contribution to dietary vitamin A based on the trans β-carotene content. The developed vita butter bread and vita tea bread were most preferred by at least 77% ( p  bread was 247 g, and for vita tea bread was 196 g. The trans β-carotene content of vita butter bread and vita tea bread were found to be 1.333 mg/100 g and 0.985 mg/100 g, respectively. The estimated trans-β-carotene intake was 3,293 μg/day (vita butter) and 1,931 μg/day (vita tea) based on the weighed bread intake, respectively, meeting 21% and 12% of the daily requirement (1,300 μg RAE/day) for lactating mothers, the life stage group with the highest vitamin A requirement. OFSP therefore could composite wheat flour to bake butter and tea bread, and will contribute to significant amount of dietary intake of vitamin A.

  14. Who is behind the stocking of energy-dense foods and beverages in small stores? The importance of food and beverage distributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; D'Angelo, Heather; Gittelsohn, Joel; Horton, Lucy; Ribisl, Kurt; Sindberg, Lesley Schmidt; Olson, Christina; Kharmats, Anna; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined food and beverage distributors' sourcing, placement and promotion of obesogenic (energy-dense, nutrient-poor) product categories from the perspective of small food store owners/managers. The obesogenic product categories of interest were savoury snacks, sugary beverages, sweet snacks, confectionery and frozen treats. Specifically, we examined how frequently distributors sourced these products, and the types of agreements and expectations they had for their placement and promotion. Differences were explored by store size and ethnicity. Fresh produce was used as a comparison when examining differences in frequency of sourcing only, with implications for healthy food access. Survey research involving in-person interviews. Four urban areas in the USA: Baltimore, MD; Durham, NC; Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN; and San Diego, CA. Seventy-two small food store owners/managers, 65 % consent rate. Most distributors sourced obesogenic products weekly. Agreements to place products were predominantly informal (e.g. handshake) with sweet snack, confectionery and frozen treat distributors, and formal (e.g. contract) with savoury snack and sugary beverage distributors. Free-standing displays were the most common incentive provided by distributors and they expected some control over their placement and pricing. Free/discounted products and signage were also common incentives but slotting fees were not. Smaller stores and ethnic stores were less likely to receive various incentives, but among sweet snack distributors, they were more likely to control the price in ethnic v. non-ethnic stores. Obesogenic products are ubiquitous. Influencing what is made available to consumers in the retail food environment needs to consider the distributor.

  15. Phenolics extraction from sweet potato peels: modelling and optimization by response surface modelling and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, Ana; Silva, Rúben; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2016-12-01

    Sweet potato peels (SPP) are a major waste generated during root processing and currently have little commercial value. Phenolics with free radical scavenging activity from SPP may represent a possible added-value product for the food industry. The aqueous extraction of phenolics from SPP was studied using a Central Composite Design with solvent to solid ratio (30-60 mL g -1 ), time (30-90 min) and temperature (25-75 °C) as independent variables. The comparison of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis on extraction modelling and optimising was performed. Temperature and solvent to solid ratio, alone and in interaction, presented a positive effect in TPC, ABTS and DPPH assays. Time was only significant for ABTS assay with a negative influence both as main effect and in interaction with other independent variables. RSM and ANN models predicted the same optimal extraction conditions as 60 mL g -1 for solvent to solid ratio, 30 min for time and 75 °C for temperature. The obtained responses in the optimized conditions were as follow: 11.87 ± 0.69 mg GAE g -1 DM for TPC, 12.91 ± 0.42 mg TE g -1 DM for ABTS assay and 46.35 ± 3.08 mg TE g -1 DM for DPPH assay. SPP presented similar optimum extraction conditions and phenolic content than peels of potato, tea fruit and bambangan. Predictive models and the optimized extraction conditions offers an opportunity for food processors to generate products with high potential health benefits.

  16. Savoring Sweet: Sugars in Infant and Toddler Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robert D

    2017-01-01

    During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. A child's first relationship with sweet taste begins even before birth and continues to evolve throughout complementary feeding. The sweetness of breastmilk encourages consumption and soothes the neonate. Conversely, inappropriate introduction of non-milk solids and beverages that are sweet at 0-4 months of age raises the newborn's risk for later obesity and may discourage the acceptance of other bitter or sour foods. Although cereals, fruits, 100% fruit juices, and some grains have naturally occurring sugars that impart sweet flavor notes, there is no clear role for added sugars between 6 and 12 months of age. Yet, 60% of infants are introduced to foods and beverages containing added sugars, threatening diet quality. Pairing foods with naturally occurring sugars, such as fruits, with foods that tend to be resisted initially, such as vegetables, can mask bitterness and promote acceptance. Utilizing the infants' extraordinary capacity for sensory-motor exploration is another strategy to expose them repeatedly to challenging tastes and flavors. The transitional year, as breast milk and infant formula are withdrawn, is a time when nutritional needs are high and diet quality often precarious. Rapid growth, along with brain and cognitive development, demand high-quality nutrition. Snacks are necessary both for energy and valuable nutrients. However, the selection of snack foods often exposes toddlers to items that offer concentrated energy with low nutrient value. Recent trends suggest a rapid fall in added sugars among infants and toddlers. Parenting practices that use small amounts of sugars to promote nutrient

  17. Tuberous root characteristics of sweet potato clones using multivariate techniques for selection of superior genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the tuberous root characteristics of sweet potato clones using multivariate techniques for selection of superior genotypes, the present research was carried out in the Experimental area of the Plant Genetic Breeding Sector of the Agrarian Sciences Center of the Federal University of Alagoas (SMGP/CECA/UFAL. Were evaluated 44 new clones originated from progenies of half-siblings and germanic siblings, in addition to the cultivar Sergipana Vermelha, in lines of 5 m in length, spacing 1.0 mx 0.5 m, totaling a total area of 5 m²/clone. The harvest was done at 120 days after planting the branches, in which the production of non-commercial tuberous roots (PRTNC was evaluated, production of commercial tuberous roots (PRTC, production of tuberous roots (PTRT, total number of tuberous roots (NTRT, average weight of commercial tuberous roots (PMRTC, predominant color of tuberous root skin (CPPERT and predominant color of the tuberosal root pulp (CPPORT. Descriptive statistics, correlation technique and principal component analysis were used. It was observed that clones 23, 36, 17 and 37 presented interesting agronomic characteristics, being recommended for the cultivation and in the analysis of main components, the variables PTRT and PRTC presented greater importance, reflecting that they discriminate the clones satisfactorily.

  18. Extraction of natural colorant from purple sweet potato and dyeing of fabrics with silver nanoparticles for augmented antibacterial activity against skin pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Kim, Jae-In; Kim, Kangmin; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chang, Woo-Suk; Park, Yool-Jin; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2017-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to extract natural colorant from purple sweet potato powder (PSPP) via a water bath and ultrasound water bath using acidified ethanol (A. EtOH) as the extraction solvent. When optimizing the colorant extraction conditions of the solvents, acidified ethanol with ultrasound yielded a high extraction capacity and color intensity at pH2, temperature of 80°C, 20mL of A. EtOH, 1.5g of PSPP, time of 45min, and ultrasonic output power of 75W. Subsequently, the colorant was extracted using the optimized conditions for dyeing of textiles (leather, silk, and cotton). This natural colorant extraction technique can avoid serious environmental pollution during the extraction and is an alternative to synthetic dyes, using less solvent and simplified abstraction procedures. The extracted purple sweet potato natural colorant (PSPC) was used to dye leather, silk, and cotton fabrics in an eco-friendly approach with augmented antibacterial activity by in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and dyeing. The optimal dyeing conditions for higher color strength (K/S) values were pH2 and 70°C for 45min. The colorimetric parameters L ∗ , a ∗ , b ∗ , C, and H were measured to determine the depth of the color. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of undyed control, dyed with PSPC and dyed with blend of PSPC and AgNPs treated leather, silk and cotton fabric were investigated to study the interaction among fiber type, nanoparticles, and dye. The structural morphology of leather and silk and cotton fabrics and the anchoring of AgNPs with elemental compositions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The dry and wet rubbing fastness for dye alone and dye with nanoparticles were grade 4-5 and 4, respectively. Thus, the results of the present study clearly suggest that in situ synthesis of AgNPs along with dyeing should be considered in the development of

  19. Pneumonia intersticial em bovinos associada à ingestão de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas mofada Interstitial pneumonia in cattle fed moldy sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Fighera

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma doença respiratória foi diagnosticada em cinco dentre 23 bovinos (21,7% após terem sido alimentados com batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas mofada em uma pequena propriedade rural em São Vicente do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Três dos cinco bovinos afetados morreram espontaneamente, e o quarto foi sacrificado para necropsia quando mostrava sinais clínicos respiratórios avançados. A manifestação clínica iniciara cerca de 24 horas após a ingestão das batatas-doces e a evolução clínica foi de 1 a 4 dias. Os sinais clínicos incluíam dispnéia (respiração laboriosa e abdominal, taquipnéia, pescoço estendido com cabeça baixa e dilatação ritmada das narinas. Dois bovinos foram necropsiados. Os achados de necropsia incluíam pulmões distendidos, pálidos e de consistência borrachenta, que não colapsavam quando o tórax era aberto; enfisema e edema acentuados eram evidentes no pulmão. Os linfonodos e o baço apresentavam alterações características de hiperplasia linfóide. Histologica-mente, as lesões eram típicas de pneumonia intersticial. Os septos alveolares estavam espessados por fibroblastos e células inflamatórias, havia hipertrofia e hiperplasia de pneumócitos tipo II; os septos interlobulares estavam distendidos por edema e enfisema. A cultura de amostras das batatas-doces mofadas produziu Fusarium solani e F. oxysporum.Cases of respiratory disease were diagnosed in five out of 23 cattle (21.7% after they were fed moldy damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas on a small farm in the county of São Vicente do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Of those five cattle, three died spontaneously and another one was euthanatized for necropsy while showing advanced respiratory clinical signs. The disease manifested itself approximately 24 hours after the ingestion of the sweet potatoes and lasted from 1 to 4 days. Clinical signs included dyspnea (labored breathing and abdominal respiration, tachypnea, extended

  20. evaluation of the performance of improved sweet potato (ipomoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IKUMOINEIN W. KURO

    combat a widespread vitamin A deficiency that results in blindness and ... and 500,000 ha from China, Nigeria, Uganda and. Tanzania ... healthy plants. Extending this to all of China's sweet ... the country's reliance on cereal imports for livestock feed. In Kwara ..... Center (CIP) Programme Report 1995-1996, Lima, Peru.

  1. Food and beverage cues in UK and Irish children-television programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Paul; Reid, Orlaith; Macken, Alan; Healy, Mark; Saunders, Jean; Leddin, Des; Cullen, Walter; Dunne, Colum; O'Gorman, Clodagh S

    2014-11-01

    Increased time in which children spend watching television is a well-described contributor to paediatric obesity. This study investigated the frequency and type of food and beverage placement in children-specific television broadcasts and compared data from UK (UK) and Irish television stations. Content analysis, totalling 82.5 h, reflecting 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting on UK and Irish television channels was performed. To allow comparison between UK and Irish food and beverage cues, only broadcasts between 06.00 and 11.30 were analysed. Data were coded separately by two analysts and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage cues were coded based on type of product, product placement, product use, motivation, outcome and characters involved. A total of 1155 food and beverage cues were recorded. Sweet snacks were the most frequent food cue (13.3%), followed by sweets/candy (11.4%). Tea/coffee was the most frequent beverage cue (13.5%), followed by sugar-sweetened beverages (13.0%). The outcome of the cue was positive in 32.6%, negative in 19.8%, and neutral in 47.5% of cases. The most common motivating factor associated with each cue was celebratory/social (25.2%), followed by hunger/thirst (25.0%). Comparison of UK and Irish placements showed both to portray high levels of unhealthy food cues. However, placements for sugar-sweetened beverages were relatively low on both channels. This study provides further evidence of the prominence of unhealthy foods in children's programming. These data may provide guidance for healthcare professionals, regulators and programme makers in planning for a healthier portrayal of food and beverage in children's television. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. KARAKTERISASI TEPUNG UBI JALAR (Ipomoea batata L. VARIETAS SHIROYUTAKA SERTA KAJIAN POTENSI PENGGUNAANNYA SEBAGAI SUMBER PANGAN KARBOHIDRAT ALTERNATIF [Characterization of Sweet Potato Flour (Ipomea batatas L. var. Shiroyutaka and Assesment of the potential as Alternative Carbohydrate Source For Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni Hidayat 1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to characterize sweet potato flour var. shiroyutaka and assessment of its potential as alternative carbohydrate source on food product. Characterization was conducted on flour processed from sweet potato var. shiroyutaka harvested at four months was characteristic, these included whiteness degree and water absorption of the flour, ratio of amylase-amylopectin, form and size of starch granule, and starch digestibility.The research showed that whiteness degree and water absorption of the flour were 78,82% ( 0,52 and 1,25 g/g ( 0,12 respectively. The ratio of amylase-amylopectin, gelatinization temperature, maximum viscosity and invitro starch digest ability were 69.82%: 30.18%, 78-900C and 84,78% respectively. The granule of its starch was round form and with size 2-4 micron.The main potential of the flour is related with its specific characteristics which were the amylose-amylopectin ratio, the starch amylograph profile, form and size of starch granule, and the starch digest ability. These parameters implied that, the flour should be utilized in the production specific food products.

  3. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavi, Derick Nyabera; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Abong', George Ooko

    2018-01-01

    Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were used in data collection. The results indicated low level of compliance to GMPs with an overall compliance score of 58%. Microbial counts on food equipment surfaces, installations, and personnel hands and in packaged OFSP puree were above the recommended microbial safety and quality legal limits. Steaming significantly ( P contamination. Total counts, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and E. coli and S. aureus counts in OFSP puree were 8.0, 4.0, 6.6, 5.8, 4.8, and 5.9 log 10 cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, equipment surfaces, personnel hands, and processing water were major sources of contamination in OFSP puree processing and handling. Plant hygiene inspection, environmental monitoring, and food safety trainings are recommended to improve hygiene, microbial quality, and safety of OFSP puree.

  4. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abong', George Ooko

    2018-01-01

    Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were used in data collection. The results indicated low level of compliance to GMPs with an overall compliance score of 58%. Microbial counts on food equipment surfaces, installations, and personnel hands and in packaged OFSP puree were above the recommended microbial safety and quality legal limits. Steaming significantly (P contamination. Total counts, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and E. coli and S. aureus counts in OFSP puree were 8.0, 4.0, 6.6, 5.8, 4.8, and 5.9 log10 cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, equipment surfaces, personnel hands, and processing water were major sources of contamination in OFSP puree processing and handling. Plant hygiene inspection, environmental monitoring, and food safety trainings are recommended to improve hygiene, microbial quality, and safety of OFSP puree. PMID:29808161

  5. Responses of root physiological characteristics and yield of sweet potato to humic acid urea fertilizer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Chen

    Full Text Available Humic acid (HA, not only promote the growth of crop roots, they can be combined with nitrogen (N to increase fertilizer use efficiency and yield. However, the effects of HA urea fertilizer (HA-N on root growth and yield of sweet potato has not been widely investigated. Xushu 28 was used as the experimental crop to investigate the effects of HA-N on root morphology, active oxygen metabolism and yield under field conditions. Results showed that nitrogen application alone was not beneficial for root growth and storage root formation during the early growth stage. HA-N significantly increased the dry weight of the root system, promoted differentiation from adventitious root to storage root, and increased the overall root activity, total root length, root diameter, root surface area, as well as root volume. HA-N thus increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, and Catalase (CAT as well as increasing the soluble protein content of roots and decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA content. HA-N significantly increased both the number of storage roots per plant increased by 14.01%, and the average fresh weight per storage root increased by 13.7%, while the yield was also obviously increased by 29.56%. In this study, HA-N increased yield through a synergistic increase of biological yield and harvest index.

  6. Amounts of artificial food dyes and added sugars in foods and sweets commonly consumed by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Laura J; Burgess, John R; Stochelski, Mateusz A; Kuczek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) are used to color many beverages, foods, and sweets in the United States and throughout the world. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limits the AFCs allowed in the diet to 9 different colors. The FDA certifies each batch of manufactured AFCs to guarantee purity and safety. The amount certified has risen from 12 mg/capita/d in 1950 to 62 mg/capita/d in 2010. Previously, we reported the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed beverages. In this article, the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed foods and sweets are reported. In addition, the amount of sugars in each product is included. Amounts of AFCs reported here along with the beverage data show that many children could be consuming far more dyes than previously thought. Clinical guidance is given to help caregivers avoid AFCs and reduce the amount of sugars in children's diets. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Yield of sweet potato fertilized with cattle manure and biofertilizer Produção da batata-doce adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In Northeastern Brazil, the sweet potato is cultivated in small farms, in a family farming systems, constituting themselves an alternative way for the generation of food, employment and income. This study aimed to assess the effect of cattle manure levels and biofertilizer concentrations on the sweet potato cultivar White Queen productivity. The experiment was carried out from March to September 2007 at the EMEPA Experimental Station in Lagoa Seca, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in split split plot 6 x 4 x 2 + 1 scheme, with four replications. The plots consisted of cattle manure levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1, the subplot of biofertilizer concentrations (0, 15, 30 and 45% and the sub subplots consisted of methods of biofertilizer application, to the soil or leaves. Also, there was an additional control treatment using N, P and K mineral fertilizer. Commercial and total root productivity was evaluated. The levels of 30.8 and 31.2 t ha-1 of cattle manure were responsible for the highest commercial and total sweet potato root productivity (17.4 and 13.1 t ha-1, respectively. Biofertilizer concentrations of 29 and 28%, applied to soil and to leaves provided, respectively, the greatest productivities of total roots (15.4 and 13.1 t ha-1, whereas concentrations of 30 and 27%, also applied to soil and leaves were responsible, respectively, for the highest commercial root productivity (11 and 9.7 t ha-1.Na região Nordeste do Brasil, a batata-doce é principalmente plantada por pequenos produtores em sistema de agricultura familiar, constituindo-se numa alternativa de alimentação e geração de emprego e renda. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito das doses de esterco bovino e de concentrações de biofertilizante sobre a produtividade da batata-doce, cultivar Rainha Branca. O experimento foi conduzido no período de março a setembro de 2007 na Estação Experimental da EMEPA, em Lagoa Seca-PB, Brasil. O

  8. The effect of a sweet potato, footbath, and acupressure intervention in preventing constipation in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kai; Qiu, Jingbo; Wang, Xiaohua; Niu, Fenglin; Jiang, Tingbo

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a common health problem that adversely affects quality of life and the prognosis of hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The purpose of this study was to develop and test the sweet potato/footbath/acupressure massage (SFA) intervention as a safe treatment for prevention of constipation and to increase satisfaction with bowel emptying in hospitalized patients with ACS. The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial with a sample of 93 patients (SFA group, n = 44; usual care group, n = 49). Patients in the SFA group received SFA intervention combined with usual care. The results showed that there were statistical differences between the two groups in terms of (1) the incidence of constipation; (2) the use of laxatives and enemas; (3) patients' subjective satisfaction with their bowel emptying during hospitalization; and (4) sensation of incomplete evacuation and anorectal obstruction/blockade. The SFA intervention was more effective, economical, and practical than usual care alone in managing constipation and satisfaction with defecation in patients hospitalized with ACS.

  9. Physicochemical and sensory properties of fresh potato-based pasta (gnocchi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Laura; Balestra, Federica; Romani, Santina; Rocculi, Pietro; Rosa, Marco Dalla

    2010-01-01

    This study dealt with the characterization and quality assessment of 3 kinds of potato-based pasta (gnocchi) made with steam-cooked, potato puree (water added to potato flakes), and reconstituted potatoes as main ingredients. The aim of the research was to evaluate the quality of the products in terms of physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics. Water content, water activity, color (L* and h°), and texture (texture profile analysis [TPA] and shearing test) were evaluated on both raw and cooked samples. In addition, on the recovered cooking water the loss of solid substances was determined and on the cooked gnocchi a sensory assessment was performed. Eight sensory attributes (yellowness, hardness, gumminess, adhesiveness, potato taste, sweet taste, flour taste, and sapidity) were investigated. Statistically significant differences among products were obtained, especially concerning textural properties. In fact, sample made with reconstituted potatoes and emulsifiers resulted the hardest (8.53 ± 1.22 N), the gummiest (2.90 ± 0.05 N), and the "chewiest" (2.90 ± 0.58 N) after cooking. Gnocchi made with potato puree or reconstituted potatoes significantly differed from the one produced with steam-cooked potatoes in terms of sensory properties (yellowness, hardness, flour taste, and sapidity). Pearson's correlation analysis between some textural instrumental and sensory parameters showed significant correlation coefficients (0.532 < r < 0.810). Score plot of principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed obtained results from physicochemical and sensory analyses, in terms of high discriminant capacity of colorimetric and textural characteristics. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Foods and Beverages Associated with Higher Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Kevin C.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with higher caloric intakes, the amount SSBs contribute to higher intakes has not been addressed. Purpose To estimate the amount SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes and determine how the diets of SSB consumers and nonconsumers differ. Methods The WWEI America (What We Eat in America), NHANES 2003–2010 surveys were combined into a sample of 13,421 children; analyses were conducted in December 2012. To determine the contribution of SSB to higher caloric intakes, total non-SSB, food, and non-SSB beverage intakes of SSB consumers and nonconsumers were compared using linear regression models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Analyses also compared intakes between nonconsumers and SSB consumers with different amounts of SSB consumption. Results For children aged 2–5 years and 6–11 years, non-SSB intakes did not differ between nonconsumers and SSB consumers at any level of SSB consumption, indicating that SSBs were primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes among SSB consumers. A similar finding was observed among children aged 12–18 years; however, both food and SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes of adolescents consuming ≥500 kcal of SSBs. Among those aged 12–18 years, higher intakes of foods (e.g., pizza, burgers, fried potatoes, and savory snacks) and lower intakes of non-SSB beverages (e.g., fluid milk and fruit juice) were associated with increased SSB intake. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened beverages are primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes of SSB consumers, and SSB consumption is associated with intake of a select number of food and beverage groups, some of which are often unhealthy (e.g., pizza and grain-based desserts). PMID:23498100

  11. Acrylamide in Japanese processed foods and factors affecting acrylamide level in potato chips and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ono, Hiroshi; Chuda, Yoshihiro; Yada, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Ohara-Takada, Akiko; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Mori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide concentrations in processed foods sold in Japanese markets were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS methods. Most potato chips and whole potato-based fried snacks showed acrylamide concentration higher than 1000 microg/kg. The concentrations in non-whole potato based Japanese snacks, including rice crackers and candied sweet potatoes, were less tha. 350 microg/kg. Those in instant precooked noodles were less than 100 microg/kg with only one exception. The effect of storage condition of potato tubers on acrylamide concentration in potato chips after frying was also investigated. Sugar content in the tubers increased during cold storage, and the acrylamide concentration increased accordingly. The concentrations of asparagine and other amino acids, however, did not change during the cold storage. High correlations were observed between the acrylamide content in the chips and glucose and fructose contents in the tubers. This fact indicated that the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in potato chips is reducing sugar, not asparagine content in the tubers. Effects of roasting time and temperature on acrylamide concentration in roasted green tea are also described.

  12. Bioethanol production from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. flour using co-culture of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Swain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the optimiation of co-culturing of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1:4 ratio on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. flour (SPF for the production of bio-ethanol in solid-state fermentation (SSF. Maximum ethanol (172 g/kg substrate was produced in a medium containing 80% moisture, ammonium sulphate 0.2%, pH 5.0, inoculuted with 10% inoculum size and fermented at 30ºC for 72h. .Concomitant with highest ethanol concentration, maximum ethanol productivity (2.8 g/kg substrate/h, microbial biomass (23×10(8 CFU/ g substrate, ethanol yield (47 g/100g sugar consumed and fermentation efficiency (72% were also obtained under these conditions. Cell interaction was observed familiar between the viable cells of Trichoderma sp. and S. cerevisiae when co-cultured. Ethanol production ability by the co-culture was 65 % higher than the single culture of S. cerevisiae from un-saccharified SPF.

  13. Food and beverage cues in children's television programmes: the influence of programme genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Paul; Reid, Orlaith; Macken, Alan; Healy, Mark; Saunders, Jean; Leddin, Des; Cullen, Walter; Dunne, Colum; O'Gorman, Clodagh S

    2016-03-01

    The link between childhood obesity and both television viewing and television advertising have previously been examined. We sought to investigate the frequency and type of food and beverage placements in children-specific television broadcasts and, in particular, differences between programme genres. Content of five weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting on both UK (BBC) and Irish (RTE) television channels was summarized. Food and beverage placements were coded based on type of product, product placement, product use and characters involved. A comparison was made between different programme genres: animated, cartoon, child-specific, film, quiz, tween and young persons' programming. A total of 1155 (BBC=450; RTE=705) cues were recorded giving a cue every 4·2 min, an average of 12·3 s/cue. The genre with most cues recorded was cartoon programming (30·8%). For the majority of genres, cues related to sweet snacks (range 1·8-23·3%) and sweets/candy (range 3·6-25·8%) featured highly. Fast-food (18·0%) and sugar-sweetened beverage (42·3%) cues were observed in a high proportion of tween programming. Celebratory/social motivation factors (range 10-40 %) were most common across all genres while there were low proportions of cues based on reward, punishment or health-related motivating factors. The study provides evidence for the prominence of energy-dense/nutrient-poor foods and beverages in children's programming. Of particular interest is the high prevalence of fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage cues associated with tween programming. These results further emphasize the need for programme makers to provide a healthier image of foods and beverages in children's television.

  14. Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women

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    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OHD were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OHD levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = −0.11 (p = 0.004. A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OHD concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = −0.06 (p = 0.10. No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OHD concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OHD levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation.

  15. Increases in Phenolic, Fatty Acid, and Phytosterol Contents and Anticancer Activities of Sweet Potato after Fermentation by Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yixiao; Sun, Haiyan; Zeng, Haiying; Prinyawiwatukul, Witoon; Xu, Wenqing; Xu, Zhimin

    2018-03-21

    Phenolic, fatty acid, and phytosterol contents in sweet potato (SP) fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus were evaluated and compared with those of raw and boiled SPs. The differences in the profiles and levels of phenolics between the raw and boiled SPs were not as significant as the differences between those and the fermented SP. The levels of caffeic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in fermented SP were more than 4 times higher than those in raw and boiled SPs. Two phenolics, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, which were not detected in either raw or boiled SP, were found in fermented SP. The level of each fatty acid or phytosterol increased in fermented SP and decreased in boiled SP. Among the hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts obtained from raw and fermented SPs, the hydrophilic extract of fermented SP exhibited the highest capability of inhibiting cancer-cell PC-12 proliferation. However, each of the extracts had very low cytotoxicities to normal-monkey-kidney-cell growth. The results indicated that SP fermented by L. acidophilus significantly increased free antioxidant-rich phenolics and inhibited cancer-cell-proliferation activity without cytotoxicity to normal cells.

  16. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Ravi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated.

  17. Influence of Sweetness and Ethanol Content on Mead Acceptability

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    Gomes Teresa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mead is a traditional alcoholic beverage obtained by fermenting mead wort; however, its production still remains frequently an empirical exercise. Different meads can be produced, depending on fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, to date few studies have been developed on factors that may influence mead quality. The main objective of this work was to study the influence of sweetness and ethanol content on mead acceptability. Different meads were produced with two sweetness levels (sweet and dry meads and three ethanol contents (18, 20, 22% (v/v, adjusted by brandy addition. Afterwards, meads acceptability was evaluated by sensory analysis through a consumers’ panel (n=108 along with chemical analysis by HPLC-RID of glucose, fructose, ethanol, glycerol and acetic acid. The sweet (75 gglucose+fructose/L and dry (23 gglucose+fructose/L meads presented glycerol contents equal to 5.10±0.54 and 5.96±0.95 g/L, respectively, that were desirable since glycerol improves mead quality. Low concentrations of acetic acid were determined (0.46±0.08 and 0.57±0.09 g/L, avoiding the vinegar off-character. Concerning sensory analysis, the alcohol content of mead had no effect on the sensory attributes studied, namely, aroma, sweetness, flavour, alcohol feeling and general appreciation. Regarding sweetness, the “sweet meads” were the most appreciated by the consumers (score of 5.4±2.56, whereas the “dry meads” (score of 2.7±2.23 showed low acceptability. In conclusion, this work revealed that sweetness is a sensory key attribute for mead acceptance by the consumers, whereas ethanol content (18 to 22% (v/v is not.

  18. The availability of novelty sweets within high school localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljawad, A; Morgan, M Z; Rees, J S; Fairchild, R

    2016-06-10

    Background Reducing sugar consumption is a primary focus of current global public health policy. Achieving 5% of total energy from free sugars will be difficult acknowledging the concentration of free sugars in sugar sweetened beverages, confectionery and as hidden sugars in many savoury items. The expansion of the novelty sweet market in the UK has significant implications for children and young adults as they contribute to dental caries, dental erosion and obesity.Objective To identify the most available types of novelty sweets within the high school fringe in Cardiff, UK and to assess their price range and where and how they were displayed in shops.Subjects and methods Shops within a ten minute walking distance around five purposively selected high schools in the Cardiff aea representing different levels of deprivation were visited. Shops in Cardiff city centre and three supermarkets were also visited to identify the most commonly available novelty sweets.Results The ten most popular novelty sweets identified in these scoping visits were (in descending order): Brain Licker, Push Pop, Juicy Drop, Lickedy Lips, Big Baby Pop, Vimto candy spray, Toxic Waste, Tango candy spray, Brain Blasterz Bitz and Mega Mouth candy spray. Novelty sweets were located on low shelves which were accessible to all age-groups in 73% (14 out of 19) of the shops. Novelty sweets were displayed in the checkout area in 37% (seven out of 19) shops. The price of the top ten novelty sweets ranged from 39p to £1.Conclusion A wide range of acidic and sugary novelty sweets were easily accessible and priced within pocket money range. Those personnel involved in delivering dental and wider health education or health promotion need to be aware of recent developments in children's confectionery. The potential effects of these novelty sweets on both general and dental health require further investigation.

  19. Data on the sensory evaluation of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan, performed by untrained young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Itoyama, Ryuichi; Ichisawa, Megumi; Negishi, Junko; Sakuma, Rui; Furusho, Tadasu; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Takano, Katsumi

    2017-12-01

    This data article describes a sensory evaluation of potatoes used in food processing from the Tokachi, Kamikawa, and Abashiri geographic areas of Hokkaido, Japan, performed by untrained young adults. We gathered sensory data on potatoes from the four cultivars 'Toyoshiro,' 'Kitahime,' 'Snowden,' and 'Poroshiri.' The sensory evaluation was performed on steamed potatoes from each cultivar; these potatoes were harvested from each of the three geographic areas. Table 1 provides the data from the evaluation of the five basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami), as well as the evaluation of the egumi taste, which is a Japanese term indicating a taste that is acrid, astringent, and slightly bitter.

  20. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

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    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  1. Consumption of sweet foods and breast cancer risk: a case-control study of women on Long Island, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Patrick T; Sagiv, Sharon K; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Satia, Jessie A; Britton, Julie A; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D

    2009-10-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have reported a positive association between breast cancer risk and high intake of sweets, which may be due to an insulin-related mechanism. We investigated this association in a population-based case-control study of 1,434 cases and 1,440 controls from Long Island, NY. Shortly after diagnosis, subjects were interviewed in-person to assess potential breast cancer risk factors, and self-completed a modified Block food frequency questionnaire, which included 11 items pertaining to consumption of sweets (sweet beverages, added sugars, and various desserts) in the previous year. Using unconditional logistic regression models, we estimated the association between consumption of sweets and breast cancer. Consumption of a food grouping that included dessert foods, sweet beverages, and added sugars was positively associated with breast cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing the highest to the lowest quartile: 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.61]. The OR was slightly higher when only dessert foods were considered (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.23-1.96). The association with desserts was stronger among pre-menopausal women (OR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.32-3.04) than post-menopausal women (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.07-1.83), although the interaction with menopause was not statistically significant. Our study indicates that frequent consumption of sweets, particularly desserts, may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. These results are consistent with other studies that implicate insulin-related factors in breast carcinogenesis.

  2. Desire for Sweet Taste Unchanged After Eating: Evidence of a Dessert Mentality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, Kate; Smeele, Rebecca; Van Loon, Fiona; Yuan, Jannie; Haszard, Jillian Joy; Drewer, Amanda; Venn, Bernard Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Added sugars provide calories and desirability to foods and beverages. Our aim was to test whether desire for a sweet taste would be better maintained than a desire for other tastes for 3 hours after a test meal. Eighty-three young adults ate 2 slices of bread on 2 separate occasions after which they were asked to rate their desire for savory, sweet, fatty, or salty tastes and to specify the number of servings of white rice, pizza, cheese and crackers, sweet biscuits, and pasta they could consume. Desirability was assessed using 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS), with 0 mm representing no desire and 100 mm great desire. When participants provided a quantitative assessment of the servings of foods that they wanted to eat following the bread meal, desire decreased on average for all foods measured, χ 2 (3) = 2.63, p = 0.452. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) change in VAS taste desirability 30 minutes after eating declined for salty (14.5 mm [10.5, 18.6]), fatty (11.2 mm [7.1, 15.2]), and savory (24.1 mm [19.7, 28.5]) tastes (p foods and beverages. Targeting familial and cultural practices that discourage the consumption of added sugar foods might be useful to combat desire-driven food intake.

  3. Contribution of Beverage Selection to the Dietary Quality of the Packed Lunches Eaten by Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Briley, Margaret E; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2018-02-16

    Sweet drinks early in life could predispose to lifelong consumption, and the beverage industry does not clearly define fruit drinks as part of the sweet drink category. To ascertain the relationship between beverage selection and dietary quality of the lunches packed for preschool-aged children evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Foods packed by parents (n=607) were observed at 30 early care and education centers on two nonconsecutive days. Three-level regression models were used to examine the dietary quality of lunches by beverage selection and the dietary quality of the lunch controlling for the nutrient composition of the beverage by removing it from the analysis. Fruit drinks were included in 25% of parent-packed lunches, followed by 100% fruit juice (14%), milk (14%), and flavored milk (3.7%). Lunches with plain milk had the highest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (59.3) followed by lunches with 100% fruit juice (56.9) and flavored milk (53.2). Lunches with fruit drinks had the lowest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores at 48.6. After excluding the nutrient content of the beverage, the significant difference between lunches containing milk and flavored milk persisted (+5.5), whereas the difference between fruit drinks and 100% fruit juice did not. Dietary quality is associated with the type of beverage packed and these differences hold when the lunch is analyzed without the nutrient content of the beverage included. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stability of β-carotene during baking of orange-fleshed sweet potato-wheat composite bread and estimated contribution to vitamin A requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzamwita, Madjaliwa; Duodu, Kwaku Gyebi; Minnaar, Amanda

    2017-08-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is known to be a rich source of β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A and a potential tool for fighting vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in developing countries. OFSP flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) substitution levels. The stability of β-carotene during baking and the contribution of OFSP-wheat composite breads to vitamin A requirements were evaluated. The retention of all-trans-β-carotene in breads containing 10, 20 and 30% OFSP flour was 62.7, 71.4 and 83% respectively, after baking. Breads containing 20% and 30% OFSP flour could be used for the eradication of vitamin A deficiency as they were found to meet 29 and 89.2% (100g portion) respectively, of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of vitamin A amongst children aged 3-10years. The latter would meet nearly a half of the RDA of vitamin A for pregnant and lactating women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Purple Sweet Potato Color Ameliorates Cognition Deficits and Attenuates Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Aging Mouse Brain Induced by D-Galactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Shan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato color (PSPC, a naturally occurring anthocyanin, has a powerful antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. This study explores whether PSPC has the neuroprotective effect on the aging mouse brain induced by D-galactose (D-gal. The mice administrated with PSPC (100 mg/kg.day, 4 weeks, from 9th week via oral gavage showed significantly improved behavior performance in the open field and passive avoidance test compared with D-gal-treated mice (500 mg/kg.day, 8 weeks. We further investigate the mechanism involved in neuroprotective effects of PSPC on mouse brain. Interestingly, we found, PSPC decreased the expression level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB, increased the activity of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase (CAT, and reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, respectively. Our data suggested that PSPC attenuated D-gal-induced cognitive impairment partly via enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity.

  6. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Nyabera Malavi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs, hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were used in data collection. The results indicated low level of compliance to GMPs with an overall compliance score of 58%. Microbial counts on food equipment surfaces, installations, and personnel hands and in packaged OFSP puree were above the recommended microbial safety and quality legal limits. Steaming significantly (P<0.05 reduced microbial load in OFSP cooked roots but the counts significantly (P<0.05 increased in the puree due to postprocessing contamination. Total counts, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and E. coli and S. aureus counts in OFSP puree were 8.0, 4.0, 6.6, 5.8, 4.8, and 5.9 log10 cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, equipment surfaces, personnel hands, and processing water were major sources of contamination in OFSP puree processing and handling. Plant hygiene inspection, environmental monitoring, and food safety trainings are recommended to improve hygiene, microbial quality, and safety of OFSP puree.

  7. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L; Mackinnon, David P; Stacy, Alan W

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors - binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes among 198 adolescents, ages 14 to 17. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific version directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Diet was assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making on the IGT, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This work extends research findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in habitual behaviors and their relationship to snack food consumption in an understudied population of diverse adolescents not

  8. Polymorphisms in sweet taste genes (TAS1R2 and GLUT2), sweet liking, and dental caries prevalence in an adult Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, Antonietta; Bevilacqua, Lorenzo; Pirastu, Nicola; Situlin, Roberta; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Gasparini, Paolo; Navarra, Chiara Ottavia

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sweet taste genes and dental caries prevalence in a large sample of adults. In addition, the association between sweet liking and sugar intake with dental caries was investigated. Caries was measured by the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index in 647 Caucasian subjects (285 males and 362 females, aged 18-65 years), coming from six villages in northeastern Italy. Sweet liking was assessed using a 9-point scale, and the mean of the liking given by each individual to specific sweet food and beverages was used to create a sweet liking score. Simple sugar consumption was estimated by a dietary history interview, considering both added sugars and sugar present naturally in foods. Our study confirmed that polymorphisms in TAS1R2 and GLUT2 genes are related to DMFT index. In particular, GG homozygous individuals for rs3935570 in TAS1R2 gene (p value = 0.0117) and GG homozygous individuals for rs1499821 in GLUT2 gene (p value = 0.0273) showed higher DMFT levels compared to both heterozygous and homozygous for the alternative allele. Furthermore, while the relationship sugar intake-DMFT did not achieve statistical significance (p value = 0.075), a significant association was identified between sweet liking and DMFT (p value = 0.004), independent of other variables. Our study showed that sweet taste genetic factors contribute to caries prevalence and highlighted the role of sweet liking as a predictor of caries risk. Therefore, these results may open new perspectives for individual risk identification and implementation of target preventive strategies, such as identifying high-risk patients before caries development.

  9. Joint Effects of Granule Size and Degree of Substitution on Octenylsuccinated Sweet Potato Starch Granules As Pickering Emulsion Stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinfeng; Ye, Fayin; Lei, Lin; Zhou, Yun; Zhao, Guohua

    2018-05-02

    The granules of sweet potato starch were size fractionated into three portions with significantly different median diameters ( D 50 ) of 6.67 (small-sized), 11.54 (medium-sized), and 16.96 μm (large-sized), respectively. Each portion was hydrophobized at the mass-based degrees of substitution (DS m ) of approximately 0.0095 (low), 0.0160 (medium), and 0.0230 (high). The Pickering emulsion-stabilizing capacities of modified granules were tested, and the resultant emulsions were characterized. The joint effects of granule size and DS m on emulsifying capacity (EC) were investigated by response surface methodology. For small-, medium-, and large-sized fractions, their highest emulsifying capacities are comparable but, respectively, encountered at high (0.0225), medium (0.0158), and low (0.0095) DS m levels. The emulsion droplet size increased with granule size, and the number of freely scattered granules in emulsions decreased with DS m . In addition, the term of surface density of the octenyl succinic group (SD -OSG ) was first proposed for modified starch granules, and it was proved better than DS m in interpreting the emulsifying capacities of starch granules with varying sizes. The present results implied that, as the particulate stabilizers, the optimal DS m of modified starch granules is size specific.

  10. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production. PMID:28672044

  11. Differences in morphology and sugar content of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) with potassium treatment at several altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiani, R.; Rosmayati; Siregar, L. A. M.; Harahap, F.

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted at three locations in low, medium and high plains. This study was aimed to determine the morphological changes and sugar content of sweet potato caused by potassium dose treatment and climate change. Data was analyzed by factorial randomized block design in time series with two factors. The first factor was Altitude: A1 (50 meter above sea level (MASL)), A2 (750 MASL) and A3 (1450 MASL). The second factor was Potassium: K0 (0 kg/ha), K1 (50 kg/ha), K2 (100 kg/ha) and K3 (150 kg/ha). The data of plant morphology change and sugar content was descriptively analized, while agronomic and harvest component data analysis by F test and continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results of morphological observations showed different types of plant growth, which in the lowlands and medium plant growth types spread, twisted, more branches, wider leaf area. However, the plateau of plant growth was relatively dwarf, erect, no twist, huddled and short rods and small leaf area. The tuber weight per plant, number of tuber yield and tuber weight per plot in high altitude were significantly higher than lowland and medium. Similarly, increased altitude will be increased the sugar content significantly.

  12. Design of sweet protein based sweeteners: hints from structure-function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, Michele Fortunato; Di Monaco, Rossella; Leone, Serena; Donnarumma, Federica; Spadaccini, Roberta; Cavella, Silvana; Picone, Delia

    2015-04-15

    Sweet proteins represent a class of natural molecules, which are extremely interesting regarding their potential use as safe low-calories sweeteners for individuals who need to control sugar intake, such as obese or diabetic subjects. Punctual mutations of amino acid residues of MNEI, a single chain derivative of the natural sweet protein monellin, allow the modulation of its taste. In this study we present a structural and functional comparison between MNEI and a sweeter mutant Y65R, containing an extra positive charge on the protein surface, in conditions mimicking those of typical beverages. Y65R exhibits superior sweetness in all the experimental conditions tested, has a better solubility at mild acidic pH and preserves a significant thermal stability in a wide range of pH conditions, although slightly lower than MNEI. Our findings confirm the advantages of structure-guided protein engineering to design improved low-calorie sweeteners and excipients for food and pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flavored alcoholic beverages: an international marketing campaign that targets youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, James F; Johnsson, Diane

    2005-09-01

    Flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) were first introduced into the alcohol market in the early I980s in the form of wine coolers. FABs are sweet, relatively low alcohol content beverages that are designed for "entry-level" drinkers. The alcohol industry has introduced new products and production methods to expand the category's popularity. Research suggests that they are popular with underage drinkers, particularly teenage girls, and that the industry uses marketing practices that appear to target youth. FABs are now marketed globally, and their production and marketing vary by country based on national regulatory restraints. In the United States, industry representations that the products are malt beverages for regulatory purposes appears to violate many state laws because the alcohol in the FABs is derived from distilled spirits. Recommendations for regulatory reform, including new legal definitions of FABs, increased taxes, and restrictions on availability, are applicable at both national and state levels.

  14. Potency of Purple Sweet Potato’s Anthocyanin as Biosensor for Detection of Chemicals in Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, A.; Sunarti, TC; Fahma, F.; Noor, E.

    2018-05-01

    Bioactive compounds such as anthocyanin are a natural ingredient that produces color with typical specificity. Anthocyanin from Ayamurasaki purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) was extracted in ethanol and used as crude anthocyanin extracts. The color of bioactive anthocyanin can be used as a biosensor to detect chemical of food products because it provides a unique color change. However, the each bioactive has a particular sensitivity and selectivity to a specific chemical, so it is necessary to select and test the selectivity. Six chemicals, which were sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, sodium cyclamate (food additives), formalin, borax (illegal food preservatives), and residue fertilizer (urea) were tested and observed for its color change. The results showed that the bioactive anthocyanin of purple sweet potato with the concentration of ± 42.65 ppm had better selectivity and sensitivity to sodium nitrite with a detection limit of 100 ppm, where the color change response time ranged from 15-20 minutes. The selectivity and sensitivity of this bioactive can be used as the basic information for the development of biosensor.

  15. Development and validation of a beverage and snack questionnaire for use in evaluation of school nutrition policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhouser, Marian L; Lilley, Sonya; Lund, Anne; Johnson, Donna B

    2009-09-01

    School nutrition policies limiting access to sweetened beverages, candy, and salty snacks have the potential to improve the health of children. To effectively evaluate policy success, appropriate and validated dietary assessment instruments are needed. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a beverage and snack questionnaire suitable for use among young adolescents. A new 19-item Beverage and Snack Questionnaire (BSQ) was administered to middle school students on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, to measure test-retest reliability. The questionnaire inquired about frequency of consumption, both at school and away from school, of soft drinks, salty snacks, sweets, milk, and fruits and vegetables. Students also completed 4-day food records. To assess validity, food-record data were compared with BSQ data. Forty-six students of diverse backgrounds from metropolitan Seattle, WA, participated in this study. Participants answered the BSQ during class time and completed the food record at home. Pearson correlation coefficients assessed test-retest reliability and validity. Using frequency per week data, the test-retest reliability coefficients were r=0.85 for fruits and vegetables consumed at school and r=0.74 and r=0.72 for beverages and sweets/snacks, respectively, consumed at school. Correlations ranged from r=0.73 to 0.77 for foods consumed outside of school. Compared with the criterion food record, validity coefficients were very good: r=0.69 to 0.71 for foods consumed at school and r=0.63 to 0.70 for foods consumed away from school. The validity coefficients for the 19 individual food items ranged from r=0.56 to 0.87. This easy-to-administer 19-item questionnaire captures data on sugar-sweetened beverages, salty snacks, sweets, milk, and fruit and vegetables as well as a more lengthy and expensive food record does. The BSQ can be used by nutrition researchers and practitioners to accurately evaluate student consumption of foods that are the focus of

  16. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford, R C; Bartlett, J R

    2015-06-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analysis of the SPRM, diets were formulated where 0, 10, 20, and 30% of corn was substituted with SPRM. The study utilized 360 1-d-old Cornish X Rock male broiler chickens randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments; 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% SPRM. Body weights and feed intake (FI) were monitored weekly for 7 wk. Birds were slaughtered on d 50 and FI, BW gain, ADG, ADFI, abdominal fat, dressing percentage, and organ weights measured. White (breast) and dark (leg and thigh) meat were evaluated for nutrient content (protein, moisture, fat, and ash). Results showed birds fed 20% SPRM had lower (Pdressing percentage among treatments. Abdominal fat was highest (PPoultry Science Association.

  17. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luís G., E-mail: ldias@ipb.pt [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Sequeira, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.b.s@hotmail.com [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Veloso, Ana C.A., E-mail: anaveloso@isec.pt [Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Sousa, Mara E.B.C., E-mail: mebsousadias@gmail.com [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Peres, António M., E-mail: peres@ipb.pt [LSRE – Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering – Associate Laboratory LSRE/LCM, Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal)

    2014-10-27

    Highlights: • Overconsumption of soft-drinks and fruit-beverages may enhance health risks. • Beverage’s healthy and sensory indexes were calculated using chromatographic data. • A potentiometric electronic tongue with multivariate linear models was applied. • E-tongue discriminated samples according to glycemic load or fructose-intolerance levels. • Healthy and sensory indexes were accurately quantified using E-tongue data. - Abstract: Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue’s capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: R{sub adj} > 0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7 < glycemic load ≤ 30; 0.4 < fructose intolerance index ≤ 1.5; 32 < sweetness perception < 155; 1.3 < total acid flavor, g L{sup −1} < 8.3; and, 5.8 < well-balanced flavor ≤ 74. So, the proposed electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage’s healthy and sensory evaluation.

  18. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Luís G.; Sequeira, Cédric; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Peres, António M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overconsumption of soft-drinks and fruit-beverages may enhance health risks. • Beverage’s healthy and sensory indexes were calculated using chromatographic data. • A potentiometric electronic tongue with multivariate linear models was applied. • E-tongue discriminated samples according to glycemic load or fructose-intolerance levels. • Healthy and sensory indexes were accurately quantified using E-tongue data. - Abstract: Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue’s capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: R adj > 0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7 < glycemic load ≤ 30; 0.4 < fructose intolerance index ≤ 1.5; 32 < sweetness perception < 155; 1.3 < total acid flavor, g L −1 < 8.3; and, 5.8 < well-balanced flavor ≤ 74. So, the proposed electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage’s healthy and sensory evaluation

  19. Sweet taste receptor gene variation and aspartame taste in primates and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G; Beauchamp, Gary K; Reed, Danielle R; Thai, Chloe; Floriano, Wely B

    2011-06-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche.

  20. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific Go/No-Go task directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Dietary measures were assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Results of latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making, assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This research extends other study findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in

  1. Evaluation studies on the combined effect of hydrothermal treatment and octenyl succinylation on the physic-chemical, structural and digestibility characteristics of sweet potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qing-Qing; Li, Gao-Yang; Xie, Qiu-Tao; Zhang, Bao; Li, Xiao-Min; Pan, Yi; Chen, Han-Qing

    2018-08-01

    In order to increase the degree of substitution (DS), a combination of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and octenyl succinylation (OSA) was used to modify sweet potato starch (SPS). The content of OSA had significant influence on the DS of starch, and DS of HMT OSA-modified SPS (HOSA-SPS) was higher than that of OSA-modified SPS (OSA-SPS), indicating that prior HMT could enhance the reaction. HOSA-SPS showed higher contents of SDS and RS in comparison with OSA-SPS as OSA concentration was beyond 6%. HMT decreased swelling power of starch while OSA modification had a contrary role (p < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed starch was destroyed by OSA modification while HMT had slight effect on the structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that crystal type of starch was transformed from C- to A-type resulted from HMT, and remained unchanged by OSA modification. The onset, peak, and conclusion gelatinization temperatures of starch increased by HMT and decreased by OSA modification (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical, chemical and sensory properties of brownies substituted with sweet potato flour (Ipomoea batatas L.) with addition of black cumin oil (Nigella sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligarnasari, I. P.; Anam, C.; Sanjaya, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Effect of addition black cumin oil on the physical (hardness) characteristics, chemical (water, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate, antioxidant IC50, total phenol and active component) characteristics and sensory (flavor, taste, texture, overall) characteristics of brownies substituted sweet potato flour were investigated. Substituted brownies was added with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20% and 0.25% of nigella sativa oil. The result showed that water content, ash, protein, fat, total phenol were increased and carbohydrate, antioxidant IC50 was decreased by the addition of nigella sativa oil. Due to the sensory characteristics, panelist gave the high score for substituted brownies which was added 0.05% nigella sativa oil. The result showed that the best formula of substituted brownies which was added 0.05% of nigella sativa oil had 24.89% water content, 1.19% ash content, 7.54% protein content, 37.79% fat content, 53.06% carbohydrate contain, 1043.6 ppm IC50 antioxidant and 0.22% total phenol. The active component on the brownies using GCMS identification were palmitic acid, oleic acid, lauric acid, theobromine and vitamin E.

  3. Chemical-sensory properties and consumer preference of hibiscus beverages produced by improved industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria João P; Costa, Ana Isabel A; Fliedel, Geneviève; Cissé, Mady; Bechoff, Aurélie; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Maria Manuela E

    2017-06-15

    The need to increase sustainability and add value to traditional foods claiming health benefits led to the introduction of key improvements in the production of hibiscus beverages in Senegal. The physicochemical and sensory properties of three resulting products (an under-vacuum concentrate, a dilute-to-taste syrup and a ready-to-drink infusion) were assessed, vis-à-vis those of conventionally manufactured beverages, and their impact on local consumer preference determined (n=146). New beverages had more intense, redder colour and higher monomeric anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, their colour evaluations by trained panellists were mainly linked to colour density and anthocyanin/polyphenol content, while flavour assessments were associated to titratable acidity and sugar-to-acid ratio. Consumer evaluations, in turn, were driven by the beverages' red colour intensity, aroma strength and balance between sweetness and acidity. This explained why they overwhelmingly preferred the under-vacuum concentrate, regardless of their age, gender or frequency of hibiscus beverage consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kandungan Gizi dan Indeks Glikemik Bolu Kukus yang Terbuat Dari Tepung Ubi Jalar dan Rumput Laut

    OpenAIRE

    Alamsyah, Wahidatul Ukhra

    2016-01-01

    Steamed sponge cake made from purple sweet potato flour and seaweed flour is an alternative food are subsituting wheat flour with purple sweet potatoes and seaweeds. Purple sweet potatoes contents much β-carotene which is caused this steamed sponge cake as a kind of cake rich in antioxidants. Purple sweet potato can be processed into refined products, one of them into flour. Through the purple sweet potato flour caan also be processed into steamed sponge cake. To enrich the fiber, steamed spo...

  5. Selecting odorant compounds to enhance sweet flavor perception by gas chromatography/olfactometry-associated taste (GC/O-AT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Carmen; Beno, Noelle; Guichard, Elisabeth; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2018-08-15

    Gas chromatography/olfactometry-associated taste (GC/O-AT) analysis combined with mass spectrometry allowed identification of odorant compounds associated with taste attributes (sweet, salty, bitter and sour) in a multi-fruit juice. Nine compounds were selected for their odor-associated sweetness enhancement in a multi-fruit juice odor context using Olfactoscan and for their odor-induced sweet taste enhancement in sucrose solution and sugar-reduced fruit juice through sensory tests. Sweetness of the fruit juice odor was significantly enhanced by methyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and linalool; sweet perception was significantly enhanced in 7% sucrose solution by ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, furaneol and γ-decalactone, and in 32% sugar-reduced fruit juice by ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. GC/O-AT analysis is a novel, efficient approach to select odorants associated with a given taste. The further screening of taste-associated odorants by Olfactoscan helps to identify the most efficient odorants to enhance a target taste perception and may be used to find new ways to modulate taste perception in foods and beverages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of fermented plant beverages in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charernjiratrakul, W.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fermented plant beverages based on a sensory test, physico-chemical properties, enumeration of microorganisms present and their microbiological quality were investigated. A total of 19 samples of beverages collected from various sources in southern Thailand were examined. It was found that odor, color and clarity and the presence of Cu, Zn, K and Na were mainly dependent on the types of plant used and the additive of sugar or honey. Therefore, the appearance of the beverages was light brown and dark brown. An ester smell was occasionally detected. The fermented plant beverages had sour flavor that developed during fermentation and a little sweetness from residual sugar. The taste was related to the amounts of organic acid and sugar as measured in the ranges of 0.98-7.13% (pH 2.63-3.72 and 0.21-4.20%, respectively. The levels of alcohols measured as ethanol were between 0.03-3.32% and methanol in a range of 0.019 0.084%. Methanol production was dependent on both the fermentation process and the plant used. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were not detected in any sample, whereas other microbes were detected in some samples as were total bacterial count, lactic acid bacteria, yeast and mold in amounts that differed depending on the fermentation time and also the level of sanitation of the production process.

  7. Impact of Sweet Potato Starch-Based Nanocomposite Films Activated With Thyme Essential Oil on the Shelf-Life of Baby Spinach Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel Issa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi and Escherichia coli (E. coli have been responsible for an increasing number of outbreaks linked to fresh produce, such as baby spinach leaves, in the last two decades. More recently, antimicrobial biodegradable packaging systems have been attracting much attention in the food packaging industry as eco-friendly alternatives to conventional plastic packaging. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibacterial nanocomposite films on inoculated spinach leaves and on the sensory properties of these leaves during eight days of refrigerated storage. In this study, an antibacterial film comprised of sweet potato starch (SPS, montmorillonite (MMT nanoclays and thyme essential oil (TEO as a natural antimicrobial agent was developed. Our results showed that the incorporation of TEO in the film significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the population of E. coli and S. Typhi on fresh baby spinach leaves to below detectable levels within five days, whereas the control samples without essential oil maintained approximately 4.5 Log colony forming unit (CFU/g. The sensory scores for spinach samples wrapped in films containing TEO were higher than those of the control. This study thus suggests that TEO has the potential to be directly incorporated into a SPS film to prepare antimicrobial nanocomposite films for food packaging applications.

  8. KEEFEKTIFAN PEMBELAJARAN SOSIAL KEARIFAN LOKAL BUDIDAYA UBI JALAR DI KALANGAN SUKU ARFAK KABUPATEN MANOKWARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amestina Matualage

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this research is to find a person who has become a figure respected by sweet potato farmers in Arfak during the social learning process of indigenous knowledge regarding sweet potato cultivation, understand the social learning process of indigenous knowledge regarding sweet potato cultivation, analyze the effectiveness of social learning of indigenous knowledgeregarding sweet potato cultivation, analyze the effectiveness of social learning of indigenous knowledge regarding sweet potato cultivation and analyze factors which affect the effectiveness of social learning of indigenous knowledge regarding sweet potato cultivation. The research was completed through descriptive analysis using a sample of 120 sweet potato farmers obtained randomly obtained from 2 districts and 4 villages in Manokwari regency. Results show that parents are the only figures in the social learning process of indigenous knowledge regarding sweet potato cultivation. The Arfak tribal farmers have high effectiveness, one affected by age and self-efficacy. The effect of self-efficacy on social learning effectiveness is reinforced by social support provided by parents.

  9. The Effects of Curcuma longa L., Purple Sweet Potato, and Mixtures of the Two on Immunomodulation in C57BL/6J Mice Infected with LP-BM5 Murine Leukemia Retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jeung; Lee, Dasom; Lee, Minhee; Kwon, Han-Ol; Kim, Hyesook; Park, Jeongjin; Jeon, Woojin; Cha, Minseok; Jun, Suhwa; Park, Kwangjin; Lee, Jeongmin

    2018-06-04

    The immune response is stimulated to protect the body from external antigens and is controlled by several types of immune cells. In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of Curcuma longa L., purple sweet potato, and mixtures of the two (CPM) were investigated in C57BL/6 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV). Mice were divided into seven groups as follows: normal control, infected control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection), positive control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of red ginseng 300 mg/kg body weight), the original powder of C. longa L. (C; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of C 189 mg/kg body weight), the original powder of purple sweet potato (P; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of P 1811 mg/kg body weight), CPM Low (CPL; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+CPM 2 g/kg body weight), and CPM High (CPH; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+CPM 5 g/kg body weight). Dietary supplementation lasted for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of CPM inhibited LP-BM5 MuLV-induced lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly and inhibited reduction of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I and II. Moreover, CPM reduced the decrease in T- and B cell proliferation, reduced the population of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells, and remedied the unbalanced production of T helper-1 (Th1)/T helper-2 (Th2) cytokines in LP-BM5 MuLV-infected mice. In addition, CPM inhibited reduction of phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages and decreased serum levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin E (IgE), and immunoglobulin G (IgG). These results suggest that CPM had a positive effect on immunomodulation in C57BL/6 mice induced by LP-BM5 leukemia retrovirus infection.

  10. Food and beverage advertising on children's TV channels in Argentina: Frequency, duration, and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovirosa, Alicia; Zapata, María E; Gómez, Paula; Gotthelf, Susana; Ferrante, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been identified as one of the determinants of unhealthy food and beverage consumption in the child population. To determine the frequency and duration of food and beverage advertising in children's programming and the nutritional quality of advertised food and beverages. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Children's cable and broadcast channel programming was recorded in two periods: over the week and on the weekend. The type, quantity, and duration of commercials were recorded. The nutritional quality of advertised food and beverages was analyzed. A total of 402.3 hours of children's programming were recorded. In total, 3711 commercials were identified. Among these, 20.9% corresponded to food and beverages, i.e., an average of 1.9 ± 1.0 commercials per hour or equivalent to 0.68 ± 0.36 min/hour. Dairy products, candies, and fast-food meals were the most advertised food products. Only a third of advertised food and beverages (35.8%) were categorized as healthy as per the nutrient profiling system. Based on the traffic light labeling system, 50% of advertised food and beverages were high in sugar, 25% were high in saturated fat, and approximately 15% were high in sodium or fat. Food and beverage advertising accounted for 20% of television advertising time. The most advertised products were dairy products, followed by candies and sweet snacks, fast-food meals, and beverages. Two-thirds of advertised food and beverages were considered unhealthy. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  11. Negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages

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    Nataša Fidler Mis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugary drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs and fruit juices. They have high sugar content, low satiety effect and incomplete compensation for energy, so they pose a risk for promoting positive energy balance. Each extra serving of SSBs children consume per day increases their chance of becoming obese by 60 %. Other main negative health effects of sugary drinks are: the development of preference for sweet taste, poor nutrient supply, lower mineral density, bone fractures, development of dental caries, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. SSBs are the leading source of added sugar in the diet of Slovenian adolescents. Water does not contain energy and may support a healthy weight status if it replaces sugary drinks. Cutting back on SSBs can control weight in children and adults. It is necessary that present public health strategies include education about beverage intake. Consumption of SSBs should be discouraged, whereas promoting the consumption of water should be made a priority.

  12. Anaerobic digestion performance of sweet potato vine and animal manure under wet, semi-dry, and dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enlan; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Keqiang; Wang, Feng; Yang, Houhua; Zhi, Suli; Liu, Guangqing

    2018-03-22

    Sweet potato vine (SPV) is an abundant agricultural waste, which is easy to obtain at low cost and has the potential to produce clean energy via anaerobic digestion (AD). The main objectives of this study were to reveal methane production and process stability of SPV and the mixtures with animal manure under various total solid conditions, to verify synergetic effect in co-digestion of SPV and manure in AD systems, and to determine the kinetics characteristics during the full AD process. The results showed that SPV was desirable feedstock for AD with 200.22 mL/g VS added of methane yield in wet anaerobic digestion and 12.20 L methane /L working volume in dry anaerobic digestion (D-AD). Synergistic effects were found in semi-dry anaerobic digestion and D-AD with each two mixing feedstock. In contrast with SPV mono-digestion, co-digestion with manure increased methane yield within the range of 14.34-49.11% in different AD digesters. The values of final volatile fatty acids to total alkalinity (TA) were below 0.4 and the values of final pH were within the range of 7.4-8.2 in all the reactors, which supported a positive relationship between carbohydrate hydrolysis and methanogenesis during AD process. The mathematical modified first order model was applied to estimate substrate biodegradability and methane production potential well with conversion constant ranged from 0.0003 to 0.0953 1/day, which indicated that co-digestion increased hydrolysis efficiency and metabolic activity. This work provides useful information to improve the utilization and stability of digestion using SPV and livestock or poultry manure as substrates.

  13. KARAKTERISTIK PROKSIMAT DAN ORGANOLEPTIK UBI JALAR MERAH (IPOMEA BATATAS (L. LAM. PADA BERBAGAI PROSES PEMASAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Febriantini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L. Lam. is one of functional foods that can maintain and improve human health. Due to the very hard texture of red sweet potato, it cannot be consumed directly. Therefore, it requires various cooking methods in order to be more suitable for consumption. This study aimed at determining effects of various cooking methods on the proximate and sensory properties of red sweet potato. The research covers various cooking methods of red sweet potato through boiling, frying, baking, steaming, and one treatment without cooking process (fresh which was used as a control. The results show that various cooking methods affect almost all testing parameters significantly, except for ash content. Baked red sweet potato has the lowest moisture content (38,75% and the highest sugar value as sucrose (17,17%. Sensory properties test results show that the most preferred red sweet potato is fried red sweet potato.

  14. The Influence of Sweet Taste Perception on Dietary Intake in Relation to Dental Caries and BMI in Saudi Arabian Schoolchildren

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    Heba Ashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sweet taste perception on dietary habits in Saudi schoolchildren. In addition, the relationship between dietary habits and both caries and BMI was studied. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study comprising 225 schoolchildren aged 13–15 years from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The consumption frequency of certain food items was analysed from a beverage and snack questionnaire and a three-day estimated dietary record was obtained. The sweet taste perception level was determined as sweet taste threshold (TT and sweet taste preference (TP. Children were grouped into low, medium, and high, according to their sweet taste perception level. ICDAS and DMFS indices were used for caries registration and anthropometric measurements using BMI were collected. Results. Sweet taste perception was found to be negatively correlated to the number of main meals and positively correlated to both snack and sweet intake occasions. Statistically significant differences were found between the TT and TP groups with regard to the number of main meals and sweet intake (p≤0.01. No significant correlation between the dietary variables and caries or BMI was found. Conclusions. The dietary habits and sweet intake were found to be influenced by the sweet taste perception level, while the relation between the dietary habits and the caries and BMI was found insignificant.

  15. Statistical Feature Extraction and Recognition of Beverages Using Electronic Tongue

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    P. C. PANCHARIYA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach for extraction of features from data generated from an electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry. In this approach statistical features of the meaningful selected variables from current response signals are extracted and used for recognition of beverage samples. The proposed feature extraction approach not only reduces the computational complexity but also reduces the computation time and requirement of storage of data for the development of E-tongue for field applications. With the reduced information, a probabilistic neural network (PNN was trained for qualitative analysis of different beverages. Before the qualitative analysis of the beverages, the methodology has been tested for the basic artificial taste solutions i.e. sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and umami. The proposed procedure was compared with the more conventional and linear feature extraction technique employing principal component analysis combined with PNN. Using the extracted feature vectors, highly correct classification by PNN was achieved for eight types of juices and six types of soft drinks. The results indicated that the electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry with reduced feature was capable of discriminating not only basic artificial taste solutions but also the various sorts of the same type of natural beverages (fruit juices, vegetable juices, soft drinks, etc..

  16. Effect of Heavy Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages on the Perception of Sweet and Salty Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camile S; Dias, Vaneria R; Almeida, Juliane A Regis; Brazil, Jamile M; Santos, Ramon A; Milagres, Maria P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the threshold index of sweet and salty tastes in alcoholics undergoing treatment. Taste threshold was assessed using type 3-Alternative Forced Choice in a control group (92 non-alcoholic volunteers) and a test group (92 alcoholics in therapy). The test group completed a structured questionnaire on lifestyle and habits. Significant difference were found between the threshold rates found in the test (3.78) and control groups (1.39). In the salty stimulus, no significant difference was noted in the threshold detection between the control (0.17) and test groups (0.30). A significant correlation was observed between the index Pearson's threshold to sweet taste in the test group and their reported alcohol consumption. The test group reported characteristics such as loss of appetite (93%), weight loss during consumption (62%) and weight gain after quitting drinking (72%). That the alcoholic group reported less sensitivity to sweet taste suggests that drinking habits may influence choice of foods, with a greater preference for foods with higher sucrose concentration. This contribute to poor health, because excess consumption of sugar raises risk for several diseases. No conclusive results were found for the salty stimulus. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Enzyme-resistant dextrins from potato starch for potential application in the beverage industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochym, Kamila Kapusniak; Nebesny, Ewa

    2017-09-15

    The objective of this study was to produce soluble enzyme-resistant dextrins by microwave heating of potato starch acidified with small amounts of hydrochloric and citric acids and to characterize their properties. Twenty five samples were initially made and their solubility was determined. Three samples with the highest water solubility were selected for physico-chemical (dextrose equivalent, molecular weight distribution, pasting characteristics, retrogradation tendency), total dietary fiber (TDF) analysis, and stability tests. TDF content averaged 25%. Enzyme-resistant dextrins practically did not paste, even at 20% samples concentration, and were characterized by low retrogradation tendency. The stability of the samples, expressed as a percentage increase of initial and final reducing sugar content, at low pH and during heating at low pH averaged 10% and 15% of the initial value, respectively. The results indicate that microwave heating could be an effective and efficient method of producing highly-soluble, low-viscous, and enzyme-resistant potato starch dextrins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Secular trends in reported portion size of food and beverages consumed by Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sinead A; Livingstone, M Barbara E; McNulty, Breige A; Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Segurado, Ricardo; Dean, Moira; Spence, Michelle; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-04-14

    The present analysis aimed to investigate the changes in the reported portion sizes (PS) of foods and beverages commonly consumed by Irish adults (18-64 years) from the North South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (NSIFCS) (1997-2001) and the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-10). Food PS, which are defined as the weight of food (g) consumed per eating occasion, were calculated for comparable foods and beverages in two nationally representative cross-sectional Irish food consumption surveys and were published in NSIFCS and NANS. Repeated measure mixed model analysis compared reported food PS at the total population level as well as subdivided by sex, age, BMI and social class. A total of thirteen commonly consumed foods were examined. The analysis demonstrated that PS significantly increased for five foods ('white sliced bread', 'brown/wholemeal breads', 'all meat, cooked', 'poultry, roasted' and 'milk'), significantly decreased for three ('potatoes', 'chips/wedges' and 'ham, sliced') and did not significantly change for five foods ('processed potato products', 'bacon/ham', 'cheese', 'yogurt' and 'butter/spreads') between the NSIFCS and the NANS. The present study demonstrates that there was considerable variation in the trends in reported food PS over this period.

  19. Food and beverage advertising during children's television programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, P; Macken, A; Leddin, D; Cullen, W; Dunne, C; Gorman, C O

    2015-03-01

    Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children in developed countries poses a substantial threat to long-term health. One well-described factor is the amount of time spent watching television, with exposure to food advertising a known influence on food preferences and consumption patterns. Following recent formulation of new rules regarding advertising of food during children's programming, we sought to examine the advertising content in children-specific television broadcasts on Irish television. Advertisement content analysis for 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting from 0700 to 1700 hours on Irish television was performed. Data were coded and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage advertisements were coded based on type of product, nutritional content, intended age group and outcome. 322 advertisements were broadcast during the recording period. 31 % (n = 101) of advertisements related to food or beverage products with 66.3 % (n = 68) of food advertisements being for foods that should be eaten in moderation. The most frequently recorded food advertisement was for fast food products (27.3 %, n = 24), followed by sweets/candy (21.6 %, n = 19) and dairy products (17.0 %, n = 15). The most frequently recorded beverage advertisement was for natural orange juices (46.2 %, n = 6). 54.7 % (n = 176) of advertisements were adult specific with 27.3 % (n = 88) being children specific. All food and beverage advertisements were associated with a positive outcome (n = 322). These results demonstrate that food and beverages depicted in advertisements during children's programming are predominantly unhealthy foods with high salt and sugar contents. The findings from this study again highlight the ongoing need for new rules regarding food advertising in children's programming.

  20. Polyphenols: factors influencing their sensory properties and their effects on food and beverage preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesschaeve, Isabelle; Noble, Ann C

    2005-01-01

    Bitterness and astringency are found in a variety of foods, including nuts, fruits, chocolate, tea, wine, and soymilk. In fruits and beverages, the taste of bitterness and the tactile sensation of astringency are elicited primarily by flavanol polymers (proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins). Variations in proanthocyanidin composition, such as polymer size, extent of galloylation, and formation of derivatives, affect both bitterness and astringency. In beverages, other factors also influence these sensations, including the pH and the levels of ethanol, sweetness, and viscosity. Similarly, foods eaten with beverages can influence astringency. For example, eating dark chocolate increases the astringency of red wine more than does milk chocolate. Individuals perceive astringency differently because of variations in salivary flow rates, and preferences for and acceptance of a product may vary tremendously among individuals; decreasing bitterness and/or astringency may not increase preference. Factors influencing bitterness, astringency, and individual preference decisions are discussed.

  1. Local food environments are associated with girls' energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Galvez, Maida P; Yen, Irene H; Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S

    2014-10-01

    To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes. Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets. Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004-2006. Girls aged 6-8 years (n 1010). Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P snack foods/sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets>1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets>3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use. Girls' frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets.

  2. Utilización de piensos criollos con harina de Albizia lebbeck para la ceba de conejos alimentados con bejuco de boniato Use of home-made concentrate feed with Albizia lebbeck meal for fattening rabbits fed sweet potato vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L Montejo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento durante 40 días en el módulo de animales menores de la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de evaluar la inclusión de la harina de Albizia lebbeck en un pienso criollo con diferentes suplementos energético-proteicos, para la alimentación de conejos de ceba. Se utilizaron 26 animales mestizos sanos, de 60 días de edad y 0,94 (± 0,10 kg de peso, en un diseño completamente aleatorizado con dos tratamientos (13 animales por cada uno; estos fueron: A 100% bejuco de boniato (Ipomoea batata y B 70% bejuco de boniato más 30% de pienso criollo elaborado con harina de A. lebbeck y diferentes suplementos energético-proteicos. El alimento se ofreció en los horarios de la mañana (9:00-10:00 a.m. y la tarde (3:00-4:00 p.m.. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en el peso final de los animales (A-1,47 kg y B-1,62 kg. Las mejores ganancias de peso vivo se observaron en el tratamiento suplementado B (16,3 g/animal/día, que fueron superiores (PA trial was conducted for 40 days in the small animal facility of the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages "Indio Hatuey", with the objective of evaluating the inclusion of Albizia lebbeck meal in a home-made concentrate feed with different energy-protein supplements, to feed fattening rabbits. Twenty-six healthy crossbred animals, 60 days old and with 0,94 (±0,10 kg of weight, were used in a completely randomized design with two treatments (13 animals each; they were: A 100% sweet potato (Ipomoea batata vines and B 70% sweet potato vines + 30% home-made concentrate feed elaborated with A. lebbeck meal and different energy-protein supplements. The feed was supplied in the morning (9:00-10:00 a.m. and the afternoon (3:00-4:00 p.m.. Significant differences were found in the final weight of the animals (A-1,47 kg and B-1,62 kg. The best live weight gains were observed in the supplemented treatment B (16,3 g/animal/day, which were

  3. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN AIR REBUSAN DAUN UBI JALAR (Ipomea batatas TERHADAP PENINGKATAN JUMLAH TROMBOSIT MENCIT (Mus musculus

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    Rahma Widyastuti

    2016-11-01

    abstract The leaves of sweet potato contains a very high nutritional value, so it can be used as a vegetable and as a herbal remedy. Sweet potato leaves are often found in various regions in Indonesia. This vegetable contains polyphenols that act as antioxidants that fight disease into the body. . In the leaves of sweet potato 100g contains 117 mg of calcium, 1.8 mg iron, 3.5 mg carotene, 7.2 mg vitamin C, 1.6 mg vitamin E and 0.5 mg of vitamin K, B vitamins, beta-carotene, as well as protein. Formulation of the problem of this study was to determine whether there are effects of sweet potato leaves boiled water to increase platelet counts in mice. The purpose of this study was to determine the number of platelets which water is boiled sweet potato leaves and boiled water without being sweet potato leaves in mice. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Medicine Faculty Wijaya Kusuma Surabaya and the sample examined in the Hematology Laboratory at the Center for Health Laboratory Surabaya. The number of samples from this study there were 32 mice, 16 mice as a control group and 16 mice as the treatment group. From the results of the levels of the number of platelets in the blood samples of mice known to the average levels of platelet counts after being given water boiled sweet potato leaves as much as 210.5 / mm3 of blood and platelet count levels of mice that were not given water boiled sweet potato leaves as much as 129.7 / mm3 of blood. Statistical analyzes to test differences in the levels of T showed a platelet count between which water is boiled sweet potato leaves and boiled water without being sweet potato leaves, with a value significantly less than 0.05 (5%.   Key word : leaves of sweet potato, the levels of the number of platelets in the blood samples

  4. A food-based approach introducing orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jan W; Arimond, Mary; Osman, Nadia; Cunguara, Benedito; Zano, Filipe; Tschirley, David

    2007-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is widespread and has severe consequences for young children in the developing world. Food-based approaches may be an appropriate and sustainable complement to supplementation programs. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is rich in beta-carotene and is well accepted by young children. In an extremely resource poor area in Mozambique, the effectiveness of introduction of OFSP was assessed in an integrated agriculture and nutrition intervention, which aimed to increase vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children. The 2-y quasi-experimental intervention study followed households and children (n = 741; mean age 13 mo at baseline) through 2 agricultural cycles. In y 2, 90% of intervention households produced OFSP, and mean OFSP plot size in intervention areas increased from 33 to 359 m(2). Intervention children (n = 498) were more likely than control children (n = 243) to eat OFSP 3 or more d in the last wk (55% vs. 8%, P children (median 426 vs. 56 microg retinol activity equivalent, P children and did not increase significantly in control subjects. Integrated promotion of OFSP can complement other approaches and contribute to increases in vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique and similar areas in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Caffeoylquinic acid-rich purple sweet potato extract, with or without anthocyanin, imparts neuroprotection and contributes to the improvement of spatial learning and memory of SAMP8 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Han, Junkyu; Shimozono, Hidetoshi; Villareal, Myra O; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-05-29

    The effects of caffeoylquinic acid (CQA)-rich purple sweet potato (PSP) extract, with (PSPEa) or without (PSPEb) anthocyanin, on the improvement of spatial learning and memory of senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain (SAMP) 8 was determined. SAMP8 was treated with 20 mg/kg/day of PSPEa or PSPEb for 30 days. The effect on spatial learning and memory and the molecular mechanism of this effect were determined in vivo (SAMP8) and in vitro (SH-SY5Y cells). PSPEa or PSPEb reduced the escape latency time of SAMP8 by 17.0 ± 8.0 and 14.2 ± 5.8 s (P overexpression of antioxidant-, energy metabolism-, and neuronal plasticity-related proteins in the brain of SAMP8. Additionally, PSPEa and PSPEb increased the cell viability by 141.6 and 133% as compared to Aβ1-42-treated cells. These findings suggest that PSP rich in CQA derivatives with or without anthocyanidine had a neuroprotective effect on mouse brain and can improve the spatial learning and memory of SAMP8.

  6. Students' beliefs and behaviour regarding low-calorie beverages, sweets or snacks: are they affected by lessons on healthy food and by changes to school vending machines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Paul L; van Kesteren, Nicole M C; Buijs, Goof; Snel, Jeltje; Dusseldorp, Elise

    2015-06-01

    To study the effects of school lessons about healthy food on adolescents' self-reported beliefs and behaviour regarding the purchase and consumption of soft drinks, water and extra foods, including sweets and snacks. The lessons were combined with the introduction of lower-calorie foods, food labelling and price reductions in school vending machines. A cluster-randomized controlled design was used to allocate schools to an experimental group (i.e. lessons and changes to school vending machines) and a control group (i.e. 'care as usual'). Questionnaires were used pre-test and post-test to assess students' self-reported purchase of extra products and their knowledge and beliefs regarding the consumption of low-calorie products. Secondary schools in the Netherlands. Twelve schools participated in the experimental group (303 students) and fourteen in the control group (311 students). The students' mean age was 13.6 years, 71.5% were of native Dutch origin and mean BMI was 18.9 kg/m(2). At post-test, the experimental group knew significantly more about healthy food than the control group. Fewer students in the experimental group (43%) than in the control group (56%) reported bringing soft drinks from home. There was no significant effect on attitude, social norm, perceived behavioural control and intention regarding the consumption of low-calorie extra products. The intervention had limited effects on students' knowledge and self-reported behaviour, and no effect on their beliefs regarding low-calorie beverages, sweets or snacks. We recommend a combined educational and environmental intervention of longer duration and engaging parents. More research into the effects of such interventions is needed.

  7. U.S. adults and child snacking patterns among sugar sweetened beverage drinkers and non-drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide national estimates of snack patterns for sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) drinkers and non-SSB drinkers among U.S. children and adults. Methods We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010 among children (ages 2 to 19) and adults (aged 20 and older) (N = 46,932). Results For children and adults, SSB drinkers were significantly more likely than non-SSB drinkers to consume snacks (children: salty – 60% vs. 50%; sweet – 69% vs. 65%; adults: salty – 64% vs. 58%; sweet – 64% vs. 58%), calories from snacks (children: salty snacks – 258 vs. 213 kcal; sweet snacks – 322 vs. 291 kcal; adults: salty snacks – 261 vs. 236 kcal; sweet snacks – 370 vs. 350 kcal), and total calories (children: 2098 vs. 1804 kcal; adults: 2329 vs. 2049 kcal) (p snack consumers than Whites and Hispanics (SSB consumers: White – 79%; Black – 86%, Hispanic – 82%; salty snack consumers: White – 56%; Black – 62%, Hispanic – 54%; p snacks at home (p snack and consume more calories from snacks than non-SSB drinkers, particularly Black adolescents and young adults. PMID:25584987

  8. Contributions of Moringa oleifera in intercropping systems to food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatments consist of sole maize, sole sweet potato, sole moringa, moringa + maize, moringa + sweet potato and moringa + maize + sweet potato. Data on crop growth and yield parameters were collected and subjected to analysis of variance and mean separation was done using least significant differences at 5% level ...

  9. Association between sweet drink intake and adiposity in Danish children participating in a long-term intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.W.; Nielsen, B.M.; Husby, I.

    2013-01-01

    : To assess the association between sweet drink intake at age 6 and 9 years and the subsequent 3- to 7-year changes in body mass index (BMI) and sum of four skin-folds (Σ4SF). METHODS: Information on sweet drink intake (7 days food record) and physical activity (accelerometer) was obtained at age 6 years (n......BACKGROUND: In some previous studies direct associations between intake of soft drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages and adiposity have been reported. The majority of these studies were, however, conducted in the USA and it is uncertain if the results are applicable to non-US countries. OBJECTIVE...... = 366) [Correction made here after initial online publication.] and 9 years (n = 269). Weight, height and Σ4SF were measured at age 6, 9 and 13 years. Additional information on socio-economic status, maternal BMI and pubertal status was obtained. RESULTS: No associations were observed between sweet...

  10. Effect of including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) meal in finishing pig diets on growth performance, carcass traits and pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosemoli, Silvana; Moron-Fuenmayor, Oneida Elizabeth; Paez, Angel; Villamide, Maria Jesús

    2016-10-01

    The partial replacement of a commercial concentrate at 10-20% and 15-30% (the first percentage of each dietary treatment corresponded to weeks 1-3 and the second to weeks 4-7 of the experiment, respectively) by sweet potato meal (SPM; 70% foliage: 30% roots) was evaluated for growth performance, carcass yield, instrumental and sensory pork quality using 36 commercial crossbred pigs (56.8 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight). Three dietary treatments were compared in a randomized complete block design. Most growth, carcass traits and pork quality variables were not affected by the SPM inclusion. Growth performance averaged 868 g/day and feed efficiency 0.24 kg/kg. However, feed intake increased 2.2% (P = 0.04) in pigs fed the 10-20% SPM diets, in a similar order of magnitude as the decrease in dietary energy. Despite an increase in gastrointestinal tract as a percent of hot carcass weight (+14.7%) (P = 0.03) with SPM inclusion, carcass yield averaged 69.4%. Conversely, decreases in loin yield (-4.2%) (P = 0.05), backfat thickness (-6.0%) (P < 0.01) and pork tenderness (-13%) (P = 0.02) were observed with 15-30% SPM inclusion. Results suggest that up to 20% SPM inclusion is a viable feed strategy for finishing pigs, easily replicable in small farm settings. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Occurrence of sweet refuse at disposal sites: rainwater retention capacity and potential breeding opportunities for Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Meli, Nur Khairatun Khadijah Binti; Abang, Fatimah; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Hakim, Hafijah; Miake, Fumio; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Morales, Noppawan P; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2018-05-01

    Nectar is the staple diet of adult mosquitoes in the wild, but its availability is inconsistent and can be affected by rainfall. In urban centers, Aedes vectors commonly use man-made containers as their major habitat; however, they can colonize any items replenished by rainfall. Garbage output has increased significantly in recent years, at a time when collection frequency is reducing. Such garbage usually includes organic components, some of which are sweet and can be fed upon by other animals or become can containers for rainwater. Despite evidence that Aedes larvae can thrive in containers comprised of organic waste material, which can be produced by rodents gnawing on fruits or vegetables, and that adults can survive on sweet waste fluids, the capacity of organic waste materials to accumulate rainwater and act as egg deposition sites has not been examined. It is also unknown for how long sweet extracts can sustain the life of adult vectors. Here, we investigated the abundance of sweet leftovers at garbage sites and the rainwater retention capacity of some organic materials through a field survey and laboratory bioassays. We also examined whether sweet waste fluids impact egg hatching success and longevity of Aedes aegypti. The results of this study indicated that sweet products with leftovers are highly prevalent in garbage. When exposed to rain, food items (BAFrc, banana fruit resembling container; and BSPrc, boiled sweet potato resembling container) and the packaging of sweet foods (SMIc, sweetened condensed milk can) retained water. When provided an opportunity to oviposit in cups containing BAF extract (BAFex), BSP extract (BSPex), and SMI extract (SMIex), eggs were deposited in all media. Egg maturation in the BAFex environment resulted in similar larval eclosion success to that resulting from embryo development in a water milieu. Adults maintained on sweet waste extracts had long lifespans, although shorter than that of their sugar solution (SUS

  12. ANALISIS PERSEPSI DAN PREFERENSI IBU RUMAH TANGGA TERHADAP PRODUK PANGAN OLAHAN BERBASIS TEPUNG UBI JALAR DALAM MENINGKATKAN KEANEKARAGAMAN PANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucihatiningsih DWP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sweet potato powder as the substitution of flour for making cake is expected to decreasethe import of flour and increase the added value of sweet potato. The aims of this study are for knowingwhether housewives prefer flour to sweet potato powder and for knowing what the house wives’perceptions of food made of sweet potato powder are. In taking the sample, random sampling isapplied.The sample of the study is 50 housewives in Kota Semarang. Furthermore, descriptive statistic,non-parametric approach and SWOT analysis are used in the study.Keywords: preference and perceptions of food made potato powder

  13. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-02

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  14. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  15. Uniqueness of Ethiopian traditional alcoholic beverage of plant origin, tella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooha Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many kinds of traditional fermented beverages in Ethiopia, not only of animal origin, but also of plant origin. In everyday life people enjoy fermented beverages and particularly when having guests, they like to treat them to traditional alcoholic beverages. Tella, tej, areki, borde, and shamita are drinks that each household brews to treat guests. Substrates for their production are from locally available raw materials. Therefore, the basic production method is the same, but the tastes may vary. One of the most consumed fermented alcoholic beverages is tella, which is made mostly with barley but wheat, maize, sorghum, and teff are utilized depending on the region. Its production process shows the similarity to beer: addition of malt and gesho which has the same function as hops in beer. The main fermentation yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae and saccharification of cereal starch seems to depend on malt. However, the degree of alcoholic fermentation is low and alcohol content varies between 2 and 6%. Lactic acid bacteria are very active in tella so pH ranges 4–5 give typical tastes such as sourness, sweetness, and bitterness. As the Ethiopian economy improves, more people drink western style beers. Tella has not been commercialized yet, so the process has not been standardized and modernized. Considering the case of Korean makgeolli and the Ethiopian creativity of utilizing gesho in tella, Ethiopia should pay more attention to tella for globalization.

  16. Potato transformation and potato cyst nematode infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    These two protocols describe the methods for generating transgenic potato plants and for evaluating potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture. These methods are useful tools that can be used in the study of the interactions between ...

  17. Pengaruh variasi pemberian Snack bar ubi jalar kedelai hitam terhadap Kadar Superoksida Dismutase (SOD darah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriyono Ayustaningwarno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Snack bar from sweet potatoes and black soybeans is low GI, fat and calorie snack which haveantioxidant content, such as β-carotene, anthocyanin, isoflavone, and antioxidant activity, so can be an alternativesnack for patients with DM type 2. Antioxidants intake can prevent the oxidative stress that lead micro- and macrovascularcomplications in DM type 2. Antioxidant intake may preserve endogen antioxidant capacity, which is can bedetermined by analyzing SOD concentration.Objective: analyze effect variety of Snack bar from sweet potatoes and black soybeans consume to SOD concentration.Methods: experimental post-pretest research used 3 varieties of sweet potato’s color (red, yellow, and purpleinterventions. SOD concentration was analyzed by colorimetric. Statistic data was analyzed by dependent t-test andOne Way Anova.Results: No different between groups interventions Snack bar from purple, yellow or red sweet potatoes (p=0,122.Group with snack bar from purple sweet potatoes intervention has lowest SOD decreasing percentage among otherintervention groups.Conclusion: Consume snack bar form purple sweet potatoes and black soybeans can preserve SOD concentrationbetter than consume snack bar form yellow or red sweet potatoes and black soybeans

  18. Convenience stores and the marketing of foods and beverages through product assortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney

    2012-09-01

    Product assortment (presence and variety) is a key in-store marketing strategy to influence consumer choice. Quantifying the product assortment of healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages in convenience stores can inform changes in the food environment. To document product assortment (i.e., presence and variety of specific foods and beverages) in convenience stores. Observational survey data were collected onsite in 2011 by trained promotora-researchers in 192 convenience stores. Frequencies of presence and distributions of variety were calculated in 2012. Paired differences were examined using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. Convenience stores displayed a large product assortment of sugar-sweetened beverages (median 86.5 unique varieties); candy (76 varieties); salty snacks (77 varieties); fried chips (44 varieties); cookies and pastries (19 varieties); and frozen sweets (21 varieties). This compared with 17 varieties of non-sugar sweetened beverages and three varieties of baked chips. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test confirmed a (p<0.001) greater variety of sugar-sweetened than non-sugar-sweetened beverages, and of fried chips compared with baked chips. Basic food items provided by convenience stores included milk (84% of stores); fresh fruit (33%); fresh vegetables (35%); canned vegetables (78%); white bread (71%); and deli-style packaged meat (57%). Healthier versions of milk, canned fruit, canned tuna, bread, and deli-style packaged meat were displayed in 17%-71% of convenience stores. Convenience stores in this area provide a greater assortment of less-healthy compared with healthier foods and beverages. There are opportunities to influence consumer food choice through programs that alter the balance between healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages in existing convenience stores that serve rural and underserved neighborhoods and communities. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it is...

  20. Factors that influence the reinforcing value of foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    Behavioral economic principles state that as the cost of a product increases, purchasing or consumption of that product will decrease. To understand the impact of behavioral economics on ingestive behavior, our laboratory utilizes an operant behavior paradigm to measure how much work an individual will engage in to get access to foods and beverages. This task provides an objective measure of the reinforcing value. We have shown that consumption of the same high fat snack food every day for two weeks reduces its reinforcing value in lean individuals, but increases its reinforcing value in a subset of obese individuals. This increase in the reinforcing value of food predicts future weight gain. Similarly, we have shown that repeated intake of caffeinated soda increases its reinforcing value in boys, but not in girls. This increase in reinforcing value is not related to usual caffeine consumption, but may be associated with positive, subjective effects of caffeine that are more likely to be reported by boys than by girls. Because food and beverage reinforcement relates to real-world consumption, it is important to determine factors that increase or decrease the reinforcing value and determine the consequences of these responses. We are especially interested in determining ways to shift the behavioral economic curve in order to develop novel strategies to decrease the reinforcing value of less healthy snack foods and beverages, such as soda, potato chips and candy and to increase the reinforcing value of healthier foods and beverages, such as water, fruits, and vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HOST PLANT PREFERENCES OF BEMISIA TABACI GENNADIUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGYing; HUANGJian; MARui-yan; HANJu-cai

    2003-01-01

    The preferences of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius for five host plants:poinsettia, tomato, cabbage,sweet potato and flowering Chinese cabbage, was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer and a desiccator in the labo-ratory. The results show that B. tabaci adults were attracted by the odors of the five plants. The order of prefer-ence was poinsettia > flowering Chinese cabbage > sweet potato > cabbage > tomato. Preference was extremely sig-nificant between poinsettia and the other four plants, and between flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and toma-to. There was no significant difference in preference for flowering Chinese cabbage and sweet potato, sweet pota-to, cabbage and tomato or between cabbage and tomato.

  2. The Significance of Wild Plants in the Evolutionary Ecology of Three Major Viruses Infecting Cultivated Sweetpotato in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tugume Kajungu, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis contribute to the understanding of evolutionary ecology of three major viruses threatening cultivated sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) in East Africa: Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae), Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae) and Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV; genus Ipomovirus; Potyviridae). The viruses were serologically detected and the positive results confirmed b...

  3. Ideal sweetness of mixed juices from Amazon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Grandi Castro Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-drink fruit juices represent a large share of the market and are an important target for product development. The mixture of fruits can bring about improvements to nutritional and sensory aspects of these beverages while making used of the wide variety of exotic fruits from the Amazon region. Therefore, it is necessary to select mixed fruits and determine their ideal sweetness according to consumer acceptance. Consumers in the city of Belém (Brazil evaluated five different concentrations of sugar using the just-about-right scale in two blends selected by preference ranking. For the cupuassu-acerola-açai blend, the optimum concentration of sugar was 9.5 g/100 mL, and for the soursop-camucamu-yellow mombin blend, it was 10.7 g/100 mL.

  4. Sensory characteristics and volatile composition of a cereal beverage fermented with Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702257.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Ivan; Rozada, Raquel; Thomas, Keith; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Pandiella, Severino S

    2014-04-01

    Most of the commercialized lactic acid fermented products are dairy-based. Hence, the development of non-dairy fermented products with probiotic properties draws significant attention within the functional foods industry. The microorganisms used in such products have complex enzyme systems through which they generate diverse metabolites (volatile and non-volatile) that provide significant flavour attributes of importance for fermented foods. The correlation of the volatile flavour compounds of a malt beverage fermented with a Bifidobacterium breve strain with its unique sensory characteristics was performed. The volatile composition analysis exposed the presence of 12 components. Eight of these flavour volatiles were produced through the metabolic activity of the bifidobacteria strain. Notably acetic acid, of reported sour flavour characteristics, exhibited the greatest intensity. Four components of considerable organoleptic characteristics were identified as Maillard-derived products, namely maltol, pyranone, 2 (5H)-furanmethanol and 3-furanmethanol. The sensory evaluation exhibited that the fermented cereal beverage had a sour flavour with mild sweet and malty notes. These results indicate that the volatile compounds identified can be appointed as significant flavour markers of the novel fermented cereal beverage.

  5. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000-2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003-2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. We found "prudent" and "breakfast" patterns in Homescan and NHANES, "ready-to-eat meals/fast-food" and "prudent/snacks/LCS desserts" patterns in Homescan, and "protein/potatoes" and "CS desserts/sweeteners" patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS-beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the United States.

  6. Detection of Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV), Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Virus X (PVX) on Five Potato Varieties by Using of DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswinanti, Tutik

    2012-01-01

    Potato is a staple food crop that widely grown around the world. Virus infection is main factor that affects great loss of the potato production. Potato virus X(PVX), potato virus Y(PVY),and potato leaf roll virus(PLRV) are top three viruses that result in decreased yield of potato in Indonesia. Therefore, the rapid methods of DAS-ELISA was studied to test tuber samples of five potato varieties, Granola, Atlantik, Raja, Super John, Kalosi, and Masalle. Two simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable...

  7. Sweetness and other sensory properties of model fruit drinks: Does viscosity have an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenstein, Cai V S; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild; Fischer, Markus

    2015-03-15

    The impact of thickening agents and viscosity levels on sensory perception was studied in model fruit drinks. Four formulations were prepared that varied in the sweetener blend (erythritol, maltitol and/or steviol glycosides). Locust bean gum and its blends with either xanthan or carrageenan were used to adjust viscosity levels (20, 40, and 70 mPa s). The ranges of viscosity and sweetness level were selected to represent a typical concentration range in commercially available beverages. An increase in viscosity resulted in significant increases in pulpiness, sliminess and perceived viscosity (P-values ≤ 0.001), which were not dependent on sweeteners or hydrocolloid type. Taste perception remained largely unchanged irrespective of the hydrocolloid used. The impact of viscosity on sweetness and taste perception was much smaller in the concentrations used than has been generally reported. The effect of the type of hydrocolloid on the perception of taste attributes was greater than that of viscosity. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-03-01

    Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783.

  9. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  10. Food intake and gestational weight gain in Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärebring, Linnea; Brembeck, Petra; Löf, Marie; Brekke, Hilde K; Winkvist, Anna; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if food intake (dairy, snacks, caloric beverages, bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables) is associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) in Swedish women. Four day food records from 95 pregnant Swedish women were collected in the last trimester. GWG was calculated as weighed body weight in the last trimester (median gestational week 36) minus self-reported pre-pregnancy body weight. Excessive GWG was defined according to the guidelines by the Institute of Medicine. Food groups tested for association with GWG were dairy (milk, yoghurt and sour milk), snacks (sweets, crisps, popcorn, ice cream and cookies, but not nuts and seeds), caloric beverages (soft drinks, juice, lemonade and non-alcoholic beer), bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables. Median (lower-upper quartiles) GWG was 12.1 kg (10.0-15.3). In total, 28 % had an excessive GWG. Excessive GWG was most common among pre-pregnancy overweight and obese women, where 69 % had an excessive GWG. Median daily intake of fruits and vegetables was 352 g (212-453), caloric beverages was 238 g (100-420) and snacks was 111 g (69-115). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, bread and dairy in the last trimester of pregnancy were positively related to GWG (R(2) = 0.32). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, and bread was associated with higher odds ratios for excessive GWG. Intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish and bread were positively related to excessive GWG. Thus, these results indicate that maternal dietary intake should be given higher attention in the antenatal care.

  11. Association between district and state policies and US public elementary school competitive food and beverage environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Turner, Lindsey; Taber, Daniel R; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    Given the importance of developing healthy eating patterns during early childhood, policies to improve the elementary school food and beverage environments are critical. To examine the association between district and state policy and/or law requirements regarding competitive food and beverages and public elementary school availability of foods and beverages high in fats, sugars, and/or sodium. Multivariate, pooled, cross-sectional analysis of data gathered annually during elementary school years 2008-2009 through 2010-2011 in the United States. Survey respondents at 1814 elementary schools (1485 unique) in 957 districts in 45 states (food analysis) and 1830 elementary schools (1497 unique) in 962 districts and 45 states (beverage analysis). EXPOSURES Competitive food and beverage policy restrictions at the state and/or district levels. Competitive food and beverage availability. RESULTS Sweets were 11.2 percentage points less likely to be available (32.3% vs 43.5%) when both the district and state limited sugar content, respectively. Regular-fat baked goods were less available when the state law, alone and in combination with district policy, limited fat content. Regular-fat ice cream was less available when any policy (district, state law, or both) limited competitive food fat content. Sugar-sweetened beverages were 9.5 percentage points less likely to be available when prohibited by district policy (3.6% vs 13.1%). Higher-fat milks (2% or whole milk) were less available when prohibited by district policy or state law, with either jurisdiction's policy or law associated with an approximately 15 percentage point reduction in availability. Both district and state policies and/or laws have the potential to reduce in-school availability of high-sugar, high-fat foods and beverages. Given the need to reduce empty calories in children's diets, governmental policies at all levels may be an effective tool.

  12. The potato chips and dry mashed as products of potato rational processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mazur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The percentage of potato processing for food products in the former Soviet Union decreased to 1%, at the same time in some countries of Europe and the USA the share of potato processing is 60-80%. Numerous works have shown the economic feasibility of potato processing for food products. Materials and methods. In laboratory and industrial conditions of the open stock company «Mashpishcheprod» (Maryina Gorka, Minsk region, Belarus researches have been conducted on increase of efficiency of technological processes potato processing. Sampling, preparation and conducting of tests were performed by standard and special methods of analysis. Results and discussion. Potato varieties suitable for the production of dry mashed potatoes and potatocrisps have been determined, acclimatization before processing ensures minimumthe content of the reducing sugars, which provide high quality of the finished product. Studies have shown that the process of kneading potato at temperatures close to cooking temperature is optimal, in which the process of destruction cells is hardly taking place. Pneumatic dryers for drying boiled potato provide high product quality due to the low temperature of heating and short contact of a powdered product with a drying agent. However, the contents of damaged cells in the finished product do not exceed 1.3-2.6%. The optimum modes and parameters of potato crisps production have been defined, the processes of cutting, blanching, treatment with salt, drying and roasting have been scientifically grounded, that provide a finished product with fat content not more than 27.7%. Conclusion. Economic expediency of processing the following varieties of potato Desire, Temp, Synthesis for dry mashed potato and potato crisps has been proved. The processes of kneading and drying potato are decisive stages of the processing, because they determine the number of destroyedcells in the finished product. Optimal parameters of production

  13. The Inter-genebank Potato Database and the dimensions of available wild potato germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huamán, Z.; Hoekstra, R.; Bamberg, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Association of Potato Inter-genebank Collaborators (APIC) constructed a database of all wild potato holdings of the most important potato genebanks in Europe, the United States, Peru, and Argentina. The Inter-genebank Potato Database (IPD) now contains data of 11,819 wild potato accessions

  14. Development of New Lemon-Lime Flavored Beverage for OGTT: Acceptability and Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotwanvirat, Phawinpon; Thewjitcharoen, Yotsapon; Parksook, Wyn; Krittiyawong, Sirinate; Hutaphat, Kritchana; Nakasatien, Soontaree; Kaocharoen, Sming; Himathongkam, Thep

    2016-05-01

    The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is essential procedure in both screening and diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM), but it is not easy to perform because of intense sweetness of the 75-g glucose test beverage causing abdominal discomfort post-testing. Therefore, the new formula of non-carbonated lemon-lime flavored beverage was developed to increase its palatability and better compliance. To develop a new non-carbonated lemon-lime flavored beverage to replace the standard beverage for OGTT Subsequently, the diagnostic value and acceptability between the new formula and the traditional 75-g OGTT formula were compared in healthy subjects. The new lemon-lime flavored formula was developed to replace the standard beverage for OGTT by adding 1,000 milligram of citric acid and 0.03 gram of lime flavor to 75 gram of anhydrous glucose to a final volume of 300 ml. The study was conducted in 30 healthy subjects who underwent the traditional 75-gram OGTT test and the new formula of OGTT beverage one week later, or vice versa, to access acceptability, indices markers of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. Palatability was determined by rating on a 9-point Hedonic Scale. Thirty healthy subjects (15 females) with the age of 33.2 ± 7.5 years and body mass index of 22.9 ± 3.5 kg/m² were enrolled. No significant difference was found between plasma glucose in 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes, insulin level (0 and 120 minutes) and four insulin surrogate markers in both traditional 75-gram OGTT and new formula of lemon-lime flavored OGTT beverage. The overall satisfaction score of the new formula OGTT was better when compared with the scores of the traditional OGTT (7.1 ± 1.8 vs. 4.7 ± 2.0). Only one subject complained about abdominal discomfort in both episode of OGTT CONCLUSION: The modified lemon-lime flavored beverage for OGTT demonstrated better acceptance in the subjects without difference in

  15. Analisis Dayasaing Ubi Jalar Cilembu di Kabupaten Sumedang Jawa Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeridah, Ana; Sarianti, Tintin

    2011-01-01

    Today, Indonesia is still export fresh agriculture product with low selling price and competitive power than processed product with higher selling price. The condition also observed for sweet potato that exported in the fresh form with low selling price and in turn lowering the competitive power of this product. Province of West Java is one of sweet potato production center. In 2009, “Cilembu” sweet potato becomes leading product of this commodity group that mostly produced in Subang Regen...

  16. Biochemical studies on the Combination of Bemul-wax and Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afolabi S

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... coating combined with calcium chloride treatment ... storage methods for sweet potatoes are by leaving the ..... Phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity of treated sweet potato at ambient temperature ..... Theme: Innovative.

  17. Healthy food and beverages in senior community football club canteens in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kylie; Kennedy, Vanessa; Kingsland, Melanie; Sawyer, Amy; Rowland, Bosco; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2012-08-01

    Little is known of the extent to which senior sports clubs support the consumption of healthy food and beverages. This study of senior community football clubs aimed to describe: i) the food and beverages available in club canteens; ii) the perceived acceptability of club representatives (e.g. club president or secretary) to selling healthy food and beverages in club canteens; iii) the perceived barriers of club representatives to providing healthy food and beverage options in their club canteen; iv) the associations between the availability of healthy options in canteens, perceived barriers to healthy food and drink availability, and club characteristics; and (v) the food and beverages usually purchased from canteens by club members. The study involved 70 senior community football clubs (Australian Rules Football, Soccer, Rugby League and Rugby Union) across New South Wales, Australia. Club representatives and club members took part in cross-sectional telephone surveys. The most frequently available items at club canteens were regular soft drinks and potato chips or other salty snacks (available at 99% of clubs). Approximately two-thirds (66%) of club representatives agreed or strongly agreed that clubs should provide a greater variety of healthy food options. Perishability and lack of demand were the most frequently cited barriers to healthy food provision. Healthy food options were more available at AFL clubs compared with other football codes. Overall, 6% of club members reported purchasing a healthy food option. Senior community football clubs primarily stock and sell unhealthy food and beverage items. There is support within clubs for providing more healthy options; however, clubs face a number of barriers to the inclusion of healthy foods in club canteens.

  18. Application of the radionuclide 32P for determining the requirement of phosphorus by yeasts cultivated on potato mashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szebiotko, K.; Fiszer, W.; Piasecki, M.; Luczynski, A.

    1975-01-01

    The phosphorus uptake by the yeasts Torulopsis utilis and Torula cremoris, cultivated on sweet potato mash with the density of 4,8 and 16 0 Blg, were investigated to establish an optimal phosphorus dose for protein biosynthesis on this substrate. For determining the phosphorus uptake, 32 P labelled KH 2 PO 4 was used. Bulk protein content was determined, to determine the correlation between the phosphorus uptake by yeasts and protein synthesis on the one hand and the use of sugars on the other

  19. Sweet eating: a definition and the development of the Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Margot; Hörchner, Rogier; Wijtsma, Anneke; Bourhim, Noufissa; Willemsen, Dascha; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients who are defined as so-called sweet eaters have more difficulties to lose weight and to maintain weight loss after both conservative treatment and restrictive bariatric surgery, such as gastric banding. There is, however, no agreement on the definition of sweet eating. Also, a questionnaire to measure sweet eating is not available. Therefore, the aim of our study was to agree on a definition of sweet eating and to construct a valid and reliable questionnaire that might be of help to assess the influence of sweet eating on weight loss after bariatric surgery. A Delphi Study design was chosen to define sweet eating. Based on the Delphi rounds, a questionnaire with self-reported sweets intake was constructed and validated. Nine experts with different scientific backgrounds participated in the Delphi Study which consisted of four rounds. They finally agreed on the definition that sweet eating can be defined as an eating behavior in which at least 50% of daily consumed carbohydrates consist of simple carbohydrates and which can be triggered by emotional factors (i.e., stress). They did not include the intake of artificial sweeteners in the definition. The Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire built on the four Delphi rounds was tested in 138 female patients and appeared to be both valid and reliable. A shortcoming of this study is that the results may not be applicable to males and to non-Western populations. The definition and the questionnaire may be useful in future research regarding sweet eating and bariatric surgery outcomes in morbidly obese patients.

  20. Kinetics of potassium release in sweet potato cropped soils: a case study in the highlands of Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekhar Rao, B. K.

    2015-02-01

    The present study attempts to employ potassium (K) release parameters to identify soil-quality degradation due to changed land use patterns in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) farms of the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Rapid population increase in the region increased pressure on the land to intensify subsistence production mainly by reducing fallow periods. Such continuous cropping practice coupled with lack of K fertilization practices could lead to a rapid loss of soil fertility and soil-resource degradation. The study aims to evaluate the effects of crop intensification on the K-release pattern and identify soil groups vulnerable to K depletion. Soils with widely differing exchangeable and non-exchangeable K contents were sequentially extracted for periods between 1 and 569 h in 0.01 M CaCl2, and K-release data were fitted to four mathematical models: first order, power, parabolic diffusion and Elovich equations. Results showed two distinct parts in the K-release curves, and 58-80% of total K was released to solution phase within 76 h (first five extractions) with 20-42% K released in the later parts (after 76 h). Soils from older farms that were subjected to intensive and prolonged land use showed significantly (P farms recently brought to cultivation (new farms). Among the four equations, first-order and power equations best described the K-release pattern; the constant b, an index of K-release rates, ranged from 0.005 to 0.008 mg kg-1 h-1 in the first-order model and was between 0.14 and 0.83 mg kg-1 h-1 in the power model for the soils. In the non-volcanic soils, model constant b values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the volcanic soils, thus indicating the vulnerability of volcanic soils to K deficiency. The volcanic soils cropped for several crop cycles need immediate management interventions either through improved fallow management or through mineral fertilizers plus animal manures to sustain productivity.

  1. Wind erosion potential influenced by tillage in an irrigated potato-sweet corn rotation in the Columbia Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a concern within the Columbia Basin of the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) United States due to the sandy texture of soils and small amount of residue retained on the soil surface after harvest of vegetable crops like potato. This study assessed potential wind erosion of an irrigated ...

  2. Alcohol Consumption, Beverage Preference, and Diet in Middle-Aged Men from the STANISLAS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Herbeth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question about differences in dietary patterns associated with beer, wine, and spirits is still unresolved. We used diet data from 423 middle-aged males of the STANISLAS Study. Using adjusted values for covariates, we observed a negative significant association between increasing alcohol intakes and the consumption of milk, yogurt, and fresh/uncured cheese, sugar and confectionery, vegetables and fruits, and a significant positive relationship with cheese, meat and organs, pork-butcher's meat, and potatoes. In addition, the first dietary pattern identified by factor analysis (characterized a more prudent diet was inversely related to alcohol intakes. Conversely, when analyzing daily consumption of specific food groups and diet patterns according to beverage preference (wine, beer, and spirits, no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged French males, there was a linear trend between increasing alcohol intakes and worsening of quality of diet, while no difference was observed according to beverage preference.

  3. Cytotoxic triterpenoids isolated from sweet chestnut heartwood (Castanea sativa) and their health benefits implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Kontek, Renata; Gajek, Gabriela; Stopinsek, Lidija; Mirt, Ivan; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2017-11-01

    For centuries wood containers have been used in aging of wines and spirits, due to the pleasant flavors they give to the beverages. Together with oak, sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa) have been often used for such purpose. The maturation process involves the transfer of secondary metabolites, mainly phenolics, from the wood to the liquid. At the same time, other metabolites, such as triterpenoids and their glycosides, can also be released. Searching for the extractable triterpenoids from sweet chestnut heartwood (C. sativa), two new ursane-type triterpenoid saponins named chestnoside A (1) and chestnoside B (2), together with two known oleanen-type analogs (3 and 4) were isolated and characterized. The cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was tested against two cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7), and normal lymphocytes. Breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were more affected by tested compounds than prostate cancer cells (PC3). Chestnoside B (2) exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity with an IC 50 of 12.3 μM against MCF-7 cells, lower than those of positive controls, while it was moderately active against normal lymphocytes (IC 50  = 67.2 μM). These results highlight the occurrence of triterpenoid saponins in sweet chestnut heartwood and their potential for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Marine Corps Shelterized Expeditionary Food Service System. Marine Corps ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Galley and Sanitation Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Scrambled Eggs Hard Boiled Eggs Bacon Sausage Patties Lyonnaise Potatoes Apricot Quick Coffee Cake Assorted Dry Cereals Assorted Fresh Fruits Bread and...Butter Assorted Beverages Lunch Baked Spanish Beef Patties Lyonnaise Potatoes Stewed Tomatoes Hamburger Buns Apple Crisp Assorted Beverages Dinner...Yellow Cake with Chocolate Frosting Assorted Beverages 5. 16 SEPTEMBER 1981 Breakfast Scrambled Eggs Hard Boiled Eggs Ham Creamed Beef Lyonnaise Potatoes

  5. Comparison of planned menus and centre characteristics with foods and beverages served in New York City child-care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Dixon, L Beth; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2016-10-01

    The present study evaluated the extent to which child-care centre menus prepared in advance correspond with food and beverage items served to children. The authors identified centre and staff characteristics that were associated with matches between menus and what was served. Menus were collected from ninety-five centres in New York City (NYC). Direct observation of foods and beverages served to children were conducted during 524 meal and snack times at these centres between April and June 2010, as part of a larger study designed to determine compliance of child-care centres with city health department regulations for nutrition. Child-care centres were located in low-income neighbourhoods in NYC. Overall, 87 % of the foods and beverages listed on the menus or allowed as substitutions were served. Menu items matched with foods and beverages served for all major food groups by >60 %. Sweets and water had lower match percentages (40 and 32 %, respectively), but water was served 68 % of the time when it was not listed on the menu. The staff person making the food and purchasing decisions predicted the match between the planned or substituted items on the menus and the foods and beverages served. In the present study, child-care centre menus included most foods and beverages served to children. Menus planned in advance have potential to be used to inform parents about which child-care centre to send their child or what foods and beverages their enrolled children will be offered throughout the day.

  6. Comparison of planned menus and centre characteristics with foods and beverages served in New York City child-care centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Dixon, L Beth; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the extent to which child-care centre menus prepared in advance correspond with food and beverage items served to children. The authors identified centre and staff characteristics that were associated with matches between menus and what was served. Design Menus were collected from ninety-five centres in New York City (NYC). Direct observation of foods and beverages served to children were conducted during 524 meal and snack times at these centres between April and June 2010, as part of a larger study designed to determine compliance of child-care centres with city health department regulations for nutrition. Setting Child-care centres were located in low-income neighbourhoods in NYC. Results Overall, 87% of the foods and beverages listed on the menus or allowed as substitutions were served. Menu items matched with foods and beverages served for all major food groups by > 60%. Sweets and water had lower match percentages (40 and 32%, respectively), but water was served 68% of the time when it was not listed on the menu. The staff person making the food and purchasing decisions predicted the match between the planned or substituted items on the menus and the foods and beverages served. Conclusions In the present study, child-care centre menus included most foods and beverages served to children. Menus planned in advance have potential to be used to inform parents about which child-care centre to send their child or what foods and beverages their enrolled children will be offered throughout the day. PMID:27280341

  7. "Smooth operator": Music modulates the perceived creaminess, sweetness, and bitterness of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Wang, Qian Janice; van Ee, Raymond; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    There has been a recent growth of interest in determining whether sound (specifically music and soundscapes) can enhance not only the basic taste attributes associated with food and beverage items (such as sweetness, bitterness, sourness, etc.), but also other important components of the tasting experience, such as, for instance, crunchiness, creaminess, and/or carbonation. In the present study, participants evaluated the perceived creaminess of chocolate. Two contrasting soundtracks were produced with such texture-correspondences in mind, and validated by means of a pre-test. The participants tasted the same chocolate twice (without knowing that the chocolates were identical), each time listening to one of the soundtracks. The 'creamy' soundtrack enhanced the perceived creaminess and sweetness of the chocolates, as compared to the ratings given while listening to the 'rough' soundtrack. Moreover, while the participants preferred the creamy soundtrack, this difference did not appear to affect their overall enjoyment of the chocolates. Interestingly, and in contrast with previous similar studies, these results demonstrate that in certain cases, sounds can have a perceptual effect on gustatory food attributes without necessarily altering the hedonic experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. Objective: We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Design: Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Results: Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783. PMID:23364015

  9. Utilization of radiations in mutation breeding of tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukimura, H.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the tuber crops are vegetatively propagated and their spontaneous mutations have been constructively utilized to practical farming. Significance of utilization of mutations to breeding should not be overlooked, since mutation can be articially induced by various mutagenic agents. In tuber crops, ionizing radiations are mostly applied to induce mutations. Radiosensitivity varies with species, genotypes and organs. For the purpose of mutation induction, 10-20 kR of gamma-rays is given to tubers and/or shoots in sweet potato and 2-10 kR in potato. It should be noted that radiation damage is more or less transmissible to later vegetative generations. A useful characters in practical agriculture, following mutations have been obtained so far: skin colour, short stemmed, changes in dry matter content, total sugars content and tuber yield, earlier maturity and sculf resistance in sweet potato. And, skin colour, changes in starch content and stolon length, day-neutral tuberization and cyst-nematode resistance in potato. Apart from mutations, radiation can be utilized for breaking down the incompatibility in sweet potato. Promising mutant clones with probable release in Japan are Kyushu 78 of sweet potato and Koniku 16 and Konkei 55 of potato. (author)

  10. PERBANDINGAN METODE SOMOGYI-NELSON DAN ANTHRONE-SULFAT PADA PENETAPAN KADAR GULA PEREDUKSI DALAM UMBI CILEMBU (Ipomea batatas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanul Kiyan Al-kayyis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato cultivar Cilembu, kind of ‘rancing’ from Cilembu Village, Sumedang, West Java has really sweet taste due to the high content of reducing sugar. The amount of reducing sugar needs to be proven scientifically. The study aimed to compare Somogyi-Nelson method and Anthrone-Sulfate method in order to determine reducing sugar level in Cilembu sweet potato. Cilembu sweet potato must be stored in freezer at 15°C for 2 weeks before used as the sample. Analytical method validation was performed for the two methods. The determination results between two methods were compared. The amount of reduction sugar (glucose from Cilembu sweet potato determined by Somogyi-Nelson method was 3.42%, the value of %recovery was 99.8%, LOD = 0.00167 (mg/mL, LOQ = 0.00557 (mg/mL, and value of RSD was 3.7%. While the average amount of reduction sugar determined by Anthrone-Sulfate method was 14.9%, the value of %recovery was 74.7%, LOD = 0.0198 (mg/mL, LOQ = 0.066 (mg/mL, and value of RSD = 8.6%. The Somogyi-Nelson method was more recommended for the analysis of the reducing sugar in Cilembu sweet potato compared with Anthrone-Sulfate method.

  11. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  12. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Guerrero-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile is the second world’s largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households’ consumption to changes in prices. Methods We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012–2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. Results We found an own price-elasticity of −1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. Conclusions The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  13. Preference mapping of lemon lime carbonated beverages with regular and diet beverage consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, P P; Lopetcharat, K; Guthrie, B; Drake, M A

    2013-02-01

    The drivers of liking of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were investigated with regular and diet beverage consumers. Ten beverages were selected from a category survey of commercial beverages using a D-optimal procedure. Beverages were subjected to consumer testing (n = 101 regular beverage consumers, n = 100 diet beverage consumers). Segmentation of consumers was performed on overall liking scores followed by external preference mapping of selected samples. Diet beverage consumers liked 2 diet beverages more than regular beverage consumers. There were no differences in the overall liking scores between diet and regular beverage consumers for other products except for a sparkling beverage sweetened with juice which was more liked by regular beverage consumers. Three subtle but distinct consumer preference clusters were identified. Two segments had evenly distributed diet and regular beverage consumers but one segment had a greater percentage of regular beverage consumers (P beverage consumers) did not have a large impact on carbonated beverage liking. Instead, mouthfeel attributes were major drivers of liking when these beverages were tested in a blind tasting. Preference mapping of lemon-lime carbonated beverage with diet and regular beverage consumers allowed the determination of drivers of liking of both populations. The understanding of how mouthfeel attributes, aromatics, and basic tastes impact liking or disliking of products was achieved. Preference drivers established in this study provide product developers of carbonated lemon-lime beverages with additional information to develop beverages that may be suitable for different groups of consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties...

  15. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...

  16. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  17. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  18. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  19. Potato market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.

  20. The effect of extrusion and drying on roller techniques concerning the rheological characteristics of rice-, corn-, sweet potato-, bean- and cassava root- and leaf- based composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting food security in Latin-America and the Caribbean is directly related to agricultural products. The region faces a food crisis which has reduced large population groups’ access to food. This work contributes to the study of obtaining precooked composite flour made from biofortified crops using protein, vitamin A and/or minerals. This study evaluated the effect of precooked flour’s composition and precooking on its solubility in water, water absorption capacity, consistency and viscosity; such flour was obtained by extrusion and drying on rollers. The composite flours were obtained from cassava roots, sweet potato tubers, corn, rice and bean grains and cassava leaves. Four composite flours were formulated taking four- to six-year-old children’s daily nutrient requirements (protein, iron, zinc and beta-carotenes as a basis. The extruder was operated at 90ºC, 300 rpm screw rotation speed, 17.64 g/min feed flow, with 30% moisture mixture. The dryer rollers were operated at 4 rpm roller rotation speed, 90ºC surface temperature and 1 mm separation between rollers. It was determined that flour dried on rollers led to more complete cooking and modified starch granule structure than precooking by extrusion, thereby producing flour having greater solubility in water, less water absorption, higher consistency and smaller viscosity, comparable to that of pattern flour.

  1. Chemical composition, nitrogen degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in vines harvested from four tropical sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, R; Mlambo, V; Mangwe, M C; Dlamini, B J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of vines from four sweet potato varieties (Tia Nong 57, Tia Nong 66, Ligwalagwala and Kenya) as alternative feed resources for ruminant livestock. The chemical composition [neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN)], in vitro ruminal nitrogen (N) degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in the vines, harvested at 70 and 110 days after planting (DAP), were determined. Variety and harvesting stage did not (p > 0.05) influence CP and NDF content of the vines. Concentration of CP ranged from 104.9 to 212.2 g/kg DM, while NDF ranged from 439.4 to 529.2 g/kg DM across harvesting stages and varieties. Nitrogen degradability (ND) at 70 and 110 DAP was highest (p ruminal cumulative gas production parameters (a, b and c). The in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins, as measured by increment in gas production parameters upon PEG inclusion, had a maximum value of 18.2%, suggesting low to moderate antinutritional tannin activity. Ligwalagwala vines, with highly degradable N, would be the best protein supplement to use during the dry season when ruminant animals consume low N basal diets and maintenance is an acceptable production objective. Tia Nong 66 and Kenya varieties, with less degradable N, may be more suitable for use as supplements for high-producing animals such as dairy goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...

  3. KORELASI KARAKTER ANATOMI DAUN UBI JALAR (Ipomoea batatas L. KULTIVAR TAHAN DAN TIDAK TAHAN TERHADAP INTENSITAS PENYAKIT KUDIS DAUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Winda Pradana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is one of alternative food sources beside than rice. Sweet potatoes are contains minerals, nutrients, sources of energy, protein, vitamins A and C. Sweet potatoes have lower productivity than rice and cassava. The low productivity of sweet potatoes due to several factors, which one of them is a leaf scab disease caused by pathogens Sphaceloma batatas Saw. The purpose of this study is to determine the character of the anatomy of sweet potato leaf cultivars that resistant and unresistant to the intensity of leaf scab disease, as well as the correlations between the anatomy character of sweet potato leaves with leaf scab disease intensity. The method used in this study is an experimental method with factorial completely randomized design. The first factor is the character of the anatomy of four cultivars sweet potato leaves, Cangkuang and Sukuh cultivars (cultivars resistant, cultivars Cilembu and Beta (unresistant cultivars. The second factor is the inoculation treatment S. batatas Saw. The parameters were observed thickness of cuticle, epidermis, mesophyll, the size (length and width stomata, density of stomata and trikomata as well as the intensity of the disease were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. To determine the correlation between the anatomy character leaves with disease intensity using regression correlation analysis. The results showed that Cangkuang cultivar has cuticle, epidermis and mesophyll thickest. Beta cultivars have stomata size of the longest and widest. Cilembu cultivar has the highest density of stomata. Sukuh cultivars has the highest density. The anatomy characters include of a thick cuticle, epidermis, stomata size (length and width, as well as the density of stomata and trikomata correlated with intensity of leaf scab disease.

  4. Sweet Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  5. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoids total of ethanolic extract of Ipomoea batata L. leaves (white, yellow, orange, and purple)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewijanti, Indah Dwiatmi; Banjarnahor, Sofna D.; Triyuliani, Maryani, Faiza; Meilawati, Lia

    2017-11-01

    Antioxidant activity, phenolic and total flavonoids from sweet potato ethanol extract (Ipomea batatas L.) of different varieties (white, yellow, orange and purple) were studied. Sweet potatoes were collected from Research Centre for Chemistry. Sweet potato leaves have been used for numerous oxidative-associated diseases such as cancer, allergy, aging, HIV and cardiovascular. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to investigate antioxidant activity in leaves, in which the yellow and purple varieties showed the highest and the lowest scavenging activities of 47.65 µg/ ml (IC50) and 87.402 µg/ ml (IC50), respectively. In this study, the yellow leaves showed the highest concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoids contents at 11.293 µg/g and 44.963 µg/g, respectively. Therefore, sweet potato leaves can be used as a prospective natural antioxidant.

  6. Pengaruh Substitusi Tepung Ubi Jalar Ungu Terhadap Kualitas Roti Tawar

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliandari, Vebi; Ruaida, Ruaida; Holinesti, Rahmi

    2015-01-01

    Purple sweet potato flour as a food ingredient has not been optimally used in the diversification of food processing, while the purple sweet potato flour can be an alternative to replace some of the flour as the main ingredient of bread This study aimed to analyze the effect of substitution of purple sweet potato flour as much as 5 %, 10% and 15% of the wheat flour used for external quality and internal quality as well as hedonic on bread. The research is a pure experiment with completely ran...

  7. Utilization of sweetpotato starches and flours as composites with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hussein

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... Also, blends of wheat and sweet potato starch were developed in the ratios 80:20 ... Functional properties of wheat: sweet potato composite flour ..... 32: 115-119. Ulm SG (1988) The effect of Storage Condition on Selected.

  8. Application of the radionuclide /sup 32/P for determining the requirement of phosphorus by yeasts cultivated on potato mashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szebiotko, K; Fiszer, W; Piasecki, M; Luczynski, A [Wyzsza Szkola Rolnicza, Poznan (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The phosphorus uptake by the yeasts Torulopsis utilis and Torula cremoris, cultivated on sweet potato mash with the density of 4,8 and 16/sup 0/Blg, were investigated to establish an optimal phosphorus dose for protein biosynthesis on this substrate. For determining the phosphorus uptake, /sup 32/P labelled KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ was used. Bulk protein content was determined, to determine the correlation between the phosphorus uptake by yeasts and protein synthesis on the one hand and the use of sugars on the other.

  9. Produção da batata-doce adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante Yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. fertilized with cattle manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante, conduziu-se um experimento no período de Janeiro a Junho de 2004, em NEOSSOLO REGOLÍTICO, psamítico típico, na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia-PB. O delineamento experimental empregado foi de blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições com os tratamentos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1 e ausência e presença de biofertilizante. As parcelas foram constituídas por 80 plantas, espaçadas de 80 x 30 cm. O número de raízes comerciais por planta atingiu valores máximos estimados de 2,0 e 1,7 raízes, respectivamente, nas doses de 26 e 25 t ha-1 de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. O peso médio de raízes comerciais da batata-doce aumentou com elevação das doses de esterco bovino, atingindo na maior dose 360 e 224 g na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. As doses de 25,6 e 24,4 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pela máxima produção total de raízes de 21,4 e 21,2 t ha-1, respectivamente, na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. As máximas produções de raízes comerciais, 15,2 e 12,9 t ha-1 foram alcançadas com 25,5 e 21,3 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, na presença e ausência de biofertilizante, respectivamente.Aiming to evaluate the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. yield fertilization with bovine manure and biofertilizer, an experiment was carried out from January to July, 2004, on ustipsamment soil, at Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia-PB. The Experimental outline used was randomized blocks, with four replications and, treatments distributed in factorial arrangement 6 x 2, being six levels of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1 and absence and presence of biofertilizer. Plots were constituted by 80 plants, spaced 80 x 30 cm. Commercial roots number per plant reached

  10. Development and Testing of a Small-Size Olfactometer for the Perception of Food and Beverages in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Risso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of olfactory perception and about the way humans interact with, and perceive food and beverages require appropriate olfactory devices. Moreover, small size, and portable interfaces are needed within the context of Human Computer Interaction (HCI, to enrich and complete the design of different mediated experiences. In this paper, the authors tested a new portable olfactory device for the orthonasal administration of smells. The main aim was to verify if the experience generated by the odors delivered through such device can affect people's taste perception. Once established that people could perceive odors using the olfactory device, a group of participants was asked to taste two different types of food (Experiment 1 and three types of beverages (Experiment 2 and to evaluate them on a number of perceptual-dimensions (such as pleasantness, freshness, sweetness, saltiness, and bitterness. The participants could taste the food and the beverage without the presence of additional olfactory stimuli, or under conditions where olfactory stimuli (the smell of chocolate or citrus were also presented using the device. The results showed that the participants' evaluation of food and beverages was significantly modulated by the concurrently presented odors. The experimental results suggest that: (1 the device is effective in controlling the delivery of odors to human participants without the complexity of management that often affect larger odors delivery systems; (2 odors administered by means of such device can have an effects on food and beverage perception, without the need to change their chemical properties.

  11. Harvesting soil with potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Norwegian authorities demand soil leaving potato packing plants to be deposited as waste. Depositing soil from potato processing plants is associated with significant cost for Norwegian producers. Therefore CYCLE investigated potato soil harvesting from an innovation and socio-economic perspective....

  12. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...: This final rule reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No... Irish potatoes grown in Colorado. This action modifies the Committee membership structure by amending...

  13. Substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages with other beverage alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-01-01

    alternatives on long-term health outcomes. METHOD: We systematically retrieved studies from six electronic databases from inception to November 2013. Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of substituting beverage alternatives for SSBs on long-term health...... to high. Evidence from both cohort studies and RCTs showed substitution of SSBs by various beverage alternatives was associated with long-term lower energy intake and lower weight gain. However, evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding the effect of beverage substitution on other health...... outcomes, and which beverage alternative is the best choice. CONCLUSIONS: Although studies on this topic are sparse, the available evidence suggests a potential beneficial effect on body weight outcomes when SSBs are replaced by water or low-calorie beverages. Further studies in this area are warranted...

  14. Potato irradiation technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

  15. Genetics of sweet taste preferences†

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Floriano, Wely B; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Lin, Cailu; Murovets, Vladimir O; Reed, Danielle R; Zolotarev, Vasily A; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. There is considerable variation in sweet taste perception and preferences within and among species. Although learning and homeostatic mechanisms contribute to this variation in sweet taste, much of it is genetically determined. Recent studies have shown that variation in the T1R genes contributes to within- and between-species differences in sweet taste. In addition, our ongoing studies using the mouse model demonstrate that a sign...

  16. Effects of cooking methods on starch and sugar composition of sweetpotato storage roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet potato has rich nutrition, good ecological adaptability and high yield. There was a lack of knowledge about the relationship among cooking methods, sugar components and cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine sugar composition of four sweet potato cultivars under three cooking ...

  17. Sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of sweetpotato cultivars with varying flesh colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sensory characteristics of sweet potatoes (n = 12 cultivars) with varying flesh color (orange, purple, yellow) and the impact of flesh colors on consumer acceptance were evaluated. A lexicon was developed for sweet potato flavor followed by consumer acceptance testing conducted with and without ...

  18. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; de Niet, Judith E

    2013-02-19

    The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Principals from elementary (n=369) and middle/high schools (n=118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman's Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR=6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR=4.54 and OR=3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR=5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR= .80) and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR= .76). School nutritional capacity, resources

  19. Molecular Dynamics Driven Design of pH-Stabilized Mutants of MNEI, a Sweet Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Leone

    Full Text Available MNEI is a single chain derivative of monellin, a plant protein that can interact with the human sweet taste receptor, being therefore perceived as sweet. This unusual physiological activity makes MNEI a potential template for the design of new sugar replacers for the food and beverage industry. Unfortunately, applications of MNEI have been so far limited by its intrinsic sensitivity to some pH and temperature conditions, which could occur in industrial processes. Changes in physical parameters can, in fact, lead to irreversible protein denaturation, as well as aggregation and precipitation. It has been previously shown that the correlation between pH and stability in MNEI derives from the presence of a single glutamic residue in a hydrophobic pocket of the protein. We have used molecular dynamics to study the consequences, at the atomic level, of the protonation state of such residue and have identified the network of intramolecular interactions responsible for MNEI stability at acidic pH. Based on this information, we have designed a pH-independent, stabilized mutant of MNEI and confirmed its increased stability by both molecular modeling and experimental techniques.

  20. Molecular Dynamics Driven Design of pH-Stabilized Mutants of MNEI, a Sweet Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Serena; Picone, Delia

    2016-01-01

    MNEI is a single chain derivative of monellin, a plant protein that can interact with the human sweet taste receptor, being therefore perceived as sweet. This unusual physiological activity makes MNEI a potential template for the design of new sugar replacers for the food and beverage industry. Unfortunately, applications of MNEI have been so far limited by its intrinsic sensitivity to some pH and temperature conditions, which could occur in industrial processes. Changes in physical parameters can, in fact, lead to irreversible protein denaturation, as well as aggregation and precipitation. It has been previously shown that the correlation between pH and stability in MNEI derives from the presence of a single glutamic residue in a hydrophobic pocket of the protein. We have used molecular dynamics to study the consequences, at the atomic level, of the protonation state of such residue and have identified the network of intramolecular interactions responsible for MNEI stability at acidic pH. Based on this information, we have designed a pH-independent, stabilized mutant of MNEI and confirmed its increased stability by both molecular modeling and experimental techniques.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF POTATO CYST NEMATODE G. ROSTOCHIENSIS INFESTATION ON DIFFERENT POTATO CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Urek; S Širca; Stare Geric; B Dolničar; P Strajnar

    2008-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the most serious pests of potato in Slovenia. Precise nematode identification and knowledge about potato cultivars, which are most suitable for growing in the Slovenian climate conditions and most resistant to G. rostochiensis, are necessary to develop an effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the influence of G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1/4 on the yield of different potato cultivars: the susceptible cultiva...

  2. Potato production in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  3. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  4. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  5. Academic stress levels were positively associated with sweet food consumption among Korean high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Yang, Hye Young; Kim, Ae-Jung; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify the association among levels of persistent academic stress, appetite, and dietary habits and to determine the specific types of sweet foods consumed by Korean high-school students according to their academic stress levels. The study participants included 333 high-school students in the 10th to 12th grades in Kyunggi Province, Korea. The level of academic stress was scored with a 75-item academic stress scale and was categorized as high, medium, or low. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure the sugar intake from sweet foods. Korean high-school students with a high academic stress level had larger meals than the other students. Compared with students with low academic stress, the students with high academic stress had a higher frequency of sugar intake from the following food types: confectionaries, candies and chocolates, breads, and flavored milk. Moreover, compared with students with low academic stress, the students with high academic stress had a higher total intake of sugar from the following food types: confectionaries, candies, chocolates, flavored milk, traditional Korean beverages, and spicy, sweet, and fried rice cakes. Unhealthy stress-related food choices may compromise high-school students' health and contribute to their morbidity. The findings of the present study could be used to help nutritionists develop effective strategies for nutritional education and counseling to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Snacks, beverages, and physical activity during volunteer-led out-of-school-time programs: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina D. Economos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tens of millions of children regularly participate in out-of-school-time (OST programs, providing an opportunity for child health promotion. Most research on OST has focused on structured, staff-led after-school programs, as opposed to volunteer-led programs such as enrichment programs and youth sports. The aim of this study was to describe snacks, beverages, and physical activity (PA practices in volunteer-led OST programs across five organizations in three states. Methods An online survey including the Out-of-School-Time Snacks, Beverages, and Physical Activity Questionnaire was distributed to 1,695 adult leaders of enrichment and youth sports programs serving 5–12 year-old children in Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, USA. The response rate was 57.8%, with 980 leaders participating and 698 (136 youth sports, 562 enrichment remaining after data cleaning procedures. Frequencies were calculated to describe snack, beverage, and PA offerings during typical meetings and whether healthy snack, beverage, and PA criteria were met. Criteria were developed a priori with the intent to capture co-occurring practices that together indicate healthy snack (fruits and vegetables or no snack over salty/sweet snacks; beverage (water over sugar-sweetened beverages; and PA environments (regular opportunities for >15 or 45 min of PA in enrichment and sports programs, respectively. Results About half of enrichment leaders reported that snacks and beverages were provided during typical meetings vs. one-fifth of sports leaders. In 28.4% of enrichment programs, PA was offered at every meeting vs. 98.5% of sports programs. Among enrichment programs, 50.4 and 25.8% met healthy snack and beverage criteria, respectively, and 29.4% met PA criteria, with 27.6% meeting criteria in two or more areas, and 5.0% in all three. Among sports programs, 72.8 and 78.7% met healthy snack and beverage criteria, respectively, and 71.3% met PA criteria

  7. Molecular characterization of two sweepoviruses from China and evaluation of the infectivity of cloned SPLCV-JS in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Huiping; Zhang, Peng

    2012-03-01

    Sweepoviruses are important begomoviruses that infect Ipomoea plants worldwide and cause sweet potato yield losses and cultivar decline. Two sweepoviruses, sweet potato leaf curl virus-Jiangsu (SPLCV-JS) and sweet potato leaf curl China virus-Zhejiang (SPLCCNV-ZJ), were cloned from diseased sweet potato plants collected in the Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces of China. Sequence characterization and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that both are typical monopartite begomoviruses and have close relationships to several reported SPLCV and SPLCCNV isolates, respectively, from Asian countries. Analysis of the protein alignments and subcellular localizations of the six SPLCV-JS proteins was also conducted to verify their putative functions. In Nicotiana benthamiana, an infectivity assay of the infectious SPLCV-JS clone resulted in mild symptoms and weak viral DNA accumulation. Interestingly, SPLCV-JS, together with a heterologous betasatellite DNA (tomato yellow leaf curl China virus isolate Y10 [TYLCCNV-Y10] DNA-β), showed a synergistic effect on enhanced symptom severity and viral DNA accumulation. This is the first reported infectious SPLCV clone.

  8. Not so sweet refrain: sugar-sweetened beverage taxes, industry opposition and harnessing the lessons learned from tobacco control legal challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Anita

    2018-05-21

    As a growing number of countries implement, or announce plans to introduce, a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax, this paper explores the public health rationale for such a tax and provides an overview of the international normative and policy instruments supporting the introduction of fiscal measures on sugary drinks. After examining parallels between the legal arguments raised by the food and beverage industry in opposition to SSB taxes and those raised by the tobacco industry in response to tobacco control measures, this paper draws four key lessons that will assist countries to design effective and robust SSB tax measures and counter food and beverage industry opposition: regulatory distinctions in tax coverage should be based on bona fide, evidence-based reasoning; evidence-based measures need to be tailored to a country's public health objectives as part of a comprehensive strategy to address unhealthy diet consumption; procedural requirements and due process should be observed in the drafting and implementation of the measure; and regulatory space exists within domestic constitutions, laws and international trade and investment agreements recognising the sovereign right of states to regulate in the interests of public health.

  9. Drug versus sweet reward: greater attraction to and preference for sweet versus drug cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Heather B; Ahmed, Serge H

    2015-05-01

    Despite the unique ability of addictive drugs to directly activate brain reward circuits, recent evidence suggests that drugs induce reinforcing and incentive effects that are comparable to, or even lower than some nondrug rewards. In particular, when rats have a choice between pressing a lever associated with intravenous cocaine or heroin delivery and another lever associated with sweet water delivery, most respond on the latter. This outcome suggests that sweet water is more reinforcing and attractive than either drug. However, this outcome may also be due to the differential ability of sweet versus drug levers to elicit Pavlovian feeding-like conditioned responses that can cause involuntary lever pressing, such as pawing and biting the lever. To test this hypothesis, rats first underwent Pavlovian conditioning to associate one lever with sweet water (0.2% saccharin) and a different lever with intravenous cocaine (0.25 mg) or heroin (0.01 mg). Choice between these two levers was then assessed under two operant choice procedures: one that permitted the expression of Pavlovian-conditioned lever press responses during choice, the other not. During conditioning, Pavlovian-conditioned lever press responses were considerably higher on the sweet lever than on either drug lever, and slightly greater on the heroin lever than on the cocaine lever. Importantly, though these differences in Pavlovian-conditioned behavior predicted subsequent preference for sweet water during choice, they were not required for its expression. Overall, this study confirms that rats prefer the sweet lever because sweet water is more reinforcing and attractive than cocaine or heroin. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  11. Improving the Organoleptic Properties of a Craft Mezcal Beverage by Increasing Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Contents through ATF1 Expression in an Engineered Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-García, Jesús; Vargas, Alejandra; Farías-Rosales, Lorena; Miranda, Ana L; Meza-Carmen, Víctor; Díaz-Pérez, Alma L

    2018-05-02

    Mezcal, a traditional beverage that originated in Mexico, is produced from species of the Agavaceae family. The esters associated with the yeasts utilized during fermentation are important for improving the organoleptic properties of the beverage. We improved the ester contents in a mezcal beverage by using the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, which was engineered with the ATF1 gene. ATF1 expression in the recombinant yeast significantly increased compared with that in the parental yeast, but its fermentative parameters were unchanged. Volatile-organic-compound-content analysis showed that esters had significantly increased in the mezcal produced with the engineered yeast. In a sensory-panel test, 48% of the panelists preferred the mezcal produced from the engineered yeast, 30% preferred the mezcal produced from the wild type, and 15 and 7% preferred the two mezcal types produced following the routine procedure. Correlation analysis showed that the fruitiness/sweetness description of the mezcal produced using the ATF1-engineered K. marxianus yeast correlated with the content of the esters, whose presence improved the organoleptic properties of the craft mezcal beverage.

  12. Flavouring compounds in Indian potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigond, Pinky; Singh, Brajesh; Dhulia, Akshita; Chopra, Shelly; Dutt, Som

    2015-12-01

    Market for processed potato products is rising day by day. Flavour plays important role in decision making by consumers due to their preferences for better tasting food. In potato and potato products, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are the major umami compounds which contribute towards flavour. Therefore, umami 5' nucleotides (AMP+GMP) were estimated from local potato products available as common fried products in the Indian markets and processed potato products being sold by the retailers. The analysis was also carried in raw, microwaved and pressure cooked tubers of forty seven Indian potato cultivars. Umami 5' nucleotide content ranged from 2.63 (Aloo seekh) to 8.26 μg/g FW (fried lachcha) in local potato products. In processed potato products, the content ranged from 2.72 μg/g FW (Smiles) to 14.75 μg/g FW (Aloo Bhujia). Along with aloo bhujia, umami 5' nucleotides were also high in dehydrated aloo lachcha (11.14 μg/g FW) and dehydrated potato chips (10.13 μg/g FW) and low in Smiles (2.72 μg/g FW) and Potato Shortz (3.40 μg/g FW). The study suggests that the potato products prepared solely from potato contained higher levels of umami 5' nucleotides compared to other products prepared by mixing potato with other cereals and vegetables. In Indian potato cultivars overall there was 14 % increase on microwave cooking and 31 % increase in flavouring compounds on pressure cooking. This type of study enabled in identifying better tasting cultivars for further product development and also to develop products with less addition of salt.

  13. Consumptive qualities of different potato varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Фурдига

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To summarize results of studying consumptive qualities of different varieties of potato and define basic characteristics which allow to subsume them under specific economic categories. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, summarizing, analytical approach. Results. Potato varieties entered in the State register of plant varieties suitable to dissemination in Ukraine and new ones especially to be bred at the Institute of Potato Growing of NAAS were studied during the period of 2005–2016 for such basic economic characters as consumptive quality of tubers, content of starch, dry matters, protein, sugar, vitamins, carotenoids and mineral substances as well as aminoacids, color of flesh, suitability for industrial manufacturing of potato products and for purpose of technology. Attention was paid to the good prospects to use varie­ties with purple, blue and red potato tuber flesh with high antioxidant capacity. Potato varieties with above cha­racteristics and their complex combination were defined and described. The requirements of processing industry for potato as a raw material for manufacturing of potato food were given. Conclusions. The major criterion for consumptive qualities of a potato variety and correspondingly division for the commercial use is consumptive quality of tubers, especially content of essential nutrients and their favorable combination, improved taste and cooking quality, high antioxidant capacity, suitability for potato products manufacturing and use for purpose of technology. Potato varieties can be divided for economic purposes into edible, suitable for potato products manufacturing, technical and multipurpose ones.

  14. Participatory assessment of potato production constraints and trait preferences in potato cultivar development in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, Gicumbi and Nyamagabe districts. The structured survey used a questionnaire administered to farmers to collect information on importance of potatoes and other main crops. While focus groups discussions used matrix scoring of key production constraints and pair-wise ranking of traits. Potato is the most important food and cash crop, followed by maize, beans and wheat. The dominant potato varieties are Kirundo, Cruza, Mabondo and Victoria. The most important potato production constraints are lack of access to credit, lack of high yielding cultivars, insufficient clean seeds and late blight disease. Variety Mabondo is the most tolerant to late blight, followed by Cruza, Kirundo, Kinigi and Rutuku in all the districts. High yield, disease tolerance and high dry matter content are the most important attributes preferred by farmers. Active farmer participation in early breeding stages is critical for a successful potato breeding programme.

  15. Evaluation of physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was initiated with the objective of investigating the use of improved sweet potato variety namely, Adu for bread production by combining with wheat flour. The experiment was carried out in a completely Randomized Design with three replications. The sweet potato variety was evaluated in five blending ratios of ...

  16. Effects of fertilizer types and different companion crops on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons, at the University of Ibadan Teaching and Research Farm to evaluate the effects of fertilizer types and different companion crops on the performance of sweet potato. The results obtained showed that the growth and yield of sweet potato were ...

  17. Effects of different sweet preloads on incretin hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongzhi; Zhao, Beiyi R; Bound, Michelle J; Checklin, Helen L; Bellon, Max; Little, Tanya J; Young, Richard L; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2012-01-01

    Macronutrient "preloads" can stimulate glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), slow gastric emptying, and reduce postprandial glycemic excursions. After sweet preloads, these effects may be signaled by sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1), sweet taste receptors, or both. We determined the effects of 4 sweet preloads on GIP and GLP-1 release, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia. Ten healthy subjects were studied on 4 separate occasions each. A preload drink containing 40 g glucose, 40 g tagatose/isomalt mixture (TIM), 40 g 3-O-methylglucose (3OMG; a nonmetabolized substrate of SGLT1), or 60 mg sucralose was consumed 15 min before a (13)C-octanoic acid-labeled mashed potato meal. Blood glucose, plasma total GLP-1 and GIP, serum insulin, and gastric emptying were determined. Both glucose and 3OMG stimulated GLP-1 and GIP release in advance of the meal (each P < 0.05), whereas TIM and sucralose did not. The overall postprandial GLP-1 response was greater after glucose, 3OMG, and TIM than after sucralose (P < 0.05), albeit later after TIM than the other preloads. The blood glucose and insulin responses in the first 30 min after the meal were greatest after glucose (each P < 0.05). Gastric emptying was slower after both 3OMG and TIM than after sucralose (each P < 0.05). In healthy humans, SGLT1 substrates stimulate GLP-1 and GIP and slow gastric emptying, regardless of whether they are metabolized, whereas the artificial sweetener sucralose does not. Poorly absorbed sweet tastants (TIM), which probably expose a greater length of gut to nutrients, result in delayed GLP-1 secretion but not in delayed GIP release. These observations have the potential to optimize the use of preloads for glycemic control. This trial was registered at www.actr.org.au as ACTRN12611000775910.

  18. Population dynamics of potato cyst nematodes and associated damage to potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, J.

    1993-01-01

    Population dynamics of potato cyst nematodes (PCN; Globoderarostochiensis (Woll.) Skarbilovich and G. pallida Stone) and their interactions with potato plants are insufficiently understood to explain variations of population

  19. Chromium in potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard-Gilbert, K.; Blincoe, C.

    1989-01-01

    Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined, and tubes were labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate ( 51 Cr). A labeled chromium complex was isolated from preparations of raw, baked, or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 μg of Cr/g tissue, respectively. There was no correlation between the two, nor did they respond similarly to changes of variety or locations. No significant differences were apparent in relative migration of the isolated complexes except between raw and cooked extrinsically labeled preparations

  20. Greatly reduced phylogenetic structure in the cultivated potato clade of potatoes, Solanum section Petota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species boundaries of wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, are controversial with most of the taxonomic problems in a clade containing cultivated potatoes. We here provide the first in-depth phylogenetic study of the cultivated potato clade to explore possible causes of these pr...

  1. PEMANFAATAN PANGAN LOKAL DI PROVINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR: Pengolahan Pangan Lokal Menjadi Tepung, Analisis Usaha dan Implikasi Kebijakannya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT province identically with the dry land that had the potential of local food diversity both of tubers, cereal and fruits groups. Food processing based on local food, especially the tubers are still very limited in NTT. The objectives of this studi are (1 to determine the physico chemical characteristics of modified cassava flour (mocaf, sweet potato flour and corn flour, (2 to determine the financial feasibility of mocaf, sweet potato flour and corn flour in Timor Tengah Selatan regency, NTT. Introduction approach of processing through the understanding and skills of processing of mocaf, sweet potato flour and corn flour in two women farmers groups (KWT, namely KWT Suka Maju Ajaobaki Village Mollo Utara District and KWT Hetven Kesetnana village Mollo Selatan District, Timor Tengah Selatan regency. Introductions of processing technology has been done after optimization of the processing in the Laboratory of BPTP NTT. The results showed that the local food such as cassava, sweet potato and corn can be processed into flour so can increase the added value and increase the competitiveness of local food. Local food flour can be used as a wheat flour substitute in food processing. Flouring effort of mocaf, sweet potatoes and corn had been managed efficiently indicated by revenue cost ratio (RCR value is more than 1.00.

  2. Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G

    2010-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran.

  3. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Deena; de Schweinitz, Peter; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7). SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69). High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks) and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska.

  4. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Elwan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Methods: Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7. SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69. Results: High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Conclusion: Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska.

  5. Hairy nightshade as a potential Potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) inoculum source in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Alvarez, J M

    2008-09-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, is a solanaceous weed found abundantly in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems. It serves as a reservoir for one of the important potato viruses, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus), and its most important vector, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Laboratory research indicated an increased green peach aphid settling and performance on S. sarrachoides than on potato. It also revealed that green peach aphids transmitted PLRV more efficiently from S. sarrachoides to potato than from potato to potato. To test the efficiency of S. sarrachoides as an inoculum source in the field, a two season (2004 and 2005) trial was conducted at Kimberly, Idaho. Two inoculum sources, PLRV-infected potato and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides, were compared in this trial. Green peach aphid density and temporal and spatial PLRV spread were monitored at weekly intervals. Higher densities of green peach aphids were observed on plots with S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources (PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato) than on plots without S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources. PLRV infection in plots with PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides was similar to or slightly higher than in plots with PLRV-infected potato as an inoculum source. Temporal and spatial PLRV spread was similar in plots with either inoculum source. Thus, S. sarrachoides is as efficient as or a better PLRV inoculum source than potato.

  6. BitterSweetForest: A random forest based binary classifier to predict bitterness and sweetness of chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Preissner, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Taste of a chemical compounds present in food stimulates us to take in nutrients and avoid poisons. However, the perception of taste greatly depends on the genetic as well as evolutionary perspectives. The aim of this work was the development and validation of a machine learning model based on molecular fingerprints to discriminate between sweet and bitter taste of molecules. BitterSweetForest is the first open access model based on KNIME workflow that provides platform for prediction of bitter and sweet taste of chemical compounds using molecular fingerprints and Random Forest based classifier. The constructed model yielded an accuracy of 95% and an AUC of 0.98 in cross-validation. In independent test set, BitterSweetForest achieved an accuracy of 96 % and an AUC of 0.98 for bitter and sweet taste prediction. The constructed model was further applied to predict the bitter and sweet taste of natural compounds, approved drugs as well as on an acute toxicity compound data set. BitterSweetForest suggests 70% of the natural product space, as bitter and 10 % of the natural product space as sweet with confidence score of 0.60 and above. 77 % of the approved drug set was predicted as bitter and 2% as sweet with a confidence scores of 0.75 and above. Similarly, 75% of the total compounds from acute oral toxicity class were predicted only as bitter with a minimum confidence score of 0.75, revealing toxic compounds are mostly bitter. Furthermore, we applied a Bayesian based feature analysis method to discriminate the most occurring chemical features between sweet and bitter compounds from the feature space of a circular fingerprint.

  7. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  9. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  10. Glycoalkaloids in potatoes: Content of glycoalkaloids in potatoes for consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Jensen, Udo; Schmidt, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    mg/kg. Thus the aim of this study was to make a survey of the distribution and contents of TGA in potatoes on the Danish market, including many different and relevant varieties during a 6-year period. A total of 386 samples of potato tubers were analysed for α-solanine and α-chaconine by extraction...... with acetic acid and determination by RP-HPLC with UV-detection at 202 nm. The results not only confirmed that contents above 100 mg TGA/kg in potato tubers frequently occurred in some years, but also showed the possibility of finding lower contents in the same varieties other years. This led to the cautious...

  11. Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed potato lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed lots. In the United States, seed potato improvement starts with the individual seed potato grower. The seed grower also has resources that are available from university e...

  12. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...