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Sample records for sweet orange trees

  1. Effects of organic fertilisation on sweet orange bearing trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccuzzo, Giancarlo; Torrisi, Biagio; Canali, Stefano; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    In a study realised over a five year period (2001-2006) on orange bearing trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv. ‘Valencia late', grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.), four fertiliser treatments were applied: citrus by-products compost (CB), poultry manure (PM), livestock waste compost (LW) and mineral fertiliser (MF), as control. The trees, with the exception of MF treatment, were organically grown since 1994 in the experimental farm of CRA-ACM in Lentini, Sicily, and received the same N input every year. The research objectives were to evaluate the effect of long term repeated organic fertilisers application on i) soil fertility; ii) citrus bearing trees nutritional status by means of leaf analysis and iii) yield and fruit quality, determining parameters currently utilized to evaluate sweet orange production either for fresh consumption and processing. The CB treatment showed significantly higher values of Corg in soil than MF treatment (about 30%). Corg in PM and LW treatments was higher than MF treatment (13% and 20%, respectively), but these differences were not statistically significant either from the control treatment nor from the soil fertilised with CB. Similar trend was showed by the humic and fulvic C being the values of the CB treatment significantly higher than the control. PM and LW treatments had intermediate values, without statistical significance. The long term addition to soil of a quality compost (CB) with high C/N ratio increased the level of nutrients wich usually show low availability for citrus plants (P, Fe, Zn, Mn), as demonstrated by leaf analysis. No significant difference was noticed as far as yield was concerned, whereas CB treatment enhanced some fruit quality parameters.

  2. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaggio José Antônio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb. rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. × C. paradisi Macf.] presented the smallest canopy (13.3 m³ in the fifth year after tree planting compared to those on 'Rangpur lime' and 'Cleopatra' mandarin [C. reshni (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka] grown on the same grove. Although it was observed an overall positive relationship between canopy volume and fruit yield (R² = 0.95**, yield efficiency (kg m-3 was affected by rootstocks, which demonstrated 'Rangpur lime' superiority in relation to Cleopatra. Growth of citrus trees younger than 5-yr-old might be improved by K fertilization rates greater than currently recommended in Brazil, in soils with low K and subjected to nutrient leaching losses.

  3. Tangerineiras como porta-enxertos para laranjeira 'Pêra' Mandarins as rootstocks for 'Pêra' sweet orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Laranjeiras 'Pêra' enxertadas em 11 cultivares ou híbridos de tangerineiras foram plantadas em 1988 em Itirapina (SP, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura arenosa, no espaçamento 4,25m x 7,5m e conduzidas sem irrigação sob clima Cwa. Tristeza e declínio são endêmicos na região. As tangerineiras 'África do Sul', 'Xienkhouanga', 'Empress', 'Cleópatra', 'Wildt', 117.477 e 'Sul da África', sem diferirem entre si, induziram, em ordem decrescente, as maiores produções de frutos às laranjeiras 'Pêra', no total das quatro primeiras colheitas do experimento. Num total de nove colheitas, as cultivares Xienkhouanga, África do Sul, 117.477, Cleópatra, Empress, Wildt e Szinkon x Tizon, sem diferirem entre si, proporcionaram, em ordem decrescente, as maiores produções de frutos às laranjeiras 'Pêra'. Os porta-enxertos não determinaram diferenças significativas nas características comerciais dos frutos, porém a 'Cleópatra' induziu maturação mais precoce que os demais porta-enxertos. Apenas a 'Szwinkon' x 'Szinkon-tizon' proporcionou a formação de plantas nanicas, com altura inferior a 2,5m. Os dados médios de produção de frutos e de sólidos solúveis, concernentes a três anos consecutivos de colheita, revelaram que as laranjeiras 'Pêra' enxertadas nas tangerineiras 'Xienkhouanga' e 117.477, sem diferir das plantas enxertadas nas cultivares África do Sul, Cleópatra, Empress, Wildt e Szinkon x Tizon, foram significativamente mais produtivas em frutos e em sólidos solúveis que as enxertadas em 'Sul da África', 'Vermelha', 'Muscia' e 'Szwinkon' x 'Szinkon-tizon'. Nenhuma das plantas apresentou sintomas de intolerância à tristeza, ao declínio dos citros ou anel de goma na região de enxertia, considerado sintoma de incompatibilidade entre a copa e o porta-enxerto.'Pera' sweet orange trees budded either on mandarins or mandarin-hybrids rootstocks were planted in 1988 at 4.25m x 7.5m spacing on a sandy textured Oxisol in

  4. ‘JAFFA’ SWEET ORANGE PLANTS GRAFTED ONTO FIVE ROOTSTOCKS

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    ELÍDIO LILIANO CARLOS BACAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Low genetic diversity of citrus scion and rootstock cultivars makes the crop more vulnerable to diseases and pests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange grafted onto five rootstocks over six harvests in subtropical conditions in the north of Paraná state, Brazil. The experiment used a randomized block design, with six replications and two trees per plot, spaced at 7.0 m x 4.0 m. The rootstocks were: ‘Rangpur’ lime, ‘Cleopatra’ and ‘Sunki’ mandarins, ‘Fepagro C-13’ citrange, and ‘Swingle’ citrumelo. The variables evaluated were vigor, yield, and yield efficiency of the trees as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, complemented by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The smallest tree canopy for ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange plants was induced by the ‘Rangpur’ lime rootstock. The trees had the same cumulative yield performance over six seasons for all rootstocks. The best yield efficiency for ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange trees was provided by ‘Fepagro C-13’ citrange rootstock. With regard to fruit quality, no differences were observed among the rootstocks and the ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange fruits met the standards required by the fresh fruit market and the fruit processing industry.

  5. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the rainforest of south eastern Nigeria, new varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas Lam) have been introduced but appropriate soil nutrient management for these cultivars is lacking. The present study evaluated the response of two varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (Umuspo 1 and Umuspo ...

  6. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufida, Saïdani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports on the composition of aroma compounds and fatty acids and some physico-chemical parameters (juice percentage, acidity and total sugars) in five varieties of citrus: blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Volatile compounds and methyl esters have been analyzed by gas chromatography. Limonene is the most abundant compound of monoterpene hydrocarbons for all of the examined juices. Eighteen fatty acids have been identified in the studied citrus juices, their quantification points out that unsaturated acids predominate over the saturated ones. Mean concentration of fatty acids varies from 311.8 mg/l in blood orange juice to 678 mg/l in bitter orange juice. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. HMF formation and colour change of bitter orange and sweet orange jams during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kopjar, Mirela; Đurkan, Ivana; Piližota, Vlasta

    2010-01-01

    In this work influence of preparation on 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and colour of bitter orange jams and sweet orange jams was investigated. Samples were prepared without and with treatment of oranges with ascorbic acid in order to investigate the influence on prevention of browning in jams. Samples were stored for 365 days at 4 °C and at room temperature and formation of HMF and colour change during storage were measured. After jam preparation bitter orange jams had higher HMF content tha...

  8. HMF formation and colour change of bitter orange and sweet orange jams during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work influence of preparation on 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF and colour of bitter orange jams and sweet orange jams was investigated. Samples were prepared without and with treatment of oranges with ascorbic acid in order to investigate the influence on prevention of browning in jams. Samples were stored for 365 days at 4 °C and at room temperature and formation of HMF and colour change during storage were measured. After jam preparation bitter orange jams had higher HMF content than sweet orange jams (231 mg/kg and 58.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of oranges with ascorbic acid increased formation of HMF during preparation of jams (261 mg/kg and 95 mg/kg for bitter and sweet orange jams. During storage the same tendency was observed. Also, difference in colour between sweet and bitter orange jams was observed. The highest colour change was observed in bitter orange jams (ΔE* = 5.66 with addition of ascorbic acid. In this work the importance of pH value of jams and storage temperature for HMF formation and colour was emphasised.

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and...

  10. Comparative efficacy of sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (l) rind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet orange, Citrus sinensis((L.) rind powder and oil were evaluated for the control of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais(Mot.) under ambient laboratory conditions (28 ± 2o C and 75 ± 20% R.H.). Experiments consisted of exposing adult S. zeamais to both the powder and oil for 42 days. Mortality counts were taken from the ...

  11. The preservative potentials of sweet orange seed oil on leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... The preservative potentials of sweet orange seed oil on leather products in Nigeria. Akpomie, Olubunmi Olufunmi. Department of Microbiology, Delta Sate ... countries due to increasing health and environment regulations and restrictions. Some of these chemicals when used in excess become recalcitrant ...

  12. Evaluation of sweet orange peel aqueous extract ( citrus sinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxic effect of sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis) was compared with that of carbofuran, a synthetic nematicide, for the suppression of soil and root population of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in year 2002 and repeated in the same period in year ...

  13. Introducing orange sweet potato: tracing the evolution of evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of orange sweet potato (OSP), rich in vitamin A, can have important and lasting impacts on reducing vitamin A deficiency among smallholder farmers in the developing world. In this paper, we describe the evolution of evidence about the effectiveness of disseminating OSP to smallholder farmers on vitamin A ...

  14. Estimativas de repetibilidade de caracteres de produção em laranjeiras-doces no Acre Estimate of repeatability of traits of sweet orange tree production in Acre, Brazil

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    Jacson Rondinelli da Silva Negreiros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o coeficiente de repetibilidade em laranjeiras-doces e o número mínimo de avaliações a serem feitas para a determinação do valor real dos indivíduos. De março a junho de 1999, foram coletadas borbulhas de laranjeiras pé-franco, em fase de produção, em nove municípios do Acre. As borbulhas foram enxertadas sobre porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo', o que resultou em 54 clones. Esses clones foram avaliados em conjunto com a cultivar Aquiri, recomendada para o Estado. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 55 tratamentos (55 clones, três repetições, com uma planta por parcela. O número total de frutos por planta, a produção de frutos por planta e o peso médio de fruto foram avaliados em 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 e 2008. Foram realizadas as análises de variância, de componentes principais e estrutural. A estimativa de repetibilidade para peso médio do fruto demonstrou regularidade na classificação dos clones, de um ciclo para outro, e foram necessários cinco ciclos de avaliação para a predição do valor real dos indivíduos, com acurácia de 90%, pelo método dos componentes principais (matriz de co-variância. Apesar de as características número de frutos total por planta e produção de frutos por planta serem influenciadas pelo ambiente, oito e nove medições, respectivamente, permitem obter coeficientes de determinação de 95%.The objective of this study was to estimate the repeatability coefficient in sweet orange and the number of repeated measures that should be performed for an efficient selection of genotypes. From March to June 1999, chips were collected from producing sweet orange seedlings, in nine municipalities of Acre, Brazil, and were grafted on 'Rangpur' lime rootstock, resulting in 54 clones, which were evaluated together with the cultivar Aquiri, recommended for the state. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete blocks design

  15. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed sequence tags of sweet orange and mandarin infected with Xylella fastidiosa

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    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus ESTs Sequencing Project (CitEST conducted at Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira/IAC has identified and catalogued ESTs representing a set of citrus genes expressed under relevant stress responses, including diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, caused by Xylella fastidiosa. All sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. varieties are susceptible to X. fastidiosa. On the other hand, mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco are considered tolerant or resistant to the disease, although the bacterium can be sporadically detected within the trees, but no disease symptoms or economic losses are observed. To study their genetic responses to the presence of X. fastidiosa, we have compared EST libraries of leaf tissue of sweet orange Pêra IAC (highly susceptible cultivar to X. fastidiosa and mandarin ‘Ponkan’ (tolerant artificially infected with the bacterium. Using an in silico differential display, 172 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in such conditions. Sweet orange presented an increase in expression of photosynthesis related genes that could reveal a strategy to counterbalance a possible lower photosynthetic activity resulting from early effects of the bacterial colonization in affected plants. On the other hand, mandarin showed an active multi-component defense response against the bacterium similar to the non-host resistance pattern.

  16. Qualidade industrial e maturação de frutos de laranjeira "valência" sobre seis porta-enxertos Industrial quality and maturation of fruits of 'valência' sweet orange trees on six rootstocks

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    Pedro Antonio Martins Auler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de seis porta-enxertos sobre a maturação e as características físico-químicas de frutos de laranjeira 'Valência', instalou-se um experimento em janeiro de 1994, no município de Nova Esperança-PR. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, três plantas úteis por parcela e seis tratamentos, constituídos pelos porta-enxertos: limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, tangerineiras 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni e 'Sunki' (C. sunki, citrangeiro 'Troyer' (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, tangeleiro 'orlando' (C. tangerina x C. paradisi e laranjeira 'Caipira'(C. sinensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade dos frutos em sete safras e a curva de maturação foi estimada para os anos de 1999 e 2000. Todos os porta-enxertos proporcionaram qualidade aceitável aos frutos da laranjeira 'Valência', com destaque para o citrangeiro 'Troyer' que superou o limoeiro 'Cravo' em rendimento industrial. Em um ano considerado com padrão climático normal, a evolução do índice tecnológico ajustou-se a uma equação de regressão quadrática, proporcionando melhor rendimento industrial quando os frutos foram colhidos no início de novembro, independentemente do porta-enxerto utilizado.In order to evaluate the influence of six rootstocks on the maturation and the physical characteristics and chemical composition of 'Valência' fruits, a research was conducted in a field established in 1994, in Nova Esperança city, state of Paraná, Brazil. A complete randomized block design was used, with four replications, three evaluated trees per plot and six treatments, constituted by the rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'Cleopatra' (C. reshni and 'Sunki' (C. sunki mandarins, 'Troyer' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, 'orlando' tangelo (C. tangerina x C. paradisi and 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis. Fruit quality was evaluated along seven harvesting seasons and the maturation curve was

  17. Mudas de laranjeira 'valência' sobre dois porta-enxertos e sob diferentes manejos de adubação 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees on two rootstocks under different fertilizer managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da adubação é uma das principais práticas culturais para a produção de mudas cítricas em cultivo protegido. Avaliou-se o efeito de seis tipos de manejo das adubações comercialmente recomendadas na produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertada sobre os porta-enxertos limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.]. As avaliações foram conduzidas a partir da transplantação dos porta-enxertos até 180 dias após a enxertia, em viveiro empresarial, em Conchal-SP. Os manejos corresponderam a duas soluções de fertilizantes solúveis aplicadas isoladamente, soluções de fertilizante solúveis associadas a fertilizante de liberação controlada e aplicação exclusiva de fertilizante de liberação controlada. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o fatorial 2 x 6 (porta-enxerto x manejo da adubação, em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e 12 mudas na parcela. O limoeiro 'Cravo' induziu maior crescimento ao enxerto. O crescimento vegetativo das mudas foi similar após o uso de fertilizantes solúveis ou de liberação controlada, apesar da grande variação de quantidades totais de nutrientes fornecidas às plantas. Desta forma, o viveirista poderá optar pelo manejo mais econômico ou prático, conforme as condições locais.The fertilizer program is a major practice for screened citrus nursery tree production. The effect of six fertilizer programs commercially recommended was evaluated on the production of 'Valência' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] nursery trees budded on rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.]. Experimental work was carried out from rootstock transplant until 180 days after budding, in a citrus nursery in Conchal, SP, Brazil. Fertilizer managements consisted of two soluble fertilizers

  18. PERFORMANCE OF ‘TUXPAN VALENCIA’ SWEET ORANGE GRAFTED ONTO 14 ROOTSTOCKS IN NORTHERN BAHIA, BRAZIL

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    NATIANA DE OLIVEIRA FRANÇA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the State of Bahia, Brazil, the citrus industry is located on the north coast with the prevalence of the combination ‘Pera’ sweet orange on ‘Rangpur’ lime. Scion-rootstock diversification may contribute to the increase of yield and the extension of harvest season, as long as to decrease the risk associated to abiotic and biotic stresses. Therefore, the performance of ‘Tuxpan Valencia’ sweet orange grafted onto 14 rootstocks was evaluated in Rio Real – BA. Planting was performed in 2006 under rainfed cultivation on cohesive ultisol and tree spacing of 6.0 m x 4.0 m. Tree size, yield and fruit quality were evaluated in the period of 2010-2014, in addition to tree survival at nine years old and drought tolerance in the field based on leaf wilting. In the evaluated conditions, ‘Sunki Tropical’ and ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarins led to the highest scion canopy volume. The highest accumulated yield in five harvests was recorded on ‘Santa Cruz Rangpur’ lime, ‘Volkamer’ lemon, ‘Riverside’ and ‘Indio’ citrandarins, ‘Sunki Tropical’ mandarin and the hybrid TSKC x (LCR x TR – 001. ‘Riverside’ and TSKFL x CTSW – 049 induced higher yield efficiency on the canopy. The rootstocks did not influence the tree survival nine years after planting except for lower survival of TSKFL x CTSW – 049. Drought tolerance was not affected either. Regarding to the fruit quality of ‘Tuxpan Valencia’, the rootstocks influenced the juice content, soluble solids and technological index with the citrandarins, ‘Santa Cruz Rangpur’ lime, ‘Volkamer’ lemon and ‘Sunki Tropical’ mandarin presenting higher performance in general.

  19. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    OpenAIRE

    Novelli,Valdenice M.; Cristofani,Mariangela; Souza,Alessandra A.; Machado,Marcos A.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs or microsatellite markers) in citrus and to evaluate the efficiency of these markers for characterization of sweet orange. We developed SSRs from a genomic library of 'Pêra IAC' sweet orange enriched for AG/TC, GT/CA, TCA/AGT and AAC/TTG sequence repeats. We selected 279 sequences from which 171 primer pairs were designed of which 113 with the best banding patterns were selected. Characterization of sweet orange micro...

  20. Determination of five trace elements in leaves in Nanfang sweet orange by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fangqing

    2006-01-01

    The five trace elements of copper, zinc, manganese, iron and cobalt in leaves of Nanfang sweet orange are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The technique is simple, precise and sensitive. The effect of the type of digesting solution (mixed acid), the ratio of mixed acid, the volume of digesting solution and the time of digesting are investigated in details. The results show that leaves of Nanfang sweet orange contain higher amount of iron and zinc. (authors)

  1. Genetic diversity analysis of Valencia and Navel group sweet orange cultivars by SSR markers

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    İlknur POLAT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] fruit is one of the main citrus fruits, Navel and Valencia group sweet orange being the most representative and recognizable species of this species. The aims of this study were to determine genetic relationships and diversity of 84 Navel and 36 Valencia groups of sweet orange using SSR (simple sequence repeat molecular markers. Twenty-six SSR primers were tested on these accessions. Seven SSR primers produced thirteen polymorphic fragments, eight SSR primers produced monomorphic fragments, and eleven SSR primers produced no scorable fragments. Thirteen SSR primers produced a total of 29 fragments and 13 of them were polymorphic. The number of average polymorphic fragments per primer was 1.93. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC and marker index (MI are 0.16 and 11.74, respectively. The Dice’s similarity coefficient among Navel and Valencia group sweet oranges ranged from 0.42 to 1.00 and matrix correlation (r was 0.79. In the cluster analysis, Navel group sweet oranges were indicated as a separate group from Valencia group sweet oranges. ‘Antalya (40’ was most distinct accessions from the others.

  2. 'Valencia' sweet orange tree flowering evaluation under field conditions Avaliação do florescimento de laranjeiras valência em condição de campo

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    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since citrus flowering is a key process in citriculture and its evaluation is often difficult due to the canopy structure and field sampling, the aim of this research was to give some directions regarding the evaluation of flowering in field-grown sweet orange plants. This study was conducted in a citrus orchard of sweet orange plants cv. 'Valencia' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] grafted on 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka or 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck rootstocks, with North-South orientation. Generative structures [buds, flowers and fruitlets (diameter O florescimento dos citros é um processo chave na citricultura e sua avaliação é dificultada devido à estrutura da copa e amostragem em campo. O objetivo desse artigo foi fornecer algumas indicações de como avaliar o florescimento de laranjeiras em condição de campo. Esse estudo foi conduzido em um pomar de laranjeiras 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertadas em tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka ou limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck, com orientação Norte-Sul. As estruturas reprodutivas [botões florais, flores e frutos (diâmetro < 3 cm] foram quantificadas semanalmente entre agosto e novembro de 2005, utilizando guias de 1 m² posicionadas no terço médio da copa das plantas, amostrando aproximadamente um volume de 1 m³. As guias foram divididas em duas partes para que duas pessoas pudessem realizar as avaliações, e posicionadas nas orientações sudeste, sudoeste, nordeste e noroeste, em sete plantas. Alguns aspectos do florescimento dos citros foram avaliados: (i quantas plantas são necessárias para uma amostragem representativa do florescimento; (ii em qual orientação deve ser feita a medida e (iii qual volume da copa das plantas que deve ser amostrado. Ao se considerar os aspectos práticos da produção dos citros, um método rápido, simples e representativo é necessário para avaliar o florescimento

  3. Comparative evaluation of the effect of sweet orange oil-diesel blend on performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S. M. Ashrafur; Hossain, F. M.; Van, Thuy Chu; Dowell, Ashley; Islam, M. A.; Rainey, Thomas J.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    In 2014, global demand for essential oils was 165 kt and it is expected to grow 8.5% per annum up to 2022. Every year Australia produces approximately 1.5k tonnes of essential oils such as tea tree, orange, lavender, eucalyptus oil, etc. Usually essential oils come from non-fatty areas of plants such as the bark, roots, heartwood, leaves and the aromatic portions (flowers, fruits) of the plant. For example, orange oil is derived from orange peel using various extraction methods. Having similar properties to diesel, essential oils have become promising alternate fuels for diesel engines. The present study explores the opportunity of using sweet orange oil in a compression ignition engine. Blends of sweet orange oil-diesel (10% sweet orange oil, 90% diesel) along with neat diesel fuel were used to operate a six-cylinder diesel engine (5.9 litres, common rail, Euro-III, compression ratio 17.3:1). Some key fuel properties such as: viscosity, density, heating value, and surface tension are presented. Engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption) and emission parameters (CO, NOX, and Particulate Matter) were measured to evaluate running with the blends. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm (maximum torque condition) with different loads. The results from the property analysis showed that sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibits lower density, viscosity and surface tension and slightly higher calorific value compared to neat diesel fuel. Also, from the engine test, the sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibited slightly higher brake specific fuel consumption, particulate mass and particulate number; however, the blend reduced the brake specific CO emission slightly and brake specific NOX emission significantly compared to that of neat diesel.

  4. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP: a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    Full Text Available Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia, and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  6. Comparative investigation of the sweet and bitter orange essential oil (Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Kostadinovic; Marina Stefova; Diana Nikolova

    2005-01-01

    The volatile fraction composition of commercially produced sweet and bitter orange oil from fruit peels was studied using GC-MS. More than fifty components were identified in the oils using their mass spectra and linear retention indices. The monoterpene limonene was the most abundant component even though not in a quantity expected for a fresh orange essential oil. Aldehydes, followed by alcohols and esters, were the main components in the oxygenated fraction. Aldehydes were the major oxy...

  7. Comparative investigation of the sweet and bitter orange essential oil (Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kostadinovic

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile fraction composition of commercially produced sweet and bitter orange oil from fruit peels was studied using GC-MS. More than fifty components were identified in the oils using their mass spectra and linear retention indices. The monoterpene limonene was the most abundant component even though not in a quantity expected for a fresh orange essential oil. Aldehydes, followed by alcohols and esters, were the main components in the oxygenated fraction. Aldehydes were the major oxygenated components in the sweet orange oil, whereas alcohols and esters were present in higher amounts in the bitter orange oil. Among them, nonanal, decanal and linalool are the most important components for the flavour of sweet orange oil and carvon is the most important ketone for the flavour of bitter orange oil in combination with the other components. The amount of carvon gives a good indication about the freshness of the oil and the quantities of α-pinene and β-pinene, sabinene and myrcene give an indication about the natural or artificially changed composition of the essential oils.

  8. Comparative study of flavonoid production in lycopene-accumulated and blonde-flesh sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajing; Zhang, Hongyan; Pang, Yibo; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Four main flavanone glycosides (FGs) and four main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were determined in fruits of 'Cara Cara' navel orange, 'Seike' navel orange, 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). No bitter neohesperidosides were detected in the FG profiles, indicating the functional inability of 1,2-rhamnosyltransferase, though relatively high transcription levels were detected in the fruit tissues of 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet oranges. Different to the FGs, the PMFs only exist abundantly in the peel and decreased gradually throughout fruit development of sweet oranges, suggesting the expression of methylation-related genes accounting for PMF biosynthesis have tissue-specificity. Significant changes in production of the eight flavonoids were found between red-flesh and blonde-flesh sweet oranges, indicating that lycopene accumulation might have direct or indirect effects on the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in these citrus fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The preservative potentials of sweet orange seed oil on leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange seed oil was extracted using the steam distillation method. The fungi isolated from the leather samples were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Paecilomyces sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus nigricans and Alternaria sp. However, the fungal species vary from person to person. The orange seed ...

  10. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  11. The potential of orange-fleshed sweet potato to prevent vitamin A deficiency in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmu, Fekadu; Hussein, Shimelis; Laing, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is among major health problems worldwide that leads to blindness, retarded growth and death, particularly in developing countries. In these countries, vitamin A deficiency largely affects pre-school children, pregnant and lactating mothers, and the rural poor. For instance, the predicted prevalence of vitamin A deficiency for 36 sub-Saharan African countries is 19.1%. Different strategies, including vitamin A supplementation, food fortification and dietary diversification, have been used to combat this problem. However, these strategies are not sustainable due to their high costs. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) is a low priced crop, which is part of staple foods in most of sub-Saharan Africa that can be a year-round source of vitamin A. Most of the orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties contain 3000-16000 μg 100 g(-1) of β-carotene and this contributes to 250 to 1300 μg 100 g(-1) Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE). Therefore, by using orange-fleshed sweet potato, it is possible to improve vitamin A status, increase the bio-availability of different micro-nutrients such as Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg, reduce vitamin A deficiency and hence reduce child mortality rates by 23 to 30%. The article highlights the significance of vitamin A for human nutrition, the effect of vitamin A deficiency, the different prevention methods and the potential of orange- fleshed sweet potato as a food crop to prevent vitamin A deficiency.

  12. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. The value of the spineless monkey orange tree ( Strychnos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... interventions to maintain or improve habitat quality for these lemurs. During an extensive survey of sportive lemurs in northern Madagascar, we identified one tree species, Strychnos madagascariensis (Loganiaceae), the spineless monkey orange tree, as a principal sleeping site of two species of northern sportive lemurs, ...

  14. VIABILIDADE DO PÓLEN EM VARIEDADES DE LARANJA DOCE POLLEN VIABILITY IN SWEET ORANGE VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma vez que a polinização é um dos pontos decisivos para o crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto, contribuindo com os gametas masculinos para a fecundação e determinando, na maioria das vezes, a fixação dos frutos em citros, torna-se necessário conhecer o grau de esterilidade masculina nas diferentes variedades de laranja doce para sua possível utilização em programas de melhoramento. A esterilidade é limitante para programas que envolvam a hibridação sexual, por outro lado possui sua importância econômica em citros induzindo menor número de sementes por fruto em certas variedades. Com a finalidade de caracterizar 44 variedades de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis [L.] osbeck quanto à viabilidade do pólen, foram coletadas anteras das variedades enxertadas sobre tangerineira Cleópatra. As variedades estudadas pertencem aos principais grupos de laranja doce: com acidez (como a laranja 'Pêra', de baixa acidez (como a laranja 'Lima', com umbigo (como a laranja 'Bahia' e sangüíneas (como a laranja 'Rubi Blood'. O percentual de pólen viável foi avaliado por meio da coloração com carmim acético a 25% e contagem sob microscópio ótico. Foram observados valores que variaram desde 12,0% para a 'Pêra Sem Sementes' até 88,8% para a variedade 'Hamlin Reserva'. Os clones de laranja 'Hamlin' mostraram maior percentual de pólen viável. Não foi observada presença de pólen para as variedades produtoras de laranjas de umbigo, originadas da variedade Bahia. As variedades 'Pêra', 'Valência' e 'Natal', as quais são as principais cultivares da citricultura paulista e nacional, apresentaram baixos percentuais de pólen viável.Pollination is one of the most critical points in fruit growth and development, contributing with male gametes for fertilization and determine, greatly, fruit setting in citrus. It is necessary to evaluate male sterility in sweet orange varieties for their possible use in breeding programs. The sterility limits

  15. Differentiation between Flavors of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) and Mandarin (Citrus reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Gmitter, Frederick G; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-10

    Pioneering investigations referring to citrus flavor have been intensively conducted. However, the characteristic flavor difference between sweet orange and mandarin has not been defined. In this study, sensory analysis illustrated the crucial role of aroma in the differentiation between orange flavor and mandarin flavor. To study aroma, Valencia orange and LB8-9 mandarin were used. Their most aroma-active compounds were preliminarily identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Quantitation of key volatiles followed by calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) further detected potent components (OAV ≥ 1) impacting the overall aromatic profile of orange/mandarin. Follow-up aroma profile analysis revealed that ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, octanal, decanal, and acetaldehyde were essential for orange-like aroma, whereas linalool, octanal, α-pinene, limonene, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were considered key components for mandarin-like aroma. Furthermore, an unreleased mandarin hybrid producing fruit with orange-like flavor was used to validate the identification of characteristic volatiles in orange-like aroma.

  16. A proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts isolated from sweet orange fruits [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Yunliu; Pan, Zhiyong; Ding, Yuduan; Zhu, Andan; Cao, Hongbo; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2011-01-01

    Here, a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts purified from sweet orange using Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation is reported. A GeLC-MS/MS shotgun approach was used to identify the proteins of pooled chromoplast samples. A total of 493 proteins were identified from purified chromoplasts, of which 418 are putative plastid proteins based on in silico sequence homology and functional analyses. Based on the predicted functions of these identified plastid proteins, a large pr...

  17. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of local yellow and orange sweet potatoes genotypes in Sumatera Utara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmayati; Bakti, D.

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of this research was to identify and create database about the diversity of local yellow and orange sweet potatoes accessions in Sumatera Utara, have diversity accession local sweet potatoes genotype in Sumatera Utara selection for classifying populations get high production and good fruit quality. The experiment was conducted in areas of production centers of sweet potatoes in the exploration survey methods in 2 districts in Sumatera Utara, which is in the Kabupaten Simalungun and Dairi. The study was conducted on June to July 2017. Observations were made based on the identification and characterization Description List of International Board for Plant Genetic Resources standard and purposive random sampling technique. The result of this research indicate there 15 genotype of sweet potato yellow and orange in KabupatenSimalungun consistedof KecamatanPurba (G3, G4 and G7), Silimakuta (G5, G6 and G14), and Pamatang Silimahuta (G15) in Kabupaten Dairi consists of Kecamatan Parbuluan (G1, G2, G8 and G9), Sidikalang (G10 and G13), Sumbul (G11), and Sitinjo (G12) with nearest relationship is G13 and G15 with a coefficient similarity 23.908 and farthest relationship is G2 and G7 with a coefficient similarity 140.029.

  18. A dark incubation period is important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature internode explants of sweet orange, grapefruit, citron, and a citrange rootstock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuri Marutani-Hert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Citrus has an extended juvenile phase and trees can take 2-20 years to transition to the adult reproductive phase and produce fruit. For citrus variety development this substantially prolongs the time before adult traits, such as fruit yield and quality, can be evaluated. Methods to transform tissue from mature citrus trees would shorten the evaluation period via the direct production of adult phase transgenic citrus trees. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Factors important for promoting shoot regeneration from internode explants from adult phase citrus trees were identified and included a dark incubation period and the use of the cytokinin zeatin riboside. Transgenic trees were produced from four citrus types including sweet orange, citron, grapefruit, and a trifoliate hybrid using the identified factors and factor settings. SIGNIFICANCE: The critical importance of a dark incubation period for shoot regeneration was established. These results confirm previous reports on the feasibility of transforming mature tissue from sweet orange and are the first to document the transformation of mature tissue from grapefruit, citron, and a trifoliate hybrid.

  19. Effect of 2.4-D exogenous application on the abscission and fruit growth in Sweet orange. var. Salustiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebolledo Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The effect of 2.4-D applications in full bloom on the abscission and fruit growth process was studied on sweet orange fruit in 20-year-old trees of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Salustiana with a high flowering level. Abscission was determined on the whole tree and on the leafy inflorescences. Growth variables of the fruit were characterized (diameter, fresh and dry weight. 2.4-D application (20 mg L-1, 3.6 L per tree increased the growth rate of the fruits and fruits size at maturity, however reduced the number of fruits which kept constant the yield at harvest. Differences between the diameter of the control fruits and the fruits treated with 2.4-D were observed during the early fruitlet development and until day 43 after anthesis. These differences increased with time following a linear relationship. For all the studied variables the diary increase level reaches the maximum by day 53, when the cell expansion of the vesicles starts.

  20. Response of 'Nagpur' mandarin, 'Mosambi' sweet orange and 'Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladaniya, M.S.; Singh, Shyam; Wadhawan, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8±1 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The stem-end rind breakdown was higher in untreated fruit than treated ones although difference

  1. Fumigant Activity of Sweet Orange Essential Oil Fractions Against Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Hongli; Zhong, Balian; Yang, Aixue; Kuang, Fan; Ouyang, Zhigang; Chun, Jiong

    2017-08-01

    Sweet orange oil fractions were prepared by molecular distillation of cold-pressed orange oil from sample A (Citrus sinensis (L.) 'Hamlin' from America) and sample B (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Newhall' from China) respectively, and their fumigant activities against medium workers of red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta Buren) were investigated. The volatile composition of the orange oil fractions was identified and quantified using GC-MS. Fractions from sample A (A1, A2, and A3) contained 23, 37, and 48 chemical constituents, and fractions from sample B (B1, B2, and B3) contained 18, 29, and 26 chemical constituents, respectively. Monoterpenes were the most abundant components, accounting for 73.56% to 94.86% of total orange oil fractions, among which D-limonene (65.28-80.18%), β-pinene (1.71-5.58%), 3-carene (0.41-4.01%), β-phellandrene (0.58-2.10%), and linalool (0.31-2.20%) were major constituents. Fumigant bioassay indicated that all orange oil fractions exerted good fumigant toxicity against workers of fire ants at 3, 5, 10, and 20 mg/centrifuge tubes, and B1 had the strongest insecticidal potential, followed by A1, B2, A2, B3, and A3. The fractions composed of more high volatile molecules (A1 and B1) showed greater fumigant effects than others. Compounds linalool and D-limonene, which were the constituents of the orange oil, exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity against red imported fire ant workers. Linalool killed red imported fire ant workers completely at 5, 10, and 20 mg/tube after 8 h of treatment, and D-limonene induced >86% mortality at 8 h of exposure. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Expression patterns of flowering genes in leaves of 'Pineapple' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajon, Melanie; Febres, Vicente J; Moore, Gloria A

    2017-08-30

    In citrus the transition from juvenility to mature phase is marked by the capability of a tree to flower and fruit consistently. The long period of juvenility in citrus severely impedes the use of genetic based strategies to improve fruit quality, disease resistance, and responses to abiotic environmental factors. One of the genes whose expression signals flower development in many plant species is FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In this study, gene expression levels of flowering genes CiFT1, CiFT2 and CiFT3 were determined using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR in citrus trees over a 1 year period in Florida. Distinct genotypes of citrus trees of different ages were used. In mature trees of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and 'Pineapple' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) the expression of all three CiFT genes was coordinated and significantly higher in April, after flowering was over, regardless of whether they were in the greenhouse or in the field. Interestingly, immature 'Pineapple' seedlings showed significantly high levels of CiFT3 expression in April and June, while CiFT1 and CiFT2 were highest in June, and hence their expression induction was not simultaneous as in mature plants. In mature citrus trees the induction of CiFTs expression in leaves occurs at the end of spring and after flowering has taken place suggesting it is not associated with dormancy interruption and further flower bud development but is probably involved with shoot apex differentiation and flower bud determination. CiFTs were also seasonally induced in immature seedlings, indicating that additional factors must be suppressing flowering induction and their expression has other functions.

  3. YIELD AND QUALITY OF ‘PERA’ SWEET ORANGE GRAFTED ON DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO HÉLDER RODRIGUES SAMPAIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate, under field conditions, different combinations between ‘Pera’ sweet orange and eight rootstocks: ‘Rangpur’ lime (RL, ‘Volkamer’ lemon (VL, ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (CM, ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarin (SMM, ‘Indio’ and ‘Riverside’ citrandarins, and VL x RL (‘Rangpur’ lime-010 and TH-051 hybrids. The soil water matric potential (?m was characterized for all scion-rootstock combinations at distance of 1.0m from the trunk at the plant row direction and depths of 0.25 m, 0.50 m 0.90 m in the dry and wet seasons. For two years, fruit production parameters and fruit quality were assessed. Differences of Ym among scion-rootstock combinations were observed during the dry season (p=0.05. The lowest Ym values for RL and the highest for TH-051 indicate the existence of different intrinsic mechanisms affecting the water extraction of each scion-rootstock combination. Rootstocks have influenced fruit yield and quality (p=0.05. The best combinations for fruit quality and production were sweet orange grafted on ‘Riverside’, ‘Indio’ and TH-051 rootstocks.

  4. Sunki mandarin and Swingle citrumelo as rootstocks for rain-fed cultivation of late-season sweet orange selections in northern São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazilian regions affected by the citrus sudden death disease, sweet orange cultivation depends on the use of resistant rootstocks. Rangpur lime was mainly replaced by Swingle citrumelo and Sunki mandarin rootstocks, more drought-sensitive ones. The diversification of scion selections is also desirable aiming at the increasing demand for not from concentrate orange juice (NFC that requires high-quality fruits. In this work, we evaluated the performance of 6 selections of Valencia (IAC, Dom João, Late Burjasot IVIA 35-2, Rhode Red SRA 360, Temprana IVIA 25 and Campbell and Natal IAC sweet oranges grafted onto Swingle citrumelo and Sunki mandarin. The planting occurred in 2001 under rain-fed cultivation in Bebedouro, northern São Paulo state, Brazil. The outline was made through randomized blocks in a 7 × 2 factorial design (selections × rootstock, with 4 replications and 2 trees in unit. Both rootstocks performed well in the region. Sunki mandarin rootstock induced greater tree size and production per plant to the scion selections, 38 and 21%, respectively, plus higher precocity of production compared to Swingle citrumelo. The later determined a greater productive efficiency, as well as a greater percentage of juice in general, albeit with lower concentrations of soluble solids and acidity. Natal IAC, Valencia IAC and Rhode Red Valencia selections presented a higher accumulated production, on average, 218.6 kg∙plant−1 (2004 – 2008, and a higher productive efficiency (kg fruit∙m−3 of canopy due to their smaller tree size. All assessed selections produced fruits with high soluble solids content that were suitable for juice processing.

  5. Influence of Addition Sweet Orange Essential Oil on Tris Yolk Extender to Quality of Post-Thawing Semen Simmental Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sitepu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The long-term objective of the study was to determine the extent to which frozen semen quality of Simmental Cattle included percentage Motility, viability, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity which was given essential oils of sweet orange peel in tris yolk. at UPT-BIB Laboratory of North Sumatra Veterinary Services, Jalan Jend. Gatot Subroto Km. 7 No. 225 Medan. The research was conducted in June 2017. The material used in this research is fresh semen of Simmental Cattle, tris yolk extender and essential oils of the sweet orange peel. The experimental design used in the study was a complete non-factorial randomized design (RAL with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatment given is the addition essential oils of the sweet orange peel of 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%. The results showed that the best treatment in the study was the addition 1% essential oils of sweet orange peel which can maintain the quality of Simmental semen before and after freezing (Post Thawing.

  6. An integrative analysis of transcriptome and proteome provides new insights into carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in sweet orange fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhiyong; Zeng, Yunliu; An, Jianyong; Ye, Junli; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-05-17

    An integrative analysis of transcriptome and proteome was performed to identify differential genes/proteins of a red-flesh sweet orange Cara Cara in comparison with a common cultivar Newhall at ripening stages. At the transcript level, gene expression was measured with Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS), and 629 genes of these two sweet orange cultivars differed by two fold or more (FDR<0.001). At the protein level, a combination of 2DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS identified 48 protein spots differed in relative abundance (P<0.05). The data obtained from comparing transcriptome with proteome showed a poor correlation, suggesting the necessity to integrate both transcriptomic and proteomic approaches in order to get a comprehensive molecular characterization. Function analysis of the differential genes/proteins revealed that a set of candidates was associated with carotenoid biosynthesis and the regulation. Overall, some intriguing genes/proteins were previously unrecognized related with the formation of red-flesh trait, which provided new insights into molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in a red-flesh sweet orange. In addition, some genes/proteins were found to be different in expression patterns between the Cara Cara and another red-flesh sweet orange Hong Anliu, and their potential roles were further discussed in the present study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring the yield gap of orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties on smallholder farmers' fields in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van D.; Franke, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) can contribute to combating vitamin A deficiency and establishing more resilient cropping systems in sub-Saharan Africa. There is limited understanding of the factors that affect yield and quality of OFSP on smallholder farmers' fields. This study aimed to assess

  8. Effects of Leaf Extracts of Selected Plants on Quality of Stored Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwagbenga O. ADEOGUN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in the quality of fruits during storage has been a concern to the consumers and the effect can be felt on the economy of developing countries. Leaves of plants such as Canna indica, Megaphrynium macrostachyum and Thaumatococcus daniellii have been documented as food packaging materials in West Africa. Based on this, the quality of stored sweet orange juice was investigated using ethanolic extracts of leaves of C. indica, M. macrostachyum and T. daniellii to enhance the shelf life of the juice. The extracts were used to assess the quality of juice for 30 days using quantitative parameters such as total soluble solid, browning potential, pH, microbial analysis and turbidity at 4 oC and at room temperature (27-31 oC. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents of the extracts were determined. The extracts’ toxicity was determined using Brine shrimp. The quality assessment evidently revealed that the freshly squeezed orange juice with the extracts possess tolerable activity to enhance the shelf life of orange juice. The leaf extract of M. macrostachyum had the highest preservation rate on the juice after 30 days. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids in the three plants tested. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts in the three plants revealed that M. macrostachum had the highest contents of alkaloids (107.48 mg/g and flavonoids (56.92 mg/g.The study showed that the extracts were non-lethal on Brine shrimp. This study ascertained the potential preservative qualities of the test plants for enhancing the shelf-life of orange juice.

  9. Household Consumption of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato and its Associated Factors in Chipata District, Eastern Province Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, Patricia; Kunneke, Ernesta; Faber, Mieke

    2018-03-01

    The Integrating Orange Project promotes production and consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) to address vitamin A deficiency among rural populations of Zambia since 2011. This study assessed household production and consumption of OFSP and identified factors associated with consumption thereof in Integrating Orange Project areas in Chipata district, Zambia. Respondents of 295 randomly selected households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during the sweet potato harvest season. Associations between OFSP consumption and household factors were assessed using χ 2 tests. Frequency of OFSP consumption was categorized as ≥4 days during the last 7 days (30.2%), 1 to 3 days during the last 7 days (49.5%), eats OFSP but not during the last 7 days (7.1%), and never (13.2%). In total, 60.3% of households planted OFSP, and 40.0% bought OFSP, mostly from farmers within the community. Orange-fleshed sweet potato consumption was associated with the presence of children aged less than 5 years in the household ( P = .018), production of OFSP ( P .05). A high percentage of households consumed OFSP during the harvesting season in Integrating Orange Project areas. Programs promoting OFSP consumption should thus focus on OFSP production and sensitizing households on nutritional benefits of OFSP and target households with children aged less than 5 years as entry point.

  10. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) Causing Proteomic and Enzymatic Changes in Sweet Orange Variety “Westin”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Milena Santos; de Sousa, Aurizângela Oliveira; Barbosa, Cristiane de Jesus; Costa, Márcio Gilberto Cardoso; Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Souza, Regina Martins; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    Citrus Tristeza disease, caused by CTV (Citrus tristeza virus), committs citrus plantations around the world and specifically attacks phloem tissues of the plant. The virus exists as a mixture of more or less severe variants, which may or may not cause symptoms of Tristeza. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes caused by CTV in the proteome of stems of sweet orange, as well as in the activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. The CTV-infected sweet orange displayed mild symptoms, which were characterized by the presence of sparse stem pitting throughout their stems. The presence of virus was confirmed by RT-PCR. Proteomic analysis by 2DE-PAGE-MS / MS revealed the identity of 40 proteins differentially expressed between CTV- infected and -non-infected samples. Of these, 33 were up-regulated and 7 were down-regulated in CTV-infected samples. Among the proteins identified stands out a specific from the virus, the coat protein. Other proteins identified are involved with oxidative stress and for this their enzymatic activity was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was higher in CTV-infected samples, as catalase (CAT) showed higher activity in uninfected samples. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) did not vary significantly between samples. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) was more active in the infected samples. The relative expression of the genes encoding CAT, SOD, APX and GPX was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). The CTV-infected samples showed greater accumulation of transcripts, except for the CAT gene. This gene showed higher expression in the uninfected samples. Taken together, it can be concluded that the CTV affects the protein profile and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in plants infected by this virus. PMID:26207751

  11. Selection of reference genes for expression analyses of red-fleshed sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, T T; Nishimura, D S; De Nadai, F B; Figueira, A; Latado, R R

    2015-12-28

    Red-fleshed oranges (Citrus sinensis) contain high levels of carotenoids and lycopene. The growing consumer demand for products with health benefits has increased interest in these types of Citrus cultivars as a potential source of nutraceuticals. However, little is known about the physiology of these cultivars under Brazilian conditions. Transcriptome and gene expression analyses are important tools in the breeding and management of red-fleshed sweet orange cultivars. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a method of quantifying gene expression, but various standardizations are required to obtain precise, accurate, and specific results. Among the standardizations required, the choice of suitable stable reference genes is fundamental. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 11 candidate genes using various tissue and organ samples from healthy plants or leaves from citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing)-symptomatic plants of a Brazilian red-fleshed cultivar ('Sanguínea de Mombuca'), in order to select the most suitable reference gene for investigating gene expression under these conditions. geNorm and NormFinder identified genes that encoded translation initiation factor 3, ribosomal protein L35, and translation initiation factor 5A as the most stable genes under the biological conditions tested, and genes coding actin (ACT) and the subunit of the PSI reaction center subunit III were the least stable. Phosphatase, malate dehydrogenase, and ACT were the most stable genes in the leaf samples of infected plants.

  12. Effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor content of orange-fleshed sweet potato for production of amala in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Abbas Bazata; Fuchs, Richard; Nicolaides, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the work was to study the effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange-fleshed sweet potato amala. The most common sweet potato in Nigeria is white or yellow fleshed, which is very low in provitamin A. However, efforts are underway to promote orange-fleshed sweet potato to improve provitamin A intake. This paper describes how orange-fleshed sweet potato slices were traditionally processed into amala, which is increasingly consumed in Nigeria. The study revealed that both the cold and hot fermentation methods resulted in increased vitamin A levels and lower vitamin C levels in orange-fleshed sweet potato. Further processing to make amala resulted in a fall in both vitamin A and C content. The study found an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity following the cold-water fermentation and a decrease following the hot-water fermentation compared to raw orange-fleshed sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitor activity in amala produced using both the cold and hot methods was below detectable levels. The results indicate that amala produced from traditionally fermented orange-fleshed sweet potato could be a good source of vitamins A and C for the rural poor and that the processing removes any potential negative effects of trypsin inhibitors. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Exploring the yield gap of orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties on smallholder farmers' fields in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Vugt, van, D.; Franke, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) can contribute to combating vitamin A deficiency and establishing more resilient cropping systems in sub-Saharan Africa. There is limited understanding of the factors that affect yield and quality of OFSP on smallholder farmers' fields. This study aimed to assess the performance of six OFSP varieties, identify factors limiting productivity and explore options to close the gap between actual and attainable OFSP yields on fields of smallholder farmers. Data we...

  14. Honey bee attractants and pollination in sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, var. Pera-Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Malerbo-Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment studied the frequency and behavior of insects on sweet orange flowers, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, their effect on fruit production (quantity and quality, nectar and pollen collection, and the effectiveness of different attractants. Over three consecutive years, the most frequent visitor to the flowers was Apis mellifera (Africanized. Flowers visited less than ten times showed low fructification. Fruit production was 35.30% greater in uncovered flowers. Fruit mean weight was much greater in uncovered (180.2g than in covered flowers (168.5g. Fruits from the covered were more acid (1.411g of citric acid/100ml of juice than the uncovered flowers (1.164g of citric acid/100ml of juice. The number of seeds per bud was higher in the uncovered (1 seed/bud than in the covered treatment (0.8 seed/bud. Bee-HereR, eugenol, geraniol, citral, and lemon grass extract, mainly diluted in water, were effective in attracting honeybees to orchards. However, these compounds were less effective when diluted in sugar syrup. The same products had variable attractiveness to honeybees in different years.

  15. Ectopic accumulation of linalool confers resistance to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in transgenic sweet orange plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Rodríguez, Ana; Fujii, Hiroshi; Goto, Shingo; Matsuura, Takakazu; Hojo, Yuko; Ikeda, Yoko; Mori, Izumi C; Fujikawa, Takashi; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

    2017-05-01

    In order to clarify whether high linalool content in citrus leaves alone induces strong field resistance to citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), and to assess whether this trait can be transferred to a citrus type highly sensitive to the bacterium, transgenic 'Hamlin' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) plants over-expressing a linalool synthase gene (CuSTS3-1) were generated. Transgenic lines (LIL) with the highest linalool content showed strong resistance to citrus canker when spray inoculated with the bacterium. In LIL plants inoculated by wounding (multiple-needle inoculation), the linalool level was correlated with the repression of the bacterial titer and up-regulation of defense-related genes. The exogenous application of salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate or linalool triggered responses similar to those constitutively induced in LIL plants. The linalool content in Ponkan mandarin leaves was significantly higher than that of leaves from six other representative citrus genotypes with different susceptibilities to Xcc. We propose that linalool-mediated resistance might be unique to citrus tissues accumulating large amounts of volatile organic compounds in oil cells. Linalool might act not only as a direct antibacterial agent, but also as a signal molecule involved in triggering a non-host resistance response against Xcc. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Modeling the incidence of citrus canker in leaves of the sweet orange variety ‘Pera’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle da Silva Pompeu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, is one of the most important diseases of citrus. The use of resistant genotypes plays an important role in the management and control of the disease and is the most environmentally sustainable approach to disease control. Citrus canker incidence was recorded in an experiment on nine genotypes of the sweet orange variety ‘Pera’ grafted on four rootstocks. The experiment was started in 2010 and the incidence of citrus canker on the leaves was recorded on a quarterly basis. The incidence data from the experiment were analyzed using a zero-inflated Beta regression model (RBIZ, which is the appropriate method to describe data with large numbers of zeros. Based on the residual analysis, the data fit the model well. The discrete component of the explanatory variable, rootstock, was not significant as a factor affecting the onset of disease, in contrast with the continuous component, genotype, which was significant in explaining the incidence of citrus canker.

  17. Expressing the sweet potato orange gene in transgenic potato improves drought tolerance and marketable tuber production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Han, Eun-Heui; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Cho, Ji-Hong; Im, Ju-Seong; Hong, Su-Young; Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Shin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is generally considered to be sensitive to drought stress. Even short periods of water shortage can result in reduced tuber production and quality. We previously reported that transgenic potato plants expressing the sweet potato orange gene (IbOr) under the control of the stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SOR plants) showed increased tolerance to methyl viologen-mediated oxidative stress and high salinity, along with increased carotenoid contents. In this study, in an effort to improve the productivity and environmental stress tolerance of potato, we subjected transgenic potato plants expressing IbOr to water-deficient conditions in the greenhouse. The SOR plants exhibited increased tolerance to drought stress under greenhouse conditions. IbOr expression was associated with slightly negative phenotypes, including reduced tuber production. Controlling IbOr expression imparted the same degree of drought tolerance while ameliorating these negative phenotypic effects, leading to levels of tuber production similar to or better than those of wild-type plants under drought stress conditions. In particular, under drought stress, drought tolerance and the production of marketable tubers (over 80g) were improved in transgenic plants compared with non-transgenic plants. These results suggest that expressing the IbOr transgene can lead to significant gains in drought tolerance and tuber production in potato, thereby improving these agronomically important traits. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Moringa oleifera LAM, Leguminous Plants and NPK Fertilizer Comparatively on Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato in Alley Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IN Abdullahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The research work conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Abuja was aimed at assessing the effect of Moringa oleifera, selected leguminous plants and inorganic fertilizer on the performance of orange fleshed sweet potato in Alley Cropping System. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD using five treatments with three replications was applied. Data collected include: percentage survival of sweet potato, length per vine (cm, number of leaves per vine, leaf area of sweet potato, weed dry matter (g/m2, yield of sweet potato roots. Highest number of leaves (28 per plant was recorded in the control plot while the plots with NPK fertilizer had the highest length per vine (94.55cm though not significantly (p>0.05 different from others. Higher percent survival (88% of sweet potato was recorded from control plots. Stands grown in Arachis hypogeae plots produced the highest leaf area (0.202m2 while plots in which NPK fertilizer was applied experienced highest weed dry matter (4.083g/m2 although highest root yield (1.2t/ha was recorded from the plots with NPK fertilizer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11061 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 24-35

  19. Collection and chemical composition of phloem sap from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (sweet orange).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Killiny, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Through utilizing the nutrient-rich phloem sap, sap feeding insects such as psyllids, leafhoppers, and aphids can transmit many phloem-restricted pathogens. On the other hand, multiplication of phloem-limited, uncultivated bacteria such as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) inside the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for the pathogen growth. The phloem sap composition of many plants has been studied; however, to our knowledge, there is no available data about citrus phloem sap. In this study, we identified and quantified the chemical components of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. Two approaches (EDTA enhanced exudation and centrifugation) were used to collect phloem sap. The collected sap was derivatized with methyl chloroformate (MCF), N-methyl-N- [tert-butyl dimethylsilyl]-trifluroacetamide (MTBSTFA), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) and analyzed with GC-MS revealing 20 amino acids and 8 sugars. Proline, the most abundant amino acid, composed more than 60% of the total amino acids. Tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are considered essential for phloem sap-sucking insects, were also detected. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and inositol were the most predominant sugars. In addition, seven organic acids including succinic, fumaric, malic, maleic, threonic, citric, and quinic were detected. All compounds detected in the EDTA-enhanced exudate were also detected in the pure phloem sap using centrifugation. The centrifugation technique allowed estimating the concentration of metabolites. This information expands our knowledge about the nutrition requirement for citrus phloem-limited bacterial pathogen and their vectors, and can help define suitable artificial media to culture them.

  20. Effect of extrusion-cooking in total carotenoids content in cream and orange flesh sweet potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José de O Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas is a food crop that supplies energy, minerals and vitamins C and B. Some cultivars are very rich in carotenoids (pro-vitamin A. In this study were evaluated and compared the total carotenoids content of two cultivars and the losses on the dehydrated extruded sweet potato flour. Samples from organic and conventional crops were analyzed, in the form of fresh and dehydrated extruded samples. Total carotenoids content of the fresh product, expressed on wet basis, was of 437 µg 100 g-1 for the cream cultivar and 10,12 µg 100 g-1 for the orange cultivar. After dehydration, losses of total carotenoids were of 41% and 38%, respectively. The fresh orange cultivar presented high total carotenoids content in comparison to the cream cultivar. The extruded orange sweet potato flour showed the lowest losses in total carotenoids. Therefore, the processed flour of orange sweet potato could be used to obtain pre-gelatinized extruded flour with high total carotenoids content.A batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas é um alimento fonte rico em energia, minerais, vitaminas C e B. Algumas cultivares são ricas em pró-vitamina A. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar e comparar o conteúdo de carotenóides totais em duas cultivares de batata-doce e determinar suas perdas na obtenção da farinha desidratada e processada por extrusão. Foram analisadas amostras de sistema de cultivo orgânico e convencional, tanto as frescas como as extrusadas desidratadas. O conteúdo de carotenóides totais do produto fresco, expressos em base úmida, foi de 437 µg 100 g-1 para a cultivar creme e de 10,120 µg 100g-1 para a cultivar alaranjada. Após o processo de desidratação das amostras, as perdas de carotenóides totais foram de 41% para a batata-doce creme e 38% para a alaranjada, respectivamente. Os resultados indicaram alto conteúdo de carotenóides totais para a cultivar alaranjada fresca, quando comparado com a cultivar creme. A amostra de

  1. In vitroinvestigation of orange fleshed sweet potato prebiotic potential and its implication on human gut health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N.Muchiri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some food ingredients (prebiotics have been shown to promote a healthy gut by selectively stimulating growth/activity of beneficial gastrointestinal microbes and metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA while inhibiting pathogens. Orange fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam; OFSP root tuber is a starchy tropical crop and highly nutritious in terms of pro-vitamin A (beta carotene, dietary fibre, and natural sugars, with negligible amount of fats and cholesterol. Purpose of study: The aim of the study was to investigate using simulated human gut system whether OFSP may have prebiotic activity derived from their fibre, resistant starch, and/or the sugars. Methodology: In vitro pH controlled stirred batch culture fermentation system was used to compare the effect on human gut microbiota of four substrates: two varieties of OFSP (SPK 004 and Tainung, FOS and sucrose known for positive prebiotic and non-selective change respectively. The system was inoculated with faecal slurry from six different human healthy donors from different ethical backgrounds, age, and the effectual change recorded over 24 hours by monitoring bacterial counts (total bacteria, Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium using qPCR molecular technique and SCFA profiles by gas chromatography. Results: The total bacteria count increased by (0.92-1.7 log10 and Bacteroides genus (1.03-1.8 log10 throughout the experimental period but with no significant differences (p<0.05 between the four substrates. However, there were significant differences (p<0.05 in the beneficial Bifidobacterium (1.66-2.66 log10 between the 2 varieties of OFSP and the two controls (FOS and sucrose. The levels of SCFA increased, with acetate as the predominant acid and lactic acid being the least. The OFSP purees elicited high butyric acid levels, which were comparable to those of positive control FOS. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that OFSP purees may have prebiotic potential that can

  2. Carotenoids and β-carotene in orange fleshed sweet potato: A possible solution to vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sheikh Nazrul; Nusrat, Tania; Begum, Parveen; Ahsan, Monira

    2016-05-15

    The present study, in line with a plant-food-based approach to address vitamin A deficiency, reports the analysis of total carotenoids, and trans- and cis-β-carotenes, in different varieties of raw and boiled orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP). Carotenoids were isolated using acetone-petroleum ether extraction followed by spectrophotometric determination. trans- and cis-β-Carotenes were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC method using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile:methanol:2-propanol in the ratio of 85:15:33 with 0.01% ammonium acetate. Intra-varietal difference in carotenoids as well as trans- and cis-β-carotenes were noted in both the raw and boiled potatoes. Carotenoid content was found to be higher in the raw potatoes compared to the boiled samples from the same variety. Amongst the OFSP varieties, Kamalasundari (BARI SP-2) was found to contain the most carotenoids in both the raw and boiled samples. β-Carotene was significantly higher in the Kamalsundari and BARI SP-5 varieties. trans-β-Carotene was found to be the major carotenoid in all of the raw potatoes, but boiling was associated with an increase in cis-β-carotene and a decrease in the trans isomer. Kamalsundari and BARI SP-5 orange-fleshed sweet potatoes have the potential to be used as food-based supplements to reduce vitamin A deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Overexpression of the IbMYB1 gene in an orange-fleshed sweet potato cultivar produces a dual-pigmented transgenic sweet potato with improved antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sun Ha; Jeong, Yu Jeong; Kim, Cha Young; Lee, Joon Seol; Bae, Ji-Yeong; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-04-01

    The R2R3-type protein IbMYB1 is a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the storage roots of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam]. Previously, we demonstrated that IbMYB1 expression stimulated anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves and Arabidopsis. Here, we generated dual-pigmented transgenic sweet potato plants that accumulated high levels of both anthocyanins and carotenoids in a single sweet potato storage root. An orange-fleshed cultivar with high carotenoid levels was transformed with the IbMYB1 gene under the control of either the storage root-specific sporamin 1 (SPO1) promoter or the oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase anionic 2 (SWPA2) promoter. The SPO1-MYB transgenic lines exhibited higher anthocyanin levels in storage roots than empty vector control (EV) or SWPA2-MYB plants, but carotenoid content was unchanged. SWPA2-MYB transgenic lines exhibited higher levels of both anthocyanin and carotenoids than EV plants. Analysis of hydrolyzed anthocyanin extracts indicated that cyanidin and peonidin predominated in both overexpression lines. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that IbMYB1 expression in both IbMYB1 transgenic lines strongly induced the upregulation of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, whereas the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes varied between transgenic lines. Increased anthocyanin levels in transgenic plants also promoted the elevation of proanthocyanidin and total phenolic levels in fresh storage roots. Consequently, all IbMYB1 transgenic plants displayed much higher antioxidant activities than EV plants. In field cultivations, storage root yields varied between the transgenic lines. Taken together, our results indicate that overexpression of IbMYB1 is a highly promising strategy for the generation of transgenic plants with enhanced antioxidant capacity. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Orange Recognition on Tree Using Image Processing Method Based on Lighting Density Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R Ahmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the last few years, a new tendency has been created towards robotic harvesting of oranges and some of citrus fruits. The first step in robotic harvesting is accurate recognition and positioning of fruits. Detection through image processing by color cameras and computer is currently the most common method. Obviously, a harvesting robot faces with natural conditions and, therefore, detection must be done in various light conditions and environments. In this study, it was attempted to provide a suitable algorithm for recognizing the orange fruits on tree. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, 500 images were taken in different conditions of canopy, lighting and the distance to the tree. The algorithm included sub-routines for optimization, segmentation, size filtering, separation of fruits based on lighting density method and coordinates determination. In this study, MLP neural network (with 3 hidden layers was used for segmentation that was found to be successful with an accuracy of 88.2% in correct detection. As there exist a high percentage of the clustered oranges in images, any algorithm aiming to detect oranges on the trees successfully should offer a solution to separate these oranges first. A new method based on the light and shade density method was applied and evaluated in this research. Finally, the accuracies for differentiation and recognition were obtained to be 89.5% and 88.2%, respectively.

  5. The effects of nitrogen and potassium nutrition on the growth of nonembryogenic and embryogenic tissue of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to improve the growth of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. ‘Valencia’) nonembryogenic and embryogenic callus tissue via nitrogen nutrition. The experimental approach was a mixture-amount design comprised of a two-component NH4+:K+ mixture that ranged from...

  6. Effect of abscission zone formation on orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit/juice quality for trees affected by Huanglongbing (HLB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange trees affected by huanglongbing (HLB) exhibit excessive fruit drop, and fruit loosely attached to the tree may have inferior flavor. Fruit were collected from healthy and HLB-infected (Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus) ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ trees. Prior to harvest, the trees were shaken, f...

  7. Morphogenesis and tissue culture of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.): effect of temperature and photosynthetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran-Vila, N.; Gogorcena, Y.; Ortega, V.; Ortiz, J.; Navarro, L.

    1992-01-01

    Both incubation temperature and photosynthetic radiation affected morphogenesis, callus culture and plantlet culture of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cultured in vitro. Bud culture from nodal stem segments, regeneration of shoots and buds from internode stem segments and induction of primary callus were near optimal at incubation temperatures between 21–30°C. The optimal temperature for root formation was 27°C with temperatures above and below being clearly deleterious. Incubation in the dark or under low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was beneficial for callus induction and growth and also favored the production of rooted plantlets from bud cultures. Incubation in the dark improved considerably the regeneration of shoots and buds from internode segments and the recovery of whole plants. No off-types, as determined by protein and isoenzyme analysis, were observed among plantlets recovered from bud cultures or from regeneration of shoots from internode stem segments

  8. Genetic diversity of bitter and sweet African bush mango trees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economically important food tree species in sub-Saharan Africa should be domesticated to enhance their production within agro forestry systems. The African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) are highly preserved and integrated in agro forestry systems in tropical Africa. However, the taxonomic debate related to the ...

  9. Caipira sweet orange + Rangpur lime: a somatic hybrid with potential for use as rootstock in the Brazilian citrus industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of somatic hybrid plants between Caipira sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (C. limonia L. Osbeck. The plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids by leaf morphology, chromosome number and RAPD profile. All regenerated plants were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, with intermediate leaf morphology and complementary RAPD banding profile of both parents. This combination may be useful as a rootstock for the citrus industry in Southeastern Brazil since this somatic hybrid could combine the drought tolerance and vigor of Rangpur lime with the blight tolerance of Caipira sweet orange.Híbridos somáticos de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck e limão Cravo (C. limonia L. Osbeck foram regenerados após a fusão (polietileno glicol e cultura de protoplastos. Os híbridos somáticos foram confirmados pela análise da morfologia das folhas, determinação do número de cromossomos e marcadores moleculares (RAPD. Todas as plantas analisadas revelaram-se tetraplóides (2n = 4x = 36, possuíam folhas de morfologia intermediária e uma combinação do padrão de bandas de RAPD de ambos os parentais. Esta combinação pode se tornar útil como porta-enxerto para a Região Sudeste da indústria citrícola brasileira. Este híbrido somático potencialmente combinará as características de tolerância à seca e o vigor do limão Cravo com a tolerância ao declínio da laranja Caipira.

  10. Determining sap sweetness in small sugar maple trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin R. Koelling

    1967-01-01

    Describes a technique based on the use of a hypodermic needle for determining sap-sugar concentrations in small trees. The technique is applicable to pot cultures in greenhouses and also, with the use of a movable shelter, to seedlings in nursery beds.

  11. Transfer factors of {sup 134}Cs for olive and orange trees grown on different soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarlou, V.; Nobeli, C.; Anoussis, J. [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Haidouti, C. [Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens (Greece); Papanicolaou, E. [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece)

    1999-10-01

    Transfer factors (TF) of {sup 134}Cs to olive and citrus trees grown on two different soils, were determined for a 3-year greenhouse experiment. Two-year-old trees were transplanted with their entire rootball into large pots containing the contaminated soil (110 kg pot{sup -1}). The soil was transferred to each pot in layers on the top of which {sup 134}Cs as CsCl was dripped (18.5 MBq pot{sup -1}). For both evergreen trees, soil type significantly influenced radiocaesium transfer. {sup 134}Cs concentration was lower for the calcareous-heavy soil than for the acid-light soil. Transfer factors of orange trees were higher than those of olive trees in the acid-light soil. Although a significant amount of {sup 134}Cs was measured in olives grown on the acid-light soil, no {sup 134}Cs was detected in the unprocessed olive oil when an oil fraction (5% f.w.) was extracted. On the contrary the edible part of the oranges showed the highest {sup 134}Cs concentration of all plant parts. The relationship between {sup 134}Cs uptake and potassium content in the different plant compartments was also studied when selected trees were cut down. The potassium concentration in the plants was not significantly different between the trees growing in the two types of soil in spite of the big differences in the {sup 134}Cs uptake in the two soils. TF values and potassium content in the different plant compartments of each tree were highly correlated. For both crops transfer factors as well as potassium content were the highest in the developing plant parts (new leaves and branches, flowers). The transfer factors of {sup 134}Cs for the studied trees are in the same order of magnitude as the values of annual crops grown under similar conditions. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Effects of Lactic Acid Fermentation on the Retention of Β-Carotene Content in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard O. Oloo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the effects of lactic fermentation on the levels of β-carotene in selected  orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP varieties from Kenya.  Furthermore,it sought to demonstrate fermentation as a potential process for making new products from sweet potato with enhanced nutraceutical attributes. The varieties (Zapallo, Nyathiodiewo and SPK004/06 were fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 at 25 ± 2°C for 48 h and kept for 28 days to make lacto-pickles. During fermentation both analytical [pH, titratable acidity (TA, lactic acid (LA, starch, total sugar, reducing sugar (g/kg roots, texture (N/m2, β-carotene (mg/kg roots] and sensory (texture, taste, flavour and after taste attributes of sweet potato lacto-juice were evaluated. Process conditions were optimized by varying brine levels, with fermentation time. A UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to identify and quantify β-carotene. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in analytical attributes between the fermented and unfermented samples (pH, LA, TA and β-carotene concentration of lacto-pickles, prepared from the potato roots, were assessed. The study reported a final composition of 156.49mg/kg, 0.53mg/kg, 0.3N/m2, 1.3g/kg, 5.86g/kg, 0.5g/kg and 5.86g/kg for β-carotene, Ascorbic acid, texture; Starch, total sugars, LA and TA respectively, and a pH of 3.27. The fermented products were subjected to flavour profiling by a panel. The product sensory scores were 1.5 to 2.5 on a 5 point hedonic scale, ranging from dislike slightly to like much. The products with brine levels at 4 and 6% were most preferred. The retention of β-carotene was 93.97%. This demonstrated lactic acid fermentation as a better method for processing OFSP as the main nutritional attributes are retained. The final product was resistant to spoilage microorganisms after 28 days of fermentation. Further preservation could be obtained by addition of sodium metabisulphite. In conclusion, Lactic

  13. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

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    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  14. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-09-14

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  15. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya

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    Derick Nyabera Malavi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs, hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were used in data collection. The results indicated low level of compliance to GMPs with an overall compliance score of 58%. Microbial counts on food equipment surfaces, installations, and personnel hands and in packaged OFSP puree were above the recommended microbial safety and quality legal limits. Steaming significantly (P<0.05 reduced microbial load in OFSP cooked roots but the counts significantly (P<0.05 increased in the puree due to postprocessing contamination. Total counts, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and E. coli and S. aureus counts in OFSP puree were 8.0, 4.0, 6.6, 5.8, 4.8, and 5.9 log10 cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, equipment surfaces, personnel hands, and processing water were major sources of contamination in OFSP puree processing and handling. Plant hygiene inspection, environmental monitoring, and food safety trainings are recommended to improve hygiene, microbial quality, and safety of OFSP puree.

  16. Cloning, purification and characterization of a 90kDa heat shock protein from Citrus sinensis (sweet orange).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Yuri A; Ramos, Carlos H I

    2012-01-01

    Protein misfolding is stimulated by stress, such as heat, and heat shock proteins (Hsps) are the first line of defense against these undesirable situations. Plants, which are naturally sessile, are perhaps more exposed to stress factors than some other organisms, and consequently, the role of Hsps is crucial to maintain homeostasis. Hsp90, because of its key role in infection and other stresses, is targeted in therapies that improve plant production by increasing resistance to both biotic and abiotic stress. In addition, Hsp90 is a primary factor in the maintenance of homeostasis in plants. Therefore, we cloned and purified Hsp90 from Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). Recombinant C. sinensis Hsp90 (rCsHsp90) was produced and measured by circular dichroism (CD), intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. rCsHsp90 formed a dimer in solution with a Stokes radius of approximately 62Å. In addition, it was resistant to thermal unfolding, was able to protect citrate synthase from aggregation, and Western blot analysis demonstrated that CsHsp90 was constitutively expressed in C. sinensis cells. Our analysis indicated that CsHsp90 is conformationally similar to that of yeast Hsp90, for which structural information is available. Therefore, we showed that C. sinensis expresses an Hsp90 chaperone that has a conformation and function similar to other Hsp90s. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Sweet Orange Fruit Waste Diets and Acidifier on Haematology and Serum Chemistry of Weanling Rabbits

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    Oluremi Martha Daudu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirty-five mixed breed (35 rabbits of average weight of 700 g aged 5-6 weeks were allocated to seven treatments in a completely randomised design to investigate the effect of sweet orange fruit waste (SOFW and acidomix acidifier on haematology and serum chemistry. The diets were 0% SOFW, 10% SOFW with 0.5% acidomix, 10% SOFW with 0.7 acidomix, 15% SOFW with 0.5% acidifier, 15% SOFW with 0.7% acidifier, 20% SOFW with 0.5% acidifier, and 20% SOFW with 0.7% acidifier. Blood samples were analyzed for haemoglobin (hb concentration, white blood cells (WBC, red blood cells (RBC, differential WBC count (lymphocyte, basophil, eosinophil, monocyte, and neutrophil, alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate amino transferase (AST, total protein, albumin, and globulin. There was no interaction between SOFW and acidifier for the haematological and most of the serum chemistry parameters but significant difference was observed in ALT; however the values were within the normal range. SOFW had no significant effect on all haematological and serum chemistry parameters. Acidomix had significant effect (P<0.05 on haemoglobin concentration; rabbits fed 0.5% acidomix diets had higher values which were within the normal range. It is therefore concluded that SOFW with acidifier up to 20% had no detrimental effect on serum chemistry and haematology.

  18. Evaluation of some pollutant levels in bitter orange trees: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Sabina Rossini; Valdés, Benito; Mingorance, Maria Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Samples of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) fruits (epicarp and mesocarp), leaves and its fruit marmalade from sites in Seville (Andalucia, Spain) with different levels of traffic were analysed for Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations by ICP/AES. Comparative values are given from a background area. The effect of washing on metal content in epicarp and leaves was investigated. Results revealed that Ba, Fe and Mn accumulated in leaves > epicarp > mesocarp, Cu and Ni in leaves > epicarp congruent withmesocarp and Zn leaves > mesocarp > epicarp. Washing had no significant effect on epicarp metal content while it removes part of Cu, Fe and Zn deposited on leaves. Bitter orange fruits are used mainly to make marmalade; artificial contamination effects on fruit composition were investigated and the dietary intake of the elements was determined. The citrus fruits sprayed with metal solution showed a significant increase in the studied elements compared to untreated fruits. The levels of all elements studied were lower than provisional tolerable daily intake values indicating that bitter orange marmalade consumption is safe for alimentary use. Bitter orange tree exhibit differences in metal content between fruits and leaves and fruits are safe for consumption.

  19. Rootstocks influence yield performance of navel orange trees after drastic pruning

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    Henrique Belmonte Petry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drastic pruning is an alternative control recommended in orchards affected by citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of six rootstocks on growth, yield and quality of 'Monte Parnaso'(Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. navel oranges, after performing a drastic pruning to eradicate the citrus canker. A complete randomized blocks design, with six treatments and four replicates, was used. The following rootstocks were tested: 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osb., 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana Pasq., 'Cravo' Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osb., 'Swingle'citrumelo (C. paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'Sunki' mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata. Traits related to plant height, yield and fruit quality were evaluated. The largest cumulative yield was obtained from 'Cravo', 'Volkamer' and 'Sunki'. 'Cravo' and 'Volkamer' induced higher production efficiency, fruits with the highest average weight and the lowest pre-harvest fruit drop. All the evaluated rootstocks produced high quality fruits and similar canopy sizes.

  20. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) composite bread as a significant source of dietary vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuni, Victoria; Alhassan, Martha Wunnam; Amagloh, Francis Kweku

    2018-01-01

    Refining food recipes with orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has the potential to improve dietary intake of vitamin A. The objectives of this study were to utilize OFSP in the development of two composite bread types and to assess their contribution to dietary intake of vitamin A using the dietary reference intake of lactating mothers. Two composite OFSP-wheat flour bread recipes-vita butter bread and vita tea bread-were developed by incorporating 46% OFSP puree in existing 100% wheat flour bread recipes consumed by Ghanaians. A paired-preference test was used to profile the appearance, aroma, sweetness, and overall degree of liking of the vita butter bread and vita tea bread and their respective 100% wheat flour bread types. Weighed bread intake by lactating mothers ( n  =   50) was used to estimate the contribution to dietary vitamin A based on the trans β-carotene content. The developed vita butter bread and vita tea bread were most preferred by at least 77% ( p  <   .05) of consumers ( n  =   310) for all the attributes considered. The average daily intake by the lactating mothers for vita butter bread was 247 g, and for vita tea bread was 196 g. The trans β-carotene content of vita butter bread and vita tea bread were found to be 1.333 mg/100 g and 0.985 mg/100 g, respectively. The estimated trans-β-carotene intake was 3,293 μg/day (vita butter) and 1,931 μg/day (vita tea) based on the weighed bread intake, respectively, meeting 21% and 12% of the daily requirement (1,300 μg RAE/day) for lactating mothers, the life stage group with the highest vitamin A requirement. OFSP therefore could composite wheat flour to bake butter and tea bread, and will contribute to significant amount of dietary intake of vitamin A.

  1. Porta-enxertos para laranjeiras-doces (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., em Rio Branco, Acre Rootstocks for sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Ledo

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de laranjeiras- doces: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' e 'Aquiri', sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: limão 'Cravo', tangerinas 'Cleópatra' e 'Sunki' e citrange 'Carrizo', nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. O delineamento experimental foi em parcelas subdivididas, com as cultivares nas parcelas, os porta-enxertos nas subparcelas e os quatro anos de avaliação como repetições. As laranjeiras 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27' apresentaram tendências de maior produção quando enxertadas sobre o limão 'Cravo', e a laranja 'Aquiri' quando enxertada sobre citrange 'Carrizo'. Em relação aos demais porta-enxertos, o limão 'Cravo' mostrou tendências de induzir maior produção/volume de copa e peso médio do fruto, e menor teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total. As laranjas do grupo Baia ('Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79' e 'Monte Parnaso' produziram frutos com baixa percentagem de suco; não são recomendadas para plantio em Rio Branco, AC. Com base nos resultados obtidos, recomendam-se os porta-enxertos citrange 'Carrizo', tangerina 'Cleópatra' e limão 'Cravo' para a laranja 'Aquiri', e o porta-enxerto limão 'Cravo' para as laranjas 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27'.The objective of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of seven sweet orange cultivars: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' and 'Aquiri' grafted on different rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime, 'Cleópatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins, and 'Carrizo' citrange, in the environmental conditions of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. The experimental design was a split-plot, with the sweet orange cultivars as the main plots, the rootstocks as the sub-plots, and the four years of evaluation as replications. The 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' and 'Valência 27' sweet orange cultivars tended

  2. First Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador Infesting Urban Citrus and Orange Jasmine Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J.F.; Chica, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus ( Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine ( Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  3. Effects of atmospheric CO sub 2 enrichment on photosynthesis, respiration and growth of sour orange trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S.B.; Kimball, B.A. (US Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ (USA))

    1992-05-01

    Numerous net photosynthetic and dark respiratory measurements were made over a period of 4 years on leaves of 24 sour orange (Citrus aurantium) trees; 8 of them growing in ambient air at a mean of CO{sub 2} concentration of 400 microlitres per litre, and 16 growing in air enriched with CO{sub 2} to concentrations approaching 1000 microlitres per litre. Over this CO{sub 2} concentration range, net photosynthesis increased linearly with CO{sub 2} by more than 200%, whereas dark respiration decreased linearly to only 20% of its initial value. These results, together with those of a comprehensive fine-root biomass determination and two independent above-ground trunk and branch volume inventories, suggest that a doubling of the air's current mean CO{sub 2} concentration of 360 microliters per liter would enhance the growth of the trees by a factor of 3.8.

  4. Comparative transcripts profiling reveals new insight into molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in a sweet orange (Citrus sinensis red-flesh mutant

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    Zhang Jianchen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in lycopene metabolism and regulation is growing rapidly because accumulative studies have suggested an important role for lycopene in human health promotion. However, little is known about the molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in fruits other than tomato so far. Results On a spontaneous sweet orange bud mutant with abnormal lycopene accumulation in fruits and its wild type, comparative transcripts profiling was performed using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 6,877,027 and 6,275,309 reliable signatures were obtained for the wild type (WT and the mutant (MT, respectively. Interpretation of the MPSS signatures revealed that the total number of transcribed gene in MT is 18,106, larger than that in WT 17,670, suggesting that newly initiated transcription occurs in the MT. Further comparison of the transcripts abundance between MT and WT revealed that 3,738 genes show more than two fold expression difference, and 582 genes are up- or down-regulated at 0.05% significance level by more than three fold difference. Functional assignments of the differentially expressed genes indicated that 26 reliable metabolic pathways are altered in the mutant; the most noticeable ones are carotenoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and citrate cycle. These data suggest that enhanced photosynthesis and partial impairment of lycopene downstream flux are critical for the formation of lycopene accumulation trait in the mutant. Conclusion This study provided a global picture of the gene expression changes in a sweet orange red-flesh mutant as compared to the wild type. Interpretation of the differentially expressed genes revealed new insight into the molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in the sweet orange red-flesh mutant.

  5. Response of 'Nagpur' mandarin, 'Mosambi' sweet orange and 'Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladaniya, M.S. E-mail: mslngp@nagpur.dot.net.in; Singh, Shyam; Wadhawan, A.K

    2003-07-01

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8{+-}1 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The

  6. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees

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    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE RADIOMETRIC RESPONSE OF ORANGE TREE CROWN IN HYPERSPECTRAL UAV IMAGES

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    N. N. Imai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High spatial resolution remote sensing images acquired by drones are highly relevant data source in many applications. However, strong variations of radiometric values are difficult to correct in hyperspectral images. Honkavaara et al. (2013 presented a radiometric block adjustment method in which hyperspectral images taken from remotely piloted aerial systems – RPAS were processed both geometrically and radiometrically to produce a georeferenced mosaic in which the standard Reflectance Factor for the nadir is represented. The plants crowns in permanent cultivation show complex variations since the density of shadows and the irradiance of the surface vary due to the geometry of illumination and the geometry of the arrangement of branches and leaves. An evaluation of the radiometric quality of the mosaic of an orange plantation produced using images captured by a hyperspectral imager based on a tunable Fabry-Pérot interferometer and applying the radiometric block adjustment method, was performed. A high-resolution UAV based hyperspectral survey was carried out in an orange-producing farm located in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A set of 25 narrow spectral bands with 2.5 cm of GSD images were acquired. Trend analysis was applied to the values of a sample of transects extracted from plants appearing in the mosaic. The results of these trend analysis on the pixels distributed along transects on orange tree crown showed the reflectance factor presented a slightly trend, but the coefficients of the polynomials are very small, so the quality of mosaic is good enough for many applications.

  8. Analysis of the Radiometric Response of Orange Tree Crown in Hyperspectral Uav Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, N. N.; Moriya, E. A. S.; Honkavaara, E.; Miyoshi, G. T.; de Moraes, M. V. A.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Näsi, R.

    2017-10-01

    High spatial resolution remote sensing images acquired by drones are highly relevant data source in many applications. However, strong variations of radiometric values are difficult to correct in hyperspectral images. Honkavaara et al. (2013) presented a radiometric block adjustment method in which hyperspectral images taken from remotely piloted aerial systems - RPAS were processed both geometrically and radiometrically to produce a georeferenced mosaic in which the standard Reflectance Factor for the nadir is represented. The plants crowns in permanent cultivation show complex variations since the density of shadows and the irradiance of the surface vary due to the geometry of illumination and the geometry of the arrangement of branches and leaves. An evaluation of the radiometric quality of the mosaic of an orange plantation produced using images captured by a hyperspectral imager based on a tunable Fabry-Pérot interferometer and applying the radiometric block adjustment method, was performed. A high-resolution UAV based hyperspectral survey was carried out in an orange-producing farm located in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A set of 25 narrow spectral bands with 2.5 cm of GSD images were acquired. Trend analysis was applied to the values of a sample of transects extracted from plants appearing in the mosaic. The results of these trend analysis on the pixels distributed along transects on orange tree crown showed the reflectance factor presented a slightly trend, but the coefficients of the polynomials are very small, so the quality of mosaic is good enough for many applications.

  9. Effect of tillage systems and permanent groundcover intercropped with orange trees on soil enzyme activities

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    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage systems and groundcover crops intercropped with orange trees on soil enzyme activities. The experiment was performed in an Ultisol soil in northwestern Paraná State. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated [conventional tillage (CT across the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m strip width] in combination with various groundcover vegetation management systems. Soil samples were collected after five years of experimental management at a depth of 0-15 cm under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space in the following treatments: (1 CT-Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT-Arachis pintoi; (3 CT-Bahiagrass; (4 CT-Brachiaria humidicola; and (5 ST-B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and groundcover crops influenced the soil enzyme activities both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola provided higher amylase, arylsulfatase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase than other groundcover species. Strip tillage increased enzyme activities compared to the conventional tillage system.

  10. Available water and the orange trees growth on soils of a toposequence of the Reconcavo Baiano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Arlicelio de Queiroz; Souza, Luciano da Silva; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos; Costa, Liovando Marciano da; Santana, Marlete Bastos

    1997-01-01

    Aiming the study of the influence of available water in soils, at different depths, on the orange trees growth, the present work was carried out on a toposequence located at the Sapeacu-BA-Brazil municipality, with 190 m length and 0.097 mm -1 declivity. Due to the declivity and soils variations, the area was divided into three sectors with different constitutions. Weekly basis measurements of the soil water content have been performed, in the period of Dec 18, 1995 - Dec 18, 1996, at different depths, by using a neutron probe. The water considered as available was the stored water in the soil, at different depths, less the volumetric humidity under the -1,500 kPa

  11. Improved quality of frozen boer goat semen with the addition of sweet orange essential oil on tris yolk and gentamicin extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, S. A.; Zaituni, U.; Jaswandi; Hendri

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to determine the extent of frozen semen quality Boer Goat by essential oils of sweet orange peel in tris yolk and gentamicin extender. Research has been conducted at the Laboratory Loka Penelitian Kambing Potong Sei Putih, Deli Serdang, North Sumatra in February 2017. This study used a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Treatments are 0.25; 0.5; 0.75 and 1% essential oils as additional diluent. The parameters were measured percentage Motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability Boer Goat frozen semen. The results showed that the addition of essential oils as diluent semen was significant (P <0.01) in the percentage motility, Viability, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity Boer Goat frozen semen. Motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability was significantly higher in all treated groups than the control group. The best results of all treatments In the study was the addition of essential oil as much as 1%.

  12. Stability of carotenoids, total phenolics and in vitro antioxidant capacity in the thermal processing of orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Pestana, Carlos M; Mastrodi Salgado, Jocelem; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro; dos Santos, Priscila Robertina; Jablonski, André

    2012-09-01

    Intervention strategies regarding the biofortification of orange-fleshed sweet potato, which is a rich source of carotenoids for combating vitamin A deficiency, are being developed in Brazil. This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of individual carotenoids, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in the roots of four biofortified sweet potato cultivars that were raw or processed by four common heat treatments. HPLC, Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH and ABTS assays were used. All cultivars showed high levels of carotenoids in raw roots, predominantly all-trans-β-carotene (79.1-128.5 mg.100 g(-1) DW), suggesting a high estimated vitamin A activity. The CNPH 1194 cultivar reported carotenoids values highest than those of other cultivars (p < 0.05). The total phenolic compounds varied among cultivars and heat treatments (0.96-2.05 mg.g(-1) DW). In most cases, the heat treatments resulted in a significant decrease in the carotenoids and phenolic compounds contents as well as antioxidant capacity. Processing of flour presented the greatest losses of major carotenoids and phenolics. The phenolic compounds showed more stability than carotenoids after processing. There were significant correlations between the carotenoids and phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity.

  13. Orange-fleshed sweet potato-based infant food is a better source of dietary vitamin A than a maize-legume blend as complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Coad, Jane

    2014-03-01

    White maize, which is widely used for complementary feeding and is seldom fortified at the household level, may be associated with the high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among infants in low-income countries. The nutrient composition of complementary foods based on orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and cream-fleshed sweet potato (CFSP), maize-soybean-groundnut (Weanimix), and a proprietary wheat-based infant cereal (Nestlé Cerelac) were assessed using the Codex Standard (CODEX STAN 074-1981, Rev. 1-2006) specification as a reference. Additionally, the costs of OFSP complementary food, CFSP complementary food, and Weanimix production at the household level were estimated. Phytate and polyphenols, which limit the bioavailability of micronutrients, were assessed. Energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients listed as essential composition in the Codex Standard were determined and expressed as energy or nutrient density. All the formulations met the stipulated energy and nutrient densities as specified in the Codex Standard. The beta-carotene content of OFSP complementary food exceeded the vitamin A specification (60 to 180 microg retinol activity equivalents/100 kcal). All the formulations except Weanimix contained measurable amounts of ascorbic acid (> or = 32.0 mg/100 g). The level of phytate in Weanimix was highest, about twice that of OFSP complementary food. The sweet potato-based foods contained about twice as much total polyphenols as the cereal-based products. The estimated production cost of OFSP complementary food was slightly higher (1.5 times) than that of Weanimix. OFSP complementary food is a good source of beta-carotene and would therefore contribute to the vitamin A requirements of infants. Both OFSP complementary food and Weanimix may inhibit iron absorption because of their high levels of polyphenols and phytate, respectively, compared with those of Nestlé Cerelac.

  14. Yield mapping, soil fertility and tree gaps in an orange orchard

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    José Paulo Molin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current high competition on Citrus industry demands from growers new management technologies for superior efficiency and sustainability. In this context, precision agriculture (PA has developed techniques based on yield mapping and management systems that recognize field spatial variability, which contribute to increase profitability of commercial crops. Because spatial variability is often not perceived the orange orchards are still managed as uniform and adoption of PA technology on citrus farms is low. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize the spatial variability of three factors: fruit yield, soil fertility and occurrence of plant gaps caused by either citrus blight or huanglongbing (HLB in a commercial Valencia orchard in Brotas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Data from volume, geographic coordinates and representative area of the bags used on harvest were recorded to generate yield points that were then interpolated to produce the yield map. Soil chemical characteristics were studied by analyzing samples collected along planting rows and inter-rows in 24 points distributed in the field. A map of density of tree gaps was produced by georeferencing individual gaps and later by counting the number of gaps within 500 m² cells. Data were submitted to statistical and geostatistical analyses. A t test was used to compare means of soil chemical characteristics between sampling regions. High variation on yield and density of tree gaps was observed from the maps. It was also demonstrated overlapping regions of high density of plant absence and low fruit yield. Soil fertility varied depending on the sampling region in the orchard. The spatial variability found on yield, soil fertility and on disease occurrence demonstrated the importance to adopt site specific nutrient management and disease control as tools to guarantee efficiency of fruit production.

  15. The effect of rootstocks on the efficiency of a nursery of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees cv. ‘Regina’

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    Piotr Baryła

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five rootstocks: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’, and ‘Piast’, on bud take in the cultivar ‘Regina’, the quality of budded trees and the efficiency of a sweet cherry tree nursery. The highest percentage of bud take in cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ and the best efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery were obtained for the rootstocks ‘Piast’ and ‘Colt’. In two years during the three-year study period, the rootstock was found to significantly affect the efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery. When grafted on the rootstocks ‘Colt’ and ‘Piast’, a significantly higher percentage of trees met the requirements of the Polish Standard PN-R-67010 than on the clonal rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’. Under the tested conditions, the quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ grafted on the dwarfing rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’ was lowest.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF VANILLA PRODUCTION SYSTEMS (Vanilla planifolia A. ON ORANGE TREE AND MESH SHADE IN THE TOTONACAPAN REGION

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    Ariadna Isabel Barrera Rodríguez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A characterization of production systems of Vanilla planifolia Andrews was carried out, one under orange trees and the other under mesh shade (50% brightness, was conducted through the identification of technical and climatic variables that may affect the yield of vanilla plantations in the Totonacapan region, in the Mexican states of Puebla and Veracruz. The characterization was conducted based on the theoretical approach of agrosystems, and by applying the nonparametric technique, chi square. The information was obtained through the application of a structured questionnaire to 99 producers in the region. The results indicate that on vanilla crop yield, the feature with the highest incidence is the number of pollinated flowers per pot, so that in vainillales with proper management must pollinate from five to seven flowers per pot and vainillales where the plants are not vigorous should pollinate three to four flowers per pot. So far  the system under orange trees represents the best alternative in terms of yield for producers. The vanilla production system under orange trees showed a maximum yield of 1.2 ton ha-1 which exceeded the yield of the mesh shade production system of 435 kg. Based on the traditional knowledge of producers, the most important factors that determine the proper development of the vanilla pods in the production system under orange three are: nutrition (21%, moisture (19% and pollination (16%. While for the production system mesh shade are: nutrition (20%, temperature (15% and moisture (14%.

  17. Fruit yield and composition in orange trees cv. 'Lane Late' in response to nitrogen fertilization in Sandy Typic Hapludalf soil

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    Gustavo Brunetto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Little is known about the impact of N fertilization on fruit production and composition in orange groves grown in soils with low or medium organic matter content in Rio Grande do Sul (RS. This study aimed to evaluate how N fertilization of orange trees cv. 'Lane Late' in a sandy soil may interfere in fruit yield and composition of fruit and juice. The experiment was conducted with orange trees cv. 'Lane Late' growing in Sandy Typic Hapludalf soil, in Rosário do Sul (RS. The plants received applications of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160kg N ha-1. Total N in leaves, number of fruits per plant, yield, fresh weight, fruit diameter, peel thickness, percentage of fruit juice, peel color, juice color, ascorbic acid content, total soluble solids (TSS and total titratable acidity were evaluated in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 crops. In the first crop, especially yield, number of fruits per plant, TSS content in fruit juice and ratio decreased with increasing N rate applied. However, in the second crop, the total titratable acidity of the fruit juice prominently increased with the dose of N applied. In both crops, results were highly influenced by rainfall distribution, which affect the plant physiology, soil N dynamics and, consequently, probability of response to N applied and the loss of mineral N in the soil.

  18. Principal component analysis (PCA of volatile terpene compounds dataset emitted by genetically modified sweet orange fruits and juices in which a D-limonene synthase was either up- or down-regulated vs. empty vector controls

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    Ana Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have categorized the dataset from content and emission of terpene volatiles of peel and juice in both Navelina and Pineapple sweet orange cultivars in which D-limonene was either up- (S, down-regulated (AS or non-altered (EV; control (“Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception”(A. Rodríguez, J.E. Peris, A. Redondo, T. Shimada, E. Costell, I. Carbonell, C. Rojas, L. Peña, (2016 [1]. Data from volatile identification and quantification by HS-SPME and GC–MS were classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA individually or as chemical groups. AS juice was characterized by the higher influence of the oxygen fraction, and S juice by the major influence of ethyl esters. S juices emitted less linalool compared to AS and EV juices.

  19. Frequency distribution of zinc in leaves with and without zinc-deficiency symptoms, all collected from a single orange tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, A. (Univ. of Caifornia, Los Angeles); Alexander, G.V.; Kinnear, J.; Procopiou, J.; Haritou-Andriotaki, A.; Papanicolaou, X.

    1982-07-01

    Leaves with zinc-deficiency symptoms had a lower Zn concentration than corresponding leaves without symptoms and of the same age from the same orange (Citrus senensis L.) tree on sour orange (C. aurantium L.) rootstock grown in Rhodes, Greece. There was considerable overlap, however, with the frequency distribution of each group approximating a normal curve. But both kinds of leaves combined showed a more normal distribution. Some leaves with symptoms had higher zinc concentrations than some without symptoms. There was a threefold range in Zn concentration for each group of leaves. Zinc-deficient leaves had less phosphorus, calcium, and manganese and more iron, aluminum, silicon, and titanium (the so-called dust elements) than did leaves with no deficiency symptoms. Some of these elements gave normal curves for both Zn-deficient and non-Zn-deficient leaves.

  20. Effect of Abscission Zone Formation on Orange (Citrus sinensis) Fruit/Juice Quality for Trees Affected by Huanglongbing (HLB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Bai, Jinhe; Manthey, John; Zhao, Wei; Raithore, Smita; Irey, Mike

    2018-03-01

    Orange trees affected by huanglongbing (HLB) exhibit excessive fruit drop, and fruit loosely attached to the tree may have inferior flavor. Fruit were collected from healthy and HLB-infected (Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus) 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' trees. Prior to harvest, the trees were shaken, fruit that dropped collected, tree-retained fruit harvested, and all fruit juiced. For chemical analyses, sugars and acids were generally lowest in HLB dropped (HLB-D) fruit juice compared to nonshaken healthy (H), healthy retained (H-R), and healthy dropped fruit (H-D) in early season (December) but not for the late season (January) 'Hamlin' or 'Valencia' except for sugar/acid ratio. The bitter limonoids, many flavonoids, and terpenoid volatiles were generally higher in HLB juice, especially HLB-D juice, compared to the other samples. The lower sugars, higher bitter limonoids, flavonoids, and terpenoid volatiles in HLB-D fruit, loosely attached to the tree, contributed to off-flavor, as was confirmed by sensory analyses.

  1. Incorporating orange-fleshed sweet potato into the food system as a strategy for improved nutrition: The context of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Sunette M; Faber, Mieke; Claasen, Nicole

    2018-02-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is considered the single most successful example of biofortification of a staple crop, and presents a feasible option to address vitamin A deficiency. Though initially promoted as part of a crop-based approach focusing on production and consumption at household level, it evolved into small-scale commercial production, predominantly in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reviews OFSP initiatives in relation to the South African food environment and food supply systems, also identifying opportunities for scaling out OFSP in a situation where sweet potato is not eaten as a staple. Current per capita consumption of sweet potato is low; the focus is thus on increasing consumption of OFSP, rather than replacing cream-fleshed varieties. For the major OFSP variety, Bophelo, 66g consumption can be sufficient to meet the recommended daily allowance for 1-3year old children (300μRE vitamin A). Despite a national Vitamin A supplementation programme and fortified staple foods in South Africa, 43.6% of children under 5years of age were reported to be vitamin A deficient in 2012, indicating a stronger need to promote the consumption of Vitamin A-rich foods, such as OFSP. To increase availability of and access to OFSP, all aspects of the food supply system need to be considered, including agricultural production, trade, food transformation and food retail and provisioning. Currently, small-scale commercial OFSP producers in South Africa prefer to deliver their produce to local informal markets. To enter the formal market, small-scale producers often have difficulties to meet the high standards of the retailers' centralised procurement system in terms of food quality, quantity and safety. Large retailers may have the power to increase the demand of OFSP, not just by improving availability but also by developing marketing strategies to raise awareness of the health benefits of OFSP. However, currently the largest scope for scaling out is through a

  2. Dissimilaridade de porta-enxertos da laranjeira 'folha murcha' sob dois sistemas de manejo de cobertura permanente do solo Divergence of 'folha murcha' orange tree rootstocks as influenced by two groundcover crops

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    Jonez Fidalski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os porta-enxertos de citros são dependentes do sistema de manejo do solo nas entrelinhas. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar a dissimilaridade de sete porta-enxertos para a laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' em dois sistemas de manejo da cobertura de um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico latossólico. O estudo foi realizado na Estação Experimental do IAPAR, em Paranavaí. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, com gramínea mato-grosso ou batatais (Paspalum notatum Flügge em três blocos e leguminosa amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg. em um bloco. A produção, o desenvolvimento vegetativo e os nutrientes nas folhas da laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' foram avaliados anualmente (1997 a 2002. As análises multivariadas basearam-se nas variáveis canônicas e nos componentes principais, agrupando-os pelo método Tocher. O manejo da cobertura do solo com a leguminosa amendoim forrageiro Arachis pintoi diminui a dissimilaridade dos grupos de porta-enxertos da laranjeira 'Folha Murcha'. O manejo da cobertura do solo com a gramínea Paspalum notatum aumenta a dissimilaridade dos grupos de porta-enxertos da laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' com a inclusão dos teores dos nutrientes foliares, da produção de frutos e do desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas. A gramínea Paspalum notatum é o melhor sistema de manejo da cobertura do solo para avaliação do comportamento de porta-enxertos da laranjeira 'Folha Murcha'.Citurs rootstocks are dependent of the growdcover management systems. This study aimed to identify the divergences of seven rootstocks for 'Folha Murcha' sweet orange trees in two groundcover management systems on a Paleudult. The study was performed at the IAPAR research station, in Paranavai, northwestern Paraná, Brazil. The experiment was in a complete random block design with threer replications for the bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge groundcover treatment and one replication for

  3. A food-based approach introducing orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jan W; Arimond, Mary; Osman, Nadia; Cunguara, Benedito; Zano, Filipe; Tschirley, David

    2007-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is widespread and has severe consequences for young children in the developing world. Food-based approaches may be an appropriate and sustainable complement to supplementation programs. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is rich in beta-carotene and is well accepted by young children. In an extremely resource poor area in Mozambique, the effectiveness of introduction of OFSP was assessed in an integrated agriculture and nutrition intervention, which aimed to increase vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children. The 2-y quasi-experimental intervention study followed households and children (n = 741; mean age 13 mo at baseline) through 2 agricultural cycles. In y 2, 90% of intervention households produced OFSP, and mean OFSP plot size in intervention areas increased from 33 to 359 m(2). Intervention children (n = 498) were more likely than control children (n = 243) to eat OFSP 3 or more d in the last wk (55% vs. 8%, P children (median 426 vs. 56 microg retinol activity equivalent, P children and did not increase significantly in control subjects. Integrated promotion of OFSP can complement other approaches and contribute to increases in vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique and similar areas in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Protective Effects of Sweet Orange, Unshiu Mikan, and Mini Tomato Juice Powders on t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannat, Susoma; Ali, Md Yousof; Kim, Hyeung-Rak; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of juice powders from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck], unshiu mikan (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and mini tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and their major flavonoids, hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The increased reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels observed in t-BHP-treated HepG2 cells were ameliorated by pretreatment with juice powders, indicating that the hepatoprotective effects of juice powders and their major flavonoids are mediated by induction of cellular defense against oxidative stress. Moreover, pretreatment with juice powders up-regulated phase-II genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), thereby preventing cellular damage and the resultant increase in HO-1 expression. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the juice powders confirmed that hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin were the key flavonoids present. Our results suggest that these fruit juice powders and their major flavonoids provide a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which is most likely due to the flavonoid-related bioactive compounds present, leading to the normal redox status of cells. Therefore, these fruit juice powders could be advantageous as bioactive sources for the prevention of oxidative injury in hepatoma cells. PMID:27752497

  5. Characterization of aroma active compounds in fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bi Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Fan, Gang; Yao, Xiao Lin; Pan, Si Yi

    2008-06-12

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, beta-myrcene, octanal, linalool, alpha-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  6. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck by GC-MS and GC-O

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    Si Yi Pan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, β-myrcene, octanal, linalool, α-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  7. Stability of β-carotene during baking of orange-fleshed sweet potato-wheat composite bread and estimated contribution to vitamin A requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzamwita, Madjaliwa; Duodu, Kwaku Gyebi; Minnaar, Amanda

    2017-08-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is known to be a rich source of β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A and a potential tool for fighting vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in developing countries. OFSP flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) substitution levels. The stability of β-carotene during baking and the contribution of OFSP-wheat composite breads to vitamin A requirements were evaluated. The retention of all-trans-β-carotene in breads containing 10, 20 and 30% OFSP flour was 62.7, 71.4 and 83% respectively, after baking. Breads containing 20% and 30% OFSP flour could be used for the eradication of vitamin A deficiency as they were found to meet 29 and 89.2% (100g portion) respectively, of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of vitamin A amongst children aged 3-10years. The latter would meet nearly a half of the RDA of vitamin A for pregnant and lactating women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Crescimento dos frutos de laranjeira 'Salustiana' situados em ramos anelados com diversas relações de folhas/frutos Growth of the fruits of 'Salustiana' sweet orange located in girdled shoots with several leaves to fruit ratios

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    Dalmo Lopes de Siqueira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre a área foliar e o crescimento dos frutos é um tema que freqüentemente recebe a atenção dos pesquisadores, por influenciar diretamente na produtividade das plantas e na qualidade dos frutos. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito da área foliar sobre o crescimento dos frutos da laranjeira 'Salustiana'. Foram utilizados ramos com 12 meses de idade e com apenas um fruto terminal. Os ramos foram anelados visando a manter diversas relações de folhas/fruto. Avaliaram-se, semanalmente, o crescimento dos frutos e os teores de amido presentes nas folhas durante um período de 42 dias. O crescimento dos frutos, avaliado na "fase de crescimento II", dependeu da área foliar disponível por fruto, sendo que 30 folhas foram suficientes para garantir o seu crescimento. As reservas de amido nas folhas dependeram da área foliar disponível por fruto e reduziram à medida que os frutos apresentaram aumentos no diâmetro e nas massas fresca e seca.The relationship between the foliar area and the fruit growth is an important theme because affects the tree productivity and fruits quality. In this work was evaluated the effect of the foliar area on the growth of the Salustiana's sweet orange fruits. Girdled shoots of 12 months were used with a single terminal fruit and several leaves-fruit ratios. It was evaluated, weekly, the fruit growth and the leaves starch contents during 42 days. The fruit growth, evaluated in the stage II, depended on the available leaf area per fruit, provided that 30 leaves were enough to guarantee its growth. The starch reserves in the leaves depended on the available leaf area per fruit and they reduced with the increase in the diameter and dry and fresh weight of the fruits.

  9. Different transcriptional response to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri between kumquat and sweet orange with contrasting canker tolerance.

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    Xing-Zheng Fu

    Full Text Available Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future.

  10. Impact of d-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ana; Peris, Josep E; Redondo, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Costell, Elvira; Carbonell, Inmaculada; Rojas, Cristina; Peña, Leandro

    2017-02-15

    Citrus fruits are characterized by a complex mixture of volatiles making up their characteristic aromas, being the d-limonene the most abundant one. However, its role on citrus fruit and juice odor is controversial. Transgenic oranges engineered for alterations in the presence or concentration of few related chemical groups enable asking precise questions about their contribution to overall odor, either positive or negative, as perceived by the human nose. Here, either down- or up-regulation of a d-limonene synthase allowed us to infer that a decrease of as much as 51 times in d-limonene and an increase of as much as 3.2 times in linalool in juice were neutral for odor perception while an increase of only 3 times in ethyl esters stimulated the preference of 66% of the judges. The ability to address these questions presents exciting opportunities to understand the basic principles of selection of food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Populational fluctuation of vectors of Xylella fastidiosa, wells in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] varieties of northwest Paraná State, Brazil

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    Rúbia de Oliveira Molina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the population flutuation of the sharpshooters species subfamily Cicadellinae belonging to the tribes Cicadellini and Proconiini, in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis( L. Osbeck] commercial orchards of the northwest region of Paraná State , Brazil. Samplings were carried out the employing every time 24 yellow sticky cards. Identification of the species showed that the most representative were Dilobopterus costalimai of the Cicadellini tribe and Acrogonia citrina of the Proconiini tribe.A Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma importante doença que ocorre nos citros, cujo agente causal é a bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, Wells. A bactéria depende, obrigatoriamente, de insetos vetores para sua disseminação, que são as cigarrinhas sugadoras do xilema (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae. No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a flutuação populacional de espécies de cigarrinhas nas diferentes variedades de laranja doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck], Natal, Pêra, Valência e Folha Murcha, em um pomar comercial localizado na região Noroeste do Paraná, no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Amostragens quinzenais foram realizadas com o uso de armadilhas adesivas amarelas, num total de 24 armadilhas em cada avaliação. Após a identificação das espécies observou-se, que as mais representativas foram Dilobopterus costalimai da tribo Cicadellini e Acrogonia citrina da tribo Proconiini, sendo que a variedade de laranja Pêra apresentou o maior número de espécies vetoras durante os anos avaliados.

  12. Ectopic expression of MdSPDS1 in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck reduces canker susceptibility: involvement of H2O2 production and transcriptional alteration

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    Wang Yin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enormous work has shown that polyamines are involved in a variety of physiological processes, but information is scarce on the potential of modifying disease response through genetic transformation of a polyamine biosynthetic gene. Results In the present work, an apple spermidine synthase gene (MdSPDS1 was introduced into sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Anliucheng' via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calluses. Two transgenic lines (TG4 and TG9 varied in the transgene expression and cellular endogenous polyamine contents. Pinprick inoculation demonstrated that the transgenic lines were less susceptible to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac, the causal agent of citrus canker, than the wild type plants (WT. In addition, our data showed that upon Xac attack TG9 had significantly higher free spermine (Spm and polyamine oxidase (PAO activity when compared with the WT, concurrent with an apparent hypersensitive response and the accumulation of more H2O2. Pretreatment of TG9 leaves with guazatine acetate, an inhibitor of PAO, repressed PAO activity and reduced H2O2 accumulation, leading to more conspicuous disease symptoms than the controls when both were challenged with Xac. Moreover, mRNA levels of most of the defense-related genes involved in synthesis of pathogenesis-related protein and jasmonic acid were upregulated in TG9 than in the WT regardless of Xac infection. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that overexpression of the MdSPDS1 gene prominently lowered the sensitivity of the transgenic plants to canker. This may be, at least partially, correlated with the generation of more H2O2 due to increased production of polyamines and enhanced PAO-mediated catabolism, triggering hypersensitive response or activation of defense-related genes.

  13. Effects of atmosphere CO[sub 2] enrichment on regrowth of sour orange trees (Citrus aurantium; rutaceae) after coppicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S.B.; Kimball, B.A. (Water Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AZ (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Sixteen sour orange tree (Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings were grown out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, in eight clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained at four different atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations for a period of 2 years. Over the last year of this period, the trees were coppiced five times. The amount of dry matter harvested at each of these cuttings was a linear function of the atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration to which the trees were exposed. For a 75% increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] from 400 to 700 microliter per liter ([mu]L liter[sup [minus]1]), total aboveground biomass rose, in the mean, by a factor of 3.19; while for a 400 to 800 [mu]L liter[sup [minus]1] doubling of the air's CO[sub 2] content, it rose by a factor of 3.92. The relative summer (mean air temperature of 32.8 C) response to CO[sub 2] was about 20% greater than the relative winter (mean air temperature of 16.4 C) response. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Influência da polinização com variedades de laranja-doce sobre o número de sementes de tangelo Nova Pollination influence of sweet orange varieties on 'Nova tangelo' seeds production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Enila Ferraro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência da polinização sobre o número de sementes de tangelo Nova. O experimento foi conduzido no Pólo de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico dos Agronegócios do Sudoeste Paulista/DDD, em Capão Bonito (SP, na safra 2004-2005. Flores de plantas de tangelo Nova, com nove anos, foram tratadas durante o florescimento em 2004, como segue: 1. Polinização com laranja Valência; 2. Polinização com laranja Natal; 3. Polinização com laranja Pêra; 4. Isolamento de flores emasculadas; 5. Isolamento de flores completas, e 6. Testemunha (flor livre. Em maio de 2005, os frutos foram colhidos. Embora não tenha existido diferença estatística entre os resultados, em valores absolutos, a maior porcentagem de frutos colhidos foi observada no tratamento com laranja Pêra (42%. Nos tratamentos 4 e 5 não houve frutos colhidos, o que sugere que este tangelo não desenvolveu frutos partenocárpicos nas condições deste estudo. Nos tratamentos com polinização cruzada, observaram-se entre 20 e 23 sementes nos frutos, o que mostra a influência da polinização nas características dos frutos. Não se observaram diferenças significativas nas qualidades do fruto.The objective of this work was to study the pollination influence on Nova tangelo seed production. The experiment was carried out in the Pólo de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico dos Agronegócios do Sudoeste Paulista/DDD, Capão Bonito, SP, Brazil, during 2004/2005 crop. Nine years old flowers of Nova tangelo plants were treated as follows: 1. Valencia sweet orange pollination; 2. Natal sweet orange pollination; 3. Pera sweet orange pollination; 4. emasculated flower isolation; 5. complete flower isolation and 6. Check (free flower. In May 2005, the fruits were harvested. The highest harvested fruits percentage was obtained in Pera sweet orange treatment (42%. No fruits were obtained in treatments 4 and 5, suggesting that this tangelo did not develop

  15. The effects of nitrogen and potassium nutrition on the growth of nonembryogenic and embryogenic tissue of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evens Terence J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mineral nutrients are one of the most basic components of plant tissue culture media. Nitrogen in the form of NH4+ and NO3- is the dominant mineral nutrient in most plant tissue culture formulations, with effects dependent on both the proportion and the amount of NH4+ and NO3-. The effects of nitrogen nutrition on the growth of nonembryogenic and embryogenic cell lines of sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. 'Valencia', tissues routinely used in citrus horticultural and plant improvement research, was explored using an experimental approach free of ion confounding that included a 2-component mixture (NH4+:K+ and a quantitative factor [NO3-] crossed by the mixture, thereby providing ion-specific estimates of proportional and amount effects. Results First, the linear mixture component, though only a comparison of the design space vertices, was highly significant for both tissue types and showed that NH4+ was required by both tissues. Second, the NH4+ * K+ mixture term was highly significant for both tissue types, revealing that NH4+ and K+ exhibit strong synergistic blending and showed that growth was substantially greater at certain blends of these two ions. Third, though the interaction between the NH4+:K+ mixture and NO3- amount on fresh weight accumulation for both tissue types was significant, it was substantially less than the main effect of the NH4+:K+ mixture. Fourth, a region of the design space was identified where fresh weight growth was increased 198% and 67% over the MS medium controls for nonembryogenic and embryogenic tissues. Conclusion By designing a mineral nutrient experiment free of ion confounding, a direct estimation of ion-specific proportional and amount effects on plant tissue growth is possible. When the ions themselves are the independent factors and/or mixture components, the resulting design space can be systematically explored to identify regions where the response(s is substantially improved

  16. Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

    2010-03-01

    The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent.

  17. Acúmulo de nutrientes e destino do nitrogênio (15N aplicado em pomar jovem de laranjeira Nutrients accumulation and fate of nitrogen (15N in Young bearing orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Marcelli Boaretto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre absorção de nutrientes em pomares cítricos são importantes para recomendações do manejo da fertilidade do solo. Contudo, estudos sobre a distribuição dos nutrientes na planta e a validação das doses de nitrogênio (N recomendadas são escassos na literatura brasileira. O presente trabalho avaliou (i o acúmulo de nutrientes e a distribuição do N (15N aplicado em citros e (ii validou a dose de N recomendada para pomares em início de produção. Em laranjeiras 'Pêra' sobre limoeiro 'Cravo', com 3 a 4 anos de idade, foram aplicadas doses de 150; 300; 450 e 600 g de N por planta, como sulfato de amônio, divididas em três parcelas, entre a primavera e o verão. Incluiu-se um tratamento-testemunha sem N. No mesmo pomar, em outras três plantas, aplicaram-se 300 g por planta de N-[(15NH42SO 4] enriquecido em 15N, para estudar o destino do N do fertilizante no pomar. Foram avaliadas a produção de frutos e o aproveitamento do 15N pela biomassa da planta. A eficiência do fertilizante, estimada com base na absorção de N pela planta, variou entre 20% e 27% do total aplicado. Os frutos exportaram 35% do N absorvido do fertilizante, e a dose de 400 g de N proporcionou a máxima produção de laranjas.Information about nutrient absorption of citrus orchards is important to establish guidelines for best soil fertility management. However, studies on the fate of applied N fertilizers and validation of nitrogen (N dose recommendations are scarce in the literature. The present work evaluated (i the accumulation of nutrients and the distribution of N (15N applied to citrus orchard and (ii validated the N fertilization rate applied to young bearing orange trees. Three- to four-year-old Pêra sweet orange trees Pera grafted on Rangpur lime were fertilized with 150, 300, 450, and 600 g of N per tree, as ammonium sulfate, split in three applications from spring to summer. A control treatment without N was included. In the same

  18. Orange Is the New Green: Exploring the Restorative Capacity of Seasonal Foliage in Schoolyard Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Paddle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban schoolyard environments are increasingly characterized by a proliferation of hard surfaces with little if any greenery. Schoolyard “greening” initiatives are becoming increasingly popular; however, schoolyard designs often fail to realize their restorative potential. In this quasi-experimental study, a proposed schoolyard greening project was used to visualize alternative planting designs and seasonal tree foliage; these design alternatives were subsequently used as visual stimuli in a survey administered to children who will use the schoolyard to assess the perceived restorative capacity of different design features. The findings indicate that seasonal changes in tree foliage enhance the perceived restorative quality of schoolyard environments. Specifically, fall foliage colour, when compared to green foliage, is rated as being perceived to be equally restorative for children. Additionally, seasonal planting, including evergreen conifers, may enhance the restorative quality of the schoolyard especially when deciduous trees are leafless. Landscape design professionals, community-based organizations, and other decision-makers in schoolyard greening efforts should strategically consider their tree choices to maximize year-round support for healthy attention functioning in children through restoration.

  19. Orange Is the New Green: Exploring the Restorative Capacity of Seasonal Foliage in Schoolyard Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddle, Eli; Gilliland, Jason

    2016-05-17

    Urban schoolyard environments are increasingly characterized by a proliferation of hard surfaces with little if any greenery. Schoolyard "greening" initiatives are becoming increasingly popular; however, schoolyard designs often fail to realize their restorative potential. In this quasi-experimental study, a proposed schoolyard greening project was used to visualize alternative planting designs and seasonal tree foliage; these design alternatives were subsequently used as visual stimuli in a survey administered to children who will use the schoolyard to assess the perceived restorative capacity of different design features. The findings indicate that seasonal changes in tree foliage enhance the perceived restorative quality of schoolyard environments. Specifically, fall foliage colour, when compared to green foliage, is rated as being perceived to be equally restorative for children. Additionally, seasonal planting, including evergreen conifers, may enhance the restorative quality of the schoolyard especially when deciduous trees are leafless. Landscape design professionals, community-based organizations, and other decision-makers in schoolyard greening efforts should strategically consider their tree choices to maximize year-round support for healthy attention functioning in children through restoration.

  20. Orange Is the New Green: Exploring the Restorative Capacity of Seasonal Foliage in Schoolyard Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Paddle, Eli; Gilliland, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Urban schoolyard environments are increasingly characterized by a proliferation of hard surfaces with little if any greenery. Schoolyard “greening” initiatives are becoming increasingly popular; however, schoolyard designs often fail to realize their restorative potential. In this quasi-experimental study, a proposed schoolyard greening project was used to visualize alternative planting designs and seasonal tree foliage; these design alternatives were subsequently used as visual stimuli in a ...

  1. GUS gene expression driven by a citrus promoter in transgenic tobacco and 'Valencia' sweet orange Expressão do gene GUS controlado por promotor de citros em plantas transgênicas de tabaco e laranja 'Valência'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Azevedo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and 'Valencia' sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL gene promoter (CsPP. Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and 'Valência' sweet orange explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the binary vector CsPP-GUS/2201. After plant transformation and regeneration, histochemical analyses using GUS staining revealed that CsPP promoter preferentially, but not exclusively, conferred gene expression in xylem tissues of tobacco. Weaker GUS staining was also detected throughout the petiole region in tobacco and citrus CsPP transgenic plants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a transformação de plantas de tabaco e laranja 'Valência' com o gene GUS controlado pelo promotor do gene da fenilalanina amônia-liase (PAL de citros (CsPP. Foi realizada transformação genética por meio do co-cultivo de explantes de tabaco e laranja 'Valência' com Agrobacterium tumefaciens que continha o vetor binário CsPP-GUS/2201. Após a transformação e a regeneração, a detecção da atividade de GUS por ensaios histoquímicos revelou que o promotor CsPP, preferencialmente, mas não exclusivamente, confere expressão gênica em tecidos do xilema de tabaco. Expressão mais baixa de GUS também foi detectada na região de tecido de pecíolo, em plantas transgênicas (CsPP de tabaco e laranja 'Valência'.

  2. The current impact and potential of biotechnology to improve the capacity of orange-fleshed sweet potato to prevent vitamin A deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world and an important cause of premature death in young children and pregnant women. Billions of people get most of their vitamin A from plants that are rich in pro-vitamin A carotenoids such as beta-carotene. Orange-fleshe...

  3. Metabolic engineering of β-carotene in orange fruit increases its in vivo antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Elsa; Alquézar, Berta; Rodríguez, Ana; Martorell, Patricia; Genovés, Salvador; Ramón, Daniel; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Peña, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Orange is a major crop and an important source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. Increasing the levels of specific antioxidants in orange fruit through metabolic engineering could strengthen the fruit's health benefits. In this work, we have afforded enhancing the β-carotene content of orange fruit through blocking by RNA interference the expression of an endogenous β-carotene hydroxylase gene (Csβ-CHX) that is involved in the conversion of β-carotene into xanthophylls. Additionally, we have simultaneously overexpressed a key regulator gene of flowering transition, the FLOWERING LOCUS T from sweet orange (CsFT), in the transgenic juvenile plants, which allowed us to obtain fruit in an extremely short period of time. Silencing the Csβ-CHX gene resulted in oranges with a deep yellow ('golden') phenotype and significant increases (up to 36-fold) in β-carotene content in the pulp. The capacity of β-carotene-enriched oranges for protection against oxidative stress in vivo was assessed using Caenorhabditis elegans as experimental animal model. Golden oranges induced a 20% higher antioxidant effect than the isogenic control. This is the first example of the successful metabolic engineering of the β-carotene content (or the content of any other phytonutrient) in oranges and demonstrates the potential of genetic engineering for the nutritional enhancement of fruit tree crops. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Vegetative propagation of Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae by root segments cuttings: effects of parent tree diameter and sampling distance of cuttings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The The Guinea Savannah Highlands harbor numerous plant species of great socio-economic importance exploited by farmers in the wild. Vitex doniana Sweet is among these multifunctional tree species. Despite its importance in rural back yard, little scientific research is devoted to it. The main purpose of this work is to contribute to its domestication through root segments cuttings. The assessment of the effect of diameter of parent tree as well as the sampling distance of root segments cuttings (RSC from them was undertaken in the nursery. The root system of 45 genotypes was partially excavated to a depth of 20 cm. RSC of 20 cm long were carefully cut and arranged vertically in a non-mist propagator, in black soil-sawdust substrate. The experimental design was a split-plot with three replications. The parent tree diameter was the main treatment while the sampling distance was the sub-treatment. The experimental unit was 10 cuttings. The results showed that the high rate of budding of RSC class (84.44 ± 14.69% was obtained from trees of 5-10 cm diameter. The diameter class significantly influenced the budding rate (0.004 0.05. The diameter class of parent tree significantly influenced rooting (0.02

  5. Características da laranjeira 'Valência' sobre clones e híbridos de porta-enxertos tolerantes à tristeza Characteristics of 'Valencia' sweet orange onto clones and hybrid rootstocks tolerant to the tristeza disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bordignon

    2003-01-01

    ção precoce e elevadosºBrix e ratio desse genitor, tratando-se de determinantes genéticos independentes. Trifoliata induziu altos valores de ratio do suco e, todos os seus grupos de híbridos foram superiores à Sunki e ao Cravo. Quanto à produção, verificou-se a superioridade do Cravo em relação à Sunki e esta em relação ao Trifoliata, enquanto nos híbridos constatou-se ampla variabilidade genética, sendo 228 significativamente mais produtivos que o Trifoliata, 100 superiores à Sunki e 47 ao Cravo. Os resultados evidenciaram alto potencial de seleção desses híbridos.Variability and selection potential of 396 hybrids of Rangpur lime 'Limeira', (Citrus limonia (C, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki (S, Sour orange 'São Paulo'(C. aurantium (A and Trifoliate orange 'Davis A'(Poncirus trifoliata (T tolerant to the tristeza disease were studied, comparatively to the genitors Rangpur lime, Sunki and Trifoliate orange. Hybrids TxA, TxS, SxT, CxS, SxC, CxA and SxA were investigated as to yield of first three crops, productivity and several vegetative and industrial characteristics of Valencia sweet orange onto them. Rangpur lime, Trifoliate orange and T x S, S x T, T x A, C x A hybrids initiated yielding before Sunki and S x C, C x S, S x A hybrids. This result indicates a dominance of the precocious yield of Trifoliate even in the hybrids with Sunki and conversely, the opposite trend of Sunki and its hybrids, except in the combination with Trifoliate orange. Yield per canopy area induced by Trifoliate orange was low, contrasting with Rangpur lime, Sunki mandarin and T x S, S x T hybrids. It was observed a close relationship between the diameter of scions, the diameter of rootstocks right after transplant to the field and the same parameters in the subsequent years. Height, canopy, rootstock and scion trunk diameters were highly correlated and useful for composing an index vigor. Trifoliate orange and Sunki mandarin are the most divergent genitors regarding vigor, and the

  6. INFLUÊNCIA DA POLINIZAÇÃO E DA MORFOLOGIA FLORAL NA FRUTIFICAÇÃO DE VARIEDADES DE LARANJA-DOCE INFLUENCE OF POLLINATION AND FLORAL MORPHOLOGY ON FRUIT SETTING IN SWEET ORANGE VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie de laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis [L.] osbeck é citada como sendo autógama. No entanto a alogamia tem sido demonstrada pelo aumento da produção de frutos com o uso de polinizadores eficientes, assim como pela existência de bons híbridos inter-específicos e ausência de bons híbridos intra-específicos. Como os programas de melhoramento via hibridação sexual em laranja doce dependem de maiores estudos, buscou-se avaliar o prendimento de frutos em 34 diferentes variedades representativas da espécie, no banco de germoplasma de Citrus do Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, sob diferentes tratamentos. Foi observado que 68% das variedades prenderam frutos sob polinização aberta, 15% sob auto-polinização, 35% após cruzamento com o tangeleiro Minneola e 15% delas apresentaram prendimento de fruto após o cruzamento com o citrangeiro Troyer. Apenas uma variedade prendeu fruto quando as flores foram emasculadas e protegidas. Foi ainda observado que sob polinização aberta ocorreu maior prendimento nas variedades que apresentaram os estigmas acima das anteras e em pistilos maiores. Estes dados podem ser indicativos da predominância de alogamia nestas variedades, nas quais a polinização mostrou ser importante para o prendimento de frutos.Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] osbeck is considered to be self-pollinated. Nevertheless, in the presence of efficient pollinators, crossing has been demonstrated to increase fruit setting, as well as with the occurrence of good inter specific hybrids and absence of intra specific ones. As cross breeding programs for sweet oranges depend on more detailed studies, the mating system of 34 representative varieties from this species was evaluated at the Citrus germplam collection of the "Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/ Instituto Agronômico", Cordeirópolis, SP. Brazil. Sixty eight % of the varieties studied set fruits under free pollination, 15

  7. Comparison of ultrasonic with stirrer performance for removal of sunset yellow (SY) by activated carbon prepared from wood of orange tree: Artificial neural network modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, A. M.; Ghaedi, M.; Karami, P.

    2015-03-01

    The present work focused on the removal of sunset yellow (SY) dye from aqueous solution by ultrasound-assisted adsorption and stirrer by activated carbon prepared from wood of an orange tree. Also, the artificial neural network (ANN) model was used for predicting removal (%) of SY dye based on experimental data. In this study a green approach was described for the synthesis of activated carbon prepared from wood of an orange tree and usability of it for the removal of sunset yellow. This material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The impact of variables, including initial dye concentration (mg/L), pH, adsorbent dosage (g), sonication time (min) and temperature (°C) on SY removal were studied. Fitting the experimental equilibrium data of different isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models display the suitability and applicability of the Langmuir model. Analysis of experimental adsorption data by different kinetic models including pseudo-first and second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models indicate the applicability of the second-order equation model. The adsorbent (0.5 g) is applicable for successful removal of SY (>98%) in short time (10 min) under ultrasound condition.

  8. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    Sweet potato varieties with dark orange flesh have more beta carotene than those with light colored flesh and their increased cultivation is being encouraged in Africa where Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem. Sweet potato fries are a common preparation in most African homes. Its leaves are a common side ...

  9. Correlation between the viability of pollen and the number of seeds in sweet orange c.v. Pera mutants; Correlacao entre viabilidade de polen e numero de sementes em clones mutantes de laranja pera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulmann Neto, Augusto; Zinsly, Luis Fernando C.; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Melhoramento de Plantas]. E-mail: rrlatado@cena.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    The aiming of the present work was to evaluate the viability of the pollen of 135 mutants of sweet orange cv. Pera and to verify if there was any correlation with the number of the seeds per fruit. These mutants were obtained in the previous experiment with gamma-ray treatment of buds. The total number of the seeds of ten fruits were counted during two years (1998 and 1999) and the average number of the seeds per fruit was calculated. The method of acetic carmine staining was established and the percentage of pollen viability was calculated. The viable pollen grains showed red color and non viable pale-yellow color. A high correlation between the pollen viability and the number of the seeds was observed. As the result of regression analysis, the correlation coefficient was 0.619 and the correlation equation obtained was Y = 0.0976 X - 0.1333, where Y number of seeds and X = pollen viability. The low pollen viability can be one of the reasons why mutants have low number of seeds per fruit. (author)

  10. Comparative Analysis of miRNAs and Their Target Transcripts between a Spontaneous Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild-Type Using Small RNA and Degradome Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juxun; Zheng, Saisai; Feng, Guizhi; Yi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening in citrus is not well-understood at the molecular level. Knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of citrus fruit ripening at the post-transcriptional level in particular is lacking. Here, we comparatively analyzed the miRNAs and their target genes in a spontaneous late-ripening mutant, "Fengwan" sweet orange (MT) ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), and its wild-type counterpart ("Fengjie 72-1," WT). Using high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs and RNA degradome tags, we identified 107 known and 21 novel miRNAs, as well as 225 target genes. A total of 24 miRNAs (16 known miRNAs and 8 novel miRNAs) were shown to be differentially expressed between MT and WT. The expression pattern of several key miRNAs and their target genes during citrus fruit development and ripening stages was examined. Csi-miR156k, csi-miR159, and csi-miR166d suppressed specific transcription factors ( GAMYBs, SPLs , and ATHBs ) that are supposed to be important regulators involved in citrus fruit development and ripening. In the present study, miRNA-mediated silencing of target genes was found under complicated and sensitive regulation in citrus fruit. The identification of miRNAs and their target genes provide new clues for future investigation of mechanisms that regulate citrus fruit ripening.

  11. A dark incubation period is important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature internode explants of sweet orange, grapefruit, citron, and a citrange rootstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Citrus has an extended juvenile phase and trees can take 2-20 years to transition to the adult reproductive phase and produce fruit. For citrus variety development this substantially prolongs the time before adult traits, such as fruit yield and quality, can be evaluated. Methods to...

  12. Characterization of African Bush Mango trees with emphasis on the differences between sweet and bitter trees in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbe, R.

    2012-01-01

     African bush mango trees (ABMTs) are economically the most important species within the family of Irvingiaceae. They are priority trees producing non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and widely distributed in the humid lowland forests of West and Central Africa. To boost their production and

  13. Produção e qualidade de frutos de laranjeira 'Pêra' em função de fontes e doses de boro Yield and quality of 'Pera' sweet orange in effect of boron source and doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Rodrigues Bologna

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou estudar o efeito de fontes e doses de boro aplicadas no solo na produção e qualidade dos frutos de laranjeira 'Pêra'. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de cinco fontes de boro (ulexita-pó, colemanita, ulexita-granulada, termofosfato magnesiano com boro e ácido bórico e quatro doses (1; 2; 3 e 4 kg ha-1, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e esquema fatorial 5 x 4, em quatro repetições. A produção da cultura não sofreu influência das fontes e doses de boro, 11 meses após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Nos atributos tecnológicos, não foram observados efeitos significativos nos parâmetros: ratio, teor de sólidos solúveis e ºBrix. Houve redução do rendimento de suco com o aumento da dose de boro aplicada para todas as fontes testadas. O maior e o menor diâmetro de fruto foram obtidos, respectivamente, com o uso da fonte mais solúvel (ácido bórico e menos solúvel (colemanita, não havendo influência dos tratamentos na espessura de casca.The aim of this research was to evaluate effects of boron sources and doses in the yield and quality of 'Pera' sweet orange. The treatments were five boron sources (ulexite-powder, colemanite, ulexite-grain, magnesian thermo phosphate with boron and acid boric and four boron doses (1, 2, 3 and 4 kg ha-1. Experimental design was completely randomized in factorial 5 x 4, with four replications. Eleven months after treatments application crop yield was not influenced by boron source and doses. Fruit technological attributes as ratio, soluble solid contents and ºBrix were not different. Orange juice production decreased with boron dose increasing for all evaluated sources. The largest fruit diameter was found under the most soluble source (boric acid while the smallest fruit diameter was obtained under the less soluble source (colemanite. Treatment influence was not observed to fruit skin thickness.

  14. Descascamento de laranja 'Pêra' em função da duração do tratamento hidrotérmico Peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange related to the duration of the hydrothermal treatment

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    Ana Luiza Pinheiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram adequar a tecnologia de descascamento de laranja 'Pêra' pelo uso do tratamento hidrotérmico e avaliar sua influência na atividade respiratória e nas características físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais dos frutos. O tempo de descascamento, o rendimento em frutos comercializáveis e a temperatura interna dos frutos durante o tratamento também foram avaliados. O tratamento consistiu em colocar os frutos em banho-maria a 50°C por 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 minutos. Em seguida, os frutos foram descascados retirando-se a parte peduncular com a faca e, posteriormente, o flavedo e o albedo foram retirados manualmente. Os frutos sem tratamento hidrotérmico foram considerados controle. Os frutos foram armazenados durante seis dias a 5°C. O tratamento hidrotérmico alterou a atividade respiratória dos frutos somente nas primeiras horas após o processamento. A temperatura interna dos frutos, após 30 minutos de tratamento, atingiu no máximo 35°C. Não ocorreram alterações nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas dos frutos. O tratamento não alterou o sabor, melhorou a aparência, diminuiu em até 78% o tempo de descascamento e aumentou o rendimento em frutos comercializáveis. Conclui-se que o tratamento hidrotérmico de 10 a 30 minutos pode ser utilizado como técnica de descascamento para laranja 'Pêra'.The objective of this research was to adapt the technology of peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange for the use of hydrothermal treatment, and to evaluate its influence in the respiratory activity and physicochemical, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. Peeling time, marketable fruits yield and internal fruit temperature during the treatment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of water-bath fruits at 50°C for 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 minutes. The fruits were peeled by first opening cut the peduncle region with a knife and then, the flavedo and albedo

  15. Deficiência hídrica agrava os sintomas fisiológicos da clorose variegada dos citros em laranjeira 'Natal' Water deficiency intensifies physiological symptoms of citrus variegated clorosis in 'Natal' sweet orange plants

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    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença que tem promovido sérios prejuízos aos laranjais das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, onde a deficiência hídrica e as altas temperaturas são mais frequentes. Assim, este trabalho objetivou a avaliação do efeito da deficiência hídrica no desenvolvimento de sintomas fisiológicos em laranjeira 'Natal' com CVC. Foram realizadas medidas do potencial da água na folha, transpiração, condutância estomática e assimilação de CO2, em laranjeiras em condições naturais e submetidas à irrigação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. A condutância estomática, a transpiração diária e o potencial da água na folha foram menores nas plantas com CVC. A assimilação diária de CO2 foi menor nas laranjeiras com CVC mesmo quando irrigadas. De fato, a irrigação diminuiu o efeito da CVC, porém não impediu o estabelecimento da doença em laranjeiras inoculadas com Xylella fastidiosa. Em relação aos demais tratamentos, as plantas infectadas e mantidas sob condições naturais (sem irrigação apresentaram maior comprometimento das trocas gasosas, mesmo quando as avaliações fisiológicas foram feitas em período úmido (verão.Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC is a disease that has caused serious economical losses in citrus grove located in the North and Northeastern regions of São Paulo State, where water deficiency and high temperature occur frequently. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of water deficiency on the development of physiological symptoms in 'Natal' sweet orange plants with CVC. Measurements of leaf water potential, transpiration, stomatal conductance e CO2 assimilation were taken in plants under natural conditions and submitted to irrigation. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with five replications. Stomatal conductance, daily transpiration and leaf water potential were

  16. Compositional changes in cell wall polysaccharides from five sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars during on-tree ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, María F; Ponce, Nora M A; Salum, María L; Raffo, María D; Vicente, Ariel R; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Stortz, Carlos A

    2014-12-24

    Excessive softening is a major cause of postharvest deterioration during transportation and storage of fresh cherries. In continuing our studies to identify the factors determining the textural differences between sweet cherry fruit genotypes, we evaluated the solubilization, depolymerization, and monosaccharide composition of pectin and hemicelluloses from five sweet cherry cultivars ('Chelan', 'Sumele', 'Brooks', 'Sunburst', and 'Regina') with contrasting firmness and cracking susceptibility at two developmental stages (immature and ripe). In contrast to what is usually shown in most fruits, cherry softening could occur is some cultivars without marked increases in water-soluble pectin. Although polyuronide and hemicellulose depolymerization was observed in the water-soluble and dilute-alkali-soluble fractions, only moderate association occurs between initial polymer size and cultivar firmness. In all the genotypes the Na2CO3-soluble polysaccharides (NSF) represented the most abundant and dynamic wall fraction during ripening. Firm cultivars showed upon ripening a lower neutral sugars/uronic acid ratio in the NSF, suggesting that they have a lower proportion of highly branched polyuronides. The similar molar ratios of arabinose plus galactose to rhamnose [(Ara+Gal)/Rha] suggest that the cultivars differed in their relative proportion of homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) rather than in the size of the RG side chains; with greater proportions of HG in firmer cherries. Ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was useful to identify the depolymerization patterns of weakly bound pectins, but gave less accurate results on ionically bound pectins, and was unable to find any pattern on covalently bound pectins.

  17. Diversidade genética entre híbridos de laranja-doce e tangor 'Murcott' avaliada por fAFLP e RAPD Genetic diversity among hybrids of sweet orange and 'Murcott' tangor evaluated by fAFLP and RAPD markers

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    Marinês Bastianel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética em uma população de 148 híbridos de tangor 'Murcott' (Citrus reticulata Blanco x C. sinensis L. Osbeck e laranja 'Pêra' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck obtidos por polinização controlada, pelo uso de marcadores fAFLP e RAPD. Marcadores polimórficos (416 marcadores fAFLP e 33 RAPD foram utilizados para avaliar a similaridade genética entre os híbridos, calculada com o coeficiente Jaccard pelo método UPGMA. A consistência de cada agrupamento foi determinada pelo programa BOOD. Houve alta similaridade genética entre os parentais. A laranja 'Pêra' apresentou maior número (132 de loci em heterozigose em relação ao tangor 'Murcott' (105, corroborando a teoria de origem híbrida para a laranja-doce. Observaram-se dois grupos distintos de plantas, e um deles abrangeu 80% dos híbridos com maior similaridade com a laranja 'Pêra'. A análise bootstrap não revelou consistência estatística entre esses grupos. Marcadores fAFLP são mais eficientes na avaliação do polimorfismo, sendo indicados para seleção de indivíduos híbridos mais próximos a um dos parentais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity in a population of 148 hybrids of 'Murcott' tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x C. sinensis L. Osbeck and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck, obtained by controlled polination, using fAFLP and RAPD markers. Polymorphic markers (416 fAFLP and 33 RAPD markers were used to evaluate genetic similarity among the hybrids, calculated by the coefficient of Jaccard, using the UPGMA method. The consistency of each group was determined by software BOOD. There was high genetic similarity within the parents. 'Pêra' sweet orange had a higher number of loci in heterozygosis (132 compared to 'Murcott' tangor (105, supporting the theory of hybrid origin for sweet oranges. Two distinct groups of plants were observed: one group had 80% of the hybrids that displayed

  18. Sweet Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2001-11-01

    Readers wanting to nibble some sweet stuff can find a sizable collection of Journal articles via an online search with "sugar" in the title field. The papers cover topics varying from structure and nomenclature, demonstrations, and experiments for laboratories at all levels, to the history and technology of commercial sugar production. A separate search using the title word "sweet" locates additional articles covering all types of sweeteners and models relating sweetness to chemical structure.

  19. Characterization of community structure of culturable endophytic fungi in sweet cherry composite trees and their growth-retarding effect against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadderafshi, Neda; Pósa, Tímea Borbála; Péter, Gábor; Gáspár, László; Ladányi, Márta; Hrotkó, Károly; Lukács, Noémi; Halász, Krisztián

    2016-09-01

    Endophytic fungi have the potential to protect their host plants in stress situations. Characterizing the ecology and complex interaction between these endophytes and their host plants is therefore of great practical importance, particularly in horticultural plants. Among horticultural plants, fruit trees form a special category because of their longevity and because they are composites of rootstock and scion, which often belong to different plant species. Here we present the first characterization of culturable endophytic fungal community of sweet cherry. Samples from the Hungarian cultivar 'Petrus' grafted on 11 different rootstocks were collected in autumn and in spring in a bearing orchard and the dependence of colonization rate and endophyte diversity on rootstock, organ and season was analysed. On the basis of their ITS sequences 26 fungal operational taxonomic units were identified at least down to the genus level. The dominant genus, comprising more than 50% of all isolates, was Alternaria, followed by different Fusarium and Epicoccum species. We observed some organ-specificity amongst endophytes, and organs showed more sizeable differences in colonization rates and endophyte diversity than rootstocks. Most dynamic endophyte populations, strongly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management, were observed in leaves. The potential of selected endophytes to confer protection against Monilinia laxa was also analysed and 7 isolates were found to inhibit the growth of this pathogen in vitro.

  20. Variabilidade biológica de isolados do Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV oriundos de cultivares de laranjeira Biological variability of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV isolates from sweet orange cultivars

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    Jadier de Oliveira Cunha Junior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A leprose, causada pelo Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV, é uma das principais doenças presentes em pomares cítricos fluminenses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o quadro sintomatológico desenvolvido por isolados de CiLV obtidos de cultivares comerciais de laranjeira (Lima, Pêra e Seleta, inoculados mecanicamente em Chenopodium amaranticolor, em três diluições. Após cinco a sete dias da inoculação foram observadas lesões necróticas, com pequeno halo clorótico quando observadas contra a luz. O maior número de lesões, nas três diluições, foi obtido do isolado de 'Seleta', seguido por 'Pêra' e 'Lima'. A melhor diluição utilizada para a observação das lesões foi de 1:10. Os resultados demonstram uma possível variabilidade biológica entre os isolados virais e/ou uma menor ou maior replicação viral, dependendo da cultivar, indicando um possível mecanismo de resistência da planta ao vírus.Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV is one of the major diseases in citrus orchards in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The objective of this study was to compare the development of symptoms on Chenopodium amaranticolor inoculated with CiLV isolates from 'Lima', 'Pera' and 'Seleta' sweet oranges using three different dilutions. Five to seven-days after inoculation, necrotic lesions exhibiting a small chlorotic halo when exposed to the light, were observed. The highest number of lesions developed using the three dilutions was obtained from 'Seleta', an intermediate value from 'Pêra' and the lowest number from 'Lima'. The best dilution for lesions development was 1:10. The results demonstrate a possible biological variability among the virus isolates and/or a lower or higher viral replication, dependent on the cultivar. This indicates a putative mechanism of Citrus resistance to the virus.

  1. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck = Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

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    Lourdes Maria Gamito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais maisfreqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto. The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange(Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors onflowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collectnectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  2. Calogênese, embriogênese somática e isolamento de protoplastos em variedades de laranja doce Callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and protoplast isolation from sweet orange varieties

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    Vagner Augusto Benedito

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de produzir calos embriogênicos de citros, óvulos abortados de frutos maduros de 6 variedades de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, ‘Bahia Cabula’, ‘Baianinha’, ‘Hamlin’, ‘Orvalho de Mel’, ‘Rubi’ e ‘Valência’ foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MT modificado com adição de extrato de malte, com e sem adição de 5 mg L-1 benziladenina (BA. Os calos obtidos das variedades ‘Bahia Cabula’, ‘Orvalho de Mel’, ‘Rubi’ e ‘Valência’ foram cultivados em meio basal MT, contendo os carboidratos maltose, galactose, lactose, glicose ou sacarose nas concentrações de 18; 37; 75; 110 e 150 mM para a indução da embriogênese somática. Os calos destas mesmas variedades foram submetidos ao isolamento de protoplastos, com o uso de 3 soluções enzimáticas. Os resultados revelaram que há influência do genótipo sobre a calogênese. A embriogênese somática foi estimulada na presença de galactose, para a maioria das variedades. A solução enzimática composta de 1% de celulase, 1% de macerase e 0,2% de pectoliase foi a mais adequada para o isolamento de protoplastos a partir de calos das variedades de laranja doce estudadas.Intending to produce embryogenic citrus calli (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, aborted ovules of ripe fruits from six sweet orange varieties (‘Bahia Cabula’, ‘Baianinha’, ‘Hamlin’, ‘Orvalho de Mel’, ‘Rubi’ and ‘Valencia’ were introduced onto modified MT medium with and without benzyladenine (BA. Calli obtained from ‘Bahia Cabula’, ‘Orvalho de Mel’, ‘Rubi’ and ‘Valencia’ varieties were grown on MT basal medium modified with the carbohydrates maltose, galactose, lactose, glucose and sucrose at 18; 37; 75; 110 and 150 mM. The effect on somatic embryogenesis was studied. Calli from the same genotypes were submitted to protoplast isolation, using three different enzymatic solutions. Results revealed the genotype effect in the callus

  3. Co-infection of Sweet Orange with Severe and Mild Strains of Citrus tristeza virus Is Overwhelmingly Dominated by the Severe Strain on Both the Transcriptional and Biological Levels

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    Shimin Fu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza is one of the most destructive citrus diseases and is caused by the phloem-restricted Closterovirus, Citrus tristeza virus. Mild strain CTV-B2 does not cause obvious symptoms on indicators whereas severe strain CTV-B6 causes symptoms, including stem pitting, cupping, yellowing, and stiffening of leaves, and vein corking. Our laboratory has previously characterized changes in transcription in sweet orange separately infected with CTV-B2 and CTV-B6. In the present study, transcriptome analysis of Citrus sinensis in response to double infection by CTV-B2 and CTV-B6 was carried out. Four hundred and eleven transcripts were up-regulated and 356 transcripts were down-regulated prior to the onset of symptoms. Repressed genes were overwhelmingly associated with photosynthesis, and carbon and nucleic acid metabolism. Expression of genes related to the glycolytic, oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA pathways, tetrapyrrole synthesis, redox homeostasis, nucleotide metabolism, protein synthesis and post translational protein modification and folding, and cell organization were all reduced. Ribosomal composition was also greatly altered in response to infection by CTV-B2/CTV-B6. Genes that were induced were related to cell wall structure, secondary and hormone metabolism, responses to biotic stress, regulation of transcription, signaling, and secondary metabolism. Transport systems dedicated to metal ions were especially disturbed and ZIPs (Zinc Transporter Precursors showed different expression patterns in response to co-infection by CTV-B2/CTV-B6 and single infection by CTV-B2. Host plants experienced root decline that may have contributed to Zn, Fe, and other nutrient deficiencies. Though defense responses, such as, strengthening of the cell wall, alteration of hormone metabolism, secondary metabolites, and signaling pathways, were activated, these defense responses did not suppress the spread of the pathogens

  4. Effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment and foliar methanol application on net photosynthesis of sour orange tree (Citrus Aurantium; Rutaceae) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S.B.; Garcia, R.L.; Kimball, B.A. [Water Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AR (United States); Idso, K.E.; Hoober, J.K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AR (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Foliar spray applications of 40% aqueous methanol were made to sunlit leaves of sour orange trees that had been grown continuously in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, for over 5.5 years in ambient air of approximately 400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} and in air enriched with CO{sub 2} to a concentration of approximately 700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}. No unambiguous effects of the methanol applications were detected in photosynthesis measurements made on foliage in either of the two CO{sub 2} treatments. THe 75% increase in CO{sub 2}, however, raised the upper-limiting leaf temperature for positive net photosynthesis by approximately 7 C, which resulted in a 75% enhancement in net photosynthesis at a leaf temperature of 31 C, a 100% enhancement at a leaf temperature of 35 C, and a 200% enhancement at 42 C. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Controle da cochonilha (Orthezia praelonga Douglas, 1891 em laranjeira, com inseticidas granulados Chemical control of coccid (Orthezia praelonga Douglas, 1891 for orange-trees, with insecticide granulated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.M. Mariconi

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar a eficiência de inseticidas granulados no controle da Orthezia praelonga em laranjeiras, foram empregados o aldicarbe 15% e o imidaclopride 5%, aplicados ao solo. Os tratamentos foram seis, com quatro repetições: A testemunha; B aldicarbe, 100g/pl; C aldicarbe, 65g/pl; D imidaclopride, 100g/pl; E aldicarbe, 130g/pl; F imidaclopride, 75g/pl. Foram feitas seis avaliações: uma prévia e outras cinco após 07, 20, 34, 49 e 70 dias da aplicação. Os melhores tratamentos foram: aldicarbe 100g/pl e aldicarbe, 130g/pl, aos 49 e 70 dias, respectivamente.The experiment was carried out on adult orange-trees in the county of Limeira, SP, Brazil. The objective was to evaluate the efficiency of insecticide granules with 15% aldicarb and 5% imidadoprid, applied to the soil, to control the citrus coccid Orthezia praelonga Douglas, 1891. Treatments were six: A check; B aldicarb, 100g/pl; C aldicarb, 65g/pl; D imidacloprid 100g/pl; E aldicarb, 130g/pl; F imidacloprid, 75g/pl of commercial insecticide granules. Six evaluations were made, one previous and other five 07, 20, 34, 49 and 70 days after application. The most efficient treatments were E and B at 49 and 70 days, respectively.

  6. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  7. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  8. Sweet Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  9. INDUÇÃO DO AMADURECIMENTO DE FRUTOS CÍTRICOS EM PÓS-COLHEITA COM A APLICAÇÃO DE ETHEPHON THE EFFECT OF POSTHARVEST APPLICATION OF ETHEPHON ON CHANGE PEEL COLOR OF SWEET ORANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCIO CHRISTIAN SERPA DOMINGUES

    2001-12-01

    /Unesp, Botucatu-SP, with the objective to study the effect of postharvest application of Ethephon on change peel color of sweet orange cv. 'Hamlin' and 'Baianinha'. The fruits was soaked in water solution of Ethephon(2-chloroethyl fosfonic acid plus 0,05% of Extravon ( 25% Alquil phenol poliglycoleter The applied treatments were: T1- control (water; T2 -- Ethephon -- 1000 mg.L-1 / 5 minutes soaked; T3 - Ethephon -- 2000 mg.L-1 / 5 minutes soaked; T4 -- Ethephon -- 3000 mg.L-1 / 5 minutes soaked; T5 -- Ethephon -- 4000 mg.L-1 / 5 minutes soaked; T6 -- Ethephon -- 1000 mg.L-1 / 10 minutes soaked; T7 - Ethephon -- 2000 mg.L-1 / 10 minutes soaked; T8 -- Ethephon -- 3000 mg.L-1 / 10 minutes soaked; T9 -- Ethephon -- 4000 mg.L-1 / 10 minutes soaked. The experiment was set up in a split plot design, utilizing 4 replications and 9 treatments. After 72 hours, the experiment was evaluated by folowing variables: amount of chlorophyll skin, total soluble solids, texture and visual analysis with pictures. The results showed that Ethephon reduced peel chlorophyll content on fruits in all treatments of Ethephon, but hight rates like 4000 mg.L-1 started points of necrosis on skin. Fruit quality was not adversely affected by all treatments. So it was concluded that the best rate was 1000 mg.L-1 to induce the decrease of peel chlorophyll content of 'Hamlim' and 'Baianinha' sweet orange.

  10. Consumer perceptions and demand for biofortified sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain varieties of sweet potato, especially orange-fleshed, are being promoted as part of the strategy to combat vitamin A deficiency in children and pregnant mothers. However, the consumption of sweet potato is more widespread in rural households where it is mainly boiled or eaten raw. The lack of value addition ...

  11. The Jujube Genome Provides Insights into Genome Evolution and the Domestication of Sweetness/Acidity Taste in Fruit Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhao, Xing; Fei, Zhangjun; Wan, KangKang; Zhang, Zhong; Pang, Xiaoming; Yin, Xiao; Bai, Yang; Sun, Xiaoqing; Gao, Lizhi; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Jinbo; Li, Xingang

    2016-12-01

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) belongs to the Rhamnaceae family and is a popular fruit tree species with immense economic and nutritional value. Here, we report a draft genome of the dry jujube cultivar 'Junzao' and the genome resequencing of 31 geographically diverse accessions of cultivated and wild jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa). Comparative analysis revealed that the genome of 'Dongzao', a fresh jujube, was ~86.5 Mb larger than that of the 'Junzao', partially due to the recent insertions of transposable elements in the 'Dongzao' genome. We constructed eight proto-chromosomes of the common ancestor of Rhamnaceae and Rosaceae, two sister families in the order Rosales, and elucidated the evolutionary processes that have shaped the genome structures of modern jujubes. Population structure analysis revealed the complex genetic background of jujubes resulting from extensive hybridizations between jujube and its wild relatives. Notably, several key genes that control fruit organic acid metabolism and sugar content were identified in the selective sweep regions. We also identified S-locus genes controlling gametophytic self-incompatibility and investigated haplotype patterns of the S locus in the jujube genomes, which would provide a guideline for parent selection for jujube crossbreeding. This study provides valuable genomic resources for jujube improvement, and offers insights into jujube genome evolution and its population structure and domestication.

  12. Genetic divergence among hybrids of 'Cravo' mandarin with 'Pêra' sweet orange Divergência genética entre híbridos de tangerina 'Cravo' com laranja 'Pêra'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers have been used as tools in breading programs of sexual hybridation, allowing the genetic characterization of a large number of genotypes. The RADP markers are the most used since the employed techniques are simple and of low cost. To evaluate the genetic divergence among F1 hybrids of 'Cravo' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck, this study analyses the variability and similarity of the hybrids among themselves and with their parents. Random Amplified Polimorfic DNA marker analysis, with 102 primers, were applied to a population composed of 94 hybrids and their parents. Multivariate genetic divergence analysis of the principal components and Tocher grouping were carried out only considering the polymorphic fragments. Genetic distances were calculated by the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. Bidimensional dispersion graphs among hybrid and parent distances and of the divergence analysis by principal components were constructed. High genetic similarity among Cravo and Pêra varieties and their hybrids was verified, showing a casual distribution from the hybrids in relation to the parents, but in intermediary positions. The principal component analysis showed little applicability in the study of hybrid genetic divergence. The hybrids and parents were classified in groups based on the genetic similarity, using the Tocher optimization method.Os marcadores moleculares têm sido utilizados como ferramentas em programas de melhoramento por hibridação sexual, permitindo a caracterização genética de grande número de genótipos. Os marcadores moleculares RAPD são os mais utilizados pois as técnicas empregadas são simples e de baixo custo. Avaliou-se a divergência genética entre híbridos F1 de tangerina 'Cravo' (Citrus reticulata Blanco com laranja 'Pêra' (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck e estudou-se a variabilidade e a similaridade desses materiais entre si e em relação aos

  13. Produção e qualidade de frutos de cultivares de laranja-doce no norte do Paraná Fruit production and quality of sweet orange cultivars in northern Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi a caracterização de acessos de laranja-doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros (BAG Citros do IAPAR, em Londrina-PR. Foram estudados os acessos I-02 'Piralima'; I-03 'Barão'; I-11 'Natal', I-16 'Hamlin', I-17 'Seleta-Vermelha', I-60 'Natal', enxertados sobre limão- 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck. As plantas foram conduzidas em espaçamento de 7,0 m x 7,0 m e sem irrigação. Os dados de produção (de 1983 a 1997 e as características físico-químicas dos frutos (de 1984 a 2000, como massa (MF, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável total (ATT, ratio (SST/ATT, rendimento em suco (Suco e índice tecnológico (IT foram submetidos à análise de variância, complementada pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. O acesso I-16 'Hamlin' foi o mais produtivo (218,1 kg por planta e diferiu-se dos demais. Para a massa do fruto, destacaram-se os acessos I-17 'Seleta-Vermelha' (208,8 g e I-11 'Natal' (142,0 g, sem diferença entre si. Com relação às características químicas dos frutos, os acessos apresentaram resultados semelhantes, dentro dos padrões considerados adequados para as cultivares, exceto o acesso I-17, 'Seleta- Vermelha', que teve índice tecnológico menor que 2,0 kg.caixa-1 de SST.The aim of this work was to characterize sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] accessions from the IAPAR Active Citrus Germplasm Bank (AGB Citrus in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. The accessions studied were: I-02 'Piralima', I-03 'Barão', I-11 'Natal', I-16 'Hamlin', I-17 'Seleta Vermelha', I-60 'Natal', I-67 budded on Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck. The plants had 7.0 m x 7.0 m spacing, and were carried out without irrigation. Data of yield (from 1983 to 1997 and fruit physical-chemical characteristics (from 1984 to 2000, like fruit mass (FM, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, ratio (TSS/TTA, juice content and technological index (TI were submitted

  14. Fluxo de seiva e fotossíntese em laranjeira 'Natal' com clorose variegada dos citros Sap flow and photosynthesis of 'Natal' sweet orange plants with citrus variegated chlorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC, no fluxo de seiva, trocas gasosas e atividade fotoquímica em laranjeira 'Natal', com e sem CVC, em condição de campo. O curso diário do fluxo de seiva, potencial da água na folha, assimilação de CO2, transpiração, condutância estomática e eficiência quântica máxima e efetiva do fotossistema II foram avaliados. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. O fluxo de seiva foi 1,9 vez superior nas plantas sadias em relação às doentes. Em plantas doentes ocorreu queda de 43, 28 e 33% na assimilação de CO2, condutância estomática e transpiração, respectivamente. As plantas com CVC apresentaram fotoinibição dinâmica. Uma vez que a eficiência quântica efetiva apresentou um padrão de resposta semelhante, durante o dia, em ambos os tratamentos, o efeito protetor da fotorrespiração no aparato fotoquímico em plantas com CVC é discutido. As quedas de assimilação de CO2, transpiração e de fluxo de seiva, nas plantas com CVC, foram decorrentes do menor valor da condutância estomática, possivelmente causado pela colonização dos vasos do xilema pela Xylella fastidiosa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC on sap flow, gas exchanges and photochemical activity in 'Natal' sweet orange plants with and without CVC under field condition. Diurnal courses of sap flow, leaf water potential, CO2 assimilation rate and transpiration, stomatal conductance, potential and effective quantum efficiency of photosystem II were evaluated. The experiment was arranged in a random block design with five repetitions. Healthy plants showed sap flow values around 1.9 times higher than injured ones. Injured plants exhibited reductions of 43, 28 and 33% in CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration, respectively. CVC-affected plants showed dynamic

  15. Orange Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence (Orange Book or OB) is a list of drugs approved under Section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act...

  16. Produtividade e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra' clone IAC em 16 porta-enxertos na região de Bebedouro-SP Yield and fruit quality of 'Pêra' sweet orange clone IAC on 16 rootstocks in Bebedouro region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2004-08-01

    and chemical fruit characteristics such as fruit size, total soluble solids, acidity, ratio juice content and technological index of 'Pera' IAC sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck], in a high inoculum pressure area of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC. The spacement was 6.0 m between rows and 3.5 m between trees. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with three replications and two trees per plot. The rootstocks tested were 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, 'Pectinífera' (C. reticulata, 'Shekwasha' (C. depressa Hayata, 'Pectinífera/Shekwasha' (C. depressa Hayata, 'Batangas' (C. reticulata, 'Oneco' (C. reticulata, citrangor [citrange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x C. sinensis x C. sinensis], citrandarin (C. sunki hort. ex Tanaka x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. cv. English, 'Sunki' (C. sunki, 'Suen-Kat' (C. sunki, Nasnaran (C. amblycarpa Ochse, 'Venezuela' mandarin (C. reticulata, 'Heen Naran' mandarin (C. lycopersicaeformis, 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck x 'Cleopatra' (C. reshni hort ex Tanaka, 'Cravo' (C. limonia, 'Cleopatra' (C. reshni. CVC intensity was different due to rootstocks effects and not related with yield until the fourth year of production. With the exception of the Nasnaran mandarin the rootstocks induced initial fruit production and quality similar to 'Cravo'.

  17. Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    Orange FA9550-07-1- 0235 Patricia Miller, Baron Johnson AFOSR 875 N Randolph Arlington, VA 22203 AFRL-SR-AR-TR-10-0123 Distribution A At the onset of...1 all the available engine power would be used to produce electrical power. Figure 1.2 was calculated assuming a maximum engine output of 1.5 Hp

  18. Hydrothermal treatment favors peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter quality Tratamento hidrotérmico facilita o descascamento de laranja 'Pera' e não afeta sua qualidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demand for ready-to-eat-products has stimulated the development of new processing techniques to prepare fresh-cut fruit and vegetables. The aim of this study was to propose a peeling method for 'Pera' oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. by using a hydrothermal treatment and to determine its influence on the respiratory activity, physicochemical and sensorial characteristics, as well as on the peeling time. Cooled oranges (6ºC were immersed in heated water (50ºC for eight minutes and then, peeled and stored at 6ºC. The internal fruit temperatures taken at 1 and 3 cm depths (from fruit surface were 15ºC and 10ºC, respectively, at the end of the hydrothermal treatment. Non-hydrothermally-treated peeled oranges were used as control. The peeling time for treated oranges was 3.2 times as short as the time used for the control. The yield of marketable oranges was 95% for hydrothermally-treated oranges versus 60% for control. The respiratory activity of hydrothermally-treated oranges was greater than that of control oranges only during the first hour after peeling. The hydrothermal treatment influenced neither the physicochemical quality (given by soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content nor fruit flavor. Oranges peeled with the aid of the hydrothermal treatment had better appearance. The hydrothermal treatment makes the peeling of oranges easier and does not affect their respiratory activity or their physicochemical and sensorial qualities.A demanda dos consumidores por produtos 'prontos para o consumo' tem estimulado o desenvolvimento de técnicas de processamento para preparar frutas e hortaliças minimamente processadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor um método de descascamento para laranja 'Pera' (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. pelo uso do tratamento hidrotérmico e determinar sua influência na atividade respiratória, características físico-químicas e sensoriais e no tempo de descascamento de laranja 'Pera

  19. "Cox orange\\" and \\"Elstar\\" Apple Cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thinning trials were conducted in the apple orchards of Klein Altendorf experimental station near Bonn, Germany, using 7 year old CV, \\'Cox orange\\' in the year 2001 and 8 year old \\'Elstar\\' apple trees in 2002. The objective was to reduce the number of fruits per tree, yield, improve fruit quality, overcome alternate bearing ...

  20. Application of Acid Whey in Orange Drink Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Jaworska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare qualitative changes in orange and orange beverages containing whey during 12 months of storage. The beverages contained 12 % extract, half of which was orange concentrate, the rest was sugar or sugar and whey extract. Acid whey was used in the production of beverages, added at a rate of 50 % of the used water. Orange beverages with whey contained more protein, ash, glucose, lactose and vitamin B2 than the orange beverages, but less sucrose, fructose and vitamin C, and also showed lower antioxidant activity against the DPPH radical. No significant differences between the two types of beverages were found in the polyphenolic content or activity against the ABTS cation radical. The type of beverage had a significant effect on the colour parameter values under the CIELAB system, although no significant differences were found between the beverages in the sensory evaluation of colour desirability. The overall sensory evaluation of orange beverages with whey was 2–10 % lower than of other orange beverages. The intensity of orange, sweet and refreshing taste was greater in orange beverages, while that of sour and whey taste was greater in orange beverages containing whey. There were significant decreases in sucrose, lactose, all indicators of antioxidant activity and sensory quality during storage. Levels of glucose and fructose rose with the storage period, while the intensity of sour, orange and refreshing taste decreased.

  1. Available water and the orange trees growth on soils of a toposequence of the Reconcavo Baiano; Agua disponivel e crescimento da laranjeira em solos de uma topossequencia do Reconcavo Baiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Arlicelio de Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais. E-mail: aqpaiva@jacaranda.uescba.com.br; Souza, Luciano da Silva [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e Fruticultura. E-mail: lsouza@cnpmf.embrapa.br; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos; Costa, Liovando Marciano da [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Santana, Marlete Bastos [Bahia Univ., Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Escola de Agronomia

    1997-07-01

    Aiming the study of the influence of available water in soils, at different depths, on the orange trees growth, the present work was carried out on a toposequence located at the Sapeacu-BA-Brazil municipality, with 190 m length and 0.097 mm{sup -1} declivity. Due to the declivity and soils variations, the area was divided into three sectors with different constitutions. Weekly basis measurements of the soil water content have been performed, in the period of Dec 18, 1995 - Dec 18, 1996, at different depths, by using a neutron probe. The water considered as available was the stored water in the soil, at different depths, less the volumetric humidity under the -1,500 kPa.

  2. Genetic diversity and difference within and between bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae) in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbé, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Missinhoun, A.A.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Economically important food tree species in sub-Saharan Africa should be domesticated to enhance their production within agro forestry systems. The African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) are highly preserved and integrated in agro forestry systems in tropical Africa. However, the taxonomic

  3. Sweet potato development and delivery in sub-Saharan Africa | Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the natural occurrence of high levels of beta-carotene in many sweet potato varieties, breeding progress for biofortified orange sweet potato (OSP) has been much faster than for the other vitamin A enhanced staples. Nearly 3 million households have been reached with OSP. This paper reviews key factors influencing ...

  4. Efeito da baixa temperatura noturna e do porta-enxerto na variação diurna das trocas gasosas e na atividade fotoquímica de laranjeira 'Val��ncia' Effects of low night temperature and rootstocks on diurnal variation of leaf gas exchange rates and photochemical activity of 'Valência' sweet orange plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Favero São Pedro Machado

    2010-06-01

    limitações difusivas e metabólicas. Embora, Fv/Fm e Fq'/Fm' em laranjeira 'Valência' sobre 'Cravo' tenham sido mais afetados pelo resfriamento em comparação às laranjeiras sobre 'Swingle', esses não contribuíram para a redução da assimilação de CO² (A. Porém, o frio noturno causou aumento da atividade dos drenos alternativos de elétrons (aumento da relação entre o transporte aparente de elétrons e a assimilação de CO², reduzindo a eficiência aparente de carboxilação de forma mais significante em 'Valência' sobre 'Cravo' do que sobre 'Swingle'. Estes resultados confirmam a hipótese de que a ocorrência de frio noturno afeta a fotossíntese de laranjeira 'Valência' sendo os efeitos do resfriamento dependentes do porta-enxerto.Decreases in photosynthesis during winter season are probably caused by low night temperature, even under non-limiting environmental conditions during the diurnal period. Citrus orchards are formed by grafted plants, being the 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstock recommended in areas with occurrence of low temperatures. However, the physiological mechanisms related to larger growth and crop yield in those plants are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the effect of low night temperature in photosynthesis of sweet orange plants is dependent on the rootstock species, with 'Swingle' citrumelo (Citrus paradise x Poncirus trifoliata inducing higher tolerance to overnight chilling when compared to 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia rootstock. Six-month old 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis sweet orange plants grown in plastic bags (5 L were exposed overnight (12 h to temperatures of 20 and 8 ºC. The thermal treatment was carried out inside a growth chamber where only the upper plant shoots were exposed to temperature variation. Measurements of diurnal courses of leaf gas exchange and photochemical activity were taken under natural environmental conditions. Chilling night caused larger reduction on CO2

  5. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA C. NOGUEIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey’s test (p<0.05 was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers’ health and for the agricultural business.

  6. Farmers' willingness to pay for quality orange fleshed sweetpotato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The special nutrition need by people have shifted their focus to the adoption of Orange Flesh Sweet Potato for cumption due to its high content of Vitamin A. Sweetpotato which is one of the most important but underutilized food crops in the world have now attracted concerted efforts globally to in the past decade to feed the ...

  7. evaluation of the performance of improved sweet potato (ipomoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IKUMOINEIN W. KURO

    of vitamins A, C and B2 (riboflavin) (FAO, 1990). However, sweet potato varieties with dark orange flesh have more beta carotene than those with light coloured flesh and their increased cultivation is being encouraged in Africa where vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem (Hagenimana et al., 1999b). Right now ...

  8. Analysis of Hydraulic Conductance Components in Field Grown, Mature Sweet Cherry Trees Análisis de los Componentes de Conductancia Hidráulica en Árboles Maduros de Cerezo Dulce en Condiciones de Campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oyarzún

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As a necessary step towards understanding soil water extraction and plant water relationships, the components of hydraulic conductance (K of mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees were evaluated in situ based on a Ohm´s law analog method. In June 2004, K was determined for 10-yr-old ‘Bing’/‘Gisela® 5’ trees, from simultaneous measurements of whole canopy gas exchange and leaf (sunlit and shaded and stem water potentials (Ψ. Leaf water potential of sunlit leaves was lower than shaded leaves, reaching minimum values of ca. -2.3 MPa around 14:00 h (solar time. Average total hydraulic conductance was 60 ± 6 mmol s-1 MPa-1, presenting a slight decreasing trend as the season progressed. The analysis of tree K components showed that it was higher on the stem-leaf pathway (150 ± 50 mmol s-1 MPa-1, compared to the root-stem component (100 ± 20 mmol s-1 MPa-1, which is in agreement with literature reports for other fruit trees. A weak hysteresis pattern in the daily relationship between whole-canopy transpiration (weighted sunlit and shaded leaves vs. Ψ was observed, suggesting that water storage within the tree is not a significant component of sweet cherry water balance.Como un paso necesario para la comprensión de la extracción de agua desde el suelo y las relaciones suelo-agua-planta, los componentes de la conductancia hidráulica (K en árboles adultos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. fue evaluada in situ con un método basado en una analogía de la Ley de Ohm. En Junio de 2004, K fue determinada para árboles ‘Bing’/‘Gisela® 5’ de 10 años de edad, a partir de mediciones simultáneas de intercambio gaseoso del follaje en forma integrada y potenciales hídricos (Ψ de hojas individuales (soleadas y sombreadas y del xilema. Los potenciales hídricos de las hojas soleadas fueron menores que los de las hojas sombreadas, alcanzando valores mínimos de ca. -2.3 MPa alrededor de 14:00 h (hora solar. La conductancia hidr

  9. Nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na nutrição e no crescimento de mudas de laranjeiravalência, enxertadas sobre limoeiro cravo Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium levels on nutrition and production of seedlings of 'Valencia' sweet orange grafted on 'cravo' lemon rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação telada na FCAV/Unesp campus Jaboticabal-SP, durante o período de novembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2007. Conduziu-se este estudo, com o objetivo de avaliar componentes do desenvolvimento e do estado nutricional de mudas de laranjeira Valência (Citrus sinensis Osbeck, enxertadas sobre limoeiro Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck, em função de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3³ + 1, sendo 3 fatores (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio - NPK, 3 doses e uma testemunha (sem adubação, com 3 repetições. A unidade experimental foi representada por uma muda de laranjeira por sacola com 5 dm³ com 2,5 kg de substrato casca de Pinus spp. e vermiculita. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela metade, uma vez e duas vezes a dose padrão recomendada, de 4.590; 920 e 4.380 mg sacola-1, de N, P e K, respectivamente. As adubações com N e K foram realizadas via fertirrigações três vezes por semana e o P foi adicionado ao substrato antes do replantio das mudas. Aos 424 dias após o transplantio, as plantas foram subdivididas em raízes e parte aérea para determinação da massa da matéria seca, altura, área foliar, diâmetro do caule e conteúdo de nutrientes. A adubação com N, P e K proporcionou maior desenvolvimento e maior acúmulo desses macronutrientes na parte aérea e nas raízes das mudas de laranjeira Valência, sobre limoeiro Cravo. Houve adequado desenvolvimento das plantas com a metade da dose recomendada de N, P e K pela literatura, aproximadamente de 918, 184 e 876 mg dm-3, respectivamente.The experiment was carried out in greenhouse at the FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP during the period of November 2005 to January 2007. The objective of this study was to evaluate development components and nutritional status of seedlings of 'Valencia' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck sweet orange grafted on 'Cravo' lemon rootstock

  10. Maturation curves and degree-days accumulation for fruits of 'Folha Murcha' orange trees Curvas de maturação e graus-dia acumulados para frutos de plantas de laranjeira 'Folha Murcha'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal summation on orange fruit growth on different rootstocks has not been studied for the State of Paraná, Brazil. This research evaluated the growth of fruits by means of maturation curves, and quantified the growing degree-days (GDD accumulation required for fruit maturation in 'Folha Murcha' orange trees budded on 'Rangpur' lime, 'Volkamer' lemon, 'Sunki' mandarin, and 'Cleopatra' mandarin, in Paranavaí and Londrina, PR. In both locations and all rootstocks, the fruits showed evolution in total soluble solids (TSS content in relation to GDD accumulation, with a quadratic tendency of curve fitting; total titratable acidity (TTA had an inverse quadratic fitting, and the (TSS/TTA ratio showed a positive linear regression. Fruits in Paranavaí presented a higher development rate towards maturity than those in Londrina, for all rootstocks. The advancing of the initial maturation stage of fruits in Paranavaí in relation to those in Londrina occurred in the following descending order: 'Volkamer' lemon (92 days, 'Cleopatra' mandarin (81 days, 'Sunki' mandarin (79 days, 'Rangpur' lime (77 days. In Londrina, trees on 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkamer' lemon were ready for harvest 8 and 15 days before those on the 'Cleopatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins, respectively. In Paranavaí, the beginning of fruit maturation in trees on 'Volkamer' lemon occurred 15, 19, and 28 days earlier than on 'Rangpur' lime, 'Cleopatra' mandarin, and 'Sunki' mandarin, respectively. Considering 12.8ºC as the lower base temperature, the thermal sum for fruit growth and maturation of 'Folha Murcha' orange ranged from 4,462 to 5,090 GDD.O efeito da soma térmica no crescimento do fruto de laranja em diferentes porta-enxertos não tem sido estudado no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Esta pesquisa avaliou o crescimento dos frutos por meio de curvas de maturação e quantificou os graus-dia acumulados (GDA necessários para a maturação dos frutos em laranjeiras 'Folha

  11. Converting Surface Irrigation to Pressurized Irrigation Systems and its Effecton Yield of OrangeTrees (Case Study:North of Khouzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorramian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: North of the Khouzestan is one of the most important citrus production center. Usually border irrigation is used to irrigate citrus in this area. This system has generally low application efficiency. Several investigations in other arid region have demonstrated in addition to improved irrigation efficiency with low-volume pressurized irrigation systems, citrus trees have adapted with these new irrigation systems. However limited information exists on the performance of mature orchards converted from border surface irrigation to pressurized irrigation systems. Therefore, the current research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of converting surface irrigation to pressurized irrigation systems on mature citrus trees in climate conditions of North Khouzestan. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during three years at Safiabad Agricultural Research Center to evaluate the yield of citrus trees and the quality of fruits for two Marss and Valencia varieties which grow 7 years previously with surface irrigation and converted to pressurized irrigation systems. The treatments consisted of six irrigation methods including Overhead sprinkle irrigation (OHSI, Under tree sprinkle irrigation(UTSI, Trickle irrigation(TI(six 8 L/h Netafim emitters, Microjet irrigation (MI(two 180 microjet were located under canopy near of the trunk at opposite sides of trunk,Bubbler irrigation(BI(a single located under the canopy of each treeandSurface irrigation(SI method.Soil texture was clay loam well drained without salinity(ECe=0.69ds m-1, with 1.25 percent organic carbon. The experimental design was completely randomized design. The trees were irrigated during spring and summer seasons. For calculating irrigation water depth in TI, MI and BI systems, daily evaporation from a class A evaporation pan of the Safiabad weather station (nearby the experimental field was collected, and evapotranspiration of the citrus trees was calculated applying a

  12. Influence of variety, storage, and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on chemical composition and bioactivity of polysaccharides from sweet cherry and apple tree fruits

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    Kelly A. Ross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work examined the effect of extraction regime (hot water vs. simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and postharvest storage on the chemical composition, molecular weight, and bioactive properties of polysaccharides obtained from sweet cherries (Lapins and Staccato varieties and apples (Gala and Fuji varieties. The yields of the polysaccharides isolated from cherries and apples ranged from 0.2 to 2.4% on a dry weight fruit basis. All of the isolated polysaccharides contained protein, phenolic compounds, and uronic acid. All polysaccharides contained the sugar monomers: rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. Also, all of the polysaccharides obtained using the different extraction regimes were shown to possess antioxidant activity as determined with the ferric reducing antioxidant power and the 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assays. Only the polysaccharides isolated from the cherry and apples after simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion showed appreciable α-glucosidase inhibition activity, with polysaccharides obtained from Staccato cherries showing nearly 90% of the inhibition of α-glucosidase as achieved with the positive control acarbose. This work shows that bioactive polysaccharides are available and/or can be isolated during digestion which supports the concept that fruit polysaccharides play a role in enhancing human health.

  13. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Amanda C; Sehn, Georgia A R; Rebellato, Ana Paula; Coutinho, Janclei P; Godoy, Helena T; Chang, Yoon K; Steel, Caroline J; Clerici, Maria Teresa P S

    2018-01-01

    Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey's test (psweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers' health and for the agricultural business.

  14. Efecto del ácido indolacético sobre el desarrollo in vitro de los tejidos del fruto de naranjo dulce var. Salustiana Effect of the indolacetic acid on the in vitro development of the fruit tissues of the sweet orange var. Salustiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rebolledo R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó el efecto de cuatro concentraciones (10- 8 a 10- 5 M de ácido indolacético (AIA y del tipo de explanto sobre el desarrollo in vitro de los tejidos del fruto del naranjo dulce Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck, de la variedad salustiana. La máxima respuesta se obtuvo con explantos de frutos de 6 días con las concentraciones más elevadas (10-5 y 10- 6 M. En este momento del desarrollo las células de los tejidos del fruto se encontraban en división. La capacidad de respuesta de los tejidos se redujo después de 31 días de desarrollo, cuando se inició la diferenciación celular del mesocarpo interno. El aumento en el tamaño de vesícula en explantos de frutos de 6 días de edad sugiere que el cultivar salustiana responde a la aplicación de auxinas durante el estado de desarrollo temprano del fruto, actuando directamente sobre este tejido.The effect of 4 concentrations of the indolacetic acid as well as the explant type on the in vitro development of the sweet orange fruit tissue Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck Salustiana variety was characterized. A maximum response in explants of 6-d-old fruitlets was obtained with the higher concentrations (10-5 and 10- 6 M. At this development stage, fruit tissue cells were dividing. A decrease in the fruit response capacity after day 31 was verified. At this moment, cellular differentiation in the internal mesocarp was starting. The increase in size of the vesicle explants of 6-d-old fruitlets suggests a response of the Salustiana cultivar to auxin applications during the early stage of fruit development. This hormone can operate directly on this tissue.

  15. Osage-orange: a pioneering stewardship species

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett; James D. Burton

    1997-01-01

    Osage-orange, a small tree with a number of unique characteristics, played an important role in the settlement of the prairies. One of the more significant contributions was in the use of the species for hedges. The thorny, low-spreading crowns provided excellent fencing when properly main tamed. This use, plus its later used in skelterbelts, exert a continuing...

  16. Effect of prestorage curing on storage life, internal and external qualities of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Efeito da cura antes do armazenameto no prazo de conservação, qualidades internas e externas da laranja doce (Citrus sinensis

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    Abiola Titilola Aborisade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Orange fruits from two seasons, in April and August 2006 representing late 2005 and early 2006 harvests respectively were cured in hot air at 36-37(0C to 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% weight loss before storage at 28(0C and 86% relative humidity (RH. The fruits were observed for incidence of decay, further weight loss, juice content, firmness or softening of the peel, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, and colour during storage. Curing reduced the incidence of decay. All control fruits were rotten by day 21 in August harvest while 22.5% of the control was rotten by day 56 in the April harvest. Storage life was extended beyond 56 days in fruits cured with 1, 3, 5 and 7% in April harvest as there was no decay throughout, while decay incidence in August harvest was 88.9, 61.1, 22.2 and 31.3% in 1, 3, 5 and 7% respectively. Penicillium digitatum, Phytophthora sp., Alternaria citri and Collectotrichum gloeosporioides were among decay causing moulds detected. Control fruits lost more weight during storage than cured fruits did. Fruit rind hardening was more noticed in the control and those cured to 1% weight loss, especially from the April harvest. It was insignificant in other treatments in both trials. Titratable acidity, pH, juice content and TSS were not affected by the treatment. Colour change to yellow was however retarded by curing. Curing to 5% weight loss was best for decay control and quality retention.Frutos de laranjas de duas safras, de Abril e de Agosto de 2006 representando colheitas do final de 2005 e começo de 2006 respectivamente foram curados em ar quente a 36-37(0C até a perda de peso de 1%, 3%, 5% e 7% antes do armazenamento a 28(0C e 86% de umidade relativa (UR. Os frutos foram observados quanto à incidência de apodrecimento, mais tarde perda de peso, conteúdo de suco, firmeza ou amolecimento da casca, sólidos solúveis totais (TSS, pH, acidez titúlavel, e coloração durante o armazenamento. A cura diminuiu a incid

  17. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees Mineralização do carbono e nitrogênio sob diferentes preparos de solo e coberturas permanentes intercalares em pomar de laranjeira

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    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a mineralização do Carbono e Nitrogênio devido ao cultivo intercalar de diferentes coberturas permanentes em pomar de laranjeira. O experimento foi

  18. Produção da laranjeira-de-umbigo 'Monte Parnaso' com incisão anelar de ramos e uso de reguladores vegetais Fruit production of 'Monte Parnaso' orange trees following girdling and growth regulator sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Carlos Koller

    2006-12-01

    'Monte Parnaso' oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck, during the season 2001/2002 orange trees from an 11 years old orchard grafted onto Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. located in Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were submitted to the following treatments: 1 control (no girdling and no growth regulator sprays; 2 girdling of branches after 10 days of petal drop; 3 girdling of branches after June drop; 4 5 mg.L-1 of GA3 sprayed 10 days after petal drop; 5 15 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D sprayed at the end of June drop; 6 50 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D sprayed at the end of June drop; 7 10 mg.L-1 of GA3 plus 15 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D sprayed on May 14th, 2001 and May 11th, 2002; 8 combination of treatments 2 and 3; 9 combination of treatments 2, 3 and 7. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with 5 replicates and 3 trees as experimental units. The results indicate that spraying 5 mg.L-1 of GA3 10 days after petal drop increase fruit weight production but reduce fruit average weight in relation to other treatments that enhances the fruit production; spraying 15 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D in November after June drop reduce fruit juice content; and to have higher fruit production one of the following procedures are recommended: girdling of branches or spraying 5 mg.L-1 of GA3 10 days after petal drop, spraying 15mg.L-1 or 50 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D in November after June drop or spraying orange trees with 10 mg.L-1 of GA3 plus 15 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D in May.

  19. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1

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    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.

  20. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TUBERS FROM ORGANIC SWEET POTATO ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMILA DE OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine instead at determining chemical composition, nutritional aspects and morphological characteristic of tubers from sweet potato roots (Ipomoea batatas L. of cultivars Rosinha de Verdan, Capivara and orange-fleshed produced under the organic system. The chemical composition of flours from sweet potato (SP roots was different among cultivars. The starch content for SP cultivar ranged from 26-33 % (d. b., and the orange-fleshed roots presented 3182 μg of β-carotene/100 g. The flour yield ob-tained for SPF processing was higher in Rosinha de Verdan (25.40%, and the starch content of roots ranged from 12.48-27.63 % (d.b.. The processing condition modified the starch granular characteristics of the flours and reduced 31% the carotene content and vitamin A value of the orange-fleshed flour. The orange-fleshed flour presented higher levels of carbohydrate, starch and total energy value (TEV than others white fleshed flour. The consumption of serving size of orange-fleshed roots and flour provided higher provitamin A require-ments for children.

  1. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612 Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais mais freqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto.The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors on flowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collect nectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  2. The research and implementation continuum of biofortified sweet potato and maize in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Ball, Anna-Marie; Kaliwile, Chisela; Pixley, Kevin V

    2017-02-01

    The enhancement of sweet potato and maize with provitamin A carotenoids has been part of HarvestPlus's research continuum since the formation of the biofortification project. This review includes case studies of biofortification strategies used for sweet potato in Uganda and orange maize in Zambia. The current status of the science and release of biofortified varieties was reviewed by three scientists who were part of the HarvestPlus program for more than a decade with input from a scientist who experienced orange maize dissemination in Zambia. High β-carotene varieties of sweet potato were introduced into South Africa and Mozambique, and efficacy and effectiveness studies, respectively, showed promise to improve vitamin A status, followed by dissemination efforts in Uganda. A randomized, controlled effectiveness trial tested extension models to promote sweet potato and assessed vitamin A intake among Ugandans. Orange maize breeding was initially a challenge, but considering that the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway was present in maize germplasm, breeders quickly bred higher amounts of provitamin A into the maize that was ultimately released in Zambia. Initial resistance occurred because orange maize was associated with yellow maize, which had negative connotations associated with food aid and animal feed, and consumers preferred white maize. Currently, both orange crops are available on the market. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    15.4. 24.7. 26.3. 37.5. 42.3. 20.5. 20.0. 25.1. 26.7. Umuspo 3. 16.8. 26.4. 27.4. 37.1. 41.9. 44.4. 35.6. 24.0. 53.4. 34.1. Mean. 22.7. 20.9. 26.1. 31.7. 39.7. 43.4. 28.1. 22.0. 39.25. Weed density. Weed dry matter. LSD (0.05) for fertilizer (F) mean. = NS. 17.8. LSD (0.05) for variety (V) mean. = 14.8. NS. LSD (0.05) for F x V mean.

  4. Extraction and qualitative assessment of African sweet orange seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By solvent extraction using petroleum ether, a golden yellow coloured oil was obtained and characterized by determining the pH, refractive index, density, solvent miscibility, congealing temperature, flame nature, specific gravity, retention factor on chromatographic plate, heat of combustion, smoke point, flash point, fire ...

  5. Development of globular embryos from the hybridization between 'Pêra Rio' sweet orange and 'Poncã' mandarin Desenvolvimento de embriões globulares de citros provenientes de hibridação entre laranjeira 'Pêra Rio' x tangerineira 'Poncã'

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    Edvan Alves Chagas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to study the influence of different concentrations of the MT medium, sucrose, vitamins, activated charcoal and gibberellic acid (GA3 on the culture of immature embryos from the crossing between 'Pêra Rio' sweet orange and 'PONCÃ' mandarin. The embryos were excised under aseptic conditions and inoculated in 15 mL of the MT medium according to the following experiments: 1 MT concentrations (0%, 50%, 100%, 150% and 200% supplemented with 0, 30, 60 and 90 g.L-1 of sucrose; 2 vitamins concentrations of the MT (0%, 50%, 100%, 150% and 200% supplemented with 0, 30, 60 and 90 g.L-1 of sucrose; 3 activated charcoal concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 g.L-1 supplemented with GA3 (0, 0.01, 0.1; 1 and 10 mg.L-1. After the inoculation, the embryos were kept in a growth room for 90 days at 27 ± 1ºC, in a 16-hour photoperiod with 32 µmol.m-2.s-1 of irradiance. The best development of embryos at the globular stage was achieved using 50% and 100% of the MT medium plus 60 g.L-1 and 90 g.L-1 of sucrose, respectively, supplemented with 0.01 mg.L-1 of GA3. The addition of activated charcoal or vitamins in the MT medium has shown to be unnecessary to the development of globular embryos.Objetivou-se estudar a influência de diversas concentrações do meio MT, sacarose, vitaminas, carvão ativado e ácido giberélico no cultivo de embriões imaturos oriundos do cruzamento entre laranjeira 'Pêra Rio' x tangerineira 'PONCÃ' . Os embriões foram excisados sob condições assépticas e inoculados em 15 mL do meio de cultura MT, de acordo com cada experimento a seguir: 1 concentrações do meio de cultura MT (0%, 50%, 100%, 150% e 200% combinados com 0, 30, 60 e 90 g.L-1 de sacarose; 2 concentrações de vitaminas do meio MT (0%, 50%, 100%, 150% e 200% combinados com 0, 30, 60 e 90 g.L-1 de sacarose e; 3 concentrações de carvão ativado (0; 0.5; 1; 1.5 e 2 g.L-1 combinados com GA3 (0; 0.01; 0.1; 1 e 10 mg.L-1. Após a inoculação, os

  6. Effect of the indolacetic acid on the in vitro development of the fruit tissues of the sweet orange var. Salustiana Efecto del ácido indolacético sobre el desarrollo in vitro de los tejidos del fruto de naranjo dulce var. Salustiana

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    Guardiola José

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 4 concentrations of the indolacetic acid as well as the explant type on the in vitro development of the sweet orange fruit tissue [Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck] Salustiana variety was characterized. A maximum response in explants of 6-d-old fruitlets was obtained with the higher concentrations (10-5 and 10-6 M. At this development stage, fruit tissue cells were dividing. A decrease in the fruit response capacity after day 31 was verified. At this moment, cellular differentiation in the internal mesocarp was starting. The increase in size of the vesicle explants of 6-d-old fruitlets suggests a response of the Salustiana cultivar to auxin applications during the early stage of fruit development. This hormone can operate directly on this tissue.

    Se caracterizó el efecto de cuatro concentraciones (10-8 a 10-5 M de ácido indolacético (AIA y del tipo de explanto sobre el desarrollo in vitro de los tejidos del fruto del naranjo dulce Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck, de la variedad salustiana. La máxima respuesta se obtuvo con explantos de frutos de 6 d

  7. Agrometeorological models for 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges to estimate the number of fruits per plant Modelos agrometeorológicos para estimação do número de frutos por planta em laranjeiras 'Valência' e 'Hamlin'

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    Silvia Elisandra Pasqua Paulino

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of models that allow forecasting yield tendencies is important to all sectors of the citrus industry. This work evaluated the influence of meteorological variables in different phases of the crop cycle in order to propose empirical models to estimate the number of fruits per plant (NFP of 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges. NFP sampling data from the citrus juice industry of the State of São Paulo, on the total of 15 harvests (1990/91 to 2004/05, classified into three age classes, and meteorological data of maximum and minimum air temperature and rainfall of Limeira, SP, Brazil, were utilized. Correlation coefficients were initially computed between the number of fruits per plant and each meteorological variable used for water balance and variables related to air temperature, in different periods. Linear multiple regression models were fit to describe the empirical relationship between NFP and the subsets of agrometeorological predictors that presented higher correlations in different phases of the crop cycle. The meteorological conditions during the phases of vegetative summer flush, pre-flowering, flowering and beginning of fruit growth influenced the number of fruits per plant. The proposed models presented adequate goodness-of-fit with determination coefficients varying from 0.72 to 0.87.O desenvolvimento de modelos para previsões de tendências de produtividade é de grande importância para todos os elos da cadeia produtiva de citros. Buscou-se avaliar a influência de variáveis meteorológicas, em diferentes fases do ciclo da cultura, para propor modelos empíricos para estimação do número de frutos por planta em laranjeira 'Valência' e laranjeira 'Hamlin'. Utilizaram-se dados amostrais, provenientes da indústria de suco paulista, de número de frutos por planta (NFP, em três classes de idade, referentes aos valores estimados anuais de produtividade, no total de 15 safras (1990/91 a 2004/05, e dados meteorol

  8. Ingestão de seiva do xilema de laranjeiras 'Pêra' e 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck sadias e infectadas por Xylella fastidiosa, pelas cigarrinhas vetoras Oncometopia facialis e Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae Xylem sap ingestion form healthy "Pera" and "Valencia" sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and infected ones by Xylella fastidiosa, Oncometopia facialis and Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae

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    Luiz Henrique Montesino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da infecção pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, agente causal da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC, sobre a taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema de plantas cítricas por duas espécies de cigarrinhas vetoras (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Foram utilizados pés-francos de laranjeira-doce (Citrus sinensis das variedades 'Pêra' e 'Valência', infectadas por X. fastidiosa da linhagem 9a5c, por meio de inoculação mecânica. Os insetos utilizados nos experimentos foram coletados em campo, sendo um representante da Tribo Cicadellini (Dilobopterus costalimai e um da Proconiini (Oncometopia facialis. A taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema por O. facialis foi quantificada nos ramos das plantas e a de D. costalimai nas folhas e ramos, por meio da avaliação do volume do líquido (honeydew excretado por unidade de tempo. O consumo pela cigarrinha O. facialis nas plantas doentes foi menor do que nas plantas sadias. Na variedade 'Pêra' doente, o consumo foi baixo, não permitindo a quantificação da seiva eliminada. Na 'Pêra' sadia e na 'Valência' doente e sadia, O. facialis apresentou valores expressivos de excreção, com maior alimentação no período diurno. Nas plantas sadias das duas variedades, o consumo pela cigarrinha D. costalimai foi maior do que nas plantas com CVC. Comparando-se as variedades, o consumo foi superior na variedade 'Valência', e, em relação às partes da planta, folha e ramo, a taxa de ingestão foi maior no ramo das duas variedades, apresentando consumo maior no período diurno.It was studied the effect of Xylella fastidiosa infection, causal agent of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC, on the xylem sap ingestion rate of citrus plants by two sharpshooters species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Seedlings of sweet orange Pera and Valencia (Citrus sinensis were used and infected by X. fastidiosa, strain 9a5c, obtained by mechanical inoculation. The insects used in the experiments were collected in the field, one

  9. Effect of different vine lengths on the growth and yield of orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiment was conducted in 2014 cropping season at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Agricultural Education Department, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe to investigate the effect of different vine lengths on the growth and yield of orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomea batatas(L) Lam) in ultisols of ...

  10. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, Christine; Neiers, Fabrice; Briand, Loïc

    2017-07-01

    The current review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the type 1 taste receptor 2 (T1R2)/type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1R3) receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, where it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the compounds (natural or artificial) perceived as sweet by people. Sweeteners are highly chemically diverse including natural sugars, sugar alcohols, natural and synthetic sweeteners, and sweet-tasting proteins. This single receptor is also the target for developing novel sweet enhancers. Importantly, the expression of a functional T1R2/T1R3 receptor is described in numerous extraoral tissues. In this review, the physiological impact of sweeteners is discussed. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers are perceived through the T1R2/T1R3 taste receptor present both in mouth and numerous extraoral tissues. The accumulated knowledge on sugar substitutes raises the issue of potential health effects.

  11. Efeito da tristeza em caracteres vegetativos, produtivos e industriais da laranjeira 'Valência' enxertada em híbridos segregando para tolerância Effect of the citrus tristeza disease on vegetative, productive and industrial characters of 'Valencia' sweet orange grafted onto hybrid rootstocks segregating for tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bordignon

    2003-01-01

    ólidos solúveis aumentou significativamente, 14% em média, nos híbridos intolerantes.The effect of the citrus tristeza disease caused by CTV on vegetative, productive, and industrial characters of the sweet orange 'Valencia' grafted onto seven hybrid progenies of full sibs segregating for tolerance was studied. The hybrids were originated from controlled crosses between the commercial rootstocks 'Davis A' Poncirus trifoliata (T, Sunki mandarin (S, 'São Paulo' sour orange (A and 'Limeira' Rangpur lime (C. Two sets of hybrids were studied. The first was formed by 298 individuals, from which 20 were T x S, 67 S x T, 98 S x A, 48 C x A, and 65 T x A. The second set had 1.243 hybrids, being 845 S x A, 240 A x S, 139 C x A, and 19 A x C. In the nursery, tristeza disease was responsible for 21% of death among the intolerant individuals, while among survivors transplanted to the field, an additional 13% died in a four-years period. Among the intolerant survivors in the field, tristeza reduced in four years rootstock diameter to 41%, scion diameter in 45%, and general vigor in 42%. Fruit weight was reduced in 22% in average. Yield was the most drastically affected character, being reduced to 41% in the first harvest, and up to 90% in the fifth harvest. Accumulated yields of five years were reduced 85% in the intolerant segregants among the different groups of hybrids. Productivity (yield/area of canopy was also intensely affected (46% indicating that the reduction in yield was proportionally more intense than the correspondent reduction in the vegetative growth. The relation between scion/rootstock diameters decreased 7% in the intolerant plants. Although small, it indicated that the vegetative growth of the tolerant canopies was more affected than the rootstocks, despite their intolerance. Little or no effect was detected on external peel color, juice outturn, and soluble solids/acids ratio. Acidity and soluble solids significantly increased at an average of 12 and 14

  12. Teor de água no substrato de crescimento e fotossíntese em laranjeira ‘Valência’ Substrate water content and photosyntesis in ‘Valencia’ orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO CARUSO MACHADO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a resposta da fotossíntese (A, transpiração (E, condutância estomática (g s, potencial da água na folha (Y, conteúdo relativo de água na folha (RWC, concentração interna de CO2 (Ci e eficiência do uso de água (WUE em laranjeiras ‘Valência’, sobre duas espécies de porta-enxertos, submetidas ao dessecamento do substrato de crescimento. As medidas foram feitas diariamente em laboratório (temperatura = 27 ± 1 oC, déficit de pressão de vapor = 1,5 ± 0,3 kPa e 700 mmol.m-2.s-1 de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos, até que A atingisse valores próximos a zero, quando os vasos foram reirrigados. Em seguida, as mesmas variáveis foram medidas por mais quatro dias. Os valores de A e de Y praticamente não variaram com teores de água no substrato entre 24 e 15% e com RWC entre 90 e 80%. Todavia, g s começou a decrescer desde o início de a queda no RWC e abaixo de 18% no teor de água no substrato. Discute-se a possibilidade da resposta do estômato estar diretamente relacionada à variação do teor de água no substrato, via comunicação raiz-parte aérea. A relação A/E, isto é, WUE, apresentou uma tendência discreta de diminuir com a queda de g s, indicando que, sob estresse mais severo (YPhotosynthesis (A, transpiration (E, stomatal conductance (g s, leaf water potential (Y, leaf relative water content (RWC, internal CO2 concentration (Ci and water use efficiency (WUE have been evaluated in ´Valencia´ orange trees grafted on two rootstocks exposed to substrate desiccation. Daily measurements at the laboratory conditions (temperature = 27 ± 1oC, water vapor pressure 1,5 ± 0,3 kPa, and photon flux density = 700 mmol.m-2.s-1 have been made until A reached values near zero. After rehydration, the same variables above have been evaluated for additional four days. A and Y values have not varied within 24% and 15% of substrate water content and for RWC ranging from 90 and 80%. However, there has been a

  13. PSIKOLOGI KORUPSI NOVEL ORANG-ORANG PROYEK KARYA AHMAD TOHARI

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Faruq; Saiful Anam

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain a description of personality (nature) can affect the behavior of corruption in the novel Orang-Orang Proyek. This research is a descriptive qualitative study using a novel approach to analyze the psychology of corruption. The data in this study are words, phrases, and sentences contained in the novel Orang-Orang Proyek. The main data sources are novel by Ahmad Tohari. Data collection method used in this research is to read the text repeatedly novel Orang-Orang Proye...

  14. dbSWEET: An Integrated Resource for SWEET Superfamily to Understand, Analyze and Predict the Function of Sugar Transporters in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2018-04-14

    SWEET (Sweet Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins have been recently discovered and form one of the three major families of sugar transporters. Homologs of SWEET are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Bacterial SWEET homologs have three transmembrane segments forming a triple-helical bundle (THB) and the functional form is dimers. Eukaryotic SWEETs have seven transmembrane helical segments forming two THBs with a linker helix. Members of SWEET homologs have been shown to be involved in several important physiological processes in plants. However, not much is known regarding the biological significance of SWEET homologs in prokaryotes and in mammals. We have collected more than 2000 SWEET homologs from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. For each homolog, we have modeled three different conformational states representing outward open, inward open and occluded states. We have provided details regarding substrate-interacting residues and residues forming the selectivity filter for each SWEET homolog. Several search and analysis options are available. The users can generate a phylogenetic tree and structure-based sequence alignment for selected set of sequences. With no metazoan SWEETs functionally characterized, the features observed in the selectivity filter residues can be used to predict the potential substrates that are likely to be transported across the metazoan SWEETs. We believe that this database will help the researchers to design mutational experiments and simulation studies that will aid to advance our understanding of the physiological role of SWEET homologs. This database is freely available to the scientific community at http://bioinfo.iitk.ac.in/bioinfo/dbSWEET/Home. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Sweetness and food preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Mennella, Julie A; Johnson, Susan L; Bellisle, France

    2012-06-01

    Human desire for sweet taste spans all ages, races, and cultures. Throughout evolution, sweetness has had a role in human nutrition, helping to orient feeding behavior toward foods providing both energy and essential nutrients. Infants and young children in particular base many of their food choices on familiarity and sweet taste. The low cost and ready availability of energy-containing sweeteners in the food supply has led to concerns that the rising consumption of added sugars is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic. Low-calorie sweeteners are one option for maintaining sweet taste while reducing the energy content of children's diets. However, their use has led to further concerns that dissociating sweetness from energy may disrupt the balance between taste response, appetite, and consumption patterns, especially during development. Further studies, preferably based on longitudinal cohorts, are needed to clarify the developmental trajectory of taste responses to low-calorie sweeteners and their potential impact on the diet quality of children and youth.

  16. Assessment of the productivity of sweet potato varieties grown on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agronomic effectiveness and economic viability of soil amendment with prunings of agro-forestry tree species in sweet potato production on a highly weathered soil of South Eastern Nigeria were assessed in a field study conducted in 2010 and 2011 at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, ...

  17. The effect of frequency of consumption of artificial sweeteners on sweetness liking by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, A; Duizer, L M

    2007-11-01

    Research into sweetness perception and preference thus far has demonstrated that sweetness preference is related not to the total sugar consumed by an individual but the amount of refined sugar ingested. Research has yet to be conducted, however, to determine whether a diet high in artificial sweeteners contributes to sweetness liking and preference with the same result as a diet high in sugar. The purpose of this research was to determine if such a relationship exists with regard to diets high in artificially sweetened beverages. Seventy-one female participants were recruited and screened for sweetener consumption in beverages. Sixty-four of these individuals were selected for sensory testing. All participants evaluated orange juice samples (ranging from 0% added sucrose to 20% added sucrose) for liking of sweetness using a 9-point hedonic scale. Based on screening survey data, participants were categorized according to sweetener consumption group (artificial sweetener consumers and natural sweetener consumers) and by overall sweetened beverage intake (low or high, regardless of sweetener type normally consumed). Sensory data were analyzed to compare sweetness liking in each of these groups. Significant differences in liking were observed, with individuals in the high sweetened beverage intake group preferring sweeter orange juice than those in the low-intake group. Categorization by sweetener type resulted in no significant differences between the groups, indicating that regardless of the type of sweetener consumed in a beverage, liking of sweetness will be influenced in the same manner.

  18. Mimusops elengi L. (Bulletwood tree; Hindi: Bakul or Maulsari) of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mimusops elengi L. (Bulletwood tree; Hindi: Bakul or Maulsari) of Sapotaceae is a handsome evergreen tree with milky latex and tender vegetative parts covered with brown hairs. The tree is often cultivated in parks and as an avenue tree. The fascicled flowers are small, white and sweet-scented. The ovoid berries are ...

  19. Operation Orange Street Resurfacing 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — Track Operation Orange Cone projects for 2016. “Operation Orange Cone” is an initiative launched in 2015 as part of the Yarber Administration’s push to address the...

  20. Indução da expressão precoce de sintomas de Guignardia citricarpa em frutos de laranjeira 'pêra-rio' Induction of the precoce expression of Guignardia citricarpa symptoms in fruits of pera-rio sweet orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Braga Baldassari

    2007-08-01

    citricarpa in fruits 'Pêra-Rio' sweet orange, in the orchard located in Conchal, SP. Asymptomatic fruits without fungicides applications and with 20 and 28 weeks after petal fall were collected and taken to the Laboratory of Plant Pathology of FCAV/UNESP, in Jaboticabal/SP, where they were treated with the following ethephon rates: i 1.57 g L-1; ii 2.10 g L-1; iii 2.42 g L-1; iv (water (control. For all treatments, Imazalil at 0.25 g L-1 was added to prevent post harvest fungal disease. After the treatments, the fruit were kept in a chamber with a temperature of 25ºC ± 1ºC, during 15 days. Therefore, the fruits were evaluated four times with weekly interval using a scale from 0 (absence of symptoms to 6 (severe symptoms. The data of disease severity observed in fruits colleted prematurely, under different ethephon rates were compared to those fruits bagged and unbagged remained in orchard until natural maturation. Major symptoms equivalence was verified in fruits with age 20 and 28 weeks, when they were treated with 2.10 g L-1 of ethephon, and evaluated between 28 and 35 days. It is concluded that the use of ethephon in this conditions may cause a precocious expression of symptoms of black spot in fruits with quiescent infections of G. citricarpa with 105 days before of harvest. These results are an alternative of great applicability to precocious detection of citrus black spot.

  1. Uptake and distribution of soil applied zinc by citrus trees-addressing fertilizer use efficiency with 68Zn labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Walter Rieger Hippler

    Full Text Available The zinc (Zn supply increases the fruit yield of Citrus trees that are grown, especially in the highly weathered soils of the tropics due to the inherently low nutrient availability in the soil solution. Leaf sprays containing micronutrients are commonly applied to orchards, even though the nutrient supply via soil could be of practical value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zn fertilizers that are applied to the soil surface on absorption and partitioning of the nutrient by citrus trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with one-year-old sweet orange trees. The plants were grown in soils with different textures (18.1 or 64.4% clay that received 1.8 g Zn per plant, in the form of either ZnO or ZnSO4 enriched with the stable isotope 68Zn. Zinc fertilization increased the availability of the nutrient in the soil and the content in the orange trees. Greater responses were obtained when ZnSO4 was applied to the sandy loam soil due to its lower specific metal adsorption compared to that of the clay soil. The trunk and branches accumulated the most fertilizer-derived Zn (Zndff and thus represent the major reserve organ for this nutrient in the plant. The trees recovered up to 4% of the applied Zndff. Despite this relative low recovery, the Zn requirement of the trees was met with the selected treatment based on the total leaf nutrient content and increased Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the leaves. We conclude that the efficiency of Zn fertilizers depends on the fertilizer source and the soil texture, which must be taken into account by guidelines for fruit crop fertilization via soil, in substitution or complementation of traditional foliar sprays.

  2. Uptake and distribution of soil applied zinc by citrus trees-addressing fertilizer use efficiency with 68Zn labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Franz Walter Rieger; Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Quaggio, José Antônio; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Abreu-Junior, Cassio Hamilton; Mattos, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    The zinc (Zn) supply increases the fruit yield of Citrus trees that are grown, especially in the highly weathered soils of the tropics due to the inherently low nutrient availability in the soil solution. Leaf sprays containing micronutrients are commonly applied to orchards, even though the nutrient supply via soil could be of practical value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zn fertilizers that are applied to the soil surface on absorption and partitioning of the nutrient by citrus trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with one-year-old sweet orange trees. The plants were grown in soils with different textures (18.1 or 64.4% clay) that received 1.8 g Zn per plant, in the form of either ZnO or ZnSO4 enriched with the stable isotope 68Zn. Zinc fertilization increased the availability of the nutrient in the soil and the content in the orange trees. Greater responses were obtained when ZnSO4 was applied to the sandy loam soil due to its lower specific metal adsorption compared to that of the clay soil. The trunk and branches accumulated the most fertilizer-derived Zn (Zndff) and thus represent the major reserve organ for this nutrient in the plant. The trees recovered up to 4% of the applied Zndff. Despite this relative low recovery, the Zn requirement of the trees was met with the selected treatment based on the total leaf nutrient content and increased Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the leaves. We conclude that the efficiency of Zn fertilizers depends on the fertilizer source and the soil texture, which must be taken into account by guidelines for fruit crop fertilization via soil, in substitution or complementation of traditional foliar sprays.

  3. The Orange Feeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans; Kiib, Birgitte Marling; Jespersen, Line Marie Bruun

    2017-01-01

    on analyses of a specific case, Roskilde Festival 2008 - 2012. The festival brands itself as an instant city with a specific atmosphere, ‘The Orange Feeling’, which is a very abstract term that encompasses the whole festival. The paper focuses on this term, and on important elements which constitute...

  4. HLB effects on the flavor of orange juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been reported to affect orange fruit and juice flavor, but until now was never well documented. Sensory and chemical flavor studies were conducted to compare juice from fruit harvested from healthy trees to juice from asymptomatic and sy...

  5. Fasilitas Ekowisata Orang Utan di Samboja, Kaltim

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, Hermawan

    2014-01-01

    Fasilitas ekowisata orang utan disamboja, Kalimantan Timur “ ialah fasilitas perjalanan wisata yang mengedepankan sisi edukasi dan konservasi untuk melestarikan hewan orang utan dikalimantan timur. Faktor – faktor yang mempengaruhi dibuatnya proyek ini adalah menurunya populasi orang utan dikalimantan dan maraknya pembantaian orang utan. Maraknya pembantaian orang utan dipicu adanya ketidaktahuan masyarakat akan betapa pentingnya hewan orang utan. masyarakat mempunyai salah presepsi terhadap ...

  6. Effect of blending Huanglongbing (HLB) disease affected orange juice with juice from healthy oranges on flavor quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, has been a concern for the citrus industry as it progressively damages and ultimately kills citrus trees. While this disease does not affect human health, it is associated with bitter off-flavor for orange juice. The objective of this study was to determine...

  7. Extraction of orange peel's essential oil by solvent-free microwave extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadariyah, Lailatul; Amelia, Prilia Dwi; Admiralia, Cininta; Bhuana, Donny S.; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    Sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis) is part of orange plant that contains essential oils. Generally, taking essential oil from orange peel is still using hydrodistillation and steam-hydrodistillation method which still needs solvent and takes a long time to produce high quality essential oil. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment are to study the process of orange peel's essential oil extraction using Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) and to study the operating condition that effect an optimum yield and quality of the essential oil. In this experiment, extraction process with SFME method goes for 60 minutes at atmospheric pressure. Variables for SFME are: variation of orange peel condition (fresh and dry), ratio orange peel mass to distiller volume (0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 g/mL), orange peel size (±0,5; ±2; ±3,5 cm width), and microwave power (100, 264, 400 Watt). Moisture content of fresh peel is 71,4% and for dry peel is 17,37% which is obtained by sun drying. The result of this experiment will be analyzed with GC-MS, SEM, density, and miscibility in ethanol 90%. The optimum result obtained from this experiment based on the number of the yield under condition of fresh orange peel is at peel mass/distiller volume 0,1 g/mL, orange peel size ±3,5 cm width, and microwave power 400 Watt, results 1,6738% yield. The result of GC-MS for fresh orange peel shows that the dominant compound is Limonene 54,140% and for dry orange peel is Limonene 59,705%. The density obtained is around 0,8282-0,8530 g/mL and miscibility in ethanol 90% is 1:5.

  8. Susceptibility of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Katherine P; Truong, Van-Den; Allen, Jonathan C

    2014-07-01

    Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes affect sweet potato proteins. Two fractions of industrially processed sweet potato peel, containing 6.8% and 8.5% protein and 80.5% and 83.3% carbohydrate, were used as a source of protein. Sweet potato proteins were incubated with pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin and protein breakdown was visualized with SDS-PAGE. After pepsin digestion, samples were assayed for amylase inhibitory activity. Sporamin, the major storage protein in sweet potatoes, which functions as a trypsin inhibitor as well, exhibited resistance to pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Sporamin from blanched peel of orange sweet potatoes was less resistant to pepsin digestion than sporamin from outer peel and from extract of the white-skinned Caiapo sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitory activity remained after simulated gastric digestion, with the Caiapo potato protein and peel samples exhibiting higher inhibitory activity compared to the blanched peel sample. Amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was not present in any of the samples after digestion.

  9. Sandwich or sweets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Alexandra; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Desire, purchase, and consumption of fast-moving consumer goods often follow actual motivational states instead of habitual preferences. This has led to an increasing interest within health sciences to investigate the causes for irrational eating behaviours among consumers, particularly...... foods (sandwich and sweets) on visual analogue scales, as well as implicit approach–avoidance tendencies and implicit positive–negative associations with two variants of the recoding-free Implicit Association Tests (IAT-RFs). At first, all participants (N = 108) unwrapped, smelled, and explicitly judged...... the two foods, then all watched a video clip (during which half of the participants were allowed to eat the sandwich but not the sweets), and finally they all performed the two indirect measurements. Thus, desire for the foods was experimentally manipulated between participants. We hypothesized...

  10. Seasonal Distributions of the Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Among Host and Nonhost Fruit Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) ( Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R . indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  11. Sour orange fine root distribution after seventeen years of atmospheric CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belowground responses to CO2 enrichment remain understudied relative to aboveground parameters. Further, there is a paucity of information on the long-term effects of CO2 on tree species. Sour orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.), grown in an Avondale loam in Phoenix, AZ, were exposed to ambient and e...

  12. SuperSweet--a resource on natural and artificial sweetening agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jessica; Preissner, Saskia; Dunkel, Mathias; Worth, Catherine L; Eckert, Andreas; Preissner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A vast number of sweet tasting molecules are known, encompassing small compounds, carbohydrates, d-amino acids and large proteins. Carbohydrates play a particularly big role in human diet. The replacement of sugars in food with artificial sweeteners is common and is a general approach to prevent cavities, obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Knowledge about the molecular basis of taste may reveal new strategies to overcome diet-induced diseases. In this context, the design of safe, low-calorie sweeteners is particularly important. Here, we provide a comprehensive collection of carbohydrates, artificial sweeteners and other sweet tasting agents like proteins and peptides. Additionally, structural information and properties such as number of calories, therapeutic annotations and a sweetness-index are stored in SuperSweet. Currently, the database consists of more than 8000 sweet molecules. Moreover, the database provides a modeled 3D structure of the sweet taste receptor and binding poses of the small sweet molecules. These binding poses provide hints for the design of new sweeteners. A user-friendly graphical interface allows similarity searching, visualization of docked sweeteners into the receptor etc. A sweetener classification tree and browsing features allow quick requests to be made to the database. The database is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/sweet/.

  13. 75 FR 62455 - Importation of Fresh Unshu Oranges From the Republic of Korea Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ..., mandarin orange, tangerine, lemon, and lime, at this time, we have no evidence that it attacks Unshu... had been detected in citrus trees on residential properties in two Texas counties and one parish in...

  14. Sweetness, satiation, and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France; Drewnowski, Adam; Anderson, G Harvey; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Martin, Corby K

    2012-06-01

    Satiation and satiety are central concepts in the understanding of appetite control and both have to do with the inhibition of eating. Satiation occurs during an eating episode and brings it to an end. Satiety starts after the end of eating and prevents further eating before the return of hunger. Enhancing satiation and satiety derived from foodstuffs was perceived as a means to facilitate weight control. Many studies have examined the various sensory, cognitive, postingestive, and postabsorptive factors that can potentially contribute to the inhibition of eating. In such studies, careful attention to study design is crucial for correct interpretation of the results. Although sweetness is a potent sensory stimulus of intake, sweet-tasting products produce satiation and satiety as a result of their volume as well as their nutrient and energy content. The particular case of energy intake from fluids has generated much research and it is still debated whether energy from fluids is as satiating as energy ingested from solid foods. This review discusses the satiating power of foods and drinks containing nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. The brain mechanisms of food reward (in terms of "liking" and "wanting") are also addressed. Finally, we highlight the importance of reward homeostasis, which can help prevent eating in the absence of hunger, for the control of intake.

  15. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoids total of ethanolic extract of Ipomoea batata L. leaves (white, yellow, orange, and purple)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewijanti, Indah Dwiatmi; Banjarnahor, Sofna D.; Triyuliani, Maryani, Faiza; Meilawati, Lia

    2017-11-01

    Antioxidant activity, phenolic and total flavonoids from sweet potato ethanol extract (Ipomea batatas L.) of different varieties (white, yellow, orange and purple) were studied. Sweet potatoes were collected from Research Centre for Chemistry. Sweet potato leaves have been used for numerous oxidative-associated diseases such as cancer, allergy, aging, HIV and cardiovascular. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to investigate antioxidant activity in leaves, in which the yellow and purple varieties showed the highest and the lowest scavenging activities of 47.65 µg/ ml (IC50) and 87.402 µg/ ml (IC50), respectively. In this study, the yellow leaves showed the highest concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoids contents at 11.293 µg/g and 44.963 µg/g, respectively. Therefore, sweet potato leaves can be used as a prospective natural antioxidant.

  16. Efeito da densidade de plantação e da cultivar no crescimento da cerejeira sobre o porta-enxerto edabriz em quatro locais do norte e centro de Portugal Effect of tree planting density and cultivar on sweet cherry growth onto the edabriz rootstock at four locations in the north and centre of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Santos

    2009-12-01

    .4, 2.1 and 2.8 m, corresponding to densities of 2600, 1300, 860 and 650 trees/ha, respectively. The trunk diameter of every plant was measured each year and trunk cross sectional area (TCSA was calculated. At the end of the second leaf stage, significant differences in growth were already observable, concerning both trial location and plant density. The sweet cherry trees of the C. Montenegro trial grew 76, 36 and 9% more than those of Alcongosta, Vila Real and Caria, respectively, thus trial location accounted for 25% of the expected total variance. Plant density corresponded to 3% of the total variance, and the trees at 0.7 m grew 22% less than those the furthest apart. Results show that cultivars grew poorly when grafted onto this rootstock in Alcongosta and Vila Real. Therefore, in analogous situations, it is important to adjust water and nutrient supply to the specific requirements of the rootstock, so as to better manage vegetative growth and to prepare the trees for their major role: fruit yielding.

  17. The SWEET gene family in Hevea brasiliensis - its evolution and expression compared with four other plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jin-Lei; Xiao, Xiao-Hu; Qi, Ji-Yan; Fang, Yong-Jun; Tang, Chao-Rong

    2017-12-01

    SWEET proteins play an indispensable role as a sugar efflux transporter in plant development and stress responses. The SWEET genes have previously been characterized in several plants. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of this gene family in the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis . There are 36 members of the SWEET gene family in this species, making it one of the largest families in plant genomes sequenced so far. Structure and phylogeny analyses of these genes in Hevea and in other species demonstrated broad evolutionary conservation. RNA-seq analyses revealed that SWEET2, 16, and 17 might represent the main evolutionary direction of SWEET genes in plants. Our results in Hevea suggested the involvement of HbSWEET1a , 2e , 2f , and 3b in phloem loading, HbSWEET10a and 16b in laticifer sugar transport , and HbSWEET9a in nectary-specific sugar transport. Parallel studies of RNA-seq analyses extended to three other plant species ( Manihot esculenta , Populus trichocarpa , and Arabidopsis thaliana ) produced findings which implicated MeSWEET10a, 3a, and 15b in M. esculenta storage root development, and the involvement of PtSWEET16b and PtSWEET16d in P. trichocarpa xylem development. RT-qPCR results further revealed that HbSWEET10a, 16b, and 1a play important roles in phloem sugar transport. The results from this study provide a foundation not only for further investigation into the functionality of the SWEET gene family in Hevea, especially in its sugar transport for latex production, but also for related studies of this gene family in the plant kingdom.

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease.

  19. Sweet potato for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangler, J.M.; Locascio, S.J.; Halsey, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 1980 and 1981 to determine the root and plant top yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) grown on a sandy soil. Cultivars 'GaTG-3', 'Morado', 'Rojo Blanco', 'Travis' and 'White Star' were evaluated at 2 harvest times. Mean starch yields from 'GaTG-3' at 105-115 days (7.2 t/hectare) and at 210-230 days (9.6 ton/hectare) during two seasons were higher than from the other cultivars. With an increase in the growth period from 105-115 to 210-230 days the means starch yield increased from 4.6 to 7.3 t/hectare but the starch concentration of all cultivars decreased significantly during the same period.

  20. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries.

  1. Rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.]) varieties using HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebot, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    When a raw sweet potato root is analysed, only sucrose, glucose and fructose are present but during cooking, starch is hydrolysed into maltose giving the sweet flavour to cooked roots. This study aimed at developing an HPTLC protocol for the rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in four commercial varieties and to compare them to 243 hybrids grouped by flesh colour (white, orange, purple). In commercial varieties, mean maltose content varied from 10.26 to 15.60% and total sugars from 17.83 to 27.77% on fresh weight basis. Hybrids showed significant variation in maltose content within each group, with means ranging from 7.65% for white-fleshed, to 8.53% in orange- and 11.98% in purple-fleshed. Total mean sugars content was 20.24, 22.11 and 26.84% respectively for white, orange and purple flesh hybrids. No significant correlations were detected between individual sugars but maltose and total sugars content were highly correlated. Compared to the best commercial variety ( Baby ), 25 hybrids (10.3%) presented a higher maltose content and 40 (16.5%) showed a higher total sugars content. HPTLC was observed as an attractive, cost efficient, high-throughput technique for quantitating maltose and total sugars in sweet potatoes. Perspectives for improving sweet potato quality for consumers' requirements are also discussed.

  2. Sweetness prediction of natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéron, Jean-Baptiste; Casciuc, Iuri; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Antonczak, Serge; Fiorucci, Sébastien

    2017-04-15

    Based on the most exhaustive database of sweeteners with known sweetness values, a new quantitative structure-activity relationship model for sweetness prediction has been set up. Analysis of the physico-chemical properties of sweeteners in the database indicates that the structure of most potent sweeteners combines a hydrophobic scaffold functionalized by a limited number of hydrogen bond sites (less than 4 hydrogen bond donors and 10 acceptors), with a moderate molecular weight ranging from 350 to 450g·mol -1 . Prediction of sweetness, bitterness and toxicity properties of the largest database of natural compounds have been performed. In silico screening reveals that the majority of the predicted natural intense sweeteners comprise saponin or stevioside scaffolds. The model highlights that their sweetness potency is comparable to known natural sweeteners. The identified compounds provide a rational basis to initiate the design and chemosensory analysis of new low-calorie sweeteners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PSIKOLOGI KORUPSI NOVEL ORANG-ORANG PROYEK KARYA AHMAD TOHARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Faruq

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain a description of personality (nature can affect the behavior of corruption in the novel Orang-Orang Proyek. This research is a descriptive qualitative study using a novel approach to analyze the psychology of corruption. The data in this study are words, phrases, and sentences contained in the novel Orang-Orang Proyek. The main data sources are novel by Ahmad Tohari. Data collection method used in this research is to read the text repeatedly novel Orang-Orang Proyek, collect any data relating to the focus of the study, after carrying out the classification. Data analysis technique is done by data identification, data reduction, data display, data interpretation, describe the results of the analysis, and draw conclusions. While the results of this study are as followsdescription of personalitycovetousness/greed and consumptive lifestyles nature conducted by figures such novel Dalkijo and their families can lead to corruption. This means that there is influence, greed / avarice as well as the nature of the consumer lifestyle on corruption.

  4. Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalie Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refined sugars (e.g., sucrose, fructose were absent in the diet of most people until very recently in human history. Today overconsumption of diets rich in sugars contributes together with other factors to drive the current obesity epidemic. Overconsumption of sugar-dense foods or beverages is initially motivated by the pleasure of sweet taste and is often compared to drug addiction. Though there are many biological commonalities between sweetened diets and drugs of abuse, the addictive potential of the former relative to the latter is currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that when rats were allowed to choose mutually-exclusively between water sweetened with saccharin-an intense calorie-free sweetener-and intravenous cocaine-a highly addictive and harmful substance-the large majority of animals (94% preferred the sweet taste of saccharin. The preference for saccharin was not attributable to its unnatural ability to induce sweetness without calories because the same preference was also observed with sucrose, a natural sugar. Finally, the preference for saccharin was not surmountable by increasing doses of cocaine and was observed despite either cocaine intoxication, sensitization or intake escalation-the latter being a hallmark of drug addiction. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly demonstrate that intense sweetness can surpass cocaine reward, even in drug-sensitized and -addicted individuals. We speculate that the addictive potential of intense sweetness results from an inborn hypersensitivity to sweet tastants. In most mammals, including rats and humans, sweet receptors evolved in ancestral environments poor in sugars and are thus not adapted to high concentrations of sweet tastants. The supranormal stimulation of these receptors by sugar-rich diets, such as those now widely available in modern societies, would generate a supranormal reward signal in the brain, with the potential to override self

  5. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Truong, An N; Truong, Van-Den; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). Total phenolics were highest in blackcurrant-orange sweet potato ingredient matrices (34.03 mg/g), and lowest in muscadine grape-yellow sweet potato matrices (10.56 mg/g). Similarly, anthocyanins were most concentrated in blackcurrant-fortified orange and yellow sweet potato matrices (5.40 and 6.54 mg/g, respectively). Alternatively, other protein-rich edible matrices (defatted soy flour, light roasted peanut flour, and rice protein concentrate) efficiently captured polyphenols (6.09–9.46 mg/g) and anthocyanins (0.77–1.27 mg/g) from purple-fleshed sweet potato juice, with comparable efficiency. Antioxidant activity correlated well with total phenolic content. All formulated ingredient matrices stabilized and preserved polyphenols for up to 24 weeks, even when stored at 37°C. Complexation with juice-derived polyphenols did not significantly alter protein or carbohydrate profiles of the matrices. Sensory evaluation of the ingredient matrices suggested potential uses for a wide range of functional food products. PMID:26405527

  6. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Truong, An N; Truong, Van-Den; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-09-01

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). Total phenolics were highest in blackcurrant-orange sweet potato ingredient matrices (34.03 mg/g), and lowest in muscadine grape-yellow sweet potato matrices (10.56 mg/g). Similarly, anthocyanins were most concentrated in blackcurrant-fortified orange and yellow sweet potato matrices (5.40 and 6.54 mg/g, respectively). Alternatively, other protein-rich edible matrices (defatted soy flour, light roasted peanut flour, and rice protein concentrate) efficiently captured polyphenols (6.09-9.46 mg/g) and anthocyanins (0.77-1.27 mg/g) from purple-fleshed sweet potato juice, with comparable efficiency. Antioxidant activity correlated well with total phenolic content. All formulated ingredient matrices stabilized and preserved polyphenols for up to 24 weeks, even when stored at 37°C. Complexation with juice-derived polyphenols did not significantly alter protein or carbohydrate profiles of the matrices. Sensory evaluation of the ingredient matrices suggested potential uses for a wide range of functional food products.

  7. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of air-borne fluorides on Valencia orange yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, C.D.; Graves, H.B. Jr.

    1966-01-01

    A field experiment with bearing Valencia orange trees on rough lemon rootstock was carried out to study the effects of different levels of air-borne fluorides on yield, fruit quality, and leaf growth. The experimental trees were in a grove exposed to relatively high levels of airborne fluorides. Six trees were enclosed in individual plastic greenhouses. Fluorides were removed from the air entering 3 greenhouses by dry calcium carbonate filters, while unfiltered ambient air was moved through the other 3 greenhouses. Three additional trees were not enclosed and were used as outdoor checks. The leaves of trees in the unfiltered greenhouses absorbed much less fluorine than those of the outdoor checks, even though there was little difference in the fluorine content of the air. This appears to be due to the fact that the leaves were kept dry inside the greenhouses. Greenhouse trees receiving unfiltered air produced significantly less fruit in 1965-66 than those receiving filtered air, and the outdoor check trees yielded significantly less fruit than the unfiltered greenhouse trees. Leaf size decreased as leaf fluorine increased. There was a trend toward higher acid and lower Brix/acid ratio of the juice with increasing fluorine in the leaves, but these differences were not significant. 8 references, 6 tables.

  9. Heavy metals in navel orange orchards of Xinfeng County and their transfer from soils to navel oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated heavy metal concentrations in soils and navel oranges of Xinfeng County, a well-known navel orange producing area of China. The results showed that the average concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in orchard soils all increased compared to the regional background values, especially for Cd, which increased by 422%. When compared to the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (GB15618-1995), Pb, Cr and Hg concentrations in all orchard soil samples were below the limit standards, but Cd concentrations in 24 soil samples (21%) and As concentrations in 8 soil samples (7%) exceeded the limit standards. However, concentrations of all heavy metals in navel orange pulps were within the National Food Safety Standard of China (GB 2762-2012). Dietary risk assessment also showed that the exposure to these five heavy metals by consumption of navel oranges could hardly pose adverse health effects on adults and children. Since the range and degree of soil Cd pollution was widest and the most severe of all, Cd was taken as an example to reveal the transfer characteristics of heavy metals in soil-navel orange system. Cd concentrations in different organs of navel orange trees decreased in the following order: root>leaf>peel>pulp. That navel oranges planted in the Cd contaminated soils were within the national food safety standard was mainly due to the low transfer factor for Cd from soil to pulp (TFpulp). Further studies showed that TFpulp was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, organic carbon (OC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Based on these soil properties, a prediction equation for TFpulp was established, which indicated that the risk for Cd concentration of navel orange pulp exceeding the national food limit is generally low, when soil Cd concentration is below 7.30 mg/kg. If appropriate actions are taken to increase soil pH, OC and CEC, Cd concentrations in navel orange pulps

  10. Analysis of bitter essential oils from orange and grapefruit by high-performance liquid chromatography with microbore columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiarelli, F; Cartoni, G P; Coccioli, F; Leone, T

    1996-04-12

    The analysis of bitter orange and grapefruit essential oils (non-volatile fraction) was carried out by HPLC in normal- and reversed-phase mode with UV detection. These oils were compared with the sweet orange and mandarin essential oils, analyzed previously. For the identification of chromatographic peaks, fractionation by RP-HPLC was carried out. The purified fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS. Some new compounds were found, together with many others already identified in different citrus essential oils.

  11. A collection of European sweet cherry phenology data for assessing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenden, Bénédicte; Campoy, José Antonio; Lecourt, Julien; López Ortega, Gregorio; Blanke, Michael; Radičević, Sanja; Schüller, Elisabeth; Spornberger, Andreas; Christen, Danilo; Magein, Hugo; Giovannini, Daniela; Campillo, Carlos; Malchev, Svetoslav; Peris, José Miguel; Meland, Mekjell; Stehr, Rolf; Charlot, Gérard; Quero-García, José

    2016-12-01

    Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978-2015). Such a dataset is extremely valuable for characterizing the phenological response to climate change, and the plasticity of the different cultivars' behaviour under different environmental conditions. In addition, this dataset will support the development of predictive models for sweet cherry phenology exploitable at the continental scale, and will help anticipate breeding strategies in order to maintain and improve sweet cherry production in Europe.

  12. A collection of European sweet cherry phenology data for assessing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenden, Bénédicte; Campoy, José Antonio; Lecourt, Julien; López Ortega, Gregorio; Blanke, Michael; Radičević, Sanja; Schüller, Elisabeth; Spornberger, Andreas; Christen, Danilo; Magein, Hugo; Giovannini, Daniela; Campillo, Carlos; Malchev, Svetoslav; Peris, José Miguel; Meland, Mekjell; Stehr, Rolf; Charlot, Gérard; Quero-García, José

    2016-01-01

    Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978–2015). Such a dataset is extremely valuable for characterizing the phenological response to climate change, and the plasticity of the different cultivars’ behaviour under different environmental conditions. In addition, this dataset will support the development of predictive models for sweet cherry phenology exploitable at the continental scale, and will help anticipate breeding strategies in order to maintain and improve sweet cherry production in Europe. PMID:27922629

  13. Sweetness and Food Preference123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Mennella, Julie A.; Johnson, Susan L.; Bellisle, France

    2012-01-01

    Human desire for sweet taste spans all ages, races, and cultures. Throughout evolution, sweetness has had a role in human nutrition, helping to orient feeding behavior toward foods providing both energy and essential nutrients. Infants and young children in particular base many of their food choices on familiarity and sweet taste. The low cost and ready availability of energy-containing sweeteners in the food supply has led to concerns that the rising consumption of added sugars is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic. Low-calorie sweeteners are one option for maintaining sweet taste while reducing the energy content of children’s diets. However, their use has led to further concerns that dissociating sweetness from energy may disrupt the balance between taste response, appetite, and consumption patterns, especially during development. Further studies, preferably based on longitudinal cohorts, are needed to clarify the developmental trajectory of taste responses to low-calorie sweeteners and their potential impact on the diet quality of children and youth. PMID:22573785

  14. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance

    OpenAIRE

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell i Sarle, Jordi; Lara Ayala, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood.Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ºC were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness wa...

  15. Heterosis in Sweet Sorghum and Selection of a New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid for Use in Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although heterosis is well established in grain and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], reports of heterosis in sweet sorghum are limited to results from grain sorghum x sweet sorghum hybrids. Recent development of cytoplasmic male-sterile sweet sorghum lines allows creation of sweet sorg...

  16. Red Orange: Experimental Models and Epidemiological Evidence of Its Benefits on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy, California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  17. Red orange: experimental models and epidemiological evidence of its benefits on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Nolfo, Francesca; Calabrese, Giorgio; Buscemi, Silvio; Drago, Filippo; Veronesi, Umberto; Scuderi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood) orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy), California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins) are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  18. germination of seeds from earlier fruits of bitter and sweet african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2014-11-18

    Nov 18, 2014 ... mango trees and identify types of seeds suitable to overcome the climatic hindrances for uniform plantations establishment in the .... In general, these studies lack a comparative basis between bitter and sweet .... Characteristics of mango provenances tested in the Dahomey Gap in Benin. Type of ABMTs.

  19. Sweet taste in man: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, B; Brewer, M S

    2008-08-01

    A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sweet taste has profound significance for the food industry as well as for consumers. Understanding the mechanism by which sweet taste is elicited by saccharides, peptides, and proteins will assist science and industry in their search for sweet substances with fewer negative health effects. The original AH-B theories have been supplanted by detailed structural models. Recent identification of the human sweet receptor as a dimeric G-protein coupled receptor comprising T1R2 and T1R3 subunits has greatly increased the understanding of the mechanisms involved in sweet molecule binding and sweet taste transduction. This review discusses early theories of the sweet receptor, recent research of sweetener chemoreception of nonprotein and protein ligands, homology modeling, the transduction pathway, the possibility of the sweet receptor functioning allosterically, as well as the implications of allelic variation.

  20. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  1. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starch phosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  2. Genetic diversity assessed by microsatellite markers in sweet corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on genetic diversity is essential to the characterization and utilization of germplasm. The genetic diversity of twenty-two sweet corn cultivars (seventeen open-pollinated varieties, OPV, and five hybrids, H was investigated by applying simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 257 primers were tested, of which 160 were found to be usable in terms of high reproducibility for all the samples tested; 45 were polymorphic loci, of which 30 were used to assess the genetic diversity of sweet corn cultivars. We detected a total of 86 alleles using 30 microsatellite primers. The mean polymorphism was 82 %. The highest heterozygosity values (Ho = 0.20 were found in the PR030-Doce Flor da Serra and BR427 III OPVs, whereas the lowest values (0.14 were recorded in the MG161-Branco Doce and Doce Cubano OPVs. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.19 (Umc2319 to 0.71 (Umc2205. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the genetic variability was concentrated within the cultivars of sweet corn (75 %, with less variability between them (25 %. The consensus tree derived from the neighbor-joining (NJ algorithm using 1,000 bootstrapping replicates revealed seven genetically different groups. Nei’s diversity values varied between 0.103 (Doce do Hawai × CNPH-1 cultivars and 0.645 (Amarelo Doce × Lili cultivars, indicating a narrow genetic basis. The Lili hybrid was the most distant cultivar, as revealed by Principal Coordinates Analysis and the NJ tree. This study on genetic diversity will be useful for planning future studies on sweet corn genetic resources and can complement the breeding programs for this crop.

  3. Distribuição de raízes de laranja "Pêra" sob sequeiro e irrigação por microaspersão em solo arenoso Root distribution of "Pêra" orange trees under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions in a sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Ferreira Coelho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a distribuição de raízes de laranja "Pêra" sob condições não-irrigadas e irrigadas por microaspersão em solo arenoso de tabuleiro costeiro. As raízes foram extraídas em trincheiras, a partir do tronco, nas direções longitudinal e ortogonal à fileira de plantas, pelo método do monolito. Uma vez separadas, foram digitalizadas com uso de computador e scanner, para obter, com o uso do software Rootedge, os comprimentos e diâmetros dos segmentos de raízes de todas as amostras, que foram mapeados nos perfis amostrados. O sistema radicular sob irrigação por microaspersão apresentou maior expansão, tanto em profundidade como em distância radial do tronco, do que o sistema radicular sob condições não-irrigadas. Houve maior porcentagem de raízes finas nos perfis de solo sob microaspersão, em relação à condição não-irrigada, indicando a possibilidade de maior atividade do sistema radicular nesse sistema de irrigação. As posições mais adequadas para instalação de sensores de água do solo para a cultura da laranja sob microaspersão estão entre 0 e 2,5 m de distância radial a partir do tronco, em profundidades entre 0 e 1,0 m.The objective of this work was to evaluate root distribution of orange cv. Pêra under non-irrigated and under microsprinkler irrigated conditions in a Coastal Plain Sandy Soil. Root samples were collected by monolith method from trenches, which were dug aside, the plant trunk at longitudinal and orthogonal directions to plant rows. After separation from soil, roots were scanned and digitized in a PC computer. Root length and diameter were determined using Rootedge software that allowed mapping root distribution on sampled soil profiles. Results showed that root system of microsprinkler irrigated trees occupied higher volume in the soil compared to the one under non-irrigated conditions. Higher amounts of fine roots were found in the profiles of microsprinkler

  4. Mimusops elengi L. (Bulletwood tree; Hindi: Bakul or Maulsari) of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tree is often cultivated in parks and as an avenue tree. The fascicled flowers are small, white and sweet-scented. The ovoid berries are edible. The bark is astringent, tonic and used in fevers. Leaves are an antidote to snake-bite. The pulp of the fruit is used in curing chronic dysentery. Powder of dried flowers is a brain tonic.

  5. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate. 163.123 Section 163.123 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.123 Sweet chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Sweet chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  6. Sweetness intensity in low-carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odake, S

    2001-05-01

    The carbonation perception and sweetness perception were investigated under the presence of low level of carbondioxide less than 1.0 gas volume. Carbonation perception decreased linearly as carbonation level decreased. Sweetness perception showed inconsistency by means of evaluation methods: Triangle difference test led the result showing carbonation became a hindrance for sweetness perception. However, the measurement for the sweetness degree expressed by panellists in four categories 'not sweet', 'perhaps sweet', 'probably sweet' and 'definitely sweet', and the measurement for the points of subjective equality revealed that carbonation had no influence on sweetness perception. Commercially produced beverages whose irritation stimuli were stronger showed almost the same sweetness intensities (= perceived concentration of sucrose/actual concentration of sucrose) at approximately 0.7 regardless of various flavours. A weaker stimulus beverage, without strong flavour, showed higher sweetness intensity at 0.9. Some weaker stimuli beverages, which contained strong lemon flavour and soluble fibre, showed less sweetness intensities of 0.62-0.68 than the high-stimuli products.

  7. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N.; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C. I.; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H.

    2017-01-01

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual?s sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20?40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste percept...

  8. Transmissibilidade do vírus da leprose de cercas-vivas, quebra-ventos e plantas daninhas para laranjeiras através de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes Transmission of leprosis virus from hedge rows, windbreaks and weeds to orange trees via Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozana Maria de Andrade Maia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes é transmissor do vírus da leprose dos citros, doença responsável por significativa redução da produtividade. Objetivou-se avaliar neste trabalho a possibilidade de algumas plantas utilizadas como cercas-vivas e quebra-ventos, além de plantas daninhas de pomares cítricos serem hospedeiras do vírus da leprose. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório e casa-de-vegetação na FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP-Brasil. De uma criação-estoque de ácaros, criados sobre frutos de citros (Citrus sinensis contendo lesões de leprose, foram transferidos 100 ácaros para uma unidade experimental das seguintes espécies: Hibiscus sp., Malvaviscus mollis, Grevillea robusta, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Bixa orellana, Commelina benghalensis, Sida cordifolia, Ageratum conyzoides e Citrus sinensis, e mantidas em casa de vegetação por um período de 90 dias. Depois desse período, 160 ácaros foram recuperados dessas espécies vegetais e transferidos para quatro mudas das variedades cítricas 'Natal' e 'Valência' (20 ácaros/planta, e foram mantidas por 60 dias em casa de vegetação. Decorrido esse período, quantificou-se o número de lesões de leprose presentes nas folhas, ramos e caules das mudas cítricas. Em mudas cítricas da variedade 'Natal', foram observados sintomas da leprose decorrentes da transferência de ácaros provenientes de C. sinensis, A. conyzoides, C. benghalensis e B. orellana. Na variedade 'Valência', sintomas de leprose ocorreram em mudas infestadas com ácaros criados sobre C. sinensis, S. cordifolia benghalensis, B. orellana e A. conyzoides. Mudas cítricas das variedades 'Natal' e 'Valência' não manifestaram sintomas de leprose com ácaros procedentes de M. mollis, Hibiscus sp., G. robusta e M. caesalpiniaefolia.The mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes is a vector of the citrus leprosies virus, a disease that significantly reduces orange production. We examined whether some plant

  9. Emission of linalool from Valencia orange blossoms and its observation in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arey, Janet; Corchnoy, Stephanie B.; Atkinson, Roger

    Emission measurements made over a 5-month period of a Valencia orange tree showed the significant emission of the terpenoid linalool (C 10H 18O) from Valencia orange blossoms. The average annual emission rate of this Olinda Valencia orange, derived from emission measurements which include the blossoming season, is a factor of ˜10 higher than the average annual emission rate derived from measurements taken outside of the blossom season. Ambient monoterpene and linalool concentrations were measured in Riverside, California, in the spring and supported the chamber plant emissions data, with linalool concentrations as high as 17 μg m -3 being observed in an orange grove. These results show that current biogenic emission inventories which are formulated from limited survey data, generally not including seasonal variations in the vegetative emissions, can be subject to large uncertainties.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of the Orang Asli and Iban of Malaysia based on maternal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, K C; Leow, J W H; Yeap, W K; Hood, S; Mahani, M C; Md-Zain, B M

    2011-04-12

    Malaysia remains as a crossroad of different cultures and peoples, and it has long been recognized that studying its population history can provide crucial insight into the prehistory of Southeast Asia as a whole. The earliest inhabitants were the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the indigenous groups in Sabah and Sarawak. Although they were the earliest migrants in this region, these tribes are divided geographically by the South China Sea. We analyzed DNA sequences of 18 Orang Asli using mitochondrial DNA extracted from blood samples, each representing one sub-tribe, and from five Sarawakian Iban. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from hair samples in order to examine relationships with the main ethnic groups in Malaysia. The D-loop region and cytochrome b genes were used as the candidate loci. Phylogenetic relationships were investigated using maximum parsimony and neighbor joining algorithms, and each tree was subjected to bootstrap analysis with 1000 replicates. Analyses of the HVS I region showed that the Iban are not a distinct group from the Orang Asli; they form a sub-clade within the Orang Asli. Based on the cytochrome b gene, the Iban clustered with the Orang Asli in the same clade. We found evidence for considerable gene flow between Orang Asli and Iban. We concluded that the Orang Asli, Iban and the main ethnic groups of Malaysia are probably derived from a common ancestor. This is in agreement with a single-route migration theory, but it does not dismiss a two-route migration theory.

  11. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. growing in conditions of southern Slovak republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Šlosár

    2016-07-01

    vitamin C content was measured chromatographically (HPLC. The highest values of average tuber weight, yield per plant and total yield (t.ha-1 were found in cultivar 'Serbian'. Statistical analysis showed statistically significant difference in all yield quantitative parameters of cultivar 'Serbian' against cultivars 'Beauregard' and 'Zagrebian'. The highest content of total carotenoids was determined in cultivar 'Serbian' (99.52 mg.kg-1 fresh weight with orange-creme flesh color, followed by cultivar 'Beauregard' (94.78 mg.kg-1 with orange flesh color and cultivar 'Zagrebian' (28.79 mg.kg-1 with yellow-creme flesh color. Differences among all cultivars were showed as statistically significant. The highest vitamin C content was detected in tubers of cultivar 'Serbian' (155.70 mg.kg-1, followed by cultivar 'Beauregard' (154.37 mg.kg-1 and cultivar 'Zagrebian' (146.33 mg.kg-1. Statistical analysis confirmed differences among cultivars as statistically non-significant. The mulching of sweet potato plants had statistically significant impact to all quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sweet potato. The application of black non-woven textile resulted in increase of average tuber weight, tuber yield and vitamin C content in sweet potato tubers. On the contrary, higher total carotenoid content was found in non-mulching variant compared to the variant with mulching.  

  12. Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholdi, Laurent; Henriques, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Cut the skin of an orange along a thin spiral of constant width and place it flat on a table. A natural breakfast question, for a mathematician, is what shape the spiral peel will have when flattened out. We derive a formula that, for a given cut width, describes the corresponding spiral’s shape.

  13. Effect of HLB on flavor of orange juice and perception of limonin and nomilin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) on orange juice flavor is complex. On the one hand, fruit that are harvested from diseased trees, that are asymptomatic for the disease, produce juice that is not much different from normal juice. In some cases the asymptomatic HLB fruit juice was detected to be sli...

  14. Population structure and genetic bottleneck in sweet cherry estimated with SSRs and the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Tavaud, Muriel; Arunyawat, Uraiwan; Capdeville, Gaëlle; Millan, Muriel; Salin, Franck

    2010-08-20

    Domestication and breeding involve the selection of particular phenotypes, limiting the genomic diversity of the population and creating a bottleneck. These effects can be precisely estimated when the location of domestication is established. Few analyses have focused on understanding the genetic consequences of domestication and breeding in fruit trees. In this study, we aimed to analyse genetic structure and changes in the diversity in sweet cherry Prunus avium L. Three subgroups were detected in sweet cherry, with one group of landraces genetically very close to the analysed wild cherry population. A limited number of SSR markers displayed deviations from the frequencies expected under neutrality. After the removal of these markers from the analysis, a very limited bottleneck was detected between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces, with a much more pronounced bottleneck between sweet cherry landraces and modern sweet cherry varieties. The loss of diversity between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces at the S-locus was more significant than that for microsatellites. Particularly high levels of differentiation were observed for some S-alleles. Several domestication events may have happened in sweet cherry or/and intense gene flow from local wild cherry was probably maintained along the evolutionary history of the species. A marked bottleneck due to breeding was detected, with all markers, in the modern sweet cherry gene pool. The microsatellites did not detect the bottleneck due to domestication in the analysed sample. The vegetative propagation specific to some fruit trees may account for the differences in diversity observed at the S-locus. Our study provides insights into domestication events of cherry, however, requires confirmation on a larger sampling scheme for both sweet cherry landraces and wild cherry.

  15. Population structure and genetic bottleneck in sweet cherry estimated with SSRs and the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Stéphanie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestication and breeding involve the selection of particular phenotypes, limiting the genomic diversity of the population and creating a bottleneck. These effects can be precisely estimated when the location of domestication is established. Few analyses have focused on understanding the genetic consequences of domestication and breeding in fruit trees. In this study, we aimed to analyse genetic structure and changes in the diversity in sweet cherry Prunus avium L. Results Three subgroups were detected in sweet cherry, with one group of landraces genetically very close to the analysed wild cherry population. A limited number of SSR markers displayed deviations from the frequencies expected under neutrality. After the removal of these markers from the analysis, a very limited bottleneck was detected between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces, with a much more pronounced bottleneck between sweet cherry landraces and modern sweet cherry varieties. The loss of diversity between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces at the S-locus was more significant than that for microsatellites. Particularly high levels of differentiation were observed for some S-alleles. Conclusions Several domestication events may have happened in sweet cherry or/and intense gene flow from local wild cherry was probably maintained along the evolutionary history of the species. A marked bottleneck due to breeding was detected, with all markers, in the modern sweet cherry gene pool. The microsatellites did not detect the bottleneck due to domestication in the analysed sample. The vegetative propagation specific to some fruit trees may account for the differences in diversity observed at the S-locus. Our study provides insights into domestication events of cherry, however, requires confirmation on a larger sampling scheme for both sweet cherry landraces and wild cherry.

  16. Population structure and genetic bottleneck in sweet cherry estimated with SSRs and the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Domestication and breeding involve the selection of particular phenotypes, limiting the genomic diversity of the population and creating a bottleneck. These effects can be precisely estimated when the location of domestication is established. Few analyses have focused on understanding the genetic consequences of domestication and breeding in fruit trees. In this study, we aimed to analyse genetic structure and changes in the diversity in sweet cherry Prunus avium L. Results Three subgroups were detected in sweet cherry, with one group of landraces genetically very close to the analysed wild cherry population. A limited number of SSR markers displayed deviations from the frequencies expected under neutrality. After the removal of these markers from the analysis, a very limited bottleneck was detected between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces, with a much more pronounced bottleneck between sweet cherry landraces and modern sweet cherry varieties. The loss of diversity between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces at the S-locus was more significant than that for microsatellites. Particularly high levels of differentiation were observed for some S-alleles. Conclusions Several domestication events may have happened in sweet cherry or/and intense gene flow from local wild cherry was probably maintained along the evolutionary history of the species. A marked bottleneck due to breeding was detected, with all markers, in the modern sweet cherry gene pool. The microsatellites did not detect the bottleneck due to domestication in the analysed sample. The vegetative propagation specific to some fruit trees may account for the differences in diversity observed at the S-locus. Our study provides insights into domestication events of cherry, however, requires confirmation on a larger sampling scheme for both sweet cherry landraces and wild cherry. PMID:20727153

  17. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  18. Integrative View of the Diversity and Evolution of SWEET and SemiSWEET Sugar Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolei Jia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter (SWEET and SemiSWEET are recently characterized families of sugar transporters in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, respectively. SemiSWEETs contain 3 transmembrane helices (TMHs, while SWEETs contain 7. Here, we performed sequence-based comprehensive analyses for SWEETs and SemiSWEETs across the biosphere. In total, 3,249 proteins were identified and ≈60% proteins were found in green plants and Oomycota, which include a number of important plant pathogens. Protein sequence similarity networks indicate that proteins from different organisms are significantly clustered. Of note, SemiSWEETs with 3 or 4 TMHs that may fuse to SWEET were identified in plant genomes. 7-TMH SWEETs were found in bacteria, implying that SemiSWEET can be fused directly in prokaryote. 15-TMH extraSWEET and 25-TMH superSWEET were also observed in wild rice and oomycetes, respectively. The transporters can be classified into 4, 2, 2, and 2 clades in plants, Metazoa, unicellular eukaryotes, and prokaryotes, respectively. The consensus and coevolution of amino acids in SWEETs were identified by multiple sequence alignments. The functions of the highly conserved residues were analyzed by molecular dynamics analysis. The 19 most highly conserved residues in the SWEETs were further confirmed by point mutagenesis using SWEET1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The results proved that the conserved residues located in the extrafacial gate (Y57, G58, G131, and P191, the substrate binding pocket (N73, N192, and W176, and the intrafacial gate (P43, Y83, F87, P145, M161, P162, and Q202 play important roles for substrate recognition and transport processes. Taken together, our analyses provide a foundation for understanding the diversity, classification, and evolution of SWEETs and SemiSWEETs using large-scale sequence analysis and further show that gene duplication and gene fusion are important factors driving the evolution of SWEETs.

  19. Evaluation of metals in several varieties of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.): comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Angel J; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potatoes are a staple in the diet of some people and an excellent source of minerals. Metal monitoring in food, like sweet potatoes, provides basic information on safety aspects in regulatory processes as well as nutritional values. One hundred five samples of three varieties of sweet potatoes were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmers' plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), while the levels of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean concentrations were 500 Na, 4409 K, 564 Ca, 609 Mg, 1.291 Cu, 6.554 Fe, 2.324 Mn, 2.348 Zn, 0.028 Cr, 0.048 Ni, 0.001 Cd, and 0.003 Pb mg/kg, respectively. Potassium presented the highest contents in all varieties of sweet potatoes. Iron was the most abundant microelement. The orange fleshed sweet potato variety offered greater nutritional contributions to the recommended intakes than the rest of the varieties studied. The estimated mean daily intake of Ni (0.72 mg/day) detected in our samples was highly consistent with other studies. Average daily intakes of Cd (0.015 μg/day) and Pb (0.045 μg/day) were below toxicological reference values. In conclusion, the levels of Cd and Pb detected in the sweet potatoes analyzed do not represent any toxicological risk to consumers.

  20. Polyphenols and phenolic acids in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Musilová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is one of the most important food crops in the world. They are rich in polyphenols, proteins, vitamins, minerals and some functional microcomponents. Polyphenols are bioactive compounds, which can protect the human body from the oxidative stress which may cause many diseases including cancer, aging and cardiovascular problems.The polyphenol content is two to three times higher than in some common vegetables. Total polyphenols (determined spectrophotometrically and phenolic acids (i.e. caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and isomers - using high performance liquid chromatography contents were determined in three varieties of sweet potatoes (O´Henry - white, Beauregard-orange and 414-purple. Phenolic compounds contents were determined in raw peeled roots, jackets of raw roots and water steamed sweet potato roots. For all analysis lyophilised samples were used. Total polyphenol content ranged from 1161 (O´Henry, flesh-raw to 13998 (414, peel-raw mg.kg-1 dry matter, caffeic acid content from the non-detected values (414, flesh-raw to 320.7 (Beauregard, peel-raw mg.kg-1 dry matter and 3-caffeoylquinic acid content from 57.57 (O´Henry, flesh-raw to 2392 (414, peel-raw mg.kg-1 dry matter. Statistically significant differences (p ≤0.05 existed between varieties, morphological parts of the root, or raw and heat-treated sweet potato in phenolic compounds contents.

  1. Tree Contractions and Evolutionary Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Ming-Yang

    2001-01-01

    An evolutionary tree is a rooted tree where each internal vertex has at least two children and where the leaves are labeled with distinct symbols representing species. Evolutionary trees are useful for modeling the evolutionary history of species. An agreement subtree of two evolutionary trees is an evolutionary tree which is also a topological subtree of the two given trees. We give an algorithm to determine the largest possible number of leaves in any agreement subtree of two trees T_1 and ...

  2. Chemometric techniques on evaluation of the flavor of irradiated orange juice concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of storage temperature and time on can orange juice concentrated were studied for samples irradiated at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 0 0 C, 5 0 C and 25 0 C for periods of 1, 30, 60 and 90 days. The concentrated orange juice was subjected to sensorial evaluations and gas chromatographic analysis. The free profile technique was applied using eight trained panel applying the Quantitative Descriptive Analyses, using a 10 cm unstructured category scale for each attribute. Samples stored for more than one day showed a diminution in the orange attribute rating and correspondent increases in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 0 0 C and 5 0 C showed smaller effects on the sweetness ratings as well as on the oily, acidic and medicinal flavor characteristics. In most cases increased radiation levels were accompanied by lower intensity of orange attribute values and higher intensity of bitter, medicinal and cooked attributes. Forty three chemical compounds were characterized. Mircene, octanal, δ-3-carene, limonene, citronelal, and neral were highly correlated and statistically significant correlation coefficients. All these components showed low, but 95% confidence significant level correlations with the orange attribute. On the other hand the correlated group of hexanal, octanol, oxidation products, terpinene-4-ol, cis-carveol, nerol, carvona, geraniol, perilyl alcohol and cariophilene substances can be associated the bitter, medicinal and cooked attributes of the irradiated orange juice concentrate. (author). 83 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs

  3. Performance of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin trees on different rootstocks in Northwestern Parana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Paraná, citrus production is based mainly on Rangpur lime rootstock, which has good results with the established cultivars. However, research is needed into rootstocks for use with cultivars that remain to be commercially exploited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development and yield of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin plants (Citrus unshiu Marc., as well as fruit quality, budded on nine rootstocks in the Northwest State of Paraná, Brazil. The orchard was established at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná-IAPAR, Paranavaí, PR, in January 2001. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine treatments, three replications, and two plants per plot. The rootstocks were Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb., Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka, C-13 citrange [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata orange (L. Raf.], Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. e Pasq., Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka, trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. ], Swingle citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], and Caipira DAC sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.]. The largest plant canopy to ‘Okitsu’ was induced by Cleopatra and the lowest by trifoliata, with 37.1 m3 and 9.9 m3, respectively. The highest relationship between scion and rootstock trunk diameter was observed for the plants budded on Swingle. The largest accumulated yields per plant over eight seasons were induced by Volkamer, Rangpur, Caipira DAC, Cleopatra, and Carrizo, ranging from 867.3 to 989.6 kg. These rootstocks also induced the largest fruit mass, along with Sunki, ranging from 173.3 to 188.0 g. Trifoliate induced accumulated production of 52.5% in relation to Rangpur lime. Rangpur, Carrizo, trifoliate, and Swingle induced the largest averages for the ratio, ranging from 10.41 to 10.79. For orchard

  4. Field performance of transgenic citrus trees: assessment of the long-term expression of uidA and nptII transgenes and its impact on relevant agronomic and phenotypic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Elsa; Peris, Josep E; Peña, Leandro

    2012-07-15

    The future of genetic transformation as a tool for the improvement of fruit trees depends on the development of proper systems for the assessment of unintended effects in field-grown GM lines. In this study, we used eight transgenic lines of two different citrus types (sweet orange and citrange) transformed with the marker genes β-glucuronidase (uidA) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) as model systems to study for the first time in citrus the long-term stability of transgene expression and whether transgene-derived pleiotropic effects occur with regard to the morphology, development and fruit quality of orchard-grown GM citrus trees. The stability of the integration and expression of the transgenes was confirmed in 7-year-old, orchard-grown transgenic lines by Southern blot analysis and enzymatic assays (GUS and ELISA NPTII), respectively. Little seasonal variation was detected in the expression levels between plants of the same transgenic line in different organs and over the 3 years of analysis, confirming the absence of rearrangements and/or silencing of the transgenes after transferring the plants to field conditions. Comparisons between the GM citrus lines with their non-GM counterparts across the study years showed that the expression of these transgenes did not cause alterations of the main phenotypic and agronomic plant and fruit characteristics. However, when comparisons were performed between diploid and tetraploid transgenic citrange trees and/or between juvenile and mature transgenic sweet orange trees, significant and consistent differences were detected, indicating that factors other than their transgenic nature induced a much higher phenotypic variability. Our results indicate that transgene expression in GM citrus remains stable during long-term agricultural cultivation, without causing unexpected effects on crop characteristics. This study also shows that the transgenic citrus trees expressing the selectable marker genes that are most

  5. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  6. Mixing Tamiflu with Sweet Liquids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-11-16

    If your doctor prescribes Tamiflu® capsules for your child and your child cannot swallow them, this podcast describes how to mix the contents of the capsules with a sweet thick liquid so they can be given that way.  Created: 11/16/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/16/2009.

  7. Orange fiber laser for ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, M.; Kojima, K.; Hayashi, K.

    2007-02-01

    For the light source of photocoagulators for ophthalmology, orange laser is more suitable than green laser because of low scattering loss by the crystalline lens, and low absorption by xanthophylls in the retina. We developed two orange fiber lasers (580 nm and 590 nm) to investigate the effect depending on the difference in the range of orange. The 580nm laser is composed of a 1160 nm fiber laser and a Periodically Polled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) crystal for second harmonic generation. The 1160 nm fiber laser beam is focused into the MgO-doped PPLN crystal whose length is 30 mm with 3-pass configuration. Continuous-wave 1.3 W output power of 580 nm was obtained with 5.8 W input power of 1160nm for the first time. The conversion efficiency was 22%. The band width of the second harmonic was 0.006 nm (FWHM). The 590 nm laser is almost the same as 580 nm laser source. In this case we used a Raman shift fiber to generate 1180 nm, and the output power of 590 nm was 1.4 W. We developed an evaluation model of photocoagulator system using these two laser sources. A 700 mW coagulation output power was obtained with this orange fiber laser photocoagulator system. This is enough power for the eye surgery. We have the prospect of the maintenance-free, long-life system that is completely air-cooled. We are planning to evaluate this photocoagulator system in order to investigate the difference between the two wavelengths at the field test.

  8. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Ali Mortazavi Emami; Seyyed Javad Emamzadeh; Hosein Harsij; Hosein Masoudnia

    2013-01-01

    Color revolution is one of the new ways of changing a regime at the beginning of the twenty-first century, which has usually been carried out on corrupt, political systems remaining from the Cold War era in Eastern European countries and countries that have become independent from the former Soviet Union and through such revolution a new peaceful form of political power transition emerged. An exploration of the circumstances of Ukraine’s Orange Revolution suggests foreigners’ support and lead...

  9. Subthreshold olfactory stimulation can enhance sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, D; Rytz, A; Morgenegg, C; Ali, S; Martin, N

    2007-03-01

    The impact of olfactory perception on sweetness was explored in a model solution using odorants at subthreshold concentrations. First, the impact of 6 odorants, previously described in the literature as congruent with sweetness, was investigated at suprathreshold level in a sucrose solution. Ethyl butyrate and maltol were selected as they had the highest and the lowest sweetness-enhancing properties, respectively. Second, the impact on sweetness of the 2 odorants was investigated at subthreshold concentrations. A system delivering a continuous liquid flow at the same sucrose level, but with varying odorant concentrations, was used. At a subthreshold level, ethyl butyrate but not maltol significantly enhanced the sweetness of the sucrose solution. This study highlights that olfactory perception induced by odorants at a subthreshold level can significantly modulate taste perception. Finally, contrary to results observed with ethyl butyrate at suprathreshold levels, at subthreshold levels, the intensity of sweetness enhancement was not proportional to ethyl butyrate concentration.

  10. Molecular mechanism of sweetness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Grant E

    2016-10-01

    The current understanding of peripheral molecular events involved in sweet taste sensation in humans is reviewed. Included are discussions of the sweetener receptor T1R2/T1R3, its agonists, antagonists, positive allosteric modulators, the transduction of its activation in taste bud cells and the coding of its signaling to the CNS. Areas of incomplete understanding include 1) signal communication with afferent nerve fibers, 2) contrasting concentration/response (C/R) functions for high-potency (HP) sweeteners (hyperbolic) and carbohydrate (CHO) sweeteners (linear), 3) contrasting temporal profiles for HP sweeteners (delayed onset and extinction) and CHO sweeteners (rapid onset and extinction) and 4) contrasting adaptation behaviors for HP sweeteners (moderate to strong adaptation) and CHO sweeteners (low adaptation). Evidence based on the sweet water aftertastes of several novel sweetness inhibitors is presented providing new support for constitutive activity in T1R2/T1R3. And a model is developed to rationalize the linear C/R functions of CHO sweeteners and hyperbolic C/R functions of HP sweeteners, where the former may activate T1R2/T1R3 by both binding and constitutive activity modulation (i.e., without binding) and the latter activate T1R2/T1R3 only by binding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Induced mutants of Cox's Orange Pippin apple with apparent increased self-compatibility. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, R.M.; Lacey, C.N.D.; Richardson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Fruit set on clones of Cox's Orange Pippin apple which had been produced by gamma-irradiation, and found in a previous trial to crop when isolated from the pollen of other cultivars, was compared after open or hand-pollination. Some clones set more fruit than the unirradiated control trees when open pollinated or when hand-pollinated with pollen from the same tree or control Cox trees. Pollen from some mutant clones also improved set on standard Cox (EMLA). Estimates of the numbers of pollen tubes reaching the base of the style indicated that the increased set was due to enhanced tube growth. (orig.)

  12. Genetic diversity of bitter and sweet African bush mango trees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihotogbe, Romaric

    PCR reaction was performed using a Peltier-Effect Cycling PTC. 100 thermocycler programmed for an initial denaturation at 94°C for. 4 min, followed by 35 cycles at 94°C for 30 s per cycle, annealing temperature (55 - 60°C) for 1 min, a step at 72°C for 1 min, and a final extension step at 72°C for 5 min. Migration of the PCR.

  13. Complete Genome Sequences of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus and Sweet potato virus G from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Caroline A.; Rossato, Maurício; Melo, Fernando L.; Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Brazil, Potyvirus species in sweet potatoes have been detected mostly by serology. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two Potyvirus species, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus strain (SPFMV-UNB-01) and Sweet potato virus G strain (SPVG-UNB-01).

  14. Sweetness characterization of recombinant human lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Mami; Nakajima, Kana; Kashiwagi, Yutaka; Udaka, Shigezo; Maehashi, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Lysozyme, a bacteriolytic enzyme, is widely distributed in nature and is a component of the innate immune system. It is established that chicken egg lysozyme elicits sweetness. However, the sweetness of human milk lysozyme, which is vital for combating microbial infections of the gastrointestinal tract of breast-fed infants, has not been characterized. This study aimed to assess the elicitation of sweetness using recombinant mammalian lysozymes expressed in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant human lysozyme (h-LZ) and other mammalian lysozymes of mouse, dog, cat and bovine milk elicited similar sweetness as determined using a sensory test, whereas bovine stomach lysozyme (bs-LZ) did not. Assays of cell cultures showed that h-LZ activated the human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3, whereas bs-LZ did not. Point mutations confirmed that the sweetness of h-LZ was independent of enzyme activity and substrate-binding sites, although acidic amino acid residues of bs-LZ played a significant role in diminishing sweetness. Therefore, we conclude that elicitation of sweetness is a ubiquitous function among all lysozymes including mammalian lysozymes. These findings may provide novel insights into the biological implications of T1R2/T1R3-activation by mammalian lysozyme in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. However, the function of lysozyme within species lacking the functional sweet taste receptor gene, such as cat, is currently unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative analysis of phytochemicals and nutrient availability in two contrasting cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Mishra, Divya; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2015-04-15

    Sweet potato ranks as the world's seventh most important food crop, and has major contribution to energy and phytochemical source of nutrition. To unravel the molecular basis for differential nutrient availability, and to exploit the natural genetic variation(s) of sweet potato, a series of physiochemical and proteomics experiment was conducted using two contrasting cultivars, an orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and a white-fleshed sweet potato (WFSP). Phytochemical screening revealed high percentage of carbohydrate, reducing sugar and phenolics in WFSP, whereas OFSP showed increased levels of total protein, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids. The rate of starch and cellulose degradation was found to be less in OFSP during storage, indicating tight regulation of gene(s) responsible for starch-degradation. Comparative proteomics displayed a cultivar-dependent expression of proteins along with evolutionarily conserved proteins. These results suggest that cultivar-specific expression of proteins and/or their interacting partners might play a crucial role for nutrient acquisition in sweet potato. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impacts of the diversity of traditional uses and potential economic value on food tree species conservation status: case study of African bush mango trees (Irvingiaceae) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbé, R.; Kakai, R.G.; Bongers, F.; Andel, van T.; Berg, van den R.G.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims – Bitter and sweet African bush mango trees belong to the family Irvingiaceae and produce valuable non-timber forest products in humid lowland areas of West and Central Africa. The bitter and sweet types are treated as distinct taxa at the variety or species level. They have not

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1) infecting sweet cherry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1), associated with little cherry disease (LCD), has a significant impact on fruit quality of infected sweet cherry trees. We report the full genome sequence of an isolate of LChV-1 from China, detected by small RNA deep sequencing and amplified by overlapping RT-PCR. The...

  18. The dependence of orange-red IRSL decay curves of potassium feldspars on sample temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattahi, Morteza

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of stimulation temperature on the infrared stimulated orange-red (600-650 nm) luminescence emission (orange-red infrared simulated luminescence (IRSL)) in potassium feldspar. Investigations explore the relationship between initial (0-2 s), integral (0-100 s), net initial (0-2 s less background over 2 s), net integral (0-100 s less background over 100 s) and last 2 s of the orange-red IRSL signals obtained for 100 s versus stimulation temperature (20-460 degree sign C) on both unpreheated and preheated samples. In the potassium feldspar sample examined, competition effects, including thermal enhancement, depletion and possibly quenching affect the orange-red IRSL signals measured. Observed effects (e.g., thermal enhancement, thermal activation energy and the decay rate) over the temperature range 20-120 degree sign C may be explained by tunnelling luminescence processes, IR transitions to the conduction band following excitations from ground state of electron trap by acquiring thermal energy from the lattice and or the random-walk band-tail model. Preheating prior to orange-red IRSL and Thermoluminescence (TL) measurements provides evidence that there are both shallow and deep traps responsible for low- and high-temperature orange-red IRSL and TL peaks. The effects of both preheating and IR bleaching on the orange-red thermally stimulated luminescence (red emission during thermoluminescence, RTL) provide evidence that bleached RTL traps have no significant contribution in the production of orange-red IRSL signals

  19. Utilization of Baked-Smashed Sweet Potato and Vegetables on Patisserie Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, A.; Subekti, S.; Sudewi, S.; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2018-02-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  20. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  1. Sweetness potency and sweetness synergism of sweeteners in milk and coffee systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-Hye; Chung, Seo-Jin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the presence of sweetness synergism in milk and instant coffee systems. It consists of three parts: 1) modeling concentration-sweetness intensity curves of sweeteners (stevia, sucralose, xylose, tagatose and erythritol); 2) measuring the sweetness potencies of sweeteners compared to sucrose at wide concentration range; and 3) investigating the presence of sweetness synergisms in binary sweetener mixtures. The panelists evaluated sweetness and other sensory characteristics of sweeteners using descriptive analysis. Based on the modeled curve derived from step 1, the concentration of each sweetener with sweetness intensity equal to 2.5% or 2.8% sucrose was calculated for milk and coffee systems, respectively. For the sweetness synergism study, one type of intense sweetener was mixed with one type of bulk sweetener, each eliciting 2.5% or 2.8% equi-sweetness to sucrose, and compared with 5% sucrose added to a milk system or 5.6% sucrose added to a coffee system. The sweetness potencies of bulk sweeteners generally increased whereas the sweetness potencies of intense sweeteners decreased as the concentration increased. The binary sweetener mixtures mostly showed additivity in milk and suppression in coffee system rather than synergism when the concentration dependent nature of sweetness potency for each sweetener was taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reação da laranjeira azêda à tristeza Reaction of the sour orange plant to tristeza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1954-01-01

    plantas sadias se desenvolvem mais ou menos satisfatòriamente quando sôbre-enxertadas em galhos de laranjeira doce sobre laranjeira azêda, já em avançado estado de declínio. Uma copa mista de laranjeiras azêda e doce sôbre cavalo de azêda pode causar alguns benefícios à planta afetada pela tristeza sob determinadas condições, mas êsse benefício não é duradouro e o método não oferece possibilidades práticas. A laranjeira azêda em viveiro tem sido utilizada com vantagem na determinação da presença do vírus da tristeza em borbulhas de vários tipos de Citrus, pela observação do crescimento feito a partir dessas borbulhas em comparação com aquêle de borbulhas da mesma variedade garantidamente sadias. Para a determinação da presença de estirpes fracas do vírus o método é mais demorado. Interenxertos de laranjeira azêda entre copas e raízes de laranjeira doce são suficientes para que haja manifestação de sintomas da moléstia. Há aparentemente alguma translocação através do interenxêrto, pois o desenvolvimento do cavalo abaixo e acima dele é aproximadamente igual.Young sour orange seedlings are more easily infected with the tristeza virus by approach-grafts than by means of the aphid vector. Under natural conditions adult plants in the field are highly resistant to infection by the aphid vector. Recovery of the tristeza virus from infected sour orange plants is also more easily accomplished by tissue union than by means of the aphid vector. Sour orange seedlings show yellowing of young leaves followed by stunting and shedding of leaves when infected with the ordinary strain of the tristeza virus in Brazil. These symptoms do not differ from those described for seedling yellows. The symptoms of leaf yellowing are less evident in plants infected with mild strains of the tristeza virus and there is subsequent recovery. New flushes of young leaves may show occasional vein dashes. Sour orange tissues below the bud union of the sweet

  3. Photostability of Natural Orange-Red and Yellow Fungal Pigments in Liquid Food Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Meyer, Anne S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    an enhanced photostability of fungal pigment extracts compared to the commercially available natural colorants Monascus Red and turmeric used as controls. Yellow components of the orange-red fungal pigment extract were more photostable than the red components. Chemistry of the photodegradation of the orange...

  4. Interactive Network Exploration with Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Štajdohar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis is one of the most widely used techniques in many areas of modern science. Most existing tools for that purpose are limited to drawing networks and computing their basic general characteristics. The user is not able to interactively and graphically manipulate the networks, select and explore subgraphs using other statistical and data mining techniques, add and plot various other data within the graph, and so on. In this paper we present a tool that addresses these challenges, an add-on for exploration of networks within the general component-based environment Orange.

  5. Stability and use of sweet sorghum bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    With sweet sorghum production and subsequent accumulation of bagasse on the rise, it is important to look for novel uses for its by-products. Bagasse, the solid fibrous product left after sweet sorghum stalks are crushed to remove juice, is partially reapplied to the field to enhance subsequent cro...

  6. Assignation of sweet cherry selections to 3 taste groupings based on perceived sweetness and sourness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Carolyn F; Chauvin, Maite A; Whiting, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Providing consumers with basic taste properties of sweet cherries at point of purchase would allow consumers to make purchase decisions based on fruit's intrinsic sensory attributes. The objective of this study was to develop a model to predict taste-grouping assignation of cherries into the following categories: (1) low sweetness/high sourness, (2) balance between sweetness and sourness, and (3) high sweetness/low sourness. A sensory panel (n = 10) was trained to recognize sweetness and sourness in 5 cultivars of sweet cherries and assign a taste grouping based on the perceived balance of sweetness and sourness. Four of these same cultivars were then evaluated for sweetness and sourness by a consumer panel (n = 117) and instrumentally for titratable acidity (TA) and soluble solids concentration (SSC). Results showed that for 3 of the 4 cherry cultivars, the sweetness/sourness balance of the cherries was not significantly different as evaluated instrumentally or by the trained panel. However, the balance determined by the consumer and the trained panel was different for 3 of the 4 cherry cultivars (P sweetness and sourness, a multinomial logit model was developed to predict the assignation of cherry taste grouping. The likelihood of group assignment depended on both the perceived sweetness and sourness of the cherry, with taste groupings agreed upon for 3 of 5 sweet cherry cultivars. As previous studies have indicated a positive relationship between cherry sweetness and sourness to consumer acceptance, these groupings show promise for assisting consumers in cherry selection at the point of purchase. The prediction models proposed in this study suggest that both sweetness and sourness are important in the cherry characterization and the ratio between the 2 attributes may be appropriate for making taste-grouping assignments. These groupings may then be used to provide additional sensory information to consumers to assist them in cherry selection at the point of

  7. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  8. Comparative morpho-anatomical studies of the lesions caused by citrus leprosis virus on sweet orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.R. Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leprosis disease shows a viral etiology and the citrus leprosis virus is considered its etiologic agent. The disease may show two types of cytopatologic symptom caused by two virus: nuclear (CiLV-N and cytoplasmic (CiLV-C types. The aim of this study was to compare the morpho-anatomical differences in the lesions caused by leprosis virus-cytoplasmic and nuclear types in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. Leaf and fruit lesions were collected in Piracicaba/São Paulo (cytoplasmic type and Monte Alegre do Sul/São Paulo and Amparo/São Paulo (nuclear type. The lesions were photographed and then fixed in Karnovsky solution, dehydrated in a graded ethylic series, embedded in hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate resin (Leica Historesin, sectioned (5 μm thick, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. The digital images were acquired in a microscope with digital video camera. Leaf and fruit lesions caused by the two viruses were morphologically distinct. Only the lesion caused by CiLV-N virus presented three well-defined regions. In both lesions there was the accumulation of lipidic substances in necrotic areas that were surrounded by cells with amorphous or droplets protein. Only leaf and fruit lesions caused by CiLV-N virus exhibited traumatic gum ducts in the vascular bundles.A doença leprose dos citros tem etiologia viral sendo o citrus leprosis virus seu agente etiológico. Demonstrou-se que há dois vírus distintos que causam sintomas de leprose em ci-tros: citoplasmático (CiLV-C e o nuclear (CiLV-N. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar as diferenças morfo-anatômicas nas lesões causadas por CiLV-C e por CiLV-N em laranjeira doce (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. As lesões foliares e dos frutos foram coletadas em Piracicaba/SP (tipo citoplas-mático e em Monte Alegre do Sul/SP e Amparo/SP (tipo nuclear. As lesões foram fotografadas e em seguida fixadas em solução Karnovsky, desidratadas em série etílica, incluídas em historesina e secionadas em micrótomo rotativo. As lâminas foram coradas, analisadas e fotografadas. As lesões foliares e do fruto causadas pelos dois vírus eram morfologicamente distintas. Somente a lesão causada por CiLV-N apresentou três regiões bem definidas. Em ambas as lesões ocorreu acúmulo de substâncias lipídicas nas áreas necrosadas que se achavam envoltas por células com conteúdo protéico amorfo ou em gotas. Somente as lesões da folha e do fruto causadas pelo CiLV-N exibiram ductos traumáticos gomosos nos feixes vasculares.

  9. Evaluation of resistance to asiatic citrus canker among selections of pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiatic citrus canker (ACC, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease of citrus in Brazil and in several other citrus-producing countries. ACC management is problematic, and bactericides such as copper can be reasonably efficacious but do not completely control...

  10. Resistance of sweet orange Pera (Citrus sinensis) genotypes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus canker control is based on protection measures and eradication of plants infected with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Although these measures show satisfactory results, the use of resistant genotypes is an important alternative for citrus canker control. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  11. VIABILIDADE DO PÓLEN EM VARIEDADES DE LARANJA DOCE POLLEN VIABILITY IN SWEET ORANGE VARIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Tobias Domingues; Augusto Tulmann Neto; Joaquim Teófilo Sobrinho

    1999-01-01

    Uma vez que a polinização é um dos pontos decisivos para o crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto, contribuindo com os gametas masculinos para a fecundação e determinando, na maioria das vezes, a fixação dos frutos em citros, torna-se necessário conhecer o grau de esterilidade masculina nas diferentes variedades de laranja doce para sua possível utilização em programas de melhoramento. A esterilidade é limitante para programas que envolvam a hibridação sexual, por outro lado possui sua import...

  12. Callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and protoplast isolation from sweet orange varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Benedito, Vagner Augusto; Mourão Filho, Francisco de Assis Alves; Mendes, Beatriz Madalena Januzzi

    2000-01-01

    Com o objetivo de produzir calos embriogênicos de citros, óvulos abortados de frutos maduros de 6 variedades de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), ‘Bahia Cabula’, ‘Baianinha’, ‘Hamlin’, ‘Orvalho de Mel’, ‘Rubi’ e ‘Valência’ foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MT modificado com adição de extrato de malte, com e sem adição de 5 mg L-1 benziladenina (BA). Os calos obtidos das variedades ‘Bahia Cabula’, ‘Orvalho de Mel’, ‘Rubi’ e ‘Valência’ foram cultivados em meio basal MT, contendo os ...

  13. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V; Abascal, R

    1976-01-01

    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well.

  15. Neutron irradiation breeding of antibiotics and orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bufa; Lin Xuefeng; Zhang Jiafu

    1985-01-01

    14 MeV neutron beam was used to irradiate gentamycin, medemycin and orange. The yield antibiotics increased by 3% to 20% after irradiation; by irradiation of orange seed, pollen and branch improvement of rate of germination, fruit seed number and scion survival rate were observed and a number of new variety were developed by mutation

  16. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.; Abascal, R.

    1976-01-01

    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well

  17. Vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fieldwork to study the vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptilia levaillantoides was conducted on a farm in the Heidelberg district, Gauteng province, South Africa, during August 2009 to March 2011. Orange River Francolins possess a basic repertoire of seven calls and one mechanical sound. From 83 ...

  18. Phytohormones content and random amplified polymorphic DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Egypt, Citrus represents one of the main fruit tree crops for both local and export potentials. In this study, leaf and vegetative bud samples were studied for cultivars of sour orange (seedless, sweet seeded, Brazilian and Spanish), common sweet orange (Florida, Fsido, Shamoty, and Valencia) and navel orange B29 from ...

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Tender shoots and the under surface of leaves are covered with dense brown velvety hairs. Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible.

  20. ‘URS Campestre’ seedless orange: a new mutant with female sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renar João Bender

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Seedlessness in fruit is a trait that is much sought after by juice making industries. Close to the city of São Sebastião do Caí, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, a new mutant orange originating from natural mutation was identified and selected as a seedless material. To determine the mechanisms involved in the absence of seeds, the reproductive structures of this new mutant by comparison with a Valencia sweet orange as control, a cultivar with a profusion of seeds, was analyzed in terms of meiotic behavior, meiotic index, pollen viability, in vitro germination, and ovule features to determine the grounds for seed absence. Other morphological analyzes allowed for visualizing the structures of normal appearance and size in both cultivars. Meiotic analysis identified chromosome normal pairing with a predominance of bivalents at diakinesis and metaphase 1. URS Campestre flowers at different developmental stages had anthers and ovaries whose dimensions are typical while pollen grain analysis pointed to a standard developmental pattern, normal meiosis, high viability (84 % and elevated in vitro pollen tube germination rates (63 %. The cv. Valencia and URS Campestre ovules had a similar shape and morphology, sharing an anatropous orientation, and two integuments. In the internal ovule analyses of Valencia sweet oranges, normal embryo sac cells were identified: presence of one egg cell and two synergids, three antipodes and a bigger and central cell containing two polar nuclei. However, the analysis of ovules from URS Campestre reveals an apparent senescence or non-formation of an embryo sac, where only a few highly stained and collapsed cells could be identified. These results led to the conclusion that female sterility in URS Campestre, with a total absence of a female gametophyte, is the limiting factor for fertilization and seed production.

  1. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be... 5 Sweet potatoes may also be moved interstate from Hawaii with irradiation in accordance with § 305...

  2. Determinants of sweet potato value addition among smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important food security promoted crop in Nigeria. The recognition of its relative health benefits has resulted in fresh consumption as well as the utilization of processed products such as sweet potato chips, fries and pre-cut, flour, and pureed sweet potatoes. This study examined the determinants of sweet ...

  3. Bitter and sweet tasting molecules: it's complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, Yaron; Hayes, John E; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-04-18

    "Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25 member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs. Molecules humans describe as sweet are recognized by a TAS1R2/TAS1R3 heterodimer of class C GPCRs. Here we characterize the chemical space of bitter and sweet molecules: the majority of bitter compounds show higher hydrophobicity compared to sweet compounds, while sweet molecules have a wider range of sizes. Critically, recent evidence indicates that TAS1Rs and TAS2Rs are not limited to the oral cavity; moreover, some bitterants are pharmacologically promiscuous, with the hERG potassium channel, cytochrome P450 enzymes and carbonic anhydrases as common off-targets. Further focus on polypharmacology may unravel new physiological roles for tastant molecules. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Performance of 'Valencia' Orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) on 17 rootstocks in a trial severely affected by huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was grown on 17 rootstocks through seven years of age and the first four harvest seasons in a central Florida field trial severely affected by huanglongbing (HLB) disease. All trees in the trial had huanglongbing symptoms and were shown by Polymerase chain...

  5. Improvement of traditional processing of local monkey orange (Strychnos spp.) fruits to enhance nutrition security in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngadze, Ruth T.; Verkerk, Ruud; Nyanga, Loveness K.; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2017-01-01

    Although the monkey orange (Strychnos spp.) tree fruit is widely distributed in Southern Africa and particularly in Zimbabwe, it is underutilized and little attention has been given to its potential commercialisation due to limited knowledge and information. Most of the fruits and their products

  6. Effect of vector control and foliar nutrition on the quality of orange juice affected by Huanglongbing: Sensory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-year study was undertaken to establish the effect of field nutritional sprays, combined or not with insecticide treatments against Asian Citrus psyllid, on the fruit quality of ‘Valencia’ orange trees affected by the greening disease Huanglongbing (HLB). Four replicated plots were harvested, jui...

  7. Effect of vector control and foliar nutrition on quality of orange juice affected by Huanglongbing (HLB): chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Valencia’ orange trees from groves with 90% infection by Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), thought to be the pathogen for citrus greening or huanglongbing (HLB) disease, were treated with insecticide (I), a nutritional spray (N), insecticide plus nutritional spray (I+N). Controls (C) were...

  8. First report of Apple necrotic mosaic virus infecting apple trees in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2016, two apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Shinano Sweet showing bright cream spot and mosaic patterns on leaves were observed in Pocheon, South Korea. Mosaic symptoms are common on leaves of apple trees infected with Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Symptomatic leaves were tested by e...

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dolichandrone atrovirens (Roth) K. Schum. (Spathe Trumpet Tree) of Bignoniaceae is a medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends.

  10. Impact of Prior Consumption on Sour, Sweet, Salty, and Bitter Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Josephine; Palma-Salgado, Sindy; Clark, Diana; Kahraman, Ozan; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-02-01

    Food sensory tests generally require panelists to abstain from food or beverage consumption 30 min to an hour before a tasting session. However, investigators do not have a complete control over panelists' intentional or unintentional consumption prior to a tasting session. Currently, it is unclear how prior consumption impacts the results of the tasting session. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temporary and lingering mouth irritation caused by the consumption of coffee, orange juice, and gum within 1, 15, or 30 min prior to the tasting session on the perception of 4 basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Fifty-two panelists were served a beverage (orange juice, coffee, and water) or were asked to chew a piece of gum, and then, remained in the waiting room for 1, 15, or 30 min. They were then asked to report taste intensities using 15-cm unstructured line scales. Mean intensities of all tastes were not significantly different when orange juice was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min when compared to water. Mean intensities of bitter were significantly lower when coffee was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min than when water was a primer. Mean intensities of sweet were significantly lower when gum was a primer at 1 and 15 min than when water was a primer. The findings showed that it is necessary for 30 min or more waiting period of no food or beverage consumption prior to sensory testing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  12. Campylobacter gastroenteritis associated with Sweet's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sumita; Rytina, Ed; Sterling, Jane; Karas, J A; Aliyu, S H

    2012-10-01

    Sweet's syndrome or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis has been associated with underlying infection, malignancy, inflammatory disease and certain medications. The infection agents associated with this include Streptococcus species, Yersinia species, Chlamydia species, Salmonella species and Helicobacter pylori. We report a case of Sweet's syndrome in a 73-year-old woman following a 2 week course of severe gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter species. Histological examination of skin lesions showed marked inflammatory infiltrate throughout the dermis, composed of neutrophils and histiocytes. The patient was successfully treated with topical and systemic steroids. To date, this is the first case of Sweet's syndrome to be reported linked to Campylobacter species to our knowledge.

  13. Anatomical and Physiological Responses of Citrus Trees to Varying Boron Availability Are Dependent on Rootstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Geisa L.; Zambrosi, Fernando C. B.; Tanaka, Francisco A. O.; Boaretto, Rodrigo M.; Quaggio, José A.; Ribeiro, Rafael V.; Mattos, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    In Citrus, water, nutrient transport and thereby fruit production, are influenced among other factors, by the interaction between rootstock and boron (B) nutrition. This study aimed to investigate how B affects the anatomical structure of roots and leaves as well as leaf gas exchange in sweet orange trees grafted on two contrasting rootstocks in response to B supply. Plants grafted on Swingle citrumelo or Sunki mandarin were grown in a nutrient solution of varying B concentration (deficient, adequate, and excessive). Those grafted on Swingle were more tolerant to both B deficiency and toxicity than those on Sunki, as revealed by higher shoot and root growth. In addition, plants grafted on Sunki exhibited more severe anatomical and physiological damages under B deficiency, showing thickening of xylem cell walls and impairments in whole-plant leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf CO2 assimilation. Our data revealed that trees grafted on Swingle sustain better growth under low B availablitlity in the root medium and still respond positively to increased B levels by combining higher B absorption and root growth as well as better organization of xylem vessels. Taken together, those traits improved water and B transport to the plant canopy. Under B toxicity, Swingle rootstock would also favor plant growth by reducing anatomical and ultrastructural damage to leaf tissue and improving water transport compared with plants grafted on Sunki. From a practical point of view, our results highlight that B management in citrus orchards shall take into account rootstock varieties, of which the Swingle rootstock was characterized by its performance on regulating anatomical and ultrastructural damages, improving water transport and limiting negative impacts of B stress conditions on plant growth. PMID:26973670

  14. Rainfall interception of three trees in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfu Xiao; E. Gregory McPherson

    2011-01-01

    A rainfall interception study was conducted in Oakland, California to determine the partitioning of rainfall and the chemical composition of precipitation, throughfall, and stemflow. Rainfall interception measurements were conducted on a gingko (Ginkgo biloba) (13.5 m tall deciduous tree), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) (8...

  15. Drought damage to bushveld trees and large shrubs | JJP | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An intensive survey was carried out in Sweet Bushveld (savanna) to study drought damage to the trees and large shrubs in a Combretum apiculatum community. In general, the severity of damage was less than was expected and its pattern differed markedly between the 21 different species encountered. Keywords: ...

  16. STRATEGI COPING ORANG TUA MENGHADAPI ANAK AUTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Sulistyo Wardani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Autis merupakan grey area dibidang kedokteran, yang artinya masih merupakan suatu hal yang penyebab, mekanisme, dan terapinya belum jelas benar. Permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis ini memerlukan pemecahan sebagai upaya untuk beradaptasi terhadap masalah dari tekanan yang menimpa mereka. Konsep untuk memecahkan masalah ini disebut coping. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui orientasi strategi coping yang digunakan oleh orang tua untuk menghadapi anak penderita autis, bagaimana bentuk perilaku coping yang digunakan, dan apa dampak perilaku coping tersebut bagi orang tua. Subjek penelitian ini adalah orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis yang bersekolah di SD PLUS Harmony. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah interview, sedangkan teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis induktif deskriptif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa strategi coping pada orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis berorientasi pada penyelesaian masalah yang dihadapi (Problem Focused Coping, sedangkan bentuk perilaku coping yang muncul yaitu Instrumental Action yang termasuk dalam Problem Focused Coping dan Self-Controlling, Denial, dan Seeking Meaning yang termasuk dalam Emotion Focused Coping. Dampak positif dari perilaku coping yang dilakukan oleh orang tua yaitu Exercised Caution dan Seeking Meaning, sedangkan dampak negatif yang muncul diatasi orang tua dengan Intropersitive, Negotiation, dan Accepting Responbility.

  17. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  18. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  19. Silvical characteristics of sweet birch (Betula lenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1958-01-01

    Sweet birch (Betula lenta) is also known as black birch and cherry birch. It is commercially less important than the two principal members of the genus, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera).

  20. Sweet syndrome revealing systemic lupus erythematosus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, N

    2015-02-01

    Sweet Syndrome is an acute inflammatory skin eruption which is rare in children. We report a case of childhood Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) that presented with Sweet syndrome. This case is a unique presentation of a common disorder which provides a new facet for the differential diagnosis of SLE in children. It is also the first paediatric case to be reported in a Caucasian child.

  1. Iron Bioavailability and Provitamin A from Sweet Potato- and Cereal-Based Complementary Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christides, Tatiana; Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Coad, Jane

    2015-09-18

    Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with higher levels of vitamin A and bioavailable iron could help alleviate these micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare iron bioavailability of β-carotene-rich sweet potato-based complementary foods (orange-flesh based sweet potato (OFSP) ComFa and cream-flesh sweet potato based (CFSP) ComFa with a household cereal-based complementary food (Weanimix) and a commercial cereal (Cerelac ® ), using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Iron bioavailability relative to total iron, concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (fibre, phytates, and polyphenols), and enhancers (ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and fructose) was also evaluated. All foods contained similar amounts of iron, but bioavailability varied: Cerelac ® had the highest, followed by OFSP ComFa and Weanimix, which had equivalent bioavailable iron; CFSP ComFa had the lowest bioavailability. The high iron bioavailability from Cerelac ® was associated with the highest levels of ascorbic acid, and the lowest levels of inhibitors; polyphenols appeared to limit sweet potato-based food iron bioavailability. Taken together, the results do not support that CFSP- and OFSP ComFa are better sources of bioavailable iron compared with non-commercial/household cereal-based weaning foods; however, they may be a good source of provitamin A in the form of β-carotene.

  2. Female guppies use orange as choice cue: a manipulative test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female guppies from a feral South African population respond sexually to more orange males in correlative trials. We impaired the female's ability to use orange elements of male colour patterns by conducting choice trials under orange light. Under orange light, there was no relationship between male colour pattern and ...

  3. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as...

  4. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  5. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  7. Veterans and agent orange: update 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Staff; Institute of Medicine, Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides

    2001-01-01

    Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000 examines the state of the scientific evidence regarding associations between diseases and exposure to dioxin and other chemical compounds in herbicides used in Vietnam...

  8. Arundo Distribution - Orange Co. [ds348

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Arundo (Arundo donax) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and were funded by...

  9. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  10. STRATEGI COPING ORANG TUA MENGHADAPI ANAK AUTIS

    OpenAIRE

    Desi Sulistyo Wardani

    2016-01-01

    Autis merupakan grey area dibidang kedokteran, yang artinya masih merupakan suatu hal yang penyebab, mekanisme, dan terapinya belum jelas benar. Permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis ini memerlukan pemecahan sebagai upaya untuk beradaptasi terhadap masalah dari tekanan yang menimpa mereka. Konsep untuk memecahkan masalah ini disebut coping. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui orientasi strategi coping yang digunakan oleh orang tua untuk menghadapi anak pend...

  11. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  12. Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, John F.

    2005-06-01

    In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

  13. Critical molecular regions for elicitation of the sweetness of the sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Keisuke; Masuda, Tetsuya; Ide, Nobuyuki; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2008-07-01

    Thaumatin is an intensely sweet-tasting protein. To identify the critical amino acid residue(s) responsible for elicitation of the sweetness of thaumatin, we prepared mutant thaumatin proteins, using Pichia pastoris, in which alanine residues were substituted for lysine or arginine residues, and the sweetness of each mutant protein was evaluated by sensory analysis in humans. Four lysine residues (K49, K67, K106 and K163) and three arginine residues (R76, R79 and R82) played significant roles in thaumatin sweetness. Of these residues, K67 and R82 were particularly important for eliciting the sweetness. We also prepared two further mutant thaumatin I proteins: one in which an arginine residue was substituted for a lysine residue, R82K, and one in which a lysine residue was substituted for an arginine residue, K67R. The threshold value for sweetness was higher for R82K than for thaumatin I, indicating that not only the positive charge but also the structure of the side chain of the arginine residue at position 82 influences the sweetness of thaumatin, whereas only the positive charge of the K67 side chain affects sweetness.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Some Sweet Cherry Cultivars Based on Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Virginia Berindean

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., originated around the Caspian and Black Sea, is an important fruit tree species of economic interest, and hence, breeding and conservation are requested (. Genetic analysis at the molecular level can be used effectively to study molecular polymorphism existing between intraspecific and interspecific tree species and phylogenetic relationships between them and their hybrids. The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine genetic relationships among the sweet cherry native genotypes belonging to Fruit Research & Development Station Bistrita, Romania, using RAPD markers. To eliminate the existence of possible synonyms from national romanian collection, we collect four Van cultivars, from four different national collection. For molecular analysis of the 16 varieties of sweet cherry were considered 13 RAPD primers selected from the literature. They were later used to determine the genetic variability at the molecular level using PAST program, and the dendrogram was generated based on Jaccard’s genetic distance. The dendrogram constructed by PAST software. The quantity and quality of the DNA obtained was suitable to achieve PCR amplification step. Only seven out of the 13 RAPD primers have generate polymorphic bands. The rest of seven were monomorphics. The most polymorphic primer was OPB10 which generated 11 bands from which 100% were polymorphic.Seven RAPD primers generated a high level of polymorphism which allowed to divide these cherry varieties into two groups according to their genetic geographical origin and the pedigree.

  15. Variação sazonal da fotossíntese, condutância estomática e potencial da água na folha de laranjeira 'Valência' Seasonal variation of photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential in 'Valencia' orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Em espécies perenes podem ocorrer variações nas taxas de trocas gasosas e nas relações hídricas em função da variação das condições ambientais, durante os diferentes meses do ano. Avaliaram-se, em laranjeira ´Valência´ enxertada sobre quatro espécies de porta-enxerto, mantida sem deficiência hídrica, as taxas de fotossíntese (A e de transpiração (E, a condutância estomática (g e o potencial da água na folha (psi f , medidos nos períodos da manhã (9h00 às 11h00 e da tarde (13h00 às 15h00 nos meses de janeiro, março e julho em Campinas - SP. As espécies de porta-enxertos não tiveram efeitos sobre as variáveis medidas. Independente do porta-enxerto A, g e Y f foram menores no período da tarde. A queda de A deve estar relacionada com a queda de g que diminuiu em resposta ao aumento do déficit de pressão de vapor entre o ar e a folha (DPVar-folha nos horários mais quentes do dia. Apesar de ocorrer fechamento parcial dos estômatos no período da tarde E foi similar ao período da manhã, devido ao aumento do DPVar-folha. Também observou-se queda em A e em g no sentido de janeiro para julho. Sugere-se que a queda em A e em g ocorrida em março em comparação a janeiro esteja relacionada à queda da atividade de crescimento da planta, afetando as relações fonte-dreno, visto que as condições ambientais nestes dois meses foram semelhantes. As quedas de A e de g observadas em julho, em relação à janeiro e março, parecem estar relacionadas tanto à queda na temperatura noturna quanto à queda na atividade de crescimento.Seasonal variation in environmental conditions may influence gas exchange rates as well as water relations in perennial species. This work was carried out to evaluate photosynthetic rates (A, transpiration (E, stomatal conductance (g and leaf water potential (psi f in 'Valencia' orange trees grafted on four different rootstocks. Measurements were made twice a day: from 9h00 to 11h00 a.m. and

  16. Precommercial crop-tree release increases diameter growth of Appalachian hardwood saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Neil I. Lamson

    1983-01-01

    Codominant seedling-origin crop trees 25 to 39 feet tall in even-aged, precommercial-size hardwood stands were released in West Virginia. Trees were located on two sites: good oak site index 75 and fair oak site 63. Species studied were black cherry, sweet birch, and yellow-poplar. Three-year results indicated that the trees generally responded to release; the 3-year...

  17. Sweet eating: a definition and the development of the Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Margot; Hörchner, Rogier; Wijtsma, Anneke; Bourhim, Noufissa; Willemsen, Dascha; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients who are defined as so-called sweet eaters have more difficulties to lose weight and to maintain weight loss after both conservative treatment and restrictive bariatric surgery, such as gastric banding. There is, however, no agreement on the definition of sweet eating. Also, a questionnaire to measure sweet eating is not available. Therefore, the aim of our study was to agree on a definition of sweet eating and to construct a valid and reliable questionnaire that might be of help to assess the influence of sweet eating on weight loss after bariatric surgery. A Delphi Study design was chosen to define sweet eating. Based on the Delphi rounds, a questionnaire with self-reported sweets intake was constructed and validated. Nine experts with different scientific backgrounds participated in the Delphi Study which consisted of four rounds. They finally agreed on the definition that sweet eating can be defined as an eating behavior in which at least 50% of daily consumed carbohydrates consist of simple carbohydrates and which can be triggered by emotional factors (i.e., stress). They did not include the intake of artificial sweeteners in the definition. The Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire built on the four Delphi rounds was tested in 138 female patients and appeared to be both valid and reliable. A shortcoming of this study is that the results may not be applicable to males and to non-Western populations. The definition and the questionnaire may be useful in future research regarding sweet eating and bariatric surgery outcomes in morbidly obese patients.

  18. Self fertile and exportable sweet cherry cultivar improvement by mutation and cross-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In Turkey, sweet cherry production reached at 195,000 tons in the last two years. This value is 13% of the world production. Globally USA was the largest exporter of cherries in 2004, accounting for 21,2 % of world trade, just ahead of Turkey, which accounted for 20,07 % [3]. The major high quality and exporting sweet cherry variety is 0900 Ziraat. It is a mid to late season variety with heart fruit shape, pink and very firm flesh and excellent flavor. Contrary to good traits, 0900 Ziraat is self incompatible, trees tends to grow vigorously with low yield on standard rootstocks. Although has some disadvantages there is huge demand from exterior market for 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry cultivar. In this research, gamma irradiation based mutation breeding technique was applied for improving of 0900 Ziraat. For this aim scions were irradiated 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses with Co 6 0 as a source of mutagen. After irradiation scions were budded on P.avium rootstock in greenhouse, located on Ministry of Agriculture, Yalova Atatuerk Horticultural Central Research Institute. At the end of the first year young trees were transferred from greenhouse to orchard. According to 60 days data 'efficient mutation dose' was calculated . After first year which was including physiological effects, trees were characterized according to pomological traits such as fruit weight (g), peduncle length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit height (cm), seed weight (g), soluble solid contents (%), yield (g), and cracking rate (%). Among the 371 living mutant trees, nominee of dwarf, large fruits (>30 mm) and high yield types were observed. According to the data's 58 mutant variety candidate were selected for advance observations. (Includes 63 tables, 29 figures)

  19. Wood-plastic composites utilizing wood flours derived from fast- growing trees common to the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brachichiton acerifolius F. Muell., commonly called as the Illawara flame tree is a member of Malvaceae family and is native to sub-tropical parts of Australia. Due to its spectacular flowers and tolerance to wide range of climates, it's now cultivated all over the world for its beauty. The tree produces flowers during the.

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February.

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baccaurea courtallensis Muell.-Arg. of Euphorbiaceae is an evergreen tree that is very attractive when in flower. Leaves are alternate. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. Inflorescences bearing several flowers arise in tufts on tubercles on the stem. Fruits are crimson red in colour. Seeds are covered.

  5. Direct and indirect contamination of tree crops with Cs-134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarlou, V.; Nobeli, C.; Anoussis, J.; Arapis, G.; Haidouti, C.

    1996-01-01

    A long term glasshouse pot experiment was established in 1994 to study the transfer factors of Cs-134 from soil to olive and orange trees for which no relevant data are available. A calcareous-heavy textured and an acid-light textured soil were used in this experiment. Results from two year's experimentation are considered in this study. The ability of the studied plant species for Cs-134 root uptake seems to be significantly influenced by soil type. The contamination of both tree species grown on calcareous and heavy soil was very low and did not change much with the time. On the contrary, trees grown on acid and light soil showed much higher Cs-134 concentration (up to 34 times for orange and 23 for olive trees) which significantly increased with the time. Both olive and orange trees showed a similar behaviour in the studied soils. Effort was also made to study the long term consequences of the direct contamination in a field experiment where an olive tree was contaminated by dry deposition with Cs-134. Six months after contamination 5 % of the Cs-134 deposited on the leaves was measured in the first olive production. However, very small quantities (= 0.5 %) of the olive Cs-134 was detected in the unprocessed olive oil. The following year 15 % of the Cs-134 remained in the leaves while extremely low quantities of Cs-134 were detected in either olives or olive oil. (author)

  6. Sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cheow Peng; Loke, Seng Cheong

    2013-09-03

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is among the most nutritious subtropical and tropical vegetables. It is also used in traditional medicine practices for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research in animal and human models suggests a possible role of sweet potato in glycaemic control. To assess the effects of sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We searched several electronic databases, including The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2013), combined with handsearches. No language restrictions were used. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared sweet potato with a placebo or a comparator intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two authors independently selected the trials and extracted the data. We evaluated risk of bias by assessing randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. Three RCTs met our inclusion criteria: these investigated a total of 140 participants and ranged from six weeks to five months in duration. All three studies were performed by the same trialist. Overall, the risk of bias of these trials was unclear or high. All RCTs compared the effect of sweet potato preparations with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was a statistically significant improvement in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at three to five months with 4 g/day sweet potato preparation compared to placebo (mean difference -0.3% (95% confidence interval -0.6 to -0.04); P = 0.02; 122 participants; 2 trials). No serious adverse effects were reported. Diabetic complications and morbidity, death from any cause, health-related quality of life, well-being, functional outcomes and costs were not investigated. There is insufficient evidence about the use of sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to improvement in trial methodology

  7. Implication of abscisic acid on ripening and quality in sweet cherries: differential effects during pre- and postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica eTijero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during postharvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4ºC and 23ºC during 10d of postharvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during postharvest at 23ºC. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during preharvest, but not during postharvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during preharvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed.

  8. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  9. Sweet chestnut cultures in the Southern Alps – conservation and regional development. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 2 No. 1 2 1|

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Sweet chestnut cultures are a major component of the vegetation in many large protected areas of the Southern Alps. Since Roman times, vast areas of Southern and Western Europe have been covered by groves and coppices of sweet chestnut trees (Castanea sativa MILL.). Having replaced the original broadleaved forest, they used to play a vital role in traditional agriculture. Chestnut cultivation was even more important in terms of producing a substitute for cereals (bread) than for the productio...

  10. APPLICATION OF PENALTY ANALYSIS TO INTERPRET JAR DATA – A CASE STUDY ON ORANGE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dida Iserliyska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Penalty analysis is a graphical technique to reveal the possible penalty paid by the product in terms of reduced overall liking by not being Just About Right (JAR on a characteristic. Thus consumer affective tests were conducted to investigate the use of penalty analysis to model consumer acceptance of six well-known brands of orange juice using the proposed method to infer the drivers of liking from JAR data. Just-about-right (JAR and hedonic ratings were used to measure each attribute evaluated. Consumers (n=81 were asked to rate the overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. Just About Right (JAR scales were used to evaluate the rest of the attributes as followed: color, sweet taste, sour taste, bitter taste and amount of pulp. Means and frequencies of each sensory attribute were obtained. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients gave the relationship between the sensory attributes and the overall liking.

  11. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe October 2014 Print this issue Sweet Stuff How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health ... Send us your comments Most of us love sweet foods and drinks. But after that short burst ...

  13. Postharvest properties of sweet cherry fruit depending on rootstock and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzic Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Regina’ sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. harvested from trees grown on vigorous and semi-dwarfing rootstocks was stored in normal atmosphere (NA at 8°C and 2°C, and in a controlled atmosphere (CA 3% O2 + 5% CO2 at 2°C for two weeks. At harvest time, the fruits differed in the measured quality parameters (firmness, soluble solids content - SSC, titratable acidity - TA depending on the rootstock. The storage conditions and the rootstocks significantly influenced the fruit quality parameters after storage. Generally, reduced fruit firmness and TA, and higher SSC and SSC/TA ratio were observed at the end of the storage period. Among the rootstocks, the lowest soluble solids content was found in the fruit from trees on the vigorous F12/1 rootstock. The lower storage temperature decreased the SSC independently of the storage atmosphere composition. Firmer fruit was found in CA 2°C compared with the other two treatments. The greatest loss of weight was found after fruit storage in NA 8°C. The extent of fruit decay depended on the season, storage conditions and the rootstock. Storage in NA 8°C of the fruit grown on F12/1 rootstock resulted in the highest percentage of fungal decay. The best retention of the green colour of the peduncle was noted in CA 2°C. The findings on how the rootstocks affect sweet cherry fruit properties can be useful for sweet cherry breeding programmes, as well as for sweet cherry crop production and storage technologies.

  14. Investigation on Key Molecules of Huanglongbing (HLB)-Induced Orange Juice Off-flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefl, Johannes; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Hartmann, Anja; Obst, Katja; Paetz, Susanne; Krammer, Gerhard; Trautzsch, Stephan

    2017-03-27

    Orange fruits from huanglongbing (HLB)-infected trees do not fully mature and show a severe off-flavor described as bitter-harsh, metallic, and less juicy and fruity. The investigation of juice from HLB-infected (HLBOJ) and healthy control oranges (COJ) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed higher concentrations of fruity esters, such as ethyl butyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and soapy-waxy alkanals, such as octanal and decanal, in the COJ, whereas the HLBOJ showed higher concentrations of green aldehydes such as hexanal and degradation compounds of limonene and linalool such as α-terpineol. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on terpeneless peel oil led to the identification of long-chained aldehydes such as (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-8-tetradecenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (Z)-4-decenal, and octanal with the highest flavor dilution factors among 25 odor-active volatiles in the peel oil of healthy oranges. Taste-guided fractionation and identification of the HLBOJ secondary metabolites followed by sensory validation revealed that flavanoids such as hesperidin may modulate the flavor to evoke the unacceptable harsh/metallic taste impression. Quantitation of the bitter components showed good correlation between the limonoid and flavanoid concentrations with the off-flavor and quality of the oranges obtained throughout the season.

  15. Trifoliata hybrids rootstocks for 'Lane Late' navel orange in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. are the most important rootstocks used in Spain, but they are problematic and it is necessary to search for new rootstocks with better all-round performance. The performance of 'Lane Late' navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb] on ten rootstocks was determined in the South of the province of Alicante (Spain. They are Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin and eight new hybrids obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain: 020324 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata × Cleopatra mandarin], Forner-Alcaide 418 (F&A 418 [Troyer citrange × common mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.], Forner-Alcaide 13 (F&A 13, 030118, 030127 and 030131 (Cleopatra mandarin × P. trifoliata and 030212 and 030230 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer citrange. Soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract at 25ºC of 5.79 mS cm-1. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the last three. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was controlled for the 4th until 9th harvests. The trees of 'Lane Late' navel budded on Cleopatra mandarin were the tallest (2.5 m and F&A 418 (1.6 m the shortest of all rootstocks tested. Trees on 030131 hybrid and Carrizo citrange rootstocks had the highest mean yield (81.2 and 80.3 kg per tree per year respectively, while trees on F&A 418 produced the lowest mean yield (22.3 kg per tree per year. Trees on 030131, 020324 and 030212 had the highest yield efficiency as total cumulative yield per cubic meter of canopy volume (62.1, 58.7 and 55.9 kg m-3 respectively whereas trees on 030127, F&A 418 and Cleopatra mandarin had lower yield efficiencies (45.0, 44.4 and 38.6 kg m-3, respectively. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was lower in trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (24.62 % and on 030212 (26.61 %, and was also low on F&A 418 (27

  16. Evaluation of plant extracts for sweetness using the Mongolian gerbil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakinovich, W; Moon, C; Choi, Y H; Kinghorn, A D

    1990-01-01

    Extracts of Thladiantha grosvenorii fruits, Stevia rebaudiana leaves, and Abrus precatorius leaves were investigated using Mongolian gerbil electrophysiological and conditioned taste aversion procedures, which were designed to respond to sucrose. A close correlation was observed between extracts of these sweet plants known to contain sweet principles and those extracts indicated as being sweet by a combination of these gerbil bioassays. The methods employed seem to be suitable for use in aiding the purification of highly sweet compounds of plant origin.

  17. Resin glycosides from the yellow-skinned variety of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2013-10-02

    Native to tropical America, Ipomoea batatas has been cultivated for over 5000 years in Mexico. The yellow-skinned tuber crop variety, with an orange flesh, has a higher nutritional value than potato. Raw sweet potato can cause a purge due to its resin glycoside content. Purification of the chloroform-soluble resin glycosides from the roots of this variety was accomplished by preparative-scale HPLC, which allowed for the collection of six oligosaccharides, batatin VII (1) and batatinosides VII-IX (2-4), all of novel structure, together with the known resin glycosides pescaprein I and batatinoside IV. High-field NMR spectroscopy and FAB mass spectrometry were used to characterize each structure, identifying operculinic acid A for compounds 2 and 4, and simonic acid B for 3, as their pentasaccharide glycosidic cores. Batatin VII (1) represents a dimer of the know batatinoside IV, consisting of two units of simonic acid B.

  18. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  19. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy crops. As a novel green regenerated high-energy crop with high utility value, high yield of biomass, the sweet sorghum is widely used and developed in China. Stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as the main substrate for ethanol ...

  20. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet Onions...

  1. Sex differences in preferences for coffee sweetness among Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazawa, Kazuko; Hirokawa, Kumi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in preferences for coffee sweetness. The participants were 59 Japanese undergraduate students. Men preferred sweeter coffee than women, while both men and women showed almost the same preference for acidic beverage sweetness. The sex difference in preferences for coffee sweetness may be related to coffee-drinking habits.

  2. A preliminary investigation of the water use efficiency of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... compared to Ukulinga research farm. The results from this study showed that the WUE of sweet sorghum was sensitive to plant density. The WUE values confirm that sweet sorghum has high WUE under different climatic conditions. Keywords: water use efficiency; ethanol yield; biofuel crop; plant density, sweet sorghum, ...

  3. A Method to Obtain Orange Crop Geometry Information Using a Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanner and 3D Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André F. Colaço

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging technology has been used to obtain geometrical attributes of tree crops in small field plots, sometimes using manual steps in data processing. The objective of this study was to develop a method for estimating canopy volume and height based on a mobile terrestrial laser scanner suited for large commercial orange groves. A 2D LiDAR sensor and a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System receiver were mounted on a vehicle for data acquisition. A georeferenced point cloud representing the laser beam impacts on the crop was created and later classified into transversal sections along the row or into individual trees. The convex-hull and the alpha-shape reconstruction algorithms were used to reproduce the shape of the tree crowns. Maps of canopy volume and height were generated for a 25 ha orange grove. The different options of data processing resulted in different values of canopy volume. The alpha-shape algorithm was considered a good option to represent individual trees whereas the convex-hull was better when representing transversal sections of the row. Nevertheless, the canopy volume and height maps produced by those two methods were similar. The proposed system is useful for site-specific management in orange groves.

  4. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10 5 GeV ∼ mess ∼ 10 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N mess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group

  5. Grief, poetry, and the sweet unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Richard; Jordan, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    This paper explains the healing benefits, the "sweet unexpected" of the title, which results from using poetry to engage trauma, including traumatic grief. The benefits of poetry are presented alongside a discussion of a 22-year-old nonprofit called The Pongo Poetry Project. The sweet unexpected includes the ease with which trauma survivors engage their trauma narrative, the critical insights that emerge in poetry, the beneficial social context of sharing poetry, and the healing benefits of poetry for writers, care providers, and readers alike. The paper concludes by providing resources that can help people use poetry in their own work.

  6. Effect of Liberibacter infection (huanglongbing or "greening" disease) of citrus on orange juice flavor quality by sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth; McCollum, Greg; Manthey, John; Narciso, Jan; Irey, Mike

    2010-05-01

    Some anecdotal reports suggest that infection of citrus trees with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the suspected causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) disease, imparts off flavor to orange juice. It is of interest to the industry to know how Las infection affects juice quality with respect to cultivar, maturity, or processing method. Hamlin, Midsweet, and Valencia oranges were harvested over 2 y from trees that tested negative (Las-) or positive (Las+) for Las from different groves and included normal looking (nonsymptomatic) and symptomatic fruit (small, green, and lopsided) from Las+ trees. In the 1st year, fruit were manually juiced, while in the 2nd year, a commercial process was used. Juice from Las+ trees was compared to juice from Las- trees in difference-from-control tests, and by descriptive analysis. Results showed large variability due to tree, harvest date, and cultivar. Juice from Hamlin Las+ trees tended to be more bitter and sour than its Las- counterpart. In contrast, hand processed Valencia juice from Las+ trees was perceived to have some off-flavor and bitterness compared to control, but the following year, commercially processed Valencia juice from Las+ trees was perceived to be only slightly more sour than juice from Las- trees for the April harvest, and to be sweeter for the June harvest. When juice from individual replicates was pooled to be more representative of a commercial situation, there was no difference between Las+ and Las- juice in Valencia. Trained panel differences were noted for juice from Hamlin Las+ fruit, especially for symptomatic fruit. Assumptions that juice made from oranges harvested from Huanglongbing (from infection with Liberibacter sp.) affected trees is off-flavored appeared to be generally more true for Hamlin juice than for Midsweet or Valencia, especially for Hamlin juice made from symptomatic fruit. For Midsweet and Valencia, flavor differences between juice made from fruit harvested from diseased or

  7. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the Malaysian Orang Asli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, E; Prathap, K

    1976-05-01

    Necropsies were performed on 285 consecutively unclaimed Orang Asli bodies from Gombak Orang Asli Hospital during an eight-year period from May 1967 to April 1975. Of the 25 malignant neoplasms, hepatocellular carcinoma was by far the commonest (36%). The nine patients with this neoplasm had coexistant macronodular cirrhosis. There were 20 cases of cirrhosis; 45% of these had coexistant hepatocellular carcinoma. The 53,000 Orang Aslis living in West Malaysia comprise three tribes, the Negrito, Senoi, and Melayu Asli (Proto Malays). The Sinoi appear to have a high predilection for liver cancer, all our nine cases occurring in this group. These aboriginal people live in the jungles where they practice shifting cultivation and maintain their own dietary and social customs. Detailed studies of their dietary habits may provide a clue to the etiology of liver cancer in these people.

  9. Population structure and genetic bottleneck in sweet cherry estimated with SSRs and the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus

    OpenAIRE

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Tavaud, Muriel; Arunyawat, Uraiwan; Capdeville, Gaëlle; Millan, Muriel; Salin, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Domestication and breeding involve the selection of particular phenotypes, limiting the genomic diversity of the population and creating a bottleneck. These effects can be precisely estimated when the location of domestication is established. Few analyses have focused on understanding the genetic consequences of domestication and breeding in fruit trees. In this study, we aimed to analyse genetic structure and changes in the diversity in sweet cherry Prunus avium L. Result...

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  11. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  12. Influência da soma térmica e da chuva durante o desenvolvimento de laranjas-'Valência' e 'Natal' na relação entre sólidos solúveis e acidez e no índice tecnológico do suco Influence of the accumulated heat unit and rainfall on the ratio and technological index of sweet oranges 'Valência' and 'Natal'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLOVIS ALBERTO VOLPE

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de conhecer a influência que algumas variáveis meteorológicas exercem na razão entre sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável ("ratio" e no índice tecnológico dos frutos da primeira florada das laranjeiras-'Natal' e 'Valência', na região de Bebedouro-SP, mediante a utilização de métodos estatísticos de regressão. Foram utilizados dados de amostragens de rotina para o processamento industrial durante 4 anos, os quais permitiram desenvolver equações de regressão linear e quadrática, com a soma térmica (graus-dia como variável independente, e de regressão múltipla, utilizando graus-dia e chuva como variáveis independentes. A equação de melhor ajuste para o índice tecnológico foi a quadrática, enquanto para o "ratio" a equação linear apresentou o melhor ajuste. A temperatura do ar, representada por graus-dia, foi a variável que exerceu maior influência nos indicadores de qualidade dos frutos.This study aimed to know the influence of some meteorological variables on the ratio and technological index for oranges provided from 'Natal' and 'Valencia' orchards, from field plots, located at Bebedouro - São Paulo - Brazil. The quality indicators, ratio and technological index, were obtained from routine processing plant tests. These parameters were related to the meteorological variables: degree-day and rainfall. In order to determine which independent variable had a stronger influence on the fruit quality indicators, single and multiple linear regressions analysis were applied. The results have shown that technological index is better described by a quadratic function, and ratio is better described by a linear regression, as function of independent variables. The statistical analysis have indicated that the air temperature, expressed by accumulated degree day, is the meteorological aspect that had greater influence in fruit quality indicators.

  13. Sensory evaluation of orange juice concentrate as affected by irradiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoto, M.H.F.; Domarco, R.E.; Walder, J.M.M.; Scarminio, I.S.; Bruns, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of storage temperature and time on orange juice concentrates were studied for samples irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. Samples were stored at 0, 5 and 25C for periods of 1, 30, 60 and 90 days. ''Quantitative Descriptive Analysis'' was used to measure concentrate juice quality. Samples stored for more than one day lost quality as indicated by increases in ratings for ''bitterness'', ''medicinal'' and ''cooked'' attributes. Storage at 0 and 5C seemed to have lesser effect on ''sweetness'', ''oily'', ''acidic'' and ''medicinal'' characteristic than those evaluated for samples stores at 25C. Effect of radiation dose on flavor and aroma attributes depended on storage temperature and time. In most cases, higher doses resulted in lower ''orange'' and higher ''bitter'', ''medicinal'' and ''cooked'' ratings. These results indicated that 2.5 kGy combined with 0 and 5C of storage conditions, provided a feasible approach for preserving juice concentrate

  14. Development of a quantitative approach using Raman spectroscopy for carotenoids determination in processed sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebben, Juliano Antônio; da Silveira Espindola, Juliana; Ranzan, Lucas; Fernandes de Moura, Neusa; Trierweiler, Luciane Ferreira; Trierweiler, Jorge Otávio

    2018-04-15

    The orange-fleshed sweet potato is a vegetable-rich in carotenoids. The thermic treatment for sweet potato processing can decrease the content of these constituents in the foods, lowering their bioactive properties. Raman spectroscopy has been growing as a fast tool to food analysis, especially for detection of low concentrations of carotenoids and to the monitoring of its degradation profile over time. Therefore, in this work were evaluated two methods of drying, hot air and microwaving with rotary drum, combined with quantitative Raman spectroscopy. The results showed carotenoids degradation around 50% for both types of drying processes studied. PCA plot proved the potential of reproducibility of analyses for microwave drying samples. For samples heated with hot air, the best linear correlation achieved was R 2  = 0.90 and by microwave was R 2  = 0.88. Also, partial least squares (PLS) regression models were constructed obtaining a satisfactory coefficient of determination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Sweet Potato Value Chain Analysis Reveals Opportunities for Increased Income and Food Security in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issah Sugri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato has gained prominence due to its ability to adapt to wide production ecologies and yield response to minimal external inputs. Orange-fleshed cultivars in particular have immense potential to improve household income and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the sweet potato value chain (SPVC is not well-developed in many producing countries. The study was conducted in two regions to characterize the production operations as well as identify opportunities to propel the SPVC in Northern Ghana. Data were collected using mixed methods including structured questionnaires via face-to-face interviews. Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT was conducted at multistakeholder platforms with different actors. Gross margin profit and benefit-cost ratios were determined by using six cost variables. Overall, the industry was largely a fresh produce market, targeting food vendors, processors, and direct selling to wholesalers, retailers, and household consumers. The SWOT analysis revealed wide-ranging opportunities including favourable production ecologies, processing options, and insatiable local and international markets. The institutional actors need to network the primary actors to synergistically operate with a collective profit motive. The most prioritized production constraints such as access to seed, cost of chemical fertilizer, short shelf-life, field pests and diseases, and declining soil fertility should be addressed.

  16. ( amala ) made from sweet potato flour ( elubo )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Describing the sensory characteristics of new or modified products is an integral part of food quality control. Sweet potato amala as an important end product could serve as an avenue for utilization of the crop, however, sensory attributes that will influence and ensure consumer acceptability need to be determined.

  17. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  18. THE PERFORMANCE AND PROFITABILITY OF SWEET POTATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of. Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of propagule length and cattle dung application rates on the growth, yield and profitability of sweet potato.

  19. Masking and adaptation of sugar sweetness intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, J.H.A.

    Subjects indicated the sweetness of solutions of sucrose and a mixture of sucrose and sodium chloride by means of magnitude scaling. The adapting effects of sucrose, sodium chloride and a mixture of both substances were investigated. The stimuli were delivered by a flow system to pre-defined tongue

  20. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects

  1. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  2. Radiation balance in the sweet sorghum crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, F.N. de; Mendez, M.E.G.; Martins, S.R.; Verona, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fluxes of incident solar radiation, reflected and net radiation were measured during the growing cicle of two fields of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), cus. BR-501 and BR-503, maintained under convenient irrigation level. Resultant data allowed to estimate the crop albedo as well as the estimates of Rn. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Sweet Potato Ketchup: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ketchup sauce is increasingly a popular condiment used as a flavouring ingredient in fast-food businesses in East African urban areas. It is one of a myriad of products that can be made using sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) roots. We assessed the feasibility, consumer acceptability, and cost of production for a ketchup ...

  4. KOMUNIKASI TERAPEUTIK ORANG TUA DENGAN ANAK FOBIA SPESIFIK

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmaniar Niar

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam rangka memahami kesadaran orang tua terhadap masalah anak-anak dengan fobia spesifik, meneliti bagaimana orang tua mengidentifikasi fobia spesifik, memahami tahapan metode yang digunakan untuk mengatasi orang tua anak yang fobia spesifik, dan menjelaskan alasan orang tua menggunakan teknik komunikasi terapeutik untuk mengatasi fobia spesifik anak. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan kualitatif studi kasus. Objek penelitian ini adalah kom...

  5. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: A review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV, has long been present in Florida but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced and was widely used because of its tolerance of citrus blight, a disease of unknown etiology. Research was directed towards the selection and screening of mild strains of CTV which could protect against sour orange decline strains. Following the introduction of Toxoptera citricida (also known as the brown citrus aphid [BrCA] in 1995 there was a greater concern for maintaining production of existing blocks of citrus on sour orange rootstock. Availability of the CTV genome sequence around the same time as well as molecular characterization of in planta CTV populations led to the selection of mild CTV isolates which when inoculated into existing field trees, extended the productive life of the groves and enabled a more graduate replanting of trees on CTV-tolerant rootstocks. The history of CTV in Florida and the methods developed to select mild isolates for use for mild strain cross protection will be reviewed.

  6. Molecular genetic divergence of orang utan (Pongo pygmaeus) subspecies based on isozyme and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczewski, D N; Goldman, D; O'Brien, S J

    1990-01-01

    The orang utan (Pongo pygmaeus), as currently recognized, includes two geographically separated subspecies: Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, which resides on Borneo, and P. p. abelii, which inhabits Sumatra. At present, there is no known route of gene flow between the two populations except through captive individuals which have been released back into the wild over the last several decades. The two subspecies are differentiated by morphological and behavioral characters, and they can be distinguished by a subspecies specific pericentric chromosomal inversion. Nei-genetic distances were estimated between orang utan subspecies, gorilla, chimpanzee and humans using 44 isozyme loci and using 458 soluble fibroblast proteins which were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Phenetic analysis of both data sets supports the following conclusions: the orang utan subspecies distances are approximately 10 times closer to each other than they are to the African apes, and the orang utan subspecies are approximately as divergent as are the two chimpanzee species. Comparison of the genetic distances to genetic distance estimates done in the same laboratory under identical conditions reveals that the distance between Bornean vs. Sumatran orang utans is 5-10 times the distance measured between several pairs of subspecies including lions, cheetahs, and tigers. Near species level molecular genetic distances between orang utan subspecies would support the separate management of Bornean and Sumatran orang utans as evolutionary significant units (Ryder 1987). Evolutionary topologies were constructed from the distance data using both cladistic and phenetic methods. The majority of resulting trees affirmed previous molecular evolutionary studies that indicated that man and chimpanzee diverged from a common ancestor subsequent to the divergence of gorilla from the common ancestor.

  7. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  8. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and label...

  9. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared...

  10. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  11. Evaluation of micronucleus frequency by acridine orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of micronucleus frequency by acridine orange fluorescent staining in bucccal epithelial cells of oral submucosus fibrosis (OSMF) patients. ... is a high risk precancerous condition in which the connective tissue fibers of the lamina propria and deeper parts of the mucosa becomes stiff with restricted mouth opening.

  12. A 'tiny-orange' spectrometer for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, N.C. da.

    1990-01-01

    An tiny-orange electron spectrometer was designed and constructed using flat permanent magnets and a surface barrier detector. The transmission functions of different system configurations were determined for energies in the 200-1100 KeV range. A mathematical model for the system was developed. (L.C.J.A.)

  13. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  14. Avaliação genética de seleções e híbridos de limões cravo, volkameriano e rugoso como porta-enxertos para laranjeiras Valência na presença da morte súbita dos citros Genetic evaluation of selections and hybrids of rangpur lime, volkamer and rough lemons rootstocks for Valência orange trees in the presence of the citrus sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2013-03-01

    genótipos Rangpur- Lime x Trifoliata 3810 (1648, Rangpur- Lime x Trifoliata 5320 (1644, Limão- Cravo x Citrange- Carrizo (1524, Citrus pennivesiculata (880, Limão- Cravo x Trifoliata- Swingle A (1707, Rangpur- Rose- Lemon 124684 (864, Rangpur- Red -Lime D33.47 (867 e Limão- Cravo -Ipanema (1522. Dentre os 10 melhores genótipos para produção de frutos e para eficiência produtiva, apenas três são coincidentes: Rangpur- Rose -Lime (868, Citrus pennivesiculata (880 e Limão- Cravo-Ipanema (1522.This study aimed to perform the genetic evaluation of fruit production, productive efficiency and growth of Valência orange (Citrus sinensis trees scions grafted on selections and hybrids of Rangpur lime (C. limonia, Volkamer (C. volkameriana and Rough (C. jambhiri lemons rootstocks grown in the presence of the Citrus Sudden Death (CSD. In an affected endemic area for CSD 36 genotypes of these rootstocks were evaluated, represented by five plants each one, measured in five harvests from the third to seventh years after planting. Seven of them showed symptoms of CSD: Rangpur Otaheite orange 12901 (859, Rangpur Red Lime D.33.30 (866, Limão Cravo EEL (871, Rangpur Borneo red (874, Citrus kokhai (1649, Rough lemon 58329 (1655 and Limão Cravo x Swingle B (1695. For selection and breeding purposes, genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated and individual genotypic values were predicted for all traits by the REML/BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure. The analysis of fruit production in five harvests showed selective accuracy of 84.59% revealing that a greater number of harvests is unnecessary. Selection of the best seven genotypes led to a genetic gain of 11.5% for fruit production while the selection of the very best genotype provided an estimated genetic gain of 16.3%. The higher predicted genetic means (>70.0 kg.pl-1 for fruit production were obtained for the genotypes Ipanema Rangpur Lime (1522, Santa Bárbara Red Lime (884

  15. 3D thematic maps of the chemical parameters of orange fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi Gasparin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since orange is the most produced and consumed fruit in Brazil and since its position on the tree may influence its physical and chemical attributes, current assay modeled a three-dimension spatial variability of total soluble solids (TSS and ascorbic acid (AA contents of the fruit in an orange orchard according to fruit position (coordinates x, y and z on the plant and analyzed solar radiation on them. The experiment was conducted in Nova Laranjeiras, Paraná State, Brazil, and analyzed 715 fruit (Monte Parnaso variety from nine trees in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Results showed that high TSS contents were reported in the tree´s peripheral area in the two analyzed thirds due to a high solar radiation. Highest AA rates were reported in the apical third. In the case of quadrants, higher AA levels were found in SE and NE (morning sun with regard to the apical third and in SW and SE (afternoon sun with regard to the basal third. The three-dimension interpolation method displays the spatial variability of the fruit’s physical attributes by three-dimensional maps.

  16. SAP FLOW RESPONSE OF CHERRY TREES TO WEATHER CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. JUHÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. Themain goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded ontodifferent rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to themeteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation ofsolar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiationand sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in closerelation (cubic also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existedbetween sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherrytrees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

  17. Sensory techniques for measuring differences in California navel oranges treated with doses of gamma-radiation below 0.6 Kgray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, M.; Goldstein, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Navel oranges from California were given low post harvest doses of gamma radiation: 0.32-0.37 and 0.52-0.60 KGy (32-37 and 52-60 Krad); they were compared with nonirradiated controls for visual appearance, flavor by mouth, odor, taste and taste after sweetness suppression by gymnema sylvestre. Practiced judges were used as an analytical tool, with minimum cross-sensory interference, while untrained subjects were used to determine whether changes might be distinguished by nonexperts. Differences were found in appearance, flavor, taste and odor although they were less extreme at the lower dose. Untrained judges could discriminate the juice at the higher irradiation level only

  18. Role of protein surface charge in monellin sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei-Feng; Szczepankiewicz, Olga; Thulin, Eva; Linse, Sara; Carey, Jannette

    2009-03-01

    A small number of proteins have the unusual property of tasting intensely sweet. Despite many studies aimed at identifying their sweet taste determinants, the molecular basis of protein sweetness is not fully understood. Recent mutational studies of monellin have implicated positively charged residues in sweetness. In the present work, the effect of overall net charge was investigated using the complementary approach of negative charge alterations. Multiple substitutions of Asp/Asn and Glu/Gln residues radically altered the surface charge of single-chain monellin by removing six negative charges or adding four negative charges. Biophysical characterization using circular dichroism, fluorescence, and two-dimensional NMR demonstrates that the native fold of monellin is preserved in the variant proteins under physiological solution conditions although their stability toward chemical denaturation is altered. A human taste test was employed to determine the sweetness detection threshold of the variants. Removal of negative charges preserves monellin sweetness, whereas added negative charge has a large negative impact on sweetness. Meta-analysis of published charge variants of monellin and other sweet proteins reveals a general trend toward increasing sweetness with increasing positive net charge. Structural mapping of monellin variants identifies a hydrophobic surface predicted to face the receptor where introduced positive or negative charge reduces sweetness, and a polar surface where charges modulate long-range electrostatic complementarity.

  19. Potential impacts of bioprocessing of sweet potato: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Ray, Ramesh C

    2017-02-11

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is among the major food crops in the world and is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical regions particularly in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. Asia and Africa regions account for 95% of the world's production. Among the root and tuber crops grown in the world, sweet potato ranks second after cassava. In previous decades, sweet potato represented food and feed security, now it offers income generation possibilities, through bioprocessing products. Bioprocessing of sweet potato offers novel opportunities to commercialize this crop by developing a number of functional foods and beverages such as sour starch, lacto-pickle, lacto-juice, soy sauce, acidophilus milk, sweet potato curd and yogurt, and alcoholic drinks through either solid state or submerged fermentation. Sweet potato tops, especially leaves are preserved as hay or silage. Sweet potato flour and bagassae are used as substrates for production of microbial protein, enzymes, organic acids, monosodium glutamate, chitosan, etc. Additionally, sweet potato is a promising candidate for production of bioethanol. This review deals with the development of various products from sweet potato by application of bioprocessing technology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review paper on the potential impacts of the sweet potato bioprocessing.

  20. KOMUNIKASI TERAPEUTIK ORANG TUA DENGAN ANAK FOBIA SPESIFIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmaniar Niar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam rangka memahami kesadaran orang tua terhadap masalah anak-anak dengan fobia spesifik, meneliti bagaimana orang tua mengidentifikasi fobia spesifik, memahami tahapan metode yang digunakan untuk mengatasi orang tua anak yang fobia spesifik, dan menjelaskan alasan orang tua menggunakan teknik komunikasi terapeutik untuk mengatasi fobia spesifik anak. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan kualitatif studi kasus. Objek penelitian ini adalah komunikasi terapeutik orang tua. Subyek penelitian adalah lima anak dari orang tua yang memiliki fobia spesifik sebagai sumber informasi utama, yaitu, ibu dari anak-anak fobia spesifik; anak-anak dan kerabat sebagai sumber pendukung informasi. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah adanya tiga model komunikasi terapeutik orang tua dengan anak fobia spesifik: model pengalaman perwakilan, model pengalaman nyata, dan bermain model pengalaman.

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    branched evergreen shrub or small tree (6–7 m) with soft whitish-yellow wood. Branches are numerous and drooping. The leaves are elliptic-lanceolate and somewhat fleshy. Flowers are in loose axillary and terminal much-branched inflorescence, ...

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  3. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stamens are fused into a purple staminal tube that is toothed. Fruit is about 0.5 in. across, nearly globose, generally 5-seeded, green but yellow when ripe, quite smooth at first but wrinkled in drying, remaining long on the tree ajier ripening. The species is widely natural but occasionally cultivated for firewood as it grows very ...

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    quick-growing deciduous tree with a small crown. Branches are covered with dark conical prickles, which fall off after some time. The leaves are compound with three leaflets. Bright red or scarlet flowers which appear following leaf fall are in clusters at branch ends. Birds and bees visit flowers for nectar. Fruit is a cylindrical ...

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    . (6-10m high) evergreen tree with a straight trunk and broad open crown. Leaves are clustered at the end of twigs. They are dark green, broadest near the rounded apex and tapering towards the base with a short stalk. Flowers are greenish or ...

  8. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    size (upto 40 ft. high) deciduous tree with thick trunk, large crown of spreading branches and furrowed greenish-brown bark. (picture shows a young specimen). Leaves are 10-20 in. long, twice compound bearing numerous dark- green ...

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. (THE AMERICAN SUMACH, DIVI-DIVI) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a small unarmed tree reaching up to 10 m in height with a spreading crown. Leaves are alternate and twice compound. The flowers are small, about 0.6 cm (enlarged 5 times here), greenish-yellow, fragrant and appear in dense ...

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diospyros peregrina (Gaertn.) Guercke Syn. Diospyros embryopteris Pers., Diospyros malabarica Desr. (PALE MOON EBONY, RIBER EBONY) of Ebenaceae is a small or mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  14. :Ffowering 'Trees-

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The tree is a host of lac insects which secrete a resinous substance that yields shellac or lac. A ruby-coloured gum known as Bengal Kino is collected from the incisions made in the bark. The wood, resistant to water, is used in water-well work. The seeds are used as anthelmintic and as an antidote for snake-bite.

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading wings. Seeds bear short stiff hairs that cause skin irritation.

  16. Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sterculia foetida L. (INDIAN ALMOND,. JAVA OLIVE) of Sterculiaceae is a tall deciduous tree reaching a height of 20 m with faintly ridged grey bark. The bole reaches up to 2m in girth. Branches are reddish, usually horizontal. Leaves are large, palmately compound (5–7 leaflets) and clustered at the branch ends. Flowers ...

  18. Orange County Photovoltaic Project & Educational COmponent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Government, FL (United States)

    2016-02-12

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the projects implemented, utilizing Department of Energy grant funds, to support the use and understanding of renewable energy in Orange County, Florida and the Greater Orlando Area. Orange County is located in the State of Florida and is most popularly referred to as Orlando. The greater Orlando area’s current population is 1,225,267 and in 2015 was the first destination to surpass 60 million visitors. Orange County utilized grant funds to add to the growing demand for access to charging stations by installing one level 2 dual NovaCharge CT4021 electric vehicle charging station at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. The charging station is considered a “smart” charger connected to a central network operated by a third party. Data collected includes the number of charging sessions, session start and end times, the electricity usage, greenhouse gases saved and other pertinent data used for reporting purposes. Orange County continues to support the use of electric vehicles in Metro Orlando and this project continues to bring awareness to our public regarding using alternative vehicles. Additionally, we offer all visitors to the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center free charges for their electric vehicles 24 hours a day. Since the operation of the charging station there have been 52 unique driver users, a total of 532.2258 kg of greenhouse gas savings and 159.03 gallons of gasoline savings. The installation of the additional electric vehicle charging station is part of a county-wide goal of promoting implementation of renewable energy technologies as well as supporting the use of electric vehicles including the Drive Electric Orlando & Florida programs. http://driveelectricorlando.com/ & ; http://www.driveelectricflorida.org/ . Grant funds were also used for Outreach and Educational efforts. Educational efforts about renewable energy were accomplished through

  19. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seanna Hewitt

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm. Keywords: Polymorphisms, Prunus avium, Next-generation sequencing, Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP, Genetic diversity, SNParray, Reduced representation sequencing, Whole genome sequencing (WGS

  20. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  1. Structure-sweetness relationship in egg white lysozyme: role of lysine and arginine residues on the elicitation of lysozyme sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ide, Nobuyuki; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2005-10-01

    Lysozyme is one of the sweet-tasting proteins. To clarify the structure-sweetness relationship and the basicity-sweetness relationship in lysozyme, we have generated lysozyme mutants with Pichia systems. Alanine substitution of lysine residues demonstrated that two out of six lysine residues, Lys13 and Lys96, are required for lysozyme sweetness, while the remaining four lysine residues do not play a significant role in the perception of sweetness. Arginine substitution of lysine residues revealed that the basicity, but not the shape, of the side chain plays a significant role in sweetness. Single alanine substitutions of arginine residues showed that three arginine residues, Arg14, Arg21, and Arg73, play significant roles in lysozyme sweetness, whereas Arg45, Arg68, Arg125 and chemical modification by 1,2-cyclohexanedione did not affect sweetness. From investigation of the charge-specific mutations, we found that the basicity of a broad surface region formed by five positively charged residues, Lys13, Lys96, Arg14, Arg21, and Arg73, is required for lysozyme sweetness. Differences in the threshold values among sweet-tasting proteins might be caused by the broadness and/or the density of charged residues on the protein surface.

  2. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-01-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in 14 C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized 14 C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the 14 C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole

  3. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ORANGE SEED DRYING KINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of orange seeds representing waste products from juice processing was studied in the temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and drying velocities of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 m/s. Experimental drying kinetics of orange seeds were obtained using a convective air forced dryer. Three thin-layer models: Page model, Lewis model, and the Henderson-Pabis model and the diffusive model were used to predict the drying curves. The Henderson-Pabis and the diffusive models show the best fitting performance and statistical evaluations. Moreover, the temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity followed an Arrhenius relationship, and the activation energies ranging from 16.174 to 16.842 kJ/mol

  4. Orange roughy: their age unlocked by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, G.; Ritz, D.

    1992-01-01

    A radiometric method was developed and applied to try and solve the question of age for orange roughy, currently the primary target species in the south east trawl fishery. The method involved measuring the natural levels of the radioactive elements radium-226 and lead-210 present in the otolith of the fish. Radium-226 is chemically similar to calcium and, as such, is taken up by fish and laid-down in their otoliths as the fish grows. It was found that orange roughy is a very slow growing and long-lived species with fish 38-40 cm SL ranging between 77 and 149 years old. The results also indicated that maturity is around 32 years which occurs at about 32 cm SL. 4 refs., 1 tab., ills

  5. Modeling mini-orange electron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canzian da Silva, Nelson; Dietzsch, Olacio

    1994-01-01

    A method for calculating the transmission of mini-orange electron spectrometers is presented. The method makes use of the analytical solution for the magnetic field of a plane magnet in the calculation of the spectrometer spatial field distribution by superimposing the fields of the several magnets that compose the system. Electron trajectories through the spectrometer are integrated numerically in a Monte Carlo calculation and the transmission of the spectrometer as a function of the electron energy is evaluated. A six-magnet mini-orange spectrometer was built and its transmission functions for several distances from source to detector were measured and compared to the calculations. The overall agreement is found to be good. The method is quite general and can be applied to the design of systems composed of plane magnets, predicting their performance before assembling them. ((orig.))

  6. Sweet and bitter taste perception of women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between...... pregnant and nonpregnant women. Methods: Forty-six pregnant and 45 nonpregnant women evaluated taste intensity and liking of five samples of each of four different products: two sweet (cake and apple + berry juice) and two bitter (salad and grapefruit juice). Product samples varied in sweetness...... and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However...

  7. Association of Sweet's Syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Barton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet's syndrome is an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis which usually presents as an idiopathic disorder but can also be drug induced, associated with hematopoetic malignancies and myelodysplastic disorders, and more, infrequently, observed in autoimmune disorders. Sweet's syndrome has been reported in three cases of neonatal lupus, three cases of hydralazine-induced lupus in adults, and in nine pediatric and adult systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients. We describe three additional adult cases of Sweet's associated with SLE and provide a focused review on nondrug-induced, nonneonatal SLE and Sweet's. In two of three new cases, as in the majority of prior cases, the skin rash of Sweet's paralleled underlying SLE disease activity. The pathogenesis of Sweet's remains elusive, but evidence suggests that cytokine dysregulation may be central to the clinical and pathological changes in this condition, as well as in SLE. Further research is needed to define the exact relationship between the two conditions.

  8. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  9. Call cultures in orang-utans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects. Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval, individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the potential presence of 'call cultures' and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might

  10. Breeding biology of the European Blackbird Turdus merula in orange orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zeraoula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During two successive years (2013–2014, we studied the breeding ecology of the European Blackbird Turdus merula in Guelma province, north-east of Algeria. The study was carried out in orange orchards of the region. We investigated nest placement in the orange trees and determined the factors of reproductive failure at this study area. Nests were placed at low height (mean ± SD = 1.42 ± 0.04 m and located near the trunk (mean ± SD = 0.61 ± 0.04 m. The breeding season occurred between mid-May and mid-June and the peak of egg laying took place during the first half of May. The mean clutch size was 2.96 ± 0.05, density of breeding pairs was 0.83 ± 0.30 p/ha. The breeding success reported in the present study was higher than that recorded in other studies. Predation was the leading cause of nest failure of the population under investigation. The present study shows that the orange orchards appear to be the preferred breeding area for Blackbird population.

  11. Regular consumption of fresh orange juice increases human skin carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenti, Roberto; Perrone, Anna; Livrea, Maria Antonietta; Lo Bianco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a good indicator of antioxidant status in the body. This study aimed to determine whether regular consumption of orange juice could increase dermal carotenoids. Two types of orange juice, obtained from regularly (CI) and partially (PRD) irrigated trees, were tested to reveal any possible association between juice and dermal carotenoids. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, and total carotenoids were quantified in the juice; skin carotenoid score (SCS) was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Carotenoid content was 7.3% higher in PRD than in CI juice, inducing no difference in SCS. In a first trial with daily juice intakes for 25 days, SCS increased linearly (10%) in the individual with higher initial SCS, and exponentially (15%) in the individual with lower initial SCS. In a second trial, SCS showed a 6.5% increase after 18 days of drinking juice every other day, but returned to initial values three days after last intake. Skin carotenoids can be increased by regular consumption of fresh orange juice, while their persistence may depend on the accumulation level, environmental conditions or living habits.

  12. Molecular mechanisms for sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Kusakabe, Yuko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Seiji; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2014-09-12

    Gymnemic acids are triterpene glycosides that selectively suppress taste responses to various sweet substances in humans but not in mice. This sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids is diminished by rinsing the tongue with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids and the interaction between gymnemic acids versus sweet taste receptor and/or γ-CD. To investigate whether gymnemic acids directly interact with human (h) sweet receptor hT1R2 + hT1R3, we used the sweet receptor T1R2 + T1R3 assay in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Similar to previous studies in humans and mice, gymnemic acids (100 μg/ml) inhibited the [Ca(2+)]i responses to sweet compounds in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing hT1R2 + hT1R3 but not in those expressing the mouse (m) sweet receptor mT1R2 + mT1R3. The effect of gymnemic acids rapidly disappeared after rinsing the HEK293 cells with γ-CD. Using mixed species pairings of human and mouse sweet receptor subunits and chimeras, we determined that the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 was mainly required for the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids. Directed mutagenesis in the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 revealed that the interaction site for gymnemic acids shared the amino acid residues that determined the sensitivity to another sweet antagonist, lactisole. Glucuronic acid, which is the common structure of gymnemic acids, also reduced sensitivity to sweet compounds. In our models, gymnemic acids were predicted to dock to a binding pocket within the transmembrane domain of hT1R3. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Experimental study on bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Xiao Guoqing; Ma Liang; Gao Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a substitute for food supplies, sweet sorghum juice with high grade has demonstrated out- standing advantage in fermentation. To obtain the optimized fermentation conditions, the growth, the bio- mass of bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice and total residual sugar were investigated in the paper. The fermentation was performed and optimized in a 10-100 1 bio-reactor. The results show that the application of sweet sorghum juice in bread yeast production is very potential. (authors)

  14. A workshop on 'Dietary sweetness-Is it an issue?'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, A; Higgins, K; McGale, L; Schwartz, C; Stamataki, N S; Beauchamp, G K; Bonnema, A; Dussort, P; Gibson, S; de Graaf, C; Halford, J C G; Marsaux, C F M; Mattes, R D; McLaughlin, J; Mela, D J; Nicklaus, S; Rogers, P J; Macdonald, I A

    2017-12-06

    This report summarises a workshop convened by ILSI Europe on 3rd and 4th April 2017 to discuss the issue of dietary sweetness. The objectives were to understand the roles of sweetness in the diet; establish whether exposure to sweetness affects diet quality and energy intake; and consider whether sweetness per se affects health. Although there may be evidence for tracking of intake of some sweet components of the diet through childhood, evidence for tracking of whole diet sweetness, or through other stages of maturity are lacking. The evidence to date does not support adverse effects of sweetness on diet quality or energy intake, except where sweet food choices increase intake of free sugars. There is some evidence for improvements in diet quality and reduced energy intake where sweetness without calories replaces sweetness with calories. There is a need to understand the physiological and metabolic relevance of sweet taste receptors on the tongue, in the gut and elsewhere in the body, as well as possible differentiation in the effects of sustained consumption of individual sweeteners. Despite a plethora of studies, there is no consistent evidence for an association of sweetness sensitivity/preference with obesity or type 2 diabetes. A multifaceted integrated approach, characterising nutritive and sensory aspects of the whole diet or dietary patterns, may be more valuable in providing contextual insight. The outcomes of the workshop could be used as a scientific basis to inform the expert community and create more useful dialogue among health care professionals.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 06 December 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.296.

  15. Confirmatory Tree Sampling for Tritium in Trees at the Salmon Site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The sampling was conducted on April 20, 21, and 22, 2010. DOE acquired 36 samples for analysis, approximately 10 percent of the total number of samples the Mississippi Forestry Commission acquired. The plan was to sample trees that the Mississippi Forestry Commission also sampled, so that a tree-by-tree comparison of analysis results could be made. The Mississippi Forestry Commission provided DOE with latitude and longitude coordinates, determined by a global positioning system (GPS), for each sampled tree. The Mississippi Forestry Commission also placed a blaze-orange number on each sampled tree. DOE used a GPS unit to assist in locating trees for sampling. DOE acquired one sample from an off-site location to have a reference for comparison to on-site results if necessary. The other 35 samples were acquired on site, for a total of 36 samples. Figure 1 shows the sampling locations, the sample identifiers DOE assigned, and the corresponding tree numbers the Mississippi Forestry Commission assigned.

  16. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2010-03-09

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 microM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 microM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 microM) and SE-3 (200 microM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 microM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 microM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste.

  17. Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome in a Child without Underlying Systemic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Seung Dohn; Ko, Hye Soo; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Kang, Min Ji; Byun, Ji Won; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeonghyun

    2017-10-01

    Sweet syndrome (acute, febrile, neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterized by the acute onset of an eruption of painful nodules or erythematous or violaceous plaques on the limbs, face and neck. These symptoms are accompanied by fever. The diagnostic features include histopathological findings of dermal neutrophilic infiltration without leukocytoclastic vasculitis or peripheral blood leukocytosis. Sweet syndrome is associated with infection, malignancies, autoimmune disease, pregnancy, and drugs. Patients with Sweet syndrome demonstrate a complete and rapid response to systemic steroid administration. Recently, a distinct variant of Sweet syndrome was reported, termed "histiocytoid Sweet syndrome", in which the infiltration of myeloperoxidase-positive histiocytoid mononuclear cells are observed (in contrast to the infiltration of neutrophils). The other clinical features are similar to those of classic Sweet syndrome. Pediatric Sweet syndrome is uncommon, and the histiocytoid type is even rarer. To date, four cases of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome have been reported in children. Herein, we describe a case of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome in an otherwise healthy 10-year-old boy with no underlying systemic disease in whom non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug treatment was successful.

  18. Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Taizo

    2007-01-01

    Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)

  19. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5–41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5–12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2–T1R3 transduction cascade. PMID:25963040

  20. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5-41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5-12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2-T1R3 transduction cascade. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Composição inorgânica das fôlhas de laranjeira baianinha, com referência à época de amostragem e adubação química Inorganic composition of baianinha orange leaves as referred to sampling dates and fertilizer practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho representa a primeira contribuição ao estudo da diagnose foliar dos citros, para as nossas condições. São estudadas as variações nos teores de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio e magnésio nas fôlhas de laranjeira baianinha enxertada sôbre cavalo de laranja caipira (Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, de um experimento de adubação iniciado em 1947 na Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico, e apresentadas as tendências das curvas de concentração para êsses elementos. Além disso, o estudo em aprêço teve por objetivo verificar os efeitos da adubação nítrogenada, fosfatada e potássica sôbre o nível daqueles constituintes, nas fôlhas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a composição química das fôlhas foi sensivelmente modificada com a idade das mesmas e pela adubação.The results reported herein represent the first step in diagnosing the nutrient status of citrus trees by means of foliar analysis, for the average conditions of the State of São Paulo. A study was made concerning the seasonal variation in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium levels of spring-cycle Baianinha orange leaves. The trees were budded on sweet orange rootstock (Citrus sinensis Osbeck in a foctorial fertilizer experiment started in 1947. The mineral composition changed with the age of leaves. Generally the N, P, K, and Mg contents decreased, while Ca increased fast in the young leaves and remained without great variation until the end of the cycle. Leaves 3 to 6 and 10 months old are suitable for sampling if referred to respective standards. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels in leaves increased linearly with fertilizer application, while potassium increases were due only to o single dosis. Application of fertilizer containing nitrogen shows o tendency to reduce the levels of P and K, and to increase Mg in the leaves. The simple superphosphate applied decreased the levels of N and K, and

  2. UPAYA ORANG TUA DALAM MEMBIMBING REMAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzdalifah M. Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hilangnya peran orang tua menjadi penyebab timbulnya serius kenakalan remaja.  Kurangnya pemahaman orang tua tentang kebutuhan yang harus  dipenuhi oleh  remaja menyebabkan kekecewaan atau  frustrasi.   Makalah ini  akan  memberikan penjelasan  tentang  remaja harus  dipenuhi  oleh  orang  tua sehingga dapat membimbing pemuda menjadi seorang pria yang bermanfaat. Ada beberapa hal yang berkaitan dengan kontrol orang tua, yaitu: Dalam menentukan standar dari tingkah laku yang dituju, bagaimana ketepatan dan kejelasan peraturan yang dibuat (firmness. Jika norma – norma atau peraturan yang diberikan ingin efektif, maka peraturan tersebut haruslah dimengerti,  jelas dan konsisten dalam pelaksanaannya, standar yang ditentukan harus disesuaikan dengan tingkatan usia dengan kondisi seperti ini anak akan terdorong maju untuk menguasai sesuatu tujuan. Peraturan yang diiringi penjelasan akan mampu membentuk kontrol yang bersifat intrinsik, penjelasan peraturan pada anak tidak saja hanya berbicara pada anak tapi juga mendengarkan reaksi dari anak, memperkuat proses belajar, pengarahan  dan percayaan, hadiah dan hukuman. Dengan demikian kontrol menjadi hal penting dari orang tua pada remaja dalam mengatasi permasalahan remaja yang berkaitan dengan kebutuhan remaja untuk diberi kebebasan. Namun tidak hanya remaja yang memiliki permasalahan, orang tua juga memiliki permasalahan dengan remaja.   Kata Kunci: Upaya Orang Tua, Bimbingan, Belajar Anak EFFORTS  IN GUIDING YOUNG PARENTS.  The  loss of the role of parents becomes a serious cause of juvenile delinquency. Lack of understanding of parents about the needs that must be met by adolescents  cause  disappointment   or frustration.  This  paper  will provide an explanation  of adolescents must be met by the parents so as to guide the youth to be a useful man. There are several issues related to parental controls, namely: In determining the standard of behavior that is intended,

  3. High-efficiency orange-red organic electrophosphorescent devices with excellent operational stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pang-Chi; Chang, Meng-Hao; Lin, Jin-Sheng; Tseng, Mei-Rurng

    2017-08-01

    A novel orange-red phosphorescent iridium complex PR-24 has been successfully synthesized and characterized. By using this material, we demonstrated the high-efficiency OLED devices. The best efficiency was achieved for a device using PR-24 as the dopant, exhibiting 25.8 cd/A current efficiency, 20.0 lm/W power efficiency and 15.9% EQE at 1000 cd/m2 . Moreover, when using the optimized co-host configuration, PR-24 shows a remarkable lifetime T50 of 211,000 h for an initial luminance of 1000 nits .

  4. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Gaveau, David; Abram, Nicola; Ancrenaz, Marc; Baccini, Alessandro; Brend, Stephen; Curran, Lisa; Delgado, Roberto A; Erman, Andi; Fredriksson, Gabriella M; Goossens, Benoit; Husson, Simon J; Lackman, Isabelle; Marshall, Andrew J; Naomi, Anita; Molidena, Elis; Nardiyono; Nurcahyo, Anton; Odom, Kisar; Panda, Adventus; Purnomo; Rafiastanto, Andjar; Ratnasari, Dessy; Santana, Adi H; Sapari, Imam; van Schaik, Carel P; Sihite, Jamartin; Spehar, Stephanie; Santoso, Eddy; Suyoko, Amat; Tiju, Albertus; Usher, Graham; Atmoko, Sri Suci Utami; Willems, Erik P; Meijaard, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions) is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km(2) (21% of Borneo's landmass) and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic gains, rather than

  5. Understanding the Impacts of Land-Use Policies on a Threatened Species: Is There a Future for the Bornean Orang-utan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A.; Gaveau, David; Abram, Nicola; Ancrenaz, Marc; Baccini, Alessandro; Brend, Stephen; Curran, Lisa; Delgado, Roberto A.; Erman, Andi; Fredriksson, Gabriella M.; Goossens, Benoit; Husson, Simon J.; Lackman, Isabelle; Marshall, Andrew J.; Naomi, Anita; Molidena, Elis; Nardiyono; Nurcahyo, Anton; Odom, Kisar; Panda, Adventus; Purnomo; Rafiastanto, Andjar; Ratnasari, Dessy; Santana, Adi H.; Sapari, Imam; van Schaik, Carel P.; Sihite, Jamartin; Spehar, Stephanie; Santoso, Eddy; Suyoko, Amat; Tiju, Albertus; Usher, Graham; Atmoko, Sri Suci Utami; Willems, Erik P.; Meijaard, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions) is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km2 (21% of Borneo's landmass) and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic gains, rather than by

  6. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km(2 (21% of Borneo's landmass and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic

  7. Efeitos de algumas práticas de cultivo do solo, na nutrição mineral dos citros Effect of soil management practices on mineral nutrition of citrus tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes sistemas de cultivo do solo no pomar cítrico foram comparados no presente trabalho, por meio da análise foliar. Os tratamentos estudados fazem parte de um experimento com plantas da variedade Hamlin sôbre laranjeira caipira (Citrus sinensis Osbeck instalodo no Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico. Amostras de fôlhas do ciclo vegetativo da primavera foram colhidas a intervalos regulares, desde outubro de 1957 a março de 1959 e analisadas para os seguintes elementos: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe e Mn. São apresentados os tendências das curvas de concentração dos elementos nutritivos nas fôlhas e os resultados de produção correspondentes a quatro onos de colheita. Como observação mais importante foi verificado que a cobertura morta de capim e a adubação verde de mucuna aumentaram de modo sensível o teor de fósforo nas fôlhas dos citros. As produções de laranja acompanharam a ordem dos níveis dêsse elemento na folhagem.The influence of several soil management systems on the mineral nutrition and production of citrus trees was studied. This study was mode in an experimental orchard installed in 1949 with Hamlin orange on sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck. Differential treatments were started in 1953. Since 1956 all plots received uniform fertilizer applications and liming. The cultural treatments employed are as follows: clean cultivation with herbicide; clean cultivation plus a cover crop of velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Pip. & Trac. planted in the spring and cut down in the fall; clean cultivation plus a cover crop of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. planted in the spring and cut down in the fall; molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora Béauv. mulch; and superficial soil plowing. Leaf samples of the spring cycle were collected from each treatment at regular intervals, from October, 1957 to March, 1959, and analysed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn. The seasonal variations in mineral

  8. Surface tree languages and parallel derivation trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost

    1976-01-01

    The surface tree languages obtained by top-down finite state transformation of monadic trees are exactly the frontier-preserving homomorphic images of sets of derivation trees of ETOL systems. The corresponding class of tree transformation languages is therefore equal to the class of ETOL languages.

  9. Genome-wide assessment of population structure and genetic diversity and development of a core germplasm set for sweet potato based on specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenjin; Wang, Lianjun; Lei, Jian; Chai, Shasha; Liu, Yi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xinsun; Jiao, Chunhai

    2017-01-01

    Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is an important food crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, no genome-wide assessment of the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been reported to date. In the present study, the population structure and genetic diversity of 197 sweet potato accessions most of which were from China were assessed using 62,363 SNPs. A model-based structure analysis divided the accessions into three groups: group 1, group 2 and group 3. The genetic relationships among the accessions were evaluated using a phylogenetic tree, which clustered all the accessions into three major groups. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the accessions were distributed according to their population structure. The mean genetic distance among accessions ranged from 0.290 for group 1 to 0.311 for group 3, and the mean polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.232 for group 1 to 0.251 for group 3. The mean minor allele frequency (MAF) ranged from 0.207 for group 1 to 0.222 for group 3. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the maximum diversity was within accessions (89.569%). Using CoreHunter software, a core set of 39 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 19.8% of the total collection. The core germplasm set of sweet potato developed will be a valuable resource for future sweet potato improvement strategies.

  10. The Plasma Membrane-Localized Sucrose Transporter IbSWEET10 Contributes to the Resistance of Sweet Potato to Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Yannan; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-01

    SWEET (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins, a novel family of sugar transporters, mediate the diffusion of sugars across cell membranes and acts as key players in sucrose phloem loading. Manipulation of SWEET genes in plants leads to various effects on resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses due to disruption of sugar efflux and changes in sugar distribution. In this study, a member of the SWEET gene family, IbSWEET10 , was cloned from the sweet potato line ND98. mRNA expression analysis in sweet potato and promoter β-Glucuronidase analysis in Arabidopsis showed that IbSWEET10 is highly expressed in leaves, especially in vascular tissue. Transient expression in tobacco epidermal cells revealed plasma membrane localization of IbSWEET10, and heterologous expression assays in yeast indicated that IbSWEET10 encodes a sucrose transporter. The expression level of IbSWEET10 was significantly up-regulated in sweet potato infected with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. batatas. Further characterization revealed IbSWEET10 -overexpressing sweet potato lines to be more resistant to F. oxysporum , exhibiting better growth after infection compared with the control; conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) lines showed the opposite results. Additionally, the sugar content of IbSWEET10 -overexpression sweet potato was significantly reduced, whereas that in RNAi plants was significantly increased compared with the control. Therefore, we suggest that the reduction in sugar content caused by IbSWEET10 overexpression is the major reason for the enhanced F. oxysporum resistance of the transgenic plants. This is the first report that the IbSWEET10 transporter contributes to the resistance of sweet potato to F. oxysporum . The IbSWEET10 gene has the great potential to be used for improving the resistance to F. oxysporum in sweet potato and other plants.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of closely related potyviruses infecting sweet potato determined by genomic characterization of Sweet potato virus G and Sweet potato virus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Xu, Donglin; Abad, Jorge; Li, Ruhui

    2012-08-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) were determined to be 10,800 and 10,731 nucleotides, respectively, excluding the 3'-poly(A) tail. Their genomic organizations are typical of potyviruses, encoding a polyprotein which is likely cleaved into 10 mature proteins by three viral proteinases. Conserved motifs of orthologous proteins of viruses in the genus Potyvirus are found in corresponding positions of both viruses. Pairwise comparisons of individual protein sequences of the two viruses with those of 78 other potyviruses show that P1 protein and coat protein (CP) of both viruses are significantly large, with the SPVG CP as the largest among the all the known species of the genus Potyvirus. The extended N-terminal region of the P1 protein is conserved in the potyviruses and ipomovirus infecting sweet potato. A novel ORF, PISPO, is identified within the P1 region of SPVG, SPV2, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), and Sweet potato virus C (SPVC). The C-terminal half of CP is highly conserved among SPFMV, SPVC, SPVG, SPV2, and Sweet potato virus-Zimbabwe. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced CP amino acid sequences supports the view that these five viruses are grouped together in a SPFMV lineage. The analysis also reveals that Sweet potato virus Y and Ipomoea vein mosaic virus are grouped with SPV2 as one species, and these two viruses should be consolidated with SPV2.

  12. Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features of Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Landa, Victoria; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro María; Santos-Briz, Angel; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Alegre, Victor; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

    2017-07-01

    Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is a rare histopathologic variant of Sweet syndrome. The nature of the histiocytoid infiltrate has generated considerable controversy in the literature. The main goal of this study was to conduct a comprehensive overview of the immunohistochemical phenotype of the infiltrate in histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. We also analyze whether this variant of Sweet syndrome is more frequently associated with hematologic malignancies than classic Sweet syndrome. This is a retrospective case series study of the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of 33 patients with a clinicopathologic diagnosis of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was conducted in the dermatology departments of 5 university hospitals and a private laboratory of dermatopathology. The clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and follow-up features of 33 patients with histiocytoid Sweet syndrome were analyzed. In some cases, cytogenetic studies of the dermal infiltrate were also performed. We compare our findings with those of the literature. The dermal infiltrate from the 33 study patients (20 female; median age, 49 years; age range, 5-93 years; and 13 male; median age, 42 years; age range, 4-76 years) was mainly composed of myeloperoxidase-positive immature myelomonocytic cells with histiocytoid morphology. No cytogenetic anomalies were found in the infiltrate except in 1 case in which neoplastic cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia were intermingled with the cells of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. Authentic histiocytes were also found in most cases, with a mature immunoprofile, but they appeared to be a minor component of the infiltrate. Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was not more frequently related with hematologic malignancies than classic neutrophilic Sweet syndrome. The dermal infiltrate of cutaneous lesions of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is composed mostly of immature cells of myeloid lineage. This infiltrate should not be interpreted as leukemia cutis.

  13. EFEKTIVITAS AROMATERAPI BITTER ORANGE TERHADAP NYERI POST PARTUM SECTIO CAESAREA

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Utami

    2016-01-01

    Surgery that causes severe pain physiological response as compared to a normal delivery was called sectio caesarea. The alternative to reduce pain with bitter orange aroma therapy. Bitter orange aroma therapy is to give the effect of reducing the muscle tensions and stress the body as a whole with the goal of keeping the body and mind into a relaxed. This research was aimed to explore the effectiveness of bitter orange aroma therapy for reduction pain in post partum sectio caesarea. The metho...

  14. The sweet Christmas rash (case series)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, Mette; Nepper-Christensen, Steen; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2013-01-01

    Christmas tree hypersensitivity is a rare condition, which has so far obtained scarce attention in the medical literature. We present two clinical cases of hypersensitivity associated with Christmas tree exposure, a 51-year-old woman with allergic contact dermatitis and a 41-year-old man with all...

  15. The sweet Christmas rash (case series)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, Mette; Nepper-Christensen, Steen; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2013-01-01

    with allergic rhinitis. The female patient had a positive patch test reaction to colophony, and the male patient had a positive skin prick test reaction to alternaria mould. Both were successfully advised to avoid prolonged exposure to Christmas trees and buy artificial trees for Christmas....

  16. Sweet eating: a definition and the development of the Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Margot; Hörchner, Rogier; Wijtsma, Anneke; Bourhim, Noufissa; Willemsen, Dascha; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients who are defined as so-called sweet eaters have more difficulties to lose weight and to maintain weight loss after both conservative treatment and restrictive bariatric surgery, such as gastric banding. There is, however, no agreement on the definition of

  17. Field Evaluation Of Four Sweet Potato Cultivars For Yield And Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four sweet potato cultivars (TIS 87/0087, TIS 8441, TIS 2532 OP. 1. 13 and Ex Igbariam) were evaluated for yield and damage of C. puncticollis during the period June to October in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Plants were ...

  18. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  19. Ukraine's Orange Revolution and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2005-01-01

    In January 2005, Viktor Yushchenko became Ukraine's new President, after massive demonstrations helped to overturn the former regime's electoral fraud, in what has been dubbed the "Orange Revolution...

  20. Extraction of DNA from orange juice, and detection of bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinhe; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Liao, Hui-Ling; Zhao, Wei; Kostenyuk, Igor; Burns, Jacqueline; Irey, Mike

    2013-10-02

    Orange juice processed from Huanglongbing (HLB) affected fruit is often associated with bitter taste and/or off-flavor. HLB disease in Florida is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), a phloem-limited bacterium. The current standard to confirm CLas for citrus trees is to take samples from midribs of leaves, which are rich in phloem tissues, and use a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test to detect the 16S rDNA gene of CLas. It is extremely difficult to detect CLas in orange juice because of the low CLas population, high sugar and pectin concentration, low pH, and possible existence of an inhibitor to DNA amplification. The objective of this research was to improve extraction of DNA from orange juice and detection of CLas by qPCR. Homogenization using a sonicator increased DNA yield by 86% in comparison to mortar and pestle extraction. It is difficult to separate DNA from pectin; however, DNA was successfully extracted by treating the juice with pectinase. Application of an elution column successfully removed the unidentified inhibitor to DNA amplification. This work provided a protocol to extract DNA from whole orange juice and detect CLas in HLB-affected fruit.

  1. Trees are good, but…

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  2. Rumah Orang Huaulu, Pulau Seram Maluku Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Wattimena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available House of Huaulu, Seram Island in Central Mollucas district has several aspects related to the pattern of the building, the building materials used, as well as the pattern of worked. The purpose of this researches is to known and understand what kind of aspects are contained in the house of Huaulu People. The method uses ethnoarcheology approach, the data collection techniques interview, observation and literature study. The analysis was performed by descriptive follow aspects of ethnoarchaeology. The results showed that the House of Huaulu People, has two aspects. First aspect of knowledge covering the level of understanding in working on the house, the house view of the cosmos, as well as the art of decorative patterns that interpret the cultural social life. Second, the technological aspect is the level of knowledge and understanding of the tools and materials used for the construction of the house. Rumah Orang Huaulu, Pulau Seram Kabupaten Maluku Tengah memiliki beberapa aspek yang terkait dengan pola bangunan, bahan bangunan yang digunakan, serta pola pengerjaannya.Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui dan memahami aspek-aspek apa saja yang terdapat pada rumah Orang Huaulu. Metode menggunakan  pendekatan etnoarkeologi, dengan teknik pengumpulan data wawancara, observasi dan studi kepustakaan. Analisis dilakukan secara deskriptif mengikuti aspek-aspek dalam Etnoarkeologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa Rumah Orang Huaulu memiliki dua aspek. Pertama aspek pengetahuan meliputi tingkat pemahaman dalam mengerjakan rumah, pandangan terhadap kosmos rumah, serta seni pola hias yang menginterprestasikan kehidupan sosial budayanya. Kedua, Aspek teknologi yaitu tingkat pengetahuan dan pemahaman tentang alat dan bahan yang digunakan untuk pengerjaan rumah.

  3. Utilization of sweet potato starches and flours as composites with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Also, blends of wheat and sweet potato starch were developed in the ratios 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Whole sweet potato flour and starch were also included where 100% wheat flour was used as control or ...

  4. Determinants of Sweet Potato Value Addition among Smallholder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sweet potato harvested significantly increased farmers' decision to add value by 0.494 units and 0.003 units respectively. Furthermore ... Key words: Sweet potato, value addition, Heckman two-stage model, Kwara State, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... governments to focus on the whole value chain from production to markets.

  5. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  6. Resource Use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Offa and Oyun local government areas of Kwara State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from one hundred sweet potato farmers who were selected from the two local government areas during the 2003/2004 farming season. The data was ...

  7. Profitability of sweet potato production in derived savannah zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined profitability of sweet potato production in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling technique; analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques. The result revealed that ...

  8. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  9. Functional and pasting properties of cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and sweet potato starch mixtures at different ratios were investigated. Starches from four different cassava genotypes ('Adehye', AFS048, 'Bankye Botan' and OFF146) and one local sweet potato were used for the study. The swelling volume and swelling power of ...

  10. ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) fed processed sweet potato ( Ipomea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...

  11. Evolution and Stress Responses of Gossypium hirsutum SWEET Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ren, Zhongying; Wang, Zhenyu; Sun, Kuan; Pei, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yangai; He, Kunlun; Zhang, Fei; Song, Chengxiang; Zhou, Xiaojian; Zhang, Wensheng; Ma, Xiongfeng; Yang, Daigang

    2018-03-08

    The SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporters) proteins are sugar efflux transporters containing the MtN3_saliva domain, which affects plant development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. These proteins have not been functionally characterized in the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum , which is a widely cultivated cotton species. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the cotton SWEET gene family. A total of 55 putative G. hirsutum SWEET genes were identified. The GhSWEET genes were classified into four clades based on a phylogenetic analysis and on the examination of gene structural features. Moreover, chromosomal localization and an analysis of homologous genes in Gossypium arboreum , Gossypium raimondii , and G. hirsutum suggested that a whole-genome duplication, several tandem duplications, and a polyploidy event contributed to the expansion of the cotton SWEET gene family, especially in Clade III and IV. Analyses of cis -acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions, expression profiles, and artificial selection revealed that the GhSWEET genes were likely involved in cotton developmental processes and responses to diverse stresses. These findings may clarify the evolution of G. hirsutum SWEET gene family and may provide a foundation for future functional studies of SWEET proteins regarding cotton development and responses to abiotic stresses.

  12. Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Sweet's Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Antonio; Ribes, Ramon; Riva, Andres de la; Rubio, Fernando Lopez; Sanchez, Carmen; Sancho, Jose L.

    2002-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Sweet's Syndrome is presented. Both entities have been described in association with several other chronic systemic inflammatory diseases and autoimmune conditions. To our knowledge the coexistence between Sweet's Syndrome and hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis has not been reported up to date. We suggest a possible autoimmune or dysimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of these two entities

  13. Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and five (305) five weeks old broilers (Anak strain) were used in a four-week experiment to determine the effect of dietary substitution of processed sweet potato meal for maize grain on the carcass quality of broilers at the finisher phase. Graded levels of processed sweet potato meal (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and ...

  14. Using Sweet Potato Amylase Extracts for the Determination of Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the possibility of quantitative determination of starch in starchy foodstuffs using crude amylase extracts from Ugandan sweet potato cultivars. Amylolytic activity in 18 sweet potato cultivars grown at Namulonge was evaluated and there was a significant variation of activity among cultivars ...

  15. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  16. Enhanced SWEET protocol for energy efficient wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available SWEET routing protocol is one of the many pro- tocols developed for cluster formation and routing in wireless sensor networks. The SWEET protocol is a decentralized clus- tering protocol, it uses timers and interim updated cluster head estimation...

  17. SWEET POTATO CULTURE – PROMISING TREND OF RUSSIAN VEGETABLE GROWING

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Podlesny

    2014-01-01

    Results of research of possibility of introduction of a new for the Russian Federation tuberous crop culture, sweet potato, are presented. The influence of planting dates on the yield of this culture was studied. According to the field experiment, the high yield of sweet potato tuber and resistance to diseases and pests were revealed.

  18. Identification and distribution of viruses infecting sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of total plant RNA isolations confirmed the presence of SPFMV, SPVG, SPCSV and SPMMV as the most prevalent viruses infecting sweet potato in KZN. Keywords: reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, sweet potato, viruses. South African Journal of Plant and Soil ...

  19. Does 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induce flowering in sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on sweet potato flower induction. A 3*4 factorial experiment in a randomized ... short photoperiod, moderate temperature, limited water supply, trellising vines, overwintering, ..... Sweet potato Germplasm Management Training. Manual. International Potato Center (CIP), ...

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of begomoviruses infecting sweet potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begomoviruses infecting sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) exhibit high genetic diversity, and approximately eight species including Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) have been described from different regions around the world. In this study, the complete genomic sequences of 17 geographically dist...

  1. A review of therapeutic potentials of sweet potato: Pharmacological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a global food crop, now being recognized as a functional food due to several of its nutraceutical components. Several experimental studies have reported that sweet potato can generally be beneficial in the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases through its antioxidant, ...

  2. Enumeration of mycoplasmas after acridine orange staining.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosendal, S; Valdivieso-Garcia, A

    1981-01-01

    Samples of liquid mycoplasma cultures were mixed with equal part of a 0.01% solution of acridine orange and placed on agar plates. The number of fluorescing organisms per field was counted in an epifluorescence microscope at an X 1,000 magnification. When the number of fluorescing organisms per field was related to the number of colony-forming units per milliliter during the growth cycle, highly significant correlation was found in cultures with greater than or equal to 10(6) colony-forming u...

  3. Sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose and other sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaru, Tomomi; Park, Jin-Hee; Lim, Juyun

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated the sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose, an emerging natural low-calorie sweetener with various functional properties, compared to other sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, rebaudioside A), over a wide range of sweetness commonly found in foods and beverages (3% to 20% sucrose [w/v]). A total of 34 subjects evaluated aqueous solutions of the 5 sweeteners for the perceived intensities of sweetness, bitterness, astringency, chemical-like sensations, and sweet aftertaste, using the general version of the Labeled Magnitude Scale. The relationship between the physical concentrations of the sweeteners and their perceived sweetness (that is, psychophysical functions) was derived to quantify the relative sweetness and potency of the sweeteners. The results suggest that tagatose elicits a sweet taste without undesirable qualities (bitterness, astringency, chemical-like sensations). Out of the 5 sweeteners tested, rebaudioside A was the only sweetener with notable bitterness and chemical-like sensations, which became progressively intense with increasing concentration (P sweeteners (tagatose, erythritol, sucrose) had similar sweetness growth rates (slopes > 1), whereas the high-potency sweeteners (sucralose, rebaudioside A) yielded much flatter sweetness functions (slopes sweeteners to sucrose was highly concentration dependent. Consequently, sweetness potencies of other sweeteners varied across the concentrations tested, ranging from 0.50 to 0.78 for erythritol, 220 to 1900 for sucralose, and 300 to 440 for rebaudioside A, while tagatose was estimated to be approximately 0.90 times as potent as sucrose irrespective of concentration. The present study investigated the sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose, an emerging natural low-calorie sweetener, compared to other sweeteners. Study results suggest that tagatose elicits a sweet taste without undesirable qualities over a wide range of

  4. Psychophysical Evaluation of Sweetness Functions Across Multiple Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y Q; McBride, Robert L; Lacy, Kathleen E; Keast, Russell S J

    2017-02-01

    Sweetness is one of the 5 prototypical tastes and is activated by sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). The aim of this study was to investigate measures of sweet taste function [detection threshold (DT), recognition threshold (RT), and suprathreshold intensity ratings] across multiple sweeteners. Sixty participants, 18-52 years of age (mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8), were recruited to participate in the study. DT and RT were collected for caloric sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, erythritol) and NNS (sucralose, rebaudioside A). Sweetness intensity for all sweeteners was measured using a general Labeled Magnitude Scale. There were strong correlations between DT and RT of all 4 caloric sweeteners across people (r = 0.62-0.90, P 0.05). In contrast, there were strong correlations between the sweetness intensity ratings of all sweeteners (r = 0.70-0.96, P sweet taste mechanism for the perceived intensity range. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Fresh-Squeezed Orange Juice Properties Before and During In Vitro Digestion as Influenced by Orange Variety and Processing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennah-Govela, Yamile A; Bornhorst, Gail M

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to analyze the influence of processing and orange variety on initial quality, antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content (TPC), and ascorbic acid content of fresh-squeezed orange juice during in vitro digestion. Fresh-squeezed orange juice was made from Fukumoto Navel, Lane Late Navel, Olinda Nucellar Valencia, and Campbell Valencia oranges, and was processed thermally and nonthermally. Antioxidant activity (FRAP and ABTS assays), TPC (Folin-Ciocalteu method), and ascorbic acid were analyzed before and after gastrointestinal digestion. Bioaccessibility was calculated by comparing the measured values after digestion with the initial value for each juice. Orange variety significantly influenced pH, acidity, and total soluble solids (P orange juice (16.0 ± 0.4 mM Trolox) than the other juices (range: 9.1 to 10 mM Trolox). TPC was significantly influenced by orange variety (P 0.05). However, antioxidant activity by ABTS and ascorbic acid bioaccessibility were significantly influenced by orange variety (P orange variety, harvest time, and processing method on initial quality parameters and antioxidant bioaccessibility. It is recommended that nutritional analysis of beverages take into consideration both the bioaccessibility of nutrients and the initial nutrient content of the beverage. These results can be used for juice processors to take into consideration the harvest season and produce variety to manufacture beverages with higher nutritional quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  7. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree ...

  8. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...

  9. Sugar Accumulation in Leaves of Arabidopsis sweet11/sweet12 Double Mutants Enhances Priming of the Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defense Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gebauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In compatible interactions, biotrophic microbial phytopathogens rely on the supply of assimilates by the colonized host tissue. It has been found in rice that phloem localized SWEET sucrose transporters can be reprogrammed by bacterial effectors to establish compatibility. We observed that sweet11/sweet12 double mutants, but not single mutants, exhibited increased resistance toward the fungal hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum (Ch, both in the biotrophic and the necrotrophic colonization phase. We therefore investigated if the phloem localized transporters AtSWEET11 and AtSWEET12 represent additive susceptibility factors in the interaction of Arabidopsis with Ch. AtSWEET12-YFP fusion protein driven by the endogenous promoter strongly accumulated at Ch infection sites and in the vasculature upon challenge with Ch. However, susceptibility of sweet12 single mutants to Ch was comparable to wild type, indicating that the accumulation of AtSWEET12 at Ch infection sites does not play a major role for compatibility. AtSWEET12-YFP reporter protein was not detectable at the plant–pathogen interface, suggesting that AtSWEET12 is not targeted by Ch effectors. AtSWEET11-YFP accumulation in pAtSWEET11:AtSWEET11-YFP plants were similar in Ch infected and mock control leaves. A close inspection of major carbohydrate metabolism in non-infected control plants revealed that soluble sugar and starch content were substantially elevated in sweet11/sweet12 double mutants during the entire diurnal cycle, that diurnal soluble sugar turnover was increased more than twofold in sweet11/sweet12, and that accumulation of free hexoses and sucrose was strongly expedited in double mutant leaves compared to wild type and both single mutants during the course of Ch infection. After 2 days of treatment, free and conjugated SA levels were significantly increased in infected and mock control leaves of sweet11/sweet12 relative to all other genotypes, respectively. Induced

  10. PROGRAM PENGHITUNG JUMLAH ORANG LEWAT MENGGUNAKAN WEBCAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudianto Lande

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of public places's visitor data is very important. Usually we get it manually. AT the moment, video camera has been used for security. Therefor, the people counter software has been made using Normalized Sum-squared difference (NSSD method that take differences the sum of frame fixel and background, squared it then normalized by detection window area. The NSSD values that have been count then thresholded to detect the people occurance in detection window. This project is made using Borland Delphi 5.0 with Tvideo component. Corect people counting percentation of more than 90% was obtained. The succesness of this program depends on the right thresholding values. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Data jumlah pengunjung suatu tempat umum sangat penting. Data jumlah pengunjung biasanya didapat secara manual. Saat ini kamera video telah diterapkan untuk kepentingan keamanan. Karena itu dibuatlah program penghitung jumlah pengunjung dengan metode Normalized Sum-Squared Differences (NSSD yang mengambil selisih jumlah pixel frame dan background dan dikuadratkan, dinormalisasi dengan luasan detection window. Nilai NSSD yang didapat diseleksi dengan proses thresholding untuk mendeteksi keberadaan orang pada detection window. Penelitian ini dibuat dengan menggunakan Borland Delphi 5.0, dengan tambahan komponen TVideo. Program ini secara keseluruhan menunjukkan keberhasilan lebih dari 90%. Keberhasilan dari program ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh penentuan nilai threshold yang tepat. Kata kunci: penghitungan orang, sensor kamera, NSSD, Image processing.

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation on nucellar callus production of the Valencia sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis Osb.) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqual, M.; Ando, A.

    1990-01-01

    Nucelli extracted from developing fruits with twelve weeks after pollination were cultured in vitro, on MS medium supplemented (in mg/l) by: thiamine H Cl 0.2; piroxidine H Cl 1.0; nicotinic acid 1.0; meso inositol 100; malt extract; sucrose 50.000; and agar 8.000 with ph = 5.7. The irradiation at 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 4.0; 8.0; and 12.0 kR doses was applied on, only medium, only nucellus, and medium and nucellus together. Irradiation of only nucellus and both nucellus and medium, at the same time, showed similar effects. Low doses of irradiation (until 2 kR) decrease the number of differential embryoids. The irradiation of culture medium, mainly at high doses, increases callus proliferation. (author)

  12. Rooting of healthy and CVC-affected 'Valência' sweet orange stem cuttings, through the use of plant regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Habermann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC is a disease caused by Xylella fastidiosa. Using different concentrations of plant regulators, such as auxins (indole-3-butyric acid and gibberellic acid biosynthesis-inhibitor (paclobutrazol, physiological rooting capacity of healthy and CVC-affected stem cuttings were evaluated in order to investigate the importance of plant hormone imbalance and xylem occlusion in plants with CVC. The percentages of dead, alive and rooted cuttings, cuttings with callus and mean number of roots per cuttings did not show statistical differences in response to the distinct concentrations of synthetic plant regulators. There were differences only between healthy and CVC-affected cuttings. This showed the importance of xylem occlusion and diffusive disturbances in diseased plants, in relation to root initiation capacity and hormonal translocation in the plant tissue.Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença causada por Xylella fastidiosa, podendo determinar oclusão do xilema e desbalanço hormonal, o que por fim está relacionado ao processo de iniciação radicial em estacas. Usando diferentes concentrações de fitorreguladores, como auxinas (ácido 3-indol butírico e inibidores da biossíntese de ácido giberélico (paclobutrazol, que são promotores do enraizamento de estacas, verificou-se a capacidade fisiológica de enraizamento de estacas sadias e com CVC, a fim de investigar a importância do desbalanço hormonal e oclusão do xilema em plantas doentes. As porcentagens de estacas mortas, vivas, enraizadas e com calo e o número médio de raízes por estaca não mostraram diferenças estatísticas em resposta às diferentes concentrações dos reguladores vegetais sintéticos. Houve diferenças apenas entre estacas sadias e doentes. Isto aponta a importância da oclusão do xilema e distúrbios difusivos em plantas doentes, em relação à capacidade de iniciação radicial e à translocação hormonal no tecido vegetal.

  13. Major gene mutations in fruit tree domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1989-01-01

    Though fruit gathering from the wild began long before domestication, fruit tree domestication started only after the establishment of grain agriculture. Banana, fig, date, grape and olive were among the first fruit trees domesticated. Most fruit trees are outbreeders, highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated. Knowledge of genetics and economic traits controlled by major genes is limited. Ease of vegetative propagation has played a prominent part in domestication; advances in propagation technology will play a role in domestication of new crops. Changes toward domestication affected by major genes include self-fertility in peach, apricot and sour cherry, while the emergence of self-fertile almond populations is more recent and due probably to introgression from Amygdalus webbii. Self-compatibility in the sweet cherry has been attained only by pollen irradiation. A single gene controls sex in Vitis. Wild grapes are dioecious, with most domesticated cultivars hermaphrodite, and only a few females. In the papaya changes from dioecism to hermaphroditism have also occurred. Self-compatible systems have also been selected during domestication in Rubus. Changes towards parthenocarpy and seedlessness during domestication occurred in the banana, citrus, grape, fig and pineapple. In the banana, parthenocarpy is due to three complementary dominant genes; stenospermocarpy in the grape depends on two complementary recessive genes; parthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seems more complicated; however, it can be induced in genetic material of suitable background with ease by irradiation. Presence of persistent syconia in the fig is controlled by a mutant allele P dominant to wild +. Thornlessness in blackberry is recessive, while in the pineapple spineless forms are dominant. Changes affecting fruit composition owing to major genes include the disappearance of amygdalin present in bitter almonds (bitter kernel recessive to sweet), shell hardness in almond, and a recessive

  14. The agronomic performance and acceptability of orange fleshed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of improved orange-fleshed sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas) varieties from the International Potato Centre (CIP) was a result of recognising the negative health effects of vitamin A deficiency in Tanzania. Orange varieties, which are rich in β-carotene, were considered one of the sustainable strategies for ...

  15. Removal of some metal ions from aqueous solution using orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of orange mesocarp residue biomass (modified and unmodified) as a costeffective and environmentally safe technique to remove Mg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ from aqueous solution was investigated. The results showed that unmodified orange mesocarp residue bound 56% of Mg2+, 81% of Zn2+, 71% of ...

  16. Comparative effect of honey, orange juice, glucose and milk as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fifty-six day experiment was carried out to determine the effect of using honey, orange juice, glucose and milk as water additives on the performance and carcass qualities of broiler chickens. Water alone served as treatment 1 (control) while 100ml of honey, orange juice, glucose and milk each served as treatments 2, 3, ...

  17. Potential of orange and yellow fleshed sweetpotato cultivars for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of orange and yellow fleshed sweetpotato cultivars as a dietary source of Vitamin A in Mpigi and Luwero Districts of central Uganda was evaluated. On-farm agronomic performance, acceptability and b-carotene content of two orange (SPK004 and 316) and two yellow fleshed (Tanzania and 52) sweetpotato ...

  18. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low

  19. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2011-01-01

    Orang-utan’ is derived from a Malay term meaning ‘man of the forest’ and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereb...

  20. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...